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Sample records for aortic arch evaluation

  1. Preoperative evaluation value of aortic arch lesions by multidetector computed tomography angiography in type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Chen, Qiang; Lai, Qing-quan; Huang, Wen-han; Wu, Hong; Li, Wei-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to preoperatively evaluate the value of aortic arch lesions by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography in type A aortic dissection (AD). From January 2013 to December 2015, we enrolled 42 patients with type A AD who underwent MDCT angiography in our hospital. The institutional database of patients was retrospectively reviewed to identify MDCT angiography examinations for type A AD. Surgical corrections were conducted in all patients to confirm diagnostic accuracy. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT angiography was 100% in all 42 patients. The intimal tear site locations that were identified in patients included the ascending aorta (n = 25), aortic arch (n = 12), and all other sites (n = 5). Compared with the control group, there were significant differences in the aortic arch anatomy among the cases. Regarding the distance between the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries, compared with the control group, most cases with type A AD had a significant variation. MDCT angiography plays an important role in detecting aortic arch lesions of type A AD, especially in determining the location of the intimal entry site and change of branch blood vessels. Surgeons can formulate an appropriate operating plan, according to the preoperative MDCT diagnosis information. PMID:27684852

  2. [Double aortic arch with dominant left arch: case report].

    PubMed

    Ece, Ibrahim; Paç, Feyza Ayşenur; Paç, Mustafa; Ballı, Sevket

    2012-09-01

    A vascular ring is defined as an anomaly of the great arteries (aortic arch and its branches) that compresses the trachea or esophagus. Double aortic arch is the most common vascular ring. Double aortic arch is very rare and typically becomes symptomatic in infancy or early childhood. We present a 7-year-old girl admitted to our clinic for evaluation of recurrent respiratory infection with dysphagia. Double aortic arch was suspected from echocardiography and diagnosed with cardiac computed tomography. Left aortic arcus was larger than the right at computed tomography and cardiac catheterisation. After surgery the symptoms improved strikingly. We conclude that vascular ring should be considered in the patients presenting with recurrent pulmonary infections and dysphagia. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent chronic, irreversible complications.

  3. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Idhrees, Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, K

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA.

  4. Pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan-Qiang; Yao, Feng; Shang, An-Dong; Pan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch is uncommonly associated with cancer, and is extremely rare in pulmonary cancer. Here, we report an unusual and successfully treated case of aortic arch pseudoaneurysm in a male patient with lung squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A 64-year-old male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department, presenting with massive hemoptysis (>500 mL blood during the 12 hours prior to treatment). The diagnosis of aortic arch pseudoaneurysm was confirmed after inspection of computed tomographic angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction. We processed the immediate endovascular stent-grafting for this patient. Results: This patient recovered with no filling or enlargement of the pseudoaneurysm, no episodes of hemoptysis, and no neurological complications during the 4-week follow-up period. Conclusion: Herein, we compare our case with other cancer-related pseudoaneurysms in the medical literature and summarize the clinical features and treatment of this unusual case. PMID:27495079

  5. Aortic Arch Interruption and Persistent Fifth Aortic Arch in Phace Syndrome: Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Course.

    PubMed

    Chiappa, Enrico; Greco, Antonella; Fainardi, Valentina; Passantino, Silvia; Serranti, Daniele; Favilli, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    PHACE is a rare congenital neurocutaneous syndrome where posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, cerebrovascular anomalies, aortic arch anomalies, cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities are variably associated. We describe the prenatal detection and the postnatal course of a child with PHACE syndrome with a unique type of aortic arch anomaly consisting of proximal interruption of the aortic arch and persistence of the fifth aortic arch. The fifth aortic arch represented in this case a vital systemic-to-systemic connection between the ascending aorta and the transverse portion of the aortic arch allowing adequate forward flow through the aortic arch without surgical treatment.

  6. Fetal Aortic Arch Anomalies: Key Sonographic Views for Their Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Implications Using the Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Protocol.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Coral; Gámez, Francisco; Pérez, Ricardo; Álvarez, Teresa; De León-Luis, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Aortic arch anomalies are present in 1% to 2% of the general population and are commonly associated with congenital heart disease, chromosomal defects, and tracheaesophageal compression in postnatal life. The sonographically based detection of aortic arch anomalies lies in the 3-vessel and trachea view. Although highly sensitive, this view alone does not allow identification of the aortic arch branching pattern, which prevents an accurate diagnosis. The systematic addition of a subclavian artery view as part of a standardized procedure may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. We describe the sonographic assessment of fetal aortic arch anomalies by combining 2 fetal transverse views: the 3-vessel and trachea view and the subclavian artery view, which are included in the cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation protocol. We also review the sonographic findings and the clinical implications of fetal aortic arch anomalies. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. A current systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of chimney graft technology in aortic arch diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Wael; Mylonas, Spyridon; Majd, Payman; Brunkwall, Jan Sigge

    2017-08-25

    The aim of this study was to provide a review of the literature on the use of chimney graft (CG) technique in treating arterial diseases of the aortic arch and to extrapolate conclusions by summarizing the reported outcomes in a meta-analysis. An extensive electronic search was made using PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Direct Databases, and the Cochrane Library. Included in this meta-analysis were all papers published up to February 2016 on endovascular chimney technique in the arch vessels with or without adjunct extra-anatomic debranching, in any language, providing data about at least one of the essential outcomes: early and late type I endoleak, 30-day mortality rate, development of perioperative stroke, patency, and retrograde aortic dissection. Of the 478 reports yielded by the electronic search, a total of 11 publications (on 373 patients and 387 CGs) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The overall estimated proportion of technical success was 91.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.4%-94.0%). Of the 373 patients, 26 (7%) experienced a type Ia endoleak in the perioperative period. The overall estimated proportion of early type Ia endoleak was 9.4% (95% CI, 6.5%-13.4%). Among the 10 studies that provided data, a retrograde type A dissection was observed in 2 of 351 patients, resulting in an overall estimated proportion of 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8%-4.0%). The pooled 30-day mortality rate was 7.9% (95% CI, 4.6%-13.2%). The pooled estimation for reintervention was 10.6% (95% CI, 5%-21%); for major stroke, 2.6% (95% CI, 1.3%-5.0%); for early patency, 97.9% (95% CI, 95.8%-99%); and for late patency, 92.9% (95% CI, 87.3%-96%). Treatment of aortic diseases involving the aortic arch poses a great challenge. The CG technique has been applied as an alternative treatment option. This meta-analysis shows that endovascular repair of aortic arch disease using a CG technique in the aortic arch vessels is technically feasible and effective but not without

  8. Aortic coarctation with persistent fifth left aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giuseppe; Caianiello, Giuseppe; Palladino, Maria Teresa; Iacono, Carola; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2009-08-14

    A neonate with severe aortic coarctation showed a double lumen transverse aorta (persistent fifth aortic arch) with both channels joining at the isthmus where the obstruction was confirmed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Surgical repair was performed with a pantaloon-shaped patch. Persistent fifth aortic arch does not result in a vascular ring and, per se, is not hemodynamically significant unless associated with other cardiac malformations.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE AORTIC ARCH FROM THE SUPRASTERNAL NOTCH VIEW USING FOCUSED CARDIAC ULTRASOUND

    PubMed Central

    Kinnaman, Karen A.; Kimberly, Heidi H.; Pivetta, Emanuele; Platz, Elke; Chudgar, Avni; Adduci, Alexander; Stone, Michael B.; Rempell, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The suprasternal notch view (SSNV) is an additional echocardiographic view not routinely used by emergency physicians (EPs) performing focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS). Objective This pilot study determined the ease and self-perceived accuracy of the SSNV as performed by EPs. Additionally, we assessed the accuracy of FOCUS including the SSNV in thoracic aortic measurements compared to chest CT angiography (CTA). Methods This was a prospective, observational, pilot study of adult patients undergoing chest CTA. Thoracic aortic measurements were recorded at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, and ascending aorta at its widest diameter in the parasternal long axis (PSL) view and SSNV. EPs rated ease of acquisition and self-perceived accuracy of thoracic aorta measurements. Two blinded radiologists performed thoracic aortic CTA measurements at predefined locations corresponding to the ultrasound measurements. Results Of the 79 patients (median age 57 years) enrolled, the SSNV was obtained in 97% of cases. EPs rated the ease of obtaining the SSNV as “easy” in 64.5% of cases and “very difficult” in 7.6% of cases. The mean difference between ultrasound (FOCUS plus SSNV) and CTA measurements were 1.2 mm (95% limits of agreement −2.9 to 5.3) at the sinus of Valsalva, 1.0 mm (95% limits of agreement −5.5 to 3.6 mm) at the sinotubular junction, 0.8 mm (95% limits of agreement −6.2 to 4.6 mm) at the proximal ascending aorta, and 0.6 mm (95% limits of agreement −2.8 to 4.0) at the aortic arch. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the SSNV is an easily attainable and accurate view of the thoracic aorta that can be obtained by EPs in the majority of ED patients. PMID:26830361

  10. Evaluation of the Aortic Arch from the Suprasternal Notch View Using Focused Cardiac Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kinnaman, Karen A; Kimberly, Heidi H; Pivetta, Emanuele; Platz, Elke; Chudgar, Avni; Adduci, Alexander; Stone, Michael B; Rempell, Joshua S

    2016-04-01

    The suprasternal notch view (SSNV) is an additional echocardiographic view not routinely used by emergency physicians (EPs) performing focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS). This pilot study determined the ease and self-perceived accuracy of the SSNV as performed by EPs. Additionally, we assessed the accuracy of FOCUS including the SSNV in thoracic aortic measurements compared to chest CT angiography (CTA). This was a prospective, observational, pilot study of adult patients undergoing chest CTA. Thoracic aortic measurements were recorded at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, and ascending aorta at its widest diameter in the parasternal long axis (PSL) view and SSNV. EPs rated ease of acquisition and self-perceived accuracy of thoracic aorta measurements. Two blinded radiologists performed thoracic aortic CTA measurements at predefined locations corresponding to the ultrasound measurements. Of the 79 patients (median age 57 years) enrolled, the SSNV was obtained in 97% of cases. EPs rated the ease of obtaining the SSNV as "easy" in 64.5% of cases and "very difficult" in 7.6% of cases. The mean difference between ultrasound (FOCUS plus SSNV) and CTA measurements were 1.2 mm (95% limits of agreement -2.9 to 5.3) at the sinus of Valsalva, 1.0 mm (95% limits of agreement -5.5 to 3.6 mm) at the sinotubular junction, 0.8 mm (95% limits of agreement -6.2 to 4.6 mm) at the proximal ascending aorta, and 0.6 mm (95% limits of agreement -2.8 to 4.0) at the aortic arch. Our findings suggest that the SSNV is an easily attainable and accurate view of the thoracic aorta that can be obtained by EPs in the majority of ED patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal sonographic diagnosis of aortic arch anomalies.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S-J; Min, J-Y; Lee, Y-H; Roman, K; Jaeggi, E; Smallhorn, J

    2003-11-01

    Aortic arch anomalies refer to congenital abnormalities of the position or branching pattern, or both of the aortic arch. Although aortic arch anomalies are not uncommon, reports on their prenatal diagnosis are scarce. Insight into the hypothetical arch model is crucial to understanding anomalies of the aortic arch in the fetus. Recognition of the trachea, three major vessels, ductus arteriosus and descending aorta in the axial views of the upper mediastinum is necessary for a complete fetal cardiac assessment. Clues to aortic arch anomalies include abnormal position of the descending aorta, absence of the normal 'V'-shaped confluence of the ductal and aortic arches, a gap between the ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery in the three-vessel view, and an abnormal vessel behind the trachea with or without a vascular loop or ring around the trachea. Meticulous attention to anatomic landmarks will lead to successful prenatal diagnosis of important vascular rings making early postnatal management possible. Copyright 2003 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Techniques for aortic arch endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Hongku, Kiattisak; Dias, Nuno; Sonesson, Bjorn; Resch, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews endovascular strategies for aortic arch repair. Open repair remains the gold standard particularly for good risk patients. Endovascular treatment potentially offers a less invasive repair. Principles, technical considerations, devices and outcomes of each technique are discussed and summarized. Hybrid repair combines less invasive revascularization options, instead of arch replacement while extending stent-graft into the arch. Outcomes vary with regard to extent of repair and aortic arch pathologies treated. Results of arch chimney and other parallel graft techniques perhaps make it a less preferable choice for elective cases. However, they are very appealing options for urgent or bailout situations. Fenestrated stent-grafting is subjected to many technical challenges in aortic arch due to difficulties in stent-graft orientation and fenestration positioning. In situ fenestration techniques emerge to avoid these problems, but durability of stent-grafts after fenestration and ischemic consequences of temporary carotid arteries coverage raises some concern total arch repair using this technique. Arch branched graft is a new technology. Early outcomes did not meet the expectation; however the results have been improving after its learning curve period. Refining stent-graft technologies and implantation techniques positively impact outcomes of endovascular approaches.

  13. Modeling Outcomes: Modified Aortic Arch Advancement for Neonatal Hypoplastic Arch.

    PubMed

    Nellis, Joseph R; Chung, Timothy K; Agarwal, Nandita; Torres, Jose E; Holgren, Sarah E; Raghavan, Madhavan L; Turek, Joseph W

    Numerous surgical approaches regarding aortic arch advancement for neonatal arch hypoplasia have been described. These repairs can be classified into two categories: those that incorporate a patch and those that do not. The decision between repairs remains largely experiential, rather than empirical, because of the limited number of reported outcomes. We report early outcomes from neonates undergoing modified aortic arch advancement with an anterior patch and our experience using computational fluid dynamic modeling to better understand the hemodynamic consequences associated with this repair. A retrospective review of neonates undergoing aortic arch advancement with anterior patch in 2014 at a single institution was performed. Anatomical, perioperative, and follow-up data were collected. Three-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were used to generate computational fluid dynamic models of the modified anterior patch and direct end-to-side repairs. Cardiac waveform inputs were simulated and hemodynamic analyzed. Ten neonates underwent modified aortic arch advancement. No hemodynamically significant gradients were observed at a median follow-up of 0.77 (0.30-1.2) years. Asymmetrical flow was observed in the end-to-side repair, whereas more concentric laminar flow was observed throughout the modified model. Spatial variations in velocities immediately distal to the anastomosis were greater in the end-to-side model (0.35 vs 0.17 m/s, P < 0.001). Time-averaged variations in wall shear stress during systole were greater in the end-to-side model at the same location (3.44 vs 1.98 dynes/cm, P < 0.001). Early outcomes after the use of an anterior patch for neonatal hypoplastic aortic arch repair show favorable hemodynamic outcomes.

  14. Patient management in aortic arch surgery†.

    PubMed

    Peterss, Sven; Pichlmaier, Maximilian; Curtis, Alexander; Luehr, Maximilian; Born, Frank; Hagl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    SummaryAortic arch surgery requires complex patient management beyond the manual replacement of the diseased vessel. These procedures include (i) a thorough and pathologically adjusted preoperative evaluation, (ii) initiation and control of cardiopulmonary bypass, (iii) cerebral protection strategies and (iv) techniques to protect the abdominal end organs during prolonged operations. Due to the complexity of aortic arch procedures, multimodal real-time surveillance is required during all stages of the operation. Although having the patient survive the operation is the major goal, further observation is necessary because of the chronicity of the disease. This review summarizes specific aspects of patient management during and after operations requiring periods of circulatory arrest, without necessarily referring to all studies on this topic. The pros and cons of different strategies are weighed against each other, including the personal experience of the authors. A number of questions are raised without providing a 'right' or 'wrong' answer. We show that a number of different well-established strategies can result in comparable excellent long-lasting surgical results.

  15. Supravalvular aortic stenosis in adult with anomalies of aortic arch vessels and aortic regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Acrisio Sales; Alencar, Polyanna; Santos, Alana Neiva; Lobo, Roberto Augusto de Mesquita; de Mesquita, Fernando Antônio; Guimarães, Aloyra Guedis

    2013-01-01

    The supravalvular aortic stenosis is a rare congenital heart defect being very uncommon in adults. We present a case of supravalvular aortic stenosis in adult associated with anomalies of the aortic arch vessels and aortic regurgitation, which was submitted to aortic valve replacement and arterioplasty of the ascending aorta with a good postoperative course. PMID:24598962

  16. A bovine aortic arch in humans.

    PubMed

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; López-Rodriguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorli, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo; Fdez García-Hierro, Jose Ma; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Arnáiz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We describe a curious congenital variation of human aortic arch (AA) branching pattern termed the "bovine aortic arch". Rather than arising directly from the AA as a separate branch as occurs in the most common AA branching pattern, the left common carotid artery moves to the right and merges from the brachiocephalic trunk. It is the normal AA branching pattern presented in a number of animals (canines, felines or Macaque monkeys) but it has nothing to do with anatomy of AA in ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo. That is why it is one of the most widely misnomers used in medical literature whose origin is nowadays unknown.

  17. Arch Reconstruction with Autologous Pulmonary Artery Patch in Interrupted Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Young

    2014-01-01

    Various surgical techniques have been developed for the repair of an interrupted aortic arch. However, tension and Gothic arch formation at the anastomotic site have remained major problems for these techniques: Excessive tension causes arch stenosis and left main bronchus compression, and Gothic arch configuration is related to cardiovascular complications. To resolve these problems, we adopted a modified surgical technique of distal aortic arch augmentation using an autologous main pulmonary artery patch. The descending aorta was then anastomosed to the augmented aortic arch in an end-to-side manner. Here, we report two cases of interrupted aortic arch that were repaired using this technique. PMID:24782962

  18. Arch reconstruction with autologous pulmonary artery patch in interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Young; Park, Jeong-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Various surgical techniques have been developed for the repair of an interrupted aortic arch. However, tension and Gothic arch formation at the anastomotic site have remained major problems for these techniques: Excessive tension causes arch stenosis and left main bronchus compression, and Gothic arch configuration is related to cardiovascular complications. To resolve these problems, we adopted a modified surgical technique of distal aortic arch augmentation using an autologous main pulmonary artery patch. The descending aorta was then anastomosed to the augmented aortic arch in an end-to-side manner. Here, we report two cases of interrupted aortic arch that were repaired using this technique.

  19. Relationship Between Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Aortic Arch Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Shinichi; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph E; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerotic plaque in the aortic arch is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although high blood pressure (BP) measured at the doctor’s office is known to be associated with aortic atherosclerosis, little is known on the association between 24-hour ambulatory BP and aortic arch plaque presence and severity. Our objective was to clarify the association between ambulatory BP variables and aortic arch atherosclerosis in a community-based cohort. Methods The study population consisted of 795 patients (mean age 71±9 years) participating in the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Arch plaque was evaluated by 2D transthoracic echocardiography from a suprasternal window. Results All systolic ABPM variables (24-hour/daytime/nighttime mean systolic BP, daytime/nighttime systolic BP variability) were associated with the presence of any plaque and large (≥4mm) plaque, whereas diastolic BP variables were not associated with aortic atherosclerosis. Multiple regression analysis indicated that nighttime systolic BP variability (expressed as the standard deviation of nighttime systolic BP) remained independently associated with large plaque after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, anti-hypertensive medication and nighttime mean systolic BP (odds ratio 1.39 per 1 standard deviation increase, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.93, P<0.05). Conclusion Systolic ABPM variables are significantly associated with the presence of arch plaque. Nighttime systolic BP variability is independently associated with large arch plaque. These findings may have important implications in gaining further insights into the mechanism of arch plaque formation and progression. PMID:22296886

  20. Relationship between ambulatory blood pressure and aortic arch atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Shinichi; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph E; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-04-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque in the aortic arch is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although high blood pressure (BP) measured at the doctor's office is known to be associated with aortic atherosclerosis, little is known on the association between 24-h ambulatory BP and aortic arch plaque presence and severity. Our objective was to clarify the association between ambulatory BP variables and aortic arch atherosclerosis in a community-based cohort. The study population consisted of 795 patients (mean age 71 ± 9 years) participating in the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study who underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Arch plaque was evaluated by 2D transthoracic echocardiography from a suprasternal window. All systolic ABPM variables (24-h/daytime/nighttime mean systolic BP, daytime/nighttime systolic BP variability) were associated with the presence of any plaque and large (≥ 4 mm) plaque, whereas diastolic BP variables were not associated with aortic atherosclerosis. Multiple regression analysis indicated that nighttime systolic BP variability (expressed as the standard deviation of nighttime systolic BP) remained independently associated with large plaque after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, anti-hypertensive medication and nighttime mean systolic BP (odds ratio 1.39 per 1 standard deviation increase, 95% CI 1.00-1.93, P<0.05). Systolic ABPM variables are significantly associated with the presence of arch plaque. Nighttime systolic BP variability is independently associated with large arch plaque. These findings may have important implications in gaining further insights into the mechanism of arch plaque formation and progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A bovine aortic arch in humans

    PubMed Central

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; López-Rodriguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorli, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo; Fdez García-Hierro, Jose Ma; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Arnáiz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We describe a curious congenital variation of human aortic arch (AA) branching pattern termed the “bovine aortic arch”. Rather than arising directly from the AA as a separate branch as occurs in the most common AA branching pattern, the left common carotid artery moves to the right and merges from the brachiocephalic trunk. It is the normal AA branching pattern presented in a number of animals (canines, felines or Macaque monkeys) but it has nothing to do with anatomy of AA in ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo. That is why it is one of the most widely misnomers used in medical literature whose origin is nowadays unknown. PMID:24973853

  2. Aortic arch dissection: a controversy of classification.

    PubMed

    Lempel, Jason K; Frazier, Aletta Ann; Jeudy, Jean; Kligerman, Seth J; Schultz, Randall; Ninalowo, Hammed A; Gozansky, Elliott K; Griffith, Bartley; White, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Aortic dissections originating in the ascending aorta and descending aorta have been classified as type A and type B dissections, respectively. However, dissections with intimal flap extension into the aortic arch between the innominate and left subclavian arteries are not accounted for adequately in the widely used Stanford classification. This gap has been the subject of controversy in the medical and surgical literature, and there is a tendency among many radiologists to categorize such arch dissections as type A lesions, thus making them an indication for surgery. However, the radiologic perspective is not supported by either standard dissection classification or current clinical management. In this special report, the origin of dissection classification and its evolution into current radiologic interpretation and surgical practice are reviewed. The cause for the widespread misconception about classification and treatment algorithms is identified. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained as part of this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study to assess all aortic dissection studies performed at the University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore between 2010 and 2012 to determine the prevalence of arch dissections. Finally, a unified classification system that reconciles imaging interpretation and management implementation is proposed.

  3. "Open" approach to aortic arch aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Al Kindi, Adil H; Al Kimyani, Nasser; Alameddine, Tarek; Al Abri, Qasim; Balan, Baskaran; Al Sabti, Hilal

    2014-07-01

    Aortic arch aneurysm is a relatively rare entity in cardiac surgery. Repair of such aneurysms, either in isolation or combined with other cardiac procedures, remains a challenging task. The need to produce a relatively bloodless surgical field with circulatory arrest, while at the same time protecting the brain, is the hallmark of this challenge. However, a clear understanding of the topic allows a better and less morbid approach to such a complex surgery. Literature has shown the advantage of selective cerebral perfusion techniques in comparison with only circulatory arrest. Ability to perfuse the brain has allowed circulatory arrest temperatures at moderate hypothermia without the need for deep hypothermia. Even though cannulation site selection appears to be a minor issue, literature has shown that the subclavian/axillary route has the best outcomes and that femoral cannulation should only be reserved for no access patients. Although different techniques for arch anastomosis have been described, we routinely perform the distal first technique as we find it to be less cumbersome and easiest to reproduce. In this review our aim is to outline a systematic approach to aortic arch surgery. Starting with indications for intervention and proceeding with approaches on site of cannulation, approaches to brain protection with hypothermia and selective cerebral perfusion and finally surgical steps in performing the distal and arch vessels anastomosis.

  4. Total endograft replacement of aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Neequaye, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Total endovascular replacement of the aortic arch is a complex procedure that is often favoured when the pathology anatomy precludes a standard median sternotomy. Here we present the case of endograft repair in a 79 year old male with 6.5 cm arch aneurysm and 5.4 cm descending thoracoabdominal aneurysm. Following bilateral carotid-subclavian bypasses, a long 7 Fr sheath was advanced into the descending aorta through the common iliac artery purse string. A double curved long Lunderquist wire was guided to deep within the left ventricle, and the endograft carefully advanced over the wire. The graft was radiologically orientated, and deployed under asystolic conditions. Retrograde cannulation of the branches were accomplished, with carotid sheath placed into the branches followed by bridging stents. The graft delivery system was then removed. This approach obviates the need for a sternotomy, cumbersome extra-anatomic debranching, and hypothermic circulatory arrest. PMID:23977607

  5. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth and hemodynamics after early embryonic aortic arch occlusion*

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephanie E.; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William J.; Shekhar, Akshay; Yalcin, Huseyin C.; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B.; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of severe clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with great artery lesions, including hypoplastic, double, right or interrupted aortic arch morphologies. While fetal and neonatal interventions are advancing, their potential ability to restore cardiac function, optimal timing, location, and intensity required for intervention remain largely unknown. We here combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with in vivo experiments to test how individual pharyngeal arch artery hemodynamics alters as a result of local interventions to obstruct individual arch artery flow. Simulated isolated occlusions within each pharyngeal arch artery were created with image derived three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of normal chick pharyngeal arch anatomy at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) developmental stages HH18 and HH24. Acute flow redistributions were then computed using in vivo measured subject-specific aortic sinus inflow velocity profiles. A kinematic vascular growth-rendering algorithm was then developed and implemented to test the role of changing local wall shear stress patterns in downstream 3D morphogenesis of arch arteries. CFD simulations predicted that altered pressure gradients and flow redistributions were most sensitive to occlusion of the IVth arches. To evaluate these simulations experimentally, a novel in vivo experimental model of pharyngeal arch occlusion was developed and implemented using two-photon microscopy guided femtosecond laser based photodisruption surgery. The right IVth arch was occluded at HH18, and resulting diameter changes were followed for up to 24 hours. Pharyngeal arch diameter responses to acute hemodynamic changes were predicted qualitatively but poorly quantitatively. Chronic growth and adaptation to hemodynamic changes however were predicted in a subset of arches. Our findings suggest that this complex biodynamic process is governed through more complex forms of mechanobiological

  7. Growth and hemodynamics after early embryonic aortic arch occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Stephanie E; Menon, Prahlad G; Kowalski, William J; Shekhar, Akshay; Yalcin, Huseyin C; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Butcher, Jonathan T; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-08-01

    The majority of severe clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) are associated with great artery lesions, including hypoplastic, double, right or interrupted aortic arch morphologies. While fetal and neonatal interventions are advancing, their potential ability to restore cardiac function, optimal timing, location, and intensity required for intervention remain largely unknown. Here, we combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with in vivo experiments to test how individual pharyngeal arch artery hemodynamics alter as a result of local interventions obstructing individual arch artery flow. Simulated isolated occlusions within each pharyngeal arch artery were created with image-derived three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of normal chick pharyngeal arch anatomy at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) developmental stages HH18 and HH24. Acute flow redistributions were then computed using in vivo measured subject-specific aortic sinus inflow velocity profiles. A kinematic vascular growth-rendering algorithm was then developed and implemented to test the role of changing local wall shear stress patterns in downstream 3D morphogenesis of arch arteries. CFD simulations predicted that altered pressure gradients and flow redistributions were most sensitive to occlusion of the IVth arches. To evaluate these simulations experimentally, a novel in vivo experimental model of pharyngeal arch occlusion was developed and implemented using two-photon microscopy-guided femtosecond laser-based photodisruption surgery. The right IVth arch was occluded at HH18, and resulting diameter changes were followed for up to 24 h. Pharyngeal arch diameter responses to acute hemodynamic changes were predicted qualitatively but poorly quantitatively. Chronic growth and adaptation to hemodynamic changes, however, were predicted in a subset of arches. Our findings suggest that this complex biodynamic process is governed through more complex forms of mechanobiological

  8. Adult presentation with vascular ring due to double aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Henryk; Uebing, Anselm; Mohiaddin, Raad

    2006-11-01

    This is a case report on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose vascular ring due to double aortic arch in an adult presenting with an abnormal chest X-ray. The experience in this case and the literature review identify the benefits of using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to clarify complex aortic arch anatomy.

  9. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair for blunt thoracic aortic injuries in complex aortic arch vessels anatomies.

    PubMed

    Piffaretti, Gabriele; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Macchi, Edoardo; Castelli, Patrizio; Tozzi, Matteo; Franchin, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report the use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAIs) presenting with complex anatomies of the aortic arch vessels. Two patients were admitted to our hospital for the management of BTAI. Anomalies were as follow: aberrant right subclavian artery (n = 1) and right-sided aortic arch with 5 vessels anatomy variant (n = 1). TEVAR was accomplished using parallel graft with periscope configuration in the patient with the aberrant right subclavian artery. At 12-month follow-up, computed tomography angiographies confirmed the exclusion of the BTAI, the stability of the endograft, the resolution of the pseudoaneurysm, and the patency of the parallel endograft. Aortic arch vessels variants and anomalies are not rare, and should be recognized and studied precisely to plan the most appropriate operative treatment. TEVAR proved to be effective even in complex anatomies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Anomalies of the fetal aortic arch: a novel sonographic approach to in-utero diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Achiron, R; Rotstein, Z; Heggesh, J; Bronshtein, M; Zimand, S; Lipitz, S; Yagel, S

    2002-12-01

    To describe a novel, sonographic approach for in-utero evaluation of normal and abnormal aortic arch. Aortic arch was evaluated by imaging of the axial view of the upper fetal mediastinum. The normal left aortic arch was defined by the V-shaped appearance of the junction between the ductus arteriosus and aortic arch, with the trachea situated posteriorly. Right and double aortic arches were diagnosed when the great vessels appeared U-shaped, with intermediate location of the trachea. Between 1997 and 1999, 18 347 women were scanned in three prenatal centers, and pathological findings were prospectively recorded. In a retrospective analysis of the records, we identified 19 fetuses (0.1%) with atypical, U-shaped appearance, and no other structural abnormalities present. With the exception of one fetus with a ventricular septal defect, no congenital cardiac defects were present. Right aortic arch was found in 18 cases, while color Doppler made it possible to diagnose one case with double aortic arch, and one fetus was demonstrated as having Kommerell's diverticulum. In all 18 cases, a left descending aorta and left ductus arteriosus were present, the latter coursing to the left of the trachea, forming a loose partial vascular ring. All were asymptomatic at birth and early infancy. The fetus with double aortic arch that had a true vascular ring underwent early infantile correction. It is possible to diagnose right and double fetal aortic arch using prenatal ultrasound. The use of color Doppler facilitated in-utero evaluation of possible complications, such as true vascular ring.

  12. Critical Transitions in Early Embryonic Aortic Arch Patterning and Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, William J.; Dur, Onur; Wang, Yajuan; Patrick, Michael J.; Tinney, Joseph P.; Keller, Bradley B.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2013-01-01

    Transformation from the bilaterally symmetric embryonic aortic arches to the mature great vessels is a complex morphogenetic process, requiring both vasculogenic and angiogenic mechanisms. Early aortic arch development occurs simultaneously with rapid changes in pulsatile blood flow, ventricular function, and downstream impedance in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. These dynamic biomechanical environmental landscapes provide critical epigenetic cues for vascular growth and remodeling. In our previous work, we examined hemodynamic loading and aortic arch growth in the chick embryo at Hamburger-Hamilton stages 18 and 24. We provided the first quantitative correlation between wall shear stress (WSS) and aortic arch diameter in the developing embryo, and observed that these two stages contained different aortic arch patterns with no inter-embryo variation. In the present study, we investigate these biomechanical events in the intermediate stage 21 to determine insights into this critical transition. We performed fluorescent dye microinjections to identify aortic arch patterns and measured diameters using both injection recordings and high-resolution optical coherence tomography. Flow and WSS were quantified with 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Dye injections revealed that the transition in aortic arch pattern is not a uniform process and multiple configurations were documented at stage 21. CFD analysis showed that WSS is substantially elevated compared to both the previous (stage 18) and subsequent (stage 24) developmental time-points. These results demonstrate that acute increases in WSS are followed by a period of vascular remodeling to restore normative hemodynamic loading. Fluctuations in blood flow are one possible mechanism that impacts the timing of events such as aortic arch regression and generation, leading to the variable configurations at stage 21. Aortic arch variations noted during normal rapid vascular remodeling at stage 21 identify a

  13. Arch-first technique via clamshell incision: successful surgical reoperation for aortic arch dissection.

    PubMed

    Ozkara, Ahmet; Cetin, Gurkan; Mert, Murat; Akinci, Okan; Erdem, Can Caglar; Suzer, Kaya

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of successful reoperation for aortic arch dissection with use of the "arch-first" technique in a patient who had Marfan syndrome. Extracorporeal circulation was initiated via right subclavian artery cannulation, and the chest was entered through a clamshell incision for the best exposure. When the patient was cooled to 18 degrees C, the perfusion was stopped. After the 1st aortic arch anastomosis to a 30-mm Dacron graft, cerebral perfusion was reestablished via the right subclavian artery. The aortic repair was then completed. The cerebral ischemic time was 18 minutes, the aortic cross-clamp time was 69 minutes, and the total extracorporeal circulation time was 334 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 10 with no neurologic impairment. The arch-first technique shortens the duration of brain ischemia. When combined with a clamshell incision, the technique is particularly helpful for reoperation of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta.

  14. Interrupted aortic arch: A misdiagnosed cause of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Marta; Dias, Adelaide; Dias Ferreira, Nuno; Fonseca, Conceição; Mota, João Carlos; Gama, Vasco

    2014-06-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man with hypertension for over 20 years, referred to our hospital due to mild aortic dilatation detected on a transthoracic echocardiogram. On physical examination weak lower limb pulses and a blood pressure differential of >50 mmHg between arms and legs were detected. Complete interruption of the aortic arch below the left subclavian artery was diagnosed by computed tomography angiography. With this case we aim to draw attention to aortic coarctation and interrupted aortic arch as potential causes of hypertension and to highlight the importance of the physical examination in the diagnosis of secondary causes of hypertension.

  15. Concomitant reconstruction of arch vessels during repair of aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Micovic, Slobodan; Nezic, Dusko; Vukovic, Petar; Jovanovic, Marko; Lozuk, Branko; Jagodic, Sinisa; Djukanovic, Bosko

    2014-08-01

    Surgery for acute aortic dissection is challenging, especially in cases of cerebral malperfusion. Should we perform only the aortic repair, or should we also reconstruct the arch vessels when they are severely affected by the disease process? Here we present a case of acute aortic dissection with multiple tears that involved the brachiocephalic artery and caused cerebral and right upper-extremity malperfusion. The patient successfully underwent complete replacement of the brachiocephalic artery and the aortic arch during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, with antegrade cerebral protection. We have found this technique to be safe and reproducible for use in this group of patients.

  16. Endovascular Stent Grafting for Aortic Arch Aneurysm in Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease following Aortic Arch Debranching and Aortobifemoral Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Canbay, Cagla; Onal, Yilmaz; Beyaz, Metin Onur; Sayin, Omer Ali; Barburoglu, Mehmet; Yornuk, Mesut; Acunas, Bulent; Alpagut, Ufuk; Dayioglu, Enver

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms constitutes high mortality and morbidity rates despite improvements in surgery, anesthesia, and technology. Endovascular stent grafting may be an alternative therapy with lower risks when compared with conventional techniques. However, sometimes the branches of the aortic arch may require transport to the proximal segments prior to successful thoracic aortic endovascular stent grafting. Atherosclerosis is accounted among the etiology of both aneurysms and occlusive diseases that can coexist in the same patient. In these situations stent grafting may even be more complicated. In this report, we present the treatment of a 92-year-old patient with aortic arch aneurysm and proximal descending aortic aneurysm. For successful thoracic endovascular stent grafting, the patient needed an alternative route other than the native femoral and iliac arteries for the deployment of the stent graft. In addition, debranching of left carotid and subclavian arteries from the aortic arch was also required for successful exclusion of the thoracic aneurysm. PMID:28408933

  17. Ductal Stent Implantation in Tetralogy of Fallot with Aortic Arch Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Ergul, Yakup; Saygi, Murat; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Odemis, Ender

    2015-01-01

    Stenting of patent ductus arteriosus is an alternative to palliative cardiac surgery in newborns with duct-dependent or decreased pulmonary circulation; however, the use of this technique in patients with an aortic arch abnormality presents a challenge. Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is frequently associated with anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches. The association is even more common in patients with chromosome 22q11 deletion. We present the case of an 18-day-old male infant who had cyanosis and a heart murmur. After an initial echocardiographic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and right-sided aortic arch. The pulmonary annulus and the main pulmonary artery and its branches were slightly hypoplastic; the ductus arteriosus was small. Conventional and computed tomographic angiograms revealed a double aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. The right aortic arch branched into the subclavian arteries and continued into the descending aorta, whereas the left aortic arch branched into the common carotid arteries and ended with the patent ductus arteriosus. After evaluation of the ductal anatomy, we implanted a 3.5 × 15-mm coronary stent in the duct. Follow-up injections showed augmented pulmonary flow and an increase in oxygen saturation from 65% to 94%. The patient was also found to have chromosome 22q11 deletion. PMID:26175649

  18. Ductal stent implantation in tetralogy of fallot with aortic arch abnormality.

    PubMed

    Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Ergul, Yakup; Saygi, Murat; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Odemis, Ender

    2015-06-01

    Stenting of patent ductus arteriosus is an alternative to palliative cardiac surgery in newborns with duct-dependent or decreased pulmonary circulation; however, the use of this technique in patients with an aortic arch abnormality presents a challenge. Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is frequently associated with anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches. The association is even more common in patients with chromosome 22q11 deletion. We present the case of an 18-day-old male infant who had cyanosis and a heart murmur. After an initial echocardiographic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and right-sided aortic arch. The pulmonary annulus and the main pulmonary artery and its branches were slightly hypoplastic; the ductus arteriosus was small. Conventional and computed tomographic angiograms revealed a double aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. The right aortic arch branched into the subclavian arteries and continued into the descending aorta, whereas the left aortic arch branched into the common carotid arteries and ended with the patent ductus arteriosus. After evaluation of the ductal anatomy, we implanted a 3.5 × 15-mm coronary stent in the duct. Follow-up injections showed augmented pulmonary flow and an increase in oxygen saturation from 65% to 94%. The patient was also found to have chromosome 22q11 deletion.

  19. Safety and Efficacy of an Aortic Arch Stent Graft with Window-Shaped Fenestration for Supra-Aortic Arch Vessels: an Experimental Study in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Ha; Choe, Jeong Cheon; Kim, Sang-Pil; Park, Tae Sik; Ahn, Jinhee; Park, Jin Sup; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Thoracic endovascular aortic repair exhibits limitations in cases where the aortic pathology involves the aortic arch. We had already developed a fenestrated aortic stent graft (FASG) with a preloaded catheter for aortic pathology involving the aortic arch. FASG was suitable for elective cases. Materials and Methods An aortic arch stent graft with a window-shaped fenestration (FASG-W) for supra-aortic arch vessels is suitable for emergent cases. This study aims to test a FASG-W for supra-aortic arch vessels and to perform a preclinical study in swine to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this device. Six FASG-Ws with 1 preloaded catheter were advanced through the iliac artery in 6 swine. The presence of endoleak and the patency and deformity of the grafts were examined with computed tomography (CT) at 4 weeks postoperatively. A postmortem examination was performed at 8 weeks. The mean procedure time for FASG-W was 27.15±4.02 minutes. The mean time for the selection of the right carotid artery was 5.72±0.72 minutes. Results Major adverse events were not observed in any of the 6 pigs who survived for 8 weeks. For the FASG-W, no endoleaks, no disconnection, and no occlusion of the stent grafts were observed in the CT findings or the postmortem gross findings. Conclusion The procedure with the FASG-W was able to be performed safely in a relatively short procedure time and involved an easy technique. The FASG-W was found to be safe and convenient for use in this preclinical study of swine. PMID:28382077

  20. MDCT and 3D evaluation of type 2 hypoplastic pulmonary artery sling associated with right lung agenesis, hypoplastic aortic arch, and long segment tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edward Y

    2007-11-01

    The early diagnosis and complete anatomic evaluation of pulmonary artery sling, a congenital vascular anomaly in which left pulmonary artery arises from the right pulmonary artery, is paramount for proper patient management, because patients with this disorder frequently have other congenital anomalies resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Until recently, pulmonary artery sling in the neonate has been established with standard radiologic imaging studies such as plain radiographs, barium swallow studies, fluoroscopy-guided airway studies, and echocardiograms. However, with the development and widespread availability of multidetector computed tomography, pulmonary artery sling is increasingly evaluated with this newer technology. This case report presents a rare incidence of type 2 hypoplastic pulmonary artery sling in a neonate associated with right lung agenesis, hypoplastic aortic arch, and long segment tracheal stenosis. Multidetector computed tomography combined with 3-dimensional evaluation was particularly helpful in making a correct diagnosis of the complicated anatomic anomalies found in this case.

  1. Translocation of the Aortic Arch with Norwood Procedure for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Variant with Circumflex Retroesophageal Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chee-Hoon; Seo, Dong Ju; Bang, Ji Hyun; Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Jeong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Retroesophageal aortic arch, in which the aortic arch crosses the midline behind the esophagus to the contralateral side, is a rare form of vascular anomaly. The complete form may cause symptoms by compressing the esophagus or the trachea and need a surgical intervention. We report a rare case of a hypoplastic left heart syndrome variant with the left retroesophageal circumflex aortic arch in which the left aortic arch, retroesophageal circumflex aorta, and the right descending aorta with the aberrant right subclavian artery encircle the esophagus completely, thus causing central bronchial compression. Bilateral pulmonary artery banding and subsequent modified Norwood procedure with extensive mobilization and creation of the neo-aorta were performed. As a result of the successful translocation of the aorta, the airway compression was relieved. The patient underwent the second-stage operation and is doing well currently. PMID:25207249

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of a rare aortic arch anomaly with left aortic arch and right ductus arteriosus: Cross ribbon sign

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Senthil, Sathiya; Latha, K

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report a fetus with a rare aortic arch anomaly with left aortic arch and right ductus arteriosus, which has not been reported so far. In this condition, the aorta extends to the left of the trachea as in normal, while the ductus arteriosus extends to the right of the trachea and joins the descending aorta posterior to the trachea, with a cross-ribbon sign. PMID:28515590

  3. Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Aortic Arch and Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tugcu, Aylin; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Nakanishi, Koki; Shames, Sofia; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-11-01

    Aortic arch plaque (AAP) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, but its association with subclinical cerebrovascular disease is not established. We investigated the association between AAP and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in an elderly stroke-free community-based cohort. The CABL study (Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions) was designed to investigate cardiovascular predictors of silent cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. AAPs were assessed by suprasternal transthoracic echocardiography in 954 participants. Silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) were assessed by brain magnetic resonance imaging. The association of AAP thickness with silent brain infarcts and WMHV was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Mean age was 71.6±9.3 years; 63% were women. AAP was present in 658 (69%) subjects. Silent brain infarcts were detected in 138 participants (14.5%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders, AAP thickness and large AAP (≥4 mm in thickness) were significantly associated with the upper quartile of WMHV (WMHV-Q4; odds ratio =1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.32; P=0.009 and odds ratio =1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.09; P=0.036, respectively), but not with silent brain infarcts (odds ratio =1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.23; P=0.265 and odds ratio =1.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-2.77; P=0.251, respectively). Aortic arch atherosclerosis was associated with WMHV in a stroke-free community-based elderly cohort. This association was stronger in subjects with large plaques and independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Aortic arch assessment by transthoracic echocardiography may help identify subjects at higher risk of subclinical cerebrovascular disease, who may benefit from aggressive stroke risk factors treatment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. [Morphologic report and clinical evaluation of findings in a case of complete transposition of the great vessels of the heart and tubular hypoplasia of part of the aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Radović, S; Vuković, V; Mesihović, H

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of the coexistence transposition of the great vessels, atrial and ventricular septal defects, and extreme tubular hypoplasia of the aortic arch between the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries. Beside the thorough morphological description of that uncommon combined heart malformation, evaluation of clinical analysis is performed and compared with theoretically reconstructed chemodynamismus during patient's life.

  5. Abnormal aortic arch morphology in Turner syndrome patients is a risk factor for hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Katya; Devos, Daniël; Van Herck, Koen; Demulier, Laurent; Buysse, Wesley; De Schepper, Jean; De Wolf, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension in Turner syndrome (TS) is a multifactorial, highly prevalent and significant problem that warrants timely diagnosis and rigorous treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal aortic arch morphology and hypertension in adult TS patients. This was a single centre retrospective study in 74 adult TS patients (age 29.41 ± 8.91 years) who underwent a routine cardiac MRI. Patients were assigned to the hypertensive group (N = 31) if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg and/or if they were treated with antihypertensive medication. Aortic arch morphology was evaluated on MRI images and initially assigned as normal (N = 54) or abnormal (N = 20), based on the curve of the transverse arch and the distance between the left common carotid-left subclavian artery. We additionally used a new more objective method to describe aortic arch abnormality in TS by determination of the relative position of the highest point of the transverse arch (AoHP). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension is significantly and independently associated with age, BMI and abnormal arch morphology, with a larger effect size for the new AoHP method than for the classical method. TS patients with hypertension and abnormal arch morphology more often had dilatation of the ascending aorta. There is a significant association between abnormal arch morphology and hypertension in TS patients, independent of age and BMI, and not related to other structural heart disease. We suggest that aortic arch morphology should be included in the risk stratification for hypertension in TS and propose a new quantitative method to express aortic arch morphology.

  6. Aortic arch compliance and idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Behkam, Reza; Roberts, Kara E; Bierhals, Andrew J; Jacobs, M Eileen; Edgar, Julia D; Paniello, Randal C; Woodson, Gayle; Vande Geest, Jonathan P; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M

    2017-08-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP) occurs related to recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) impairment associated with impaired swallowing, voice production, and breathing functions. The majority of UVP cases occur subsequent to surgical intervention with approximately 12-42% having no known cause for the disease (i.e., idiopathic). Approximately two-thirds of those with UVP exhibit left-sided injury with the average onset at ≥50 yr of age in those diagnosed as idiopathic. Given the association between the RLN and the subclavian and aortic arch vessels, we hypothesized that changes in vascular tissues would result in increased aortic compliance in patients with idiopathic left-sided UVP compared with those without UVP. Gated MRI data enabled aortic arch diameter measures normalized to blood pressure across the cardiac cycles to derive aortic arch compliance. Compliance was compared between individuals with left-sided idiopathic UVP and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Three-way factorial ANOVA test showed that aortic arch compliance (P = 0.02) and aortic arch diameter change in one cardiac cycle (P = 0.04) are significantly higher in patients with idiopathic left-sided UVP compared with the controls. As previously demonstrated by other literature, our finding confirmed that compliance decreases with age (P < 0.0001) in both healthy individuals and patients with idiopathic UVP. Future studies will investigate parameters of aortic compliance change as a potential contributor to the onset of left-sided UVP.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results from impaired function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) impacting breathing, swallowing, and voice production. A large proportion of adults suffering from this disorder have an idiopathic etiology (i.e., unknown cause). The current study determined that individuals diagnosed with left-sided idiopathic vocal fold paralysis exhibited significantly greater compliance than age- and sex-matched controls

  7. Bare Metal Stenting for Endovascular Exclusion of Aortic Arch Thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Hoffman, Andras; Autschbach, Ruediger; Damberg, Anneke L. M.

    2013-08-01

    BackgroundAortic thrombi in the ascending aorta or aortic arch are rare but are associated with a relevant risk of major stroke or distal embolization. Although stent grafting is commonly used as a treatment option in the descending aorta, only a few case reports discuss stenting of the aortic arch for the treatment of a thrombus. The use of bare metal stents in this setting has not yet been described.MethodsWe report two cases of ascending and aortic arch thrombus that were treated by covering the thrombus with an uncovered stent. Both procedures were performed under local anesthesia via a femoral approach. A femoral cutdown was used in one case, and a total percutaneous insertion was possible in the second case.ResultsBoth procedures were successfully performed without any periprocedural complications. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. In both cases, no late complications or recurrent embolization occurred at midterm follow-up, and control CT angiography at 1 respectively 10 months revealed no stent migration, freely perfused supra-aortic branches, and no thrombus recurrence.ConclusionTreating symptomatic thrombi in the ascending aorta or aortic arch with a bare metal stent is feasible. This technique could constitute a minimally invasive alternative to a surgical intervention or complex endovascular therapy with fenestrated or branched stent grafts.

  8. Morphology of aortic arch obstruction with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Bruno; Chiariello, Luigi; Mercanti, Corrado; Bosman, Cesare; Colloridi, Vicenzo; Reale, Attilio; Marino, Benedetto

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one hearts with aortic arch obstruction and patent ductus arteriosus were examined with special reference to associated cardiac anomalies. Six presented with complete interruption of the aortic arch, four with atretic isthmus, twelve with coarctation, and three with tubular hypoplasia. Associated cardiac anomalies were divided into two main groups: (1) septal defect with left-to-right shunt, and (2) left ventricular inflow and/or outflow obstruction. A high incidence (9/19=47.4%) of ventriculo-infundibular malalignment type of ventricular septal defect with subaortic stenosis was observed. Associated cardiac lesions that reduce blood flow in the aortic arch during fetal life may be responsible for poor development of this structure. Images PMID:15216214

  9. Newborn aortic arch reconstruction with descending aortic cannulation improves postoperative renal function.

    PubMed

    Hammel, James M; Deptula, Joseph J; Karamlou, Tara; Wedemeyer, Elesa; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Duncan, Kim F

    2013-11-01

    A clinically driven transition in perfusion technique occurred at Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, from primarily selective cerebral perfusion bracketed by brief periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest to a technique of dual arterial perfusion including innominate artery and descending aortic cannulation (DAC), with continuous mildly hypothermic (>30 °C) full-flow cardiopulmonary bypass to the entire body. This study retrospectively compared outcomes in a recent cohort of neonates undergoing aortic arch reconstruction with the two techniques. The clinical records of 142 consecutive neonates undergoing operations involving aortic arch reconstruction at a single institution between April 2004 and September 2012 were reviewed. Renal function changes were graded according to the pediatric RIFLE score (based on risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease). Sixteen patients, 8 supported with selective cerebral perfusion bracketed by brief periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and 8 with DAC, required immediate postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and were excluded from renal function analysis. Multivariable regression models evaluated predictors of pediatric RIFLE score. Patients with DAC had shorter median bypass support (113 versus 172 minutes; p < 0.001) and myocardial ischemic time (43 versus 81 minutes; p < 0.001). Patients with DAC had less median fluid gain at 24 hours (37 versus 69 mL/kg; p < 0.001), and lower incidence of acute kidney injury (5% versus 31%; p < 0.001). Fewer patients with DAC (31% versus 58%; p = 0.001) required open chest. Use of selective cerebral perfusion bracketed by brief periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, single-ventricular physiology, and aortic cross-clamp time were found to be multivariable predictors of serious kidney dysfunction. Multisite arterial perfusion, including DAC, and maintenance of continuous mildly hypothermic full-flow cardiopulmonary bypass

  10. Gonococcal ascending aortic aneurysm with penetrating ulcer and bovine arch.

    PubMed

    Oumeiri, Bachar El; Eynden, Frédéric Vanden; Stefanidis, Constantin; Antoine, Martine; Nooten, Guido Van

    2015-09-01

    We describe a patient with ascending aorta aneurysm and bovine aortic arch who initially presented with fever. A 65-year-old man with a 2-month history of intermittent fever was referred to our hospital and diagnosed as having a gonococcal ascending aorta aneurysm with penetrating ulcers. He was successfully treated by resection of the ascending aorta and ulcers, replacement of the aortic valve, and prolonged postoperative antibiotic therapy.

  11. Aortic arch mechanics measured with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rogério; Monteiro, Ricardo; Baptista, Rui; Pereira, Telmo; Ribeiro, Miguel A; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Cardim, Nuno; Gonçalves, Lino

    2017-07-01

    To study the feasibility of vascular mechanics at the aortic arch with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, as well as to define normal values and to compare results between hypertensive patients and healthy patients. We included 107 patients (61 healthy patients and 46 hypertensive patients) who underwent a complete echocardiographic exam, including a short-axis view of the aortic arch. The speckle tracking methodology was used to calculate aortic arch mechanics offline (EchoPAC; GE Healthcare). The analysis was performed for circumferential aortic strain and for the early circumferential aortic strain rate, and we used an average result of the six equidistant segments of the arterial wall. We also assessed the aortic pulse wave velocity with the Complior method. The 61 healthy patients had a mean age of 33 ± 9 years, and 59% were women. Of the total 366 aortic arch wall segments, 344 (94%) had adequate waveforms for the speckle tracking analysis. The hypertensive patients had a mean age of 45 ± 12 years, and 54% were women. Of the total 276 aortic wall segments, 261 (95%) had adequate waveforms for analysis. Aortic arch strain and strain rate were lower in the hypertensive patients group than in the healthy patients group (6.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.2 ± 3.2% and 1.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.5 ± 0.4 s, respectively, both P < 0.01). Aortic arch strain and strain were correlated with age (r = -0.62, r = -0.54; P < 0.01), pulse pressure (r = -0.48, r = -0.39; P < 0.01) and the pulse wave velocity (r = -0.57, r = -0.54; P < 0.01). After adjustments for age, sex and BMI, strain was significantly lower in hypertensive patients, when compared with healthy patients. Speckle tracking analysis of aortic arch images is feasible and might serve as a new approach to evaluate arterial function.

  12. Aortic Arch Plaques and Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Death

    PubMed Central

    Di Tullio, Marco R.; Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mohr, J.P.; Homma, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    Background Aortic arch plaques are a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although the stroke mechanism is conceivably thromboembolic, no randomized studies have evaluated the efficacy of antithrombotic therapies in preventing recurrent events. Methods and Results The relationship between arch plaques and recurrent events was studied in 516 patients with ischemic stroke, double–blindly randomized to treatment with warfarin or aspirin as part of the Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS), based on the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS). Plaque thickness and morphology was evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. End-points were recurrent ischemic stroke or death over a 2-year follow-up. Large plaques (≥4mm) were present in 19.6% of patients, large complex plaques (those with ulcerations or mobile components) in 8.5 %. During follow-up, large plaques were associated with a significantly increased risk of events (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.12, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-4.32), especially those with complex morphology (HR 2.55, CI 1.10-5.89). The risk was highest among cryptogenic stroke patients, both for large plaques (HR 6.42, CI 1.62-25.46) and large-complex plaques (HR 9.50, CI 1.92-47.10). Event rates were similar in the warfarin and aspirin groups in the overall study population (16.4% vs. 15.8%; p=0.43). Conclusions In patients with stroke, and especially cryptogenic stroke, large aortic plaques remain associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke and death at two years despite treatment with warfarin or aspirin. Complex plaque morphology confers a slight additional increase in risk. PMID:19380621

  13. Huge ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysm in ultra octogenarian.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, F; Sansone, F; Zagarella, G; Patanè, F

    2014-01-01

    Giant ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA), which are larger than 10 cm, are rarely been reported (1-7). We hereby present the case of a giant AAA of about 11 cm in a very old women who was successfully operated on for ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  14. Endovascular repair of the aortic arch in pigs by improved double-branched stent grafts

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C; Wang, L; Lu, Q; Li, C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of total endovascular repair of the aortic arch in pigs using improved integrated double-branched stent grafts. Methods Improved self-expandable stent grafts with a main body and two integrated branches were prepared for the repair of the aortic arch in six pigs. The feasibility of using these stent grafts was evaluated with arteriography, computed tomography (CT), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and autopsy three months following the procedure. Results The double-branched stent grafts were placed successfully in the aortic arch in all six pigs. All pigs survived for at least three months and their biological behaviour was normal. Arteriography, CTA and animal necropsy revealed good fixation in all cases. Aortic valve function and coronary ostia remained intact, and CT of the head did not detect any lesion of cerebral infarction. Conclusions Endovascular repair of the aortic arch with an integrated double-branched stent graft is safe and feasible in animal studies. PMID:23484997

  15. Total Arch versus Hemiarch Replacement for Type A Acute Aortic Dissection: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Nicolò, Francesca; Bovio, Emanuele; Serrao, Andrea; Zeitani, Jacob; Scafuri, Antonio; Chiariello, Luigi; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated early and intermediate outcomes of aortic arch surgery in patients with type A acute aortic dissection (AAD), investigating the effect of arch surgery extension on postoperative results. From January 2006 through July 2013, 201 patients with type A AAD underwent urgent corrective surgery at our institution. Of the 92 patients chosen for this study, 59 underwent hemiarch replacement (hemiarch group), and 33 underwent total arch replacement (total arch group) in conjunction with ascending aorta replacement. The operative mortality rate was 22%. Total arch replacement was associated with a 33% risk of operative death, versus 15% for hemiarch (P=0.044). Multivariable analysis found these independent predictors of operative death: age (odds ratio [OR]=1.13/yr; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.23; P=0.002), body mass index >30 kg/m2 (OR=9.9; 95% CI, 1.28–19; P=0.028), postoperative low cardiac output (OR=10.6; 95% CI, 1.18–25; P=0.035), and total arch replacement (OR=8.8; 95% CI, 1.39–15; P=0.021) The mean overall 5-year survival rate was 59.3% ± 5.5%, and mean 5-year freedom from distal reintervention was 95.4% ± 3.2% (P=NS). In type A AAD, aortic arch surgery is still associated with high operative mortality rates; hemiarch replacement can be performed more safely than total arch replacement. Rates of distal aortic reoperation were not different between the 2 surgical strategies. PMID:28100966

  16. Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of isolated right aortic arch with mirror-image branching.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junxue; Zhu, Jiaan; Pei, Qiuyan; Li, Jianguo

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the fetal echocardiography features of isolated right aortic arch (RAA) with mirror-image branching and to improve the rate and accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of this condition. We reviewed fetal echocardiograms from all cases of isolated RAA with mirror-image branching diagnosed at our institution between August 2012 and December 2015 and classified these cases into normal and abnormal types of ductus arteriosus based on the course of the arterial duct arch. We confirmed the diagnoses by postnatal echocardiography. A total of 11 cases of isolated RAA with mirror-image branching, with the left ductus and the descending aorta located on the left side of the spine, were diagnosed using fetal echocardiography. Ten cases involved normal ductus arteriosus, with the left ductus connecting the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta, five of which were referred to our institution for suspicions of double aortic aorta. 1 case involved abnormal ductus arteriosus, with the left ductus connecting the left pulmonary artery to the left innominate artery. RAA with mirror-image branching can be detected via fetal echocardiography, which can reveal the relationship between of the aortic arch and the trachea and can enable the identification of the course of brachiocephalic branching. The identification of isolated RAA with mirror-image branching is crucial for distinguishing this condition from other types of aortic arch anomalies, particularly double aortic aorta, which can have a rather different prognosis.

  17. D-TGA Combined With Left Arch Atresia of a Double Aortic Arch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Song, Laichun; Tao, Liang; Zhou, Hong

    2017-05-05

    A three-month-old female underwent an arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with concomitant ventricular septal defect (VSD). After the operation, the patient suffered from stubborn pulmonary infection with increased airway resistance, and could not be weaned from a ventilator. Multispiral computed tomography (CT) scanning suggested a double aortic arch with left arch atresia. The patient underwent a second procedure to resection the left aortic arch. The patient gradually recovered and was successfully weaned from the ventilator. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined Open and Endovascular Repair for Aortic Arch Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Woong Chol; Ahn, Tae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Moon, Chan Il; Han, Seung Hwan; Park, Chul-Hyun; Park, Kook-Yang; Kang, Jin Mo; Kim, Jung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives We describe our experience with combined open and endovascular repair in patients who have aortic arch pathology. Subjects and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of 7 patients who underwent combined open and endovascular repair for aortic arch pathology. Medical records and radiographic information were reviewed. Results A total of 7 consecutive patients (5 men, 71.4%) underwent thoracic stent graft implantation. The mean age was 59.9±16.7 years. The indication for endovascular repair was aneurysmal degeneration in 5 patients, and rupture or impending rupture in 2 patients. In all 7 cases, supra-aortic transposition of the great vessels was performed successfully. Stent graft implantation was achieved in all cases. Surgical exposure of the access vessel was necessary in 2 patients. A total of 9 stent grafts were implanted (3 stent grafts in one patient). The Seal thoracic and the Valiant endovascular stent graft were implanted in 6 patients and 1 patient, respectively. There were no post-procedure deaths or neurologic complications. In 2 patients, bleeding and injury of access vessel were noted after the procedure. Postoperative endoleak was noted in 1 patient. One patient died at 10 months after the procedure due to a newly developed ascending aortic dissection. No patients required secondary intervention during the follow-up period. The aortic diameter decreased in 4 patients. In 3 patients, including 1 patient with endoleak, there was no change in aortic diameter. Conclusion Our experience suggests that combined open and endovascular repair for aortic arch pathology is safe and effective, with few complications. PMID:20830254

  19. Rapidly growing aortic arch aneurysm in Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Nozomi; Sakano, Yasuhito; Ohki, Shin-Ichi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2011-03-01

    We present a patient with a nine-year history of Behçet's disease (BD), who developed a rapidly expanding aneurysm of the aortic arch. Three-dimensional computed tomography demonstrated a saccular aortic arch aneurysm with a maximal diameter of 5 cm. No bacteria were detected by serial blood cultures. The aneurysm, however, showed a multi-lobular cavity, mimicking an infectious aneurysm. Therefore, we prescribed antibacterial agents for one week. The patient still had a high-fever and an elevated C-reactive protein level thereafter. Aortic arch replacement was performed emergently. Because we were unable to determine whether the aneurysm was caused by infection or BD, the implanted prosthetic graft and the anastomotic sites were covered with a pedicle graft of the greater omentum, and we continued to administer antibacterial agents for four weeks postoperatively. The pathological examination showed neither bacteria nor cystic medial necrosis in the resected aortic wall. Inflammatory changes with eosinophilic infiltration were recognized mainly around the adventitia near the aneurysm. The patient had a favorable postoperative course without any complications.

  20. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chen; Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong; Liu, Changjian; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-15

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.

  1. Total Aortic Arch Replacement: Superior Ventriculo-Arterial Coupling with Decellularized Allografts Compared with Conventional Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Schmack, Bastian; Korkmaz, Sevil; Li, Shiliang; Chaimow, Nicole; Pätzold, Ines; Becher, Peter Moritz; Hartyánszky, István; Soós, Pál; Merkely, Gergő; Németh, Balázs Tamás; Istók, Roland; Veres, Gábor; Merkely, Béla; Terytze, Konstantin; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, no experimental or clinical study provides detailed analysis of vascular impedance changes after total aortic arch replacement. This study investigated ventriculoarterial coupling and vascular impedance after replacement of the aortic arch with conventional prostheses vs. decellularized allografts. Methods After preparing decellularized aortic arch allografts, their mechanical, histological and biochemical properties were evaluated and compared to native aortic arches and conventional prostheses in vitro. In open-chest dogs, total aortic arch replacement was performed with conventional prostheses and compared to decellularized allografts (n = 5/group). Aortic flow and pressure were recorded continuously, left ventricular pressure-volume relations were measured by using a pressure-conductance catheter. From the hemodynamic variables end-systolic elastance (Ees), arterial elastance (Ea) and ventriculoarterial coupling were calculated. Characteristic impedance (Z) was assessed by Fourier analysis. Results While Ees did not differ between the groups and over time (4.1±1.19 vs. 4.58±1.39 mmHg/mL and 3.21±0.97 vs. 3.96±1.16 mmHg/mL), Ea showed a higher increase in the prosthesis group (4.01±0.67 vs. 6.18±0.20 mmHg/mL, P<0.05) in comparison to decellularized allografts (5.03±0.35 vs. 5.99±1.09 mmHg/mL). This led to impaired ventriculoarterial coupling in the prosthesis group, while it remained unchanged in the allograft group (62.5±50.9 vs. 3.9±23.4%). Z showed a strong increasing tendency in the prosthesis group and it was markedly higher after replacement when compared to decellularized allografts (44.6±8.3dyn·sec·cm−5 vs. 32.4±2.0dyn·sec·cm−5, P<0.05). Conclusions Total aortic arch replacement leads to contractility-afterload mismatch by means of increased impedance and invert ventriculoarterial coupling ratio after implantation of conventional prostheses. Implantation of decellularized allografts preserves vascular impedance

  2. Aortic Arch and Thoracic Aorta Curvature Remodeling after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Gaspar; Garcia, Marvin E; Yugueros, Xavier; Urrea, Rodrigo; Tripodi, Paolo; Gomez, Fernando; Maeso, Jordi; Riambau, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the original curvature of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta, and how it is modified after the placement of a thoracic endograft. We retrospectively analyzed all patients primarily treated for thoracic aortic aneurysms and blunt traumatic aortic injuries by means of an endograft sealed into the aortic arch (zones, Z1-Z3) in 2 different centers (Vascular Surgery Division, Hospital Clinic, UB; and Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Department, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, UAB; Barcelona, Spain), between 2010 and 2015. The last preoperative and early (1-month) postoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) was obtained for all cases, and an accurate 3-dimensional (3D) center lumen line was created, from the aortic valve to the renal arteries. Angles in 2-dimensional (2D; XY-plane) and 3D (referred to cranial-caudal Z-axis) were analyzed in: the distal ascending aorta, aortic arch, and thoracic aorta (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the brachiocephalic trunk [BCT]) and celiac trunk (CT). Changes in preoperative-postoperative CTA were compared independently for both diseases. Thirty-six cases were included (20 aneurysms, 16 blunt traumatic injuries; mean age, 69.5 and 42.5 years). After placement of an aortic endograft (sealed in Z1-Z2 in 30% of aneurysms and 75% of traumatic injuries; mean endograft length: 22.6 cm and 11.3 cm, respectively), a global left anterior displacement of the ascending aorta was observed (2D examination: -13.1° and -7.5°, P = 0.049 and 0.041, respectively). The 3D examination showed an average increase of the aortic angle at 5 and 10 cm from the BCT in the whole sample (+4.0°, +4.9° in reference to the vertical; P = 0.017, 0.001), softening the curvature of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. In addition, in traumatic injuries, a decrease in the aortic arch angle was observed (-3.5°, P = 0.030). Placement of an endograft into the aortic arch and proximal thoracic aorta engenders a

  3. Computational Study of Growth and Remodeling in the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Patrick W.; Taber, Larry A.

    2009-01-01

    Opening angles (OAs) are associated with growth and remodeling in arteries. One curiosity has been the relatively large OAs found in the aortic arch of some animals. Here, we use computational models to explore the reasons behind this phenomenon. The artery is assumed to contain a smooth muscle/collagen phase and an elastin phase. In the models, growth and remodeling of smooth muscle/collagen depends on wall stress and fluid shear stress. Remodeling of elastin, which normally turns over very slowly, is neglected. The results indicate that OAs generally increase with longitudinal curvature (torus model), earlier elastin production during development, and decreased wall stiffness. Correlating these results with available experimental data suggests that all of these effects may contribute to the large OAs in the aortic arch. The models also suggest that the slow turnover rate of elastin limits longitudinal growth. These results should promote increased understanding of the causes of residual stress in arteries. PMID:18792831

  4. Left cervical aortic arch: diagnosis by radioisotope and ultrasound techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Camiel, M.R.; Glanz, S.; Gordon, D.H.; Weiner, R.

    1982-01-01

    Two case histories are presented of patients with a developmental variant of the heart. The condition is usually innocuous but its appearance is confusing and incorrect diagnoses are possible. Although the abnormality is usually first detected by routine chest X-ray, radionuclide angiography and sonography are more appropriate diagnostic measures. The two methods can differentiate between the cervical aortic arch and aneurysm or lung tumor. (JMT)

  5. Complex Atheromatosis of the Aortic Arch in Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Capmany, Ramón Pujadas; Ibañez, Montserrat Oliveras; Pesquer, Xavier Jané

    2010-01-01

    In many stroke patients it is not possible to establish the etiology of stroke. However, in the last two decades, the use of transesophageal echocardiography in patients with stroke of uncertain etiology reveals atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic arch, which often protrude into the lumen and have mobile components in a high percentage of cases. Several autopsy series and retrospective studies of cases and controls have shown an association between aortic arch atheroma and arterial embolism, which was later confirmed by prospectively designed studies. The association with ischemic stroke was particularly strong when atheromas were located proximal to the ostium of the left subclavian artery, when the plaque was ≥ 4 mm thick and particularly when mobile components are present. In these cases, aspirin might not prevent adequately new arterial ischemic events especially stroke. Here we review the evidence of aortic arch atheroma as an independent risk factor for stroke and arterial embolism, including clinical and pathological data on atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta as an embolic source. In addition, the impact of complex plaques (≥ 4 mm thick, or with mobile components) on increasing the risk of stroke is also reviewed. In non-randomized retrospective studies anticoagulation was superior to antiplatelet therapy in patients with stroke and aortic arch plaques with mobile components. In a retrospective case-control study, statins significantly reduced the relative risk of new vascular events. However, given the limited data available and its retrospective nature, randomized prospective studies are needed to establish the optimal secondary prevention therapeutic regimens in these high risk patients. PMID:21804777

  6. “Open” approach to aortic arch aneurysm repair☆

    PubMed Central

    Al Kindi, Adil H.; Al Kimyani, Nasser; Alameddine, Tarek; Al Abri, Qasim; Balan, Baskaran; Al Sabti, Hilal

    2014-01-01

    Aortic arch aneurysm is a relatively rare entity in cardiac surgery. Repair of such aneurysms, either in isolation or combined with other cardiac procedures, remains a challenging task. The need to produce a relatively bloodless surgical field with circulatory arrest, while at the same time protecting the brain, is the hallmark of this challenge. However, a clear understanding of the topic allows a better and less morbid approach to such a complex surgery. Literature has shown the advantage of selective cerebral perfusion techniques in comparison with only circulatory arrest. Ability to perfuse the brain has allowed circulatory arrest temperatures at moderate hypothermia without the need for deep hypothermia. Even though cannulation site selection appears to be a minor issue, literature has shown that the subclavian/axillary route has the best outcomes and that femoral cannulation should only be reserved for no access patients. Although different techniques for arch anastomosis have been described, we routinely perform the distal first technique as we find it to be less cumbersome and easiest to reproduce. In this review our aim is to outline a systematic approach to aortic arch surgery. Starting with indications for intervention and proceeding with approaches on site of cannulation, approaches to brain protection with hypothermia and selective cerebral perfusion and finally surgical steps in performing the distal and arch vessels anastomosis. PMID:24954988

  7. Aneurysm of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery Successfully Excluded by a Thoracic Aortic Stent Graft with Supra-aortic Bypass of Three Arch Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Munneke, Graham J. Loosemore, Thomas M.; Belli, Anna-Maria; Thompson, Matt M.; Morgan, Robert A.

    2005-06-15

    An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) arising from a left-sided aortic arch is the fourth most common aortic arch anomaly. Aneurysmal dilatation of the ARSA requires treatment because of the associated risk of rupture. We present a case where supra-aortic bypass of the arch vessels was performed to facilitate exclusion of the aneurysm by a thoracic aortic stent graft.

  8. Atresia of the Aortic Arch in 4-Year-Old Child: A Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Stimato, Vittoria; Didier, Dominique; Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect with a high mortality when associated with other intracardiac defects. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides the exact anatomy of the aortic arch and collateral circulation and is useful to diagnose-associated aortic arch anomalies. This report describes the case of a 4-year-old child with atresia of the aortic arch, referred to our institution with the diagnosis of aortic coarctation and bicuspid aortic valve. On clinical exam, the femoral pulses were not palpable and there was a significant differential blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs. The echocardiography showed a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve but was limited for the exact description of the aortic arch. CMR showed absence of lumen continuity between the ascending and descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, extending over 5 mm, with the presence of a bend in the arch and diverticulum on either side of the zone of discontinuity, suggesting the diagnosis atresia of the aortic arch rather than coarctation or interruption. The patient benefited from a successful surgical commissurotomy of the aortic valve and reconstruction of the aortic arch with a homograft. The post-operative CMR confirmed the good surgical result. This case emphasizes the utility of CMR to provide good anatomical information to establish the exact diagnosis and the operative strategy. PMID:25853109

  9. Metric characterization of the aortic arch of early mouse fetuses and of a fetus featuring a double lumen aortic arch malformation.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Stefan H; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at providing an objective metric characterization of the aortic arch of a mouse fetus featuring a double lumen aortic arch malformation. As a side effect it provides reference data defining the length and the diameters of the aortic arch segments of normally developed mouse fetuses at developmental stage 22 according to Theiler (TS22). We analyzed a total of 22 TS22 mouse fetuses of the Him:OF1 strain. We produced high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) computer models and measured the diameters and cross sectional areas of the aortic arch segments and of the ascending and descending aorta. In addition, we defined 3D skeletons of the arteries and measured the length of the aortic arch segments. We provide statistics on the measurements obtained from the normally developed TS22 fetuses and detailed characterizations of the double lumen aortic arch. Our data suggest that: firstly, in Him:OF1 fetuses of TS22, the formation of the aortic arch is not yet finished. The left subclavian artery still receives a significant amount of blood from the right ventricle. Secondly, persistence of the 5th pharyngeal arch artery does not affect remodeling of the arteries distal to the junction of 5th pharyngeal arch artery and dorsal aorta. Thirdly, hemodynamic forces define the dimensions of the aortic arch between the left common carotid and the left subclavian artery. Fourthly, the blood volume streaming through the 4th pharyngeal arch artery influences its enlargement between TS20 and TS22. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Aortic arch geometry and exercise-induced hypertension in aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    De Caro, Enrico; Trocchio, Gianluca; Smeraldi, Attilio; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Pongiglione, Giacomo

    2007-05-01

    Hypertension at rest or during effort is not uncommon in patients with aortic coarctation (CoA), even those with a successful repair or mild degree of obstruction. Anatomic factors and functional abnormalities have been proposed as causes of this finding. Recently, aortic arch geometry was reported in association with hypertension at rest in patients with successful CoA repair. Forty-one patients (age 15.7 +/- 4.6 years) without significant obstruction at rest (mean systolic Doppler gradient at rest < or =25 mm Hg) were selected for the study. All patients underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test and magnetic resonance imaging of the aorta. Aortic arch shape was defined on global geometry as normal, gothic, and crenel. Percentage of anatomic narrowing (AN) was also calculated. Twenty-four patients (58%) showed exercise-induced hypertension (EIH). Regarding the shape of the aortic arch, normal geometry was present in 17 patients (41%), 9 (21%) had gothic geometry, and 15 (36%) had crenel geometry. There were no differences among the 3 geometries in regard to the incidence of EIH (70.6% in normal, 55.6% in gothic, and 46.7% in crenel) or AN (36.9% in normal, 33.5% in gothic, and 36.6% in crenel). In conclusion, our results fail to show a correlation between a specific aortic arch shape and the incidence of EIH and significant AN in patients with native or residual CoA or repeat CoA. Therefore, at present, the role of aortic arch geometry in identifying patients at risk of EIH is still uncertain.

  11. Blunt traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta and aortic arch: a clinical multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Victor X; Marini, Milagros; Muñiz, Javier; Gulias, Daniel; Asorey-Veiga, Vanesa; Adrio-Nazar, Belen; Herrera, José M; Pradas-Montilla, Gonzalo; Cuenca, José J

    2013-09-01

    To report the clinical and radiological characteristics, management and outcomes of traumatic ascending aorta and aortic arch injuries. Historic cohort multicentre study including 17 major trauma patients with traumatic aortic injury from January 2000 to January 2011. The most common mechanism of blunt trauma was motor-vehicle crash (47%) followed by motorcycle crash (41%). Patients sustaining traumatic ascending aorta or aortic arch injuries presented a high proportion of myocardial contusion (41%); moderate or greater aortic valve regurgitation (12%); haemopericardium (35%); severe head injuries (65%) and spinal cord injury (23%). The 58.8% of the patients presented a high degree aortic injury (types III and IV). Expected in-hospital mortality was over 50% as defined by mean TRISS 59.7 (SD 38.6) and mean ISS 48.2 (SD 21.6) on admission. Observed in-hospital mortality was 53%. The cause of death was directly related to the ATAI in 45% of cases, head and abdominal injuries being the cause of death in the remaining 55% cases. Long-term survival was 46% at 1 year, 39% at 5 years, and 19% at 10 years. Traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta/arch should be considered in any major thoracic trauma patient presenting cardiac tamponade, aortic valve regurgitation and/or myocardial contusion. These aortic injuries are also associated with a high incidence of neurological injuries, which can be just as lethal as the aortic injury, so treatment priorities should be modulated on an individual basis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dedicated head-neck coil in MR angiography of the supra-aortic arteries from the aortic arch to the circle of Willis.

    PubMed

    Strotzer, M; Fellner, C; Fraunhofer, S; Gmeinwieser, J; Albrich, H; Seitz, J; Feuerbach, S

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a dedicated head-neck coil in preoperative imaging of the supra-aortic arteries. Forty consecutive patients with suspected carotid artery stenosis underwent MR angiography (MRA). Using a dedicated head-neck coil, we made a complete evaluation of the supra-aortic arteries and graded the internal carotid artery (ICA) stenoses. MRA was performed at 1.5 T with: coronal 3D FISP from the aortic arch to the circle of Willis; transverse 2D FLASH and 3D TONE of the carotid bifurcation; transverse 3D TONE of the carotid siphon and the circle of Willis; and transverse 3D FISP of the aortic arch. I.a. digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used as the reference. ICA stenoses of 70% and more at DSA (NASCET methodology) were regarded as severe. Severe ICA stenoses were detected with high sensitivity and specificity: 93% and 92% respectively for coronal 3D FISP; 90% and 85% respectively for transverse 2D FLASH; and 97% and 94% respectively for transverse 3D TONE. The carotid siphon and the intracranial ICA were best depicted by 3D TONE. None of the applied sequences gave a satisfactory visualization of the aortic arch or of the origins of the vertebral arteries. With the head-neck coil, the supra-aortic arteries (including the intracranial vessels) were visualized without the need to reposition the patient, but depiction of the aortic arch was not acceptable. The quantification of ICA stenoses was reliable.

  13. Traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma in a motocross rider.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Federico; Mattia, Consalvo; Ricci, Massimo; Chirichilli, Ilaria; Santo, Chiara; Rose, David; Muzzi, Luigi; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; Sartini, Patrizio; Ferrari, Riccardo; Della Rocca, Carlo; Laghi, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    This article details a case report of a traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma. Thoracic aorta false aneurysms are a rare and life-threatening complication of aortic surgery, infection, genetic disorders and trauma.

  14. Traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma in a motocross rider

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarri, Federico; Mattia, Consalvo; Ricci, Massimo; Chirichilli, Ilaria; Santo, Chiara; Rose, David; Muzzi, Luigi; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; Sartini, Patrizio; Ferrari, Riccardo; Della Rocca, Carlo; Laghi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article details a case report of a traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma. Thoracic aorta false aneurysms are a rare and life-threatening complication of aortic surgery, infection, genetic disorders and trauma. PMID:18452593

  15. Asymptomatic Interrupted Aortic Arch, Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation, and Bicuspid Aortic Valve in a 76-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Tajdini, Masih; Sardari, Akram; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Baradaran, Abdolvahab; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital abnormality with a high infancy mortality rate. The principal finding is loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. Because of the high mortality rate in infancy, interrupted aortic arch is very rare among adults. In this report, we describe the case of a 76-year-old woman with asymptomatic interrupted aortic arch, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and bicuspid aortic valve. To our knowledge, she is the oldest patient ever reported with this possibly unique combination of pathologic conditions. In addition to reporting her case, we review the relevant medical literature. PMID:27777532

  16. Hybrid Procedure with Debranching from the Descending Aorta for Aortic Arch Aneurysm after Previous Open Repair.

    PubMed

    Zanow, Juergen; Breuer, Martin; Lopatta, Eric; Schelenz, Christoph; Settmacher, Utz

    2017-01-01

    Aortic arch aneurysms can be treated with hybrid procedures by endovascular exclusion and prior debranching of supra-aortic arteries. We report on a case of symptomatic arch aneurysm following previous supracoronary ascending aorta and hemiarch replacement with a very short proximal landing zone. A successful reconstruction was performed by retrograde revascularization of supra-aortic vessels from the descending aorta and subsequent endovascular repair deploying a proximal stent graft directly above the sinotubular junction with good results in the 4-year follow-up. Retrograde supra-aortic debranching may constitute a suitable approach for hybrid endovascular repair of aneurysms of the aortic arch and the ascending aorta in selected cases.

  17. [Relationship between aortic arch shape and blood pressure response after coarctation repair].

    PubMed

    Ou, P; Mousseaux, E; Auriacombe, L; Pédroni, E; Balleux, F; Sidi, D; Bonnet, D

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of secondary hypertension after repair of coarctation of the aorta are not well understood. Abnormalities of the architecture of the aortic arch and their consequences on blood pressure have not been studied. In order to study the relationship between abnormalities or aortic arch architecture and resting blood pressure ninety-four patients without re-coarctation were followed up prospectively from 1997 to 2004 (mean age 16.9 +/- 8.1 years; mean weight 57.5 +/- 18.3 Kg; interval since surgery 16.3 +/- 5.4 years). All underwent MRI angiography of the thoracic aorta which enabled the abnormalities to be classified in 3 groups: gothic arch, crenellated arch and roman arch. Twenty-four patients (25.5%) were hypertensive and 70 (74.4%) normotensive. There were 40 gothic arches (42.5%). 14 crenellated arches (15%) and 40 roman arches (42.5%). Gothic arches were more commonly observed in the hypertensive patients (18/40, [45%, 95% CI 31-62]) than the crenellated arches (4/14, [28.5%, 95% CI 7-48]) or the roman arches (2/40, [5%, 95% CI 2-12]). Only the gothic arch was independently correlated with hypertension on multivariate analysis. The authors conclude that gothic deformation of the aortic arch is an independent predictive factor of hypertension in patients operated for coarctation with an excellent result on the isthmic region. Patients with a gothic appearance of their aortic arch should be followed up closely.

  18. Neonatal aortic arch hemodynamics and perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Kerem; Dur, Onur; Sundareswaran, Kartik; Kanter, Kirk; Fogel, Mark; Yoganathan, Ajit; Undar, Akif

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the detailed three-dimensional (3D) pulsatile hemodynamics, mechanical loading, and perfusion characteristics of a patient-specific neonatal aortic arch during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The 3D cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction of a pediatric patient with a normal aortic arch is modified based on clinical literature to represent the neonatal morphology and flow conditions. The anatomical dimensions are verified from several literature sources. The CPB is created virtually in the computer by clamping the ascending aorta and inserting the computer-aided design model of the 10 Fr tapered generic cannula. Pulsatile (130 bpm) 3D blood flow velocities and pressures are computed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Second order accurate CFD settings are validated against particle image velocimetry experiments in an earlier study with a complex cardiovascular unsteady benchmark. CFD results in this manuscript are further compared with the in vivo physiological CPB pressure waveforms and demonstrated excellent agreement. Cannula inlet flow waveforms are measured from in vivo PC-MRI and 3 kg piglet neonatal animal model physiological experiments, distributed equally between the head-neck vessels and the descending aorta. Neonatal 3D aortic hemodynamics is also compared with that of the pediatric and fetal aortic stages. Detailed 3D flow fields, blood damage, wall shear stress (WSS), pressure drop, perfusion, and hemodynamic parameters describing the pulsatile energetics are calculated for both the physiological neonatal aorta and for the CPB aorta assembly. The primary flow structure is the high-speed canulla jet flow (approximately 3.0 m/s at peak flow), which eventually stagnates at the anterior aortic arch wall and low velocity flow in the cross-clamp pouch. These structures contributed to the reduced flow pulsatility (85%), increased WSS (50%), power loss (28%), and blood

  19. Biomechanical characterization of ascending aortic aneurysm with concomitant bicuspid aortic valve and bovine aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Pham, T; Martin, C; Elefteriades, J; Sun, W

    2013-08-01

    Studies have shown that patients harboring bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or bovine aortic arch (BAA) are more likely than the general population to develop ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA). A thorough quantification of the AsAA tissue properties for these patient groups may offer insights into the underlying mechanisms of AsAA development. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate and compare the mechanical and microstructural properties of aortic tissues from AsAA patients with and without concomitant BAV or BAA. AsAA (n=20), BAV (n=20) and BAA (n=15) human tissues were obtained from patients who underwent elective AsAA surgery. Planar biaxial and uniaxial failure tests were used to characterize the mechanical and failure properties of the tissues, respectively. Histological analysis was performed to detect medial degenerative characteristics of aortic aneurysm. Individual layer thickness and composition were quantified for each patient group. The circumferential stress-strain response of the BAV samples was stiffer than both AsAA (p=0.473) and BAA (p=0.152) tissues at a low load. The BAV samples were nearly isotropic, while AsAA and BAA samples were anisotropic. The areal strain of BAV samples was significantly less than that of AsAA (p=0.041) and BAA (p=0.004) samples at a low load. The BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples in both mechanical and failure properties. On the microstructural level, all samples displayed moderate medial degeneration, characterized by elastin fragmentation, cell loss, mucoid accumulation and fibrosis. The ultimate tensile strength of BAV and BAA sampleswere also found to decrease with age. Overall, the BAV samples were stiffer than both AsAA and BAA samples, and the BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples. The BAV samples were thinnest, with less elastin than AsAA and BAA samples, which may be attributed to the loss of extensibility of these tissues at a low load. No apparent difference in failure mechanics among

  20. Double aortic arch anomalies in Children: A Systematic 20-Year Single Center Study.

    PubMed

    Kaldararova, M; Simkova, I; Varga, I; Tittel, P; Kardos, M; Ondriska, M; Vrsanska, V; Masura, J

    2017-10-01

    Aortic arch anomalies underlie numerous congenital disorders. Effectively diagnosing and treating them requires close understanding of cardiovascular embryology. As our Center serves the entire pediatric population of our country, we performed a comprehensive retrospective analysis of all aortic arch anomalies diagnosed at our Center over the past 20 years. We analyzed 40 children with aortic arch anomalies, distinguishing two defect types: Group 1 displayed ring-forming anomalies, and Group 2 other types of aortic arch anomalies that did not form a vascular ring. We performed detailed morphological analyses using echocardiography, angiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging and generated a catalog of all aortic arch anomalies present. Group 1 was represented by 25 patients; 40% with persistent both aortic arches, and 60% with various forms of right aortic arch and an incomplete left aortic arch. Group 2 was represented by 15 patients with complex heart defects. On the basis of our dataset, the incidence of all aortic arch anomalies was 0.033%, and of ring-forming pathologies 0.021%. Although aortic arch anomalies are rare, it is important to diagnose them correctly. It is critical to distinguish ring-forming types. Although in complex defects the aortic arch anomaly represents only an additive diagnosis, its correct definition could be crucial for further management. Cumulatively, this unique, long-term study provides a systematic patient registry and offers critical epidemiological data to aid the study of rare congenital cardiovascular defects. Clin. Anat. 30:929-939, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Nan; Chen, Lei; Ge, Yi-Peng; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Wei; Ma, Wei-Guo; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    EuroSCORE II is an objective risk scoring model. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of EuroSCORE II in the prediction of prolonged mechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection and evaluate the risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Between February 2009 to February 2012, data from 240 patients who underwent total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection were collected retrospectively. Mechanical ventilation after the surgery longer than 48 hours was defined as postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II was applied to predict prolonged mechanical ventilation. A C statistic (receiver operating characteristic curve) was used to test discrimination of the model. Calibration was assessed with a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the final risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 10%. The mean length of mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement was 42.72 ± 51.45 hours. Total 74 patients needed prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II showed poor discriminatory ability (C statistic 0.52) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow, p<0.05) in predicting prolonged mechanical ventilation. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation were age ≥ 48.5 years (p<0.001, OR=3.85), preoperative leukocyte count ≥ 13.5 × 10⁹/L (p<0.001, OR=4.05) and symptom onset before the surgery less than one week (p=0.002, OR=3.75). EuroSCORE II could not predict prolonged mechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection. Preoperative high level of leukocyte, age and surgical period from symptom onset are risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic

  2. Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery symptomatic in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Abul Hasan Muhammad; Kazui, Teruhisa; Yamashita, Katsushi; Terada, Hitoshi; Washiyama, Naoki; Suzuki, Kazuchika

    2006-07-01

    Congenital malformations of the aortic arch are rarely found in adulthood. We describe three cases of right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery with left-sided ligamentum arteriosum presenting in adulthood as vascular rings with symptoms of tracheal compression. Varying presentation as well as surgical strategy which was individualized according to the pathological anatomy of each case are discussed.

  3. The application of autologous pulmonary artery in surgical correction of complicated aortic arch anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shusheng; Cen, Jianzheng; Chen, Jimei; Xu, Gang; He, Biaochuan; Teng, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the patients with longer-segment aortic arch hypoplasia or interruption with ventricular septal defect, surgery with homograft vessel or autologous pericardial patch to augment descending aortic arch will not result in adverse reactions caused by end-to-end anastomosis. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed primary experience of surgical correction of complicated aortic arch anomaly with autologous main pulmonary artery. Methods From July 2010 to March 2016, the twenty-one cases of aortic arch complex anomalies were reconstructed with autologous main pulmonary artery. There were 5 patients with interrupted aortic arch and 16 patients with coarctation of aorta. In patients with interrupted aortic arch, anterior wall of main pulmonary artery was excised to form a conduit whose diameter varied according to the area of patient’s body surface. Both ends of the conduit were anastomosed to aortic arch and descending aorta, respectively. In other patients with coarctation of aorta, aortic arch was augmented with tailored pulmonary artery patch in oval shape. The defect of main pulmonary artery was repaired with autologous pericardial patch. Results There was only one patient died of multiple organ failure postoperatively. The other twenty patients survived without any neurologic complications. Differences of blood pressure between upper and lower limbs were not significant in all cases. During follow-up period, the echocardiography for all patients in the third, sixth, twelfth, and twenty-fourth months showed that blood flow in the descending aortic arch was fluent and there was no obvious blood pressure gradient. Conclusions Autologous main pulmonary artery can be used to repair complicated aortic arch anomalies completely without any anastomotic tension or bronchial obstruction postoperatively. This procedure is feasible and possesses predominant early and mid-term effects, and autologous main pulmonary artery can retain growth capacity during follow

  4. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and aortic arch plaques.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Elena; Rundek, Tatjana; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2010-07-01

    Large aortic arch plaques are associated with ischemic stroke. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and stroke. The association between CIMT and aortic arch plaques has been studied in patients with strokes, but not in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in an elderly asymptomatic cohort and to assess the possibility of using CIMT to predict the presence or absence of large aortic arch plaques. Stroke-free control subjects from the Aortic Plaque and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) study underwent transesophageal echocardiography and high-resolution B-mode ultrasound of the carotid arteries. CIMT was measured at the common carotid artery, bifurcation, and internal carotid artery. The association between CIMT and aortic arch plaques was analyzed using multivariate regression models. The positive and negative predictive values of CIMT for large (>or=4 mm) aortic arch plaques were calculated. Among 138 subjects, large aortic arch plaques were present in 35 (25.4%). Only CIMT at the bifurcation was associated with large aortic arch plaques after adjustment for atherosclerotic risk factors (P=.007). The positive and negative predictive values of CIMT for aortic arch plaque>or=4 mm at the bifurcation above the 75th percentile (>or=0.95 mm) were 42% and 80%, respectively. The negative predictive value increased to 87% when the median CIMT value (0.82 mm) was used. CIMT at the bifurcation is independently associated with aortic arch plaque>or=4 mm. Its strong negative predictive value for large plaques indicates that CIMT may be used as an initial screening test to exclude severe arch atherosclerosis in the general population. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retrograde Snare Technique to Overcome Hostile Aortic Arch Anatomy During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Rodney; Saleh, Nawsad; Ruck, Andreas; Settergren, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    Percutaneous valve implantation is a recognized therapy for calcific aortic stenosis in those patients who are inoperable or at high surgical risk. The transfemoral approach is the most frequently used method for device delivery, but a tortuous calcific aorta and the inflexibility of large-caliber endovascular equipment can impede progress or even cause the procedure to be abandoned. Herein, the use of a technique employing a snare to safely overcome device obstruction in the aortic arch of an elderly female patient is described. The technique may be of practical value whenever any large-caliber device is obstructed in the circulation.

  6. Association Between Absolute Eosinophil Count and Complex Aortic Arch Plaque in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Takaya; Nezu, Tomohisa; Shiromoto, Takashi; Kubo, Satoshi; Uemura, Jyunichi; Wada, Yuko; Yagita, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    Eosinophil counts are thought to be associated with atherosclerosis and aortic arch plaques. However, whether these associations exist among patients with acute ischemic stroke remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between absolute eosinophil count (AEC) and aortic arch plaques among these patients. Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography were retrospectively analyzed. Complex aortic arch plaques (CAPs) were defined as plaques ≥4 mm in thickness, with ulcer, or with mobile component. A total of 430 patients (289 male, mean age 69.8±11.4 years) were enrolled. Patients with CAPs (n=169) showed higher mean AEC than those without (167±174/µL versus 127±127/µL; P=0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that increased AEC was independently associated with the presence of CAPs (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.65). Among patients with acute ischemic stroke, increased AEC was independently associated with the presence of CAPs. Our results suggest that AEC may be a useful predictor for the presence of CAPs in these patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Aortic Arch Aneurysms: Treatment with Extra anatomical Bypass and Endovascular Stent-Grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Noriyuki; Shimono, Takatsugu; Hirano, Tadanori; Mizumoto, Toru; Ishida, Masaki; Fujii, Hideki; Yada, Isao; Takeda, Kan

    2002-10-15

    Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms is emerging as an attractive alternative to surgical graft replacement. However,patients with aortic arch aneurysms are often excluded from the target of endovascular repair because of lack of suitable landing zones, especially at the proximal ones. In this paper we describe our method for treating patients with aortic arch aneurysms using a combination of extra anatomical bypass surgery and endovascular stent-grafting.

  8. [Immediate results of surgical reconstruction of the aortic arch in patients with proximal aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Liashenko, M M; Cherniavskiĭ, A M; Al'sov, S A; Sirota, D A; Khvan, D S

    2014-01-01

    Despite obvious progress of surgical technologies in correction of proximal aortic pathology, improvement of methods of protection of the brain, one of the main problems of this direction remains the development of postoperative cerebral ischaemia of various degree of manifestation: strokes, transitory ischaemic attacks, or hypoxic encephalopathy. Of special interest is studying the group of patients presenting with aortic dissection, since this pathology may be accompanied by a wide variety of combinations of occlusive and stenotic lesions of the branches of the ascending portion of the aorta and aortic arch (coronary and brachiocephalic basins) by the detached intima. Over the period from 1999 to 2011, we operated on a total of 124 patients presenting with DeBakey type I aortic dissection. Of these, 194 were men (75.8%) and 30 (24.2%) women. The mean age amounted to 48.7±11.0 years. Etiologically prevailing were systemic atherosclerosis (91 patients, 73.4% of cases) and Marfan's syndrome in 14 (11.3%) cases. In all patients operative intervention included reconstruction of the aortic arch according to one of the following techniques: prosthetic repair according to the type of an aggressive oblique anastomosis ("hemiarch repair") - 78 (62.9%) patients, prosthetic repair of the aortic arch using the multiple-branch prosthesis Plexus Vascutek - 37 (29.8%) patients, and nine patients underwent prosthetic repair of the aortic arch with a vascular graft with reimplantation of the brachiocephalic arteries with a single islet. The average duration of artificial circulation amounted to 230.1±70.0 minutes, the mean time of aortic occlusion was 167.2±44.2 minutes and that of circulatory arrest equalled 51.9±16.2 minutes. The brain during hypothermic circulatory arrest was protected according to the following techniques: 16 (12.9%) patients - isolated hypothermia with no cerebral perfusion, 76 (61.3 %) patients retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) through the superior

  9. A Challenging Treatment for Aortic Arch Aneurysm With Fenestrated Stent Graft.

    PubMed

    Yuri, Koichi; Kimura, Naoyuki; Hori, Daijiro; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2017-08-25

    The endovascular stent graft is a novel therapeutic technique that is used in the treatment of aortic aneurysms. However, the aortic arch is a still an area that requires endovascular repair. Since 2008, the authors have treated aortic arch aneurysms (AAA) in patients without an extraanatomical bypass using a fenestrated stent graft (FSG). This study aimed to evaluate the early outcomes of FSG treatment. The authors retrospectively investigated the early outcomes of 54 AAA cases that were performed in their department from January 2008 to May 2016. The early results were analyzed retrospectively. The primary technical success rate was 100%. There were 2 operative deaths due to shower embolism and respiratory failure (2 of 54, 3.7%). Two patients suffered central nervous system injury (2 of 54, 3.7%) without remaining sequelae. At a mean follow-up period of 41.4 months, the survival rate was 75.0% and there were no aortic-related deaths. On follow-up, secondary intervention was necessary in 3 cases. The rate of freedom from secondary reintervention was 92.5%. Although further observation and prospective studies involving larger numbers of patients will be needed to validate this process, the outcomes of FSG treatment and our procedures were acceptable. This procedure has the potential to expand the indications for treatment in patients with AAA that are deemed to be suitable for this treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unusual vascular ring anomaly associated with a persistent right aortic arch in two dogs.

    PubMed

    House, A K; Summerfield, N J; German, A J; Noble, P J M; Ibarrola, P; Brockman, D J

    2005-12-01

    An unusual vascular ring anomaly consisting of a persistent right aortic arch and a left ligamentum arteriosum extending from the main pulmonary artery to an aberrant left subclavian artery and left aortic arch remnant complex was identified in a German shepherd dog and a great Dane. The left subclavian artery and left aortic arch remnant complex originated at the junction between the right distal aortic arch and the descending aorta and coursed dorsal to the oesophagus in a cranial direction. The attachment of the ligamentum arteriosum to the aberrant left subclavian artery was approximately 5 cm cranial to the point of origin of the aberrant left subclavian artery and left aortic arch remnant complex from the descending aorta in both dogs. This anomaly observed in both dogs is similar to an anomaly reported in humans, in which a persistent right aortic arch is found in conjunction with an aberrant left subclavian artery and a left aortic arch remnant (Kommerell's diverticulum). Surgical ligation and division of the left ligamentum arteriosum in both dogs, along with division of the left subclavian artery in the great Dane, resulted in resolution of clinical signs in both of the dogs in this report.

  11. Surgical repair of truncus arteriosus associated with interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Lacour-Gayet, François; Goldberg, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The surgical repair of truncus arteriosus associated with an interrupted aortic arch (TAC-IAA) requires performing two major procedures at the same time. Due to the small number of patients, there is nearly no surgical learning curve. The surgical technique has greatly improved since the introduction of a homograft patch enlargement of the small ascending aorta. The association with a severe truncal regurgitation is a major risk factor as well as the presence of preoperative multiple organs failure. The series published by single centers are ≪10 patients, which make statistical analysis troublesome. The mortality varies from 0% to 50%. The multicentric study published in 2006 by the Congenital Heart Surgeons Society (CHSS) reports a 68% mortality (34/50). Nevertheless, the results can be excellent in experienced centers using a modern one stage surgical technique, undertaken in the first week of life.

  12. Ortner's syndrome: Cardiovocal syndrome caused by aortic arch pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Al Kindi, Adil H; Al Kindi, Faiza A; Al Abri, Qasim S; Al Kemyani, Nasser A

    2016-10-01

    72-year-old hypertensive presented with two weeks history of left sided chest pain and hoarseness. Workup demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm in the lesser curvature of the distal aortic arch opposite the origin of the left subclavian artery from a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Following a left carotid-subclavian bypass, endovascular stenting of the aorta was performed excluding the pseudoaneurysm. Patient had excellent angiographic results post-stenting. Follow up at 12 weeks demonstrated complete resolution of his symptoms and good stent position with no endo-leak. Ortner's syndrome describes vocal changes caused by cardiovascular pathology. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with cardiovascular risk factors presenting with hoarseness. This case demonstrates the use of endovascular stents to treat the causative pathology with resolution of symptoms. In expert hands, it represents low risk, minimally invasive therapeutic strategy with excellent early results in patients who are high risk for open procedure.

  13. Predictors of patent false lumen of the aortic arch after hemiarch replacement.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Gaku; Ohashi, Takeki; Iida, Hiroshi; Tadakoshi, Masao; Kageyama, Souichirou; Furui, Masato; Kodani, Noriko

    2016-12-01

    Hemiarch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection is less invasive than total arch replacement but involves increased risk of late aortic arch dilation because of patent false lumen of the aortic arch. If we can predict this risk, it may be a valuable prognostic indicator for selecting surgical procedures for acute type A aortic dissection. We reviewed our surgical experience to predict patent false lumen. From January 2009 to November 2014, we performed 108 hemiarch replacement procedures for acute type A aortic dissection that had patent false lumen of the ascending aortic arch. We identified 56 patients who had preoperative and postoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Patients' preoperative characteristics, preoperative and postoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings, intraoperative findings and postoperative course were investigated. Of the 56 patients, 32 (57.1 %) were men and their mean age at surgery was 63.7 ± 11.8 years. Overall in-hospital mortality rate was 7.1 % (4 patients). According to postoperative imaging findings, 56 patients were classified into two groups: group A (39 patients), with patent false lumen, and group B (17 patients), with thrombosed false lumen. Logistic regression analysis revealed that brachiocephalic artery dissection and no tear resection contributed to postoperative patent false lumen of the aortic arch more strongly than did other factors. Brachiocephalic artery dissection and no tear resection are potential predictors of patent false lumen of the aortic arch after hemiarch replacement.

  14. Anomalous Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery from the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Evan H.; Song, Linda H.; Villela, Natalia L. A.; Fasani-Feldberg, Gregory B.; Jacobs, Jonathan L.; Kim, Dolly O.; Nathawat, Akshay; Patel, Devika; Bender, Roger B.; Peters, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic anomalies of the aortic arch have implications for clinical practice if their significance is understood. Our case study involves a cadaveric finding of the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch. Although this anatomical variation has been documented, the prevalence of this anomaly may be generally underestimated. After noting this anomaly, we analyzed 27 cases and found that four female cadavers had the left vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch rather than the left subclavian artery. With a prevalence rate of 14.8%, it would seem that this anomaly is more significant than previously thought, which could have implications for surgical practice. PMID:27757404

  15. Spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection in a patient with bovine aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Cock, Dries De; Meuris, Bart; Benett, Johan; Desmet, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Carotid artery dissections are commonly associated with trauma or various connective tissue disorders. Dissection of the cerebrovascular arteries can result in ischemic stroke and is a frequent stroke etiology in younger patients. Anatomical variants of aortic arch branching, such as the 'bovine' aortic arch, are assumed to have little or no physiological consequence. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a case of spontaneous dissection of the common origin of the innominate and left common carotid artery in a bovine aortic arch, resulting in bilateral dissection of the carotid arteries.

  16. Sun's procedure for complex aortic arch repair: total arch replacement using a tetrafurcate graft with stented elephant trunk implantation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2013-09-01

    The Sun's procedure is a surgical technique proposed by Dr. Li-Zhong Sun in 2002 that integrates total aortic arch replacement using a tetrafurcated graft with implantation of a specially designed frozen elephant trunk (Cronus(®)) in the descending aorta. It is used as a treatment option for extensive aortic dissections or aneurysms involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and the descending aorta. The technical essentials of Sun's procedure include implantation of the special open stented graft into the descending aorta, total arch replacement with a 4-branched vascular graft, right axillary artery cannulation, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for brain protection, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest at 25 °C, a special anastomotic sequence for aortic reconstruction (i.e., proximal descending aorta → left carotid artery → ascending aorta → left subclavian artery → innominate artery), and early rewarming and reperfusion after distal anastomosis to minimize cerebral and cardiac ischemia. The core advantage of Sun's procedure lies in the use of a unique stented graft, which has superior technical simplicity, flexibility, inherent mechanical durability and an extra centimeter of attached regular vascular graft at both ends. Since its introduction in 2003, the Sun's procedure has produced satisfactory early and long-term results in over 8,000 patients in China and more than 200 patients in South American countries. In a series of 1,092 patients, the authors have achieved an in-hospital mortality rate of 6.27% (7.98% in emergent or urgent vs. 3.98% in elective cases). Given the accumulating clinical experience and the consequent, continual evolution of surgical indications, the Sun's procedure is becoming increasingly applied/used worldwide as an innovative and imaginative enhancement of surgical options for the dissected (or aneurysmal) ascending aorta, aortic arch and proximal descending aorta, and may become the next standard treatment for type

  17. Ruptured aortic arch aneurysm: transposition of aortic arch branches after insertion of thoracic endovascular stent with extra-anatomic brain perfusion.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Roberto; Bonifazi, Raffaele; Gucciardo, Marco; Pantaleo, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    Conventional surgical treatment of a ruptured aortic arch aneurysm is a challenging approach with a high rate of adverse outcomes. The midsternotomy can be complicated by total aortic disruption with often fatal massive hemorrhage. A preliminary cardiopulmonary bypass with peripheral cannulation and cooling is often preferred. Endovascular stents have been used in patients with thoraco-abdominal aneurysms, with good results. Its lone utilization for rupture of aortic arch aneurysm is not feasible because of the unavoidable occlusion of cerebral vessels' origins. A previous aorto-bicarotid bypass is mandatory and it requires the midsternotomy. Hence, we developed a combined technique. We performed a hybrid approach in a 74-year-old patient, affected by an aortic arch aneurysm, ruptured in its antero-inferior portion. First we ensured brain perfusion with a temporary surgical extra-anatomic (femoral-bicarotid) bypass. Then an endovascular stent graft was expanded from the distal portion of ascending aorta to the proximal one of the thoracic aorta, thus excluding the ruptured portion of the aortic arch. Then the patient underwent the definitive aorto-carotid bypass. This specific combined technique allows the complete treatment of a ruptured arch aneurysm, lowering the risks connected with sternothomic approach, mainly with previous cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  18. Aortic arch morphology and late systemic hypertension following correction of coarctation of aorta.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Daniel; Curtin, John; Malcolm, Paul; Clark, Allan; Freeman, Leisa

    2007-01-01

    To reproduce in an adult population a pediatric study that found an association between aortic arch geometry and late systemic hypertension following successful repair of aortic coarctation. Fifty-one patients with successful repair of coarctation of the aorta had blood pressure measurement at rest and during exercise. After cross-sectional imaging of the aortic arch, patients were assigned to 1 of 3 previously defined morphological categories: normal, gothic, or crenel. The degree of residual stenosis and the ratio of the height/transverse diameter of the arch (A/T ratio) were calculated. No relationship was found between arch geometry and either resting- or exercise-induced hypertension. We found the classification into 3 morphological types difficult and did not find an association between gothic arch or a high A/T ratio and hypertension.

  19. Imaging a boa constrictor--the incomplete double aortic arch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rajeev L; Kanwar, Anubhav; Jacobi, Adam; Sanz, Javier

    2012-11-01

    Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare anomaly resulting from atresia rather than complete involution in the distal left arch resulting in a non-patent fibrous cord between the left arch and descending thoracic aorta. This anatomic anomaly may cause symptomatic vascular rings, leading to stridor, wheezing, or dysphagia, requiring surgical transection of the fibrous cord. Herein, we describe an asymptomatic 59 year-old man presenting for contrast-enhanced CT angiography to assess cardiac anatomy prior to radiofrequency ablation, who was incidentally found to have an incomplete double aortic arch with hypoplasia of the left arch segment and an aortic diverticulum. Recognition of this abnormality by imaging is important to inform both corrective surgery in symptomatic patients, as well as assist in the planning of percutaneous coronary and vascular interventions.

  20. A fatal case of iatrogenic aortic arch rupture occurred during a tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Rosario; Leoncini, Andrea; Molinelli, Andrea; Ventura, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The authors illustrate a rare case of aortic arch rupture in a 60-year-old woman, occurred during a tracheostomy performed using the Griggs method. The autopsy examination showed an aortic arch rupture in an intermediate position situated in the area between the brachiocephalic artery ostium and the left common carotid artery ostium, associated to a hemorrhage filling of the adjacent connective and muscular tissue. The death was therefore determined by cardiac arrest secondary to massive hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock caused by the aortic arch rupture. The lethal iatrogenic lesion was determined by the aortic arch traction caused by the dilatation. The surgeon's incautious use of the Howard-Kelly forceps introduced in the mediastinum was therefore hypothesized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Faistauer, Ângela; Torres, Felipe Soares; Faccin, Carlo Sasso

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an uncommon thoracic aorta anomaly-right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum-that went undiagnosed until adulthood. PMID:27777481

  2. Blunt traumatic aortic injury of right aortic arch in a patient with an aberrant left subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Daryl Li-Tian; Haider, Sajjad; Zhen, Claire Alexandra Chew

    2015-03-01

    Right-sided aortic arch (RAA) is a rare congenital developmental variant present in about 0.1 percent of the population. This anatomical anomaly is commonly associated with congenital heart disease and complications from compression of mediastinal structures. However, it is unknown if patients are at a higher risk of blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI). We report a case of a 20-year-old man admitted to the hospital after being hit by an automobile. Computed tomographic scan revealed an RAA with an aberrant left subclavian artery originating from a Kommerell's diverticulum. A pseudo-aneurysm was also seen along the aortic arch. A diagnosis of blunt traumatic aortic injury was made. The patient was successfully treated with a 26mm Vascutek hybrid stentgraft using the frozen elephant trunk technique. A literature review of the pathophysiology of BTAI was performed to investigate if patients with right-sided aortic arch are at a higher risk of suffering from BTAI. Results from the review suggest that although theoretically there may be a higher risk of BTAI in RAA patients, the rarity of this condition has prevented large studies to be conducted. Previously reported cases of BTAI in RAA have highlighted the possibility that the aortic isthmus may be anatomically weak and therefore prone to injury. We have explored this possibility by reviewing current literature of the embryological origins of the aortic arch and descending aorta.

  3. Right aortic arch with situs solitus frequently heralds a vascular ring.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Acherman, Ruben J; Ciccolo, Michael L; Carrillo, Sergio A; Mayman, Gary A; Luna, Carlos F; Rollins, Robert C; Castillo, William J; Galindo, Alvaro; Rothman, Abraham; Alexander, John A; Kwan, Tina W; Restrepo, Humberto

    2017-06-05

    We hypothesized that a right aortic arch in situs solitus, with or without an associated cardiovascular malformation, is often associated with a vascular ring. From those born in Southern Nevada between March 2012 and March 2017, we identified 50 (3.6 per 10,000 live births) with a right aortic arch and situs solitus. From the 50 patients, 6 did not meet inclusion criteria for further analysis. Of the 44 remaining, 33 (75%) had a vascular ring. Of the 33 with a vascular ring, 26 (79%) occurred with an isolated right aortic arch, and 7 (21%) had an associated cardiovascular malformation. Of the total 44 patients with a right aortic arch in situs solitus, 34 (79%) were diagnosed prenatally. In conclusion, we found a right aortic arch in situs solitus was often associated with a vascular ring. Further, to the best of our knowledge, no previous general population study has demonstrated an equal or higher right aortic arch, prenatal detection rate of 79%. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Successful percutaneous stent implantation for isolated dismal transverse aortic arch kinking

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Tsauo, Jia-Yu; Chen, Mao; Feng, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Isolated dismal transverse aortic arch kinking in adults is rare, and there is no recommended therapy at present. Percutaneous stent implantation may be an effective method to correct it and could be considered. Patient concerns: We report a 46-year-old woman who suffered from recurrent migraine and refractory hypertension with a significant systolic blood pressure difference between upper limbs. Diagnoses: The woman was diagnosed with isolated dismal transverse aortic arch kinking with refractory hypertension. Interventions: Percutaneous stent implantation was performed. Due to the kinking nature of the diseased transverse aortic arch, the first covered stent moved forward to the proximal transverse aortic arch during deploying without the left common carotid artery occlusion. And then, a second stent was placed to cover the residual kinked part of the dismal transverse arch. Outcomes: Angiography and post-procedural computed tomography angiography revealed fully corrected of the diseased segment. At 6-month follow-up after procedure, the patient was free of any symptoms and had a normal blood pressure under antihypertensive treatment. Lessons: This case indicates that transverse aortic arch kinking in isolation can be well treated by percutaneous stent implantation in adult patients. Unlike pure aortic coarctation, elongation and bucking give the rise to the occurrence rate of stent sliding and migration and sometimes a second stent is needed. PMID:28272200

  5. Anomaly in aortic arch alters pathological outcome of transient global ischemia in Rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Koichi; Yasuhara, Takao; Maki, Mina; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yu, Guolong; Xu, Lin; Tambrallo, Laura; Rodriguez, Nancy A.; Stern, David M.; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Kawase, Takeshi; Hess, David C.; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated a non-human primate (NHP) transient global ischemia (TGI) model which was induced by clipping the arteries originating from the aortic arch. Previously we demonstrated that our TGI model in adult Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) results in marked neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal region, specifically the cornu Ammonis (CA1) region. However, we observed varying degrees of hippocampal cell loss among animals. Here, we report for the first time an anomaly of the aortic arch in some Rhesus macaques that appears as a key surgical factor in ensuring the success of the TGI model in this particular NHP. Eleven adult Rhesus macaques underwent the TGI surgery, which involved 10-15-minute clipping of both innominate and subclavian arteries. Animals were allowed to survive between 1 day and 28 days after TGI. Because of our experience and knowledge that Japanese macaques exhibited only innominate and subclavian arteries arising from the aortic arch, macroscopic visualization of these two arteries alone in the Rhesus macaques initially assured us that clipping both arteries was sufficient to produce TGI. During the course of one TGI operation, however, we detected 3 arterial branches arising from the aortic arch, which prompted us to subsequently search for 3 branches in succeeding TGI surgeries. In addition, we performed post-mortem examination of the heart to confirm the number of arterial branches in the aortic arch. Finally, in order to reveal the pathological effect of the aortic arch anomaly, we compared the hippocampal cell loss between animals found to have 3 arterial branches but had all or only two branches clipped during TGI operation. Post-mortem examination revealed eight NHPs had the typical two arterial aortic branches, but three NHPs displayed an extra arterial aortic branch, indicating that about 30% of Rhesus macaques had 3 arterial branches arising from the aorta. Histological analyses using Nissl staining showed that in NHPs with the

  6. Development of the human aortic arch system captured in an interactive three-dimensional reference model.

    PubMed

    Rana, M Sameer; Sizarov, Aleksander; Christoffels, Vincent M; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2014-06-01

    Variations and mutations in the human genome, such as 22q11.2 microdeletion, can increase the risk for congenital defects, including aortic arch malformations. Animal models are increasingly expanding our molecular and genetic insights into aortic arch development. However, in order to justify animal-to-human extrapolations, a human morphological, and molecular reference model would be of great value, but is currently lacking. Here, we present interactive three-dimensional reconstructions of the developing human aortic arch system, supplemented with the protein distribution of developmental markers for patterning and growth, including T-box transcription factor TBX1, a major candidate for the phenotypes found in patients with the 22q11.2 microdeletion. These reconstructions and expression data facilitate unbiased interpretations, and reveal previously unappreciated aspects of human aortic arch development. Based on our reconstructions and on reported congenital anomalies of the pulmonary trunk and tributaries, we postulate that the pulmonary arteries originate from the aortic sac, rather than from the sixth pharyngeal arch arteries. Similar to mouse, TBX1 is expressed in pharyngeal mesenchyme and epithelia. The endothelium of the pharyngeal arch arteries is largely negative for TBX1 and family member TBX2 but expresses neural crest marker AP2α, which gradually decreases with ongoing development of vascular smooth muscle. At early stages, the pharyngeal arch arteries, aortic sac, and the dorsal aortae in particular were largely negative for proliferation marker Ki67, potentially an important parameter during aortic arch system remodeling. Together, our data support current animal-to-human extrapolations and future genetic and molecular analyses using animal models of congenital heart disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pitfalls of stenting coarctation of an angulated right circumflex aortic arch in Goldenhar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rad, Elaheh Malakan; Mortezaeian, Hojjat; Pouraliakbar, Hamid Reza; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2017-01-01

    We report stenting of coarctation of an angulated right circumflex aortic arch (RCAA) using four Cheatham Platinum stents in a child with Goldenhar syndrome. Difficulties in measuring the accurate length of the curved and narrowed transverse aortic arch marked discrepancy between the luminal diameters of the long narrow transverse arch and wide descending thoracic aorta, increased displacement force caused by the 90° bend between the two parts resulted in repeated stent migrations. We discuss the tips to avoid distal stent migration in the setting of an angulated RCAA.

  8. Goal-directed-perfusion in neonatal aortic arch surgery

    PubMed Central

    Purbojo, Ariawan; Muench, Frank; Juengert, Joerg; Rueffer, André

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of mortality and morbidity in congenital cardiac surgery has always been and remains a major target for the complete team involved. As operative techniques are more and more standardized and refined, surgical risk and associated complication rates have constantly been reduced to an acceptable level but are both still present. Aortic arch surgery in neonates seems to be of particular interest, because perfusion techniques differ widely among institutions and an ideal form of a so called “total body perfusion (TBP)” is somewhat difficult to achieve. Thus concepts of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), regional cerebral perfusion (RCP/with cardioplegic cardiac arrest or on the perfused beating heart) and TBP exist in parallel and all carry an individual risk for organ damage related to perfusion management, chosen core temperature and time on bypass. Patient safety relies more and more on adequate end organ perfusion on cardiopulmonary bypass, especially sensitive organs like the brain, heart, kidney, liver and the gut, whereby on adequate tissue protection, temperature management and oxygen delivery should be visualized and monitored. PMID:27709094

  9. One-stage hybrid procedure without sternotomy for treating thoracic aortic pathologies that involve distal aortic arch: a single-center preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Changwei; Guo, Xi; Sun, Lizhong; Huang, Lianjun; Lai, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the initial results of a hybrid procedure without sternotomy for treating descending thoracic aortic disease that involves distal aortic arch. It also intends to report our initial experience in performing this procedure. Methods A total of 45 patients (35 males and 10 females) with descending thoracic aortic disease underwent a hybrid procedure, namely, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) combined with supra-arch branch vessel bypass, in our center from April 2009 to August 2014. Right axillary artery to left axillary artery bypass (n=20) or right axillary artery to left common carotid artery (LCCA) and left axillary artery bypass (n=25) were performed. The conditions of all patients were followed up from the 2nd month to the 65th month postoperative (mean, 26.0±17.1). Mortality within 30 days, complications such as endoleak after the hybrid procedure, and stenosis or blockage of the bypass graft during the follow-up period was assessed. Results All the patients underwent a one-stage procedure. One case of death and one case of cerebral infarction were reported within 30 days. One patient died of the sudden drop in blood pressure during the 2nd day of operation. Meanwhile, another patient suffered from cerebral infarction. Two patients underwent open surgery, and one of them had to undergo a second TEVAR during the follow-up period. Moreover, endoleak occurred in two patients and a newly formed intimal tear was observed in one patient. Overall, 93.2% of the patients survived without any complication related to the hybrid procedure. Conclusions Initial results suggest that the one-stage hybrid procedure is a suitable therapeutic option for thoracic aortic pathologies that involve distal aortic arch. However, this procedure is not recommended for type-B aortic dissection, in which a tear is located in the greater curvature or near the left subclavian artery (LSA), because of the high possibility of endoleak occurrence

  10. Selective cerebral perfusion with aortic cannulation and short-term hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic arch reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Turkoz, R; Saritas, B; Ozker, E; Vuran, C; Yoruker, U; Balci, S; Altun, D; Turkoz, A

    2014-01-01

    The deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) technique has been used in aortic arch and isthmus hypoplasia for many years. However, with the demonstration of the deleterious effects of prolonged DHCA, selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) has started to be used in aortic arch repair. For SCP, perfusion via the innominate artery route is generally preferred (either direct innominate artery cannulation or re-routing of the cannula in the aorta is used). Herein, we describe our technique and the result of arch reconstruction in combination with selective cerebral and myocardial perfusion (SCMP) and short-term total circulatory arrest (TCA) (5-10 min) through ascending aortic cannulation. Thirty-seven cases with aortic arch and isthmus hypoplasia accompanying cardiac defects were operated on with SCMP and short TCA in Baskent University Istanbul Research and Training Hospital between January 2007 and Sep 2012. There were 17 cases with ventricular septal defect (VSD)-coarctation with aortic arch hypoplasia (CoAAH), 4 cases of transposition of the great arteries-VSD-CoAAH, 4 cases of Taussing Bing Anomaly-CoAAH, 2 cases complete atrioventricular canal defect-CoAAH, 3 cases single ventricle-CoAAH, 3 cases of type A interruption-VSD, 2 subvalvular aortic stenosis-CoAAH and 2 cases of isolated CoAAH. The aorta was cannulated in the middle of the ascending aorta in all cases. The cross-clamp was applied to the aortic arch distal to either the innominate artery or the left carotid artery. In addition, a side-biting clamp was applied to the descending aorta. The aorta between these two clamps was reconstructed with gluteraldehyde-treated autogeneous pericardium, using SCMP. The proximal arch and distal ascending aorta reconstructions were carried out under short TCA. The mean age of the patients was 2.5 ± 2 months. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 144 ± 58 and 43 ± 27 minutes, respectively. The mean SCMP and descending aorta ischemia times were 22

  11. Relay NBS Graft with the Plus Delivery System to Improve Deployment in Aortic Arch with Small Radius Curve

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Seitun, Sara; Guastavino, Andrea; Scarano, Flavio; Passerone, Gian Carlo

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this report is to describe deployment of the Relay NBS Thoracic Stent Graft with the Plus Delivery System (Bolton Medical, Sunrise, FL) in a flexible resin arch model with a 15-mm radius curve as well as our preliminary clinical results. The Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System was evaluated by way of bench testing, which was performed with stent grafts with diameters ranging from 24 to 46 mm and lengths ranging from 100 to 250 mm in flexible resin arch models with a 15-mm arch radius of curvature. The deployment sequence was analyzed. The Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System was deployed in two patients, respectively, having a 6.5-cm penetrating aortic ulcer of the proximal third of the descending thoracic aorta and a DeBakey type-I aortic dissection with chronic false lumen dilatation after surgery due to an entry site at the distal thoracic aorta. Bench tests showed proper conformation and apposition of the Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System in the flexible resin model. This stent graft was deployed successfully into the two patients with a correct orientation of the first stent and without early or late complications. The Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System ensures an optimal conformation and apposition of the first stent in the aortic arch with a small radius of curvature.

  12. Relay NBS graft with the plus delivery system to improve deployment in aortic Arch with small radius curve.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G; Seitun, Sara; Guastavino, Andrea; Scarano, Flavio; Passerone, Gian Carlo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe deployment of the Relay NBS Thoracic Stent Graft with the Plus Delivery System (Bolton Medical, Sunrise, FL) in a flexible resin arch model with a 15-mm radius curve as well as our preliminary clinical results. The Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System was evaluated by way of bench testing, which was performed with stent grafts with diameters ranging from 24 to 46 mm and lengths ranging from 100 to 250 mm in flexible resin arch models with a 15-mm arch radius of curvature. The deployment sequence was analyzed. The Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System was deployed in two patients, respectively, having a 6.5-cm penetrating aortic ulcer of the proximal third of the descending thoracic aorta and a DeBakey type-I aortic dissection with chronic false lumen dilatation after surgery due to an entry site at the distal thoracic aorta. Bench tests showed proper conformation and apposition of the Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System in the flexible resin model. This stent graft was deployed successfully into the two patients with a correct orientation of the first stent and without early or late complications. The Relay NBS graft with the Plus Delivery System ensures an optimal conformation and apposition of the first stent in the aortic arch with a small radius of curvature.

  13. Role of aortic arch vascular mechanics in cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Stephen A; Chirico, Daniele; Dempster, Kylie S; Shoemaker, J Kevin; O'Leary, Deborah D

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (cvBRS) measures the efficiency of the cardiovagal baroreflex to modulate heart rate in response to increases or decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Given that baroreceptors are located in the walls of the carotid sinuses (CS) and aortic arch (AA), the arterial mechanics of these sites are important contributors to cvBRS. However, the relative contribution of CS and AA mechanics to cvBRS remains unclear. This study employed sex differences as a model to test the hypothesis that differences in cvBRS between groups would be explained by the vascular mechanics of the AA but not the CS. Thirty-six young, healthy, normotensive individuals (18 females; 24 ± 2 yr) were recruited. cvBRS was measured using transfer function analysis of the low-frequency region (0.04-0.15 Hz). Ultrasonography was performed at the CS and AA to obtain arterial diameters for the measurement of distensibility. Local pulse pressure (PP) was taken at the CS using a hand-held tonometer, whereas AA PP was estimated using a transfer function of brachial PP. Both cvBRS (25 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 7 ms/mmHg, P = 0.04) and AA distensibility (16.5 ± 6.0 vs. 10.5 ± 3.8 mmHg(-1) × 10(-3), P = 0.02) were greater in females than males. Sex differences in cvBRS were eliminated after controlling for AA distensibility (P = 0.19). There were no sex differences in CS distensibility (5.32 ± 2.3 vs. 4.63 ± 1.3 mmHg(-1) × 10(-3), P = 0.32). The present data demonstrate that AA mechanics are an important contributor to differences in cvBRS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Valve-sparing replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic arch in a child with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozker, Emre; Vuran, Can; Saritas, Bülent; Türköz, Riza

    2012-05-01

    We describe a successful surgical treatment in a 2.5-year old boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, in whom we performed aortic arch and ascending aorta replacement with a valve-sparing operation (VSO) of the aortic root because of significant aortic insufficiency and dilation of the aortic root. We believe that VSO is ideal for treating young patients with aortic root aneurysm with normal or minimally diseased aortic cusps to avoid the disadvantages of prosthetic valve replacements.

  15. [Surgical treatment for aortic arch aneurysm: newly developed procedures and their outcomes].

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The surgical treatment of aortic arch aneurysm including newly developed procedures and their outcomes is reviewed. Major advances in aortic arch repair have been made by meticulous brain protection with antegrade-selective and retrograde cerebral perfusion in addition to hypothermia circulatory arrest and refinement of surgical techniques. Total arch replacement using a multibranched prosthetic graft with antegrade-selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) under hypothermia through a median sternotomy has been standardized, resulting in lower mortality and cerebral mortality rates. In particular, the impact of the use of the axillary artery for cardiopulmonary bypass and of the stepwise or elephant trunk technique for distal anastomosis has recently been assessed. In addition, arch repair under moderate hypothermia in conjunction with SCP has been attempted without any serious problems. The surgical strategy for extended aortic aneurysms is also of concern. A two-stage approach with an elephant trunk procedure is employed predominantly for high-risk patients, while one-stage repair is aggressively applied for relatively young, low-risk patients. In contrast, there has been great progress in stent graft therapy for aortic arch lesions. Arch stent graft repairs including hybrid procedures have been attempted in elderly, high-risk patients. Consequently, these comorbid procedures can be used satisfactorily.

  16. The Use of Branched Endografts for the Aortic Arch in the Endovascular Era.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Rami O; Safir, Scott R; Faries, Peter L; Han, Daniel K; Chander, Rajiv K; Abraham, Cherrie Z; Marin, Michael L; Stewart, Allan S

    2017-07-25

    The endovascular realm has steadily increased its footing in the treatment of the aorta and all of its territories since the foundational case in 1990 by Parodi. The aortic arch, however, continues to be one of the last bastions for treatment via open surgery, which remains the gold standard. Significant comorbidity and prior cardiac surgery prevent open surgery from being the only preferred option, allowing novel endovascular procedures to be considered. Since 1999, more advanced endovascular systems have been created by companies such as Cook Medical, Bolton Medical, Medtronic, Endospan, Gore Medical, and, recently, Kawasumi. The unique shape and angulation of the aortic arch often require the use of custom-made grafts, though arch reconstruction may also include in situ or back-table physician alterations to off-the-shelf devices. The goal of branched endografts is to exclude the aneurysm, while maintaining flow to supra-aortic trunk vessels. Technical success and device durability are limited by the physical constraints of the aortic arch, though greater experience may yield better patient outcomes. Typically, the initial stent-graft (SG) is introduced and deployed into the arch first. Bridging SG are then inserted via axillary or carotid access. Most often, the bridging SG extends from the innominate branch to the distal innominate, and from the left carotid branch to the left common carotid. The major concern is that manipulation of catheters and wires, both within the carotid arteries and aortic arch, create the potential for emboli leading to stroke and paraplegia. The development of endovascular-only techniques for aortic arch pathology will only increase with the aging population of the United States and associated accumulation of comorbidities, making open surgery too grave of a risk.

  17. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CAROTID INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS AND AORTIC ARCH PLAQUES

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, Elena; Rundek, Tatjana; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the presence of aortic arch plaques (AP) in a community-based cohort. Background Large AP are associated with ischemic stroke. CIMT is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and stroke. The association between CIMT and AP has been studied in stroke patients, but not in the general population. Aim of this study was to investigate this association in an elderly asymptomatic cohort, and the possibility to use CIMT to predict the presence or absence of large AP. Methods Stroke-free control subjects from the Aortic Plaque and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) Study underwent transesophageal echocardiography and high-resolution B-mode ultrasound of the carotid arteries. CIMT was measured at the common carotid artery, bifurcation and internal carotid artery. The association between CIMT and AP was analyzed by multivariate regression models. Positive and negative predictive values of CIMT for large (≥ 4 mm) AP were calculated. Results Among 138 subjects, large AP was present in 35 (25.4%) subjects. Only CIMT at the bifurcation was associated with large AP after adjustment for atherosclerotic risk factors (p=0.007). Positive and negative predictive value for AP ≥ 4 mm of CIMT at the bifurcation above the 75th percentile (≥ 0.95 mm) were 42% and 80%, respectively. Negative predictive value increased to 87% when the median CIMT value (0.82 mm) was used. Conclusions CIMT at the bifurcation is independently associated with AP ≥ 4 mm. Its strong negative predictive value for large arch plaque indicates that CIMT may be used as an initial screening test to exclude severe arch atherosclerosis in the general population. PMID:20510582

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of hybrid aortic arch replacement.

    PubMed

    Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Mylonas, Spyridon N; Markatis, Fotis; Kotsis, Thomas; Kakisis, John; Liapis, Christos D

    2013-05-01

    Evolution in the endovascular era has influenced the management of aortic arch pathologies. Several studies have described the use of a combined endovascular and open surgical approach to the treatment of arch diseases. Hybrid repair of arch pathologies has been considered as a less invasive method, and is therefore an appealing option for high-risk patients who are unsuitable for open repairs. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of hybrid techniques in patients with aortic arch pathologies. Extensive electronic literature search was undertaken to identify all articles published up to December 2012 that described hybrid aortic arch repair with intrathoracic supra-aortic branch revascularisation and subsequent stent graft deployment. Eligible studies were divided into two groups: group I included studies on the aortic arch debranching procedure and group II included studies that reported an elephant trunk technique (either "frozen" or stented). Separate meta-analyses were conducted in order to assess technical success, stroke, spinal cord ischemia (SCI), renal failure requiring dialysis, and cardiac and pulmonary complications rate, as well as 30-day/in-hospital mortality. Forty-six studies were eligible for the present meta-analysis: 26 studies with a total of 956 patients reported aortic arch debranching procedures, and 20 studies with 1,316 patients performed either 'frozen' or stented elephant trunk technique. The pooled estimate for 30-day/in-hospital mortality was 11.9% for the arch debranching group and 9.5% for the elephant trunk group. Cerebrovascular events of any severity were found to have occurred postoperatively at a pooled rate of 7.6% and 6.2%, while irreversible spinal cord injury symptoms were present in a pooled estimate of 3.6% and 5.0% in the arch debranching and elephant trunk group, respectively. Renal failure requiring dialysis occurred at 5.7% and 3.8% in both groups, while cardiac complications rate was 6.0% in

  19. Open aortic arch repair: state-of-the-art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ouzounian, Maral; LeMaire, Scott A; Coselli, Joseph S

    2013-01-01

    Surgical procedures for the treatment of complex aortic arch pathology remain among the most challenging cardiovascular operations, incurring considerable risk for death and stroke. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of our approach to open repair of the aortic arch. Our arterial cannulation strategy has shifted from femoral and direct aortic to right axillary and more recently innominate artery cannulation. This transition has facilitated the administration of continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion and more moderate levels of hypothermia during complex repairs. Modifications in surgical technique, including arch reconstruction with the trifurcated graft, and the classical and frozen elephant trunk techniques have simplified the conduct of the operation. Experimental and clinical research supporting the evolution of our approach is discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomical Variations in the Branching Pattern of Human Aortic Arch: A Cadaveric Study from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Budhiraja, Virendra; Rastogi, Rakhi; Jain, Vaishali; Bankwar, Vishal; Raghuwanshi, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    Variations of the branches of aortic arch are due to alteration in the development of certain branchial arch arteries during embryonic period. Knowledge of these variations is important during aortic instrumentation, thoracic, and neck surgeries. In the present study we observed these variations in fifty-two cadavers from Indian populations. In thirty-three (63.5%) cadavers, the aortic arch showed classical branching pattern which includes brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery. In nineteen (36.5%) cadavers it showed variations in the branching pattern, which include the two branches, namely, left subclavian artery and a common trunk in 19.2% cases, four branches, namely, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left vertebral artery, and left subclavian artery in 15.3% cases, and the three branches, namely, common trunk, left vertebral artery, and left subclavian artery in 1.9% cases. PMID:25938106

  1. The macroanatomical investigations on the aortic arch in porcupines (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Atalar, O; Yilmaz, S; Burma, O; Ilkay, E

    2003-12-01

    The anatomy of aortic arch in porcupine was studied. Angiography was applied to each of the three adult porcupines (two males, one female) following the injection of latex from the abdominal aorta for the examination of aortic arch. The results indicated that three arteries arose from aortic arch in porcupine. These were truncus brachiocephalicus, arteria carotis communis sinistra and arteria subclavia sinistra. The truncus brachiocephalicus in porcupine yielded arteria subclavia dextra and arteria carotis communis dextra. Truncus bicaroticus was absent. The origin of truncus costocervicalis (right) and arteria vertebralis (right) arose from a common root. Left or right axillary arteries seemed to be a continuation of subclavian arteries. The results of this study may contribute to the data in this area of science.

  2. Subgross and macroscopic investigation of blood vessels originating from aortic arch in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, V; Cevik-Demirkan, A; Türkmenoğlu, I

    2008-04-01

    A total of 10 adult, healthy, male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) were used to investigate the vessels originating from aortic arch. Coloured latex was injected into the carotid arteries following conventional anatomical applications in all the chinchillas examined. The brachiocephalic trunk and the left subclavian artery arose from the aortic arch at the level of the second intercostal region in the thoracic cavity. The right and left subclavian arteries detached branches at the level of first intercostal region and divided into the following vessels: internal thoracic artery, dorsal scapular artery, vertebral artery, superficial cervical artery and axillar artery. The vessels originating from the aortic arch displayed some significant differences in chinchillas compared to rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, porcupines and other laboratory rodents.

  3. ``Smart'' baroreception along the aortic arch, with reference to essential hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kember, G. C.; Zamir, M.; Armour, J. A.

    2004-11-01

    Beat-to-beat regulation of heart rate is dependent upon sensing of local stretching or local “disortion” by aortic baroreceptors. Distortions of the aortic wall are due mainly to left ventricular output and to reflected waves arising from the arterial tree. Distortions are generally believed to be useful in cardiac control since stretch receptors or aortic baroreceptors embedded in the adventitia of the aortic wall, transduce the distortions to cardiovascular neural reflex pathways responsible for beat-to-beat regulation of heart rate. Aortic neuroanatomy studies have also found a continuous strip of mechanosensory neurites spread along the aortic inner arch. Although their purpose is now unknown, such a combined sensing capacity would allow measurement of the space and time dependence of inner arch wall distortions due, among other things, to traveling waves associated with pulsatile flow in an elastic tube. We call this sensing capability-“smart baroreception.” In this paper we use an arterial tree model to show that the cumulative effects of wave reflections, from many sites far downstream, have a surprisingly pronounced effect on the pressure distribution in the root segment of the tree. By this mechanism global hemodynamics can be focused by wave reflections back to the aortic arch, where they can rapidly impact cardiac control via smart baroreception. Such sensing is likely important to maintain efficient heart function. However, alterations in the arterial tree due to aging and other natural processes can lead in such a system to altered cardiac control and essential hypertension.

  4. Aortic arch aneurysm: short- and mid-term results comparing open arch surgery and the hybrid procedure†.

    PubMed

    Cazavet, Alexandre; Alacoque, Xavier; Marcheix, Bertrand; Chaufour, Xavier; Rousseau, Herve; Glock, Yves; Leobon, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Open arch surgery for aortic arch aneurysm was historically associated with a high risk of postoperative morbi-mortality. Improved operative techniques have now lowered the incidence of these complications but in parallel, hybrid arch procedures have emerged. Nowadays, very little data are available about their mid-term results compared with open surgery. From January 2002 to January 2014, 46 patients had treatment for an exclusive aortic arch aneurysm including 25 open arch surgeries and 21 type I hybrid arch procedures in our institution. All cases involved arch aneurysms involving at least one carotid artery (Zone 0 and Zone 1). Aneurysms of the distal arch and descending aorta were excluded (Zone 2 and beyond). Results from a retrospective database are reported. There were no patients lost to the follow-up. There was no significant difference in preoperative comorbidities between the two groups. The incidence of in-hospital mortality was similar at 20% (5/25) for open surgery and 19% (4/21) for hybrid procedure (P = 0.830). The incidence of permanent cerebral neurological deficit was comparable at 17.4% (4/23) for open surgery and 21.1% (4/19) for hybrid procedure (P = 1). Median survival was 109.5 months for open surgery and 56.3 months for hybrid procedure. Freedom from all-cause mortality was 78, 63, 63 and 57% at 1, 3, 5 and 7 years, respectively in the open surgical group. Freedom from all-cause mortality was 74, 55, 46 and 28% at 1, 3, 5 and 7 years, respectively in the hybrid group. Survival rates and incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebro-vascular event between open surgery and hybrid procedure were not statistically different (P = 0.530 and P = 0.325, respectively). However, incidence of reintervention was in favour of open surgery [14.5 vs 44.8% at 7 years, P = 0.045; 95% confidence interval: (0.06-0.97)]. The type I hybrid arch procedure fails to demonstrate better results compared with open surgery, regarding morbi-mortality at the short

  5. Outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair using aortic arch chimney stents in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Voskresensky, Igor; Scali, Salvatore T; Feezor, Robert J; Fatima, Javairiah; Giles, Kristina A; Tricarico, Rosamaria; Berceli, Scott A; Beck, Adam W

    2017-07-01

    Aortic arch disease is a challenging clinical problem, especially in high-risk patients, in whom open repair can have morbidity and mortality rates of 30% to 40% and 2% to 20%, respectively. Aortic arch chimney (AAC) stents used during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) are a less invasive treatment strategy than open repair, but the current literature is inconclusive about the role of this technology. The focus of this analysis is on our experience with TEVAR and AAC stents. All TEVAR procedures performed from 2002 to 2015 were reviewed to identify those with AAC stents. Primary end points were technical success and 30-day and 1-year mortality. Secondary end points included complications, reintervention, and endoleak. Technical success was defined as a patient's surviving the index operation with deployment of the AAC stent at the intended treatment zone with no evidence of type I or type III endoleak on initial postoperative imaging. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Twenty-seven patients (age, 69 ± 12 years; male, 70%) were identified, and all were described as being at prohibitive risk for open repair by the treating team. Relevant comorbidity rates were as follows: coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction, 59%; oxygen-dependent emphysema, 30%; preoperative creatinine concentration >1.8 mg/dL, 19%; and congestive heart failure, 15%. Presentations included elective (67%; n = 18), symptomatic (26%; n = 7), and ruptured (7%; n = 2). Eleven patients (41%) had prior endovascular or open arch/descending thoracic repair. Indications were degenerative aneurysm (49%), chronic residual type A dissection with aneurysm (15%), type Ia endoleak after TEVAR (11%), postsurgical pseudoaneurysm (11%), penetrating ulcer (7%), and acute type B dissection (7%). Thirty-two brachiocephalic vessels were treated: innominate (n = 7), left common carotid artery (LCCA; n = 24), and left subclavian artery (n = 1). Five patients (19%) had

  6. Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion in complex congenital aortic arch pathology: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Fabrizio; Lucchese, Gianluca; Barozzi, Luca; Menon, Tiziano; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2011-11-01

    Simultaneous cerebro-myocardial perfusion has been described in neonatal and infant arch surgery, suggesting a reduction in cardiac morbidity. Here reported is a novel technique for selective cerebral perfusion combined with controlled and independent myocardial perfusion during surgery for complex or recurrent aortic arch lesions. From April 2008 to April 2011, 10 patients with arch pathology underwent surgery (two hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLHS], four recurrent arch obstruction, two aortic arch hypoplasia + ventricular septal defect [VSD], one single ventricle + transposition of the great arteries + arch hypoplasia, one interrupted aortic arch type B + VSD). Median age was 63 days (6 days-36 years) and median weight 4.0 kg (1.6-52). Via midline sternotomy, an arterial cannula (6 or 8 Fr for infants) was directly inserted into the innominate artery or through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft (for neonates <2.0 kg). A cardioplegia delivery system was inserted into the aortic root. Under moderate hypothermia, ascending and descending aorta were cross-clamped, and "beating heart and brain" aortic arch repair was performed. Arch repair was composed of patch augmentation in five, end-to-side anastomosis in three, and replacement in two patients. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 163 ± 68 min (71-310). In two patients only (one HLHS, one complex single ventricle), a period of cardiac arrest was required to complete intracardiac repair. In such cases, antegrade blood cardioplegia was delivered directly via the same catheter used for selective myocardial perfusion. Average time of splanchnic ischemia during cerebro-myocardial perfusion was 39 ± 18 min (17-69). Weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was achieved without inotropic support in three and with low dose in seven patients. One patient required veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four patients, body weight <3.0 kg, needed delayed sternal closure. No neurologic dysfunction was noted

  7. Multidetector Computed Tomography for Congenital Anomalies of the Aortic Arch: Vascular Rings.

    PubMed

    García-Guereta, Luis; García-Cerro, Estefanía; Bret-Zurita, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    The development of multidetector computed tomography has triggered a revolution in the study of the aorta and other large vessels and has replaced angiography in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the aortic arch, particularly vascular rings. The major advantage of multidetector computed tomography is that it permits clear 3-dimensional assessment of not only vascular structures, but also airway and esophageal compression. The current update aims to summarize the embryonic development of the aortic arch and the developmental anomalies leading to vascular ring formation and to discuss the current diagnostic and therapeutic role of multidetector computed tomography in this field.

  8. Interrupted aortic arch type B in A patient with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Hacker, April M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2009-05-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  9. No Clamp Complete Parachute Technique for Ascending Aorta Anastomosis in Hybrid Aortic Arch Debranching Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Ming; Chen, Po-Lin; Chang, Hsiao-Huang

    2017-01-03

    The proper proximal landing zone is a key element for success of endografting in thoracic aortic pathology. If coverage of innominate artery is unavoidable for safe proximal landing, arch debranching surgery is necessary to recruit supra-aortic blood flow before endografting. However, calcified or adhesive ascending aorta makes it difficult to clamp ascending aorta for anastomosis in the first step of arch debranching surgery. We present a novel "no clamp complete parachute technique" to complete this challenging anastomosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Aortic arch tortuosity with PHACE syndrome – a rare case scenario

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, AK; Ganigara, M; Baidwan, A; Vyas, YS; Rao, NK

    2016-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterised by an association of infantile haemangiomas with structural anomalies of brain, cerebral vasculature, eye, aorta and chest wall.1 Coarctation of aorta (COA) is most the common cardiac anomaly reported in PHACE syndrome. COA or interrupted aortic arch in PHACE is unique and complex both in location and character compared to the typical coarctation anatomy. Arterial tortuosity of the cerebral vasculature has been well described in literature in PHACE syndrome. We present a rare case of tortuous aortic arch continuing as descending aorta in an infant with PHACE syndrome. PMID:28405204

  11. Surgical management of a hypoplastic distal aortic arch and coarctation of aorta in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, ascending aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Frantisek; Kolesar, Adrián; Toporcer, Tomás; Bajmoczi, Milan

    2014-10-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome has been associated with cardiovascular malformations, but only 3 cases have been reported to be associated with aortic coarctation and surgical management is not defined. A 51-year old woman with Klippel-Feil syndrome associated with an aneurysm of the ascending aorta, hypoplastic aortic arch and aortic coarctation at the level of the left subclavian artery presented with shortness of breath 2 years after diagnosis. Imaging identified interim development of a 7.2-cm aneurysm at the level of the aortic coarctation. She underwent surgical repair with a Dacron interposition graft under hypothermic circulatory arrest. She continues to do well 18 months following repair.

  12. Aortic arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk-when not to use it.

    PubMed

    Haverich, Axel

    2013-09-01

    Current scientific evidence suggests the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique plays an important role in modern aortic arch repair operations, both for aneurysmal disease and acute aortic dissection. Its use in extended aneurysm is generally therapeutic, aiming for complete exclusion of the diseased descending thoracic aorta. In acute aortic dissection type A, the application of FET is more prophylactic in nature, with the aim of preventing late dilatation of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. This review will present the journey of the elephant trunk from its conception to the current available technology. By tracing the historical evolution of the FET technique and prosthesis development, we explore the challenges and limitations of evidence-based surgical research. We present data from our growing experience in aortic arch reconstruction, the results from our latest 27 patients undergoing the 4-branch FET indicating substantially reduced morbidity and mortality (0%) in this complex patient cohort.

  13. Pulsatile flows and wall-shear stresses in models simulating normal and stenosed aortic arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Yang, Ten-Fang; Lan, Y.-K.

    2010-03-01

    Pulsatile aqueous glycerol solution flows in the models simulating normal and stenosed human aortic arches are measured by means of particle image velocimetry. Three transparent models were used: normal, 25% stenosed, and 50% stenosed aortic arches. The Womersley parameter, Dean number, and time-averaged Reynolds number are 17.31, 725, and 1,081, respectively. The Reynolds numbers based on the peak velocities of the normal, 25% stenosed, and 50% stenosed aortic arches are 2,484, 3,456, and 3,931, respectively. The study presents the temporal/spatial evolution processes of the flow pattern, velocity distribution, and wall-shear stress during the systolic and diastolic phases. It is found that the flow pattern evolving in the central plane of normal and stenosed aortic arches exhibits (1) a separation bubble around the inner arch, (2) a recirculation vortex around the outer arch wall upstream of the junction of the brachiocephalic artery, (3) an accelerated main stream around the outer arch wall near the junctions of the left carotid and the left subclavian arteries, and (4) the vortices around the entrances of the three main branches. The study identifies and discusses the reasons for the flow physics’ contribution to the formation of these features. The oscillating wall-shear stress distributions are closely related to the featured flow structures. On the outer wall of normal and slightly stenosed aortas, large wall-shear stresses appear in the regions upstream of the junction of the brachiocephalic artery as well as the corner near the junctions of the left carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. On the inner wall, the largest wall-shear stress appears in the region where the boundary layer separates.

  14. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with multivessel cervical artery dissections and a double aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Amre; Ruland, Sean; Schneck, Michael J; Pasquale, David; Biller, José

    2014-02-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has been associated with exposure to vasoactive substances and few reports with cervical arterial dissections (CADs). We evaluated a 32-year-old woman with history of depression, migraines without aura, and cannabis use who presented with a thunderclap headache unresponsive to triptans. She was found to have bilateral occipital infarcts, bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissections, bilateral internal carotid artery dissecting aneurysms, and extensive distal multifocal segmental narrowing of the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation with a "sausage on a string-like appearance" suggestive of RCVS. Subsequently, she was found to have a distal thrombus of the basilar artery, was anticoagulated, and discharged home with no residual deficits. We highlight the potential association of CADs and RCVS. The association of RCVS and a double aortic arch has not been previously reported. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro hemodynamic investigation of the embryonic aortic arch at late gestation.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Kerem; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Nourparvar, Paymon; Yerneni, Srinivasu; Tobita, Kimimasa; Fogel, Mark A; Keller, Bradley; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the dynamic flow through the fetal aortic arch driven by the concurrent action of right and left ventricles. We created a parametric pulsatile computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the fetal aortic junction with physiologic vessel geometries. To gain a better biophysical understanding, an in vitro experimental fetal flow loop for flow visualization was constructed for identical CFD conditions. CFD and in vitro experimental results were comparable. Swirling flow during the acceleration phase of the cardiac cycle and unidirectional flow following mid-deceleration phase were observed in pulmonary arteries (PA), head-neck vessels, and descending aorta. Right-to-left (oxygenated) blood flowed through the ductus arteriosus (DA) posterior relative to the antegrade left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) stream and resembled jet flow. LVOT and right ventricular outflow tract flow mixing had not completed until approximately 3.5 descending aorta diameters downstream of the DA insertion into the aortic arch. Normal arch model flow patterns were then compared to flow patterns of four common congenital heart malformations that include aortic arch anomalies. Weak oscillatory reversing flow through the DA junction was observed only for the Tetralogy of Fallot configuration. PA and hypoplastic left heart syndrome configurations demonstrated complex, abnormal flow patterns in the PAs and head-neck vessels. Aortic coarctation resulted in large-scale recirculating flow in the aortic arch proximal to the DA. Intravascular flow patterns spatially correlated with abnormal vascular structures consistent with the paradigm that abnormal intravascular flow patterns associated with congenital heart disease influence vascular growth and function.

  16. In Vitro Hemodynamic Investigation of the Embryonic Aortic Arch at Late Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Pekkan, Kerem; Dasi, Lakshmi P.; Nourparvar, Paymon; Yerneni, Srinivasu; Tobita, Kimimasa; Fogel, Mark A.; Keller, Bradley; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the dynamic flow through the fetal aortic arch driven by the concurrent action of right and left ventricles. We created a parametric pulsatile computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the fetal aortic junction with physiologic vessel geometries. To gain a better biophysical understanding an in vitro experimental fetal flow loop for flow visualization was constructed for identical CFD conditions. CFD and in vitro experimental results were comparable. Swirling flow during the acceleration phase of the cardiac cycle and unidirectional flow following mid-deceleration phase were observed in pulmonary arteries (PA), head-neck vessels, and descending aorta. Right-to-left (oxygenated) blood flowed through the ductus arteriosus (DA) posterior relative to the antegrade left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) stream and resembled jet flow. LVOT and right ventricular outflow tract flow mixing had not completed until ~3.5 descending aorta diameters downstream of the DA insertion into the aortic arch. Normal arch model flow patterns were then compared to flow patterns of four common congenital heart malformations that include aortic arch anomalies. Weak oscillatory reversing flow through the DA junction was observed only for the Tetralogy of Fallot configuration. Pulmonary Atresia and Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome configurations demonstrated complex, abnormal flow patterns in the PAs and head-neck vessels. Aortic Coarctation resulted in large scale recirculating flow in the aortic arch proximal to the DA. Intravascular flow patterns spatially correlated with abnormal vascular structures consistent with the paradigm that abnormal intravascular flow patterns associated with congenital heart disease influence vascular growth and function. PMID:18466908

  17. Safety evaluation of arch dam stability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Defu

    1995-12-31

    The abutment sliding is the main form of failure in arch dams. Two approaches are used in defining and evaluating the stability safety factor which are the load safety factor Kp and strength safety factor Kf. So far, the Kp method is still the main method in stability model test of arch dams. This paper, to begin with the analysis of the stability formulas and the influence factors of stability in arch dams, will discuss in detail the merits and demerits of Kp and Kf methods and compare Kp with Kf for same structure. A new approach is proposed and the test steps existing problems and their solutions are all discussed.

  18. Application of the Bolton Relay Device for Thoracic Endografting In or Near the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Riambau, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular correction of aortic arch pathology remains a challenge, with a variety of techniques proposed over the years to minimize complications and enhance the probability of a successful result. A variety of approaches have been developed in order to deal with the aortic arch pathology and its idiosyncrasies. We review potential interventional techniques for the repair of aortic arch pathologies, beginning with conventional aortic arch surgery, followed by hybrid treatments and those along the endovascular spectrum (parallel and fenestrated endografts, scalloped endografts, and ascending and new branched endografts). We finish with an overview of all the Bolton Medical (Barcelona, Spain and Sunrise, FL, USA) thoracic platforms. Endovascular techniques show acceptable results in selected cases. Both proximal Bolton Relay configurations (with and without a bare stent) offer conformability and accuracy on deployment with very low rates of stroke. Fenestrated and scalloped designs are also useful for selected cases. Ascending and branched Bolton devices are very promising platforms for a serious, full endovascular approach to the aorta. PMID:26798752

  19. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Following Regional Cerebral Perfusion with Neuromonitoring for Neonatal Aortic Arch Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Andropoulos, Dean B.; Easley, R. Blaine; Brady, Ken; McKenzie, E. Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S.; Dickerson, Heather A.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Meador, Marcie; Eisenman, Carol; Hunter, Jill V.; Turcich, Marie; Voigt, Robert G.; Fraser, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain injury, and 12 month neurodevelopmental outcomes, when regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is utilized for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. Methods Fifty seven neonates receiving RCP during aortic arch reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective outcome study. RCP flows were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler monitoring. Brain MRI were performed preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively. Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was performed at 12 months. Results Mean RCP time was 71 ± 28 minutes (range 5–121), mean flow 56.6 ± 10.6 ml/kg/min. New postoperative MRI brain injury was seen in 40% of patients. For 35 RCP patients at age 12 months, mean Bayley III composite standard scores were: Cognitive = 100.1 ± 14.6,(range 75–125); Language = 87.2 ± 15.0, (range 62–132); Motor = 87.9 ± 16.8, (range 58–121).Increasing duration of RCP was not associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusions Neonatal aortic arch repair with RCP utilizing a neuromonitoring strategy results in 12-month cognitive outcomes that are at reference population norms; language and motor outcomes are lower than the reference population norms by 0.8–0.9 standard deviation. This largest RCP group with neurodevelopmental outcomes published to date demonstrates that this technique is effective and safe in supporting the brain during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. PMID:22766302

  20. Complete endovascular debranching of the aortic arch: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joseph; Nykamp, Madeline; Remund, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from aortic arch aneurysms continue to encounter few treatment options. Because of co-morbidities, most are deemed to not be open surgical candidates. The two cases presented here demonstrate a novel endovascular approach in the care of an arch aneurysm complicated by dissection. Even though final graft configurations differed slightly between the two cases, all three great vessels were successfully de-branched through the combination of standard endovascular aneurysm repair techniques and modifications to off-the-shelf devices. Aortic flow was compartmentalized in the ascending aorta at or near the level of the sinotubular junction. This was done with a physician-assembled endografts. One of these lumens was dedicated to the descending aorta, while the other was further divided into three channels used to stent the great vessels. Completion angiography demonstrated patency in the arch, great vessels, and descending aorta. No endoleaks have been reported. Although data is limited, this approach appears promising. PMID:25015113

  1. A review of the surgical management of right-sided aortic arch aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Barr, James G.; Sepehripour, Amir H.; Jarral, Omar A.; Tsipas, Pantelis; Kokotsakis, John; Kourliouros, Antonios; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms and dissections of the right-sided aortic arch are rare and published data are limited to a few case reports and small series. The optimal treatment strategy of this entity and the challenges associated with their management are not yet fully investigated and conclusive. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify all patients who underwent surgical or endovascular intervention for right aortic arch aneurysms or dissections. The search was limited to the articles published only in English. We focused on presentation and critically assessed different management strategies and outcomes. We identified 74 studies that reported 99 patients undergoing surgical or endovascular intervention for a right aortic arch aneurysm or dissection. The median age was 61 years. The commonest presenting symptoms were chest or back pain and dysphagia. Eighty-eight patients had an aberrant left subclavian artery with only 11 patients having the mirror image variant of a right aortic arch. The commonest pathology was aneurysm arising from a Kommerell's diverticulum occurring in over 50% of the patients. Twenty-eight patients had dissections, 19 of these were Type B and 9 were Type A. Eighty-one patients had elective operations while 18 had emergency procedures. Sixty-seven patients underwent surgical treatment, 20 patients had hybrid surgical and endovascular procedures and 12 had totally endovascular procedure. There were 5 deaths, 4 of which were in patients undergoing emergency surgery and none in the endovascular repair group. Aneurysms and dissections of a right-sided aortic arch are rare. Advances in endovascular treatment and hybrid surgical and endovascular management are making this rare pathology amenable to these approaches and may confer improved outcomes compared with conventional extensive repair techniques. PMID:27001673

  2. Integrated cerebral perfusion for hypothermic circulatory arrest during transverse aortic arch repairs.

    PubMed

    Estrera, Anthony L; Miller, Charles C; Lee, Taek-Yeon; Shah, Pallav; Irani, Adel D; Ganim, Nidal; Abdullah, Saad; Safi, Hazim J

    2010-09-01

    Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) for ascending/transverse arch repair is used for cerebral protection. This study evaluates ACP in combination with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) during extended HCA and compares it to RCP-only. Between January 2005 and April 2007, we performed 64 consecutive arch repairs requiring extended HCA (>40 min). RCP-only was used with 34 patients and ACP with brief RCP ('integrated') was used with 30 patients. Mean HCA time was 51 + or - 13 min. Mean RCP-only time was 47 + or - 9.6 min; in the integrated group, mean ACP time was 42 + or - 14.4 min with an added RCP time of 10.8 + or - 7.6 min. For the entire cohort, 95% (61/64) underwent total arch repair, and 67% (43/64) had elephant trunk reconstruction. Variables predictive of mortality and neurological outcomes were analysed prospectively, but technique selection was non-randomised. Preoperative and operative variables did not differ between the RCP-only and the integrated groups except for aortic valve replacement, which was more frequently performed in the integrated group (33% (10/30) vs 12% (4/34), P=0.05), and preoperative renal dysfunction, which was more frequent in the RCP group (26% (9/34) vs 7% (2/30), P=0.04). No significant difference was observed in outcomes between the groups; however, the integrated group had higher mortality, stroke and temporary neurological deficit than RCP-only. The observed trends in actual outcomes were a cause for concern. ACP combined with a short period of RCP did not provide better outcomes than RCP-only. The use of RCP remains warranted in our experience. Copyright 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical management of acute type A aortic dissection: branch-first arch replacement with total aortic repair

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean D.; Perera, Nisal K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A dissection (ATAAD) remains a morbid condition with reported surgical mortality as high as 25%. We describe our surgical approach to ATAAD and discuss the indications for adjunct techniques such as the frozen elephant trunk or complete aortic repair with endovascular methods. Arch replacement using the “branch-first technique” allows for complete root, ascending aorta, and arch replacement. A long landing zone is created for proximal endografting with a covered stent. Balloon-assisted intimal disruption and bare metal stenting of all residual dissected aorta to the level of the aortic bifurcation is then performed to obliterate the false lumen (FL) and achieve single true lumen (TL) flow. Additional branch vessel stenting is performed as required. PMID:27386413

  4. Validation of the murine aortic arch as a model to study human vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casteleyn, Christophe; Trachet, Bram; Van Loo, Denis; Devos, Daniel G H; Van den Broeck, Wim; Simoens, Paul; Cornillie, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Although the murine thoracic aorta and its main branches are widely studied to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of human vascular diseases, detailed anatomical data on the murine aorta are sparse. Moreover, comparative studies between mice and men focusing on the topography and geometry of the heart and aorta are lacking. As this hampers the validation of murine vascular models, the branching pattern of the murine thoracic aorta was examined in 30 vascular corrosion casts. On six casts the intrathoracic position of the heart was compared with that of six younger and six older men of whom contrast-enhanced computer tomography images of the thorax were three-dimensionally reconstructed. In addition, the geometry of the human thoracic aorta was compared with that of the mouse by reconstructing micro-computer tomography images of six murine casts. It was found that the right brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery branched subsequently from the aortic arch in both mice and men. The geometry of the branches of the murine aortic arch was quite similar to that of men. In both species the initial segment of the aorta, comprising the ascending aorta, aortic arch and cranial/superior part of the descending aorta, was sigmoidally curved on a cranial/superior view. Although some analogy between the intrathoracic position of the murine and human heart was observed, the murine heart manifestly deviated more ventrally. The major conclusion of this study is that, in both mice and men, the ascending and descending aorta do not lie in a single vertical plane (non-planar aortic geometry). This contrasts clearly with most domestic mammals in which a planar aortic pattern is present. As the vascular branching pattern of the aortic arch is also similar in mice and men, the murine model seems valuable to study human vascular diseases. PMID:20345858

  5. Validation of the murine aortic arch as a model to study human vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, Christophe; Trachet, Bram; Van Loo, Denis; Devos, Daniel G H; Van den Broeck, Wim; Simoens, Paul; Cornillie, Pieter

    2010-05-01

    Although the murine thoracic aorta and its main branches are widely studied to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of human vascular diseases, detailed anatomical data on the murine aorta are sparse. Moreover, comparative studies between mice and men focusing on the topography and geometry of the heart and aorta are lacking. As this hampers the validation of murine vascular models, the branching pattern of the murine thoracic aorta was examined in 30 vascular corrosion casts. On six casts the intrathoracic position of the heart was compared with that of six younger and six older men of whom contrast-enhanced computer tomography images of the thorax were three-dimensionally reconstructed. In addition, the geometry of the human thoracic aorta was compared with that of the mouse by reconstructing micro-computer tomography images of six murine casts. It was found that the right brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery branched subsequently from the aortic arch in both mice and men. The geometry of the branches of the murine aortic arch was quite similar to that of men. In both species the initial segment of the aorta, comprising the ascending aorta, aortic arch and cranial/superior part of the descending aorta, was sigmoidally curved on a cranial/superior view. Although some analogy between the intrathoracic position of the murine and human heart was observed, the murine heart manifestly deviated more ventrally. The major conclusion of this study is that, in both mice and men, the ascending and descending aorta do not lie in a single vertical plane (non-planar aortic geometry). This contrasts clearly with most domestic mammals in which a planar aortic pattern is present. As the vascular branching pattern of the aortic arch is also similar in mice and men, the murine model seems valuable to study human vascular diseases.

  6. Total arch repair for acute type A aortic dissection with open placement of a modified triple-branched stent graft and the arch open technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In total arch repair with open placement of a triple-branched stent graft for acute type A aortic dissection, the diameters of the native arch vessels and the distances between 2 neighboring arch vessels did not always match the available sizes of the triple-branched stent grafts, and insertion of the triple-branched stent graft through the distal ascending aortic incision was not easy in some cases. To reduce those two problems, we modified the triple-branched stent graft and developed the arch open technique. Methods and results Total arch repair with open placement of a modified triple-branched stent graft and the arch open technique was performed in 25 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection. There was 1 surgical death. Most survivors had an uneventful postoperative course. All implanted stents were in a good position and wide expansion, there was no space or blood flow surrounding the stent graft. Complete thrombus obliteration of the false lumen was found around the modified triple-branched stent graft in all survivors and at the diaphragmatic level in 20 of 24 patients. Conclusions The modified triple-branched stent graft could provide a good match with the different diameters of the native arch vessels and the various distances between 2 neighboring arch vessels, and it’s placement could become much easier by the arch open technique. Consequently, placement of a modified triple-branched stent graft could be easily used in most patients with acute type A aortic dissection for effective total arch repair. PMID:25085259

  7. Morphometric changes in the aortic arch with advancing age in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Chihiro; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-28

    Aortic rupture is a well recognized cause of sudden death in thoroughbred horses. Some microscopic lesions, such as those caused by cystic medial necrosis and medionecrosis, can lead to aortic rupture. However, these microscopic lesions are also observed in normal horses. On the other hand, a previous study of aortic rupture suggested that underlying elastin and collagen deposition disorders might be associated with aortic rupture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the structural components of the tunica media of the aortic arch, which is composed of elastin, collagen, smooth muscle cells and mucopolysaccharides (MPS), in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses. The percentage area of elastin was greatest in the young horses and subsequently decreased with aging. The percentage area of collagen increased with aging, and the elderly horses (aged ≥20) exhibited significantly higher percentage areas of collagen than the young horses. The percentage area of smooth muscle cells did not change with age. The percentage area of MPS was inversely proportional to the percentage area of elastin. The fetuses exhibited a markedly larger percentage area of MPS than the mature horses. We concluded that the medial changes seen in the aortic arch, which included a reduction in the amount of elastin and increases in the amounts of collagen and MPS, were age-related variations.

  8. Morphometric changes in the aortic arch with advancing age in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    ENDOH, Chihiro; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TSUNODA, Nobuo; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Aortic rupture is a well recognized cause of sudden death in thoroughbred horses. Some microscopic lesions, such as those caused by cystic medial necrosis and medionecrosis, can lead to aortic rupture. However, these microscopic lesions are also observed in normal horses. On the other hand, a previous study of aortic rupture suggested that underlying elastin and collagen deposition disorders might be associated with aortic rupture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the structural components of the tunica media of the aortic arch, which is composed of elastin, collagen, smooth muscle cells and mucopolysaccharides (MPS), in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses. The percentage area of elastin was greatest in the young horses and subsequently decreased with aging. The percentage area of collagen increased with aging, and the elderly horses (aged ≥20) exhibited significantly higher percentage areas of collagen than the young horses. The percentage area of smooth muscle cells did not change with age. The percentage area of MPS was inversely proportional to the percentage area of elastin. The fetuses exhibited a markedly larger percentage area of MPS than the mature horses. We concluded that the medial changes seen in the aortic arch, which included a reduction in the amount of elastin and increases in the amounts of collagen and MPS, were age-related variations. PMID:28190824

  9. [Aortic arch and valve replacement in a hemodialysis patient with a porcelain aorta;report of a case].

    PubMed

    Ban, Tetsuaki; Aizawa, Kei; Oki, Shin-ichi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic valve stenosis with chronic renal failure requiring hemodialysis. A 75-year-old man complained of back pain and hoarseness. He had been on dialysis for 15 years. A computed tomography scan of the chest showed marked calcification in the thoracic aortic arch, which is known as a porcelain aorta, and a distal arch aneurysm. Echocardiographic examination showed moderate aortic valve stenosis with calcification. An operation was scheduled, and both the aortic valve and the aortic arch aneurysm were successfully replaced with a mechanical valve and a prosthetic graft. Cardiovascular surgery for patients complicated by a porcelain aorta requires extra cares for the establishment of cardiopulmonary bypass and anastomoses of the aorta.

  10. The evolution of amphibian metamorphosis: insights based on the transformation of the aortic arches of Pelobates fuscus (Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Kolesová, Hana; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Roček, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain insights into how the aortic arches changed during the transition of vertebrates to land, transformations of the aortic arches during the metamorphosis of Pelobates fuscus were investigated and compared with data from the early development of a recent ganoid fish Amia calva and a primitive caudate amphibian Salamandrella keyserlingi. Although in larval Pelobates, as in other non-pipid anurans, the gill arches serve partly as a filter-feeding device, their aortic arches maintain the original piscine-like arrangement, except for the mandibular and hyoid aortic arches which were lost. As important pre-adaptations for breathing of atmospheric oxygen occur in larval Pelobates (which have well-developed, though non-respiratory lungs and pulmonary artery), transformation of aortic arches during metamorphosis is fast. The transformation involves disappearance of the ductus Botalli, which results in a complete shunting of blood into the lungs and skin, disappearance of the ductus caroticus, which results in shunting of blood into the head through the arteria carotis interna, and disappearance of arch V, which results in shunting blood to the body through arch IV (systemic arch). It is supposed that the branching pattern of the aortic arches of permanently water-dwelling piscine ancestors, of intermediate forms which occasionally left the water and of primitive tetrapods capable of spending longer periods of time on land had been the same as in the prematamorphic anuran larvae or in some metamorphosed caudates in which the ductus caroticus and ductus Botalli were not interrupted, and arch V was still complete. PMID:17367494

  11. Primary repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions in newborns.

    PubMed

    Tláskal, T; Chaloupecky, V; Marek, J; Hŭcín, B; Kostelka, M; Tax, P; Kucera, V; Janousek, J; Skovránek, J; Reich, O

    1997-04-01

    Primary repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions was performed in 13 patients aged from 1 to 85 days. The surgery was performed through the midline sternotomy approach in extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia. Hypothermic circulatory arrest at 14 to 19 degrees C was used for reconstruction of the aortic arch. In all patients it was possible to perform a direct anastomosis between the ascendent and descendent aorta. At the same time closure of the ventricular septal defect was performed in 11 patients, closure of the atrial septal defect in 4, correction of persistent truncus arteriosus in 3, resection of subaortic stenosis in 2, arterial switch repair of transposition of the great arteries in 1, correction of double outlet right ventricle in 1 and patch closure of aortico-pulmonary window in 1 patient. Three (23.1%) newborns died in the early postoperative period: two from sepsis and one from multiple organ failure. Ten patients (76.9%) were followed up for 1 to 29 months postoperatively. All of them are in very good condition with a nonrestrictive aortic anastomosis. Primary one-stage repair of interrupted aortic arch and associated heart lesions is preferred to the two-stage repair in all newborns with this critical congenital heart disease.

  12. [Operative results of distal aortic arch aneurysms--approaching methods, bypass techniques and complications].

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Hayashi, I; Kurosaka, Y; Izeki, H; Onoguchi, K; Taguchi, S; Kawada, K

    1990-06-01

    Ten patients underwent repair of aneurysms of the distal aortic arch from 1985 to 1989. There were 8 men and 2 women: aged 58 to 77 (average age 67 years). Seven patients had sacciform aneurysms which were closed by graft patch aortoplasty, and three patients had fusiform aneurysms which were corrected by inserting tube grafts. Seven aneurysms operated since 1988 were approached through median sternotomy continued with left anterior thoracotomy, so called door open method. This approach presented good view of the diseased aorta, and effective for preventing recurrent and phrenic nerve palsy. We used temporary bypass for 4 patients, cardiopulmonary bypass for 4 patients (separate carotid artery perfusion for 2 patients) and centrifugal pump for 2 patients during aortic cross clamping. One patient died intraoperatively from intractable bleeding and two patients died postoperatively from brain damage due to embolic episodes during the operations. These patients showed the severely irregular intima in the aortic arch and were complicated with rupture of the aneurysm or dissections arising from the aneurysms. It should be noticed that careless manipulation of the aortic arch and the brachiocephalic vessels cause cerebral complications in such cases.

  13. Trifurcated graft replacement of the aortic arch: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gilbert H L; Kai, Masashi; Malekan, Ramin; Lansman, Steven L; Spielvogel, David

    2015-02-01

    To review the contemporary practice in total arch replacement (TAR) by using the trifurcated graft technique. The evolution of the trifurcated graft technique in total arch replacement is described. Axillary artery perfusion with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is routinely performed, with systemic deep hypothermia based on the anticipated interval of lower body ischemia. Cerebral oxygen saturation is monitored and bilateral ACP (BACP) is performed if the adequacy of collateral circulation is questioned. Potential advantages and disadvantages of unilateral ACP (UACP) vs BACP are discussed. The advantage of the trifurcated graft technique in TAR is that it facilitates the creation of an "elephant trunk" in the proximal arch, making the operation technically easier and avoiding the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. The technique is also versatile in a variety of aortic arch anatomies and pathologies, while enabling continuous ACP without hypothermic circulatory arrest for cerebral protection. UACP during TAR is acceptable for shorter intervals (<30-40 minutes) if combined with moderate hypothermia. BACP should be considered for prolonged ACP interval or if left cerebral oxygenation is inadequate during UACP. The trifurcated graft technique is a versatile method in TAR that can be applied to a diverse range of aortic anatomies, pathologies and hybrid arch procedures, with concomitant or staged endovascular options. UACP or BACP and lower body ischemia can be performed without adding significant complexity to the procedure, while conferring maximal cerebral, spinal, and lower body protection. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Giant Aortic Arch Aneurysm and Cardio-vocal Syndrome: Still An Open-surgery Indication

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Jose M.; Esteban, Maria; Lara, Juan; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose F.; Verdugo-Lopez, Samuel; Lopez-Checa, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The Cardio-vocal Syndrome (Ortner’s syndrome) is described as hoarseness due to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, caused by a specific cardiovascular pathology. In this case, we present a patient with a giant aortic arch aneurysm with an initial clinical presentation of Cardio-vocal Syndrome. The conventional open-surgery, instead of endovascular approach, was useful to control the morbidity from the compressive effect of adjacent structures, also preventing the aortic rupture. We strongly recommend analyzing carefully the individual case and the clinical targets to resolve, because the new technologies are not always the most effective therapeutic response.

  15. Aortic arch aneurysm, pseudocoarctation, and coronary artery disease in a patient with Behçet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bardakci, Hasmet; Kervan, Umit; Boysan, Emre; Birincioglu, Levent; Cobanoglu, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    Aortic arch aneurysm, pseudocoarctation, and coronary artery stenosis are extremely rare in Behçet's syndrome. We present the case of a 25-year-old man with Behçet's syndrome who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting for severe stenosis in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and concomitant surgical correction of a saccular aneurysm that was causing pseudocoarctation of the aortic arch. The surgery was successful.

  16. Bilateral axillary artery inflow in the treatment of a rare case of pseudocoarctation of the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Alessandro; Gregorini, Renato; DeCurtis, Guglielmo; Ciocca, Marco

    2007-10-01

    The axillary artery is the preferred site for arterial cannulation in operations for ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement in order to reduce perfusion-related morbidity in acute dissection and to prevent cerebral embolism in atherosclerotic aneurysm. We present the case of a patient with a chronic dissection presenting as pseudocoarctation of the aortic arch in which bilateral axillary artery inflow was necessary to perfuse both ascending and descending aorta.

  17. Mid-Term Outcomes of a Modification of Extended Aortic Arch Anastomosis with Pulmonary Artery Banding in Single Ventricle Neonates with Hypoplastic Transverse Arch

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Bui Quoc; Furugaki, Tatsuya; Osaka, Motoo; Watanabe, Yutaka; Kanemoto, Shinya; Suetsugu, Fuminaga

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is less certainty regarding the best strategy for treating neonates with functional single ventricle (SV) and hypoplastic aortic arch. We have applied a modified extended aortic arch anastomosis (EAAA) and main pulmonary artery banding (PAB) as an initial palliation in neonates with transverse arch hypoplasia and assessed the mid-term outcomes. Methods: In total, 10 neonates with functional SV and extensive hypoplasia or interruption of the arch underwent a modified EAAA (extended arch anastomosis with a subclavian flap) concomitant with main PAB through a thoracotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. Patient age and weight ranged from 4 to 14 days and 2.3 to 3.8 kg, respectively. Results: There were no hospital deaths although there were two late deaths. Gradients across the arch were 0 to 7 mmHg at postoperative day 1 and no arch reoperations were required. Two patients required balloon aortoplasty. Nine underwent bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt and two of them needed concomitant Damus–Kaye–Stansel (DKS) anastomosis. Six have completed Fontan. Conclusion: Our modification of EAAA with main PAB for SV neonates may benefit a certain population with transverse arch hypoplasia as an option to be considered. Patients with the potential for developing outflow obstruction may be best managed with an initial DKS-type palliation. PMID:27725352

  18. Aortic arch aneurysm of Takayasu arteritis associated with entero-Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshimori; Akita, Toshiaki; Usui, Akihiko; Ichihashi, Ryoichi; Ito, Masafumi; Ueda, Yuichi

    2007-06-01

    We report a case of a ruptured aortic arch aneurysm due to Takayasu arteritis concomitant with entero-Behçet disease. A 53-year-old woman with total left lung atelectasis underwent emergency total aortic arch replacement with a modified Bentall operation and elephant trunk procedure. The postoperative course was highly eventful. A pseudoaneurysm of the left coronary button occurred with mediastinitis due to fistula of the left bronchus into the remnant of the aneurysmal wall. The left main trunk was reconstructed with a saphenous vein graft. The left bronchial fistula into the esophagus was exposed and an esophageal stent was placed. Finally, the saphenous vein graft ruptured and the patient expired. The autopsy diagnosis was Takayasu arteritis. This is the first reported case of concomitant Takayasu arteritis and entero-Behçet disease.

  19. Successful total correction of congenital interruption of the aortic arch and ventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. P.; Bentall, H. H.; Oakley, C. M.

    1970-01-01

    Successful surgical correction of the complex anomaly of interruption of the aortic arch and intracardiac ventricular septal defect is reported. The patient was a boy 5 years old when he first came under treatment. The total correction was performed in two stages. At the first operation, at the age of 7 years, continuity of the aortic arch was achieved by insertion of a Teflon graft, employing left heart bypass. The ventricular septal defect was closed at the age of 13 years on total cardiopulmonary bypass. Two and half years after the total correction the boy is alive and well. The difficulties in diagnosing the condition are discussed. The role of left heart bypass is emphasized. Images PMID:5489187

  20. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of familial Holt-Oram syndrome associated with type B interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Law, K M; Tse, K T

    2008-08-01

    We present a rare case of familial Holt-Oram syndrome diagnosed sonographically at 18 weeks of gestation. The foetus had serious bilateral upper limb malformations, a ventricular septal defect and a type B interrupted aortic arch, while the mother had bilateral upper limb malformations only. The pregnancy was terminated. A pathological and radiological examination of the foetus confirmed the prenatal sonographic findings. Although genetic investigation of TBX5 mutations was not available in our locality at the time of diagnosis, the geneticists made a clinical diagnosis of familial Holt-Oram syndrome. The clinical features of our case completely fulfilled the strict diagnostic criteria for the syndrome. The cardiac malformations most commonly associated with Holt-Oram syndrome are atrial or ventricular septal defects. To the best of our knowledge, a prenatal diagnosis of Holt-Oram syndrome in association with a type B interrupted aortic arch has not been reported in the English literature before.

  1. Neurodevelopmental outcomes after regional cerebral perfusion with neuromonitoring for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Andropoulos, Dean B; Easley, R Blaine; Brady, Ken; McKenzie, E Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S; Dickerson, Heather A; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Meador, Marcie; Eisenman, Carol; Hunter, Jill V; Turcich, Marie; Voigt, Robert G; Fraser, Charles D

    2013-02-01

    In this study we report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain injury and 12-month neurodevelopmental outcomes when regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. Fifty-seven neonates receiving RCP during aortic arch reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective outcome study. RCP flows were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler monitoring. Brain MRI was performed preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively. Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was performed at 12 months. Mean RCP time was 71 ± 28 minutes (range, 5 to 121 minutes) and mean flow was 56.6 ± 10.6 mL/kg/min. New postoperative MRI brain injury was seen in 40% of patients. For 35 RCP patients at age 12 months, mean Bayley Scales III Composite standard scores were: Cognitive, 100.1 ± 14.6 (range, 75 to 125); Language, 87.2 ± 15.0 (range, 62 to 132); and Motor, 87.9 ± 16.8 (range, 58 to 121). Increasing duration of RCP was not associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Neonatal aortic arch repair with RCP using a neuromonitoring strategy results in 12-month cognitive outcomes that are at reference population norms. Language and motor outcomes are lower than the reference population norms by 0.8 to 0.9 standard deviations. The neurodevelopmental outcomes in this RCP cohort demonstrate that this technique is effective and safe in supporting the brain during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A rare combination of vascular anomalies: Hypoplastic aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Nermin; Arslan, Şakir; Üreyen, Çağın Mustafa; Küçükseymen, Selçuk; Erol, Bekir

    2015-04-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is the fifth most common congenital cardiac anomaly encountered in adults. It is important for prognosis to diagnose and treat this anomaly early. An aneurysm might develop due to tunica media abnormalities in patients with coarctation of the aorta. We hereby present an adult case with a very rare combination of vascular anomalies including ascending aorta aneurysm, hypoplastic aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm.

  3. Thoracoscopic correction of a congenital persistent right aortic arch in a young cat

    PubMed Central

    Plesman, Rhea; Johnson, Matthew; Rurak, Sarah; Ambrose, Barbara; Shmon, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    A 9-week-old kitten was diagnosed with a congenital vascular ring anomaly by means of an esophageal contrast study. At 6 mo of age, a non-selective vascular study was used to diagnose a persistent right aortic arch (PRAA). Left-sided thoracoscopic surgery was performed, using a Liga-Sure vessel sealant device to seal and transect the ligamentum arteriosum. PMID:22467970

  4. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Onbas, Omer Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-06-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

  5. Surgical management in paediatric patients with left abnormal subclavian artery and right aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Sodian, R; Rassoulian, D; Kaczmarek, I; Kozlik-Feldmann, R; Huber, A; Reichart, B; Daebritz, S

    2007-06-01

    Left abnormal subclavian artery and right aortic arch is described as a rare cause of dyspnoea and dysphagia in paediatric patients. The optimal surgical management of such cases is not clearly established. We propose a single-stage repair by transection of the patent ductus arteriosus or ligamentum arteriosum and an additional transection of the left abnormal subclavian artery with reimplantation into the common carotid artery.

  6. Aortic arch laceration during aortic coarctation repair in a low-weight neonate and use of an extra-anatomical conduit.

    PubMed

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Maizza, Anna F; Murzi, Michele; Assanta, Nadia; Margaryan, Rafik; Recla, Sabine; Murzi, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of a 3-day-old male baby, weighing 1.6 kg with severe aortic coarctation and associated cardiac anomalies and extracardiac defects. We adopted an extra-anatomical conduit running from the left carotid artery to the descending aorta after laceration of the distal aortic arch due to extreme tissue fragility and baby immaturity.

  7. An externalized transseptal guidewire technique to facilitate guidewire stabilization and stent-graft passage in the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Kölbel, Tilo; Rostock, Thomas; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Treede, Hendrik; Franzen, Olaf; Debus, Eike Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    To describe a technique to facilitate passage and stable deployment of thoracic stent-grafts in patients with multiple tortuous aortic segments that may hamper endograft delivery or precise placement because of an unstable position in the aortic arch. The technique of a transseptal through-and-through guidewire is demonstrated in a patient with a ruptured thoracic aneurysm with severe tortuosity of the aorta and a right-sided, severely angulated aortic arch. The transseptal through-and-through guidewire stabilization technique allowed successful passage and deployment of a thoracic stent-graft after debranching of the right common carotid and subclavian arteries. The ruptured thoracic aneurysm was excluded, while the proximal graft edge lined up with the origin of the aberrant left innominate artery. An externalized transseptal guidewire can facilitate endograft passage in tortuous aortic anatomies and optimize control in most severely angulated aortic arches. It may obviate the use of proximal bare stents because the proximal stent-graft is actively conformed to the inner curve of the aortic arch by the stabilizing wire. Transseptal access to the ascending aorta has the potential to become an important tool for endovascular treatment, especially for catheterization of branches and fenestrations in aortic arch stent-grafts.

  8. Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in aortic arch surgery: efficacy and possible mechanisms of brain protection.

    PubMed

    Bavaria, J E; Pochettino, A

    1997-07-01

    Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) was first introduced to treat air embolism during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Its use was reintroduced to extend the safety of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) during operations involving an open aortic arch. RCP seems to prevent cerebral rewarming during HCA. Both clinical and animal data suggest that RCP provides between 10% and 30% of baseline cerebral blood flow when administered through the superior vena cava (SVC) at jugular pressures of 20 to 25 mm Hg. RCP flows producing jugular venous pressures higher than 30 mm Hg may cause cerebral edema. Cerebral blood flow generated by RCP is able to sustain some cerebral metabolic activity, yet is not able to fully meet cerebral energy demands even at temperatures of 12 degrees to 18 degrees C. RCP may further prevent embolic events during aortic arch surgery when administered at moderate jugular vein pressures (< 40 mm Hg). Clinical results suggest that RCP, when applied during aortic arch reconstruction, may extend the safe HCA period and improve morbidity and mortality, especially when HCA times are more than 60 minutes. RCP applied in patients and severe carotid and brachiocephalic occlusive disease may be ineffective, and caution is in order when RCP times are greater than 90 minutes.

  9. Late leakage from four-branch prosthetic graft after total aortic arch repair.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Arudo; Chikazawa, Genta; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We present two cases with late graft leakage of unknown aetiology after open total aortic arch repair (TAR). Case 1: a 73-year-old woman underwent TAR for arch aneurysm with 24-mm four-branch graft. She had a previous history of pacemaker implantation for sick sinus syndrome and warfarin therapy for atrial fibrillation. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed increased low-density area around the graft 4 years after surgery and blood leakage was shown in delayed-phase CT. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was performed to cover the haematic leakage, and shrinkage of the lesion was achieved 1 month after TEVAR. Case 2: a 72-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia was admitted to our institute for treatment of aortic arch aneurysm. TAR was successfully performed; however, leakage from the prosthetic graft was noticed by expert radiologists in follow-up delayed-phase CT scan 6 years after surgery. The leakage was resolved 1 month after TEVAR. Although the cause of late leakage was not determined, the slowly expanding haematoma proved to be treatable by additional TEVAR. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Essential roles of the winged helix transcription factor MFH-1 in aortic arch patterning and skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iida, K; Koseki, H; Kakinuma, H; Kato, N; Mizutani-Koseki, Y; Ohuchi, H; Yoshioka, H; Noji, S; Kawamura, K; Kataoka, Y; Ueno, F; Taniguchi, M; Yoshida, N; Sugiyama, T; Miura, N

    1997-11-01

    Mesenchyme Fork Head-1 (MFH-1) is a forkhead (also called winged helix) transcription factor defined by a common 100-amino acid DNA-binding domain. MFH-1 is expressed in non-notochordal mesoderm in the prospective trunk region and in cephalic neural-crest and cephalic mesoderm-derived mesenchymal cells in the prechordal region of early embryos. Subsequently, strong expression is localized in developing cartilaginous tissues, kidney and dorsal aortas. To investigate the developmental roles of MFH-1 during embryogenesis, mice lacking the MFH-1 locus were generated by targeted mutagenesis. MFH-1-deficient mice died embryonically and perinatally, and exhibited interrupted aortic arch and skeletal defects in the neurocranium and the vertebral column. Interruption of the aortic arch seen in the mutant mice was the same as in human congenital anomalies. These results suggest that MFH-1 has indispensable roles during the extensive remodeling of the aortic arch in neural-crest-derived cells and in skeletogenesis in cells derived from the neural crest and the mesoderm.

  11. Carbon Dioxide in the Aortic Arch: Coronary Effects and Implications in a Swine Study

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, William C. Porter, Thomas R.; Culp, William C.; Vonk, Brian N.

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: CO{sub 2} angiography is considered dangerous in the aortic arch where bubbles may cause critical cerebral and cardiac ischemia. We investigated CO{sub 2}distribution, physiologic effects in the heart, methods of detection and treatments. Methods: Eight pigs had CO{sub 2}and iodinated contrast arch angiograms in supine and both lateral decubitus positions. An electrocardiogram, physiologic data and cardiac ultrasound were obtained. Therapies included precordial thumps and rolls to lateral decubitus positions. Results: Supine high descending aorta CO{sub 2} injections floated retrograde up the arch during diastole and preferentially filled the right coronary artery (RCA): mean score 3.5 (of 4), in nominate artery 2.4, left coronary artery 1.2; n = 17; p = 0.0001. Aortic root injections preferentially filled the RCA when the animal was supine, left coronary in the right decubitus position, and showed a diffuse pattern in the left decubitus position. Right decubitus rolls filled both coronaries causing several lethal arrhythmias. Precordialthumps successfully cleared CO{sub 2}. Ultrasound is a sensitive detector of myocardial CO{sub 2}. Conclusion: Arch distribution of CO{sub 2} primarily involves the RCA. Diagnostic ultrasound detects cardiac CO{sub 2} well. Precordial thumps are an effective treatment.

  12. Multimodal optical measurement in vitro of surface deformations and wall thickness of the pressurized aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Katia; Humphrey, Jay D

    2015-04-01

    Computational modeling of arterial mechanics continues to progress, even to the point of allowing the study of complex regions such as the aortic arch. Nevertheless, most prior studies assign homogeneous and isotropic material properties and constant wall thickness even when implementing patient-specific luminal geometries obtained from medical imaging. These assumptions are not due to computational limitations, but rather to the lack of spatially dense sets of experimental data that describe regional variations in mechanical properties and wall thickness in such complex arterial regions. In this work, we addressed technical challenges associated with in vitro measurement of overall geometry, full-field surface deformations, and regional wall thickness of the porcine aortic arch in its native anatomical configuration. Specifically, we combined two digital image correlation-based approaches, standard and panoramic, to track surface geometry and finite deformations during pressurization, with a 360-deg fringe projection system to contour the outer and inner geometry. The latter provided, for the first time, information on heterogeneous distributions of wall thickness of the arch and associated branches in the unloaded state. Results showed that mechanical responses vary significantly with orientation and location (e.g., less extensible in the circumferential direction and with increasing distance from the heart) and that the arch exhibits a nearly linear increase in pressure-induced strain up to 40%, consistent with other findings on proximal porcine aortas. Thickness measurements revealed strong regional differences, thus emphasizing the need to include nonuniform thicknesses in theoretical and computational studies of complex arterial geometries.

  13. Sun’s procedure for complex aortic arch repair: total arch replacement using a tetrafurcate graft with stented elephant trunk implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Ziganshin, Bulat A.; Elefteriades, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The Sun’s procedure is a surgical technique proposed by Dr. Li-Zhong Sun in 2002 that integrates total aortic arch replacement using a tetrafurcated graft with implantation of a specially designed frozen elephant trunk (Cronus®) in the descending aorta. It is used as a treatment option for extensive aortic dissections or aneurysms involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and the descending aorta. The technical essentials of Sun’s procedure include implantation of the special open stented graft into the descending aorta, total arch replacement with a 4-branched vascular graft, right axillary artery cannulation, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for brain protection, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest at 25 °C, a special anastomotic sequence for aortic reconstruction (i.e., proximal descending aorta → left carotid artery → ascending aorta → left subclavian artery → innominate artery), and early rewarming and reperfusion after distal anastomosis to minimize cerebral and cardiac ischemia. The core advantage of Sun’s procedure lies in the use of a unique stented graft, which has superior technical simplicity, flexibility, inherent mechanical durability and an extra centimeter of attached regular vascular graft at both ends. Since its introduction in 2003, the Sun’s procedure has produced satisfactory early and long-term results in over 8,000 patients in China and more than 200 patients in South American countries. In a series of 1,092 patients, the authors have achieved an in-hospital mortality rate of 6.27% (7.98% in emergent or urgent vs. 3.98% in elective cases). Given the accumulating clinical experience and the consequent, continual evolution of surgical indications, the Sun’s procedure is becoming increasingly applied/used worldwide as an innovative and imaginative enhancement of surgical options for the dissected (or aneurysmal) ascending aorta, aortic arch and proximal descending aorta, and may become the next standard treatment

  14. Replacement of the transverse aortic arch during emergency operations for type A acute aortic dissection. Report of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Bachet, J; Teodori, G; Goudot, B; Diaz, F; el Kerdany, A; Dubois, C; Brodaty, D; de Lentdecker, P; Guilmet, D

    1988-12-01

    In type A aortic dissection, the intimal disruption is located on or extends to the transverse arch in about 20% of patients. Replacement of the arch may then be necessary to avoid leaving an unresected, acutely dissected aorta and to prevent bleeding, progression of aneurysm, rupture, and ultimately reoperation or death. From 1970 to September 1987, 119 patients were operated on for type A acute dissection. Starting in January 1977, gelatin-resorcin-formaldehyde biologic glue was used in 91 patients to reinforce the dissected tissues at the suture sites. Among these 119 patients, 26 (ages 32 to 76 years) underwent replacement of the transverse aortic arch in addition to replacement of the ascending aorta. In 20 patients cerebral protection was achieved by profound hypothermia (16 degrees to 20 degrees C) associated with circulatory arrest (15 to 40 minutes, mean 27 minutes) during the distal anastomosis. In six patients the carotid arteries were selectively perfused with cold blood (6 degrees C) during moderate core hypothermia (28 degrees C) while cardiopulmonary bypass was discontinued (19 to 34 minutes, mean 25 minutes) to allow the prosthesis to be sutured without the distal aorta being cross-clamped. Moderate hypothermia avoided the long rewarming time necessitated by profound hypothermia. The hospital mortality rate was 34% (9/26). Two of the 20 patients subjected to profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest died during the operation and seven patients died of postoperative complications. No deaths or major complication were observed in the other six patients. Follow-up of the 17 survivors ranges from 3 to 90 months (mean 39). One patient died 6 months after the operation of cerebral hemorrhage. One patient is disabled by neurologic sequelae. Fifteen patients are in good clinical condition (New York Heart Association class I or II). Postoperative aortograms in 12 patients, and computed tomographic scans in all, have shown a stable repair of the transverse

  15. The right-sided aortic arch with unusual course of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves: a report of rare variations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Kanazawa, Jun; Numata, Norio; Hitomi, Jiro

    2017-02-01

    We describe a rare case of the right-sided aortic arch, the unusual origin of the main arterial vessels and the unusual courses of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves in a Japanese cadaver. Chiefly, the right-sided aortic arch turned to the left side from the dorsal part of the trachea and esophagus, and Kommerell's diverticulum was found at the end of the arch. The right common carotid artery arose from the end part of the ascending aorta, but the left common carotid artery arose from the proximal portion of the ascending aorta. The right subclavian artery arose from the upper edge of the aortic arch, but the left one arose from the front wall at the upper side of the ligamentum arteriosum. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve hooked around the aortic arch (but not the right subclavian artery) dorsoventrally, and the left recurrent laryngeal nerve hooked around the ligamentum arteriosum and arose from the ventral side (but not dorsal) of the aortic arch. These variations are very rare, and understanding them is useful and important for clinical research.

  16. Internal right ventricular band for multiple ventricular septal defects in a neonate undergoing arterial switch and aortic arch repair.

    PubMed

    Carroll, William W; Shirali, Girish S; Bradley, Scott M

    2011-01-01

    A neonate presented with d-transposition of the great arteries, aortic arch hypoplasia, aortic coarctation, and multiple ventricular septal defects. During the arterial switch procedure and the aortic arch repair, a fenestrated Gore-Tex disk (W.L. Gore & Assoc, Flagstaff, AZ) was sewn into the right ventricular outflow tract to restrict pulmonary blood flow. The internal right ventricular band successfully controlled the pulmonary blood flow, maintaining a systemic oxygen saturation of 88% to 92%, and allowing growth from 3.5 to 10.5 kg. At 8 months of age, the internal band in the patient was removed, and the ventricular septal defects were successfully closed.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and analysis of the effect of 3-D distortion of the human aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Mori, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2002-06-01

    An idealized CFD model and a realistic one were used to investigate the effect of the 3-D distortion of the aortic arch on the blood flow and its pathophysiological significance with respect to the pathogenesis of the aortic aneurysm. From the results of the flow simulations, the distortion of the centerline of the pipe was shown to affect significantly the flow structure. A right-handed vortex at the descending arch, and a left-handed one at the end of the arch tended to develop in the realistic model. But the secondary flow did not become a single helix. The top of the arch was the region where complex spatial and temporal WSS distributed. It was also observed that the direction of WSS had a significant circumferential component at the top of the arch.

  18. Utility of fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to assess fetuses with right aortic arch and right ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhu, Ming

    2017-05-07

    To evaluate the utility of fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose right aortic arch (RAA) with right ductus arteriosus. This retrospective study included six fetuses with right aortic arch and right ductus arteriosus. The six fetal cases were examined using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance unit. The steady-state free precession (SSFP) and single-shot turbo spin echo (SSTSE) sequences were used to evaluate the fetal heart and airway. The gestational age of the six fetuses ranged from 22 to 35 weeks (mean, 26.5 weeks). The age of the pregnant women ranged from 23 to 40 years (mean 31 years). Fetal cardiac MRI diagnosed the six fetal cases with RAA with right ductus arteriosus correctly. Among the six fetuses, four were associated with other congenital heart defects. In three of six cases, the diagnoses established using prenatal echocardiography (echo) was correct when compared with postnatal diagnosis. Fetal cardiac MRI is a useful complementary tool to assess fetuses with RAA and right ductus arteriosus.

  19. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following neonatal aortic arch repair.

    PubMed

    Sistino, Joseph J; Atz, Andrew M; Simpson, Kit N; Ellis, Charles; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott M

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population of children who underwent neonatal heart surgery involving repair of the aortic arch for Norwood Stage I, interrupted aortic arch, and combined repair of aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 were surveyed using the ADHD-IV and the Child Heath Questionnaire-50. Classification as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was defined for this study as either a parent-reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD-IV inattention score of ⩾93 percentile. Of the 134 surveys, 57 (43%) were returned completed. A total of 25 (44%) children either had a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or ADHD-IV inattention score ⩾93 percentile. Eleven of the 13 (85%) children with interrupted aortic arch, 3 of the 7 (42.9%) children with combined coarctation/ventricular septal defect repair, and 9 of the 33 (27.3%) children with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome were classified as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Only 7 of the 25 (28%) children received medical treatment for this condition. Quality of life indicators in the Child Heath Questionnaire-50 Questionnaire were highly correlated with the ADHD-IV scores. The risks for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are multifactorial but are significantly increased in this post-surgical population. This study revealed a low treatment rate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and a significant impact on the quality of life in these children.

  20. A Case of Acute Traumatic Aortic Injury of a Right-sided Aortic Arch with Rupture of an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Taif, Sawsan; Al Kalbani, Jokha

    2013-01-01

    Acute traumatic aortic injury is a potentially lethal condition with most patients die at the scene of the accidents. Rapid deceleration due to motor vehicle accidents is the commonest mechanism of injury. These injuries can be successfully repaired in the few patients who survive the initial trauma if proper diagnosis and rapid treatment are provided. The occurrence of acute traumatic aortic injury in patients with congenital abnormality of the aortic arch has been rarely reported; however, it renders the diagnosis and treatment more difficult. In this paper, we describe an extremely rare case of aortic injury in a young patient who had a right sided aortic arch with rupture of an aberrant left subclavian artery. The patient was suspected to have a Kommerell’s diverticulum in the aberrant subclavian artery origin. This injury resulted in an unusually huge pseudoaneurysm involving part of the mediastinum and extending into the neck. Unfortunately; patient succumbed in spite of surgical intervention. PMID:24421931

  1. Aortic arch atherosclerosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis can be argued by greater day-by-day blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Shinichi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Fujita, Suwako; Ito, Asahiro; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Hanatani, Akihisa; Takagi, Masahiko; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2015-07-01

    Although it is well known that the prevalence of aortic arch plaques, one of the risk factors for ischemic stroke, is high in patients with severe aortic stenosis, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Increased day-by-day blood pressure (BP) variability is also known to be associated with stroke; however, little is known on the association between day-by-bay BP variability and aortic arch atherosclerosis in patients with aortic stenosis. Our objective was to clarify the association between day-by-day BP variables (average values and variability) and aortic arch atherosclerosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis. The study population consisted of 104 consecutive patients (mean age 75 ± 8 years) with severe aortic stenosis who were scheduled for aortic valve replacement. BP was measured in the morning in at least 4 consecutive days (mean 6.8 days) prior to the day of surgery. Large (≥4 mm), ulcerated, or mobile plaques were defined as complex plaques using transesophageal echocardiography. Cigarette smoking and all systolic BP variables were associated with the presence of complex plaques (p < 0.05), whereas diastolic BP variables were not. Multiple regression analysis indicated that day-by-day mean systolic BP and day-by-day systolic BP variability remained independently associated with the presence of complex plaques (p < 0.05) after adjustment for age, male sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. These findings suggest that higher day-by-day mean systolic BP and day-by-day systolic BP variability are associated with complex plaques in the aortic arch and consequently stroke risk in patients with aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endovascular Repair of a Right-Sided Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Associated with a Right Aortic Arch and a Left Subclavian Artery Arising from a Kommerell's Diverticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Avgerinos, Efthimios D.; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Psarros, Vasileios; Bastounis, Elias

    2009-07-15

    This case report describes the endovascular repair of a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with a right aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. A 76-year-old male with multiple comorbidities was incidentally found to have a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 6.2 cm. Additionally, there was a right aortic arch with a retroesophageal segment and separate arch branches arising in the following order: left common carotid artery, right common carotid artery, right subclavian artery, and left subclavian artery that was aberrant, arising from a Kommerrell's diverticulum. The aneurysm was successfully excluded by deployment of a Zenith TX1 36 x 32 x 20-mm stent-graft using wire traction technique via the left femoral and right brachial arteries in order to deal with two severe aortic angulations. At 18-month follow-up the patient was doing well, with aneurysm sac shrinkage to 5.9 cm and no signs of endoleak or migration. Endovascular repair of right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysms with a right arch and aberrant left subclavian artery is feasible, safe, and effective. In such rare configurations, which demand considerably increased technical dexterity and center experience, endovascular repair emerges as an attractive therapeutic option.

  3. Central retinal artery occlusion following laser treatment for ocular ischemic aortic arch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Payal J.; Ellis, Brian; DiGiovine, Lauren R.; Hogg, Jeffery P.; Leys, Monique J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare blinding condition generally caused by disease of the carotid artery. We describe a 69-year-old female with a 50 pack-year smoking history with aortic arch syndrome causing bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome. Methods: The patient presented with progressive visual loss and temple pain. Slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed bilateral iris neovascularization. This finding prompted a cardiovascular work up. Panretinal photocoagulation with retrobulbar block was performed in the right eye. Results: A temporal artery biopsy was negative. The carotid duplex ultrasound showed only a 1–39% stenosis. MRA revealed a more proximal occlusion of the aortic branch for which she underwent subclavian carotid bypass surgery. At the one month follow up, the right eye suffered profound vision loss secondary to a central retinal artery occlusion. Conclusion: Ocular neovascularization may be one of the clinical manifestations of aortic arch syndrome. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying solely on carotid duplex ultrasound testing. We caution against overly aggressive panretinal photocoagulation utilizing retrobulbar anesthesia. PMID:27625958

  4. Selective Heart, Brain and Body Perfusion in Open Aortic Arch Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Sven; Kari, Fabian; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Open aortic arch replacement is a complex and challenging procedure, especially in post dissection aneurysms and in redo procedures after previous surgery of the ascending aorta or aortic root. We report our experience with the simultaneous selective perfusion of heart, brain, and remaining body to ensure optimal perfusion and to minimize perfusion-related risks during these procedures. We used a specially configured heart–lung machine with a centrifugal pump as arterial pump and an additional roller pump for the selective cerebral perfusion. Initial arterial cannulation is achieved via femoral artery or right axillary artery. After lower body circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for the distal arch anastomosis, we started selective lower body perfusion simultaneously to the selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and heart perfusion. Eighteen patients were successfully treated with this perfusion strategy from October 2012 to November 2015. No complications related to the heart–lung machine and the cannulation occurred during the procedures. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 239 ± 33 minutes, the simultaneous selective perfusion of brain, heart, and remaining body lasted 55 ± 23 minutes. One patient suffered temporary neurological deficit that resolved completely during intensive care unit stay. No patient experienced a permanent neurological deficit or end-organ dysfunction. These high-risk procedures require a concept with a special setup of the heart–lung machine. Our perfusion strategy for aortic arch replacement ensures a selective perfusion of heart, brain, and lower body during this complex procedure and we observed excellent outcomes in this small series. This perfusion strategy is also applicable for redo procedures. PMID:27729705

  5. Synchronous Carotid Bifurcation Endarterectomy and Retrograde Kissing Stenting of the Innominate and Left Common Carotid Artery in a Patient with a Bovine Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Carignano, Guido; Balderi, Alberto; Novali, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Management of the symptomatic multiple stenosis of supra-aortic vessels (MSSVs) in a “bovine” aortic arch (BAA) configuration is infrequently reported. The optimal treatment choice remains debatable. A successful hybrid treatment for a proximal critical stenosis of the innominate and left common carotid artery was performed in a high-risk patient with a tandem symptomatic lesion in the right carotid bifurcation and a concentric vulnerable plaque in the bovine trunk. This case supports the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a combined carotid bifurcation endarterectomy and retrograde kissing stenting of common carotid arteries with cerebral protection after evaluation of radiological, anatomical, and clinical parameters. PMID:28487806

  6. Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression

    PubMed Central

    Assemat, P.; Siu, K.K.; Armitage, J.A.; Hokke, S.N.; Dart, A.; Chin-Dusting, J.; Hourigan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

  7. A rare association of interrupted aortic arch type C and microdeletion 22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Cuturilo, Goran; Drakulic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Milena; Jovanovic, Ida; Djukic, Milan; Miletic-Grkovic, Slobodanka; Atanaskovic-Markovic, Marina

    2008-10-01

    Microdeletion 22q11.2 is associated with a variety of findings, and the most common are cardiac defects. It is very frequently associated with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) type B and very rarely with type A and type C. Here we report the first case of IAA type C associated with 22q11.2 deletion in Serbia and, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth case described worldwide so far. By this report we would like to point out that all patients with IAA type C who have additional features specific for 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome should be screened for the presence of this deletion.

  8. A rare case of multiple bronchial artery aneurysms associated with a double aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Rameysh Danovani; Chen, Zhi Yong; Low, Teck Boon; Ng, Keng Sin

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial artery aneurysm is uncommon, and the occurrence of multiple aneurysms arising from a bronchial artery is even rarer. To date, there has been only one published case report describing double bronchial artery aneurysms. We herein describe a case of three aneurysms arising from a left bronchial artery, accompanied by multiple bilateral hypertrophied bronchial and intercostobronchial arteries, as well as a double aortic arch. Bronchial artery aneurysm is potentially life-threatening, and immediate treatment is recommended to minimise the potential risk of rupture. The aneurysms in our case were successfully treated via transcatheter arterial embolisation using coils. PMID:25820859

  9. Moderate hypothermia during aortic arch surgery is associated with reduced risk of early mortality.

    PubMed

    Tsai, January Y; Pan, Wei; Lemaire, Scott A; Pisklak, Paul; Lee, Vei-Vei; Bracey, Arthur W; Elayda, MacArthur A; Preventza, Ourania; Price, Matt D; Collard, Charles D; Coselli, Joseph S

    2013-09-01

    Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) provides cerebral protection during aortic arch surgery. However, the ideal temperature for HCA during ACP remains unknown. Clinical outcomes were compared in patients who underwent moderate (nasopharyngeal temperature, ≥ 20 °C) versus deep (nasopharyngeal temperature, <20 °C) HCA with ACP during aortic arch repair. By using a prospectively maintained clinical database, we analyzed data from 221 consecutive patients who underwent aortic arch replacement with HCA and ACP between December 2006 and May 2009. Seventy-eight patients underwent deep hypothermia (mean lowest temperature, 16.8 °C ± 1.7 °C) and 143 patients underwent moderate hypothermia (mean, 22.9 °C ± 1.4 °C) before systemic circulatory arrest was initiated. Multivariate stepwise logistic and linear regressions were performed to determine whether depth of hypothermia independently predicted postoperative outcomes and blood-product use. Compared with moderate hypothermia, deep hypothermia was associated independently with a greater risk of in-hospital death (7.7% vs 0.7%; odds ratio [OR], 9.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-81.6; P = .005) and 30-day all-cause mortality (9.0% vs 2.1%; OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.2-18.6; P = .02), and with longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (154 ± 62 vs 140 ± 46 min; P = .008). Deep hypothermia also was associated with a higher incidence of stroke, although this association was not statistically significant (7.6% vs 2.8%; P = .073; OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 0.9-12.5). No difference was seen in acute kidney injury, blood product transfusion, or need for surgical re-exploration. Moderate hypothermia with ACP is associated with lower in-hospital and 30-day mortality, shorter cardiopulmonary bypass time, and fewer neurologic sequelae than deep hypothermia in patients who undergo aortic arch surgery with ACP. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby

  10. Right Aortic Arch Detected Prenatally: A Rare Case With Bilateral Arterial Duct and Nonconfluent Pulmonary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Silvia; Fainardi, Valentina; Spaziani, Gaia; Favilli, Silvia; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    We describe a rare case of right aortic arch (RAA) and nonconfluent pulmonary arteries. RAA and a right-sided arterial duct (AD) were identified on the prenatal scan, but a second left-sided AD and disconnection of the left pulmonary artery were missed. The missed diagnosis in fetal life adversely affected postnatal management. We suggest that fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of RAA and right-sided AD be delivered in tertiary care centres to rule out an association with bilateral AD and nonconfluent pulmonary arteries after birth. Prompt postnatal diagnosis will enable preservation of flow in the disconnected pulmonary artery through prostaglandin E1 infusion until surgical reconstruction.

  11. Persistent right aortic arch and cribiform plate aplasia in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Maclean, Robert A; Imai, Denise; Dold, Christopher; Haulena, Martin; Gulland, Frances M D

    2008-04-01

    A female weanling northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) presented to The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, USA, in poor body condition. An esophageal obstruction was diagnosed by contrast radiography and esophagoscopy, but despite extensive diagnostics and supportive care, the seal died 6 days later. On postmortem examination, the right aortic arch was persistent, forming a vascular ring anomaly with a patent ductus arteriosus that compressed the distal esophagus. Aplasia of the right cribiform plate and hypoplasia of the right olfactory nerve was also identified. A review of necropsy reports from January 1988 to December 2003 revealed 16 severe congenital anomalies in 454 juvenile northern elephant seals that stranded in northern California.

  12. Interrupted aortic arch with isolated persistent left superior vena cava in patient with Turners syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kattea, M. Obadah; Smettei, Osama A.; Kattea, Abdulrahman; Abazid, Rami M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of 13-year-old female with Turner syndrome (TS), who presented with unexplained lower limbs swelling and ejection systolic murmur at the left second intercostal space. Suspicion of mild aortic coarctation was made by echocardiography. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed a complete interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) below the left subclavian artery with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) and absent right SVC, defined as an isolated PLSVC. The patient underwent successful surgical correction after unsuccessful trial of transcatheter stent placement. We present this case of asymptomatic IAA to draw attention to the importance of CTA in diagnosing such rare anomalies and ruling out asymptomatic major cardiovascular abnormalities in patient with TS. PMID:27843801

  13. Analysis of early and long-term outcomes of acute type A aortic dissection according to the new international aortic arch surgery study group recommendations.

    PubMed

    Colli, Andrea; Carrozzini, Massimiliano; Galuppo, Marco; Comisso, Marina; Toto, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Gerosa, Gino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate predictors of early and long-term outcomes of surgical repair of acute Type A aortic dissection. Retrospective single-centre study evaluating patients surgically treated between 1998 and 2013. Clinical follow-up was performed. Complications were classified according to the International Aortic Arch Surgery Study Group recommendations. Statistical analysis included univariate and multivariate analysis of preoperative and operative data. One hundred eighty-five patients were evaluated. The follow-up was complete for 180 patients (97 %). Mean age was 63 years, 82 % had a DeBakey type I aortic dissection, 18 % a type II. Eleven patients (6 %) died intraoperatively, 119 of the remaining (68 %) had postoperative complications. Thirty-day mortality was 21 % (38 patients). Average ICU and hospital stay were 6 and 14 days, respectively. During a mean follow-up time of 6 ± 4 years we observed 44 deaths (31 %). Twenty patients (14 %) needed late thoracic aorta reoperation. Results from the multivariate analysis are as follows. Thirty-day mortality was associated with abdominal pain at presentation (p < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications was related to older age at intervention (p < 0.01) and longer cross-clamp time (p < 0.01). Mortality at follow-up was significantly increased by older age at intervention (p < 0.01), with a logarithmic growth after 60 years, female sex (p < 0.01), preoperative limb ischemia (p = 0.02) and DHCA (p < 0.01). The surgical results of type A aortic dissection are affected by age at intervention with a logarithmic increase of late mortality in patients older than 60 years.

  14. Isolation of the Left Subclavian Artery with Right Aortic Arch in Association with Bilateral Ductus Arteriosus and Ventricular Septal Defect

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Seong; Park, Ji Young; Ko, Seong Min; Seo, Dong-Man

    2015-01-01

    Right aortic arch with isolation of the left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. The incidence of bilateral ductus arteriosus is sporadic, and a right aortic arch with isolation of the left subclavian artery in association with bilateral ductus arteriosus is therefore extremely rare. Since the symptoms and signs of isolation of the left subclavian artery can include the absence or underdevelopment of the left arm, subclavian steal syndrome, or pulmonary artery steal syndrome, the proper therapeutic approach is controversial. We report a case in which surgical reconstruction was used to treat isolation of the left subclavian artery with right aortic arch in association with bilateral ductus arteriosus and a ventricular septal defect. PMID:26665110

  15. Extra-anatomical bypass in complex and recurrent aortic coarctation and hypoplastic arch.

    PubMed

    Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Javier, Mariano Francisco Del Maria; Hetzer, Roland

    2017-09-01

    Our goal was to report the selection schemes, technical variations and long-term outcome of extra-anatomical bypass to correct complex, recurrent aortic coarctation and hypoplastic aortic arch. Between 1989 and 2012, 53 patients (mean age 13.2 ± 4.3, median 11.6, range 9-23 years) with complex aortic coarctation (n = 33; long-segment hypoplastic aortic arch in 15), recurrent coarctation (n = 20; anastomosic pseudoaneurysm in 10), underwent correction using extra-anatomical bypass, either with (n = 18: femoral bypass = 13, left heart bypass = 5) or without (n = 35) extracorporeal circulation via a left lateral thoracotomy (n= 48) and combined median sternotomy and median laparotomy (n = 5). The decision to use extracorporeal circulation was based on the anatomical location of the coarctation, the length of the hypoplasia and a history of previous repair. Preoperatively, mean systolic blood pressure was 130 ± 30 mmHg at rest and 180 ± 40 mmHg during exercise, with a mean pressure gradient of 80 ± 11.6 (range 40-120) mmHg. Various extra-anatomical bypass strategies included left subclavian artery to descending aorta (n = 38), ascending aorta to left subclavian artery (n = 3), ascending aorta to descending aorta (n = 4), aortic arch to descending aorta (n = 3) and ascending aorta to abdominal aorta (n = 5). Graft size (median 18, range 10-26, mm) was chosen according to the diameter of the vessel proximal and distal to the planned graft. No operative deaths, paraplegia or abdominal malperfusion occurred. The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure was 60 ± 25 mmHg without pressure gradients. During a mean follow-up of 18.3 ± 3.7 years, there were no reoperations, graft complications or pseudoaneurysm formation on anastomotic sites. Seven (11.6%) patients are on antihypertensive medications. No patient presented with claudication nor did anyone experience orthostatic problems from

  16. Pathogenesis of solitary right aortic arch: a mass effect hypothesis based on observations of serial human embryonic sections.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe W; Yamada, Tomonori; Kim, Ji H; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José F; Murakami, Gen; Arakawa, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    In general, solitary right aortic arch carries the left-sided ductus arteriosus communicating between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries or the right-sided ductus connecting the descending aorta to the left pulmonary artery. Serial sections of fifteen 5- to 6-week-old embryos and ten 8- to 9-week-old fetuses suggested that the pathogenesis was unrelated to inversion due to dysfunction in gene cascades that control the systemic left/right axis. With inversion, conversely, the ductus or the sixth pharyngeal arch artery should connect to the right pulmonary artery. The disappearance of the right aortic arch started before the caudal migration of the aortic attachment of the ductus. Sympathetic nerve ganglia developed immediately posterior to both aortae, with a single embryonic specimen showing a large ganglion at the midline close to the union of the aortic arches. These ganglia may interfere with blood flow through the distal left arch, resulting in the ductus ending at the descending aorta behind the oesophagus. In another fetus examined, a midline shift of the ductus course resulted in the trachea curving posteriorly. Therefore, solitary right arch is likely to accompany abnormalities of the surrounding structures. The timing and site of the obstruction should be different between types: an almost midline obstruction near the aortic union needed for the development of the left-sided ductus and a distal obstruction near the left subclavian arterial origin needed for the development of the right-sided ductus. A mass effect of the sympathetic ganglia may explain the pathogenesis of any type of anomalous ductus arteriosus shown in previous reports of the solitary right arch.

  17. Late presentation of double aortic arch in school-age children presumed to have asthma: the benefits of spirometry and examination of the flow-volume curve.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Derek A

    2009-10-01

    Children with double aortic arch most often present in infancy. This report presents 3 patients in whom the diagnosis of double aortic arch was not revealed until later in childhood. They were all given a misdiagnosis of asthma, but abnormalities detected on the flow-volume curve led to the true diagnosis.

  18. What is the best method for brain protection in surgery of the aortic arch? Retrograde cerebral perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yuichi

    2010-05-01

    The technical simplicity of retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) together with a highly favorable effect upon stroke rates and survival after aortic arch surgery justifies continued clinical use of RCP in patients requiring hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA), in particular patients with dissecting or atheromatous arch branches. In clinical practice, using RCP can provide effective brain protection in HCA for about 40 to 60 minutes, although there is a time limitation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Right-side aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and Kommerell's diverticulum. A cause of vascular ring].

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Espinosa, Tania; Erdmenger-Orellana, Julio; Becerra-Becerra, Rosario; Balderrabano-Saucedo, Norma; Segura-Standford, Begoña

    2017-06-15

    The right-side aortic arch may be associated with aberrant left subclavian artery, in some cases this artery originates from an aneurismal dilatation of the aorta called Kommerell diverticulum. We report 2 cases of vascular ring formed by a right-side aortic arch, anomalous left subclavian artery, Kommerell's diverticulum and left patent ductus arteriosus. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous cusp-sparing aortic root replacement and coarctectomy with total arch replacement from the midline incision.

    PubMed

    Okita, Yutaka; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Fukumura, Yoshiaki

    2014-07-01

    Four cases of simultaneous surgery for aortic root aneurysm with aortic regurgitation and coarctation of the aorta were presented. Age at surgery ranged from 18 to 37 years and all were male. All had annuloaortic ectasia and dilatation of the ascending aorta, 3 had bicuspid aortic valve and 1 had acute localized aortic dissection. Preoperative grade of aortic regurgitation was trivial in 1, moderate in 2 and severe in 1. Three had aortic valve-sparing root replacement with reimplantation technique and 1 had plication of the sinotubular junction. All patients had total arch replacement, coarctectomy and orthogonal anastomosis to the descending aorta. Antegrade cerebral perfusion was used for brain protection. All patients survived and postoperative pressure difference between the upper and lower extremities disappeared. Postoperative aortogram was satisfactory.

  1. Total aortic arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk in acute type A aortic dissections: are we pushing the limits too far?†.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Malakh; Fleissner, Felix; Ius, Fabio; Koigeldiyev, Nurbol; Kaufeld, Tim; Beckmann, Erik; Martens, Andreas; Haverich, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection (AADA) is a surgical emergency. In patients with aortic arch and descending aorta (DeBakey type I) involvement, performing a total aortic arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk (FET) for supposedly better long-term results is controversial. We hereby present our results. From February 2004 to August 2013, 52 patients with acute aortic dissection DeBakey type I received a FET procedure at our centre (43 males, age 59.21 ± 11.67 years). All patients had an intimal tear in the aortic arch and/or proximal descending aorta. Concomitant procedures were Bentall (n = 15) and aortic valve repair (n = 30). Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), X-clamp and cardiac arrest times were 262 ± 64, 159 ± 45 and 55 ± 24 min, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was 13% (n = 7). Stroke and re-thoracotomy for bleeding were 12% (n = 6) and 23% (n = 12), respectively. Postoperative recurrent nerve palsy and spinal cord injury rates were 10% (5 of 52) and 4% (2 of 52), respectively. Follow-up was 40 ± 24 months. During follow-up, no patient died and no patient required a reoperation for the aortic arch. Our results with FET in AADA show acceptable results. Total aortic arch replacement with an FET in AADA patients does demand high technical skills. In spite of this, we believe FET improves long-term outcomes in cases of AADA with intima tear or re-entry in the aortic arch or the descending aorta (DeBakey type I). Modern grafts with four side branches as well as sewing collars for the distal anastomosis have helped to further 'simplify' the FET implantation. However, such a strategy is not appropriate in all AADA cases; it should be implemented only in experienced centres and only if absolutely necessary. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Efficacy of CIA and CNA Intrusion Arches.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Vora, Sambhav; Pandey, Vinisha

    2015-09-01

    Excessive overbite is one of the most common problems that confront the orthodontist. Deep bite can be due to infraocclusion of posterior teeth, supraocclusion of anterior teeth or a combination of the two. Correction of same can be carried out by extrusion of molars, intrusion of incisors or by a combination of both respectively. Various intrusion arches are recommended for correcting deep bite by true intrusion of anterior teeth, Utility arches, Segmental arch, Connecticut Intrusion Arch (CIA) and Connecticut New Arch (CNA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of CIA and CNA intrusion arches. Tracings recorded from pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 25 patients treated by CIA (Group I) and another 25 patients treated by CNA (Group II) intrusion arches in deep bite cases after four months of treatment were analysed and findings were recorded. Paired t-test was used to compare pre and post-treatment changes within Groups I and II and unpaired t-test was used to compare treatment changes between Group I and Group II. A P-value of < 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Findings of this study demonstrate that an average of 1mm of intrusion takes place with CIA intrusion arch and 1.3mm with CNA intrusion arch in a period of 4 months. Both intrusion arches do not affect the position of molar in vertical or anteroposterior plane. Both CIA and CNA intrusion arches are effective in bringing about intrusion of lower incisors.

  3. Unsteady and three-dimensional simulation of blood flow in the human aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Shahcheraghi, N; Dwyer, H A; Cheer, A Y; Barakat, A I; Rutaganira, T

    2002-08-01

    A three-dimensional and pulsatile blood flow in a human aortic arch and its three major branches has been studied numerically for a peak Reynolds number of 2500 and a frequency (or Womersley) parameter of 10. The simulation geometry was derived from the three-dimensional reconstruction of a series of two-dimensional slices obtained in vivo using CAT scan imaging on a human aorta. The numerical simulations were obtained using a projection method, and a finite-volume formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations was used on a system of overset grids. Our results demonstrate that the primary flow velocity is skewed towards the inner aortic wall in the ascending aorta, but this skewness shifts to the outer wall in the descending thoracic aorta. Within the arch branches, the flow velocities were skewed to the distal walls with flow reversal along the proximal walls. Extensive secondary flow motion was observed in the aorta, and the structure of these secondary flows was influenced considerably by the presence of the branches. Within the aorta, wall shear stresses were highly dynamic, but were generally high along the outer wall in the vicinity of the branches and low along the inner wall, particularly in the descending thoracic aorta. Within the branches, the shear stresses were considerably higher along the distal walls than along the proximal walls. Wall pressure was low along the inner aortic wall and high around the branches and along the outer wall in the ascending thoracic aorta. Comparison of our numerical results with the localization of early atherosclerotic lesions broadly suggests preferential development of these lesions in regions of extrema (either maxima or minima) in wall shear stress and pressure.

  4. [The results of early neurocognitive and neuropsychological testing in patients after ascending aorta and aortic arch surgeries].

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, L A; Zagorul'ko, O I; Belov, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated 30 patients after reconstructive ascending aorta and aortic arch surgeries. Neurocognitive testing was performed 2-3 days before surgery, through 24 hours and 10 days after surgery. Neurocognitive tests included Psychiatric Rating Scale, test "Information-Memory-Consideration Concentration", frontal dysfunction battery and test of clock drawing. Neuropsychological testing was performed by using of hospital scale of anxiety and depression evaluation and Covey scale. The observed moderate decrease of cognitive sphere in 24 hours after surgery has recovered by 10 days of postoperative period. Depressive disorders also were revealed in all stages of postoperative period. Inverse correlation between depressive and intellectual-mental disorders in examined patients was presented. It was suggested introduction of compulsory neurocognitive and psycho-emotional testing for improvement of surgical treatment results.

  5. Relation of oral 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 to the progression of aortic arch calcification in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tetsuya; Ishida, Hideki; Akamatsu, Mayuko; Matsuda, Nami; Fujiu, Ayuko; Ito, Kyoko; Ando, Yoshitaka; Nitta, Kosaku

    2010-01-01

    The role of decreased active vitamin D levels on vascular calcification has not been elucidated in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between progression of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and prescribed dose of 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin D. The enrolled study subjects were 65 (40 men and 25 women) HD patients. Calcification of the aortic arch was semiquantitatively estimated with a score (AoACS) on plain chest radiology. Change in AoACS (DeltaAoACS) was obtained by subtracting the baseline AoACS value from the follow-up AoACS value. The second assessment was performed from 2 years after the first determination. The nonprogressors (63.2 +/- 14.5 years) were significantly younger than the progressors (68.2 +/- 10.8 years) (P = 0.0419). In addition, prescribed dose of 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 was significantly higher in the nonprogressors (125.5 +/- 109.1 microg) than progressors (84.8 +/- 81.1 microg) (P = 0.0371). Multiple regression analysis revealed prescribed dose of 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin D(3) (beta value = -0.324, P = 0.0051) as well as DBP (beta value = -0.418, P = 0.007), serum levels of P (beta value = 0.333, P = 0.006) and C-reactive protein (beta value = 0.237, P = 0.0048) to be significant independent determinants of DeltaAoACS. In conclusion, the evaluation of AoACS on chest radiography is a very simple tool in HD patients. Active vitamin D therapy seems to protect patients from developing vascular calcification.

  6. Right Aortic Arch with a Retroesophageal Left Subclavian Artery and an Anomalous Origin of the Pulmonary Artery from the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chang-Seok; Shim, Man-shik; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a newborn with a rare anatomic variation: a right aortic arch with a retroesophageal left subclavian artery and an anomalous origin of the pulmonary artery from the aorta. This variation was diagnosed using echocardiography and computed tomography, and we treated the condition surgically. PMID:28180103

  7. Anomalous origin of the left brachiocephalic artery in the right aortic arch: Is there a method to the madness?

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mani Ram; Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Fitzpatrick, Rachel; Ayer, Julian; Winlaw, David

    2017-01-01

    The anomalous origin of the left brachiocephalic artery in a right sided aortic arch is a rare vascular ring which might lead to esophageal compression. The exact embryological origin of this anomaly is still widely debated. We present an infant who presented with esophageal compression symptoms and review the various hypotheses about the embryological origin of this anomaly.

  8. Isolated left brachiocephalic artery with the right aortic arch: A rare differential of large patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Gajendra; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Kothari, Shyam Sundar

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of isolation of the left brachiocephalic artery with the right aortic arch in a 9-year-old male child masquerading as large patent ductus arteriosus with left-to-right shunt. We have emphasized the subtle clinical findings which served as clues to the diagnosis. PMID:28163435

  9. Use of through-and-through guidewire for delivering large stent-grafts into the distal aortic arch

    SciTech Connect

    Shammari, Muhammad Al; Taylor, Peter; Reidy, John F.

    2000-05-15

    The availability of large diameter stent-grafts is now allowing the endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Most aneurysms are closely related to the distal arch and it is thus necessary to pass the delivery systems into the arch to effectively cover the proximal neck. Even with extra-stiff guidewires in position, it may still be difficult to achieve this, as a result of tortuosity at the iliac arteries and the aorta. We detail a technique where a stiff guidewire is passed from a brachial entry point through the aorta and out at the femoral arteriotomy site. This allows extra-support and may enable the delivery system to be passed further into the aortic arch than it could with just the regular guidewire position.

  10. Results of "elephant trunk" total aortic arch replacement using a multi-branched, collared graft prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan R B; Dell'Aquila, Angelo M; Akil, Ali; Schlarb, Dominik; Panuccio, Guiseppe; Martens, Sven; Rukosujew, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    We report on our experience with a simplified elephant trunk (ET) procedure with a multi-branched prosthesis (Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft). It consists of a proximal portion (20 cm) with prefabricated side branches, a collar and a distal portion (30 cm). The collar, which can be trimmed into any desired diameter, constitutes the suture portion to the descending aorta. Radiopaque markers in the distal portion indicate the landing zone. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 20 consecutive patients (10 women; mean age, 66 ± 9.3 years) underwent ET procedure, including 6 re-do cases. Underlying aortic diseases were acute dissection (n = 6), chronic dissection (n = 4), aneurysm (n = 8) and PAU (n = 2). Mean preoperative diameter of the descending aorta was 49.1 ± 12.9 mm (range 74.7-29.7 mm). Concomitant procedures included ascending aortic replacement in 16 patients; root replacement in 2; AVR in 2, CABG in 3 and mitral repair in 1 patient. CPB time was 263 ± 94 min; mean duration of ACP was 65 ± 14 min. Two patients died on POD 8 and 78, respectively. Major adverse events included stroke (n = 1), resternotomy for bleeding (n = 2), renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (n = 1) and recurrent nerve paresis (n = 2). After a mean follow-up of 10 ± 8 months, all discharged patients were alive. Seven patients underwent stent-graft implantation of the descending aorta and one patient underwent open descending aortic replacement. The last generation of multi-branched arch prosthesis and especially the Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft make ET procedure a reasonable treatment option even in patients with acute aortic dissection.

  11. Cerebral oximetry monitoring during aortic arch aneurysm replacement surgery in Jehovah's Witness patient -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hyop; Yoon, Tae-Gyoon; Kim, Tae-Yop; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Sung, Woo-Sung

    2010-02-01

    Anesthetic management for aortic arch aneurysm (AAA) surgery employing deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in a Jehovah's Witness (JW) patient is a challenge to anesthesiologist due to its complexity of procedures and their refusal of allogeneic transfusion. Even in the strict application of intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) and intraopertive cell salvage (ICS) technique, prompt timing of re-administration of salvaged blood is essential for successful operation without allogeneic transfusion or ischemic complication of major organs. Cerebral oximetery (rSO(2)) monitoring using near infrared spectroscopy is a useful modality for detecting cerebral ischemia during the AAA surgery requiring direct interruption of cerebral flow. The present case showed that rSO(2) can be used as a trigger facilitating to find a better timing for the re-administration of salvaged blood acquired during the AAA surgery for JW patient.

  12. Bovine Aortic Arch and Bilateral Retroesophageal Course of Common Carotid Arteries in a Symptomatic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bissacco, Daniele; Domanin, Maurizio; Schinco, Giuseppina; Gabrielli, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical variations of carotid arteries may be related to their development (agenesis, aplasia, hypoplasia) or course (coiling, kinking, tortuosity). Partial or total aberrancies in carotid vessel anatomy rarely occur. We describe the case of a 95-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of confusion and disorientation together with upper limb clonus. Computed tomography (CT)-scan revealed a left frontal brain injury with a not conclusive carotid doppler ultrasound. CT angiography reported a bovine aortic arch with bilateral retroesophageal course of both common carotid arteries and left severe (>70%) internal carotid artery stenosis. The knowledge of anatomical variations of the course of carotid arteries is relevant for possible surgical or endovascular repair or in case of otolaryngology or intubation procedures. PMID:27699162

  13. Selective aortic arch perfusion enables to avoid deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for extirpation of renal cell carcinoma with tumour thrombus extension into the right atrium.

    PubMed

    Zacek, Pavel; Dominik, Jan; Brodak, Milos; Louda, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with a tumour thrombus extending into the right heart chambers necessitates extensive combined urological and cardiac surgery. Maximum safety and exactness in extirpation of the caval and intracardiac thrombus is achieved under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, at a price of its non-physiological burden and time constraints. We propose a simple surgical manoeuvre enabling selective arch perfusion allowing for a milder hypothermia and liberal interval of circulatory arrest. On a routine cardiopulmonary bypass via median sternotomy, the dissection is extended along the aortic arch to identify the origins of the supra-aortic vessels. After standard aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegic cardiac arrest at moderate hypothermia, a second cross-clamp is applied at the aortic arch beyond the left carotid artery. A selective closed aortic arch perfusion is started while the extirpation of the tumour thrombus from the right atriotomy and abdominal cavotomy is being performed under conditions of circulatory arrest. Using selective aortic arch perfusion, successful and uncomplicated extirpation of voluminous caval and intracardiac tumour thrombi was accomplished in 3 presented patients. Unexpectedly difficult thrombus adhering to hepatic veins in 1 patient required 42 min of circulatory arrest. Postoperative courses were uneventful in all 3 patients. Second aortic cross-clamp to start selective closed aortic arch perfusion provides excellent surgical control of the operative field over a liberal time interval during circulatory arrest under milder hypothermia.

  14. Three-dimensional rotational angiography of the carotid arteries with high-flow injection from the aortic arch. Preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Pozzi Mucelli, F; Calgaro, A; Bruni, S; Bottaro, L; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2005-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography (3DRA) is a new technique based on a rotational angiographic acquisition able to display arterial vessels in a 3D rendering mode. The system was mainly developed for neuroradiological evaluations but preliminary extracranial experiences have also been reported. The aim of our work was to compare the results of three-dimensional angiography of the carotid arteries done with high-flow injection of contrast medium from the aortic arch with the results of selective angiography. Twenty patients underwent digital angiography of the supra-aortic vessels in order to quantify a stenosis of the carotid bifurcations previously detected at Doppler Ultrasound. Examinations were performed with the Philips Integris Allura system provided with the rotational angiography (RA) tool connected to a workstation for three-dimensional reconstruction able to display vessels in a 3D fashion (Volume Rendering, Gradient Rendering, Shaded Surface Display), automatically remove bone structures (cervical spine, calcified plaque, etc.) and perform an automatic analysis of the vessel diameter and surface area at the point of major stenosis and in the disease-free vessel segments above and below. The carotid evaluation was done either with selective catheterization and the two standard AP and LL projections and with RA after contrast medium injection from the aortic arch followed by 3D reconstruction. The comparison of the selective angiography and three-dimensional images was possible in 37 out of 40 carotid bifurcations (3 internal carotid arteries were occluded) and a good diagnostic quality was obtained in 35 out of 37 cases with an high correlation in the degree of stenosis. In 2/37 cases with calcified plaques the degree of stenosis was effectively demonstrated only after electronic subtraction of the calcified component of the plaque. The technique we propose proved to be feasible in all cases with a good correlation in the quantification of the

  15. Sustained maternal hyperoxygenation improves aortic arch dimensions in fetuses with coarctation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shi; Zhou, Jiawei; Peng, Qinghai; Deng, Wen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yili; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of maternal hyperoxygenation (HO) on cardiac dimensions in fetuses with isolated Coarctation (CoA). Fetal echocardiography was performed serially in 48 fetuses with CoA and gestation age matched normal fetues. The Z-scores for the mitral valve (MV), tricuspid valve (TV), aortic valve (AV), ascending aorta (AAo), isthmus, pulmonary valve (PV), main pulmonary artery (MPA), and descending aorta (DAo) were measured and compared among normal fetuses, CoA fetuses with oxygen and CoA fetuses with air. In the group with oxygen, 6 L/min oxygen was administered to the mother using a face mask. Regression analyses were performed to identify potential factors for HO outcome. The left heart dimension Z-scores increased gradually during HO therapy periods, especially at 4 weeks after oxygen therapy (P < 0.05). As for the case group with air, the left heart dimension remained unchanged. The duration of HO was associated with aortic arch Z-scores (adjusted R2 = 0.199, 0.60 for AAO and isthmus, respectively). Sustained maternal middle-flow oxygenation can be safely used to improve left heart dimensions in fetuses with isolated CoA. The duration of HO were associated with treatment outcome. These findings may provide useful information for developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:27982102

  16. Classification and outcomes of extended arch repair for acute Type A aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Holly N; Boodhwani, Munir; Ouzounian, Maral; Saczkowski, Richard; Gregory, Alexander J; Herget, Eric J; Appoo, Jehangir J

    2017-03-01

    Distal extent of repair in patients undergoing surgery for acute Type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is controversial. Emerging hybrid techniques involving open and endovascular surgery have been reported in small numbers by select individual centres. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the outcomes following extended arch repair for ATAAD. A classification system is proposed of the different techniques to facilitate discussion and further investigation. Using Ovid MEDLINE, 38 studies were identified reporting outcomes for 2140 patients. Studies were categorized into four groups on the basis of extent of surgical aortic resection and the method of descending thoracic aortic stent graft deployment; during circulatory arrest (frozen stented elephant trunk) or with normothermic perfusion and use of fluoroscopy (warm stent graft): (I) surgical total arch replacement, (II) total arch and frozen stented elephant trunk, (III) hemiarch and frozen stented elephant trunk and (IV) total arch and warm stent graft. Perioperative event rates were obtained for each of the four groups and the entire cohort using pooled summary estimates. Linearized rates of late mortality and reoperation were calculated. Overall pooled hospital mortality for extended arch techniques was 8.6% (95% CI 7.2-10.0). Pooled data categorized by surgical technique resulted in hospital mortality of 11.9% for total arch, 8.6% total arch and frozen stented elephant trunk, 6.3% hemiarch and frozen stented elephant trunk and 5.5% total arch and 'warm stent graft'. Overall incidence of stroke for the entire cohort was 5.7% (95% CI 3.6-8.2). Rate of spinal cord ischaemia was 2.0% (95% CI 1.2-3.0). Pooled linearized rate of late mortality was 1.66%/pt-yr (95% CI 1.34-2.07) with linearized rate of re-operation of 1.62%/pt-yr (95% CI 1.24-2.05). Perioperative results of extended arch procedures are encouraging. Further follow-up is required to see if long-term complications are reduced

  17. Aortic Arch Reconstruction in Neonates with Biventricular Morphology: Increased Risk for Development of Recoarctation by Use of Autologous Pericardium.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Caroline; Purbojo, Ariawan; Schwitulla, Judith; Glöckler, Martin; Toka, Okan; Dittrich, Sven; Cesnjevar, Robert Anton; Rüffer, André

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors promoting development of recoarctation (Re-CoA) in neonates who survived aortic arch repair from an anterior approach. Fifty consecutive neonates with biventricular morphology and ductal-dependent lower body perfusion who were discharged home following aortic arch repair with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2000 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Arch anatomy was either interruption (n = 10) or hypoplasia with coarctation (n = 40). Aortic arch reconstruction was performed by using patch material (bovine pericardium, n = 30, homograft, n = 10, or glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium, n = 7), and three patients underwent direct end-to-side anastomosis. Antegrade cerebral and continuous myocardial perfusion was performed in 39 and 21 patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier freedom from Re-CoA was calculated. Morphologic and perioperative data indicating increased risk of Re-CoA by univariate analysis were included in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Mean follow-up was 5.3 ± 4.1 years. Re-CoA occurred in 13 patients and was treated successfully by balloon dilatation (n = 6) or surgery (n = 7). Freedom from Re-CoA after 1 and 5 years was 83 ± 5 and 79 ± 6%, respectively. Two patients died early after surgical repair of Re-CoA. The use of autologous pericardium for aortic arch augmentation was the only independent risk factor for development of Re-CoA (hazard ratio: 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.2-16.1]; p = 0.028). Re-CoA following neonatal aortic arch surgery can be treated by balloon dilatation or surgery, if adequate. In this study, the risk for development of Re-CoA was independently increased by the use of autologous pericardium during initial arch repair. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Efficacy of CIA and CNA Intrusion Arches

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Sambhav; Pandey, Vinisha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Excessive overbite is one of the most common problems that confront the orthodontist. Deep bite can be due to infraocclusion of posterior teeth, supraocclusion of anterior teeth or a combination of the two. Correction of same can be carried out by extrusion of molars, intrusion of incisors or by a combination of both respectively. Various intrusion arches are recommended for correcting deep bite by true intrusion of anterior teeth, Utility arches, Segmental arch, Connecticut Intrusion Arch (CIA) and Connecticut New Arch (CNA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of CIA and CNA intrusion arches. Materials and Methods Tracings recorded from pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 25 patients treated by CIA (Group I) and another 25 patients treated by CNA (Group II) intrusion arches in deep bite cases after four months of treatment were analysed and findings were recorded. Statistical Analysis Paired t-test was used to compare pre and post-treatment changes within Groups I and II and unpaired t-test was used to compare treatment changes between Group I and Group II. A P-value of < 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Results Findings of this study demonstrate that an average of 1mm of intrusion takes place with CIA intrusion arch and 1.3mm with CNA intrusion arch in a period of 4 months. Both intrusion arches do not affect the position of molar in vertical or anteroposterior plane. Interpretation & Conclusion Both CIA and CNA intrusion arches are effective in bringing about intrusion of lower incisors. PMID:26501008

  19. Triple-barrel graft as a novel strategy to preserve supra-aortic branches in arch-TEVAR procedures: clinical study and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shahverdyan, R; Gawenda, M; Brunkwall, J

    2013-01-01

    To report our early experience with total endovascular repair of aortic-arch aneurysm using double chimney-grafts and present a literature overview. The double chimney-graft technique was performed in six male patients with contained ruptured aneurysm, dissecting aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, penetrating aortic ulcer and proximal endoleak after TEVAR. Furthermore, a systematic electronic health database search of available articles was conducted according to PRISMA Guidelines. In all cases, all supra-aortic vessels had to be covered with aortic stent-graft to receive a sufficient landing and sealing zone. Chimney-grafts were introduced to the ascending aorta slightly deeper than the thoracic stent-grafts through the cut-down exposure of the common carotid arteries. We deployed aortic stent-grafts and self-expandable chimney-grafts simultaneously and successfully. The patient with contained ruptured aneurysm died due to cardiopulmonary failure on day 19, the others survived. We detected two 'gutter' endoleaks. As a result of literature search, 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. Two articles described the double-chimney technique. The use of double chimney-grafts is possible in high-risk patients where the proximal landing zone of endograft would be in zone 0. The available data is still limited. The long-term follow-up remains to be evaluated with the increased number of patients treated. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the fit of preformed nickel titanium arch wires on normal occlusion dental arches

    PubMed Central

    Al-Barakati, Rakhn G.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.; AlMadi, Abdulaziz; Albarakati, Sahar F.; ALKofide, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the fits of preformed nickel titanium (NiTi) archwires on dental arches with normal occlusion. Methods Forty sets of upper and lower plaster models were obtained from men and women with Class I occlusions. Preformed 0.016″ × 0.022″ NiTi archwires from Rocky Mountain Orthodontics (RMO), 3 M Unitek, Ormco, and Dentaurum were evaluated in terms of their fits on dental arches from male, female, and combined cases. Data were analyzed by using fourth- and sixth-order polynomial equations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Duncan post hoc test. Results In the upper arches, the best fit and least error were obtained with RMO Ovoid and Ormco Orthos Large archwires for male cases, but with 3 M Orthoform LA archwires for female and combined cases. In the lower arches, the best fit and least error were obtained with Ormco Orthos Large for male cases, with 3 M Orthoform LA and RMO Normal for female cases, and with 3 M Orthoform LA, RMO Normal, Ormco Orthos Large, and Ormco Orthos Small for combined cases. When both dental arches were matched, Ormco Orthos Large was the best wire for male cases. 3 M Orthoform LA was the best wire for female and combined cases. Conclusions Using an archwire form with the best fit to the dental arch should produce minimal changes in the dental arch form when NiTi wires are used and require less customization when stainless-steel wires are used. PMID:26792965

  1. Evaluation of continuous arch and segmented arch leveling techniques in adult patients--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Weiland, F J; Bantleon, H P; Droschl, H

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of overbite correction achieved by a conventional continuous arch wire technique and the segmented arch technique as recommended by Burstone. The sample comprised 50 adult patients (age 18 to 40 years) with deep bites. Twenty-five patients were treated with a continuous arch wire technique (CAW); in the second half of the sample, the segmented arch technique (Burstone) was used for correction of the vertical malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms and plaster cast models taken before and immediately after treatment were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on the collected data. The results showed that both techniques produced a highly significant overbite reduction (CAW: -3.17 mm, p < 0.001; Burstone: -3.56 mm, p < 0.001). The CAW group showed an extrusion in the molar area with subsequent posterior rotation of the mandible (6occl-ML: +1.30 mm; 6occl-NSL: +1.63 mm; ML/NSL: +1.94 degrees, all p < 0.001). The Burstone group, however, showed overbite reduction by incisor intrusion without any substantial extrusion of posterior teeth (upper 1-NSL: -1.50 mm; lower 1-ML: -1.72 mm; both p < 0.001). As a consequence, no significant posterior rotation of the mandible took place (ML/NSL: +0.52 degrees, n.s.). It is concluded that in adult patients the segmented arch technique (Burstone) can be considered as being superior to a conventional continuous arch wire technique if arch leveling by incisor intrusion is indicated.

  2. Aortic arch shape is not associated with hypertensive response to exercise in patients with repaired congenital heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aortic arch geometry is linked to abnormal blood pressure (BP) response to maximum exercise. This study aims to quantitatively assess whether aortic arch geometry plays a role in blood pressure (BP) response to exercise. Methods 60 age- and BSA-matched subjects – 20 post-aortic coarctation (CoA) repair, 20 transposition of great arteries post arterial switch operation (ASO) and 20 healthy controls – had a three-dimensional (3D), whole heart magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 1.5 Tesla, 3D geometric reconstructions created from the MRA. All subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test on the same day as MRA using an ergometer cycle with manual BP measurements. Geometric analysis and their correlation with BP at peak exercise were assessed. Results Arch curvature was similarly acute in both the post-CoA and ASO cases [0.05 ± 0.01 vs. 0.05 ± 0.01 (1/mm/m2); p = 1.0] and significantly different to that of normal healthy controls [0.05 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01 (1/mm/m2), p < 0.001]. Indexed transverse arch cross sectional area were significantly abnormal in the post-CoA cases compared to the ASO cases (117.8 ± 47.7 vs. 221.3 ± 44.6; p < 0.001) and controls (117.8 ± 47.7 vs. 157.5 ± 27.2 mm2; p = 0.003). BP response to peak exercise did not correlate with arch curvature (r = 0.203, p = 0.120), but showed inverse correlation with indexed minimum cross sectional area of transverse arch and isthmus (r = -0.364, p = 0.004), and ratios of minimum arch area/ descending diameter (r = -0.491, p < 0.001). Conclusion Transverse arch and isthmus hypoplasia, rather than acute arch angulation plays a role in the pathophysiology of BP response to peak exercise following CoA repair. PMID:24219806

  3. Oncological resection of lung cancer invading the aortic arch In full thickness using a non-fenestrated endograft.

    PubMed

    Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Martel, Efrén; Clavo, Bernardino; Llontop, Pedro; Calderón-Murgas, César; Raad, Wissam N; Alshehri, Khalid; Ayub, Adil; Jenny Huang, Chyun-Yin; Hussein, Mohamed; Alayón, Santiago; Bhora, Faiz Y

    2016-09-01

    T4 lung cancer invading the full thickness of the aortic arch was completely removed in a 78-year-old lady using a non-fenestrated endograft closing the left subclavian artery origin without performing surgical revascularization. Left thoracotomy and upper lobectomy with resection of superior segment of the lower lobe and full thickness of the infiltrated aorta was performed without covering the aortic defect. The margins of the specimen were free of tumor. The patient survived 32 months. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:412-415. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Outflow tract septation and the aortic arch system in reptiles: lessons for understanding the mammalian heart.

    PubMed

    Poelmann, Robert E; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Biermans, Marcel W M; Dolfing, Anne I; Jagessar, Armand; van Hattum, Sam; Hoogenboom, Amanda; Wisse, Lambertus J; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; de Bakker, Merijn A G; Vonk, Freek J; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Kuratani, Shigeru; Richardson, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation. We studied embryonic stages of reptile hearts (lizard, turtle and crocodile) and compared these to avian and mammalian development. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to indicate where the essential cell components in the outflow tract and aortic sac were deployed, more specifically endocardial, neural crest and second heart field cells. The neural crest-derived aorto-pulmonary septum separates the pulmonary trunk from both aortae in reptiles, presenting with a left visceral and a right systemic aorta arising from the unseptated ventricle. Second heart field-derived cells function as flow dividers between both aortae and between the two pulmonary arteries. In birds, the left visceral aorta disappears early in development, while the right systemic aorta persists. This leads to a fusion of the aorto-pulmonary septum and the aortic flow divider (second heart field population) forming an avian aorto-pulmonary septal complex. In mammals, there is also a second heart field-derived aortic flow divider, albeit at a more distal site, while the aorto-pulmonary septum separates the aortic trunk from the pulmonary trunk. As in birds there is fusion with second heart field-derived cells albeit from the pulmonary flow divider as the right 6th pharyngeal arch artery disappears, resulting in a mammalian aorto-pulmonary septal complex. In crocodiles, birds and mammals, the main septal and parietal endocardial cushions receive neural crest cells that are functional in fusion and myocardialization of the outflow tract septum. Longer-lasting septation in crocodiles demonstrates a heterochrony in development. In other reptiles with no indication of incursion of neural crest cells, there is either no myocardialized outflow tract septum (lizard) or it is vestigial (turtle). Crocodiles are unique in bearing a central shunt, the

  5. Bending and pressurisation test of the human aortic arch: experiments, modelling and simulation of a patient-specific case.

    PubMed

    García-Herrera, Claudio M; Celentano, Diego J; Cruchaga, Marcela A

    2013-01-01

    This work presents experiments, modelling and simulation aimed at describing the mechanical behaviour of the human aortic arch during the bending and pressurisation test. The main motivation is to describe the material response of this artery when it is subjected to large quasi-static deformations in three different stages: bending, axial stretching and internal pressurisation. The sample corresponds to a young artery without cardiovascular pathologies. The pressure levels are within the normal and hypertension physiological ranges. The two principal findings of this work are firstly, the material characterisation performed via tensile test measurements that serve to derive the material parameters of a hyperelastic isotropic constitutive model and, secondly, the assessment of these material parameters in the simulation of the bending and pressurisation test. Overall, the reported material characterisation was found to provide a realistic description of the mechanical behaviour of the aortic arch under severe complex loading conditions considered in the bending and pressurisation test.

  6. Limitations of EuroSCORE for measurement of risk-stratified mortality in aortic arch surgery using selective cerebral perfusion: is advanced age no longer a risk?

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kaoru; Ogino, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Hitoshi; Minatoya, Kenji; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Kitamura, Soichiro

    2006-06-01

    The European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) is a risk stratification tool for perioperative mortality of cardiothoracic surgery that was developed in Europe and validated in North America in more than 500,000 patients. The operative mortality of aortic arch surgery has been improved by various novel operative techniques and adjuncts, whereas the number of such procedures for elderly patients has recently been increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of the EuroSCORE, and our modification of it regarding age, in predicting mortality after aortic arch repair performed with selective cerebral perfusion. We reviewed 358 consecutive patients with a mean age of 69 +/- 10 years undergoing aortic arch repair with selective cerebral perfusion between January 1993 and February 2004. Observed in-hospital mortality was compared with predicted mortality as determined by both additive and logistic EuroSCOREs. We also evaluated a version of the EuroSCORE modified for age, which was obtained by subtracting the contribution of age from the original EuroSCORE. Score validities were assessed by calculating the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall hospital mortality was 6.2% compared with 7.7% (additive EuroSCORE) and 11.8% (logistic EuroSCORE). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.58 for the additive EuroSCORE and 0.58 for the logistic EuroSCORE as well. The overall age-unrelated EuroSCOREs were 5.1% (additive) and 5.2% (logistic), respectively, and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.70 for additive and 0.69 for logistic. The original additive and logistic EuroSCOREs overpredicted mortality in this patient group, whereas the age-unrelated EuroSCORE was better in predicting mortality.

  7. Surgical management of a neonate with congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels, hypoplastic right aortic arch, and Ebstein anomaly.

    PubMed

    Filippelli, Sergio; Perri, Gianluigi; Kirk, Richard; Hasan, Asif; Griselli, Massimo

    2013-11-01

    We report a neonate with a primary diagnosis of congenitally corrected transposition (ccTGA) of the great vessels, hypoplastic right aortic arch, and a severely regurgitant Ebstein tricuspid valve (TV). During the fetal period, she was listed for heart transplantation, and two weeks after birth due to a deterioration of her general condition, we performed a Norwood-Sano modified procedure. After 58 days a donor heart became available and the baby successfully received a orthotopic heart transplantation.

  8. Early and mid-term outcomes of the aortic arch surgery: experience from the low-volume centre.

    PubMed

    Brat, Radim; Gaj, Jaroslav; Barta, Jiri

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the early and mid-term outcomes for patients undergoing elective aortic arch surgery over a 13-years period in the single low-volume centre. Results of aortic arch surgery published in the literature are usually results of high-volume centers, but the majority of institutions have much lower caseload. From January 1999 to March 2013 total of 353 surgeries on thoracic aorta were performed in our institution. Only 30 procedures (8.5%) were elective aortic arch surgeries. This group of patients was analyzed. Deep hypothermia alone and hypothermia with ortograde cerebral perfusion was used in 7 (23%) and 23 (77%) patients respectively. Mean core temperature was 22°C (17 - 26°C). Cannulation sites was axillary artery or brachiocephalic trunk in 17 (57%), femoral artery in 8 (27%) and ascending aorta or aortic arch in 5 (16%). Mean hypothermic circulatory arrest time was 39 min (15 - 74 min). There was one death due to multiorgan failure; all-cause mortality at 30 days was 3.3%. The frequency of other complications was permanent neurological deficit in 2 (6.7%), temporary neurological deficit in 2 (6.7%) and renal failure requiring hemodialysis in 2 (6.7%) patients. In the follow-up 13 patients died, remaining 16 are still alive. Despite the lower caseload and technical problems manifested by a higher number of re-operations for bleeding, the all-cause mortality at 30 days as well as mid-term results are comparable with results reported by the high-volume centres.

  9. Whole body perfusion for hybrid aortic arch repair: evolution of selective regional perfusion with a modified extracorporeal circuit.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Philip; Walsh, Graham; Walsh, Stephanie; O'Neil, Michael; Gelinas, Jill; Chu, Michael W A

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing hybrid aortic arch reconstruction require careful protection of vital organs. We believe that whole body perfusion with tailored dual circuitry may help to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Our circuit has evolved from a secondary circuit utilizing a cardioplegia delivery device for lower body perfusion to a dual-oxygenator circuit. This allows individually controlled regional perfusion with ease of switching from secondary to primary circuit for total body flow. The re-design allows for separate flow and temperature regulation with two oxygenators in parallel. All patients underwent a single-stage operation for simultaneous treatment of arch and descending aortic pathology via a sternotomy, using a hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique. We report six consecutive patients undergoing hybrid arch and frozen elephant trunk reconstruction using a dual-oxygenator circuit. Five patients underwent elective surgery and one was emergent. One patient had an acute dissection while three underwent concomitant procedures, including a Ross procedure and two valve-sparing root reconstructions. Three cases were redo sternotomies. The mean pump time was 358 ± 131 min, the aortic cross clamp time 243 ± 135 min, the cardioplegia volume of 33,208 ml ± 16,173, cerebral ischemia 0 min, lower body ischemia 76 ± 34 min and the average lower body perfusion time was 142 min. Two patients did not require any donor blood products. The median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS) were two days and 10 days, respectively. The average peak serum lactate on CPB was 7.47 mmol/L and, at admission to the ICU, it was 3.37 mmol/L. Renal and respiratory failure developed in the salvage acute type A dissection patient. No other complications occurred in this series. Whole body perfusion as delivered through individually controlled dual-oxygenator circuitry allows maximum flexibility for hybrid aortic arch reconstruction. A modified circuit perfusion

  10. Comparable Cerebral Blood Flow in Both Hemispheres During Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Infant Aortic Arch Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rüffer, André; Tischer, Philip; Münch, Frank; Purbojo, Ariawan; Toka, Okan; Rascher, Wolfgang; Cesnjevar, Robert Anton; Jüngert, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral protection during aortic arch repair can be provided by regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) through the innominate artery. This study addresses the question of an adequate bilateral blood flow in both hemispheres during RCP. Fourteen infants (median age 11 days [range, 3 to 108]; median weight, 3.6 kg [range, 2.8 to 6.0 kg]) undergoing RCP (flow rate 54 to 60 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were prospectively included. Using combined transfontanellar/transtemporal two- and three-dimensional power/color Doppler sonography, cerebral blood flow intensity in the main cerebral vessels was displayed. Mean time average velocities were measured with combined pulse-wave Doppler in the basilar artery, and both sides of the internal carotid, anterior, and medial cerebral arteries. In addition, bifrontal regional cerebral oximetry (rSO2) was assessed. Comparing both hemispheres, measurements were performed at target temperature (28°C) during full-flow total body perfusion (TBP) and RCP. A regular circle of Willis with near-symmetric blood flow intensity to both hemispheres was visualized in all infants during both RCP and TBP. In the left internal carotid artery, blood flow direction was mixed (retrograde, n = 5; antegrade, n = 8) during TBP and retrograde during RCP. Comparison between sides showed comparable cerebral time average velocities and rSO2, except for higher time average velocities in the right internal carotid artery (TBP p = 0.019, RCP p = 0.09). Unilateral comparison between perfusion methods revealed significantly higher rSO2 in the right hemisphere during TBP (82% ± 9%) compared with RCP (74% ± 11%, p = 0.036). Bilateral assessment of cerebral rSO2 and time average velocity in the main great cerebral vessels suggests that RCP is associated with near-symmetric blood flow intensity to both hemispheres. Further neurodevelopmental studies are necessary to verify RCP for neuroprotection during aortic arch repair. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic

  11. Role of Endothelin-1/Endothelin-A receptor-mediated signaling pathway in the aortic arch patterning in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, H.; Hammer, R. E.; Richardson, J. A.; Williams, S. C.; Clouthier, D. E.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The intercellular signaling mediated by endothelins and their G protein-coupled receptors has recently been shown to be essential for the normal embryonic development of subsets of neural crest cell derivatives. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is proteolytically generated from its inactive precursor by endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) and acts on the endothelin-A (ETA) receptor. Genetic disruption of this ET-1/ECE-1/ETA pathway results in defects in branchial arch- derived craniofacial tissues, as well as defects in cardiac outflow and great vessel structures, which are derived from cephalic (cardiac) neural crest. In this study, in situ hybridization of ETA-/- and ECE-1(-)/- embryos with a cardiac neural crest marker, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-1, shows that the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube to cardiac outflow tract is not affected in these embryos. Immunostaining of an endothelial marker, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule CD-31, shows that the initial formation of the branchial arch arteries is not disturbed in ETA-/- or ECE-1(-)/- embryos. To visualize the subsequent patterning of arch vessels in detail, we generated ETA-/- or ECE-1(-)/- embryos that expressed an SM22alpha-lacZ marker transgene in arterial smooth muscle cells. Wholemount X-gal staining of these mutant embryos reveals that the abnormal regression and persistence of specific arch arteries results in disturbance of asymmetrical remodeling of the arch arteries. These defects include abnormal regression of arch arteries 4 and 6, enlargement of arch artery 3, and abnormal persistence of the bilateral ductus caroticus and right dorsal aorta. These abnormalities eventually lead to various types of great vessel malformations highly similar to those seen in neural crest-ablated chick embryos and human congenital cardiac defects. This study demonstrates that ET-1/ETA-mediated signaling plays an essential role in a complex process of aortic arch patterning by affecting

  12. Persistent right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery in a white Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Ketz, C J; Radlinsky, M; Armbrust, L; Carpenter, J W; Isaza, R

    2001-06-01

    A 3-mo-old male white Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with the chief complaint of regurgitation of solid food since weaning at 2 mo of age. Compared with its littermates, the tiger was in poor body condition and weighed only 10.3 kg when its littermates were estimated at 20-25 kg. Thoracic radiographs showed a megaesophagus cranial to the heart base. A contrast esophagram more clearly outlined the megaesophagus, and fluoroscopy demonstrated normal motility of the caudal esophagus. Endoscopic examination revealed a structure coursing dorsally from right to left over the esophagus and a constrictive band on the left of the esophagus at the heart base. Nonselective angiography confirmed the presence of a persistent right aortic arch, as well as an aberrant left subclavian artery. A left fourth intercostal thoracotomy was performed, and the ligamentum arteriosum was double ligated and divided. The left subclavian artery did not cause significant compromise of the esophagus and was not manipulated at surgery. The tiger recovered well from anesthesia and surgery. Solid food was slowly introduced over a 2-mo period without any regurgitation. The cub gained weight rapidly after surgery.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Proximal Aortic Arch Lesions through a Retrograde Approach

    PubMed Central

    Samaniego, Edgar A.; Katzen, Barry T.; Kreusch, Andreas S.; Uthoff, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Tandem atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid bifurcation and the ipsilateral proximal common carotid artery (CCA) or innominate arteries (IA) can be challenging to treat. A surgical approach may treat the lesion at the carotid bifurcation, but proximal CCA or IA lesions require a major surgical exposure. An endovascular approach is challenging as well since anatomic variations, such as a type III aortic arch, can render navigation very difficult. We report our experience in the hybrid surgical and endovascular treatment of complex proximal CCA and IA lesions. Eleven patients who underwent hybrid procedures with surgical exposure (with or without endarterectomy) of the carotid artery and retrograde endovascular intervention of a proximal lesion were included in the study. The mean percentage of stenosis was 81%. Seven patients underwent a carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and 4 patients underwent only a surgical cutdown for retrograde endovascular access of the IA or left CCA. All procedures were technically successful. Eight patients had no symptoms within 30 days of the procedure. The hybrid retrograde endovascular approach through carotid exposure with or without CEA appears to be effective and safe in selected patients who have a high-risk complex anatomy of tandem lesions. PMID:25999991

  14. Relationship between hemodynamics and atherosclerosis in aortic arches of apolipoprotein E-null mice on 129S6/SvEvTac and C57BL/6J genetic backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hirofumi; Hagaman, John; Friedman, Morton H.; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2011-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationships between hemodynamics and differential plaque development at the aortic arch of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice on 129S6/SvEvTac (129) and C57BL/6J (B6) genetic backgrounds. Methods Mean flow velocities at the ascending and descending aorta (mVAA and mVDA) were measured by Doppler ultrasound in wild type and apoE-null male mice at 3 and 9 months of age. Following dissection of the aortic arches, anatomical parameters and plaque areas were evaluated. Results Arch plaques were five times bigger in 129-apoE than in B6-apoE mice at 3 months, and twice as large at 9 months. The geometric differences, namely larger vessel diameter in the B6 strain and broader inner curvature of the aortic arch in the 129 strain, were exaggerated in 9-month-old apoE-null mice. Cardiac output and heart rate under anesthesia were significantly higher in the B6 strain than in the 129 strain. The values of mVAA were similar in the two strains, while mVDA was lower in the 129 strain. However, there was a 129-apoE-specific reduction of flow velocities with age, and both mVAA and mVDA were significantly lower in 129-apoE than in B6-apoE mice at 9 months. The mean relative wall shear stress (rWSS) over the aortic arch in 129-apoE and B6-apoE mice were not different, but animals with lower mean rWSS had larger arch plaques within each strain. Conclusions The plaque formation in the arch of apoE-null mice is accompanied by strain-dependent changes in both arch geometry and hemodynamics. While arch plaque sizes negatively correlate with mean rWSS, additional factors are necessary to account for the strain differences in arch plaque development. PMID:22078246

  15. Congenital subclavian steal syndrome with multiple cerebellar infarctions caused by an atypical circumflex retroesophageal right aortic arch with atretic aberrant left subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Mamopoulos, Apostolos T; Luther, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    A right-sided aortic arch is a rare anomaly with an incidence of 0.1% worldwide and is usually associated with a mirror image of all supra-aortic branches or an aberrant left subclavian artery. The latter is often associated with a Kommerell diverticulum, although it can rarely be hypoplastic or atretic and lead to congenital subclavian steal. In most patients, the situation is well-tolerated. In this report, we present a case of subclavian steal syndrome with multiple cerebellar infarcts in a patient with an atypical right-sided aortic arch and an atretic aberrant left subclavian artery arising from a left-sided descending thoracic aorta.

