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Sample records for aoudad ammotragus lervia

  1. Investigation and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis in a captive herd of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia).

    PubMed

    Portas, Timothy J; Bryant, Benn R; Jones, Stephen L; Humphreys, Kaye; Gilpin, Christopher M; Rose, Karrie A

    2009-06-01

    An epizootic of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis occurred in a captive herd of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) over a period of 18 mo. Each of the affected animals was subject to a thorough postmortem examination that included histopathology, tissue concentration and acid-fast staining, aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture, mycobacterial culture, and real-time polymerase chain reaction specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Histopathologic lesions consistent with pulmonary mycobacteriosis, including the presence of acid-fast bacteria, were identified in two captive adult male aoudad. M. avium was isolated in culture from the pulmonary parenchyma, and M. parafortuitum was isolated from a mesenteric lymph node of a third animal, an adult female, euthanized subsequent to an illness characterized by progressive dyspnea and tachypnea. M. intracellulare was isolated within the bronchial lymph node of a fourth aoudad, an adult female that was euthanized due to chronic weight loss. Diagnostic testing of the 34 individuals in the herd included collection of blood for an interferon-gamma assay, intradermal tuberculin testing, and radiometric fecal culture for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. On the basis of this investigation, mycobacteriosis associated with M. bovis, M. tuberculosis, and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was ruled out and nontuberculous mycobacteriosis was confirmed in this herd.

  2. Effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Marcos-Beltrán, J L; Vega, R S; Guillamón, F G; Martínez-Nevado, E; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from four Mediterranean mountain ungulates: Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Ejaculated sperm from these species were divided into two aliquots. One was diluted with either a Tris-citric acid-glucose based medium (TCG-glycerol; for chamois and ibex sperm) or a Tris-TES-glucose-based medium (TTG-glycerol; for mouflon and aoudad sperm), and maintained at 5°C for 3h prior to freezing. The other aliquot was diluted with either TCG (chamois and ibex sperm) or TTG (mouflon and aoudad sperm) and maintained at 5°C for 1h before adding glycerol (final concentration 5%). After a 15min equilibration period in the presence of glycerol, the samples were frozen. For the ibex, there was enhanced (P<0.05) sperm viability and acrosome integrity after the 3h as compared with the 15min equilibration time. For the chamois, subjective sperm motility and cell membrane functional integrity were less (P<0.05) following 15min of equilibration. In the mouflon, progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity was less (P<0.05) when the equilibration time was reduced to 15min. For the aoudad, the majority of sperm variables measured were more desirable after the 3h equilibration time. The freezing-thawing processes reduced the sperm head size in all the species studied; however, the equilibration time further affected the frozen-thawed sperm head variables in a species-dependent fashion. While the equilibration time for chamois sperm might be shortened, this appears not to be the case for all ungulates.

  3. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia): reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations

    PubMed Central

    Fornazari, G.A.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Filho, I.R. de Barros; Somma, A.T.; Moore, B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT) - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 µm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe-axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter-horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species. PMID:27419103

  4. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia): reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations.

    PubMed

    Fornazari, G A; Montiani-Ferreira, F; Filho, I R de Barros; Somma, A T; Moore, B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT) - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 µm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe-axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter-horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species.

  5. First report of oestrosis in aoudad from southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Patricia; Ruiz-de-Ybáñez, Rocío; Martínez-Carrasco, Carlos; Gens, María J; Escribano, Fernando; Sánchez, Antonio; