Sample records for aoudad ammotragus lervia

  1. Investigation and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis in a captive herd of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia).


    Portas, Timothy J; Bryant, Benn R; Jones, Stephen L; Humphreys, Kaye; Gilpin, Christopher M; Rose, Karrie A


    An epizootic of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis occurred in a captive herd of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) over a period of 18 mo. Each of the affected animals was subject to a thorough postmortem examination that included histopathology, tissue concentration and acid-fast staining, aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture, mycobacterial culture, and real-time polymerase chain reaction specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Histopathologic lesions consistent with pulmonary mycobacteriosis, including the presence of acid-fast bacteria, were identified in two captive adult male aoudad. M. avium was isolated in culture from the pulmonary parenchyma, and M. parafortuitum was isolated from a mesenteric lymph node of a third animal, an adult female, euthanized subsequent to an illness characterized by progressive dyspnea and tachypnea. M. intracellulare was isolated within the bronchial lymph node of a fourth aoudad, an adult female that was euthanized due to chronic weight loss. Diagnostic testing of the 34 individuals in the herd included collection of blood for an interferon-gamma assay, intradermal tuberculin testing, and radiometric fecal culture for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. On the basis of this investigation, mycobacteriosis associated with M. bovis, M. tuberculosis, and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was ruled out and nontuberculous mycobacteriosis was confirmed in this herd. PMID:19569478

  2. Effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) ejaculates.


    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Marcos-Beltrán, J L; Vega, R S; Guillamón, F G; Martínez-Nevado, E; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J


    The present study reports the effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from four Mediterranean mountain ungulates: Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Ejaculated sperm from these species were divided into two aliquots. One was diluted with either a Tris-citric acid-glucose based medium (TCG-glycerol; for chamois and ibex sperm) or a Tris-TES-glucose-based medium (TTG-glycerol; for mouflon and aoudad sperm), and maintained at 5°C for 3h prior to freezing. The other aliquot was diluted with either TCG (chamois and ibex sperm) or TTG (mouflon and aoudad sperm) and maintained at 5°C for 1h before adding glycerol (final concentration 5%). After a 15min equilibration period in the presence of glycerol, the samples were frozen. For the ibex, there was enhanced (P<0.05) sperm viability and acrosome integrity after the 3h as compared with the 15min equilibration time. For the chamois, subjective sperm motility and cell membrane functional integrity were less (P<0.05) following 15min of equilibration. In the mouflon, progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity was less (P<0.05) when the equilibration time was reduced to 15min. For the aoudad, the majority of sperm variables measured were more desirable after the 3h equilibration time. The freezing-thawing processes reduced the sperm head size in all the species studied; however, the equilibration time further affected the frozen-thawed sperm head variables in a species-dependent fashion. While the equilibration time for chamois sperm might be shortened, this appears not to be the case for all ungulates. PMID:27346588

  3. Cryopreservation of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm obtained by transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands and electroejaculation.


    Santiago-Moreno, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Ruiz, M J; Mendoza, N; Luna, C; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Hildebrandt, T B


    This study examines (1) the effectiveness of transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) combined with electroejaculation for obtaining aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm samples for cryopreservation, and (2) the effectiveness of a Tris-citric acid-glucose-based medium (TCG; usually used for freezing ibex sperm) and a TES-Tris-glucose-based medium (TTG; typically used in the cryopreservation of mouflon sperm) as sperm extenders. After TUMASG, just one to three electrical pulses were required for ejaculation to occur in five of the six animals studied; one ejaculated after TUMASG alone. Transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands would therefore appear to be useful in obtaining sperm samples from this species, requiring few subsequent electrical electroejaculation stimuli and sometimes none at all. After thawing, the membrane integrity (assessed by nigrosin-eosin staining) of sperm extended with TTG was greater than that of sperm extended with TCG (P < 0.05). The total percentage of sperm showing an intact acrosome, as assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut (Arachis hypogea) agglutinin, was also higher in the TTG-extended sperm (P < 0.05), and the percentage of dead sperm with a damaged acrosome was lower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen between TCG and TTG in terms of apoptotic manifestations (DNA damage, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasmalemma stability). Therefore, TTG appears to be a better extender than TCG for cryopreserving aoudad sperm. PMID:23158213

  4. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia): reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations

    PubMed Central

    Fornazari, G.A.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Filho, I.R. de Barros; Somma, A.T.; Moore, B.


    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT) - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 µm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe-axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter-horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species. PMID:27419103

  5. The use of buck and ram extenders and two packaging systems to cryopreserve aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) spermatozoa.


    Crenshaw, C C; Martin, L M; Mains, C R; Wright, R D; Dart, M G; Perkins, R M; Purdy, P H; Ericsson, S A


    Because the aoudad has been hunted to near extinction, cryopreservation of their semen would be useful for DNA conservation and for the possible re-establishment of captive bred animals to their former ranges. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of cryopreserving aoudad spermatozoa. Semen samples from four post-pubertal animals were collected using electro-ejaculation. Microscopic analysis was performed to assess the percentages of progressively and non-progressively motile spermatozoa as well as intact acrosomes in samples prior to freezing and post-thaw. Extended samples (0.2 mL) were frozen using 2 different extenders and packaging systems and stored in LN2 Post-thaw data were arcsine-transformed and analyzed using ANOVA, 2 x 2 factorial. Samples that were processed using the ram/straw method had a significantly higher percentage (P < 0.05) of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes than did any other system. In addition, samples that were processed with the buck/pellet system had significantly greater percentages (P < 0.05) of progressive and non-progressively motile spermatozoa than the samples processed using either extender and packaged in straws. This study illustrates that some aoudad spermatozoa may be cryopreserved using the extender/processing systems developed for the domestic buck and ram. PMID:10990348

  6. Population effects of sarcoptic mange in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) from Sierra Espuña Regional Park, Spain.


    González-Candela, Mónica; León-Vizcaíno, Luis; Cubero-Pablo, María José


    The nonindigenous Barbary sheep population (Ammotragus lervia) of the Sierra Espuna Regional Park (Murcia, Spain) suffered an outbreak of sarcoptic mange between 1991 and 1995, which contributed to a population decrease of 86%. This study presents the results of two population surveys conducted in 1994 and 1999 based on the fixed point and itineraries method (FPI) and the excrement count (EC) method, as well as data from demographic estimates and clinical observations conducted by the Regional Administration of Murcia. Results of surveillance for mange are given between 1992 and 1995, because no animals were observed with sarcoptic mange in 1999. Prevalence of mange peaked in 1994 and then declined. During the regression phase of the epidemic, there was a higher infection rate in males (21.9%) than in females (16.6%) or young animals (5.1%). Males over 5 yr old were the worst affected age group, followed by subadults of both sexes. Few animals had generalized lesions of mange (7%), and most individuals (72%) had lesions of moderate severity. The most common locations of lesions were the neck, head, and back. The density of Barbary sheep in the Sierra Espuna Regional Park increased from introduction in 1972 until it peaked at 13 animals/km(2) in 1991, the year when the first case of sarcoptic mange was detected. After 2 yr of the mange epidemic, the average estimated density was 1.7 animals/km(2) in 1994, which increased to 5.0 animals/km(2) in 1999. The average group size also increased from 7.9 to 19.2 animals/group between 1994 and 1999. The sex ratio, expressed as the proportion of females in the total population observed, decreased from 0.61 in 1994 to 0.49 in 1999. The reproduction rate (kids per females per year) was essentially stable (0.59 in 1994 to 0.65 in 1999). Between 1994 and 1999 the population aged, with the number of young animals (<18 mo of age) decreasing from 45.3% to 36.6% from 1994 to 1999. In the same period, the proportion of males increased

  7. Haemolytic effect of Pasteurella haemolytica on blood from young mammals.


    Smith, G R; Turner, A; Hawkey, C M


    On agar plates containing young lamb blood, Pasteurella haemolytica produces a wide outer zone of partial haemolysis in addition to the narrow zone of complete clearing seen on adult sheep blood agar. To determine whether this phenomenon was limited to lamb blood, samples from young animals of 20 mammalian species were examined. Two species--the barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) and scimitar horned oryx (Oryx tao)--possessed blood that gave this effect provided that the samples were taken from young animals. The 18 species that gave negative results included an ovine species, the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). PMID:3194597

  8. Y-chromosome phylogeny in the evolutionary net of chamois (genus Rupicapra)

    PubMed Central


    Background The chamois, distributed over most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia, provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of historical and evolutionary events on diversification. Populations have been grouped into two species, Rupicapra pyrenaica from southwestern Europe and R. rupicapra from eastern Europe. The study of matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and biparentally inherited microsatellites showed that the two species are paraphyletic and indicated alternate events of population contraction and dispersal-hybridization in the diversification of chamois. Here we investigate the pattern of variation of the Y-chromosome to obtain information on the patrilineal phylogenetic position of the genus Rupicapra and on the male-specific dispersal of chamois across Europe. Results We analyzed the Y-chromosome of 87 males covering the distribution range of the Rupicapra genus. We sequenced a fragment of the SRY gene promoter and characterized the male specific microsatellites UMN2303 and SRYM18. The SRY promoter sequences of two samples of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) were also determined and compared with the sequences of Bovidae available in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the alignment showed the clustering of Rupicapra with Capra and the Ammotragus sequence obtained in this study, different from the previously reported sequence of Ammotragus which groups with Ovis. Within Rupicapra, the combined data define 10 Y-chromosome haplotypes forming two haplogroups, which concur with taxonomic classification, instead of the three clades formed for mtDNA and nuclear microsatellites. The variation shows a west-to-east geographical cline of ancestral to derived alleles. Conclusions The phylogeny of the SRY-promoter shows an association between Rupicapra and Capra. The position of Ammotragus needs a reinvestigation. The study of ancestral and derived characters in the Y-chromosome suggests that, contrary to the presumed

  9. Molecular evolution of coding and non-coding sequences of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene in the family Bovidae.


    Maj, Andrzej; Zwierzchowski, Lech


    The GHR gene exon 1A and exon 4 with fragments of its flanking introns were sequenced in twelve Bovidae species and the obtained sequences were aligned and analysed by the ClustalW method. In coding exon 4 only three interspecies differences were found, one of which had an effect on the amino-acid sequence--leucine 152 proline. The average mutation frequency in non-coding exon 1A was 10.5 per 100 bp, and was 4.6-fold higher than that in coding exon 4 (2.3 per 100 bp). The mutation frequency in intron sequences was similar to that in non-coding exon 1A (8.9 vs 10.5/100 bp). For non-coding exon 1A, the mutation levels were lower within than between the subfamilies Bovinae and Caprinae. Exon 4 was 100% identical within the genera Ovis, Capra, Bison, and Bos and 97.7% identical for Ovis moschatus, Ammotragus lervia and Bovinae species. The identity level of non-coding exon 1A of the GHR gene was 93.8% between species belonging to Bovinae and Caprinae. The average mutation rate was 0.2222/100 bp/MY and 0.0513/100 bp/MY for the Bovidae GHR gene exons 1A and 4, respectively. Thus, the GHR gene is well conserved in the Bovidae family. Also, in this study some novel intraspecies polymorphisms were found for cattle and sheep. PMID:17044257

  10. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

    PubMed Central


    Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries) and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for livestock. PMID:20205703