  16. Reducing contact forces in the arch and supra-aortic vessels using the Magellan robot.

    PubMed

    Rafii-Tari, Hedyeh; Riga, Celia V; Payne, Christopher J; Hamady, Mohamad S; Cheshire, Nicholas J W; Bicknell, Colin D; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Conventional catheter manipulation in the arch and supra-aortic trunks carries a risk of cerebral embolization. This study proposes a platform for detailed quantitative analysis of contact forces (CF) exerted on the vasculature, in order to investigate the potential advantages of robotic navigation. An anthropomorphic phantom representing a type I bovine arch was mounted and coupled onto a force/torque sensor. Three-axis force readings provided an average root-mean-square modulus, indicating the total forces exerted on the phantom. Each of the left subclavian, left common carotid, and right common carotid arteries was cannulated within a simulated endovascular suite with conventional (n = 42) vs robotic techniques (n = 30) by two operator groups: experts and novices. The procedure path was divided into three phases, and performance metrics corresponding to mean and maximum forces, force impact over time, standard deviation of forces, and number of significant catheter contacts with the arterial wall were extracted. Overall, median CF were reduced from 1.20 N (interquartile range [IQR], 0.98-1.56 N) to 0.31 N (IQR, 0.26-0.40 N; P < .001) for the right common carotid artery; 1.59 N (IQR, 1.11-1.85 N) to 0.33 N (IQR, 0.29-0.43 N; P < .001) for the left common carotid artery; and 0.84 N (IQR, 0.47-1.08 N) to 0.10 N (IQR, 0.07-0.17 N; P < .001) for the left subclavian artery. Robotic navigation resulted in significant reductions for the mean and maximum forces for each procedural phase. Significant improvements were also seen in other metrics, particularly at the target vessel ostium and for the more anatomically challenging procedural phases. Force reductions using robotic technology were evident for both novice and expert groups. Robotic navigation can potentially reduce CF and catheter-tissue contact points in an in vitro model, by enhancing catheter stability and control during endovascular manipulation. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular

  17. Gelsolin and Progression of Aortic Arch Calcification in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Liao, Shang-Chih; Kao, Yu-Yin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Lee, Po-Shun; Lee, Chien-Te

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a key process associated with cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. Gelsolin is an actin-binding protein that can modulate inflammation, correlated inversely with hemodialysis (HD) mortality and involved in bone calcification homeostasis. In this report, we aim to characterize progression in aortic arch calcification (AAC) and investigate its association with gelsolin. 184 HD patients were enrolled and their annual posterior-anterior chest X-ray films (CXR) in 2009 and 2013 were examined. The severity of AAC was classified as grade 0 to 3. Blood levels of gelsolin were measured by ELISA kits. Biographic and biochemical data at baseline were analyzed with status of AAC at baseline and changes after 4 years. At baseline, 60% of the patients had detectable AAC on CXR. After 4 years, 77% had AAC. Patients with grade 1 and 2 AAC had increased risk of progression (Odds ratio [OR] 2~3, P=0.001) compared to those with grade 0 at baseline. Compared to those with no AAC, patients with AAC progression had older age, lower gelsolin, higher waist circumference and prevalence of vascular disease. Regression analysis confirmed baseline gelsolin (odds ratio 0.845, 95% confidence interval [0.734-0.974]) and waist circumference as the independent factors associated with AAC progression. Gelsolin is positively correlated with serum albumin and negatively with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Our study demonstrated that HD patients with grades 1 or 2 baseline AAC are at increased risk of further progression compared to those with grade 0. We also found lower blood levels of gelsolin associated with progressive AAC. Further investigation into the mechanistic roles of gelsolin in vascular calcification may provide new understanding of this key process.

  18. Thoracoscopy with Concurrent Esophagoscopy for Persistent Right Aortic Arch in 9 Dogs.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Sarah; Oblak, Michelle L; Singh, Ameet; Steffey, Michele A; Runge, Jeffrey J

    2016-11-01

    To report the diagnosis, treatment, and short-term outcome in dogs with suspected persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) undergoing thoracoscopy with concurrent esophagoscopy. Multi-institutional retrospective case series. Dogs with suspected PRAA (n=9). Medical records were reviewed from 2012 to 2016. Dogs undergoing thoracoscopy for PRAA at 3 referral hospitals were included. Signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic imaging, anesthesia protocol (including the use of one-lung ventilation), surgical approach, complications, and short-term outcome were recorded. Dogs underwent a left-sided intercostal thoracoscopic approach with concurrent intraoperative esophagoscopy. The ligamentum arteriosum (LA) and constricting fibers were divided using a vessel-sealing device using a 3 or 4 port thoracoscopy technique. Visualization and dissection of the LA was aided by transesophageal illumination by esophagoscopy. Thoracoscopy confirmed PRAA in 9 dogs, with an aberrant left subclavian artery (LS) identified in 5 dogs. Major complications occurred in 2 dogs: postoperative hemorrhage from the LS and esophageal perforation, which resulted in euthanasia. Median follow-up was 250 days (range, 56-1,595). Regurgitation resolved in 4 of 8 surviving dogs. One dog had recurrence of regurgitation 1,450 days postoperatively, esophageal compression by the LS was identified, and regurgitation resolved following LS transection. Esophagoscopy aided identification and dissection of the LA in all cases. Due to the potential for the LS to cause clinical esophageal constriction postoperatively, a recommendation for LS transection may be warranted. Vascular clips can also be considered as an alternative for vessel ligation to avoid complications associated with vessel-sealing device use. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Periodontal Disease Associated with Aortic Arch Atheroma in Patients with Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    PubMed

    Sen, Souvik; Chung, Matthew; Duda, Viktoriya; Giamberardino, Lauren; Hinderliter, Alan; Offenbacher, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is associated with recurrent vascular event in stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). In this study, we investigated whether PD is independently associated with aortic arch atheroma (AA). We also explored the relationship PD has with AA plaque thickness and other characteristics associated with atheroembolic risk among patients with stroke or TIA. Finally, we confirmed the association between AA and recurrent vascular event in patients with stroke or TIA. In this prospective longitudinal hospital-based cohort study, PD was assessed in patients with stroke and TIA. Patients with confirmed stroke and TIA (n = 106) were assessed by calibrated dental examiners to determine periodontal status and were followed over a median of 24 months for recurrent vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and death). The extent of AA and other plaque characteristics was assessed by transesophageal echocardiography. Within our patient cohort, 27 of the 106 participants had recurrent vascular events (including 16 with stroke or TIA) over the median of 24-month follow-up. Severe PD was associated with increased AA plaque thickness and calcification. The results suggest that PD may be a risk factor for AA. In this cohort, we confirm the association of severe AA with recurrent vascular events. In patients with stroke or TIA, severe PD is associated with increased AA plaque thickness, a risk factor for recurrent events. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and to determine whether treatment of PD can reduce the rate of AA plaque progression and recurrent vascular events. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for esophageal cancer with right aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Linson, Jeremy; Ahmed, Bestoun; Awad, Ziad

    2017-01-01

    Right aortic arch (RAA) is a rare congenital vascular abnormality in which the aorta descends in the right thorax and encircles the esophagus. Historically, esophagectomy for patients for RAA is done through a left thoracotomy as exposure and mobilization of the esophagus is difficult through a right thoracotomy. A 73-year-old male was found to have an esophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a T3N0 lesion in the lower third of the esophagus. PET CT demonstrated a circumferential lesion without evidence of distant disease or involved lymph nodes and a RAA which was not associated with congenital heart disease or symptoms. The patient received neo-adjuvant chemoradiation (50.4 Gy) with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy (MIE) utilizing conventional right thoracoscopy was done. Esophageal mobilization, transection and mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed through anteriorly placed trocars, thereby avoiding the right side descending aorta that is lying anterior and to the right of the esophagus. In this video we demonstrate MIE utilizing right thoracoscopy. Total operative time was 250 minutes and the patient was discharged home on post-operative day 8. Final pathology showed complete pathological response, with 0/22 involved lymph nodes and uninvolved surgical margins. Minimally invasive esophagectomy has been reported to deliver superior outcomes to the open approach. MIE can be performed in selected patients with RAA, and herein we demonstrate a minimally invasive option for the treatment of distal esophageal cancer in patients with RAA. To our knowledge this is the 1st reported case in the English literature utilizing this approach in patient with RAA.

  1. Aortic arch origin of the left vertebral artery: An Anatomical and Radiological Study with Significance for Avoiding Complications with Anterior Approaches to the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, Gabrielle G; Edwards, Bryan; Alonso, Fernando; Watanabe, Koichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Moriyoshi; Motomura, Mayuko; Sampath, Raghuram; Iwanaga, Joe; Goren, Oded; Monteith, Stephen; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    Complications from anterior approaches to the cervical spine are uncommon with normal anatomy. However, variant anatomy might predispose one to an increased incidence of injury during such procedures. We hypothesized that left vertebral arteries that arise from the aortic arch instead of the subclavian artery might take a more medial path in their ascent making them more susceptible to iatrogenic injury. Fifty human adult cadavers were examined for left vertebral arteries having an aortic arch origin and these were dissected along their entire cervical course. Additionally, two radiological databases of CTA and arteriography procedures were retrospectively examined for cases of aberrant left vertebral artery origin from the aortic arch over a two-year period. Two cadaveric specimens (4%) were found to have a left vertebral artery arising from the aortic arch. The retrospective radiological database analysis identified 13 cases (0.87%) of left vertebral artery origin from the aortic arch. Of all cases, vertebral arteries that arose from the aortic arch were much more likely to not only have a more medial course (especially their preforaminal segment) over the cervical vertebral bodies but also to enter a transverse foramen that was more cranially located than the normal C6 entrance of the vertebral artery. Spine surgeons who approach the anterior cervical spine should be aware that an aortic origin of the left vertebral artery is likely to be closer to the midline and less protected above the C6 vertebral level. Clin. Anat. 30:811-816, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Trade in the hammer for a power driver—perspectives on the frozen elephant trunk repair for aortic arch disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Like a power driver for which the bit can be changed for each screw that is turned, improvement of brain protection strategies and the development of hybrid techniques have provided us with the ability to offer tailored repair options for patients with complex thoracic disease involving the arch. Variations of the frozen elephant trunk operation have been the most versatile of the newer hybrid approaches to repair complex thoracic aortic pathology. The frozen elephant trunk procedure includes the use of circulatory arrest in combination with suturing a stentgraft into the arch, and may reduce the risk of stroke and endoleaks. This article describes various methods of performing the frozen elephant trunk procedure with a focus on preoperative considerations including the etiology of disease, the time and urgency of presentation, and the indications to operate. PMID:24109573

  3. Hybrid Repair of Complex Thoracic Aortic Arch Pathology: Long-Term Outcomes of Extra-anatomic Bypass Grafting of the Supra-aortic Trunk

    SciTech Connect

    Lotfi, S. Clough, R. E.; Ali, T.; Salter, R.; Young, C. P.; Bell, R.; Modarai, B.; Taylor, P.

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid repair constitutes supra-aortic debranching before thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). It offers improved short-term outcome compared with open surgery; however, longer-term studies are required to assess patient outcomes and patency of the extra-anatomic bypass grafts. A prospectively maintained database of 380 elective and urgent patients who had undergone TEVAR (1997-2011) was analyzed retrospectively. Fifty-one patients (34 males; 17 females) underwent hybrid repair. Median age was 71 (range, 18-90) years with mean follow-up of 15 (range, 0-61) months. Perioperative complications included death: 10 % (5/51), stroke: 12 % (6/51), paraplegia: 6 % (3/51), endoleak: 16 % (8/51), rupture: 4 % (2/51), upper-limb ischemia: 2 % (1/51), bypass graft occlusion: 4 % (2/51), and cardiopulmonary complications in 14 % (7/51). Three patients (6 %) required emergency intervention for retrograde dissection: (2 aortic root repairs; 2 innominate stents). Early reintervention was performed for type 1 endoleak in two patients (2 proximal cuff extensions). One patient underwent innominate stenting and revision of their bypass for symptomatic restenosis. At 48 months, survival was 73 %. Endoleak was detected in three (6 %) patients (type 1 = 2; type 2 = 1) requiring debranching with proximal stent graft (n = 2) and proximal extension cuff (n = 1). One patient had a fatal rupture of a mycotic aneurysm and two arch aneurysms expanded. No bypass graft occluded after the perioperative period. Hybrid operations to treat aortic arch disease can be performed with results comparable to open surgery. The longer-term outcomes demonstrate low rates of reintervention and high rates of graft patency.

  4. Congenital Cardiac, Aortic Arch, and Vascular Bed Anomalies in PHACE Syndrome (From The International PHACE Syndrome Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Michelle L.; Frommelt, Peter C.; Blei, Francine; Breur, Johannes M.P.J.; Cordisco, Maria R.; Frieden, Ilona J.; Goddard, Deborah S.; Holland, Kristen E.; Krol, Alfons L.; Maheshwari, Mohit; Metry, Denise W.; Morel, Kimberly D.; North, Paula E.; Pope, Elena; Shieh, Joseph T.; Southern, James F.; Wargon, Orli; Siegel, Dawn H.; Drolet, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    PHACE syndrome represents the association of large infantile hemangiomas of the head and neck with brain, cerebrovascular, cardiac, ocular, and ventral/midline defects. Cardiac and cerebrovascular anomalies are the most common extracutaneous features of PHACE, and they also constitute the greatest source of potential morbidity. Congenital heart disease in PHACE is incompletely described, and this study was conducted to better characterize its features. This study of the International PHACE Syndrome Registry represents the largest central review of clinical, radiology, and pathology data for cardiovascular anomalies in PHACE patients to date. 62/150 (41%) subjects had intracardiac, aortic arch, or brachiocephalic vessel anomalies. Aberrant origin of a subclavian artery was the most common cardiovascular anomaly (present in 31/150 (21%) of subjects). Coarctation was the second most common anomaly, identified in 28/150 (19%), and can be missed clinically in PHACE patients because of the frequent association of arch obstruction with aberrant subclavian origin. 23/62 (37%) subjects with cardiovascular anomalies required procedural intervention. A higher percentage of hemangiomas were located on the left side of the head/neck in patients with coarctation (46% vs. 39%); however, hemangioma distribution did not predict the presence of cardiovascular anomalies overall. In conclusion, PHACE is associated with a high risk of congenital heart disease. Cardiac and aortic arch imaging with detailed assessment of arch patency and brachiocephalic origins is essential for any patient suspected of having PHACE. Longitudinal investigation is needed to determine the long-term outcomes of cardiovascular anomalies in PHACE. PMID:24079520

  5. Dr. Sun's Procedure for Type A Aortic Dissection: Total Arch Replacement Using Tetrafurcate Graft With Stented Elephant Trunk Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Sun's procedure is a modified elephant trunk technique that integrates the advantages of open surgical and endovascular repairs as a treatment of type A aortic dissection. It is named after Dr. Li-Zhong Sun and refers to total arch replacement using a four-branched graft with implantation of a special stented endovascular graft. Since its introduction, it has produced excellent early and late clinical outcomes. We present a video of this procedure and make an overview regarding the technical aspects, surgical indications, and clinical outcomes of Sun's procedure. PMID:26798674

  6. Right Cervical Aortic Arch and Pseudocoarctation of the Aorta Associated with Aneurysms and Steal Phenomena: US, CTA, and MRA Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Tanju, Sumru Ustuner, Evren; Erden, Ilhan; Aytac, Suat Kemal

    2007-02-15

    A 55-year-old woman presented with right cervical aortic arch with pseudocoarctation of the aorta further complicated by the presence of multiple aneurysms and a high-grade stenosis at the origin of the left subclavian trunk from the aorta causing a discrepancy in blood pressure between the right and left arms. The branching pattern and the resulting complex steal syndromes involving the left carotid and the subclavian system are unique. The computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and Doppler ultrasound findings are described.

  7. Association of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Cardiomegaly With Aortic Arch Calcification in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ming-Chen Paul; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aortic arch calcification (AoAC) is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in end-stage renal disease population. AoAC can be simply estimated with an AoAC score using plain chest radiography. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of AoAC with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardiomegaly in patients who have undergoing hemodialysis (HD). We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) by chest x-ray in 220 HD patients who underwent the measurement of baPWV. The values of baPWV were measured by an ankle-brachial index-form device. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with AoAC score >4. Compared patients with AoAC score ≦4, patients with AoAC score >4 had older age, higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular disease, lower diastolic blood pressure, higher baPWV, higher CTR, higher prevalence of CTR ≧50%, lower total cholesterol, and lower creatinine level. After the multivariate stepwise logistic analysis, old age, cerebrovascular disease, high baPWV (per 100 cm/s, odds ratio [OR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003–1.129, P = 0.038), CTR (per 1%, OR 1.116, 95% CI 1.046–1.191, P = 0.001), and low total cholesterol level were independently associated with AoAC score >4. Our study demonstrated AoAC severity was associated with high baPWV and high CTR in patients with HD. Therefore, we suggest that evaluating AoAC on plain chest radiography may be a simple and inexpensive method for detecting arterial stiffness in HD patients. PMID:27175684

  8. A novel way of visualizing the ductal and aortic arches by real-time three-dimensional ultrasound with live xPlane imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Chen, M; Chan, L W; Ting, Y H; Fung, T Y; Leung, T Y; Lau, T K

    2012-03-01

    To describe a novel method of visualizing the ductal and aortic arches by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography with live xPlane imaging. Live xPlane imaging was used to display the ductal- and aortic-arch views in 107 women with singleton pregnancies, including seven cases with suspected congenital heart defects (CHDs). The three vessels and trachea (3VT) view was obtained in such an orientation that either the pulmonary artery or the aorta was parallel to the direction of the ultrasound beam. The xPlane reference line was then placed across the targeted vessel, which in a normal case would provide an image of the corresponding arch view as a dual-image display. Once the 3VT view had been obtained, live xPlane imaging showed the aortic and ductal arches in all 100 normal cases. In seven cases with suspected CHD, the 3VT view was abnormal in five cases and normal in the other two. However, the ductal-arch view demonstrated by live xPlane imaging was abnormal in five cases of conotruncal anomalies and normal in two cases in which conotruncal anomalies were excluded. CHDs were confirmed at autopsy following termination of pregnancy in five cases and on postnatal echocardiography in one case. The heart was found postnatally to be normal in one case of suspected CHD; in this case live xPlane imaging showed that the observed abnormal 3VT view was caused by a tortuous course of the thoracic aorta associated with an abnormal diaphragm. Live xPlane imaging is a novel and relatively simple method of visualizing the ductal- and aortic-arch views, and may potentially be a useful tool in the screening of fetal conotruncal and aortic-arch anomalies. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Impact on calcification of aortic arch by lifestyle-related, physiologic and biochemical factors].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Lin; Jiang, Chao-Qiang; Lam, Tai-Hing; Cheng, Kar-Keung; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Wei-Sen; Xu, Lin; Jin, Ya-Li; Zhu, Tong; Gn, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    To explore the impact of lifestyle-related, physiological and biochemical factors on aortic arch calcification (AAC). 20 430 subjects aged 50 to 85 years were included in this study from the first and second recruitment phase of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. All the subjects received face-to-face interviews to collect detailed information on their socio-demographic background, occupational exposures, living environment, lifestyle, family and personal disease histories, and received a physical examination and tests including 12-lead ECG, chest radiograph, and pulmonary function testing. Each subject was screened for a range of fasting biochemical parameters. Radiographs were reviewed by two senior radiologists. 300 radiographs were independently read by the two radiologists to assess agreement using Kappa coefficient. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between life style, physiological and biochemical factors and AAC. (1) The rate of agreement on diagnosis for the two radiologists was 85% and Kappa coefficient was 0.68 (P < 0.01) which showed a moderate agreement between the two radiologists. (2) Except hypertension, the subjects were significantly different on their lifestyle, physiological and biochemical factors in both men and women (P < 0.05). (3) AAC was significantly associated with older age, smoking status, LDL-C, and hypertension (P < 0.01) in both genders. ORs (95%CI) indicated the following results: age was 1.11 (1.10 - 1.12) in men and 1.12 (1.12 - 1.13) in women;smoking as 1.31 (1.17 - 1.47) in men and 1.31 (1.09 - 1.57) in women; LDL-C as 1.16 (1.06 - 1.27) in men and 1.38 (1.22 - 1.56) in women, hypertension as 1.33 (1.18 - 1.50) in men and 1.27 (1.18 - 1.38) in women. However, diabetes was found to be associated with an increased risk of AAC in women [OR(95%CI)] 1.38 (1.22 - 1.56). Age, smoking, hypertension and Low-density lipoprotein level were risk factors to both genders, on AAC, while diabetes increased the risk of AAC

  10. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome, coarctation of the aorta and hypoplastic aortic arch: a case series report.

    PubMed

    van den Boom, Jutta; Battin, Malcolm; Hornung, Tim

    2010-03-01

    The twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) complicates 10-30% of monochorionic pregnancies. The incidence of pulmonary stenosis and endocardial fibroelastosis is especially high in the recipient twin. We report a novel finding of four cases of coarctation of the aorta and hypoplastic aortic arch in the donor to raise awareness of cardiac lesions in twins affected by TTTS. Retrospective review of both neonatal database and mortality data from 2002 to 2007 with cross-validation from the local tertiary cardiology unit data (1998-2006) to identify children presenting with coarctation who were also twins. We identified four monochorionic twin pairs affected by the TTTS, delivered between 25 weeks and 36 weeks' gestation, where the donor was found to have coarctation of the aorta or a hypoplastic aortic arch. In addition, two of the four recipients also had cardiac abnormalities. There was a high mortality rate of 30% for both twins, and a high morbidity rate, especially for neurological sequelae. We believe that the types of abnormalities seen may be explained by the altered fetal blood flow and haemodynamics in TTTS. Given the increased prevalence of congenital heart disease in TTTS, with an increased risk of coarctation in the donor twin and pulmonary stenosis in the recipient, intra-uterine surveillance and a post-natal comprehensive cardiac assessment for both twins is warranted.

  11. Adult Onset Dysphagia: Right Sided Aortic Arch, Ductus Diverticulum, and Retroesophageal Ligamentum Arteriosum Comprising an Obstructing Vascular Ring

    PubMed Central

    Raheja, Hitesh; Kamholz, Stephan; Shetty, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    A 49-year-old African American male patient with no past medical history was admitted because of 3 months of difficulty swallowing solid and liquid foods. He had constant retrosternal discomfort and appeared malnourished. The chest radiograph revealed a right sided aortic arch with tracheal deviation to the left. A swallow study confirmed a fixed esophageal narrowing at the level of T6. Contrast enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) angiogram of the chest and neck revealed a mirror image right aortic arch with a left sided cardiac apex and a prominent ductus diverticulum (measuring 1.7 × 1.8 cm). This structure extended posterior to and indented the mid esophagus. A left posterolateral thoracotomy was performed and the ductus diverticulum was resected. A retroesophageal ligamentum arteriosum was found during surgery and divided. This rare combination of congenital anatomical aberrations led to severe dysphagia in our patient. Successful surgical correction in the form of resection of the ductus diverticulum and division of the retroesophageal ligamentum arteriosum led to complete resolution of our patient's symptoms.

  12. Association of Ankle-Brachial Index and Aortic Arch Calcification with Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Shih, Ming-Chen Paul; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery occlusive disease and vascular calcification are highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients, however the association of the combination of ankle-brachial index (ABI) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing HD is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of ABI and AoAC is independently associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients. The median follow-up period was 5.7 years. Calcification of the aortic arch was assessed by chest X-ray. Forty-seven patients died including 24 due to cardiovascular causes during the follow-up period. The study patients were stratified into four groups according to an ABI < 0.95 or ≥0.95 and an AoAC score of >4 or ≤4 according to receiver operating characteristic curve. Those with an ABI < 0.95 and AoAC > 4 (vs. ABI ≥ 0.95 and AoAC score ≤ 4) were associated with overall (hazard ratio [HR], 4.913; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.932 to 12.497; p = 0.001) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.531; 95% CI, 1.070 to 11.652; p = 0.038) mortality in multivariable analysis. The combination of a low ABI and increased AoAC was associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing HD. PMID:27608939

  13. Variation in Perfusion Strategies for Neonatal and Infant Aortic Arch Repair: Contemporary Practice in the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

    PubMed

    Meyer, David B; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Hill, Kevin; Wallace, Amelia S; Bateson, Brian; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2016-09-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used as an adjunct or alternative to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for neonates and infants undergoing aortic arch repair. Clinical studies have not demonstrated clear superiority of either strategy, and multicenter data regarding current use of these strategies are lacking. We sought to describe the variability in contemporary practice patterns for use of these techniques. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2010-2013) was queried to identify neonates and infants whose index operation involved aortic arch repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. Perfusion strategy was classified as isolated DHCA, RCP (with less than or equal to ten minutes of DHCA), or mixed (RCP with more than ten minutes of DHCA). Data were analyzed for the entire cohort and stratified by operation subgroups. Overall, 4,523 patients (105 centers) were identified; median age seven days (interquartile range: 5.0-13.0). The most prevalent perfusion strategy was RCP (43%). Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and mixed perfusion accounted for 32% and 16% of cases, respectively. In all, 59% of operations involved some period of RCP. Regional cerebral perfusion was the most prevalent perfusion strategy for each operation subgroup. Neither age nor weight was associated with perfusion strategy, but reoperations were less likely to use RCP (31% vs 45%, P < .001). The combined duration of RCP and DHCA in the RCP group was longer than the DHCA time in the DHCA group (45 vs 36 minutes, P < .001). There is considerable variability in practice regarding perfusion strategies for arch repair in neonates and infants. In contemporary practice, RCP is the most prevalent perfusion strategy for these procedures. Use of DHCA is also common. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain possible relative merits of the various perfusion techniques. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Three-region perfusion strategy for aortic arch reconstruction in the Norwood.

    PubMed

    Karavas, Alexandros N; Deschner, Benjamin W; Scott, John W; Mettler, Bret A; Bichell, David P

    2011-09-01

    We describe a new method of selective regional perfusion during arch reconstruction in the Norwood procedure. The strategy involves direct sequential perfusion of the coronary and splanchnic circulations coupled with continuous cerebral perfusion, while repairing the arch in a distal to proximal fashion. This technique provides the potential for decreased coronary and splanchnic ischemic times, which in combination with continuous selective cerebral perfusion may further allow for warmer operating temperatures and decreased overall bypass times.

  15. Endovascular repair of a ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm: hybrid open arch reconstruction with simultaneous thoracic stent-graft deployment within elephant trunk.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Zhang, Wayne; Wang, Nan; Razzouk, Anees

    2008-03-01

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta is now widely practiced. The extension of this technique to emergent settings is in evolution. Pathology of the ascending and transverse aortic arch may preclude thoracic aortic stent grafting due to the lack of a proximal seal zone. Several hybrid open/endovascular approaches have been described. We recently encountered the difficult case of a contained rupture of a 6.8 cm descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a 60-year-old patient with aneurysmal degeneration of the ascending and transverse aortic arch. This patient was treated with a hybrid approach of open ascending and transverse arch reconstruction along with simultaneous stent-graft repair of the descending thoracic aorta. The open repair established an excellent proximal landing zone by use of the "elephant trunk" technique. This technique also allowed direct suture fixation of the stent graft to the arch graft to prevent stent-graft migration. This hybrid surgical approach was successful and avoided the cumulative morbidity that a left thoracoabdominal approach would have added to the sternotomy. Further creative uses of these hybrid techniques will undoubtedly serve a larger role in the treatment of thoracic aortic pathology.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of variations in branching patterns of the adult aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Popieluszko, Patrick; Henry, Brandon Michael; Sanna, Beatrice; Hsieh, Wan Chin; Saganiak, Karolina; Pękala, Przemysław A; Walocha, Jerzy A; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2017-08-30

    The aortic arch (AA) is the main conduit of the left side of the heart, providing a blood supply to the head, neck, and upper limbs. As it travels through the thorax, the pattern in which it gives off the branches to supply these structures can vary. Variations of these branching patterns have been studied; however, a study providing a comprehensive incidence of these variations has not yet been conducted. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all the studies that report prevalence data on AA variants and to provide incidence data on the most common variants. A systematic search of online databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed for literature describing incidence of AA variations in adults. Studies including prevalence data on adult patients or cadavers were collected and their data analyzed. A total of 51 articles were included (N = 23,882 arches). Seven of the most common variants were analyzed. The most common variants found included the classic branching pattern, defined as a brachiocephalic trunk, a left common carotid, and a left subclavian artery (80.9%); the bovine arch variant (13.6%); and the left vertebral artery variant (2.8%). Compared by geographic data, bovine arch variants were noted to have a prevalence as high as 26.8% in African populations. Although patients who have an AA variant are often asymptomatic, they compose a significant portion of the population of patients and pose a greater risk of hemorrhage and ischemia during surgery in the thorax. Because of the possibility of encountering such variants, it is prudent for surgeons to consider potential variations in planning procedures, especially of an endovascular nature, in the thorax. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic False Aneurysm after a Healed Rupture of the Aortic Isthmus: TEVAR, Hybrid Surgery, or Open Arch Repair?

    PubMed

    Nizet, Christophe; Van Damme, Hendrik; Boesmans, Evelyne; Lavigne, Jean-Paul; Creemers, Etienne; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of post-traumatic chronic false aneurysm of the aortic isthmus in a 34-year-old man who had been involved in a car accident 10 years earlier. An initial chest X-ray demonstrated a calcified mass in the upper mediastinum and computed tomography scan revealed a false aneurysm of the aortic isthmus arising above the left subclavian artery. Partial covered rupture of the aorta is not always easy to diagnose and can remain clinically silent in a polytrauma patient. The duration from rupture to false aneurysm formation may extend over many years. This chronic lesion can be managed by surgery, by an endovascular procedure, or by a combined procedure. This case report highlights the current therapeutic approach. A debranching procedure was done in view of a secondary exclusion of the huge false aneurysm by a stent graft. Unfortunately, the false aneurysm ruptured during the procedure and a replacement of the aortic arch and the isthmus under total circulatory arrest was successfully done. The patient was doing well at 9-month follow-up.

  18. Anomalous origin of the left innominate (brachiocephalic) artery in the right aortic arch: How can it be anomalous when the left innominate artery is absent?

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Francesca; Bonnet, Damien; Geva, Tal; Sanders, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of a rare vascular ring, which has been called right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery, is presented. The appearance of this case led to the realization that there is really no innominate artery present in this anomaly but only the left dorsal aorta. We present a clarification of the nature and likely development of the vessels present. PMID:27212855

  19. Left-ventricular mechanical activation and aortic-arch orientation recovered from magneto-hydrodynamic voltages observed in 12-lead ECGs obtained inside MRIs: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gregory, T Stan; Schmidt, Ehud J; Zhang, Shelley Hualei; Kwong, Raymond Y; Stevenson, William G; Murrow, Jonathan R; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-12-01

    To explore use of the Magnetohydrodynamic Voltage (VMHD), observed in intra-MRI 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG), to indicate the timing of the onset of left-ventricular mechanical activation (LVMA) and the orientation of the aortic-arch (AAO). Blood flow through the aortic arch during systole, in the presence of the MRI magnetic field (B 0), generates VMHD. Since the magnitude and direction of VMHD are determined by the timing and directionality of blood flow relative to B 0, we hypothesized that clinically useful measures, LVMA and AAO, could be extracted from temporal and vectorial VMHD characteristics. VMHD signals were extracted from 12-lead ECG traces by comparing traces obtained inside and outside the MRI scanner. VMHD was converted into the Vectorcardiogram frame of reference. LVMA was quantified in 1 subject at 1.5T and 3 subjects at 3T, and the result compared to CINE MRI. AAO was inferred for 4 subjects at 3T and compared to anatomical imaging of the aortic arch orientation in the transverse plane. A < 10% error was observed in LVMA measurements, while a < 3° error was observed in aortic arch orientation measurements. The temporal and vectorial nature of VMHD is useful in estimating these clinically relevant parameters.

  20. Left-ventricular mechanical activation and aortic-arch orientation recovered from Magneto-hydrodynamic Voltages observed in 12-lead ECGs obtained inside MRIs: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Zhang, Shelley Hualei; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Stevenson, William G.; Murrow, Jonathan R.; Ho Tse, Zion Tsz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore use of the Magnetohydrodynamic Voltage (VMHD), observed in intra-MRI 12-lead Electrocardiograms (ECG), to indicate the timing of the onset of left-ventricular mechanical activation (LVMA) and the orientation of the aortic-arch (AAO). Theory Blood flow through the aortic arch during systole, in the presence of the MRI magnetic field (B0), generates VMHD. Since the magnitude and direction of VMHD are determined by the timing and directionality of blood flow relative to B0, we hypothesized that clinically useful measures, LVMA and AAO, could be extracted from temporal and vectorial VMHD characteristics. Methods VMHD signals were extracted from 12-lead ECG traces by comparing traces obtained inside and outside the MRI scanner. VMHD was converted into the Vectorcardiogram frame of reference. LVMA was quantified in 1 subject at 1.5T and 3 subjects at 3T, and the result compared to CINE MRI. AAO was inferred for 4 subjects at 3T and compared to anatomical imaging of the aortic arch orientation in the transverse plane. Results and Conclusions A <10% error was observed in LVMA measurements, while a <3° error was observed in aortic arch orientation measurements. The temporal and vectorial nature of VMHD is useful in estimating these clinically relevant parameters. PMID:25224074

  1. Aortic arch replacement with a beating heart: a simple method using continuous 3-way perfusion.

    PubMed

    Abu-Omar, Y; Ali, J M; Colah, S; Dunning, J J

    2014-01-01

    We describe a simplified 3-way perfusion strategy that could be used in complex aortic procedures, which ensures continuous end-organ perfusion and minimizes the potential risks of cardiac, cerebral and peripheral ischaemic complications.

  2. A new concentric double prosthesis for sutureless, magnetic-assisted aortic arch inclusion.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Acute dissection of the ascending aorta is a life-threatening condition in which the aortic wall develops one or more tears of the intima associated with intramural rupture of the media layer with subsequent formation of a two lumina vessel. The remaining outer layer is just the adventitia, with high risk of complete rupture. Vital organs may be under-perfused. Mortality rate in this acute event is about 50% if an emergent surgical procedure is not performed as soon as possible to replace the tract affected by the primary rupture. Nevertheless, the emergent surgical procedure is affected by high risk of mortality or severe neurologic sequelae, due to the need for deep hypothermia and cardiocirculatory arrest and different methods of cerebral protection. If the patient survives the acute event, a frequent outcome is the establishment of a chronic aortic dissection in the remaining aorta and late chronic dissecting aneurysm, usually starting from the surgical suture itself. Traumatism of surgical stitches and of direct blood flow pressure on weak aortic wall can be important contributing factors of the chronic disease. In conclusions, the majority of these patients undergoes a high risk operation without a complete solution of the disease. We hypothesize that excluding the aortic layers from the blood direct flow and using an anastomotic technique which does not include surgical stitches could help to significantly reduce the recurrence of aortic dissection after the acute event and shorten hypothermic arrest duration. We devised a double tubular prosthesis consisting of two concentric artificial tubes between which the aortic wall is confined and excluded from direct blood flow. We also devised a magnetic assisted sutureless anastomotic technique that seals the aortic tissue between the two prostheses and avoids the perforation of the fragile aortic wall with surgical stitches. We are presenting here this new prototype and draw a few different models. Both acute and

  3. A Case of an Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Ruptured Dissection of a Right Aortic Arch

    SciTech Connect

    Born, Christine; Forster, Andreas; Rock, Clemens; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen; Rieger, Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian

    2003-09-15

    We report a case of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a rare underlying cause. The patient was unconscious when he was admitted to the hospital. No chest radiogram was performed. Routine diagnostic measures, including endoscopy, failed to reveal the origin of the bleeding, which was believed to originate from the esophagus secondary to a peptic ulcer or varices. Exploratory laparotomy added no further information, but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the chest showed dextroposition of the widened aortic arch with a ruptured type-B dissection and a consecutive aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF). The patient died on the day of admission. Noninvasive MSCT angiography gives rapid diagnostic information on patients with occult upper gastrointestinal bleeding and should be considered before more invasive conventional angiography or surgery.

  4. Sternum-Sparing Hybrid Repair of a Symptomatic Innominate Artery Aneurysm in a Frail Patient with Bovine Aortic Arch.

    PubMed

    Pellenc, Quentin; Avramenko, Alla; Mordant, Pierre; Castier, Yves

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old man with a bovine aortic arch variation, who presented a symptomatic aneurysm of the innominate artery. Standard open repair was contraindicated and an hybrid approach was performed, regarding general status (Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) Performance Status score 3 and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification system score 3). Right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery were revascularized surgically from the left common carotid artery. Proximal aneurysm exclusion was performed with a vascular plug. Follow-up computed tomography angiography confirmed the exclusion of the innominate artery aneurysm. Vascular plugs can be used safely through a sternum-sparing hybrid approach to treat symptomatic innominate artery aneurysms in frail patients.

  5. ATTEMPTED SURGICAL CORRECTION OF A PERSISTENT RIGHT FOURTH AORTIC ARCH IN A JUVENILE ROTHSCHILD'S GIRAFFE (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS ROTHSCHILDI).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Lynnette; D'Agostino, Jennifer; Cole, Gretchen A; Hahn, Alicia; Rochat, Mark; Sula, Mee Ja M

    2017-06-01

    A 5-mo-old female Rothschild's giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) presented for regurgitation. Esophagoscopy at 24 wk of age revealed a markedly dilated cranial esophagus with a tight stricture at the level of the heart base consistent with a vascular ring anomaly. Surgical exploration confirmed persistent right fourth aortic arch with ductus originating from left subclavian artery at its junction with the aorta and left subclavian artery. The patent ductus arteriosus was surgically ligated. The procedure was complicated by limited surgical access and vascular friability resulting in uncontrollable hemorrhage, and the animal was euthanatized. The animal's large size and unique shape precluded preoperative examination by computed tomography. Surgical accessibility was poor because cranial retraction of the thoracic limb was limited. Histology revealed focal degeneration of the aorta and subclavian artery and muscular degeneration of the esophagus. Degeneration was attributed to local hypoxia from compression by the vascular structure as the animal grew.

  6. Resection of Kommerell Diverticulum After the Arterial Switch for TGA With Bilateral PDAs and Right Aortic Arch.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Yoshie; Joo, Kunihiko; Onzuka, Tatsushi; Nakashima, Atsuhiro; Nagatomo, Yusaku; Watanabe, Mamie; Muneuchi, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We present a very rare case of bilateral ductus arteriosus in transposition of the great arteries with right aortic arch and aberrant retroesophageal left subclavian artery (SCA). Around 1 month after the successful arterial switch operation, the baby showed wheezing and retractive breathing. The computed tomography revealed that trachea and esophagus were sandwiched between the posterior displaced ascending aorta and the origin of the retroesophageal aberrant left SCA, the so-called Kommerell diverticulum (KD). This compression was successfully relieved by resection of the KD and division of the retroesophageal aberrant SCA through right thoracotomy. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Left thoracoscopic two-stage repair of tracheoesophageal fistula with a right aortic arch and a vascular ring

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroo; Tainaka, Takahisa; Tanano, Akihide; Shirota, Chiyoe; Yokota, Kazuki; Murase, Naruhiko; Shirotsuki, Ryo; Chiba, Kosuke; Hinoki, Akinari

    2017-01-01

    A right aortic arch (RAA) is found in 5% of neonates with tracheoesophageal fistulae (TEF) and may be associated with vascular rings. Oesophageal repairs for TEF with an RAA via the right chest often pose surgical difficulties. We report for the first time in the world a successful two-stage repair by left-sided thoracoscope for TEF with an RAA and a vascular ring. We switched from right to left thoracoscopy after finding an RAA. A proximal oesophageal pouch was hemmed into the vascular ring; therefore, we selected a two-stage repair. The TEF was resected and simple internal traction was placed into the oesophagus at the first stage. Detailed examination showed the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) completing a vascular ring. The subsequent primary oesophago-oesophagostomy and dissection of PDA was performed by left-sided thoracoscope. Therefore, left thoracoscopic repair is safe and feasible for treating TEF with an RAA and a vascular ring. PMID:27143697

  8. Early Lung Function Testing in Infants with Aortic Arch Anomalies Identifies Patients at Risk for Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Charles Christoph; Wilitzki, Silke; Opgen-Rhein, Bernd; Kalache, Karim; Proquitté, Hans; Bührer, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Background Aortic arch anomalies (AAA) are rare cardio-vascular anomalies. Right-sided and double-sided aortic arch anomalies (RAAA, DAAA) are distinguished, both may cause airway obstructions. We studied the degree of airway obstruction in infants with AAA by neonatal lung function testing (LFT). Patients and Methods 17 patients (10 RAAA and 7 DAAA) with prenatal diagnosis of AAA were investigated. The median (range) post conception age at LFT was 40.3 (36.6–44.1) weeks, median body weight 3400 (2320–4665) g. Measurements included tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL), airway resistance (Raw) by bodyplethysmography and the maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity (V′maxFRC) by rapid thoracic-abdominal compression (RTC) technique. V′maxFRC was also expressed in Z-scores, based on published gender-, age and height-specific reference values. Results Abnormal lung function tests were seen in both RAAA and DAAA infants. Compared to RAAA infants, infants with DAAA had significantly more expiratory flow limitations in the TBFVL, (86% vs. 30%, p<0.05) and a significantly increased Raw (p = 0.015). Despite a significant correlation between Raw and the Z-score of V′maxFRC (r = 0.740, p<0.001), there were no statistically significant differences in V′maxFRC and it's Z-scores between RAAA and DAAA infants. 4 (24%) infants (2 RAAA, 2 DAAA) were near or below the 10th percentile of V′maxFRC, indicating a high risk for airway obstruction. Conclusion Both, infants with RAAA and DAAA, are at risk for airway obstruction and early LFT helps to identify and to monitor these infants. This may support the decision for therapeutic interventions before clinical symptoms arise. PMID:21966379

  9. Progression of Aortic Arch Calcification Over 1 Year Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jung; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Dong Eun; Ko, Kwang Il; Koo, Hyang Mo; Kim, Chan Ho; Doh, Fa Mee; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims The presence and progression of vascular calcification have been demonstrated as important risk factors for mortality in dialysis patients. However, since the majority of subjects included in most previous studies were hemodialysis patients, limited information was available in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and prognostic value of AoAC progression in PD patients. Methods We prospectively determined AoAC by chest X-ray at PD start and after 12 months, and evaluated the impact of AoAC progression on mortality in 415 incident PD patients. Results Of 415 patients, 169 patients (40.7%) had AoAC at baseline with a mean of 18.1±11.2%. The presence of baseline AoAC was an independent predictor of all-cause [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.181, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.336–3.561, P = 0.002] and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.582, 95% CI: 1.577–8.132, P = 0.002). Among 363 patients with follow-up chest X-rays at 12 months after PD start, the proportion of patients with AoAC progression was significantly higher in patients with baseline AoAC (64.2 vs. 5.3%, P<0.001). Moreover, all-cause and cardiovascular death rates were significantly higher in the progression groups than in the non-progression group (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that AoAC progression was an independent predictor for all-cause (HR: 2.625, 95% CI: 1.150–5.991, P = 0.022) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 4.008, 95% CI: 1.079–14.890, P = 0.038) in patients with AoAC at baseline. Conclusions The presence and progression of AoAC assessed by chest X-ray were independently associated with unfavorable outcomes in incident PD patients. Regular follow-up by chest X-ray could be a simple and useful method to stratify mortality risk in these patients. PMID:23144974

  10. Effect of endoskeleton stent graft design on pulse wave velocity in patients undergoing endovascular repair of the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Hori, Daijiro; Akiyoshi, Kei; Yuri, Koichi; Nishi, Satoshi; Nonaka, Takao; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Imamura, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Harunobu; Kimura, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2017-06-08

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV), which measures vascular stiffness, is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular event. Treatment of aneurysms with endovascular prosthesis has been reported to increase PWV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an endoskeleton stent graft design has less effect on PWV than the exoskeleton stent graft design. Between July 2008 and September 2016, 74 patients underwent endovascular treatment of aortic arch aneurysm in our institution. PWV before and after surgery were compared between those who underwent treatment with Najuta, an endoskeleton stent graft (n = 51), and those treated with other commercially available exoskeleton stent grafts (n = 23). Preoperative PWV (endoskeleton: 2004 ± 379.2 cm/s vs. exoskeleton: 2083 ± 454.5 cm/s, p = 0.47) was similar between the two groups. Factors that were associated with preoperative PWV were age (r = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.56, p = 0.002) and mean arterial pressure (r = 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.68, p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in PWV in patients treated by exoskeleton stent grafts (before: 2083 ± 454.5 cm/s vs. after: 2305 ± 479.7 cm/s, p = 0.023) while endoskeleton stent graft showed no change in PWV (before: 2003 ± 379.2 vs. after: 2010 ± 521.1, p = 0.56). In a multivariate analysis, mean arterial pressure (coef 17.5, 95% CI 6.48-28.59, p = 0.002) and exoskeleton stent graft (coef 359.4, 95% CI 89.36-629.43, p = 0.010) were independently associated with PWV after surgery. Physiological changes after endovascular treatment should be considered including effect on vascular stiffness. Endoskeleton stent graft may provide aneurysm repair with minimum effect in PWV after surgery.

  11. The role of beta-adrenergic activity in the production of cardiac and aortic arch anomalies in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Hodach, R J; Hodach, A E; Fallon, J F; Folts, J D; Bruyere, H J; Gilbert, E F

    1975-08-01

    The sympathomimetic amines isoproterenol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine are structural derivatives of beta-phenylethylamine and have proportionately different effects on alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Chick embryos in ovo were each administered a single dose of one of these compounds at concentrations ranging from 0.4 times 10(-9) to 20 times 10(-9) mol/5 mul saline during Hamburger and Hamilton stages 20-27. In other experiments embryos were pretreated with the beta-antagonist propranolol and subsequently administered isoproterenol. 743 cardiovascular anomalies were produced. The production of cardiovascular anomalies was proportional to the degree of beta-adrenergic activity of each drug. The frequency of anomalies was significantly reduced by pretreatment with propranolol. At all concentrations tested the anomaly rate was greater in chick embryos receiving an experimental compound than in controls. The general types of anomalies included aortic arch defects, ventricular septal defect, double outlet right ventricle, aortic hypoplasia, and truncus arteriosus. These results demonstrate that activation of the beta-adrenergic receptor mechanism is directly related to the cardiovascular anomalies produced in the chick embryos.

  12. Balloon-Supported Passage of a Stent-Graft into the Aortic Arch.

    PubMed

    Eun, Na Lae; Lee, Dahye; Song, Suk-Won; Joo, Seung-Moon; Kölbel, Tilo; Lee, Kwang-Hun

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted, and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) procedure was performed to treat an accidentally detected aortic aneurysm, which was 63 mm in diameter. While performing TEVAR, the passage of the stent-graft introducer system was impossible due to the prolapse of the introducer system into a wide-necked aneurysm; this aneurysm was located at the greater curvature of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. In order to advance the introducer system, a compliant balloon was inflated. Thus, we created an artificial wall in the aneurysm with this inflated balloon. Finally, we were able to advance the introducer system into the target zone.

  13. Balloon-Supported Passage of a Stent-Graft into the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Na Lae; Lee, Dahye; Song, Suk-Won; Joo, Seung-Moon; Kölbel, Tilo

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted, and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) procedure was performed to treat an accidentally detected aortic aneurysm, which was 63 mm in diameter. While performing TEVAR, the passage of the stent-graft introducer system was impossible due to the prolapse of the introducer system into a wide-necked aneurysm; this aneurysm was located at the greater curvature of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. In order to advance the introducer system, a compliant balloon was inflated. Thus, we created an artificial wall in the aneurysm with this inflated balloon. Finally, we were able to advance the introducer system into the target zone. PMID:26175573

  14. A computational study of the role of the aortic arch in idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Megan J.; Ayylasomayajula, Avinash; Behkam, Reza; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Jacobs, M. Eileen; Edgar, Julia D.; Paniello, Randal C.; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (UVP) occurs when one of the vocal folds becomes paralyzed due to damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Individuals with UVP experience problems with speaking, swallowing, and breathing. Nearly two-thirds of all cases of UVP is associated with impaired function of the left RLN, which branches from the vagus nerve within the thoracic cavity and loops around the aorta before ascending to the larynx within the neck. We hypothesize that this path predisposes the left RLN to a supraphysiological, biomechanical environment, contributing to onset of UVP. Specifically, this research focuses on the identification of the contribution of the aorta to onset of left-sided UVP. Important to this goal is determining the relative influence of the material properties of the RLN and the aorta in controlling the biomechanical environment of the RLN. Finite element analysis was used to estimate the stress and strain imposed on the left RLN as a function of the material properties and loading conditions. The peak stress and strain in the RLN were quantified as a function of RLN and aortic material properties and aortic blood pressure using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. The material properties of the aortic arch showed the strongest correlation with peak stress [ρ = −0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI), −1.00 to −0.25] and strain (ρ = −0.62, 95% CI, −0.99 to −0.24) in the RLN. Our results suggest an important role for the aorta in controlling the biomechanical environment of the RLN and potentially in the onset of left-sided UVP that is idiopathic. PMID:25477351

  15. A computational study of the role of the aortic arch in idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Megan J; Ayylasomayajula, Avinash; Behkam, Reza; Bierhals, Andrew J; Jacobs, M Eileen; Edgar, Julia D; Paniello, Randal C; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2015-02-15

    Unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (UVP) occurs when one of the vocal folds becomes paralyzed due to damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Individuals with UVP experience problems with speaking, swallowing, and breathing. Nearly two-thirds of all cases of UVP is associated with impaired function of the left RLN, which branches from the vagus nerve within the thoracic cavity and loops around the aorta before ascending to the larynx within the neck. We hypothesize that this path predisposes the left RLN to a supraphysiological, biomechanical environment, contributing to onset of UVP. Specifically, this research focuses on the identification of the contribution of the aorta to onset of left-sided UVP. Important to this goal is determining the relative influence of the material properties of the RLN and the aorta in controlling the biomechanical environment of the RLN. Finite element analysis was used to estimate the stress and strain imposed on the left RLN as a function of the material properties and loading conditions. The peak stress and strain in the RLN were quantified as a function of RLN and aortic material properties and aortic blood pressure using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. The material properties of the aortic arch showed the strongest correlation with peak stress [ρ = -0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.00 to -0.25] and strain (ρ = -0.62, 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.24) in the RLN. Our results suggest an important role for the aorta in controlling the biomechanical environment of the RLN and potentially in the onset of left-sided UVP that is idiopathic. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Potential Molecular Mechanism of Retrograde Aortic Arch Stenosis in the Hybrid Approach to Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hibino, Narutoshi; Cismowski, Mary J.; Lilly, Brenda J.; McConnell, Patrick I.; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Cheatham, John P.; Lucchesi, Pamela A.; Galantowicz, Mark E.; Trask, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The hybrid palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) has emerged as an alternative approach to the Norwood procedure. The development of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in-stent stenosis can cause retrograde aortic arch stenosis (RAAS), leading to significant morbidity. This study aimed to identify potential mechanisms of PDA in-stent stenosis contributing to RAAS. METHODS Tissues from stented PDA were collected from 17 patients undergoing comprehensive stage 2 repair between 2009 and 2014. Patients requiring RAAS intervention based on cardiology–surgery consensus were defined as RAAS (+) (n=10), whereas patients without any RAAS intervention were defined as RAAS (−) (n=7). Tissues were examined by qPCR analysis for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation and proliferation markers. RESULTS Patient characteristics were: HLHS with aortic atresia: 6; HLHS with aortic stenosis: 3; unbalanced AVC: 3; DILV/TGA: 3; DORV: 2. VSMC differentiation markers (β–actin, SM22, and calponin) and signaling pathways for VSMC modulation (TGFβ1, Notch, and PDGF-BB) were significantly higher in the RAAS (+) than in RAAS (−). The proliferation marker Ki67 was increased in RAAS (+). Cell cycle markers were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION Increased VSMC differentiation and proliferation markers suggest a mechanism for inward neointima formation of the PDA in RAAS. The apparent lack of change in cell cycle markers is contrary to coronary artery in-stent stenosis, suggesting further targets should be examined. Combined primary in vitro PDA cell culture and proteomics can be strong tools to elucidate targets to reduce PDA in-stent stenosis for RAAS in the future. PMID:26163359

  17. Congenital airway anomaly of double aortic arch in a 2-day-old infant.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seo; Mayor, Jessica; Younis, Ramzi

    2014-01-01

    Double aortic vascular ring is a complete vascular ring that is formed when the distal portion of the right dorsal aorta fails to regress and the ascending aorta bifurcates to surround and compress both trachea and esophagus and rejoins to form the descending aorta.

  18. Tbx1 haploinsufficieny in the DiGeorge syndrome region causes aortic arch defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, E A; Vitelli, F; Su, H; Morishima, M; Huynh, T; Pramparo, T; Jurecic, V; Ogunrinu, G; Sutherland, H F; Scambler, P J; Bradley, A; Baldini, A

    2001-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular, thymus and parathyroid defects and craniofacial anomalies, and is usually caused by a heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) (ref. 1). A targeted, heterozygous deletion, named Df(16)1, encompassing around 1 megabase of the homologous region in mouse causes cardiovascular abnormalities characteristic of the human disease. Here we have used a combination of chromosome engineering and P1 artificial chromosome transgenesis to localize the haploinsufficient gene in the region, Tbx1. We show that Tbx1, a member of the T-box transcription factor family, is required for normal development of the pharyngeal arch arteries in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Deletion of one copy of Tbx1 affects the development of the fourth pharyngeal arch arteries, whereas homozygous mutation severely disrupts the pharyngeal arch artery system. Our data show that haploinsufficiency of Tbx1 is sufficient to generate at least one important component of the DiGeorge syndrome phenotype in mice, and demonstrate the suitability of the mouse for the genetic dissection of microdeletion syndromes.

  19. Evaluation of dental arch width and form changes after orthodontic treatment and retention with a new computerized method.

    PubMed

    Taner, Tülin Ugur; Ciger, Semra; El, Hakan; Germeç, Derya; Es, Alphan

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal arch width and form changes and to define arch form types with a new computerized method. Maxillary and mandibular models of 21 Class II Division 1 patients were examined before treatment (T(0)), after treatment (T(1)), and an average of 3 years after retention (T(2)). Arch width measurements were made directly on scanned images of maxillary and mandibular models. Arch form changes at T(0)-T(1) and T(1)-T(2) were evaluated by superimposing the computer-generated Bezier arch curves with a computer program. Types of dental arch forms were defined by superimposing them with the pentamorphic arch system, which included 5 different types of arch forms: normal, ovoid, tapered, narrow ovoid, and narrow tapered. Maxillary arch widths were increased during orthodontic treatment. Mandibular posterior arch widths were also increased. The expansion of the mandibular arch forms was less than in the maxillary arch forms. Arch width changes were generally stable, except for reduction in maxillary and mandibular interlateral, inter-first premolar, and mandibular intercanine widths. Pretreatment maxillary arch forms were mostly tapered; mandibular arch forms were tapered and narrow tapered. In maxillary arch forms, 76% of the treatment changes were maintained. Mandibular arch form was maintained in 67% of the sample, both during treatment and after retention. In mandibular arches, 71% of orthodontically induced arch form changes were maintained.

  20. Self-Expandable Stent for Repairing Coarctation of the Left-Circumferential Aortic Arch with Right-sided Descending Aorta and Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery with Kommerell's Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Zahra; Sanati, Hamid Reza; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza; Mohebbi, Bahram; Aeinfar, Kamran; Zolfaghari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Endovascular treatment offers a great advantage in the management of main arteries stenoses. However, simultaneous presence of a group of anomalies may complicate the situation. Here we present a case of 21-year-old man with aortic coarctation. Radiographic imaging and angiography demonstrated aortic coarctation of the left-circumferential aortic arch, right-sided descending aorta, and Kommerell's diverticulum at the origin of right subclavian artery. These anomalies have rarely been reported to concurrently exist in the same case and the treatment is challenging. Percutaneous treatment for repair of aortic coarctation was successfully performed with deployment of self-expanding nitinol stents. Follow-up demonstrated the correction of blood pressure and improvement of the symptoms. It appears that deployment of self-expandable nitinol stents present a viable option for the management of coarcted aorta in patients having all or some of these anomalies together.

  1. An unusual case of multiple aortic abnormalities: total occlusion of aortic arch, left external iliac artery, and bicuspid aortic valve in a 21-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Tanindi, Asli; Tavil, Yusuf; Mutluay, Ruya; Taktak, Hacer; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-03-01

    An unusual case of total occlusion of aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and occluded left external iliac artery in a 21-year-old man who was admitted with headache and severe hypertension is presented. We wish to report this case because so far there have been none reported with such multiple aortic abnormalities, although several documented cases of isolated total occlusion of aorta exist. Our patient underwent a successful surgical correction, i.e., patch plasty to the coarcted segment and end to side - end to side aortal-aortal bypass with Dacron graft.

  2. Surgical management of an aberrant left subclavian artery originating from a left patent ductus arteriosus in a dog with a right aortic arch and abnormal branching.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ashley B; Winter, Randolph L; Griffin, Jay F; Thieman Mankin, Kelley M; Miller, Matthew W

    2013-06-01

    An increase in the availability of advanced imaging modalities has led to improved recognition of cardiovascular anomalies. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) provides a non-invasive means of acquiring 3D images with a relatively short acquisition time thereby providing essential information in regards to patient anatomy and procedure planning. The dog in this report had a right aortic arch and abnormal branching with an aberrant left subclavian artery originating from the ampulla of a left patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) that was detected with CTA. The PDA was creating a volume overload to the left side of the heart as well as contributing to the vascular ring and compression of the esophagus. Therefore, ligation and transection instead of a minimally invasive catheter-based procedure was required. This aortic arch anomaly and surgical management have not been previously reported in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency and potential consequences of origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junlin; Guileyardo, Joseph M; Roberts, William C

    2016-10-01

    Described herein are findings in a 58-year-old man in whom necropsy disclosed origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch. No functional consequences resulted. Study of previous publications disclosed the frequency of this anomaly in adults to be approximately 3.5%. Dissection has been reported to be more frequent in the left vertebral artery when it arises directly from the aorta than when it arises from the left subclavian artery.

  4. Disease Beyond the Arch: A Systematic Review of Middle Aortic Syndrome in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Rumman, Rawan K; Nickel, Cheri; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Lorenzo, Armando J; Langlois, Valerie; Radhakrishnan, Seetha; Amaral, Joao; Mertens, Luc; Parekh, Rulan S

    2015-07-01

    Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare clinical entity in childhood, characterized by a severe narrowing of the distal thoracic and/or abdominal aorta, and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. MAS remains a relatively poorly defined disease. This paper systematically reviews the current knowledge on MAS with respect to etiology, clinical impact, and therapeutic options. A systematic search of 3 databases (Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) yielded 1,252 abstracts that were screened based on eligibility criteria resulting in 184 full-text articles with 630 reported cases of childhood MAS. Data extracted included patient characteristics, clinical presentation, vascular phenotype, management, and outcomes. Most cases of MAS are idiopathic (64%), 15% are associated with Mendelian disorders, and 17% are related to inflammatory diseases. Extra-aortic involvement including renal (70%), superior mesenteric (30%), and celiac (22%) arteries is common, especially among those with associated Mendelian disorders. Inferior mesenteric artery involvement is almost never reported. The majority of cases (72%) undergo endovascular or surgical management with residual hypertension reported in 34% of cases, requiring medication or reintervention. Clinical manifestations and extent of extra-aortic involvement are lacking. MAS presents with significant involvement of visceral arteries with over two thirds of cases having renal artery stenosis, and one third with superior mesenteric artery stenosis. The extent of disease is worse among those with genetic and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to better understand etiology, long-term effectiveness of treatment, and to determine the optimal management of this potentially devastating condition. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Hybrid repair of penetrating aortic ulcer associated with right aortic arch and aberrant left innominate artery arising from aneurysmal Kommerell's diverticulum with simultaneous repair of bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bin; Cai, Hongbo; Jin, Hui

    2014-02-01

    We present the first case of a hybrid endovascular approach to a penetrating aortic ulcer on the left descending aorta with a right aortic arch and aberrant left innominate artery arising from an aneurysmal Kommerell's diverticulum. The patient also had bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms. The three-step procedure consisted of a carotid-carotid bypass, followed by endovascular exclusion of the ulcer and the aneurysmal Kommerell's diverticulum, and then completion by covering the iliac aneurysms. The patient had no complications at 18 months after surgery. In such rare configurations, endovascular repair is a safe therapeutic option.

  6. In vitro flow investigations in the aortic arch during cardiopulmonary bypass with stereo-PIV.

    PubMed

    Büsen, Martin; Kaufmann, Tim A S; Neidlin, Michael; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Sonntag, Simon J

    2015-07-16

    The cardiopulmonary bypass is related to complications like stroke or hypoxia. The cannula jet is suspected to be one reason for these complications, due to the sandblast effect on the vessel wall. Several in silico and in vitro studies investigated the underlying mechanisms, but the applied experimental flow measurement techniques were not able to address the highly three-dimensional flow character with a satisfying resolution. In this work in vitro flow measurements in a cannulated and a non-cannulated aortic silicone model are presented. Stereo particle image velocimetry measurements in multiple planes were carried out. By assembling the data of the different measurement planes, quasi 3D velocity fields with a resolution of~1.5×1.5×2.5 mm(3) were obtained. The resulting velocity fields have been compared regarding magnitude, streamlines and vorticity. The presented method shows to be a suitable in vitro technique to measure and address the three-dimensional aortic CPB cannula flow with a high temporal and spatial resolution.

  7. Aortic arch and common carotid artery plaques with soft components pose a substantial risk of cerebral embolization during carotid stenting

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Krisztina; Rarosi, Ferenc; Thury, Attila; Barzó, Pál; Németh, Tamás; Vörös, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A higher rate of embolization is considered a disadvantage of carotid stenting (CAS), when compared with carotid endarterectomy. Plaques in the aortic arch (AA) and the common carotid artery (CCA) may be additional sources of embolization to stented internal carotid plaques during CAS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these plaques and intracerebral embolization. Methods We analyzed the occurrence and composition of plaques in the AA and CCA by computed tomography angiography (CTA) in 101 consecutive cases of CAS. Cases of peri-procedural embolization were detected on diffusion-weighted imaging as lesions demonstrating diffusion restriction. We applied the χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests, as well as logistic regression models. Results The occurrence of plaques in the AA and CCA was significantly related to the appearance of new diffusion-weighted imaging lesions (p = 0.013 and p = 0.004, respectively). Patients with soft plaques in the AA or CCA had a significantly higher risk of embolization than those without plaques (p = 0.012 and p = 0.006, respectively). In contrast, homogeneously calcified plaques did not pose significantly higher risks. Conclusions Soft plaques in the AA and CCA result in a substantial risk of embolization during CAS. Use of a CTA examination of the AA and the CCA in patients with carotid stenosis may help to select lower-risk patients for CAS. PMID:26921167

  8. Aortic arch calcification predicts the renal function progression in patients with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Lung-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chou, Chia-An; Lee, Chien-Te

    2015-01-01

    The presence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and cardiomegaly on chest radiography has been demonstrated as important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the interrelationship among AoAC, cardiomegaly, and renal function progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to assess whether AoAC and cardiomegaly are independently associated with the renal function progression in patients with stages 3-5 CKD. We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiomegaly by chest X-ray in 237 patients, followed up for at least three years without entering dialysis and classified into 4 groups according to the presence or absence of AoAC and cardiomegaly. The change in renal function was measured by the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of the 237 patients, the rate of eGFR decline was significantly higher in the group with coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly than any other groups. Baseline AoAC and proteinuria were independently associated with eGFR decline. AoAC were independently determined by age, eGFR slope, and cardiomegaly. The coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly is associated with faster eGFR decline. AoAC is an independent determinant of renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3-5.

  9. Endovascular Embolization of Bronchial Artery Originating from the Upper Portion of Aortic Arch in Patients with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-05-15

    PurposeOur experience with endovascular embolization (EVE) of the bronchial artery (BA) originating from the upper portion of the aortic arch (AA) in six patients is described.MethodsAltogether, 818 patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) before EVE or AA angiography during EVE. Aberrant BAs originating from the upper portion of the AA were the source of massive hemoptysis in six patients (0.73 %). MDCT angiograms and/or Digital subtraction angiograms were retrospectively reviewed. Selective catheterization and embolization were performed.ResultsThe ostia of the BAs were located on the superior surface of the AA between the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery in three patients, the junction of the aorta and medial surface of the left subclavian artery in two, and the posterior wall of the upper portion of the AA in one. The six BAs comprised two common trunks, three single right sides, and one single left side. The targeted vessels were successfully catheterized and embolized by a coaxial microcatheter system using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Other pathologic BAs and nonbronchial systemic arteries also were embolized. Bleeding was immediately controlled in all patients with no recurrence of hemoptysis. No procedure-related complications occurred.ConclusionsApplication of EVE of anomalous origin of BAs in patients with hemoptysis is important, as demonstrated in the six reported patients. MDCTA before EVE or AA angiography during EVE is critical to avoid missing a rare aberrant BA originating from the upper portion of the AA.

  10. Aortic Arch Calcification Predicts the Renal Function Progression in Patients with Stage 3 to 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Ting; Chou, Chia-An; Lee, Chien-Te

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The presence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and cardiomegaly on chest radiography has been demonstrated as important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the interrelationship among AoAC, cardiomegaly, and renal function progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to assess whether AoAC and cardiomegaly are independently associated with the renal function progression in patients with stages 3–5 CKD. Methods. We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiomegaly by chest X-ray in 237 patients, followed up for at least three years without entering dialysis and classified into 4 groups according to the presence or absence of AoAC and cardiomegaly. The change in renal function was measured by the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. Of the 237 patients, the rate of eGFR decline was significantly higher in the group with coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly than any other groups. Baseline AoAC and proteinuria were independently associated with eGFR decline. AoAC were independently determined by age, eGFR slope, and cardiomegaly. Conclusions. The coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly is associated with faster eGFR decline. AoAC is an independent determinant of renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3–5. PMID:25695046

  11. Cardiac-MRI demonstration of the ligamentum arteriosum in a case of right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery

    PubMed Central

    Paparo, Francesco; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Melani, Enrico; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; De Caro, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Right-sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery (RAA/ALSC) is the second most common mediastinal complete vascular ring. Adult presentation of dysphagia lusoria due to a RAA/ALSC is uncommon with fewer than 25 cases reported in the world literature. The left lateral portion of this vascular ring is not a vessel, but an atretic ductus arteriosus, the ligamentum arteriosum, which has been identified in different cases as the major cause of tracheo-esophageal impingement. Surgical division of the ligamentum arteriosum allows the vessels to assume a less constricting pattern decreasing dysphagic symptoms. Clear visualization of the ligamentum arteriosum by diagnostic imaging has not been obtained in previously reported cases. We demonstrated, using magnetic resonance imaging, the location and the complete course of a left-sided ligamentum arteriosum in a patient with adult-onset dysphagia due to a RAA/ALSC with a small Kommerell’s diverticulum, providing, during the same session, a complete assessment of both mediastinal vascular abnormalities and esophageal impingement sites. PMID:22761985

  12. ArchE - An Architecture Design Assistant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    X, Module X 3 Author / Presenter, Date if Needed What is ArchE? ArchE is a software architecture design assistant, which: • Takes quality and...functional requirements as input • Elicits key quality attribute information to refine quality requirements • Elicits key architectural information...Derives candidate architectures • Evaluates whether quality requirements are satisfied • Identifies tradeoffs • Suggests alternative architectures ArchE is

  13. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score < 400, AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  14. Functional evaluation after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, K; Ikäheimo, M; Takkunen, J

    1983-01-01

    Preoperative and sequential postoperative bicycle exercise tests were compared with clinical and catheterization data in assessment of the functional outcome of uncomplicated aortic valve replacement (AVR) in 33 patients. The operation was done because of aortic stenosis (AS) in 14 patients and aortic regurgitation (AR) in 19. Both groups of patients showed improved NYHA functional class and peak achieved workload after AVR, but the results in these respects did not correlate. Nor did the regression in left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dilatation after AVR that was seen in both patient groups correlate with the changes measured in exercise tolerance. Preoperative exercise capacity was not predictive of the postoperative performance. In the AR patients, however, preoperative ability to raise the systolic blood pressure during exercise appeared to predict which patients were likely to show enhanced resting LV systolic pump function after AVR. It is concluded that objective tests of exercise tolerance alone permit reliable evaluation of the functional outcome of uncomplicated AVR. Indices of resting LV performance, though helpful in observation of the changes resulting from removal of the untoward LV burden after AVR, are likely to be less useful for evaluating changes in the LV exercise reserve. The response of the systolic blood pressure to exercise may be an additional predictive factor for postoperative resting LV performance in patients with AR.

  15. Simultaneous Individually Controlled Upper and Lower Body Perfusion for Valve-Sparing Root and Total Aortic Arch Replacement: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Philip; Mayer, Rick; Adams, Corey; Chu, Michael W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Optimal perfusion strategies for extensive aortic resection in patients with mega-aortic syndromes include: tailored myocardial preservation, antegrade cerebral perfusion, controlled hypothermia and selective organ perfusion. Typically, the aortic arch resection and elephant trunk procedure are performed under hypothermic circulatory arrest with myocardial and cerebral protection. However, mesenteric and systemic ischemia occur during circulatory arrest and commonly rely upon deep hypothermia alone for metabolic protection. We hypothesized that simultaneously controlled mesenteric and systemic perfusion can attenuate some of the metabolic debt accrued during circulatory arrest, which may help improve perioperative outcomes. The perfusion strategy consisted of delivering a 1 to 3 liter per minute flow at 25°C to the head/upper body via right axillary graft and simultaneous perfusion to the lower body/mesenteric organs of 1 to 3 liters per minute at 30°C via a right femoral arterial graft. We describe our technique of simultaneous mesenteric, systemic, cerebral and myocardial perfusion, and protection utilized for a young male patient with Marfan’s syndrome, while undergoing a valve sparing root replacement, total arch replacement and elephant trunk reconstruction. This perfusion technique allowed us to deliver differential flow rates and temperatures to the upper and lower body (cold head/warm lower body perfusion) to minimize ischemic debt and quickly reverse metabolic derangements. PMID:22416605

  16. Clinical and biochemical outcomes for additive mesenteric and lower body perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest for complex total aortic arch replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Adams, C; Chu, M W A

    2012-11-01

    Surgical repair of transverse aortic arch aneurysms frequently employ hypothermia and antegrade cerebral perfusion as protective strategies during circulatory arrest. However, prolonged mesenteric and lower limb ischemia can lead to significant lactic acidosis and end organ dysfunction, which remains a significant cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. We report our experience with additive warm mesenteric and lower body perfusion (1-3 L/min, 30°C) in addition to continuous cerebral and myocardial perfusion in 5 patients who underwent total aortic arch replacement with trifurcated head vessel re-implantation and distal elephant trunk reconstruction. Concomitant surgical procedures included re-operations (2), aortic root operations (2), coronary artery bypass (2) and descending thoracic aortic replacement (1). Serum lactate levels demonstrated a rapid decline from a peak 9.9 ± 2.6 post circulatory arrest to 3.4 ± 2.0 in the intensive care unit (ICU). The lowest serum bicarbonate levels were 19.3 ± 3.5 mmol/L, intra-operatively, which normalized to 28.4 ± 2.4 mmol/L on return to the ICU. The lowest pH levels were 7.25 ± 0.10, corrected to 7.43 ± 0.04 on return to the ICU. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 361 ± 104 and 253 ± 85 minutes, respectively. Mean cerebral and lower body circulatory arrest times were 0 (0) and 50 ± 35 minutes, respectively. The mean time required for systemic rewarming was 95 ± 66 minutes. There were no in-hospital mortalities and no patient experienced any neurological, mesenteric, renal or lower limb ischemic complications. Two patients required mechanical ventilation >24 hours, and one patient returned for reoperation for bleeding. Median intensive care unit and total hospital lengths of stay were 5 and 16 days, respectively. Our results suggest early serum lactate clearance, normalization of acidosis, and metabolic recovery when utilizing a simultaneous cerebral perfusion and warm body

  17. Saccular Aneurysms of the Transverse Aortic Arch Based on a Presentation at the 2013 VEITH Symposium, November 19–23, 2013 (New York, NY, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Preventza, Ourania; Coselli, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Saccular aneurysms of the aortic arch, whether single or multiple, are uncommon. The choice of repair technique is influenced by patients' comorbidities and age. Repairing saccular aneurysms with traditional open techniques can be technically demanding; therefore, endovascular technology and a variety of hybrid approaches have been developed to facilitate such repairs and, potentially, to improve clinical outcomes, especially in high-risk patients. There have been no large, randomized studies to compare the outcomes of these different treatment options in patients with single or multiple saccular aneurysms of the arch. In this review, we outline the etiology and common locations of these aneurysms, the different open, completely endovascular, and hybrid techniques used to treat them, and the treatment selection process. PMID:26798759

  18. Tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, abnormal myocardial architecture and anomalies of the aortic arch system induced by bis-diamine in rat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, T; Roberts, W C

    1993-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between anomalies of the heart and aortic arch arteries in near-term rat fetuses exposed to the chemical bis-diamine. Bis-diamine is known to induce cardiovascular anomalies. Bis-diamine was given orally to normal pregnant rats, and the 65 fetuses were examined under a dissecting microscope after formalin fixation. There were 26 rat fetuses (40%) with a ventricular septal defect in the perimembranous portion, of which 14 (22%) had tetralogy of Fallot, 4 (6%) had truncus arteriosus and 8 (12%) had a relatively small defect with no other major anomalies. In 44 fetuses (68%) the middle latitudinal muscle bundle of the ventricular septum was continuous with the right ventricular free wall. There were, isolated or in association, a double- or right aortic arch in 6 fetuses (9%), aberrant subclavian arteries in 9 (14%), right ductus arteriosus in 12 (18%) and agenetic ductus in 4 (6%). The cross-sectional area of the ductus, as corrected by that of the aortic isthmus, was abnormally small in 47 rats (72%). The rat fetuses with a septal defect or abnormal myocardial architecture, or both, usually had a small ductus; it was very small or absent in those fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot. Of the four fetuses with truncus arteriosus, two had a vestigial vasculature on the truncus root and three had a rudimentary infundibulum. The cardinal defect may be the anomalous and reduced development of the sixth arch arteries, which by imposing pressure overload on the fetal right ventricle, may have led to either or both the persistence of ventricular septal defect as a vent or the formation of myocardial architecture favorable for the generation of pressure in the right ventricle.

  19. Successful staged repair for a rare type of truncus arteriosus with interruption of the aortic arch and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a successful staged repair for a quite rare combination of truncus arteriosus (TA), Van Praagh type A4, and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery (CA). Furthermore, the case was complicated by a variant of the chromosomal anomaly in cat-cry syndrome. The presence of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) and abnormal CA origin has been previously reported to increase mortality. To decrease the risk of bronchomalacia in infants, bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed as the first stage procedure for adjusting the pulmonary flow. Staged repair is a useful strategy for infants with complex TA. PMID:23714656

  20. Successful staged repair for a rare type of truncus arteriosus with interruption of the aortic arch and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Uchita, Shunji; Harada, Yorikazu; Honda, Kentaro; Toguchi, Koji; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Yoshitaka

    2013-05-28

    We report a successful staged repair for a quite rare combination of truncus arteriosus (TA), Van Praagh type A4, and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery (CA). Furthermore, the case was complicated by a variant of the chromosomal anomaly in cat-cry syndrome. The presence of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) and abnormal CA origin has been previously reported to increase mortality. To decrease the risk of bronchomalacia in infants, bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed as the first stage procedure for adjusting the pulmonary flow. Staged repair is a useful strategy for infants with complex TA.

  1. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of an aneurysm on a cervical aortic arch associated with an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Charrot, Florent; Tarmiz, Amine; Glock, Yves; Léobon, Bertrand

    2010-02-01

    Cervical aortic arch (CAA) is a rare congenital anomaly. An aneurysm developed on a CAA is even rarer and a life threatening condition. We report the diagnosis and surgical treatment of an aneurysm on a CAA associated with an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery. The surgical procedure consisted in the resection of the aneurysm, a direct aorto aortic anastomosis and a coronary artery bypass to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery with a good result at 11 months. This first case reported of an anomaly of a coronary artery origin associated with an aneurysm on a CAA, underlines the interest of a preoperative complete anatomical and functional diagnosis, to define an optimal intraoperative strategy.

  2. [Giant aortic arch aneurysm following ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in an adult patient with Down syndrome; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Tano, Kazutoshi; Ichikawa, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    A 45-year-old male with Down syndrome( DS) had abnormal findings pointed out by chest X-ray and admitted to our hospital. He had undergone ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus 33 years before. Computed tomography showed a giant aortic aneurysm at the aortopulmonary window. Aortic arch replacement was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest. The postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative ductal aneurysm in an adult is relatively rare and needs early operation because of the high risk of rupture. In this case, considering the size of the aneurysm, the timing of diagnosis seemed to be late. As the life expectancy of patients with DS has been lengthning recently, their regular health examinations is mandatory to improve the life expectancy and quality of life.

  3. Risk-adjusted and case-matched comparative study between antegrade and retrograde cerebral perfusion during aortic arch surgery: based on the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database : the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database Organization.

    PubMed

    Usui, Akihiko; Miyata, Hiroaki; Ueda, Yuichi; Motomura, Noboru; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2012-03-01

    Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) are two major types of brain protection for aortic arch surgery. A large-scale clinical study of RCP and ACP is important to clarify the respective characteristics for major adverse events. We conducted a comparative study to evaluate up-to-date clinical outcomes in Japan based on the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JACVSD). The subjects were confined to cases undergone electively with ACP or RCP for nondissection aneurysms in the ascending aorta and aortic arch between 2005 and 2008 from 13 467 aortic surgeries. There were 2209 ACP cases and 583 RCP cases. A risk-adjusted comparison based on 30-day mortality, operative mortality, and major morbidity was assessed by a multivariable logistic regression analysis. A conditional logistic regression analysis was also conducted in 499 propensity matched-pairs with ACP and RCP. A risk-adjusted analysis showed no significant differences between the ACP and RCP groups regarding 30-day mortality (3.5% vs. 2.6%), operative mortality (5.3% vs. 4.1%), or stroke (6.8% vs. 3.1%). Propensity-matched pairs also revealed no significant differences between ACP and RCP regarding 30-day mortality (3.4% vs. 2.4%), operative mortality (3.8% vs. 3.4%), or stroke rate (5.0% vs. 3.0%); however, RCP resulted in a significantly higher rate of transient neurological dysfunction (3.0% vs. 5.8%) and need for dialysis (1.6% vs. 4.2%). Both RCP and ACP provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding both the mortality and stroke rates. RCP resulted in a higher incidence only in patients demonstrating transient neurological dysfunction and the need for dialysis.

  4. Dental arch asymmetry in young healthy human subjects evaluated by Euclidean distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1993-03-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. A recently proposed method (Euclidean distance matrix analysis; EDMA) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. Here it has been applied to study the asymmetry of mandibular and maxillary arches in 50 men and 45 women with sound dentitions. The centres of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar) were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. The form of the right and left maxillary and mandibular hemi-arches was separately assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth within arch and side. Side differences were tested by EDMA. In men, the maxillary and the mandibular arches were both symmetrical (i.e. there were no significant differences in size or shape between the left and right hemi-arches). In women, the mandibular arch was symmetrical, but in the maxillary arch the two antimeres had a significantly different shape. No size differences were found between the left and right female hemi-arches.

  5. The concept of aortic replacement based on computational fluid dynamic analysis: patient-directed aortic replacement†

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Laurant; Poole, Robert J.; Warwick, Richard; Poullis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Aortic replacement is based on the aortic diameter in the absence of dissection or connective tissue diseases. Frequently, a number of different aortic-to-prosthetic anastomotic positions are possible depending on patient factors and surgeon preferences. High stress on residual aortic tissue may result in aneurysm formation or aneurysmal dilatation. Utilizing a computational fluid dynamic evaluation, we aimed to define possible optimal operative interventions with regard to the extent of aortic replacement. METHODS For proof of principle, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, using Fluent 6.2 (Ansys UK Ltd, Sheffield, UK), was performed on a simplified ascending arch and descending aortic geometry. Wall shear stress in three dimensions was assessed for the standard operations: ascending aortic replacement, arch replacement and proximal descending aortic replacement. RESULTS Hermiarch replacement is superior to isolated ascending aortic replacement with regard to residual stress analysis on tissues (up to a 10-fold reduction). Aortic arch replacement with island implantation of the supra-aortic vessels may potentially result in high stress on the residual aorta (10-fold increase). Aortic arch replacement with individual supra-aortic vessel implantation may result in areas of high stress (10-fold increase) on native vessels if an inadequate length of supra-aortic tissue is not resected, regardless of it being aneurysmal. CONCLUSIONS Computational fluid dynamic evaluation, which will have to be patient-specific, 3D anatomical and physiological, potentially has enormous implications for operative strategy in aortic replacement surgery. CFD analysis may direct the replacement of normal-diameter aortas in the future. PMID:23407695

  6. CT and MRI in the Evaluation of Thoracic Aortic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used imaging examinations to evaluate thoracic aortic diseases because of their high spatial and temporal resolutions, large fields of view, and multiplanar imaging reconstruction capabilities. CT and MRI play an important role not only in the diagnosis of thoracic aortic disease but also in the preoperative assessment and followup after treatment. In this review, the CT and MRI appearances of various acquired thoracic aortic conditions are described and illustrated. PMID:24396601

  7. A Novel Evaluation for Predicting Aortic Complicated Lesions Using Calcification on Chest X-ray.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Yoshimura, Sohei; Koga, Masatoshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2017-07-28

    The aorta is a significant source of cerebral thromboembolisms. Aortic complicated lesions (ACLs) are key findings on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for assessing aortic sources of emboli to the brain. TEE is sometimes avoided due to its invasiveness. However, few reports have examined alternative methods for predicting ACLs. We investigated relationships between aortic arch calcification (AAC) on chest X-ray and ACLs. Participants comprised 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack who underwent TEE for the evaluation of the aortic arch and heart. A postero-anterior plain chest X-ray in the recumbent position was evaluated on admission for each patient. AAC was evaluated using 4 grades (0-3) and "AAC thickness" defined as the distance from the inner margin of the most distant AAC to the outer margin of the aortic vessel wall. ACLs were defined by intima-media thickness (IMT) ≥4.0 mm or presence of ulcerated or mobile plaques. Carotid maximum IMT on ultrasonography was also evaluated. Comparison of the diagnostic ability to predict ACL was performed between AAC grades and AAC thickness or AAC thickness and carotid maximum IMT using the Delong method. ACLs were identified in 71 patients (23.7%), including ACLs with ulcerated plaques in 24 (8.0%) and ACLs with mobile plaques in 9 (3.0%). Plaque thickness was greater in higher AAC grades or higher quartiles of AAC thickness (p for trend <0.001 each). The Cochran-Armitage test showed that both higher AAC grade and higher quartile of AAC thickness were significantly associated with the presence of ACLs, as well as the presence of ulcerated or mobile plaques (p for trend < 0.001 each). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed optimal cut-off values for AAC thickness of 5.6 mm for ACLs and 6.0 mm for ulcerated or mobile plaques. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a higher grade of AAC (grades 2-3) and AAC thickness (≥6 mm) as significantly associated with ACLs

  8. Aneurysm of a right-sided descending thoracic aorta with a left-sided aortic arch and aberrant right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Fumio; Tanaka, Fuminobu; Ishibashi, Kazuyuki; Yamaura, Gembu; Shiroto, Keisuke; Motokawa, Mamika; Nanjo, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    We describe a rare case of an arteriosclerotic aneurysm in the right-sided descending thoracic aorta with a left-sided aortic arch and concomitant aberrant right subclavian artery. A 76-year-old woman, who was found to have an aneurysm of the right-sided descending thoracic aorta, was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. Contrast computed tomography scan revealed a left-sided aortic arch with an aberrant right subclavian artery, a descending thoracic aorta passing downward behind the esophagus, and an aneurysm of the right-sided and distal (level between the 8th and 10th vertebral bodies) descending thoracic aorta. With a right posterolateral thoracotomy, the patient underwent descending thoracic aorta replacement using an 18-mm woven Dacron prosthesis. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged 24 days after surgery. Histological microscopic examination of the resected aneurysmal wall revealed an arteriosclerotic aneurysm. The postoperative computed tomography scan 18 days after surgery revealed no anastomotic aneurysm or abnormal fluid collection.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome associated with right aortic arch, left ductus arteriosus, cardiomegaly, and pericardial effusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ni; Chen, Chih-Ping; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Wang, Liang-Kai; Wu, Pei-Chen; Chang, Tung-Yao; Wu, Peih-Shan; Yang, Chien-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2016-02-01

    To report prenatal diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with right aortic arch (RAA), left ductus arteriosus, cardiomegaly, and pericardial effusion in the fetus. A 35-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1, was referred to the hospital at 31 weeks of gestation because of abnormal ultrasound findings and whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization report. G-banding chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Level II ultrasound at 22 weeks of gestation revealed RAA with the presence of the aortic arch on the right side of trachea at three vessels and trachea view, left ductus arteriosus, and mild right side pyelectasis. Cardiomegaly and pericardial effusion were also found 2 months later. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a 2.743-Mb deletion at 22q11.2 region. Multiplex ligation-dependent amplification detected deletion in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region of chromosome 22 low copy number repeat 22-A-C. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on lymphocyte in cord blood confirmed deletion in 22q11.2 region. Chromosome abnormalities have been found in patients with RAA. Prenatal diagnosis of RAA with or without intracardiac or extracardiac anomalies should include a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Long-term durability of preserved aortic root after repair of acute type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Kamohara, Keiji; Koga, Shugo; Takaki, Jun; Yoshida, Nozomi; Furukawa, Kojiro; Morita, Shigeki

    2017-08-01

    Optimal management of aortic root in type A aortic dissection (AAD) is controversial. To determine the most appropriate strategy, we studied the late outcomes after conservative repair of aortic root. 234 AAD patients (mean age 68 ± 12 years) underwent surgical repair using supracommissural replacement (SCR) for aortic root reconstruction from 1989 to 2014. Ascending aortic replacement or hemi-arch replacement was performed in 180 patients (non-arch group), whereas total arch replacement (TAR) was performed in 54 patients. In both groups, proper and firm reapproximation of proximal edge was performed exactly at the sinotubular junction (STJ). The long-term durability of preserved aortic root (mean follow-up 89 months) was evaluated. Hospital mortality occurred in 25 of 234 patients (10.6%). Aorta-related deaths occurred in five patients (four in non-arch; one in TAR), with over 90% 10-year actuarial survival rate in each group. Among 19 aorta-related events, there were only four proximal events (three in non-arch; one in TAR). The 10-year freedom rate from proximal aorta-related events exceeded 90%, with no significant difference in both groups. Freedom rate from moderate aortic regurgitation at 10 years was statistically similar between non-arch (86.3%) and TAR (85.7%) groups. The long-term durability of SCR with proximal aortic reapproximation exactly at the STJ was acceptable with low rates of proximal aortic events. This technique can be the standard technique for aortic root reconstruction in AAD patients, except those with aortic root pathology.

  11. Double aortic arch

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF. Other congenital heart and vascular malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... J, Redington AN. Congenital heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  12. Longitudinal evaluation of dental arch asymmetry in Class II subdivision malocclusion with 3-dimensional digital models.

    PubMed

    Veli, Ilknur; Yuksel, Burcin; Uysal, Tancan

    2014-06-01

    Class II subdivision malocclusions with their asymmetric occlusal relationships often pose treatment difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes of dental arch asymmetry in untreated subjects with Class II subdivision malocclusion. From 706 files from the University of Michigan Growth Study, longitudinal records of 17 untreated subjects with Class II subdivision malocclusion were included this study. Dental arch changes at 3 consecutive longitudinal intervals, defined by the cervical vertebral maturation method, were analyzed on digital dental models. The average ages of the subjects were 12.4, 15.1, and 19.1 years at the 3 time periods, respectively. Maxillary and mandibular reference lines were constructed and used for the intra-arch asymmetry measurements. The Friedman test and analysis of variance with repeated measures were used to determine dental arch asymmetries at the P <0.05 level. All subjects were found to have a type 1 Class II subdivision malocclusion characterized by distal positioning of the mandibular first molar on the Class II side. No statistically significant intra-arch asymmetry changes were found for the maxillary and mandibular dental arches in any time period. Between the baseline and the final follow-up, the data indicated decreases in maxillary and mandibular intercanine arch widths and arch lengths symmetrically. The results of this study indicate that the dental arch asymmetry in patients with Class II subdivision malocclusions did not improve or worsen with growth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An unusual constellation of congenital malformations in a single patient including partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, persistent left superior vena cava, aberrant pulmonary fissure, anomalous aortic arch, tracheal diverticulum and annular pancreas.

    PubMed

    Lapa, T; Vedelago, J; Kim, H; Patrick, E

    2014-10-31

    We report a case of a male patient with a constellation of rare congenital anomalies consisting of: partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), persistent left superior vena cava, 'bovine arch' aortic branching, tracheal diverticulum, aberrant lung fissure anatomy and an annular pancreas. He had presented with a history of worsening dyspnoea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a single patient with such a vast constellation of anomalies. The radiological evaluations, epidemiology, embryology and clinical features of the anomalies are discussed. It is important for radiologists to be aware of each of these anomalies as distinct entities; detection of a single anomaly should alert to the possibility that further anatomic aberrancies may be present.

  14. Evaluation by MRA of aortic dilation late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Kay, W Aaron; Cook, Stephen C; Daniels, Curt J

    2013-09-10

    This study evaluated predictors for aortic dilation (AD) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). AD is common in patients with rTOF and may result in increased morbidity and mortality. There are no guidelines for evaluation of AD for rTOF patients. All adults with rTOF who previously underwent MRA had retrospective aortic measurements at the sinuses of Valsalva (SoV) and ascending aorta (AsAo). Rate of change in diameter was determined in patients with multiple MRAs. Chart review identified risk factors for AD. Univariate and multivariate analyses tested predictors of AD. Of the 87 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 12 (14%) had AD. At baseline, mean diameter was 3.6 ± 0.6 cm and 3.1 ± 0.6 cm at the SoV and AsAo, respectively. The AsAo was larger than the SoV in 17%. Predictors of AD included male gender, age, right aortic arch, pregnancy, older age at complete repair, smoking, and systemic hypertension. Serial studies were available in 55 patients; the rate of growth was slow: 0.4 ± 0.9 mm/year (SoV) and 0.1 ± 0.8mm/year (AsAo). AD is common in rTOF at the SoV and AsAo. Transthoracic echocardiography, which does not always image the AsAo as well as MRA, may not image AD in rTOF in cases in which the AsAo is dilated. Although several risk factors correlate with AD in rTOF, the rate of aortic growth is slow, suggesting that rTOF patients may not require frequent aortic imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta accompanied by absent pulmonary valve syndrome and right-sided aortic arch: a rare case in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Khayatzadeh, Marzieh

    2015-04-01

    We present a rare congenital heart disease in a 20-year-old man with anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta, accompanied by absent pulmonary valve syndrome, and a right-sided aortic arch suspected initially in transthoracic echocardiography and subsequently confirmed by cardiac catheterisation and computed tomography angiography.

  16. The relationship between accessory navicular and medial longitudinal arch: evaluation with a plantar pressure distribution measurement system.

    PubMed

    Kanatli, Ulunay; Yetkin, Haluk; Yalcin, Nadir

    2003-06-01

    This study included 92 patients with an accessory navicular (AN) noted on an anteroposterior roentgenography. This group was selected from 860 patients admitted to the authors' gait analysis laboratory. The medial longitudinal arch was evaluated by using an "arch index" calculated from the pressure picture obtained from a pressure distribution measurement system. The average arch index was 0.15 and there was no significant correlation between AN types and arch index. The study concluded that the presence and type of AN are not correlated with the height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot and that AN is not associated with pes planus.

  17. Hybrid antegrade repair of the arch and descending thoracic aorta with a new integrated stent-Dacron graft in acute type A aortic dissection: a look into the future with new devices.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Carlos-A; Fernández, Claudio; Josa, Miguel; Mulet, Jaime

    2007-04-01

    A young male patient underwent supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta for acute type A dissection under hypothermic circulatory arrest. After discharge, he was readmitted two weeks later due to severe aortic regurgitation and acute arch redissection. Under a second period of hypothermic circulatory arrest three weeks after the initial operation, radical treatment with aortic valve replacement, replacement of the ascending aorta and arch, together with antegrade deployment of a stent-graft in the true lumen for frozen elephant-trunk technique, were successfully performed. Computed tomography at four weeks showed complete proximal repair and thrombosis of the false lumen. Transesophageal echocardiography at eight weeks confirmed repair. The patient is currently leading an active life. A hybrid approach for complex cases of acute type A dissection with arch involvement can be considered for the future.

  18. Subcoronary versus supracoronary aortic stenosis. an experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Valvular aortic stenosis is the most common cause of left ventricular hypertrophy due to gradually increasing pressure work. As the stenosis develop the left ventricular hypertrophy may lead to congestive heart failure, increased risk of perioperative complications and also increased risk of sudden death. A functional porcine model imitating the pathophysiological nature of valvular aortic stenosis is very much sought after in order to study the geometrical and pathophysiological changes of the left ventricle, timing of surgery and also pharmacological therapy in this patient group. Earlier we developed a porcine model for aortic stenosis based on supracoronary aortic banding, this model may not completely imitate the pathophysiological changes that occurs when valvular aortic stenosis is present including the coronary blood flow. It would therefore be desirable to optimize this model according to the localization of the stenosis. Methods In 20 kg pigs subcoronary (n = 8), supracoronary aortic banding (n = 8) or sham operation (n = 4) was preformed via a left lateral thoracotomy. The primary endpoint was left ventricular wall thickness; secondary endpoints were heart/body weight ratio and the systolic/diastolic blood flow ratio in the left anterior descending coronary. Statistical evaluation by oneway anova and unpaired t-test. Results Sub- and supracoronary banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy compared with the control group. The coronary blood flow ratio was slightly but not significantly higher in the supracoronary group (ratio = 0.45) compared with the two other groups (subcoronary ratio = 0.36, control ratio = 0.34). Conclusions A human pathophysiologically compatible porcine model for valvular aortic stenosis was developed by performing subcoronary aortic banding. Sub- and supracoronary aortic banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. This model may be valid for experimental investigations of aortic

  19. [Dissecting aneurysms at the bases of the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery due to localized dissection of the aortic arch; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Higashi, Shigeki; Yoshida, Y; Mitsuoka, H

    2007-07-01

    A 43-year-old male lost consciousness immediately after archery practice, and was brought to our hospital by ambulance. Angiography showed dissecting aneurysms at the bases of the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery, causing compression of these arteries. Under cardiopulmonary bypass with selective cerebral perfusion, the blood supply to these arteries was restored with a bifurcated graft. Surgical specimen showed localized dissection of the aortic arch at the bifurcation to the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery, with the formation of dissecting aneurysms at the bases of both arteries. The aneurysms were filled with thrombi. In addition to these dissecting aneurysms, there were arterial dissections involving the brachiocephalic artery and the bilateral common carotid arteries. Histopathological examination of the vessel wall showed no evidence of atherosclerosis or vasculitis, and no abnormalities in the arrangement of elastic fibers.

  20. Head and neck vessel size by angiography predicts neo-aortic arch obstruction after Norwood/Sano operation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seckeler, Michael D; Raucci, Frank J; Saunders, Christine; Gangemi, James J; Peeler, Benjamin B; Jayakumar, K Anitha

    2013-02-01

    To identify and predict neo-aortic arch obstruction (NAAO) in children after Norwood/Sano operation (NO) for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). NAAO is associated with morbidity and mortality after NO for HLHS and no objective measure has predicted the initial occurrence of NAAO. Computational flow models of aortic coarctation demonstrate increased wall shear stress (WSS) in vessels proximal to the coarctation segment, which we believe also occurs with NAAO. These vessels respond by increasing their luminal diameter to maintain normal WSS. We hypothesized that the relative increase in diameters of head and neck vessels to the isthmus, as measured by angiography, would identify hemodynamically significant NAAO and predict future NAAO. Retrospective review of patients with HLHS and at least one catheterization with aortic angiography after NO. Diameters of head and neck vessels were totaled and divided by the isthmus diameter to give a head and neck index (HNI), which was compared to coarctation index (CI) for identifying and predicting future NAAO. Forty-four patients were identified, 17 with and 27 without NAAO. Receiver operator characteristic analysis using a value for CI ≤0.5 showed a sensitivity of 47% and specificity of 89%. For HNI, a value >2.65 gave a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 93%. Three patients who developed NAAO after their initial catheterization had CI >0.5, but abnormally high HNI >2.65. HNI is a more robust indicator of hemodynamically significant NAAO than CI and may predict its future occurrence after NO for HLHS.

  1. Human dental arch shape evaluated by euclidean-distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1993-04-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. When landmark data are available, a recently proposed method (euclidean-distance matrix analysis) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. This method also localizes those areas which differ most between the two structures. We have applied it to analyze the sexual dimorphism in dental arch form in a sample of 50 men and 45 women. Subjects ranged in age between 20 and 27 years, and had sound dentitions. Fourteen landmarks, corresponding to the centers of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar), were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. All the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth were computed, thus creating four mean form matrices (one for each arch within sex). Gender differences were tested by using euclidean-distance matrix analysis. No significant differences were demonstrated in the shape of arches, while male arches proved to be slightly bigger than female arches.

  2. Early Diagnosis and Repair of Double Saccular Aneurysms of the Aortic Arch Associated With Aortic Coarctation in an Infant With Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ilyin, Vladimir N; Kornoukhov, O Ju; Khovrin, Valery V; Kryukov, Vladislav A; Valitova, Asia A; Ilina, Maria V

    2016-03-01

    Multiple saccular aneurysms of the thoracic aorta in neonates and infants are exceedingly rare. An association of these aneurysms with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) in older age-groups is well known. This case report describes the diagnosis and subsequent successful repair of aortic coarctation associated with double saccular aneurysms of the thoracic aorta in patient with LDS during the first year of life.

  3. Effects of aging and body size on proximal and ascending aorta and aortic arch: inner edge-to-inner edge reference values in a large adult population by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Mirea, Oana; Maffessanti, Francesco; Gripari, Paola; Tamborini, Gloria; Muratori, Manuela; Fusini, Laura; Claudia, Cefalù; Fiorentini, Cesare; Plesea, Iancu Emil; Pepi, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Aortic size is known to vary significantly by age and body size and to be an important predictor of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine reference values for proximal thoracic aorta diameters, using the inner edge technique and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Diameters of the aortic annulus, sinuses of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, arch, and ascending aorta and the angle of insertion of the aorta were measured in 500 subjects (231 women; mean age, 48 ± 18 years) with normal echocardiographic findings, retrospectively enrolled. The relations of age and body size with aortic measurements were investigated using bivariate and multiple linear regressions. Measurements were highly feasible (83% for the aortic arch, 100% for the other segments). All aortic diameters significantly related to age, weight and body surface area, while height was correlated only with annular diameter. In predictive models adjusted for gender, older age was associated with increased aortic diameters (R(2) values ranged from 0.36 for the sinotubular junction to 0.52 for the sinuses of Valsalva). Adjustments for height and weight led to significant improvements (R(2) values ranged from 0.43 for the sinotubular junction to 0.58 for the sinuses of Valsalva). Similar correlations were observed for men and women. Angle was found to be dependent only on age and gender. Reproducibility analysis showed good to excellent accordance between repeated measurements. The results of this study show the effect of aging on the proximal thoracic aorta and emphasize the importance of accounting for gender and body size when assessing aortic size. The obtained reference ranges will help standardize the assessment of aortic dimensions by applying inner edge convention and facilitate comparisons with other imaging techniques. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Helical (spiral) CT in the evaluation of emergent thoracic aortic syndromes. Traumatic aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, S; Stuk, J L; Kaufman, J A

    1999-05-01

    For the near future, CT will play the critical and dominant role in the evaluation of patients presenting with emergent aortic syndromes. Its convenience, accuracy, and utility in the rapid evaluation of not just the aorta, but the entire thorax, make it ideally suited for use in emergency settings. Further benefits are likely to be realized in speed and resolution with multislice CT, although it is as yet not widely available.

  5. Evaluation of regional aortic distensibility using color kinesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshimasa; Kotoh, Keiju; Yamashita, Akio; Furuta, Hidetoshi; Shimazu, Chikasi; Misaki, Takurou

    2003-01-01

    Regional aortic stiffness cannot be evaluated by conventional methods. Regional aortic wall velocity during systole in the descending aorta was evaluated by using transesophageal echocardiography with color kinesis. The authors defined regional aortic distensibility (RAD) by considering pulse pressure, with RAD (microm/s/mm Hg) = (regional aortic wall velocity)/(pulse pressure). RAD was evaluated in 38 patients who had coronary artery disease (CAD) and 10 who did not. RAD decreased depending on aging (partial regression coefficient was -5.39 x 10(-1), p<0.001), and RAD was lower in the CAD group than that in the no-CAD group (p<0.05). In the CAD group, 19 patients had a single fixed plaque (4 calcified and 15 noncalcified plaques). RAD in the calcified plaque was lower than that in the noncalcified plaque (p<0.01), and RAD was lower in the noncalcified plaque than that in the no-plaque region (p<0.05). In noncalcified plaques, the relation between RAD and maximum intimal thickness had a significant correlation, r=0.7, p<0.001. The residual of RAD from the regression line was significantly larger in the calcified plaque than that in the noncalcified plaque (p<0.001). In conclusion, RAD can express increasing regional aortic wall stiffness brought about by arteriosclerosis quantitatively. Color kinesis provides information on characteristic difference between calcified and noncalcified plaque.

  6. Is moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion superior to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in elective aortic arch surgery?

    PubMed

    Poon, Shi Sum; Estrera, Anthony; Oo, Aung; Field, Mark

    2016-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether moderate hypothermia circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) is more beneficial than deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in elective aortic arch surgery. Altogether, 1028 papers were found using the reported search, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. There were four retrospective observational studies, one prospective randomized controlled trial and one meta-analysis study. There were no local or neuromuscular complications related to axillary arterial cannulation reported. In the elective setting, four studies showed that the in-hospital mortality for moderate hypothermia is consistently low, ranging from 1.0 to 4.3%. In a large series of hemiarch replacement comparing 682 cases of deep hypothermia with 94 cases of moderate hypothermia with SACP, 20 cases (2.8%) of permanent neurological deficit were reported, compared to 3 cases (3.2%) in moderate hypothermia. Three observational studies and a meta-analysis study did not identify an increased risk of postoperative renal failure and dialysis following either deep or moderate hypothermia although a higher incidence of stroke was reported in the meta-analysis study with deep hypothermia (12.7 vs 7.3%). Longer cardiopulmonary bypass time and circulatory arrest time were reported in four studies for deep hypothermia, suggesting an increased time required for systemic cooling and rewarming in that group. Overall, these findings suggested that in elective aortic arch surgery, moderate hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion adapted to the duration of circulatory arrest can be performed safely with acceptable mortality and morbidity outcomes. The risk of spinal cord

  7. Biomechanical Evaluation of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, Andrea; Battini, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of ascending aortic aneurysms were investigated only in the last decade in a limited number of studies. Indeed, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in this field in order to identify new predictive parameters of risk of dissection, which may have clinical relevance. The researches performed so far have been conducted according to the methods used in the study of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In most cases, uniaxial or biaxial tensile tests were used, while in a smaller number of studies other methods, such as opening angle, bulge inflation, and inflation-extension tests, were used. However, parameters and protocols of these tests are at present very heterogeneous in the studies reported in the literature, and, therefore, the results are not comparable and are sometimes conflicting. The purpose of this review then thence to provide a comprehensive analysis of the experimental methodology for determination of biomechanical properties in the specific field of aneurysms of the ascending aorta to allow for better comparison and understanding of the results. PMID:24991568

  8. [Coarctation of the aorta with aortic arch hypoplasia in newborn with partial trisomy 11q associated to 4q interstitial deletion].

    PubMed

    Palano, G M; Licata, F; Carpinato, C; Sottile, F; Sciuto, R; Mattina, T; Distefano, G

    2010-12-01

    This article reports the case of newborn with multiple dimorphisms (microcephaly, hypertelorism, wide and flat nasal bridge, small nose, long philtrum, microretrognathia, malformed and low-set ears, short neck, redundant nuchal skin, genital anomalies), admitted in the hospital after two days from delivery for torpor, poor food and cyanosis. Babies were affected, at color-Doppler echocardiography, by coarctation of the aorta (CoA) with aortic arch hypoplasia. CoA is often associated to genetic and environmental factors that interact frequently. In this study the anamnestic absence of teratogen noxae and the presence of facial and genital anomalies suggest a genetic study to provide appropriate genetic information to parents. G-banding chromosomic analysis revealed a 46, XX der 4t(4;11) karyotype with partial 11q trisomy confirmed with FISH chromosome painting 4;11 and with FISH subtelomere specific 4(p/q)11(p/q). These techniques showed that derivative chromosome 4 was constituted by chromosome 4 with partial deletion in the q35 region and by 11q21 translocation. This rare anomaly is often inherited by an unbalanced segregation of a balanced translocation, present in one of the two parents. In the present study, the father carried a t(4q;11q) balanced translocation. A CGH-array analysis was executed to the child for the breakpoints definition. As 11q trisomy cases reported in literature are still few, this case can contribute to improve our knowledge on the genotype-phenotype correlation in this rare genetic anomaly.

  9. Similar cerebral protective effectiveness of antegrade and retrograde cerebral perfusion combined with deep hypothermia circulatory arrest in aortic arch surgery: a meta-analysis and systematic review of 5060 patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhipeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Ren, Zongli; Wu, Hongbing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Xiaoping

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to determine if antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) combined with deep hypothermia circulatory arrest in aortic arch surgery results in different mortality and neurologic outcomes. The Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Chinese Biomedical Database were searched for studies reporting on postoperative strokes, permanent neurologic dysfunction, temporary neurologic dysfunction, and all causes mortality within 30 days postoperation in aortic arch surgery. Meta-analysis for effect size, t test, and I(2) for detecting heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis for assessing the relative influence of each study was performed. Fifteen included studies encompassed a total of 5060 patients of whom 2855 were treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest plus ACP and 1897 were treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest plus RCP. Pooled analysis showed no significant statistical difference (P > .01) of 30-day mortality, permanent neurologic dysfunction, and transient neurologic dysfunction in the 2 groups. Before sensitivity analysis, postoperative stroke incidence in the ACP group was higher than in the RCP group (7.2% vs 4.7%; P < .01). After a study that included a different percentage of patients with a history of central neurologic events in the 2 groups was ruled out, postoperative stroke incidence in the 2 groups also showed no significant statistical difference (P > .01). ACP and RCP provide similar cerebral protective effectiveness combined with deep hypothermia circulatory arrest and could be selected according to the actual condition in aortic arch surgery. A high-quality randomized controlled trial is urgently needed to confirm this conclusion, especially for stroke morbidity following ACP or RCP. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood flow competition after aortic valve bypass: an evaluation using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kawahito, Koji; Kimura, Naoyuki; Komiya, Kenji; Nakamura, Masanori; Misawa, Yoshio

    2017-01-24

    Aortic valve bypass (AVB) (apico-aortic conduit) remains an effective surgical alternative for patients in whom surgical aortic valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation is not feasible. However, specific complications include thrombus formation, possibly caused by stagnation arising from flow competition between the antegrade and retrograde flow, but this has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse flow characteristics after AVB and to elucidate mechanisms of intra-aortic thrombus using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow simulation was performed on data obtained from a 73-year-old postoperative AVB patient. Three-dimensional cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla was used to acquire flow data and to set up the simulation. The vascular geometry was reconstructed using computed tomography angiograms. Flow simulations were implemented at various ratios of the flow rate between the ascending aorta and the graft. Results were visualized by streamline and particle tracing. CFD demonstrated stagnation in the ascending aorta-arch when retrograde flow was dominant, indicating that the risk of thrombus formation exists in the ascending arch in cases with severe aortic stenosis and/or poor left ventricular function. Meanwhile, stagnation was observed in the proximal descending aorta when the antegrade and retrograde flow were equivalent, suggesting that the descending aorta is critical when aortic stenosis is not severe. Flow stagnation in the aorta which may cause thrombus was observed when retrograde flow was dominant and antegrade/retrograde flows were equivalent. Our results suggest that anticoagulants might be recommended even in patients who receive biological valves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood flow competition after aortic valve bypass: an evaluation using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kawahito, Koji; Kimura, Naoyuki; Komiya, Kenji; Nakamura, Masanori; Misawa, Yoshio

    2017-05-01

    Aortic valve bypass (AVB) (apico-aortic conduit) remains an effective surgical alternative for patients in whom surgical aortic valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation is not feasible. However, specific complications include thrombus formation, possibly caused by stagnation arising from flow competition between the antegrade and retrograde flow, but this has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse flow characteristics after AVB and to elucidate mechanisms of intra-aortic thrombus using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow simulation was performed on data obtained from a 73-year-old postoperative AVB patient. Three-dimensional cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla was used to acquire flow data and to set up the simulation. The vascular geometry was reconstructed using computed tomography angiograms. Flow simulations were implemented at various ratios of the flow rate between the ascending aorta and the graft. Results were visualized by streamline and particle tracing. CFD demonstrated stagnation in the ascending aorta-arch when retrograde flow was dominant, indicating that the risk of thrombus formation exists in the ascending arch in cases with severe aortic stenosis and/or poor left ventricular function. Meanwhile, stagnation was observed in the proximal descending aorta when the antegrade and retrograde flow were equivalent, suggesting that the descending aorta is critical when aortic stenosis is not severe. Flow stagnation in the aorta which may cause thrombus was observed when retrograde flow was dominant and antegrade/retrograde flows were equivalent. Our results suggest that anticoagulants might be recommended even in patients who receive biological valves.

  12. Precise treatment of aortic aneurysm by three-dimensional printing and simulation before endovascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ding; Luo, Han; Yang, Hongliu; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jingqiang; Zhao, Jichun

    2017-04-11

    In this study, three-dimensional printing (3Dp) models and simulation surgeries (SSs) were applied in two challenging aortic cases. The first was an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a complex neck, and the second was a thoracic aortic dissection aneurysm (TADA) with an angled arch. In order to avoid unpredictable obstacles and difficulties, we made optimal surgical plans by using 3D models and virtual simulations. Based on preoperative evaluation system, the surgical plans seemed more reasonable and time-saving.

  13. Cephalometric evaluation of open bite treatment with NiTi arch wires and anterior elastics.

    PubMed

    Küçükkeleş, N; Acar, A; Demirkaya, A A; Evrenol, B; Enacar, A

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cephalometrically the effects of open bite treatment with NiTi arch wires and anterior elastics. The study group comprised of 17 patients who displayed a high angle skeletal pattern, along with an anterior open bite. After initial leveling, 0.016 x 0.022 inch upper accentuated-curve and lower reverse-curve arch wires were placed, with anterior elastics applied in the canine regions. Cephalometric assessment was carried out on lateral head films taken at the beginning of treatment and on average 2.8 months after open bite closure was obtained. The results of this study indicated that open bite closure had been achieved mainly by extrusion of the lower incisors and uprighting of the upper incisors. The functional occlusal plane was leveled by extrusion of lower premolars and uprighting of lower molars. Lateral cephalograms obtained from 10 patients who had been available after 1 year postretention were used to evaluate relapse changes. During the follow-up period, position of the upper and lower incisors and the inclination of the occlusal plane were maintained. However, extrusion of upper and lower molar teeth resulted in a reduction in overbite.

  14. Aortic valve stenosis: non-invasive preoperative evaluation using 64-slice CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Ciolina, F; Sedati, P; Zaccagna, F; Galea, N; Noce, V; Miraldi, F; Cavarretta, E; Francone, M; Carbone, I

    2015-10-01

    In patients affected by aortic valve stenosis (AS) it is mandatory to rule out coronary artery disease (CAD). The role of retrospectively ECG-gated 64-slice CT angiography (64-SCTA) was assessed in patients with AS referred for surgical valve replacement. Forty-two patients with AS underwent ECG-gated 64-SCTA of thoracic aorta, including the heart and coronary arteries, before surgical valve replacement. Images were evaluated by two independent readers and compared with surgical findings in terms of aortic valve calcification grading, valvular morphology, aortic valve annulus and sino-tubular junction diameters, and valvular area planimetry. Quantitative evaluation of cusps opening was also performed. Finally, the presence of CAD, thoracic aortic aneurysm and left ventricle hypertrophy were assessed. Visualization of the aortic valve without motion artefacts was possible in 38 patients (90.5%). Valvular morphology was correctly assessed in all cases (100%). 64-SCTA correctly determined aortic valve calcification grading and the aortic valve annulus and sinotubular junction diameters in 100% of cases. The aortic valve planimetric area was assessed in 38 cases (90.5%). Ascending aortic aneurysms requiring surgical replacement were detected in 12 patients (28.6%). Significant left ventricle hypertrophy was found in 30 patients (71%). Preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing surgical replacement for AS with 64-SCTA is feasible. 64-SCTA can rule out CAD and evaluate the status of the aortic valve and thoracic aorta in the same examination, obtaining relevant information for surgical planning.

  15. Morphometric evaluation of the aortic root in stillborns.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; Franco, Calline Alves; Juliano, Gabriela Ribeiro; Juliano, Guilherme Ribeiro; de Almeida, João Antônio; Soares, Maria Helena; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; Ramalho, Luciana Santos; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Espindula, Ana Paula; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; de Oliveira, Flávia Aparecida; Dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    To describe the dimensions and amount of collagen in the aortic root of autopsied fetuses at different gestational ages. 40 samples of aortic roots were selected from autopsied fetuses with gestational ages ranging between 20 and 40 weeks. The thickness and the area of the aortic wall were analyzed on slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, and the collagen was quantified on slides stained with Picrosirius, by using an image analyzing system. A positive correlation was observed between the thickness of the media layer of the aortic wall and the gestational age. There was a positive and significant correlation between the percentage of collagen in the aortic wall with gestational age and fetal weight. The correlation between gestational age and the area of the aortic root circumference was positive and significant. And the correlation between the aortic diameter and the gestational age as well as fetal length was positive and significant. The thickness of the media layer, the amount of collagen in the aortic wall, the area of the aortic root circumference and the aortic diameter rose with the increase of the gestational age. Thus, the morphological analysis of the aortic root may help as a parameter during the follow-up of inter-uterine growth and fetal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Jet length/velocity ratio: a new index for echocardiographic evaluation of chronic aortic regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Karaçimen, Denizhan; Erer, Hatice Betül; İlhan, Erkan; Sayar, Nurten; Karakuş, Gültekin; Çekirdekçi, Elif; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Management of aortic regurgitation depends on the assessment for severity. Echocardiography remains as the most widely available tool for evaluation of aortic regurgitation. In this manuscript, we describe a novel parameter, jet length/velocity ratio, for the diagnosis of severe aortic regurgitation. A total of 30 patients with aortic regurgitation were included to this study. Severity of aortic regurgitation was assessed with an aortic regurgitation index incorporating five echocardiographic parameters. Jet length/velocity ratio is calculated as the ratio of maximum jet penetrance to mean velocity of regurgitant flow. Jet length/velocity ratio was significantly higher in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (2.03 ± 0.53) compared to patients with less than severe aortic regurgitation (1.24 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). Correlation of jet length/velocity ratio with aortic regurgitation index was very good (r(2) = 0.86) and correlation coefficient was higher for jet length/velocity ratio compared to vena contracta, jet width/LVOT ratio and pressure half time. For a cutoff value of 1.61, jet length/velocity ratio had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 88%, with an AUC value of 0.955. Jet length/velocity ratio is a novel parameter that can be used to assess severity of chronic aortic regurgitation. Main limitation for usage of this novel parameter is jet impringement to left ventricular wall. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Evaluation of aortic valve replacement involving small severely calcified aortic annulus in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, M; Nishimura, Y; Hiramatsu, K; Komori, S; Shibata, M; Yuzaki, M; Okamura, Y

    2006-04-01

    We performed aortic valve replacement in 24 patients aged over 70 with small calcified valves. The surgical management of such patients remains controversial as the extensive calcification compromises implantation. Hence, we used an ultrasonic debridement instrument to remove calcium and selected a small prosthesis with the largest possible orifice without enlargement of the aortic annulus. Echocardiography showed significant reductions in left ventricular mass index compared with preoperative values. Early and mid-term prognosis has been relatively good.

  18. Triple-branched stent graft for arch repair in a pregnant woman with acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Xiaochun; Wang, Zhengjun; Zou, Chengwei

    2017-03-12

    A woman aged 36 years at 36 weeks of pregnancy sought medical attention at the Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong, China, after experiencing acute chest pain. The patient was diagnosed with chronic hypertension, severe pre-eclampsia, acute aortic dissection, aortic regurgitation, and heart failure. Computed tomography examination demonstrated a DeBakey type I aortic dissection that involved the origin of the innominate artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Head growth in fetuses with isolated congenital heart defects: lack of influence of aortic arch flow and ascending aorta oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, F A R; van Zwet, E W; Rijlaarsdam, M E B; Pajkrt, E; van Velzen, C L; Zuurveen, H R; Kragt, A; Bax, C L; Clur, S-A B; van Lith, J M M; Blom, N A; Haak, M C

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are reported to be associated with a smaller fetal head circumference (HC) and neurodevelopmental delay. Recent studies suggest that altered intrauterine brain hemodynamics may explain these findings. Our objectives were to evaluate the pattern of head growth in a large cohort of fetuses with various types of CHD, analyze these patterns according to the type of CHD and estimate the effect of cerebral hemodynamics with advancing gestation in the second and third trimesters. Singleton fetuses with an isolated CHD were selected from three fetal medicine units (n = 436). Cases with placental insufficiency or genetic syndromes were excluded. CHD types were clustered according to the flow and oxygen saturation in the aorta. Z-scores of biometric data were constructed using growth charts of a normal population. HC at different gestational ages was evaluated and univariate and multivariate mixed regression analyses were performed to examine the patterns of prenatal HC growth. Fetuses with severe and less severe types of CHD demonstrated statistically significant HC growth restriction with increasing gestational age (slope of -0.017/day); however, there was no statistically significant effect of fetal hemodynamics on HC growth. Fetuses with CHD but normal brain oxygenation and normal aortic flow showed a significant decrease in HC growth (slope of -0.024/day). Only fetuses with isolated tetralogy of Fallot demonstrated a smaller HC z-score at 20 weeks of gestation (-0.67 (95% CI, -1.16 to -0.18)). Despite the decline in head growth in fetuses with a prenatally detected isolated CHD, HC values were within the normal range, raising the question of its clinical significance. Furthermore, in contrast to other studies, this large cohort did not establish a significant correlation between aortic flow or oxygen saturation and HC growth. Factors other than altered fetal cerebral hemodynamics may contribute to HC growth restriction with increasing

  20. Evaluation of Reinforcement and Analysis of Stability of a High-Arch Dam Based on Geomechanical Model Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Liu, Y. R.; Yang, Q.

    2015-03-01

    Reinforcement measures are often used in high-arch dams with complicated geological foundations. The geomechanical model test is an effective method to study the global stability of arch dams and to evaluate the reinforcement effects of foundation treatments. The block masonry technique was developed to simulate the jointed rock mass, tectonic discontinuities, and reinforcement measures. A tailor-made low-strength binder and small blocks were developed to simulate the strength and deformation of the jointed rock mass and discontinuities, respectively. We applied this technique to geomechanical model tests of the Dagangshan arch dam with and without foundation reinforcements. A rupture test was conducted, and the stress and displacement distribution of the dam and abutments were recorded; the failure mechanisms and processes were explored. The reinforcement effects of the foundation treatment were evaluated by comparing the test results of the models with and without foundation reinforcements. Our analysis indicates that foundation reinforcements can improve the stress distribution, decrease deformation, prevent slides, reduce fault movement, and improve the global stability of high-arch dams.

  1. Full-Arch, Implant-Supported Monolithic Zirconia Rehabilitations: Pilot Clinical Evaluation of Wear Against Natural or Composite Teeth.

    PubMed

    Cardelli, Paolo; Manobianco, Francesco Pio; Serafini, Nicola; Murmura, Giovanna; Beuer, Florian

    2016-12-01

    To clinically evaluate the amount of contact wear generated between full-arch monolithic zirconia implant-supported restorations and natural or composite antagonists, over a 1-year period. Forty-seven teeth from clinically functional, full-arch monolithic zirconia screw-retained implant prostheses (FDPs) and their antagonists were investigated. The first group ("Zirconia-E") was opposed to natural teeth ("Enamel"), whereas the other one ("Zirconia-CR") was opposed to nano-hybrid composite teeth ("Composite Resin"). Replicas of the restorations and their antagonists were obtained immediately after delivery (T0 ) and after 1 year of clinical service (T1 ). Each tooth surface was individually evaluated three-dimensionally by software to quantify the vertical distance between the two scans (Hausdorff distance), which was considered as contact wear. Data obtained for each arch were subjected to one-way ANOVA test and a post hoc analysis (Tukey's test) at a 5% level of significance. Furthermore, the influence of the location of the teeth (anterior or posterior) was analyzed. Minimum post hoc statistical power between statistically different groups was 99.6%. Mean values were 63 ± 23 μm for Zirconia-E, 76 ± 29 μm for enamel, 70 ± 38 μm for composite resin; Zirconia-CR had a mean value of 19 ± 4 μm and significantly differed from the other groups. Contact wear between anterior and posterior teeth differed significantly only in the composite resin arch, with a mean of 39 ± 22 μm for anterior teeth versus 101 ± 19 μm for posterior ones. Within the limitations of this preliminary evaluation, monolithic zirconia full-arch rehabilitations induced a clinically acceptable wear on natural and composite antagonists over a 1-year period; they might be considered a viable solution for implant-supported rehabilitations. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. A comparative evaluation of mandibular incisor decrowding with coaxial and optiflex arch wires and their load-deflection rates.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, S; Sriram, G; Balachandar, K; Dhayanithi, D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and compare the load-deflection rate of optiflex arch wire with that of coaxial arch wire and to determine and compare the decrowding efficiency of optiflex arch wire with coaxial arch wire within a period of 45 days. Load-deflection rates of optiflex and coaxial wires were found using the INSTRON (4300) machine. A steady load was given to the wire to make it deflect, and the load required to deflect the wire for every 1 mm up to 5 mm, were noted and tabulated. A total of 10 patients, 10-25 years of age (seven males and three females) were selected. All patients had angles Class I malocclusion with a crowding discrepancy of 3-9 mm (according to little's index). All patients required first premolar extraction. Pre (0 day) and post (45(th) day) treatment study models and lateral cephalograms were taken for all patients and evaluated. Optiflex had a low load-deflection when compared to coaxial wire. Clinically, optiflex and coaxial wire had similar decrowding efficiency. In both, study model and cephalometric analysis, there was no statistically significant value when comparing their mean variables. Optiflex is an appropriate wire for patients seeking esthetics during fixed appliance therapy as it combines esthetics and efficiency by delivering light continuous forces.

  3. Aortic biomechanics by magnetic resonance: early markers of aortic disease in Marfan syndrome regardless of aortic dilatation?

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Redheuil, Alban; Rodríguez-Palomares, Jose; Gutiérrez, Laura; Sánchez, Violeta; Forteza, Alberto; Lima, Joao A C; García-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur

    2014-01-15

    Previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of aortic biomechanics in Marfan patients with aortic dilatation. However, these parameters have not been well studied in earlier stages of aortic disease. The present work aimed to study aortic biomechanics: aortic distensibility (AD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), by MRI in Marfan patients without advanced aortic disease. Eighty consecutive Marfan patients were compared with 36 age- and sex-matched controls. MRI images at the level of ascending, descending and abdominal aorta were used to determine AD and PWV. Marfan patients (27 men; age: 32.0 ± 10.5 years; mean aortic root diameter: 37.2 ± 4.6mm) had lower AD at all levels (ascending 2.6 ± 2.1 vs. 6.2 ± 3.7 mm Hg(-1)·10(-3), p<0.001; descending 3.1 ± 2.0 vs. 8.3 ± 4.2, p<0.001; and abdominal 4.5 ± 2.2 vs. 14.0 ± 5.2, p<0.001), higher aortic arch PWV (8.1 ± 6.5 vs. 4.3 ± 1.8m/s, p<0.01) and ascending-to-abdominal PWV (6.1 ± 3.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.5m/s, p<0.01) compared with controls. Thirty-five Marfan patients had a non-dilated aortic root (mean aortic root diameter: 34.5 ± 3.8 mm). In multivariable analyses, after adjustment for age, pulse pressure and aortic dimensions, AD remained lower and PWV higher in Marfan patients; even Marfan patients with non-dilated aortic root showed impaired aortic biomechanics compared with controls. Z-score for ascending AD<-3.5 distinguished Marfan patients from controls with 82.5% sensitivity and 86.1% specificity. Aortic biomechanics by MRI were abnormal in the entire aorta in Marfan patients. Moreover, Marfan patients without dilated aortic root showed clear impairment of aortic biomechanics, which suggests that they may be used as early markers of aortic involvement in these patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Digital versus conventional implant impressions for partially edentulous arches: An evaluation of accuracy.

    PubMed

    Marghalani, Amin; Weber, Hans-Peter; Finkelman, Matthew; Kudara, Yukio; El Rafie, Khaled; Papaspyridakos, Panos

    2017-09-16

    To the authors' knowledge, while accuracy outcomes of the TRIOS scanner have been compared with conventional impressions, no available data are available regarding the accuracy of digital impressions with the Omnicam and True Definition scanners versus conventional impressions for partially edentulous arches. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of digital implant impressions using 2 different intraoral scanners (IOSs) with that of conventional impressions for partially edentulous arches. Two partially edentulous mandibular casts with 2 implant analogs with a 30-degree angulation from 2 different implant systems (Replace Select RP; Nobel Biocare and Tissue level RN; Straumann) were used as controls. Sixty digital models were made from these 2 definitive casts in 6 different groups (n=10). Splinted implant-level impression procedures followed by digitization were used to produce the first 2 groups. The next 2 groups were produced by digital impression with Omnicam. The last 2 groups were produced by digital impression with the True Definition scanner. Accuracy was evaluated by superimposing the digital files of each test group onto the digital file of the controls with inspection software. The difference in 3-dimensional (3D) deviations (median ±interquartile range) among the 3 impression groups for Nobel Biocare was statistically significant among all groups (P<.001), except for the Omnicam (20 ±4 μm) and True Definition (15 ±6 μm) groups; the median ±interquartile range for the conventional group was 39 ±18 μm. The difference in 3D deviations among the 3 impression groups for Straumann was statistically significant among all groups (P=.003), except for the conventional impression (22 ±5 μm) and True Definition (17 ±5 μm) groups; the median ±interquartile range for the Omnicam group was 26 ±15 μm. The difference in 3D deviations between the 2 implant systems was significant for the Omnicam (P=.011) and conventional (P<.001

  5. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  6. Radionuclide angiography in evaluation of left ventricular function following aortic valve replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1981-05-01

    Congestive heart failure in patients surviving aortic valve replacement has been associated with a high late mortality. To determine whether myocardial dysfunction in these patients occurred preoperatively, perioperatively, or during the early postoperative period, 19 consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement using cardioplegia and hypothermia were studied by multiple-gated cardiac blood pool imaging. The resting ejection fractions for 8 patients with aortic stenosis did not show significant changes following operation. The 11 patients with aortic insufficiency has resting preoperative values of 58 +/- 15%, which fell to 38 +/- 18% immediately postoperatively (p less than 0.01), with the late values being 51 +/- 16%. Eight of 18 patients (44%) showed deterioration of regional wall motion immediately after operation, which persisted in 3 during the late evaluation. The occurrence of new perioperative regional wall motion abnormalities and persistent perioperative depression in left ventricular function in some patients suggest the need for further improvement in myocardial protection during cardiopulmonary bypass for aortic valve replacement.

  7. High arch

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition can make it difficult to fit into shoes. People who have high arches most often need ... Symptoms include: Shortened foot length Difficulty fitting shoes Foot pain with walking, standing, and running (not everyone has this symptom)

  8. Computational evaluation of aortic occlusion and the proposal of a novel, improved occluder: Constrained endo-aortic balloon occlusion.

    PubMed

    de Vaal, M H; Gee, M W; Stock, U A; Wall, W A

    2016-12-01

    Because aortic occlusion is arguably one of the most dangerous aortic manipulation maneuvers during cardiac surgery in terms of perioperative ischemic neurological injury, the purpose of this investigation is to assess the structural mechanical impact resulting from the use of existing and newly proposed occluders. Existing (clinically used) occluders considered include different cross-clamps (CCs) and endo-aortic balloon occlusion (EABO). A novel occluder is also introduced, namely, constrained EABO (CEABO), which consists of applying a constrainer externally around the aorta when performing EABO. Computational solid mechanics are employed to investigate each occluder according to a comprehensive list of functional requirements. The potential of a state of occlusion is also considered for the first time. Three different constrainer designs are evaluated for CEABO. Although the CCs were responsible for the highest strains, largest deformation, and most inefficient increase of the occlusion potential, it remains the most stable, simplest, and cheapest occluder. The different CC hinge geometries resulted in poorer performance of CC used for minimally invasive procedures than conventional ones. CEABO with a profiled constrainer successfully addresses the EABO shortcomings of safety, stability, and positioning accuracy, while maintaining its complexities of operation (disadvantage) and yielding additional functionalities (advantage). Moreover, CEABO is able to achieve the previously unattainable potential to provide a clinically determinable state of occlusion. CEABO offers an attractive alternative to the shortcomings of existing occluders, with its design rooted in achieving the highest patient safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Amparo, E G; Hoddick, W K; Hricak, H; Sollitto, R; Justich, E; Filly, R A; Higgins, C B

    1985-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate abdominal aortic aneurysms in 27 patients. The findings were compared retrospectively with CT, ultrasound (US), and angiography in 17 cases and prospectively with US in 10 cases. MRI identified the renal arteries in all cases, demonstrated involvement at or above the origin of the renal arteries in eight patients, and showed extension of the aneurysm into the iliac arteries in 12 cases. The outer dimension of the aneurysm, the diameter of the residual lumen, and the length of the aneurysm were measured easily from the MR images. The measurements of transverse dimension of the abdominal aortic aneurysm were similar for MRI, CT, and US. MRI more accurately defined extension above the renal arteries and below the aortic bifurcation. It is concluded that MRI provides the necessary information for the surveillance and preoperative evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  10. [Interpretation of the organization of the aortic arch in the Dibamus (Reptilia, Squamates) using findings obtained from various groups of Squamates serpentiformes].

    PubMed

    Renous, S

    1985-01-01

    The comparative study of the aortic trunks of Dibamus (subterranean limbless Squamate) and of the other Squamata shows the presence of an original vascular organization in the serpentiform animals submitted to the subterranean life constraints as Scolecophidia, Amphisbaenia, Dibamidae, Anniellidae, Feyliniidae, and some Scincidae (genus Acontias and Typhlosaurus). Nevertheless, the morphology of the systemic and carotidian trunks supplies only few informations on the phylogenetical status of Dibamus.

  11. Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires

    PubMed Central

    Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

    2007-01-01

    Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots. PMID:19662123

  12. Distant downstream steady-state flow studies of a mechanical heart valve: PIV study of secondary flow in a model aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, Brandon R.; Popma, Christopher J.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Each year, hundreds of thousands of aortic and mitral heart valves are replaced with prosthetic valves. In efforts to develop a valve that does not require lifelong anticoagulation therapy, previous experimental research has been devoted to analyzing the hemodynamics of various heart valve designs, limited to the flow up to only 2 diameters downstream of the valve. Two-component, two-dimensional (2C-2D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used in this study to examine secondary flow velocity fields in a curved tube modeling an aorta at five locations (0-, 45-, 90-, 135-, 180-degrees). A bileaflet valve, opened to 30-, 45-, and 59-degrees, and one (no-valve) baseline condition were examined under three steady flow inflows (Re = 218, 429, 634). In particular, variations in the two-dimensional turbulent shear stresses at each cross sectional plane were analyzed. The results suggest that bileaflet valves in the aortic model produce significant turbulence and vorticity up to 5.5 downstream diameters, i.e. up to the 90-degrees location. Expanding this research towards aortic heart valve hemodynamics highlights a need for additional studies extending beyond the typical few diameters downstream to fully characterize valvular function. Supported by the NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  13. Atherosclerotic disease of the proximal aorta and the risk of vascular events in a population-based cohort: the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2009-07-01

    Proximal aortic plaques are a risk factor for vascular embolic events. However, this association in the general population is unclear. We sought to assess whether proximal aortic plaques are associated with vascular events in a community-based cohort. Stroke-free subjects from the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) study were evaluated. Aortic arch and proximal descending aortic plaques were assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Vascular events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, vascular death) were prospectively recorded, and their association with aortic plaques was assessed. 209 subjects were studied (age 67.0+/-8.6 years). Aortic arch plaques were present in 130 subjects (62.2%), large plaques (>or=4 mm) in 50 (23.9%). Descending aortic plaques were present in 126 subjects (60.9%), large plaques in 41 (19.8%). During a follow-up of 74.4+/-26.3 months, 29 events occurred (12 myocardial infarctions, 11 ischemic strokes, 6 vascular deaths). After adjustment for risk factors, large aortic arch plaques were not associated with combined vascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.35 to 3.02) or ischemic stroke (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.39). Large descending aortic plaques were also not independently associated with vascular events (HR 1.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 7.69) or ischemic stroke (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.27 to 7.48). In a population-based cohort, the incidental detection of plaques in the aortic arch or proximal descending aorta was not associated with future vascular events. Associated cofactors may affect the previously reported association between proximal aortic plaques and vascular events.

  14. Atherosclerotic Disease of the Proximal Aorta and the Risk of Vascular Events in a Population-Based Cohort: the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proximal aortic plaques are a risk factor for vascular embolic events. However, this association in the general population is unclear. We sought to assess whether proximal aortic plaques are associated with vascular events in a community-based cohort. Methods Stroke-free subjects from the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) study were evaluated. Aortic arch and proximal descending aortic plaques were assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Vascular events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, vascular death) were prospectively recorded and their association with aortic plaques was assessed. Results 209 subjects were studied (age 67.0±8.6 years). Aortic arch plaques were present in 130 subjects (62.2%); large plaques (≥4 mm) in 50 (23.9%). Descending aortic plaques were present in 126 subjects (60.9%), large plaques in 41 (19.8%). During a follow-up of 74.4±26.3 months, 29 events occurred (12 myocardial infarctions, 11 ischemic strokes, 6 vascular deaths). After adjustment for risk factors, large aortic arch plaques were not associated with combined vascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.35 to 3.02) or ischemic stroke (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.39). Large descending aortic plaques were also not independently associated with vascular events (HR 1.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 7.69) or ischemic stroke (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.27 to 7.48). Conclusions In a population-based cohort, the incidental detection of plaques in the aortic arch or proximal descending aorta was not associated with future vascular events. Associated co-factors may affect the previously reported association between proximal aortic plaques and vascular events. PMID:19498195

  15. Solar Arches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The magnetic field lines between a pair of active regions formed a beautiful set of swaying arches, seen in this footage captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory on April 24-26, 2017. The arches are traced out by charged particles spinning along the magnetic field lines. These arches, which form a connection between regions of opposite magnetic polarity, are visible in exquisite detail in this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Extreme ultraviolet light is typically invisible to our eyes, but is colorized here in gold. Read more: go.nasa.gov/2pGgYZt NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Dental arch analysis system.

    PubMed

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Cozzani, Mauro; Manfredi, Mario; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to describe a computerized method, which enables orthodontists and researchers to analyze variation of dental arch form and dimension. The analysis system is composed of two independent parts: the database, where the images of scanned dental casts are stored, and the software. The operator uses the software to identify some landmarks on dental cast images. Corresponding distances are calculated (interincisive, intercanine and intermolar widths and the curve axis). Then the software algorithms calculate and draw the curves passing trough the selected landmarks (conics, catenary, cubic spline and polynomial curves). In the chosen curves the arch length is measured. The dental cast data, recorded at different times of the subject's life or in different steps of orthodontic treatment, are compared in order to evaluate the change in dimension (arch length and width) and form (shape). The statistical analysis of the data evaluates the variation in form and in dimension separately. The shape change is defined by Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) and Bootstrap analysis. The computerized method allows orthodontists and researches to evaluate the variation in dimension and form of the dental arch in un-treated subjects and-or orthodontic patients over time. After the analysis of a large sample of patients or subjects, information concerning changes in dental arch dimension and form can be added to previous studies of other authors, distinguishing variation during and after orthodontic treatment, during growth or aging.

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Late Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms after Surgical Repair of Congenital Aortic Coarctation in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Juszkat, Robert; Perek, Bartlomiej; Zabicki, Bartosz; Trojnarska, Olga; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Smoczyk, Wiesław; Pukacki, Fryderyk

    2013-01-01

    Background In some patients, local surgery-related complications are diagnosed many years after surgery for aortic coarctation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to systematically evaluate asymptomatic adults after Dacron patch repair in childhood, (2) to estimate the formation rate of secondary thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and (3) to assess outcomes after intravascular treatment for TAAs. Methods This study involved 37 asymptomatic patients (26 female and 11 male) who underwent surgical repair of aortic coarctation in the childhood. After they had reached adolescence, patients with secondary TAAs were referred to endovascular repair. Results Follow-up studies revealed TAA in seven cases (19%) (including six with the gothic type of the aortic arch) and mild recoarctation in other six (16%). Six of the TAA patients were treated with stentgrafts, but one refused to undergo an endovascular procedure. In three cases, stengrafts covered the left subclavian artery (LSA), in another the graft was implanted distally to the LSA. In two individuals, elective hybrid procedures were performed with surgical bypass to the supraaortic arteries followed by stengraft implantation. All subjects survived the secondary procedures. One patient developed type Ia endoleak after stentgraft implantation that was eventually treated with a debranching procedure. Conclusions The long-term course of clinically asymptomatic patients after coarctation patch repair is not uncommonly complicated by formation of TAAs (particularly in individuals with the gothic pattern of the aortic arch) that can be treated effectively with stentgrafts. However, in some patients hybrid procedures may be necessary. PMID:24386233

  18. Aortic Blood Flow Reversal Determines Renal Function: Potential Explanation for Renal Dysfunction Caused by Aortic Stiffening in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Aortic stiffness determines the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and predicts the progressive decline of the GFR. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains obscure. Recent evidence has shown a close link between aortic stiffness and the bidirectional (systolic forward and early diastolic reverse) flow characteristics. We hypothesized that the aortic stiffening-induced renal dysfunction is attributable to altered central flow dynamics. In 222 patients with hypertension, Doppler velocity waveforms were recorded at the proximal descending aorta to calculate the reverse/forward flow ratio. Tonometric waveforms were recorded to measure the carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (peripheral) pulse wave velocities, to estimate the aortic pressure from the radial waveforms, and to compute the aortic characteristic impedance. In addition, renal hemodynamics was evaluated by duplex ultrasound. The estimated GFR was inversely correlated with the aortic pulse wave velocity, reverse/forward flow ratio, pulse pressure, and characteristic impedance, whereas it was not correlated with the peripheral pulse wave velocity or mean arterial pressure. The association between aortic pulse wave velocity and estimated GFR was independent of age, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and antihypertensive medication. However, further adjustment for the aortic reverse/forward flow ratio and pulse pressure substantially weakened this association, and instead, the reverse/forward flow ratio emerged as the strongest determinant of estimated GFR (P=0.001). A higher aortic reverse/forward flow ratio was also associated with lower intrarenal forward flow velocities. These results suggest that an increase in aortic flow reversal (ie, retrograde flow from the descending thoracic aorta toward the aortic arch), caused by aortic stiffening and impedance mismatch, reduces antegrade flow into the kidney and thereby deteriorates renal function.

  19. Seismic performance evaluation of multi-span existing masonry arch bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laterza, Michelangelo; D'Amato, Michele; Casamassima, Vito Michele

    2017-07-01

    Existing old masonry arch bridges represent an architectural and cultural heritage of inestimable value, assuming nowadays an important strategic role since most of them are still in service and link roads of primary importance for vehicular traffic. They were mostly built in the last century without considering any horizontal action, and nowadays are serving roads characterized by a transit loads certainly heavier and more frequent than the ones of past. Moreover, very often due to absence of maintenance and to weathering conditions, the elements deteriorate more and more with a consequent loss of integrity and reduction of their carrying capacity. In this paper the seismic assessment of an old multi span masonry arch bridge still in service is illustrated. Pushover analyses are performed with the aim to investigate the numerical model sensitivity and the influence on the global nonlinear response of the bridge components.

  20. Towering Arches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-06

    This still image from an animation from NASA GSFC Solar Dynamics Observatory shows arches of magnetic field lines towered over the edge of the Sun as a pair of active regions began to rotate into view Apr. 5-6, 2016.

  1. [Evaluation of the timing of orthodontic arch expansion and graft in cleft lip and palate].

    PubMed

    Chang, Le; Wang, Yingnan; Liu, Hongyan

    2016-04-01

    Maxillary transverse growth is inhibited by congenital cleft, early surgical scar strain, and oppression of lipmuscles in patients with cleft lip and palate. Clinical manifestations have shown severely constricted maxilla, insufficientmaxillary width, mismatch of upper and lower dental arches, and crossbite. Alveolar bone graft and arch expansion can effectively correct the deficiency in maxillary width. This paper discusses the timing and success rate of alveolar bone graft, as wellas the relationship between alveolar bone graft and arch expansion. Secondary alveolar bone graft is optimally performed beforepermanent canine eruption, especially when the teeth have formed between half and three quarters of their roots. Rapid maxillaryexpansion prior to alveolar bone graft is beneficial because this process increases the gap of the cleft, expands bone graft, andreduces the difficulty. However, the stability of this process remains controversial. Small-scale studies have reported that rapidmaxillary expansion after alveolar bone graft can open the midpalatal suture without bone graft loss. Slow maxillary expansioncan provide continuous light forces to reconstruct the bone. However, these studies are coordinated with fixed orthodontictreatment. Further research is necessary to determine the effects of maxillary expansion on long-term stability of teeth.

  2. Simple Renal Cysts as Markers of Thoracic Aortic Disease.

    PubMed

    Ziganshin, Bulat A; Theodoropoulos, Panagiotis; Salloum, Mohammad N; Zaza, Khaled J; Tranquilli, Maryann; Mojibian, Hamid R; Dahl, Neera K; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-01-08

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is usually a clinically silent disease; timely detection is largely dependent upon identification of clinical markers of thoracic aortic disease (TAD); (bicuspid aortic valve, intracranial aortic aneurysm, bovine aortic arch, or positive family history). Recently, an association of simple renal cysts (SRC) with abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection was established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of SRC in patients with TAD in order to assess whether the presence of SRC can be used as a predictor of TAD. We evaluated the prevalence of SRC in 842 patients with TAD (64.0% males) treated at our institution from 2004 to 2013 and compared to a control group of patients (n=543; 56.2% males). Patients were divided into 4 groups: ascending aortic aneurysm (456; 54.2%); descending aortic aneurysm (86; 10.2%); type A aortic dissection (118; 14.0%); and type B aortic dissection (182; 21.6%). SRC were identified by abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of these patients. Prevalence of SRC is 37.5%, 57.0%, 44.1%, and 47.3% for patients with ascending aneurysm, descending aneurysm, type A dissection, and type B dissection, respectively. Prevalence of SRC in the control group was 15.3%. Prevalence of SRC was not significantly different between male and female aortic disease patients, despite reported general male predominance (2:1), which was also observed in our control group (1.7:1). This study establishes an increased prevalence of SRC in patients with TAD. SRC can potentially be used as a marker for timely detection of patients at risk of TAD. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Prospective Evaluation of the Correlation Between Torso Height and Aortic Anatomy in Respect of a Fluoroscopy Free Aortic Balloon Occlusion System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Surgery ,c Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK; the Air Force Medical Support Agency,d Joint Base San Antonio Lackland, TX; The Division of Vascular Surgery ...potential solution to aid fluoroscopy -free placement is to use an external anatomic measure to predict internal vascular length. A linear rela- tionship...Prospective evaluation of the correlation between torso height and aortic anatomy in respect of a fluoroscopy free aortic balloon occlusion system

  4. Computed tomography evaluation for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): imaging of the aortic root and iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Kapadia, Samir R; Halliburton, Sandra S; Svensson, Lars G; Tuzcu, E Murat

    2011-01-01

    For patients with severe aortic stenosis, open-heart surgical valve replacement remains the current clinical standard with documented, excellent long-term outcome. Over the past few years, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has developed into a treatment alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because transcatheter valvular procedures are characterized by lack of exposure of the operative field, image guidance is critical. This Pictorial Essay describes the role of 3-dimensional imaging with multidetector row computed tomography for detailed reconstructions of the aortic valve, aortic root, and iliac arteries in the context of TAVI.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment planning of acute aortic emergencies using a handheld DICOM viewer.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Norton, Patrick T; Carr, Thomas M; Stone, James R; Hagspiel, Klaus D; Dake, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    Acute aortic syndromes and traumatic aortic injury are often diagnosed on CT angiography, possibly requiring emergent intervention. Advances in handheld computing have created the possibility of viewing full DICOM datasets from a remote location. We evaluated the ability to diagnose and characterize acute aortic pathologies on CT angiograms of the thorax using an iPhone-based DICOM viewer. This study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. Fifteen CT angiograms of the thorax in suspected acute aortic syndromes were evaluated by three blinded radiologists on a handheld device using a DICOM viewer. Studies were evaluated for the ability to identify and classify aortic dissection, transection, or intramural hematoma, measure aortic dimensions, and identify mediastinal hematoma, arch variants, and pulmonary pathology. Studies were compared to blinded interpretations on a dedicated PACS workstation. The aortic pathology was correctly identified as aortic transection/pseudoaneurysm (n = 5), type A dissection (n = 2), and type A intramural hematoma (n = 1) by all reviewers, with no false-positive interpretations. This represents a sensitivity and specificity of 100 %. Mediastinal hematoma (n = 6), pneumothorax (five right, three left), and arch vessel involvement (n = 2) were identified in all cases. There was 88.5 % accuracy in identifying arch variants. Measurement of the size of the involved aortic segment was similar on handheld device and PACS workstation; however the adjacent normal aorta was 1.2 ± 1.0 mm larger on the handheld device (p = 0.03). Handheld DICOM viewers may be useful for emergent consultations and triage, and may expedite preprocedure planning to reduce the time interval between diagnostic scan and therapeutic intervention.

  6. Reliability of antagonistic arch impression in dental prostheses: clinical evaluation of different preimpression preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Scotti, R; Lugli, M; D'Elia, A

    1995-08-01

    This study compared the influence of different methods of preimpression preparation on the quality of occlusal reproduction in irreversible hydrocolloid impressions. A total of 30 impressions of the lower dental arch of a patient were made with five different preimpression preparation procedures. Stone casts were made and analyzed. Critical comparison showed that the preimpression preparation influenced the quality of the occlusal surface of the cast. Fingerpainting the occlusal surface with fluid hydrocolloid before positioning the loaded impression tray, associated with use of a saliva ejector, reduced the incidence of macroscopic defects on the occlusal surface of the impressions.

  7. Evaluation of Intravascular Hemolysis With Erythrocyte Creatine in Patients With Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tetsuro; Okumiya, Toshika; Kubo, Toru; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-27

    Chronic intravascular hemolysis has been identified in patients with cardiac valve prostheses, but only a few case reports have evaluated intravascular hemolysis in patients with native valvular heart disease. To detect intravascular hemolysis in patients with aortic stenosis, erythrocyte creatine was evaluated with hemodynamic indices obtained by echocardiography.Erythrocyte creatine, a marker of erythrocyte age, was assayed in 30 patients with aortic stenosis and 10 aged matched healthy volunteers. Peak flow velocity of the aortic valve was determined by continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography. Twenty of 30 patients with aortic stenosis had high erythrocyte creatine levels (> 1.8 µmol/g Hb) and erythrocyte creatine was significantly higher as compared with control subjects (1.98 ± 0.49 versus 1.52 ± 0.19 µmol/g Hb, P = 0.007). Peak transvalvular pressure gradient ranged from 46 to 142 mmHg and peak flow velocity ranged from 3.40 to 5.95 m/second. Patients with aortic stenosis had a significantly lower erythrocyte count (387 ± 40 versus 436 ± 42 × 10(4) µL, P = 0.002) and hemoglobin (119 ± 11 versus 135 ± 11 g/L, P < 0.001) as compared with control subjects. Erythrocyte creatine had a fair correlation with peak flow velocity (r = 0.55, P = 0.002).In conclusion, intravascular hemolysis due to destruction of erythrocytes was detected in patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and the severity of intravascular hemolysis was related to valvular flow velocity of the aortic valve.

  8. Organized Arches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-17

    Magnetic arcs of plasma that spiraled above two active regions held their shape fairly well over 18 hours (Jan. 11-12, 2017). The charged plasma is being controlled the magnetic field lines of the active regions. The field lines become clearly visible when viewed in this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Often the arches bend and twist more dynamically than the relatively stable ones seen here. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12327

  9. Evaluation of anatomic landmarks and safe zones for screw placement in the atlas via the posterior arch.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Matthias; Barvencik, Florian; Briem, Daniel; Kolb, Jan P; Seitz, Sebastian; Rueger, Johannes M; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated quantitative anatomic data for direct lateral mass screw fixation. To analyze anatomic landmarks and safe zones for optimal screw placement through the posterior arc of the human atlas, morphometric parameters of 41 adult native human atlas specimens were quantitatively measured. Internal dimensions of the atlas (lateral mass, maximum and minimum intraosseous screw length), minimum height and width of the posterior arc and optimal screw insertion angles were defined on pQCT scans. By this, an optimal posterior screw insertion point (OIP) and a preferable screw direction (PSD) through the posterior arch into the lateral mass of C1 were defined. External dimensions (transverse and sagittal diameter) as well as the width of the mid-portion of C1 lateral mass were significantly higher in male specimens. The mean height of the posterior arch at the vertebral artery groove was 4.1 +/- 0.8 mm in female and 4.6 +/- 0.9 mm in male specimens. The optimal screw insertion point was located 21.6 +/- 1.7 mm in female and 23.6 +/- 2.3 mm in male lateral from the posterior tubercle of C1 (P < 0.01). The preferable screw direction was a mean medial inclination of 7.9 +/- 1.9 degrees in female and 7.3 +/- 2.7 degrees in male specimens and a mean rostral direction of 2.4 +/- 1.8 degrees in female and 3.1 +/- 1.7 degrees in male specimens. In conclusion, the presented study provides information for the use and design of upper cervical spine instrumentation techniques, such as screw placement to C1 via the posterior arch. The characterization of working areas and safe zones (OIP, PSD) might contribute to a minimization of screw malposition in this highly demanding instrumentation technique.

  10. Aortic Valve Pathology as a Predictive Factor for Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Berdajs, Denis; Mosbahi, Selim; Ferrari, Enrico; Charbonnier, Dominique; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effect of aortic valve (AV) pathology on local hemodynamic conditions was evaluated as a potential trigger for the onset of acute type A and B aortic dissection. A time- and pressure-related four-dimensional (4-D) computed fluid dynamic model of the aorta was established. In an experimental setup, AV stenosis and AV insufficiency were created. 4-D pressure-related geometry of the aortic root (AR) with valve insufficiency and valve stenosis were determined by high-fidelity (200 Hz) microsonometric crystals. Flow and pressure were obtained at the left ventricle, ascending aorta, and aortic arch. Expansion of the AR in AV insufficiency was higher with expansion in AV stenosis, at peak ejection, and at the end of systole. In AV insufficiency, there was low shear stress (0 to 0.6 Pa), turbulent flow, and high pressure (80 to 95 mm Hg) at the anterior wall of the ascending aorta, at the proximal aortic arch, and at the aortic isthmus. In stenosis, high shear stress (>2 Pa) and high pressure (>95 mm Hg) were found at the ascending aorta and at the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic trunk. In AV insufficiency, low shear stresses and turbulent flow regions were documented at the traditional levels of entry tears for acute type A and B dissection. In AV stenosis, high shear stress with elevated pressure at the ascending aorta may be a trigger element for vessel dilatation, aneurysm formation, and intimal tear, which is typical for type A aortic dissection. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simple Way of Recording Dental Arch Forms

    PubMed Central

    Ratre, Ram Kishore; Jain, Sandhya; Chandki, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Like finger prints each individual has a unique dental arch form design. Recording patient’s dental arch form may be required in various fields in dentistry be it longitudinal studies for evaluating growth, forensic dentistry and most importantly in orthodontic practice for fabricating arch wires for individual patients. An easy and practical method to obtain individual arch form for each patient is explained. PMID:25954726

  12. Evaluation of facial morphology and sagittal relationship between dental arches in primary and mixed dentition.

    PubMed

    Traldi, Aline; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; de Souza, Luciane Zanin; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2015-01-01

    To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern. Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationship between dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects.

  13. Evaluation of facial morphology and sagittal relationship between dental arches in primary and mixed dentition

    PubMed Central

    Traldi, Aline; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; de Souza, Luciane Zanin; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. METHODS: The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationship between dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects. PMID:26352847

  14. Patient evaluation and selection for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the heart team approach.

    PubMed

    Sintek, Marc; Zajarias, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to significantly impact mortality and quality of life in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who are deemed high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Essential to these outcomes is proper patient selection. The multidisciplinary TAVR heart team was created to provide comprehensive patient evaluation and aid in proper selection. This review with outline the history and components of the heart team, and delineate the team's role in risk and frailty assessment, evaluation of common co-morbidities that impact outcomes, and the complex multi-modality imaging necessary for procedural planning and patient selection. The heart team is critical in determining patient eligibility and benefit and the optimal operative approach for TAVR. The future of structural heart disease will certainly require a team approach, and the TAVR heart team will serve as the successful model.

  15. Evaluation the Aortic Aneurysm Remodeling After a Successful Stentgraft Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka, Monika; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Rusak, Grażyna; Ratajczak, Przemysław; Sobociński, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Routine imaging follow-up after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is mainly aimed at detection of endoleaks. The aim of the study was to assess changes in the size of the abdominal aortic aneurysm sack using CT angiography (CTA) after successful treatment using endovascular stent graft implantation. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of CTA results included 102 patients aged 54–88, who had no postoperative complications. Patients underwent CTA before EVAR and after the treatment (mean time between studies, 7.6 months). The largest cross-sectional area of the aneurysm sac was measured using a curved multiplanar reconstruction. A change of the aneurysm cross-sectional over 10% was considered significant. Results The average cross-sectional area decreased after EVAR by 3% and this change was not statistically significant. Regression of the cross-sectional area was observed in 18.6% of patients, progression was in 23.5%, and no change was seen in 57.8%. Cross-sectional areas before and after EVAR were significantly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.0001). There was no correlation between the cross-sectional area change after EVAR and patients’ age or the time between the treatment and the follow-up CTA. Cross-sectional area before the treatment predicted changes in the aneurysm size after EVAR (p=0.0045). Conclusions Remodeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms after EVAR is not uniform. The change of aneurysm size depends on the initial aneurysm size but not on the time from EVAR. The size of the aneurysm after EVAR should not be considered as a measure of the treatment efficacy. PMID:27800038

  16. Aortic angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem with the aorta or its branches, including: Aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Congenital (present from birth) problems AV ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis Congenital (present ...

  17. Innovative postmarket device evaluation using a quality registry to monitor thoracic endovascular aortic repair in the treatment of aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Beck, Adam W; Lombardi, Joseph V; Abel, Dorothy B; Morales, J Pablo; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Wang, Grace; Azizzadeh, Ali; Kern, John; Fillinger, Mark; White, Rodney; Cronenwett, Jack L; Cambria, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-mandated postapproval studies have long been a mainstay of the continued evaluation of high-risk medical devices after initial marketing approval; however, these studies often present challenges related to patient/physician recruitment and retention. Retrospective single-center studies also do not fully represent the spectrum of real-world performance nor are they likely to have a sufficiently large enough sample size to detect important signals. In recent years, The FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health has been promoting the development and use of patient registries to advance infrastructure and methodologies for medical device investigation. The FDA 2012 document, "Strengthening the National System for Medical Device Post-market Surveillance," highlighted registries as a core foundational infrastructure when linked to other complementary data sources, including embedded unique device identification. The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) thoracic endovascular aortic repair for type B aortic dissection project is an innovative method of using quality improvement registries to meet the needs of device evaluation after market approval. Here we report the organization and background of this project and highlight the innovation facilitated by collaboration of physicians, the FDA, and device manufacturers. This effort used an existing national network of VQI participants to capture patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair for acute type B aortic dissection within a registry that aligns with standard practice and existing quality efforts. The VQI captures detailed patient, device, and procedural data for consecutive eligible cases under the auspices of a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). Patients were divided into a 5-year follow-up group (200 acute; 200 chronic dissections) and a 1-year follow-up group (100 acute; 100 chronic). The 5-year cohort required additional imaging details, and the 1-year

  18. Long-term evaluation of direct repair of traumatic isthmic aortic transection.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, G; Fontan, F; Deville, C; Madonna, F; Thibaud, D

    1989-01-01

    Direct repair of traumatic aortic isthmic transection eliminates the late complications of prosthetic graft repair. This study evaluates the long-term fate of direct aortic repair to which little attention has been paid. Among 32 patients operated upon from 1965 to 1987, 27 (84%) underwent direct repair. The tear was circumferential in 15 patients and partial in 12. Multiple traumatic lesions were present in 26 patients, including intracranial injury in 19. Partial cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 15 patients and simple aortic cross-clamping in 12. No paraplegia was observed. There were 4 deaths from associated lesions among the 14 patients operated upon for acute traumatic isthmic transection and no deaths in the others. Among the 23 survivors, 4 were lost to follow-up; the other 19 patients have excellent clinical results. Intravenous digital aortic angiography performed in 14 patients at a mean delay of 5 years 3 months showed excellent aortic reconstruction in all cases. Technically more demanding and faster than a graft interposition, direct repair is recommended as the procedure of choice in the surgical treatment of traumatic isthmic transection, particularly in young patients, the group most at risk from this lesion.

  19. Flow velocity and turbulence in the transverse aorta of a proximally directed aortic cannula: hydrodynamic study in a transparent model.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Fujimori, Shingo; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Yanaoka, Hideki; Inamura, Takao

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to visualize and characterize the effect of cannula tip direction on flow within transverse aortic arch. A hydrodynamic analysis of the Dispersion arterial cannula (Edwards Lifescience LLC, Irvine, CA) was performed using particle image velocimetry in glass perfusion models of healthy and aneurysmal aortic arches. Flow velocity, streamline, distribution of magnitude of the strain rate tensor (function of shear stress), and degree of flow turbulence were comparatively analyzed for cannula tip directed toward the aortic arch (standard direction) and toward the aortic root (root direction). Standard direction cannulation in the model of the healthy aorta showed the flow velocity in the transverse aortic arch was rapid, the streamlines were nonlinear, and the magnitude of the strain rate tensor was high along aortic curvatures. Conversely, directing the cannula tip toward the aortic root generated slower and less turbulent flow in the transverse aortic arch despite high velocity and turbulence and nonlinear streamlines in the ascending aorta. In the aneurysmal aortic arch model, the flow velocity was more rapid in the area where aortic arch vessels originated, and a reversely directed vortex was observed between the aneurysm and the origination of the arch vessels. In the root direction model, the flow velocity distribution was slower than that in the standard direction. Directing the cannula tip of the Dispersion cannula toward the aortic root generated slower and less turbulent flow in the transverse arch of the glass models of both healthy and aneurysmal aortic arches.

  20. Evaluation of aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity) before and after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Bessias, Nikolaos; Psathas, Chrysovalantis; Akridas, Konstantinos; Dragios, Theodoros; Nikitas, Georgios; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kyriakides, Zenon S

    2009-12-09

    The main clinical criterion for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair operations is an AAA diameter >/=5.5 cm. When AAAs increase in size, specific changes occur in the mechanical properties of the aortic wall. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) has been used as an indicator of vascular stiffness. A low PWV may predict AAA rupture risk and is an early predictor of cardiovascular mortality. We investigated the prognostic value of PWV before and after elective AAA repair procedures. Twenty four patients scheduled for an open AAA repair underwent a preoperative carotid-femoral aortic PWV measurement. A second aortic PWV measurement was carried out 6 months postoperatively. The mean aortic PWV increased from 7.84 +/- 1.85 preoperatively to 10.08 +/- 1.57 m/sec 6 months postoperatively (mean change: 2.25; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.1 m/sec; p<0.0001). The preprocedural PWV measurement did not correlate with AAA diameter (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho=0.12; p=0.59). Whether the increase in aortic PWV postoperatively suggests a decreased cardiovascular risk following AAA repair remains to be established. Aortic PWV should also be investigated as an adjunct tool for assessing AAA rupture risk.

  1. Maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width groups

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups. Materials and Methods: The calculated sample size was 128 subjects. The crown width/height, arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width of the maxilla and mandible were obtained via digital calliper (Mitutoyo, Japan). A total of 4325 variables were measured. The sex differences in the crown width and height were evaluated. Analysis of variance was applied to evaluate the differences between arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups. Results: Males had significantly larger mean values for crown width and height than females (P ≤ 0.05) for maxillary and mandibular arches, both. There were no significant differences observed for the crown width/height ratio in various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups (P ≤ 0.05) in maxilla and mandible, both. Conclusions: Our results indicate sexual disparities in the crown width and height. Crown width and height has no significant relation to various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups of maxilla and mandible. Thus, it may be helpful for orthodontic and prosthodontic case investigations and comprehensive management. PMID:26929686

  2. Type-A acute aortic dissection: combined operation plus stent management.

    PubMed

    Roux, Daniel; Brouchet, Laurent; Concina, Philippe; Elghobary, Tamer; Glock, Yves; Fournial, Gérard

    2002-05-01

    When the port of entry of acute type-A aortic dissection is at the level of the horizontal portion of the aortic arch, the latter should be replaced by a prosthesis. To avoid performing this difficult procedure in an emergency situation, we place a stent in the aortic arch. Then we replace the ascending aorta by a prosthesis.

  3. Aortic Regurgitation Is Common in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Time for Routine Echocardiography Evaluation?

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Eva; Sveälv, Bente Grüner; Täng, Margareta Scharin; Bech-Hanssen, Odd; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Bergfeldt, Lennart

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aortic regurgitation and any relation to disease activity and specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 187 patients (105 men), mean age (SD) 50 (13) years, and mean disease duration 24 (13) years, and was related to demographic, clinical, radiographic, electrocardiographic, and laboratory data. Aortic regurgitation was found in 34 patients (18%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-24%): mild in 24, moderate in 9, and severe in one. The prevalence was significantly higher than expected from population data. Conduction system abnormalities were documented in 25 patients (13%; 95% CI, 8%-18%), and significantly more likely in the presence of aortic regurgitation (P = .005), which was related to increasing age and longstanding disease, and increased from ~20% in the 50s to 55% in the 70s. It was also independently associated with disease duration, with higher modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score, and with a history of anterior uveitis. HLA-B27 was present in similar proportions in the presence vs absence of aortic regurgitation. For comparison, clinically significant coronary artery disease was present in 9 patients (5%; 95% CI, 2%-8%). Patients with ankylosing spondylitis frequently have cardiac abnormalities, but they more often consist of disease-related aortic regurgitation or conduction system abnormalities than manifestations of atherosclerotic heart disease. Because aortic regurgitation or conduction abnormalities might cause insidious symptoms not easily interpreted as of cardiac origin, we suggest that both electrocardiography and echocardiography evaluation should be part of the routine management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the assessment of severe aortic stenosis and in post-procedural evaluation following transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Tarique Al; Plein, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in the western world with a prevalence expected to double within the next 50 years. International guidelines advocate the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as an investigative tool, both to guide diagnosis and to direct optimal treatment. CMR is the reference standard for quantifying both left and right ventricular volumes and mass, which is essential to assess the impact of AS upon global cardiac function. Given the ability to image any structure in any plane, CMR offers many other diagnostic strengths including full visualisation of valvular morphology, direct planimetry of orifice area, the quantification of stenotic jets and in particular, accurate quantification of valvular regurgitation. In addition, CMR permits reliable and accurate measurements of the aortic root and arch which can be fundamental to appropriate patient management. There is a growing evidence base to indicate tissue characterisation using CMR provides prognostic information, both in asymptomatic AS patients and those undergoing intervention. Furthermore, a number of current clinical trials will likely raise the importance of CMR in routine patient management. This article will focus on the incremental value of CMR in the assessment of severe AS and the insights it offers following valve replacement. PMID:27429910

  5. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the assessment of severe aortic stenosis and in post-procedural evaluation following transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Musa, Tarique Al; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P

    2016-06-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in the western world with a prevalence expected to double within the next 50 years. International guidelines advocate the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as an investigative tool, both to guide diagnosis and to direct optimal treatment. CMR is the reference standard for quantifying both left and right ventricular volumes and mass, which is essential to assess the impact of AS upon global cardiac function. Given the ability to image any structure in any plane, CMR offers many other diagnostic strengths including full visualisation of valvular morphology, direct planimetry of orifice area, the quantification of stenotic jets and in particular, accurate quantification of valvular regurgitation. In addition, CMR permits reliable and accurate measurements of the aortic root and arch which can be fundamental to appropriate patient management. There is a growing evidence base to indicate tissue characterisation using CMR provides prognostic information, both in asymptomatic AS patients and those undergoing intervention. Furthermore, a number of current clinical trials will likely raise the importance of CMR in routine patient management. This article will focus on the incremental value of CMR in the assessment of severe AS and the insights it offers following valve replacement.

  6. Aortic root replacement for annuloaortic ectasia with a single coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Mitsutaka; Kawai, Yujirou; Niitsu, Hirokazu; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Tsuda, Yasutoshi; Shiratori, Kazuaki; Takemura, Takahiro; Bando, Ko; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-12-01

    A single coronary artery, arising from the left sinus of Valsalva, associated with a bicuspid aortic valve and annuloaortic ectasia, is very rare. We report on a surgical case of bicuspid aortic valve regurgitation, annuloaortic ectasia, and dilation of the ascending aorta to the aortic arch in a patient with a single coronary artery. We successfully performed aortic root replacement with reimplantation of the single coronary artery and total arch replacement. The reimplantation of the coronary orifice required particular attention. Postoperative CT demonstrated the expected contours from the aortic annulus to the aortic arch with a patent implanted coronary artery.

  7. A multicentre European registry to evaluate the Direct Flow Medical transcatheter aortic valve system for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Naber, Christoph K; Pyxaras, Stylianos A; Ince, Hüseyin; Frambach, Peter; Colombo, Antonio; Butter, Christian; Gatto, Fernando; Hink, Ulrich; Nickenig, Georg; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Brueren, Guus; Tchétché, Didier; Den Heijer, Peter; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Scholtz, Smita; Van der Heyden, Jan; Lefèvre, Thierry; Gilard, Martine; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Schofer, Joachim; Divchev, Dimitar; Baumgartner, Helmut; Asch, Federico; Wagner, Daniel; Latib, Azeem; De Marco, Federico; Kische, Stephan

    2016-12-10

    Our aim was to assess the clinical outcomes of the Direct Flow Medical Transcatheter Aortic Valve System (DFM-TAVS), when used in routine clinical practice. This is a prospective, open-label, multicentre, post-market registry of patients treated with DFM-TAVS according to approved commercial indications. Echocardiographic and angiographic data were evaluated by an independent core laboratory and adverse events were adjudicated and classified according to VARC-2 criteria by an independent clinical events committee. The primary endpoint was freedom from all-cause mortality at 30 days post procedure. Secondary endpoints included procedural, early safety and efficacy endpoints at 30 days. Two hundred and fifty patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the DFM-TAVS were enrolled in 21 European centres. The primary endpoint, freedom from all-cause mortality at 30 days, was met in 98% (245/250) of patients. Device success was 83.8%. Moderate or severe aortic regurgitation was reported in 3% of patients, and none/trace regurgitation in 73% of patients. Post-procedural permanent pacemaker implantation was performed in 30 patients (12.0%). The DFM-TAVS was associated with good short-term outcomes in this real-world registry. The low pacemaker and aortic regurgitation rates confirm the advantages of this next-generation transcatheter heart valve (THV).

  8. Gallium localization in dissecting aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Haden, H.T.; Lippman, H.R.

    1988-08-01

    Gallium concentration was demonstrated in a dissecting aneurysm of the aortic arch, imaged approximately 2 weeks after dissection. Concentration of gallium was apparently due to the inflammatory reaction associated with the organizing intramural hematoma.

  9. Computational simulations of the aortic valve validated by imaging data: evaluation of valve-sparing techniques.

    PubMed

    Ranga, Adrian; Bouchot, Olivier; Mongrain, Rosaire; Ugolini, Patricia; Cartier, Raymond

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this study has been to develop a numerical model of the aortic valve, to validate it with in-vivo data and to computationally evaluate the effect of two types of aortic valve-sparing reconstructions on valve dynamics and hemodynamics. A model of the native aortic valve and two models of the valve after surgical reconstruction (reimplantation with a straight conduit and remodeling with a shaped conduit) were created. These models were transferred to a finite element analysis software where the interaction between valve structures and blood was taken into account in a dynamic manner. Leaflet and blood dynamics, as well as tissue compliance and stresses were evaluated. Leaflet dynamics and blood velocities were also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 15 healthy volunteers. Computational results in the native valve model correlated closely with the in-vivo imaging data. The creation of neo-sinuses was shown to restore leaflet opening and closing dynamics. Loss of compliance at the commissures led to altered stress distribution patterns. Preservation of sinus geometry was an important factor in end systolic vortex formation. This is the first study to have incorporated the effect of blood flow in the numerical evaluation of aortic reconstructions using a computational model validated by in-vivo data. Differences in valve dynamics after surgical reconstruction reported in this computational study match trends previously reported in other in-vivo studies. Numerical models such as this one can serve as increasingly sophisticated tools in the study of aortic valve pathologies and in the optimization of new surgical reconstruction techniques.

  10. Reference points suitable for evaluation of the additional arch length required for leveling the curve of Spee

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Hwa; Gang, Sung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Objective The additional arch length required for leveling (AALL) the curve of Spee (COS) can be estimated by subtracting the two-dimensional (2D) arch circumference, which is the projection of the three-dimensional (3D) arch circumference onto the occlusal plane, from the 3D arch circumference, which represents the arch length after leveling the COS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cusp tips or proximal maximum convexities are more appropriate reference points for estimating the AALL. Methods Sixteen model setups of the mandibular arch with COS depths ranging from 0 mm to 4.7 mm were constructed using digital simulation. Arch circumferences in 2D and 3D were measured from the cusp tips and proximal maximum convexities and used to calculate the AALL. The values obtained using the two reference points were compared with the paired t-test. Results Although the 3D arch circumference should be constant regardless of the COS depth, it decreased by 3.8 mm in cusp tip measurements and by 0.4 mm in proximal maximum convexity measurements as the COS deepened to 4.7 mm. AALL values calculated using the cusp tips as reference points were significantly smaller than those calculated using the proximal maximum convexities (p = 0.002). Conclusions The AALL is underestimated when the cusp tips are used as measurement reference points; the AALL can be measured more accurately using the proximal maximum convexities. PMID:27896209

  11. A new method for the evaluation of the accuracy of full-arch digital impressions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Schweiger, Josef; Keul, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Introducing a new approach to evaluate the accuracy of digital impression methods for full-arch scans, avoiding "best-fit alignment." A lower jaw model with a straight metal bar between the second molars of both quadrants was directly digitized using an intraoral scanner (True Definition, TRD, n = 12) and indirectly digitized (D810, CON, n = 12) after impression and plaster cast. A dataset of the bar from a coordinate measuring machine served as reference (REF). Datasets obtained from test groups were analyzed using inspection software to determine the aberration of the bar length, the linear shift (in X-, Y-, Z-axis) and the angle deviation (α overall, α coronal, α horizontal) caused by the digitalization method. Mann-Whitney U and unpaired two-sample Student's t test were implemented to detect differences. The level of significance was set at 5 %. Concerning the bar length, no significant differences were found between groups. In view of the linear shift, CON showed significantly higher values than TRD in Y-axis (p = 0.003) and in Z-axis (p = 0.040). Regarding the angle measurement, TRD showed significant smaller values than CON for α overall (p = 0.006) and for α coronal (p = 0.005). This in vitro study shows that intraoral scanning systems seem to show the same or even higher accuracy than the conventional impression with subsequent indirect digitalization. Intraoral scanners have proven excellent accuracy for single teeth or small spans. However, insufficient data is available about their accuracy for full-arch scans. The presented new approach seems to be suitable to precisely analyze differences in the accuracy of different digitalization methods without using best-fit alignment.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Different Pre-impression Preparation Procedures of Dental Arch

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika; Gupta, Naveen; Agarwal, Manisha; Verma, Rohit; Rathod, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bubbles and voids on the occlusal surface impede the actual intercuspation and pre-impression preparation aims to reduce the incidence of air bubbles and voids as well as influences the quality of occlusal reproduction and actual clinical intercuspation in the articulator. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of different pre-impression preparation procedures of antagonistic dental arch on the quality of the occlusal reproduction of the teeth in irreversible hydrocolloid impressions and to determine most reliable pre-impression preparation method to reduce the incidence of air bubbles. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects were selected having full complement of mandibular teeth from second molar to second molar with well demarcated cusp height. 200 impressions were made with irreversible hydrocolloid material. The impressions were divided into five groups of 40 impressions each and each group had one specific type of pre-impression preparation. All the impressions were poured in die stone. A stereomicroscope with graduated eyepiece was used to count the number of bubbles on the occlusal surface of premolars and molars. The mean and standard deviations were calculated for each group. Mann–Whitney U-test was applied to find the significant difference between different groups. Results: Least bubbles were found in the group in which oral cavity was dried by saliva ejector and fluid hydrocolloid was finger painted onto the occlusal surfaces immediately before the placement of impression tray in the mouth. Conclusion: It was found that finger painting the tooth surfaces with fluid hydrocolloid immediately before the placement of loaded impression tray in the mouth was the most reliable method. The oral cavity can be cleared more easily of excess saliva by vacuum suction rather than by use of an astringent solution. PMID:26229376

  13. Rapid diagnosis and management of thoracic aortic dissection and intramural haematoma: a prospective study of advantages of multiplane vs. biplane transoesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Pepi, M; Campodonico, J; Galli, C; Tamborini, G; Barbier, P; Doria, E; Maltagliati, A; Alimento, M; Spirito, R

    2000-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the accuracy of multiplane vs. biplane transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the diagnosis of aortic dissection and aortic intramural haematoma, and to test whether these techniques provide all the diagnostic information required to make management decisions. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with clinically suspected aortic dissection were studied with multiplane TEE; all cases who required surgery underwent intraoperative monitoring with multiplane TEE. The following multiplane TEE data were analysed: the angle between current and 0 degrees plane at which each view was obtained; the success rate in the evaluation of true and false lumen, entry tear, coronary artery involvement, aortic regurgitation, pericardial effusion. Advantages of multiplane over biplane TEE have been evaluated by the demonstration of usefulness of views obtained in planes other than 0 degrees-20 degrees or 70 degrees-110 degrees, assuming that with manipulation of a biplane probe a 20 degrees arc could be added to the conventional horizontal and vertical planes. On the basis of TEE findings, aortic dissection was confirmed in 36 cases (18 type A, 12 type B, six intramural haematoma). The specificity and sensitivity of TEE in terms of the presence or absence of aortic dissection or intramural haematoma were 100%. An additional clinical value of multiplane over biplane TEE in the evaluation of ascending aorta, aortic arch, entry tears and coronary artery involvement was demonstrated. All cases with type A aortic dissection or intramural haematoma involving the ascending aorta had an operation that was performed immediately after the diagnosis (hospital mortality, 13%). Patients with type B aortic dissection were treated medically; 25% of these cases were operated later (hospital mortality, 0%). Multiplane and biplane TEE have excellent and similar accuracies in the evaluation of aortic dissection and intramural haematoma. Multiplane TEE improves

  14. [Anesthesia for total and descending aorta replacement and aortic valve replacement for post-repair aneurysm of coarctation of aorta and aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Yuko; Shimizu, Jun; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2012-04-01

    We experienced anesthesia for total arch and descending aorta replacement and aortic valve replacement for post-repair aneurysm of coarctation of aorta and aortic stenosis. Because there was possibility that post coarctectomy syndrome would occur after repair of coarctation of aorta, administration of depressor that acts on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and careful observation were needed postoperatively. In consideration of the development of collateral vessels, preoperative imaging evaluation was added and operative method in cardiopulmonary bypass was adjusted. Careful preoperative evaluation is very important in cardiac anesthesia.

  15. Evaluation of Whole Blood Viscosity in Patients with Aortic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Duyuler, Pınar Türker; Duyuler, Serkan; İleri, Mehmet; Demir, Mevlüt; Dolu, Abdullah Kadir; Başyiğit, Funda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood viscosity and aortic sclerosis (AS) are strong predictors of cardiovascular events. The effects of blood viscosity on AS have not been studied adequately. We aimed to investigate the potential connection between whole blood viscosity (WBV) and AS. Methods: AS was detected by transthoracic echocardiography. The estimation of WBV was carried out at both high shear rate (HSR) (208/s) and low shear rate (LSR) (0.5/s) by previously validated formulae using hematocrit (HcT) and total protein (TP) in g/L. WBV at HSR (208/s) is: (0.12 × HcT) + 0.17 (TP - 2.07) and WBV at LSR (0.5/s) is: (1.89 × HcT) + 3.76 (TP - 78.42). Comparisons of WBV at both HSR and LSR were made between patients with and without AS. Results: We included 94 patients with AS (male = 30.9%, mean age = 67.5 y) and 97 control subjects without AS (male =26.6%, mean age = 69.1 y). Almost all of the clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical characteristics were similar, but TP values were significantly higher in the AS group than in the control group (72.9 ± 5 g/L vs. 75.8 ± 6.1 g/L; p value < 0.001). Hemoglobin and HcT levels were similar (p value = 0.604 and p value = 0.431, respectively). In the AS group, WBV at LSR and HSR was higher than that in the control group (p value = 0.001 for both LSR and HSR). In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, WBV was an independent predictor of AS (p value < 0.001). Conclusion : We found higher WBV in patients with AS than in patients without AS at both LSR (0.5/s) and HSR (208/s). WBV at both LSR and HSR was independently associated with AS. PMID:28469685

  16. Intermittent Aortic Valve Opening and Risk of Thrombosis in VAD Patients.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Claudius; Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; McGah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony R; Beckman, Jennifer A; Mokadam, Nahush A; Aliseda, Alberto

    2017-01-20

    This study evaluates quantitatively the impact that intermittent Aortic Valve opening has on the thrombogenicity in the aortic arch region for patients under Left Ventricular Assist Device therapy. The influence of flow through the Aortic Valve, opening once every five cardiac cycles, on the flow patterns in the ascending aortic is measured in a patient-derived CT-image-based model, after LVAD implantation. The mechanical environment of flowing platelets is investigated, by statistical treatment of outliers in Lagrangian particle tracking, and thrombogenesis metrics (platelet residence times and activation state characterized by shear stress accumulation) are compared for the cases of no Aortic Valve opening and intermittent Aortic Valve opening. All hemodynamics metrics are improved by Aortic Valve opening, even at a reduced frequency and flow rate. Residence times of platelets or microthrombi are reduced significantly by transvalvular flow, as are the shear stress history experienced and the shear stress magnitude and gradients on the aortic root endothelium. The findings of this device-neutral study support the multiple advantages of management that enables Aortic Valve opening, providing a rationale for establishing this as a standard in long-term treatment and care for advanced heart failure patients.

  17. Comparison of two treatment protocols in children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate: Tridimensional evaluation of the maxillary dental arch.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Paula Karine; Gnoinski, Wanda; Vaz Laskos, Karine; Felício Carvalho Carrara, Cleide; Gamba Garib, Daniela; Okada Ozawa, Terumi; Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida; Pinelli Valarelli, Fabrício; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dimensional alterations of the maxillary dental arches after lip repair in children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate of two different protocols. The sample was composed of 94 digital models and divided in two groups: Group I - 23 children, (protocol 1) - with presurgical orthopedic intervention: Hotz plate; Group II - 24 children, (protocol 2) - without presurgical orthopedic intervention. The three dimensional images of the maxillary arch were obtained before lip repair (stage 1) and at approximately 1 year of age (stage 2). Interstages changes for each group were evaluated using dependent t test and Wilcoxon test, and in the intergroup were used independent t test, and Mann-Whitney test. The comparison of the dimensional alterations of dental arches between the two protocols exhibited differences: in the stage 1, the intercanine was smaller in Group II; in the stage 2, the anterior cleft width, the intercanine and the anteroposterior cleft were smaller in Group II. The results reported here suggest that the use of infant orthopedic plate as applied in protocol 1 may favor correct arch form establishment in infants with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Stress echocardiography in paediatrics: implications for the evaluation of anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W Reid

    2015-12-01

    Stress echocardiography in paediatrics is used to evaluate pre- and post-operative coronary artery conditions, as well as to gain haemodynamic information for a variety of diagnoses, although evidence regarding sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value is lacking. This review will consider the available literature with a focus on anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries and discuss a practical approach to test selection and use.

  19. Aiming at One-Stage Corrective Surgery for Extended Thoracic Aortic Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Niinimaki, Eetu; Kajander, Henri; Paavonen, Timo; Sioris, Thanos; Mennander, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Definitive treatment of extended thoracic aortic dilatation is a major surgical challenge. Histopathology of resected thoracic aortic wall may reveal undiagnosed aortitis affecting outcome. We sought to investigate the benefit of thorough histopathology after one-stage corrective surgery for the treatment of extended thoracic aortic dilatation. Five patients underwent one-stage corrective surgery using the hybrid open arch repair by the frozen elephant trunk together with endovascular aortic grafting. A representative sample of the resected aortic arch was procured for histology. T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) positivity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The mean preoperative maximum aortic diameter was 54 mm (range, 41–79 mm). The mean follow-up was 18 months (range, 1–24 months). As confirmed by computed tomography (CT) upon follow-up, complete thrombosis of the false lumen at the level of the frozen elephant trunk was achieved in all patients with dissection. One patient was operated due to atherosclerotic dilatation of the thoracic aorta, and postoperative CT showed successful exclusion of the atherosclerotic dilatation; this 75-year-old man was diagnosed with IgG4-positive aortitis and experienced unexpected blindness after surgery without evidence of emboli or long-term neurological impairment upon repeated brain CT. The hybrid open arch repair by the frozen elephant trunk and simultaneous endovascular repair is a feasible choice for one-stage surgery through sternotomy aiming at definitive treatment of extended thoracic aortic pathology. However, systematic evaluation of inflammation may reveal concealed aortitis affecting postoperative outcome and need for long-term surveillance. PMID:25075162

  20. Evaluation of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Mahrad; Thomas, Asish; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-05-01

    Replacement of the aortic heart valve typically requires open-heart surgery. A new transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis made from metallic material was recently developed that is an advantageous alternative insofar as it is implanted using a minimally invasive procedure. Because of the presence of metal, there are safety issues related to MRI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use standardized testing techniques to evaluate MRI issues for this TAVR bioprosthesis in association with a 3-Tesla MR system. The TAVR bioprosthesis (Hydra Aortic Valve, Percutaneous Heart Valve Prosthesis, Vascular Innovations Company, Ltd, Thailand) was evaluated for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating at a relative high specific absorption rate level (whole body average SAR, 2.9-W/kg), and artifacts (T1-weighted, spin echo, and gradient echo pulse sequences) at 3-Tesla. The TAVR bioprosthesis demonstrated negligible magnetic field interactions (deflection angle, 3-degrees; torque, 0) and minimal heating (maximum temperature rise, 2.5°C; background temperature rise, 1.7°C). Artifacts were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the implant. The TAVR bioprosthesis that was evaluated in this investigation is acceptable, or using current MRI terminology "MR Conditional", for a patient undergoing MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 4D Flow MRI in bicuspid aortic valve disease demonstrates altered distribution of aortic blood flow helicity

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, R.; Bock, J.; Barker, A. J.; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, F.; Wallis, W.; Korvink, J. G.; Bissell, M. M.; Schulz-Menger, J.; Markl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Changes in aortic geometry or presence of aortic valve disease can result in substantially altered aortic hemodynamics. Dilatation of the ascending aorta or aortic valve abnormalities can result in an increase in helical flow. Methods 4D flow MRI was used to test the feasibility of quantitative helicity analysis using equidistantly distributed 2D planes along the entire aorta. The evaluation of the method included three parts: 1) the quantification of helicity in 12 healthy subjects, 2) an evaluation of observer variability and test-retest reliability, and 3) the quantification of helical flow in 16 patients with congenitally altered bicuspid aortic valves. Results Helicity quantification in healthy subjects revealed consistent directions of flow rotation along the entire aorta with high clockwise helicity in the aortic arch and an opposite rotation sense in the ascending and descending aorta. The results demonstrated good scan-rescan and inter- and intra-observer agreement of the helicity parameters. Helicity quantification in patients revealed a significant increase of absolute peak relative helicity during systole and a considerably greater heterogeneous distribution of mean helicity in the aorta. Conclusion The method has the potential to serve as a reference distribution for comparisons of helical flow between healthy subjects and patients or between different patient groups. PMID:23716466

  2. Evaluation of aortic stenosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with established routine clinical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kupfahl, C; Honold, M; Meinhardt, G; Vogelsberg, H; Wagner, A; Mahrholdt, H; Sechtem, U

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether direct planimetry of aortic valve area (AVA) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a reliable tool for determining the severity of aortic stenosis compared with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), and cardiac catheterisation. Methods: 44 symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis were studied. By cardiac catheterisation AVA was calculated by the Gorlin equation. AVA was measured with CMR from steady state free precession (true fast imaging with steady state precession) by planimetry. AVA was also determined from TOE images by planimetry and from TTE images by the continuity equation. Results: Bland-Altman analysis evaluating intraobserver and interobserver variability showed a very small bias for both (−0.016 and 0.019, respectively; n  =  20). Bias and limits of agreement between CMR and TTE were 0.05 (−0.35, 0.44) cm2 (n  =  37), between CMR and TOE 0.02 (−0.39, 0.42) cm2 (n  =  32), and between CMR and cardiac catheterisation 0.09 (−0.30, 0.47) cm2 (n  =  36). The sensitivity and specificity of CMR to detect AVA ⩽ 0.80 cm2 measured by cardiac catheterisation was 78% and 89%, of TOE 70% and 70%, and of TTE 74% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: CMR planimetry is highly reliable and reproducible. Further, CMR planimetry had the best sensitivity and specificity of all non-invasive methods for detecting severe aortic stenosis in comparison with cardiac catheterisation. Therefore, CMR planimetry of AVA with steady state free precession is a new powerful diagnostic tool, particularly for patients with uncertain or discrepant findings by other modalities. PMID:15253962

  3. Reliability performance of titanium sputter coated Ni-Ti arch wires: mechanical performance and nickel release evaluation.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, P; Varma, N K Sapna; Balakrishnan, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed at developing surface coatings on NiTi archwires capable of protection against nickel release and to investigate the stability, mechanical performance and prevention of nickel release of titanium sputter coated NiTi arch wires. Coated and uncoated specimens immersed in artificial saliva were subjected to critical evaluation of parameters such as surface analysis, mechanical testing, element release, friction coefficient and adhesion of the coating. Titanium coatings exhibited high reliability on exposure even for a prolonged period of 30 days in artificial saliva. The coatings were found to be relatively stable on linear scratch test with reduced frictional coefficient compared to uncoated samples. Titanium sputtering adhered well with the Ni-Ti substrates at the molecular level, this was further confirmed by Inductive coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPE) analysis which showed no dissolution of nickel in the artificial saliva. Titanium sputter coatings seem to be promising for nickel sensitive patients. The study confirmed the superior nature of the coating, evident as reduced surface roughness, friction coefficient, good adhesion and minimal hardness and elastic modulus variations in artificial saliva over a given time period.

  4. Predictive risk models for proximal aortic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rocío; Pascual, Isaac; Álvarez, Rubén; Alperi, Alberto; Rozado, Jose; Morales, Carlos; Silva, Jacobo; Morís, César

    2017-01-01

    Predictive risk models help improve decision making, information to our patients and quality control comparing results between surgeons and between institutions. The use of these models promotes competitiveness and led to increasingly better results. All these virtues are of utmost importance when the surgical operation entails high-risk. Although proximal aortic surgery is less frequent than other cardiac surgery operations, this procedure itself is more challenging and technically demanding than other common cardiac surgery techniques. The aim of this study is to review the current status of predictive risk models for patients who undergo proximal aortic surgery, which means aortic root replacement, supracoronary ascending aortic replacement or aortic arch surgery. PMID:28616348

  5. Predictive risk models for proximal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Díaz, Rocío; Pascual, Isaac; Álvarez, Rubén; Alperi, Alberto; Rozado, Jose; Morales, Carlos; Silva, Jacobo; Morís, César

    2017-05-01

    Predictive risk models help improve decision making, information to our patients and quality control comparing results between surgeons and between institutions. The use of these models promotes competitiveness and led to increasingly better results. All these virtues are of utmost importance when the surgical operation entails high-risk. Although proximal aortic surgery is less frequent than other cardiac surgery operations, this procedure itself is more challenging and technically demanding than other common cardiac surgery techniques. The aim of this study is to review the current status of predictive risk models for patients who undergo proximal aortic surgery, which means aortic root replacement, supracoronary ascending aortic replacement or aortic arch surgery.

  6. Evaluation of Aortic Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in Aortic Stenosis and Its Association With Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Karunaharamoorthy, Achudhan; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Barker, Alex J; Blaszczyk, Edyta; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. Study aim was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of AS patients and determine their association with remodeling. Methods and Results Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age 60±10 years) underwent 4D-flow MRI. Helical and vortical flow formations and flow eccentricity were assessed in the ascending aorta. Normalized flow displacement from the vessel center and peak systolic wall shear stress (WSSpeak) in the ascending aorta were quantified. LV remodeling was assessed based on LV mass index (LVMI-I) and the ratio of LV mass to enddiastolic volume (relative wall mass; RWM). Marked helical and vortical flow formation and eccentricity were more prevalent in patients with AS than in healthy subjects, and AS patients exhibited an asymmetric and elevated distribution of WSSpeak. In AS, aortic orifice area was strongly negatively associated with vortical flow formation (p=0.0274), eccentricity (p=0.0070) and flow displacement (p=0.0021). Bicuspid aortic valve was associated with more intense helical (p=0.0098) and vortical flow formation (p=0.0536), higher flow displacement (p=0.11) and higher WSSpeak (p=0.0926). LVM-I and RWM were significantly associated with aortic orifice area (p=0.0611, p=0.0058) and flow displacement (p=0.0058, p=0.0283). Conclusions In this pilot study, AS leads to abnormal blood flow pattern and WSSpeak in the ascending aorta. In addition to aortic orifice area, normalized flow displacement was significantly associated with LV remodeling. PMID:26917824

  7. Correlative magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of aortic and pulmonary artery abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Risius, B.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Geisinger, M.A.; Zelch, M.G.; George, C.R.; Graor, R.A.; Moodie, D.S.

    1985-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields excellent quality images of the cardiovascular system utilizing the inherent natural contrast between flowing blood and the surrounding anatomic structures. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of MRI in the noninvasive diagnosis of large vessel disorders, the authors have performed MRI on 40 pts with either aortic or pulmonary artery abnormalities (18 thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysms, 8 aorto-occlusive disease, 6 dissecting aneurysms, 4 Marfan's syndrome, 2 pulmonary artery aneurysms 1 pulmonary artery occlusion, 1 aortic coarctation). Images were obtained in the transverse, coronal and sagital body planes utilizing a 0.6T superconductive magnet. Cardiac and/or respiratory gating was employed in most cases. Correlation was made for all studies with conventional or digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography, and/or ultrasound. The diagnostic information obtained by MRI equaled or exceeded that obtained by other imaging techniques except for the few cases where cardiac arrhythmias precluded adequate gated acquisition. All aneurysms and their relationships to adjacent structures were readily demonstrated as were the presence or absence of mural thrombi and dissecting intimal flaps. Angiographically demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques and luminal stenoses were seen by MRI in all patients without arrhythmias. The authors concluded that MRI is a powerful noninvasive diagnostic aid in the delineation of large vessel disorders, especially where knowledge of anatomic interrelationships can guide surgical or other interventional planning.

  8. Aortic Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries (atherosclerosis) Weakened and bulging artery (pre-existing aortic aneurysm) An aortic valve defect (bicuspid aortic valve) A ... valve, tell your doctor. If you have an aortic aneurysm, find out how often you need monitoring and ...

  9. Augmentation of the Lesser Curvature With an Autologous Vascular Patch in Complex Aortic Coarctation and Interruption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heemoon; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Cho, Yang Hyun; Kang, I-Seok; Huh, June; Song, Jinyoung

    2016-06-01

    Reconstruction of the aortic arch in patients with complex aortic coarctation or interruption continues to be a challenge because of early left main bronchial compression or recoarctation and late Gothic arch formation. We propose a modified arch reconstruction technique augmenting the lesser curvature with an autologous vascular patch, which can relieve tension on the anastomosis without a prosthetic material. We retrospectively reviewed 33 patients with coarctation and arch hypoplasia (n = 31) or arch interruption (n = 2) who underwent arch reconstruction with an autologous vascular patch from 2007 to 2012. Median age at the operation was 17 days (range, 5 to 200 days). Median body weight was 3.7 kg (range, 2.3 to 7.0 kg). Cardiopulmonary bypass was used for all operations. Median antegrade selective cerebral perfusion time was 35 minutes (range, 23 to 59 minutes). Combined intracardiac anomalies in 29 patients (88%) were corrected simultaneously. The reconstructed arch was supplemented in the lesser curvature with an autologous vascular patch that was harvested from aortic isthmus (n = 25), pulmonary artery (n = 4), left subclavian artery (n = 2), aberrant right subclavian artery (n = 1), or distal arch (n = 1). One patient (3%) died of acute respiratory distress syndrome. All survivors were discharged at 15 days (range, 7 to 58 days) postoperatively without neurologic complications or bronchial obstructions. Median follow-up was 24.8 months (range, 0.2 to 48.5 months). No recoarctation was observed during follow-up, and no patient needed reoperation. Augmenting the lesser curvature with an autologous vascular patch during arch reconstruction resulted in excellent midterm outcomes. Not only can a more natural shape of arch and less tension on the anastomosis be obtained, but complications, such as left main bronchial obstruction or recoarctation, can also be minimized. Long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate late development of recoarctation

  10. Multimodality imaging assessment for Thoraflex hybrid total arch replacement.

    PubMed

    Wong, Randolph Hl; Ho, Jacky Yk; Underwood, Malcolm J

    2016-06-01

    Conventionally, aortic pathologies involving the ascending, arch, and descending thoracic aorta are treated by a staged operation. The Thoraflex device is a composite 4-branched graft with a distal endovascular stent, which allows one-stage treatment of these pathologies. We describe our multimodality hybrid approach for total arch replacement using the Thoraflex device with the adjunct of intraoperative 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, Endo-EYE endoscopy, and on-table aortography in a hybrid operating room. These multimodality assessments can ascertain adequate sealing of a distal aortic tear and proper opening of the endograft, and provide on-table functional assessment of false lumen hemodynamics. Early results are promising.

  11. Comparative evaluation of border molding, using two different techniques in maxillary edentulous arches - An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Yarapatineni, Rameshbabu; Vilekar, Abhishek; Kumar, J Phani; Kumar, G Ajay; Aravind, Prasad; Kumar, P Anil

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the retention between sectional border molding using low fusing greenstick compound and single step border molding using condensation silicone (putty) impression material in three stages- A. Immediately following border molding, B. After final impression and C. With the finished permanent denture base. In this study evaluation of retentive values of sectional border molding (Group I) (custom impression trays border molded with green stick compound ) and single step border molding (Group II) ( border molding with condensation silicone (putty) impression material ). In both techniques definitive wash impression were made with light body condensation silicone and permanent denture base with heat cure polymerization resin. Group II was significantly higher (mean=8011.43) than Group I (mean=5777.43) in test-A. The t-value (1.5883) infers that there was significant difference between Group I and Group II (p =0.15). Group I was significantly higher (mean=6718.57) than Group II (mean=5224.29) in test -B. The t-value (1.6909) infers that there was significant difference between Group I and Group II (p=0.17). Group II was higher (mean=4025.14) than Group I (mean=3835.07) in test -C. The t-value was 0.1239. But it was found to be statistically insignificant (p=0.005). Within the limitation of this clinical study border molding custom tray with low fusing green stick compound provided similar retention as compared to custom impression tray with condensation silicone in permanent denture base. How to cite this article: Yarapatineni R, Vilekar A, Kumar JP, Kumar GA, Aravind P, Kumar PA. Comparative evaluation of border molding, using two different techniques in maxillary edentulous arches - An in vivo study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):82-7 .

  12. Comparative evaluation of border molding, using two different techniques in maxillary edentulous arches - An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Yarapatineni, Rameshbabu; Vilekar, Abhishek; Kumar, J Phani; Kumar, G Ajay; Aravind, Prasad; Kumar, P Anil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken to compare the retention between sectional border molding using low fusing greenstick compound and single step border molding using condensation silicone (putty) impression material in three stages- A. Immediately following border molding, B. After final impression and C. With the finished permanent denture base. Materials & Methods: In this study evaluation of retentive values of sectional border molding (Group I) (custom impression trays border molded with green stick compound ) and single step border molding (Group II) ( border molding with condensation silicone (putty) impression material ). In both techniques definitive wash impression were made with light body condensation silicone and permanent denture base with heat cure polymerization resin. Results: Group II was significantly higher (mean=8011.43) than Group I (mean=5777.43) in test-A. The t-value (1.5883) infers that there was significant difference between Group I and Group II (p =0.15). Group I was significantly higher (mean=6718.57) than Group II (mean=5224.29) in test -B. The t-value (1.6909) infers that there was significant difference between Group I and Group II (p=0.17). Group II was higher (mean=4025.14) than Group I (mean=3835.07) in test -C. The t-value was 0.1239. But it was found to be statistically insignificant (p=0.005). Conclusion: Within the limitation of this clinical study border molding custom tray with low fusing green stick compound provided similar retention as compared to custom impression tray with condensation silicone in permanent denture base. How to cite this article: Yarapatineni R, Vilekar A, Kumar JP, Kumar GA, Aravind P, Kumar PA. Comparative evaluation of border molding, using two different techniques in maxillary edentulous arches - An in vivo study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):82-7 . PMID:24453450

  13. Seismic performance evaluation of an historical concrete deck arch bridge using survey and drawing of the damages, in situ tests, dynamic identification and pushover analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamo, Otello; Russo, Eleonora; Lodolo, Fabio

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the performance evaluation of a retrofit historical multi-span (RC) deck arch bridge analyzed with in situ tests, dynamic identification and FEM analysis. The peculiarity of this case study lies in the structural typology of "San Felice" bridge, an historical concrete arch bridge built in the early 20th century, a quite uncommon feature in Italy. The preservation and retrofit of historic cultural heritage and infrastructures has been carefully analyzed in the international codes governing seismic response. A complete survey of the bridge was carried out prior to sketching a drawing of the existing bridge. Subsequently, the study consists in four steps: material investigation and dynamic vibration tests, FEM analysis and calibration, retrofit assessment, pushover analysis. The aim is to define an innovative approach to calibrate the FEM analysis through modern experimental investigations capable of taking structural deterioration into account, and to offer an appropriate and cost-effective retrofitting strategy.

  14. Myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio in aortic stenosis: hemodynamic and echocardiographic evaluation of patients with and without angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Nadell, R; DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Hakki, A H; Iskandrian, A S; Morganroth, J

    1983-08-01

    Angina pectoris is a common symptom in patients with aortic stenosis without coronary artery disease. To investigate the correlates of angina pectoris, echocardiographic and hemodynamic data from 44 patients with aortic stenosis and no coronary artery disease (mean age 56 +/- 10 years) were analyzed. Twenty-three patients had no angina pectoris and 21 patients had angina pectoris. The ratio of the diastolic pressure-time index (area between the aortic and left ventricular pressure curves during diastole) to the systolic pressure-time index (area under the left ventricular pressure curve during systole), an index of the oxygen supply/demand ratio, was not different in patients with or without angina pectoris. There were no differences between patients with and without angina pectoris in echocardiographically determined wall thickness, chamber size, systolic and diastolic wall stress and left ventricular mass; in electrocardiographically defined voltage; and in hemodynamically defined aortic valve area, transaortic gradient and stroke work index. Thus, echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements at rest are not significantly different in the presence or absence of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis. Dynamic data appear to be essential for evaluation of the mechanisms of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis.

  15. Evaluation of maxillary arch dimensions and palatal morphology in mouth-breathing children by using digital dental casts.

    PubMed

    Lione, Roberta; Buongiorno, Marco; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the variations of maxillary arch size and of palatal morphology in subjects with prolonged mouth-breathing due to allergic rhinitis when compared with a control group with normal breathing pattern by using a three-dimensional analysis on digital casts. 26 Caucasian children (19 females and 7 males) with a mean age of 8.5 years (SD 1.6 years) were selected according to the following criteria: mouth-breathing pattern due to allergic rhinitis, early mixed dentition, skeletal Class I relationship and prepubertal stage of cervical vertebral maturation. The study group was compared with a control group of 17 nasal breathing subjects (9 females; 8 males, mean age 8.5 years SD 1.7 years). For each subject an initial dental cast was taken and the upper arch was scanned by using a tridimensional scanner. On each digital model linear measurements were performed to analyze maxillary arch dimensions and palatal morphology. Significant between-group differences were tested with the Student t-test (p<0.05). the transverse dimension of the upper arch was significantly smaller in subjects of the study group thus confirming the influence of oral breathing on skeletal development with a significant constriction of the whole palate. The study group showed a higher and sharper palatal vault at the level of second deciduous molars and of first permanent molars. Children with mouth-breathing pattern showed a significant constriction of the maxillary arch and an increased palatal height when compared with subjects with normal breathing pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of hemodynamics after aortic root replacement using valve-sparing or bioprosthetic valved conduit

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jeremy D; Semaan, Edouard; Barker, Alex; McCarthy, Patrick; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael; Malaisrie, S. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose is to compare aortic hemodynamics and blood flow patterns using in-vivo 4D flow MRI in patients following valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSARR) and aortic root replacement with bio-prosthetic valves (BIO-ARR). Methods In-vivo 4D flow MRI was performed in 11 patients after VSARR (47±18 years, 6 BAV, 5 TAV), 16 patients after BIO-ARR (52±14 years), and 10 healthy controls (47±16 years). Analysis included 3D blood flow visualization and grading of helix flow in the ascending aorta (AAo) and arch. Peak systolic velocity was quantified in 9 analysis planes in the AAo, aortic arch, and descending aorta. Flow profile uniformity was evaluated in the aortic root and ascending aorta. Results Peak systolic velocity (2.0–2.5m/s) in the aortic root and AAo in both VSARR and BIO-ARR were elevated compared to controls (1.1–1.3m/s, p < 0.005). Flow asymmetry in BIO-ARR was increased compared to VSARR, evidenced by more AAo outflow jets (9 of 16 BIO-ARR, 0 of 11 in VSARR). BIO-ARR exhibited significantly (p<0.001) increased helix flow in the AAo as a measure of increased flow derangement. Finally, peak systolic velocities were elevated at the aortic root for BIO-ARR (2.5 vs 2.0m/s, p < 0.05) but lower in the distal AAo when compared to VSARR.. Conclusion VSARR results in improved hemodynamic outcomes when compared with BIO-ARR as indicated by reduced peak velocities in the aortic root and less helix flow in the AAo by 4D flow MRI. Longitudinal research assessing the clinical impact of these differences in hemodynamic outcomes is warranted. PMID:26212514

  17. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Aortic Valve Annular Shape in Children With Bicuspid Aortic Valves and/or Aortic Coarctation Compared With Controls.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Christen R; Sugeng, Lissa; Abraham, Sharon; Li, Fangyong; Weismann, Constance G

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac abnormality, occurring in 1% to 2% of the general population. Adults with degenerative aortic valve (AV) disease have been shown to have an elliptical shaped AV annulus. The goal of this study was to investigate the shape of the aortic annulus in children with BAV, coarctation of the aorta (CoA) with or without BAV, and normal controls with trileaflet AVs using 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). We reviewed echocardiograms of children with isolated BAV (n = 40), CoA (n = 26), and controls (n = 40) that included 3DE of the AV. Eccentricity index (EI) was defined as the ratio between the smaller and larger annular dimension. ΔD was defined as the difference between the larger and smaller annular dimension. Patients with BAV had an eccentric AV annulus compared with controls (BAV EI 0.85 ± 0.05 and control EI 0.96 ± 0.03; p <0.001). Subjects with CoA also had a more eccentric annulus than controls regardless of AV morphology (CoA 0.84 ± 0.06; p <0.001). EI was not associated with somatic growth parameters or gender. Among all patients with BAV, AV dysfunction was associated with fusion of the right and noncoronary (R-N) cusps (p <0.001), but there was no association between valve dysfunction and EI. ΔD was higher in both the BAV and CoA groups compared with the control group (BAV 3.4 ± 1.9 mm, CoA 2.8 ± 1.8 mm, and control 0.6 ± 0.4 mm; p <0.001 each). Although there was no significant correlation of ΔD with age in the control group during childhood, ΔD increased with age in the BAV and CoA groups. In conclusion, children with BAV and/or CoA have an elliptical shaped AV annulus by 3DE, which is independent of age, gender, or body surface area. AV annular eccentricity may lead to inaccurate measurement of AV annular size if measured by 2DE alone. Considering AV annular eccentricity when balloon sizing the annulus before valvuloplasty may help improve interventional results in some

  18. A 5-year evaluation using the talent endovascular graft for endovascular aneurysm repair in short aortic necks.

    PubMed

    Jim, Jeffrey; Sanchez, Luis A; Rubin, Brian G; Criado, Frank J; Fajardo, Andres; Geraghty, Patrick J; Sicard, Gregorio A

    2010-10-01

    Although endovascular aneurysm repair has been shown to be an effective way to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), certain anatomic characteristics such as a short aortic neck, limit its applicability. Initially, commercially available devices were approved only for the treatment of AAA with an aortic neck length ≥ 15 mm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the recently approved Talent endograft for AAAs with a short aortic neck length (10-15 mm). Data were obtained from the prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter Talent enhanced Low Profile Stent Graft System trial which enrolled patients between February 2002 and April 2003. A total of 154 patients with adequate preoperative imaging were identified for this study. Subgroup analyses were performed for AAA with 10-15 mm aortic neck and those with >15 mm neck. Safety and effectiveness endpoints were evaluated at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years postprocedure. Patients treated with aortic neck lengths of 10-15 mm (n = 35) and those with >15 mm (n = 102) had similar age, gender, and risk factor profile. Both groups had similar preoperative aneurysm morphology in terms of maximum aneurysm size, degree of neck angulation, or proximal neck diameter. There were no statistically significant differences in freedom from major adverse events and mortality rates at 30 and 365 days. Similarly, there was no difference in the effectiveness endpoints at 12 months. At 5 years, there was no difference in migration rate, endoleaks, or change in aneurysm diameter from baseline. In addition, there is no difference in freedom from aneurysm-related mortality (94% vs. 99%). AAAs with short aortic necks (10-15 mm) and otherwise suitable anatomy for endovascular repair can be safely and effectively treated with the Talent endograft with excellent 1 and 5 year outcomes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Evaluation of the CritiView in pig model of abdominal aortic occlusion and graded hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayevsky, A.; Preisman, S.; Willenz, P. E.; Castel, D.; Perel, A.; Givony, D.; Dekel, N.; Oren, L.; Pewzner, E.

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesize that in the presence of reduced oxygen delivery and extraction, blood flow will be redistributed in order to protect the most vital organs (e.g., brain and heart) by increasing their regional blood flow, while O2 delivery to the less vital organs (e.g., GI tract or urethral wall) will diminish. Evaluation of mitochondrial function in vivo could be done by monitoring the oxidation reduction state of the respiratory chain. Thus, the NADH redox state of less vital organs could serve as an indicator of overall O2 imbalance as well as an endpoint of resuscitation. We have therefore tested, in a pig model, a new medical device providing real time data on NADH redox state and tissue blood flow- TBF This device contains a modified three way Foley catheter with a fiber optic probe which connects the measurement unit to the tested tissue. Female pigs underwent graded hemorrhage (GH) or Aortic clamping (AC). The main effects of GH started when blood volume decreased by 30%. At 40% blood loss, minimal levels of TBF were correlated to the maximal NADH levels. The values of the 2 parameters returned to baseline after retransfusion of the shed blood. Aortic clamping led to significant decrease in TBF while NADH levels increased. After aortic declamping the parameters recovered to normal values. Due to the short length of the urethra in female pigs and the instable contact between the probe and the tissue, inconsistency of the responses was observed. Our preliminary results show that the CritiView may be a useful tool for the detection of body O2 imbalance.

  20. [Echocardiography in the evaluation and pre- and postoperative follow-up of chronic aortic insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Karam, R; Esquivel-Avila, J G; Sánchez Torres, G; Sánchez Samayoa, C

    1984-01-01

    In chronic aortic regurgitation (CAoR) is difficult to determine the moment in which volume overload produces the myocardial deterioration which originates symptoms. We pretend to demonstrate the utility of echocardiography in defining the correct timing of operative correction in CAoR with pre- and post-operative comparison. Thirteen patients with CAoR (systolic ventricular-aortic gradient less than 20 mmHg) in whom the aortic valve was replaced were studied with an average of 13.7 months of follow-up. Two patients died immediately after surgery. Those remaining had a decrease in cardiomegaly grade and moved into functional class I. The echocardiogram revealed a significant reduction (P less than 0.01) in diameters of the left ventricle. The ejection fraction increased (P less than 0.05) in the post-operative period. Fractional shortening (FS) and mean velocity of circumferential shortening showed no significant change. The index end-systolic diameter over normalized velocity of the posterior wall IESD/NVPW) decreased considerably and the mean velocity of circumferential relaxation (Vcfr) increased (P less than 0.001) after surgical treatment. The preoperative ESD/NVPW index and Vcfr correlated well with the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (r = 0.891 and r = -0.885, respectively). There was no difference in the course of those patients with diminished FS. The ESD/NVPW index and the Vcfr allowed a better evaluation of the residual volume, of the Frank-Starling law and of distensibility as an expression of the ventricular function. Consequently we conclude these indices are useful to establish the best moment for pre-operative catheterization in patients with CAoR.

  1. Dilation of woven and knitted aortic prosthetic grafts: CT scan evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Y; Juhan, C; Morati, N; Girard, N; Cohen, S

    1994-05-01

    Because there are few reports in the literature concerning short- and medium-term outcome of woven and knitted aortic prosthetic grafts, we conducted CT evaluations in 58 asymptomatic patients (53 males and five females with a mean age of 63.5 years) undergoing infrarenal aortic reconstruction between June 1988 and June 1991. Joined CT slices after contrast enhancement, centered on the proximal anastomoses, prosthetic bodies, and prosthetic limbs, were obtained in the early (mean 19 days) and late (mean 19 months, range 6 to 40 months) postoperative periods. In end-to-side aortoprosthetic anastomoses (n = 28), early and late CT examinations revealed that the anteroposterior diameter increased 1.9% (p = NS) and 8.8% (p < 0.0001) for woven and knitted grafts, respectively. In end-to-end aortoprosthetic anastomoses, the diameter of the prosthetic body on early CT scans increased 12.6% (p < 0.0001) and 28% (p < 0.0001) for woven and knitted prosthetic grafts, respectively, as compared with diameter values provided by the manufacturer. Dilation continued to progress 2.2% (p < 0.04) for woven and 6.2% (p < 0.0002) for knitted prosthetic grafts on late CT scans. The mean diameter of the prosthetic graft limbs (n = 96) increased 22.3% (p < 0.0001) and 34.6% (p < 0.0001) for woven and knitted prosthetic grafts, respectively, on early CT scans as compared with manufacturers' values. Secondary increases were 3.2% (p < 0.002) and 7.7% (p < 0.007) for woven and knitted prosthetic grafts, respectively. These data show that dilation of aortic prostheses occurs early in most cases, most likely soon after declamping of the graft, as shown by recent intraoperative measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. CT evaluation prior to transapical aortic valve replacement: semi-automatic versus manual image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Foldyna, Borek; Jungert, Camelia; Luecke, Christian; von Aspern, Konstantin; Boehmer-Lasthaus, Sonja; Rueth, Eva Maria; Grothoff, Matthias; Nitzsche, Stefan; Gutberlet, Matthias; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Lehmkuhl, Lukas

    2015-08-01

    To compare the performance of semi-automatic versus manual segmentation for ECG-triggered cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) examinations prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), with focus on the speed and precision of experienced versus inexperienced observers. The preoperative ECG-triggered CT data of 30 consecutive patients who were scheduled for TAVR were included. All datasets were separately evaluated by two radiologists with 1 and 5 years of experience (novice and expert, respectively) in cardiovascular CT using an evaluation software program with or without a semi-automatic TAVR workflow. The time expended for data loading and all segmentation steps required for the implantation planning were assessed. Inter-software as well as inter-observer reliability analysis was performed. The CT datasets were successfully evaluated, with mean duration between 520.4 ± 117.6 s and 693.2 ± 159.5 s. The three most time-consuming steps were the 3D volume rendering, the measurement of aorta diameter and the sizing of the aortic annulus. Using semi-automatic segmentation, a novice could evaluate CT data approximately 12.3% faster than with manual segmentation, and an expert could evaluate CT data approximately 10.3% faster [mean differences of 85.4 ± 83.8 s (p < 0.001) and 59.8 ± 101 s (p < 0.001), respectively]. The inter-software reliability for a novice was slightly lower than for an expert; however, the reliability for a novice and expert was excellent (ICC 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-0.97/ICC 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-0.98). Automatic aortic annulus detection failed in two patients (6.7%). The study revealed excellent inter-software and inter-observer reliability, with a mean ICC of 0.95. TAVR evaluation can be accomplished significantly faster with semi-automatic rather than with manual segmentation, with comparable exactness, showing a benefit for experienced and inexperienced observers.

  3. Human Thiel-Embalmed Cadaveric Aortic Model with Perfusion for Endovascular Intervention Training and Medical Device Evaluation.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Helen; Cox, Ben F; Robertson, James; Duncan, Robyn; Matthew, Shona; Bhat, Raj; Barclay, Avril; Anwar, J; Wilkinson, Tracey; Melzer, Andreas; Houston, J Graeme

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate human Thiel-embalmed cadavers with the addition of extracorporeal driven ante-grade pulsatile flow in the aorta as a model for simulation training in interventional techniques and endovascular device testing. Three human cadavers embalmed according to the method of Thiel were selected. Extracorporeal pulsatile ante-grade flow of 2.5 L per min was delivered directly into the aorta of the cadavers via a surgically placed connection. During perfusion, aortic pressure and temperature were recorded and optimized for physiologically similar parameters. Pre- and post-procedure CT imaging was conducted to plan and follow up thoracic and abdominal endovascular aortic repair as it would be in a clinical scenario. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and endovascular abdominal repair (EVAR) procedures were conducted in simulation of a clinical case, under fluoroscopic guidance with a multidisciplinary team present. The Thiel cadaveric aortic perfusion model provided pulsatile ante-grade flow, with pressure and temperature, sufficient to conduct a realistic simulation of TEVAR and EVAR procedures. Fluoroscopic imaging provided guidance during the intervention. Pre- and post-procedure CT imaging facilitated planning and follow-up evaluation of the procedure. The human Thiel-embalmed cadavers with the addition of extracorporeal flow within the aorta offer an anatomically appropriate, physiologically similar robust model to simulate aortic endovascular procedures, with potential applications in interventional radiology training and medical device testing as a pre-clinical model.

  4. Determinant factors of Yemeni maxillary arch dimensions.

    PubMed

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2015-01-01

    Information about maxillary arch and palatal dimensions in human populations is important for clinical orthodontics. This study was conducted to assess the determinants of maxillary arch dimensions in a sample of Yemeni individuals aged 18-25 years. The study sample comprised 214/765 adults (101 women, 113 men) who underwent clinical examination and fulfilled the study criteria. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure maxillary arch and palatal dimensions. The majority of mean maxillary arch dimensions were significantly greater in men than in women, with inter-second molar distance showing the greatest difference and palatal depth showing the least difference. Measurements of palatal depth and relationships of the canines to one another and to other teeth thus had the widest ranges, implying that these dimensions are the strongest determinants of maxillary arch size.

  5. 3D evaluation of maxillary arches in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated with nasoalveolar moulding vs. Hotz's plate.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Zapata, A M; López-Palacio, A M; Rodriguez-Ardila, M J; Berrio-Gutiérrez, L M; De Menezes, M; Sforza, C

    2016-02-01

    To compare the three-dimensional changes occurring in the maxillary arch during the use of modified pre-surgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) and Hotz's plate. A clinical trial including 32 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 16 treated with Hotz's plate and 16 with PNAM, was performed. Impressions of the maxillary arches were taken: A. prior to pre-surgical orthopaedics, B. before cheiloplasty and C. after cheiloplasty. Models were digitised using a stereophotogrammetric instrument, and geodesic distances were calculated: anterior, canine and posterior widths of the arch, and lengths and cleft depths of the larger and shorter segments. The time and treatment effects were assessed by two-factor anova. A significant effect of treatment was found for cleft depth at the larger segment: children treated with Hotz's plate had significantly deeper cleft than children treated with PNAM. All distances significantly changed during time: the anterior and canine widths decreased, while the posterior width, the lengths and depths of the cleft segments increased. Significant treatment per time interactions was found. The anterior and canine widths reduced more with PNAM between time points A and B while Hotz's treatment was more effective between B and C. The shorter segment depth increased more between B and C with PNAM, and between A and B with Hotz's plate. During pre-surgical orthopaedics, therapy with PNAM obtained the best results in reducing the width at the anterior segment of the cleft. This treatment gave a lower increase in cleft depth than treatment with Hotz's plate.

  6. Three-dimensional digital evaluation of dental arches in infants with cleft lip and/or palate.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Viviane Mendes; Jorge, Paula Karine; Carrara, Cleide Felício Carvalho; Gomide, Márcia Ribeiro; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and compare the dimensions of the dental arches on three-dimensional digital study models in children with and without cleft lip and palate before the primary surgery. The sample consisted of 223 digital models of children aged 3-9 months, divided into 5 groups: without craniofacial deformities, unilateral and bilateral incomplete cleft lip and alveolus, unilateral and bilateral complete cleft lip and alveolus, unilateral cleft lip and palate, and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Dental casts of the maxillary dental arches of the children were used. The dental casts underwent a process of scanning through 3D scanner and the measurements used for the correlation among groups were made on the scanned images. Statistical analysis was performed by t test and ANOVA followed by Tukey test. The results showed that the intercanine distance and anterior cleft width was wider in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The intertuberosity distances and posterior cleft width was wider in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate among the groups. Children with cleft lip and palate before the primary surgery had wider maxillary arch dimensions than the children without cleft lip and palate.

  7. [Surgery of aortic dissection: for which patient?].

    PubMed

    Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Abouliatim, Issam; Larralde, Antoine; Beneux, Xavier; Heautot, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    In the acute stage (less than two weeks), surgery is indicated for Stanford type A aortic dissections. With respect to the initial work-up, surgery consists in replacing the ascending aorta, sometimes the aortic arch (with supra aortic vessels reimplantation), and aortic valve replacement (valve replacement, Bentall valved tube or valve sparing Tyron David technique). Ischemic visceral complications must be searched for and treated by endovascular techniques or surgery. Aneurismal evolution of chronic dissections must be treated surgically. Replacement can encompass the entire aorta. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Evaluation of Aortic Valve Replacement via the Right Parasternal Approach without Rib Removal

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Koji; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motoki, Manabu; Takahashi, Yosuke; Nishimura, Shinsuke; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although right parasternal approach (RPA) decreases the incidence of mediastinal infection, this approach is associated with lung hernia and flail chest. Our RPA employs thoracotomy with bending rib cartilages and wound closure performed by repositioning the ribs with underlying sheet reinforcement. Methods: We evaluated 16 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement via the RPA from January 2010 to August 2013. We compared outcomes of 15 male patients had the RPA with 30 male patients had full median sternotomy. Results: One patient with a history of radical breast cancer treatment underwent RPA with concomitant right coronary artery bypass grafting. No hospital deaths occurred. Four patients developed hospital-associated morbidity (re-exploration for bleeding, prolonged ventilation, cardiac tamponade, and perioperative myocardial infarction). There were no conversions to full median sternotomy, mediastinal infections, and lung hernias. Preoperative computed tomography showed that the distance from the right sternal border to the aortic root was significantly associated with operation times. With RPA, there was no significant difference in outcomes, despite significantly longer operation times compared with full median sternotomy. Conclusion: Our RPA provides satisfactory outcomes without lung hernia, especially in patients unsuitable for sternotomy. Preoperative computed tomography is useful for identifying appropriate candidates for the RPA. PMID:25167927

  9. Impact of Endografting on the Thoracic Aortic Anatomy: Comparative Analysis of the Aortic Geometry before and after the Endograft Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Midulla, Marco; Moreno, Ramiro; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Nicoud, Franc; Pruvo, Jean Pierre; Haulon, Stephan; Rousseau, Hervé

    2013-03-13

    PurposeAlthough the widespread acceptance of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) as a first-line treatment option for a multitude of thoracic aortic diseases, little is known about the consequences of the device implantation on the native aortic anatomy. We propose a comparative analysis of the pre- and postoperative geometry on a clinical series of patients and discuss the potential clinical implicationsMethodsCT pre- and postoperative acquisitions of 30 consecutive patients treated by TEVAR for different pathologies (20 thoracic aortic aneurysms, 6 false aneurysms, 3 penetrating ulcers, 1 traumatic rupture) were used to model the vascular geometry. Pre- and postoperative geometries were compared for each patient by pairing and matching the 3D models. An implantation site was identified, and focal differences were detected and described.ResultsSegmentation of the data sets was successfully performed for all 30 subjects. Geometry differences between the pre- and postoperative meshes were depicted in 23 patients (76 %). Modifications at the upper implantation site were detected in 14 patients (47 %), and among them, the implantation site involved the arch (Z0–3) in 11 (78 %).ConclusionModeling the vascular geometry on the basis of imaging data offers an effective tool to perform patient-specific analysis of the vascular geometry before and after the treatment. Future studies will evaluate the consequences of these changes on the aortic function.

  10. Aortic dissection

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic aneurysm - dissecting; Chest pain - aortic dissection; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - dissection ... also cause abnormal widening or ballooning of the aorta ( aneurysm ). The exact cause is unknown, but more common ...

  11. Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest and abdomen. There are two types of aortic aneurysm: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) - these occur in the part of the ...

  12. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of calcific aortic valve stenosis: anatomical and haemodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Commeau, P; Grollier, G; Lamy, E; Foucault, J P; Durand, C; Maffei, G; Maiza, D; Khayat, A; Potier, J C

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of elderly patients with calcified aortic stenosis were treated by balloon dilatation. In group 1, the valve was dilated just before surgical replacement of the valve. The valvar and annular changes occurring during dilatation were examined visually. In 20 of the 26 patients in this group there was no change. In the six remaining patients mobilisation of friable calcific deposits (1 case), slight tearing of the commissure (4 cases), or tearing of the aortic ring (1 case) were seen. Dilatation did not appear to alter valvar rigidity. In 14 patients (group 2) the haemodynamic gradient across the aortic valve was measured before and immediately after dilatation and one week after the procedure. Dilatation produced an immediate significant decrease of the aortic mean gradient and a significant increase of the aortic valve area. Eight days later the mean gradient had increased and the aortic valve area had decreased. Nevertheless there was a significant difference between the initial gradient and the gradient eight days after dilatation. The initial aortic valve area was also significantly larger than the area eight days after dilatation. The aortic valve gradient rose significantly in the eight days after dilatation and at follow up the gradients were those of severe aortic stenosis. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:3342163

  13. Combined Interventional and Surgical Treatment for Acute Aortic Type A Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jincheng; Zhang Jinzhou Yang Jian; Zuo Jian; Zhang Jinbao; Yu Shiqiang; Chen Tao; Xu Xuezeng; Wei Xufeng; Yi Dinghua

    2008-07-15

    Surgical repair and endovascular stent-graft placement are both therapies for thoracic aortic dissection. A combination of these two approaches may be effective in patients with type A dissection. In this study, we evaluated the prognosis of this combined technique. From December 2003 to December 2006, 15 patients with type A dissection were admitted to our institute; clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up was performed at discharge and approximately 12 months after operation. Endovascular stent-graft placement by interventional radiology and surgical repair for reconstruction of aortic arch was performed in all patients. Total arch replacement for distal arch aneurysm was carried out under deep hypothermia with circulatory arrest; antegrade-selected cerebral perfusion was used for brain protection. Four patients concomitantly received a coronary artery bypass graft. Hospital mortality rate was 6.7%; the patient died of cerebral infarction. Neurological complications developed in two patients. Multi-detector-row computed tomography scans performed before discharge revealed complete thrombosis of the false lumen in six patients and partial thrombosis in eight patients. At the follow-up examination, complete thrombosis was found in another three patients, aortic rupture, endoleaks, or migration of the stent-graft was not observed and injuries of peripheral organs or anastomotic endoleaks did not occur. For patients with aortic type A dissection, combining intervention and surgical procedures is feasible, and complete or at least partial thrombosis of the false lumen in the descending aorta can be achieved. This combined approach simplified the surgical procedures and shortened the circulatory arrest time, minimizing the necessity for further aortic operation.

  14. Primary Mitral Valve Regurgitation Outcome in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis 1 Year After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Echocardiographic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Florentino, Thiago Marinho; Bihan, David Le; Abizaid, Alexandre Antonio Cunha; Cedro, Alexandre Vianna; Corrêa, Amably Pessoa; Santos, Alexandre Roginski Mendes Dos; Souza, Alexandre Costa; Bignoto, Tiago Costa; Sousa, José Eduardo Moraes Rego; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego

    2017-07-10

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR), present in up to 74% of the patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), can be a negative prognostic factor when moderate or severe. The outcome of MR after percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and predictors associated with that outcome have not been well established in the literature. To assess the outcome of primary MR in patients submitted to TAVI and to identify associated factors. Observational study of patients with symptomatic severe AS submitted to TAVI from January 2009 to April 2015 at two specialized centers. Echocardiographic outcome was assessed with data collected before and 1 year after TAVI. Of the 91 patients with MR submitted to TAVI and followed up for at least 12 months, 67 (73.6%) had minimum/mild MR before the procedure and 24 (26.4%) had moderate/severe MR. Of those with minimum/mild MR, 62 (92.5%) had no change in the MR grade (p < 0.001), while 5 (7.5%) showed worsening. Of those with moderate/severe MR, 8 (33.3%) maintained the same grade and 16 (66.7%) improved it (p = 0.076). Patients with moderate/severe MR who improved MR grade had lower EuroSCORE II (p = 0.023) and STS morbidity (p = 0.027) scores, as compared to those who maintained the MR grade. MR grades change after TAVI. This study suggests a trend towards improvement in moderate/severe MR after TAVI, which was associated with lower preoperative risk scores. A insuficiência valvar mitral (IM), presente em até 74% dos pacientes com estenose aórtica (EA) grave, pode representar um fator prognóstico negativo quando moderada ou importante. A evolução da IM após implante percutâneo de valva aórtica transcateter (TAVI) e preditores associados a essa evolução não estão bem estabelecidos na literatura. Avaliar a evolução da IM primária em pacientes submetidos ao TAVI e identificar fatores associados a essa evolução. Realizou-se um estudo observacional em pacientes com EA grave sintomática, submetidos ao TAVI no

  15. Guilt by association: paradigm for detecting a silent killer (thoracic aortic aneurysm)

    PubMed Central

    Elefteriades, John A; Sang, Adam; Kuzmik, Gregory; Hornick, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed a close association between various medical conditions (intracranial aneurysm, abdominal aortic aneurysm, temporal arteritis, autoimmune disorder, renal cysts), certain aortic anatomic variants (bovine aortic arch, direct origin of left vertebral artery from aortic arch, bicuspid aortic valve), and family history of aneurysm disease with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. This paper reviews these associations. We propose to capitalise on these associations as powerful and expanding opportunities to diagnose the virulent but silent disease of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This can be accomplished by recognition of this ‘guilt by association’ with the other conditions. Thus, patients with associated diseases and anatomic variants should be investigated for silent aortic aneurysms. Such a paradigm holds substantial potential for reducing death from the silent killer represented by thoracic aortic aneurysm disease. PMID:25932333

  16. MR angiography of the supra-aortic arteries using a dedicated head and neck coil: image quality and assessment of stenoses.

    PubMed

    Fellner, C; Strotzer, M; Fraunhofer, S; Held, P; Spies, V; Seitz, J; Fellner, F

    1997-11-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate a dedicated head and neck coil for demonstration of supra-aortic arteries with optimised magnetic resonance angiography techniques. We performed 47 examinations with a 1.5-T system. We used coronal 3D fast imaging with steady precession (FISP), axial 3D tilted optimised nonsaturating excitation (TONE) and 2D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) for the carotid bifurcation, axial 3D TONE with or without magnetisation transfer (MT) for intracranial arteries, and axial 3D FISP or TONE for the aortic arch. Evaluation included visual assessment of image quality and grading of stenoses near the carotid bifurcation; digital subtraction angiography was used as the reference method. Axial 3D TONE gave superior image quality at the carotid bifurcation, MT-TONE intracranially, and 3D FISP for the aortic arch vessels. Nevertheless, sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant stenoses were similar with coronal 3D FISP (96.3%, 94.0%), axial 3D TONE (92.6%, 92.5%) and axial 2D FLASH (96.3%, 86.6%). Image quality at the aortic arch needs further improvement.

  17. Transfemoral Valve-in-Valve Sapien 3 in a Patient with an Ascending Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Leung Wai Sang, Stephane; Bavaria, Joseph E; Giri, Jay S; Wickramasinghe, Rasi; Desai, Nimesh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of thoracic aortic aneurysms, particularly in the ascending aorta and arch, presents a challenge to transcatheter aortic valve replacement. We present a case of TAVR in the presence of a chronic ascending aortic aneurysm. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12724 (J Card Surg 2016;31:318-320).

  18. Bronchial Aneurysms Mimicking Aortic Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul

    1999-05-15

    Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.

  19. Acute aortic intramural hematoma: an analysis from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin M; Braverman, Alan C; Eagle, Kim A; Woznicki, Elise M; Pyeritz, Reed E; Myrmel, Truls; Peterson, Mark D; Voehringer, Matthias; Fattori, Rossella; Januzzi, James L; Gilon, Dan; Montgomery, Daniel G; Nienaber, Christoph A; Trimarchi, Santi; Isselbacher, Eric M; Evangelista, Arturo

    2012-09-11

    Acute aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) is an important subgroup of aortic dissection, and controversy surrounds appropriate management. Patients with acute aortic syndromes in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (1996-2011) were evaluated to examine differences between patients (based on the initial imaging test) with IMH or classic dissection (AD). Of 2830 patients, 178 had IMH (64 type A [42%], 90 type B [58%], and 24 arch). Patients with IMH were older and presented with similar symptoms, such as severe pain. Patients with type A IMH were less likely to present with aortic regurgitation or pulse deficits and were more likely to have periaortic hematoma and pericardial effusion. Although type A IMH and AD were managed medically infrequently, type B IMH were more frequently treated medically. Overall in-hospital mortality was not statistically different for type A IMH compared to AD (26.6% versus 26.5%; P=0.998); type A IMH managed medically had significant mortality (40.0%), although less than classic AD (61.8%; P=0.195). Patients with type B IMH had a hospital mortality that was less but did not differ significantly (4.4% versus 11.1%; P=0.062) from classic AD. One-year mortality was not significantly different between AD and IMH. Acute IMH has similar presentation to classic AD but is more frequently complicated with pericardial effusions and periaortic hematoma. Patients with IMH have a mortality that does not differ statistically from those with classic AD. A small subgroup of type A IMH patients are managed medically and have a significant in-hospital mortality.

  20. Total Endovascular Aortic Repair in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amako, Mau; Spear, Rafaëlle; Clough, Rachel E; Hertault, Adrien; Azzaoui, Richard; Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Haulon, Stéphan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a total endovascular aortic repair with branched and fenestrated endografts in a young patient with Marfan syndrome and a chronic aortic dissection. Open surgery is the gold standard to treat aortic dissections in patients with aortic disease and Marfan syndrome. In 2000, a 38-year-old man with Marfan syndrome underwent open ascending aorta repair for an acute type A aortic dissection. One year later, a redo sternotomy was performed for aortic valve replacement. In 2013, the patient presented with endocarditis and pulmonary infection, which necessitated tracheostomy and temporary dialysis. In 2014, the first stage of the endovascular repair was performed using an inner branched endograft to exclude a 77-mm distal arch and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. In 2015, a 63-mm thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm was excluded by implantation of a 4-fenestrated endograft. Follow-up after both endovascular repairs was uneventful. Total aortic endovascular repair was successfully performed to treat a patient with arch and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with chronic aortic dissection and Marfan syndrome. The postoperative images confirmed patency of the endograft and its branches, and complete exclusion of the aortic false lumen. Endovascular repair is a treatment option in patients with connective tissue disease who are not candidates for open surgery. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm these favorable early outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heritability estimates of dental arch parameters in Lithuanian twins.

    PubMed

    Švalkauskienė, Vilma; Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Šalomskienė, Loreta; Andriuškevičiūtė, Irena; Šalomskienė, Aurelija; Vasiliauskas, Arūnas; Šidlauskas, Antanas

    2015-01-01

    The genetic influence on dental arch morphology may be country-specific, thus it is reasonable to check the estimates of genetics across different populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heredity of dental arch morphology in the sample of Lithuanian twins with accurate zygosity determination. The study sample consisted of digital dental models of 40 monozygotic (MZ) and 32 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. The estimates of heritability (h(2)) for dental arch breadth and length were calculated. All dental arch breadths and lengths were statistically significantly larger in men than in women. Arch length differences between genders were less expressed than largest breadth differences. In the upper jaw the largest genetic effect was found on the arch breadth between lateral incisors. The heritability of dental arch length demonstrated similar differences between upper and lower jaw with mandible dental arch length being more genetically determined. The largest genetic impact was found on the upper dental arch breadth between lateral incisors. Similar, but lower heritability is inherent for canines and first premolars of the upper jaw and first premolars of the lower jaw. It also can be noted, that arch breadths between posterior teeth show lower heritability estimates than between anterior teeth on both jaws. The dental arch in the upper jaw has more expressed genetic component than in the lower jaw.

  2. Aortic involvement in relapsing polychondritis.

    PubMed

    Le Besnerais, Maëlle; Arnaud, Laurent; Boutémy, Jonathan; Bienvenu, Boris; Lévesque, Hervé; Amoura, Zahir; Marie, Isabelle

    2017-05-17

    To assess prevalence of aortic involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP) patients; to evaluate clinical features and long-term outcome of RP patients exhibiting aortitis, aortic ectasia and/or aneurysm. One hundred and seventy-two RP patients underwent aortic computed tomography (CT)-scan; they were seen in 3 medical centers. Eleven patients (6.4%) had aortic involvement, occurring within a median time of 2 years after RP diagnosis. CT-scan showed isolated aortitis (n=2); the 9 other patients exhibited: aortitis and aortic aneurysm (n=2) or ectasia (n=1), isolated aortic aneurysm (n=4) or ectasia (n=2); aortic localizations were as follows: thoracic (n=6), abdominal (n=2), thoracic and abdominal (n=4) aorta. Patients exhibited: resolution (n=3) improvement (n=3), stabilization (n=4) or deterioration (n=1) of aortic localization. Five patients experienced recurrence of aortic localization; one patient died of aortic abdominal aneurysm rupture. Predictive factors of death related to aortic complications were: aortitis on CT-scan, higher median levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Predictive parameters of aortic relapses were: aortitis on CT-scan and involvement of the abdominal aorta. This study underlines that aortic involvement is severe in RP. Furthermore, we suggest that RP patients exhibiting poor prognostic factors, including panaortitis and higher values of ESR, may require more aggressive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Arching Solar Prominence

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA’s STEREO (Ahead) spacecraft watched as an eruptive prominence rose up and arched out in a horseshoe shape far above the Sun’s surface (Aug. 25, 2010). The image and movie show the action in a...

  4. Intraoral gothic arch tracing.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

    2011-01-01

    In order to create optimum esthetics, function and phonetics in complete denture fabrication, it is necessary to record accurate maxillo-mandibular determinants of occlusion. This requires clinical skill to establish an accurate, verifiable and reproducible vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and centric relation (CR). Correct vertical relation depends upon a consideration of several factors, including muscle tone, inter-dental arch space and parallelism of the ridges. Any errors made while taking maxillo-mandibular jaw relation records will result in dentures that are uncomfortable and, possibly, unwearable. The application of a tracing mechanism such as the Gothic arch tracer (a central bearing device) is a demonstrable method of determining centric relation. Intraoral Gothic arch tracers provide the advantage of capturing VDO and CR in an easy-to-use technique for practitioners. Intraoral tracing (Gothic arch tracing) is a preferred method of obtaining consistent positions of the mandible in motion (retrusive, protrusive and lateral) at a comfortable VDO.

  5. Vascular Adaptations to Transverse Aortic Banding in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    traces of Fig 7. Then the stenosis was added by increasing the resistance at the aortic arch (R ) by a factor of 30 (loose band) oraa 60 (tight band...Fig. 1. Drawing of a mouse heart and great vessels (A) showing the placement of a 0.4 mm constricting band around the aortic arch to produce cardiac...hypertrophy (B-C) via pressure overload. A Doppler probe (D) was used to measure flow velocity at the aortic valve (1), the mitral valve (2), the

  6. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rahul S.; Shah, Rupal J.; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The clinician’s skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. Aim To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. Materials and Methods A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. Results With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the

  8. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Poonam R; Kulkarni, Rahul S; Shah, Rupal J; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita

    2017-04-01

    The clinician's skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the plastic trays in reference of tray selection and

  9. Association of Guideline Adherence for Serial Evaluations With Survival and Adverse Clinical Events in Patients With Asymptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aisha; Sorajja, Paul; Garberich, Ross F; Farivar, R Saeid; Harris, Kevin M; Gössl, Mario

    2017-09-06

    For patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis and normal left ventricular function, current practice guidelines empirically recommend serial evaluations every 6 to 12 months. The benefit of this clinical monitoring is unknown. To determine the association of guideline adherence with clinical outcomes in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. This retrospective cohort study involved 300 patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis who were seen in the ambulatory Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital. Rates of survival and adverse clinical events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure hospitalization, were compared between patients who adhered to serial evaluation guidance and those who did not. Medical records were reviewed from July 25, 2007, to December 6, 2012. Data analysis took place from February 4, 2017, to July 10, 2017. All-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and major adverse clinical events during follow-up. The study population of 300 comprised 143 men (47.7%) and had a mean (SD) age of 78.6 (11.5) years. There were no differences in age, race/ethnicity, sex, comorbidities, insurance status, left ventricular function, and aortic stenosis severity between patients with (n = 202) and patients without (n = 98) guideline adherence. Aortic valve replacement (surgical or catheter based) was performed more frequently (54.0% vs 19.4%; P < .001) and the median (interquartile range) time for this performance was earlier (2.2 [1.2-3.6] years vs 3.5 [2.0-5.8] years; P < .001) in patients with guideline adherence. All-cause mortality was higher for nonadherent patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07-2.30; P < .001), and these patients also had a higher rate of hospital admission for heart failure decompensation in follow-up (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.27-2.18; P < .001). Four-year survival that is free from death and heart failure hospitalization was higher for

  10. Paradoxical low flow aortic valve stenosis: incidence, evaluation, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pibarot, Philippe; Dumesnil, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical low-flow (PLF) aortic stenosis is defined by a stroke volume index <35 ml/m(2) despite the presence of preserved LV ejection fraction (≥ 50 %). This entity is typically characterized by pronounced LV concentric remodeling with small LV cavity, impaired LV filling, increased arterial load, and reduced LV longitudinal shortening. Patients with PLF also have a worse prognosis compared to patients with normal flow. Because of the low flow state, these patients often have a low gradient despite the presence of severe stenosis, thus leading to discordant AS grading (i.e., aortic valve area < 1.0 cm(2) but mean gradient < 40 mmHg) and thus uncertainty about the indication of aortic valve replacement. Stress echocardiography and aortic valve calcium score by computed tomography may be helpful to differentiate true from pseudo severe stenosis and thereby guide therapeutic management in these patients. Aortic valve replacement improves outcomes in patients with PLF low gradient AS having evidence of severe stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement may provide an interesting alternative to surgery in these patients.

  11. [Costs evaluation of operation treatment of ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Gnus, Jan; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy; Grzanka, Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm operation, performed in the emergency mode, has a much larger mortality than the operation of the aneurysm in scheduled mode. The aim of this study is to compare the treatment costs of the aneurysm operated in the emergency mode and scheduled mode. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 125 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm were take under consideration, 18 of whom were admitted because of the abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture, and 107 of them were admitted without the signs of rupture. From 107 patients admitted in the scheduled mode, 25 were not qualified to the operation because of: other coexisting illnesses (10), recent stroke (1), not agreeing to the surgical intervention (4) and 10 were observed because of the small diameter of the aneurysm and lack of pain. After receiving the costs from the accountants, we analyzed the costs of treatment in the ruptured and non-ruptured aortic aneurysms. The total cost of the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is almost as twice higher as the treatment cost of non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  12. Evaluating the Hemodynamic Basis of Age-Related Central Blood Pressure Change Using Aortic Flow Triangulation.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Mayooran; Adji, Audrey; O'Rourke, Michael F

    2016-02-01

    Pulsatile blood pressure rises with age, especially in the aorta. The comparative role of forward and reflected pressure waves (FW and RW, respectively), determined by aortic flow triangulation has not previously been explored in a large clinical cohort. This study aimed to identify the role of FW and RW in the rise in aortic pulse pressure with age. For 879 outpatients, aortic pressure waveforms were generated using a validated generalized transfer function applied to radial pressure waves recorded using applanation tonometry. FW and RW were subsequently determined using aortic flow triangulation. Contributions of FW and RW to rise in aortic pulse pressure with age were determined using multivariate linear regression and product of coefficient mediation analysis, with adjustment for height, weight, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure. Comparisons were made by gender and before and after age 60. In subjects aged 60 and below, RW was an important contributor to pulsatile pressure elevation with age, but FW was non-contributory in either gender after multivariate correction. In subjects aged above 60, both FW and RW were significant and equal contributors in both genders. In a clinical setting, both FW and RW are important to pulsatile aortic blood pressure across the lifespan, but RW appears to have a more pronounced effect across all ages, whereas FW has less effect in younger persons. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes after one year of immediate versus delayed implant placement supporting full-arch prostheses.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Fichy-Fernandez, Antonio-J; Canullo, Luigi; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate and compare peri-implant health, marginal bone loss and success of immediate and delayed implant placement for rehabilitation with full-arch fixed prostheses. The present study was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, clinical preliminary trial. Patients were randomized into two treatment groups. In Group A implants were placed immediately post-extraction and in Group B six months after extraction. The following control time-points were established: one week, six months and twelve months after loading. Measurements were taken of peri-implant crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis. Implant success rates were evaluated for the two groups. The study sample included fifteen patients (nine women and six men) with a mean average age of 63.7 years. One hundred and forty-four implants were placed: 76 placed in healed sites and 68 placed immediately. At the moment of prosthetic loading, keratinized mucosa width and probing depth were higher in immediate implants than delayed implants, with statistically significant differences. However, after six and twelve months, differences between groups had disappeared. Bone loss was 0.54 ± 0.39 mm for immediate implants and 0.66 ± 0.25 mm for delayed implants (p=0.201). No implants failed in either group. The present study with a short follow-up and a small sample yielded no statistically significant differences in implant success and peri-implant marginal bone loss between immediate and delayed implants with fixed full-arch prostheses. Peri-implant health showed no statistically significant differences for any of the studied parameters (crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis) at the twelve-month follow-up.

  14. Single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes after one year of immediate versus delayed implant placement supporting full-arch prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Fichy-Fernandez, Antonio J.; Canullo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare peri-implant health, marginal bone loss and success of immediate and delayed implant placement for rehabilitation with full-arch fixed prostheses. Material and Methods: The present study was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, clinical preliminary trial. Patients were randomized into two treatment groups. In Group A implants were placed immediately post-extraction and in Group B six months after extraction. The following control time-points were established: one week, six months and twelve months after loading. Measurements were taken of peri-implant crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis. Implant success rates were evaluated for the two groups. The study sample included fifteen patients (nine women and six men) with a mean average age of 63.7 years. One hundred and forty-four implants were placed: 76 placed in healed sites and 68 placed immediately. Results: At the moment of prosthetic loading, keratinized mucosa width and probing depth were higher in immediate implants than delayed implants, with statistically significant differences. However, after six and twelve months, differences between groups had disappeared. Bone loss was 0.54 ± 0.39 mm for immediate implants and 0.66 ± 0.25 mm for delayed implants (p=0.201). No implants failed in either group. Conclusions: The present study with a short follow-up and a small sample yielded no statistically significant differences in implant success and peri-implant marginal bone loss between immediate and delayed implants with fixed full-arch prostheses. Peri-implant health showed no statistically significant differences for any of the studied parameters (crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis) at the twelve-month follow-up. Key words:Immediate implants, delayed implants

  15. Uncluttered single-image visualization of the abdominal aortic vessel tree: Method and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Joong-Ho; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Napel, Sandy

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The authors develop a method to visualize the abdominal aorta and its branches, obtained by CT or MR angiography, in a single 2D stylistic image without overlap among branches. Methods: The abdominal aortic vasculature is modeled as an articulated object whose underlying topology is a rooted tree. The inputs to the algorithm are the 3D centerlines of the abdominal aorta, its branches, and their associated diameter information. The visualization problem is formulated as an optimization problem that finds a spatial configuration of the bounding boxes of the centerlines most similar to the projection of the input into a given viewing direction (e.g., anteroposterior), while not introducing intersections among the boxes. The optimization algorithm minimizes a score function regarding the overlap of the bounding boxes and the deviation from the input. The output of the algorithm is used to produce a stylistic visualization, made of the 2D centerlines modulated by the associated diameter information, on a plane. The authors performed a preliminary evaluation by asking three radiologists to label 366 arterial branches from the 30 visualizations of five cases produced by the method. Each of the five patients was presented in six different variant images, selected from ten variants with the three lowest and three highest scores. For each label, they assigned confidence and distortion ratings (low/medium/high). They studied the association between the quantitative metrics measured from the visualization and the subjective ratings by the radiologists. Results: All resulting visualizations were free from branch overlaps. Labeling accuracies of the three readers were 93.4%, 94.5%, and 95.4%, respectively. For the total of 1098 samples, the distortion ratings were low: 77.39%, medium: 10.48%, and high: 12.12%. The confidence ratings were low: 5.56%, medium: 16.50%, and high: 77.94%. The association study shows that the proposed quantitative metrics can predict a reader

  16. Population screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm: evaluating the evidence against screening criteria.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nisha; Sarfati, Diana; Shaw, Caroline

    2012-02-24

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been initiated in the United Kingdom and United States. Screening using abdominal ultrasound scans allows AAAs to be detected and electively repaired before rupture. There is currently no policy for AAA screening in New Zealand (NZ). We reviewed literature to assess current evidence for AAA screening against standard criteria used to evaluate population-based screening programmes. AAA rupture has high mortality, and people of Maori ethnicity are disproportionately affected. Abdominal ultrasound is a valid screening tool, and elective repair is an effective treatment. Screening reduces AAA-related mortality by about 40% in elderly men. However, the age and comorbidities of AAA patients means rupture risk has to be weighed against elective repair risk. Overtreatment is likely, given most individuals with AAA will not experience rupture in their lifetime. AAA screening appears to be cost-effective. It is unclear if the health system could support all the elements of a AAA screening pathway. AAA appears to be an appropriate condition for which to consider population screening. We recommend research into the prevalence of AAA in NZ, the comorbidity profile of individuals with AAA, drivers of high mortality among Maori, and acceptability of AAA screening to the New Zealand public.

  17. Aortic Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... evaluation of aortic stenosis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 29, 2014. Mohty D, ... Valvular heart disease in elderly adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 2, 2014. Bonow RO, ...

  18. Digital Evaluation of Three Splinting Materials Used to Fabricate Verification Jigs for Full-Arch Implant Prostheses: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Kim, Yong-Jeong; Finkelman, Matthew; El-Rafie, Khaled; Weber, Hans-Peter

    2017-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of different splinting materials to make implant cast verification jigs. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of 20° implant angulation on the accuracy of casts. An edentulous mandibular arch with five internal connection tissue level implants served as control. The three implants in the anterior region were parallel to each other and the two implants in the posterior region were distally tilted 20° bilaterally. Verification jigs were fabricated with three different materials by splinting prefabricated bars to temporary abutments, resulting in three different groups (n = 15 specimens). Test casts were fabricated with low expansion type IV stone, and subsequently digitized with reference scanner. The STL files from the test casts and the control were superimposed, in order to determine the three-dimensional (3D) deviations. Group 1 (GC Pattern Resin) had a mean (SD) value of 36.59 (12.47) μm; Group 2 (Fixpeed Resin) had a mean (SD) value of 35.9 (10.13) μm; and Group 3 (Triad Gel) had a mean (SD) of 34.12 (7.10) μm. One-way ANOVA showed no statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.790). For the comparative analysis of the effect of implant angulation, data were normally distributed for Groups 1 and 3 (GC Resin and Triad Gel), but not for group 2 (Fixpeed Resin). The difference between parallel and tilted implants was significant for all three groups: GC Resin (p = 0.024; paired t-test), Fixpeed Resin (p = 0.002; Wilcoxon signed-rank test), and Triad Gel (p = 0.002; paired t-test). There were no statistically significant differences between the 3D deviations of the test casts fabricated from verification jigs made by three materials (GC Pattern Resin, Fixpeed Resin, and Triad Gel). Parallel implants had nominally significantly less 3D deviations compared with 20° distally tilted implants, but not clinically significant. The results of the present study indicate

  19. Comparison of aortic and carotid baroreflexes in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Donald, David E.; Edis, Anthony J.

    1971-01-01

    1. Experiments with vascularly isolated, blood-perfused aortic arch and carotid sinus preparations in sixteen dogs have provided evidence which suggests that, in the reflex regulation of normal arterial blood pressure, the aortic and carotid baroreflexes are not equivalent. 2. Two different techniques were used. In one, a steel cannula was inserted into the ascending aorta and arch and fixed in position by ligatures about the aorta. The blood-filled space (aortic jacket) thus created could be distended with known pressures; the cardiac output passed through the cannula into the descending aorta. In the other, an extracorporeal circulation utilizing an isolated heart—lung preparation was used to separately perfuse the carotid sinuses, aortic arch, and systemic circulation of a test dog. 3. Independent open-loop analysis of the aortic and carotid baroreflexes in each dog indicated that they were essentially similar in their over-all modus operandi but that there were quantitative differences between them which would suggest a predominant role for the carotid sinus reflex in the control of normal blood pressure. 4. The carotid sinus Blutdruck-charakteristik curve was symmetrical about the range of normal blood pressure for the dog while the aortic arch curve was displaced to the right. 5. The carotid sinus system had the greater gain (with reference to limb vascular resistance) and exhibited a greater maximal capacity to alter vascular resistance reflexly. 6. When the carotid and aortic systems were activated simultaneously by distension, the reflex depressor responses were summed, essentially by a process of simple addition. A carotid-induced pressor response obscured a simultaneous aortic-induced depressor response of equal magnitude. 7. In five dogs studied, the functional reflexogenic area of the aortic arch did not extend distally beyond the origin of the left subclavian artery. PMID:5145730

  20. Combined aortic debranching and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) effective but at a cost.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin H; Beck, Adam W; Clagett, G Patrick; DiMaio, J Michael; Jessen, Michael E; Arko, Frank R

    2009-03-01

    To compare hybrid repair (HR) (aortic debranching and TEVAR) with conventional open thoracoabdominal and aortic arch repairs (OR), including a cost analysis. Retrospective cohort. University hospital. Thirty patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysms were evaluated between November 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006. There were 18 HRs and 12 ORs. Aortic abnormalities included the arch, visceral aorta, and arch/visceral aorta combined. Aortic debranching with TEVAR (HR) was performed at a single setting. Dacron grafts were used for OR, and branch vessels were bypassed. Hospital costs and reimbursements were obtained from the finance department. Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and cost. Patients were significantly older in the HR group (mean [SD], 72 [8.9] vs 58 [17.4] years, P = .2). The HR group had significantly less blood loss (mean [SD], 1.7 [2.3] vs 4.8 [3.1] L, P = .004), transfusions (5.1 [5.9] vs 14.7 [7.8] units, P = .001), renal failure (0% vs 42.0%, P = .002), and pulmonary morbidity (17% vs 67%, P < .001); shorter intensive care unit stays (5.2 [4.8] vs 16.4 [12.9] days, P = .005); and shorter hospital l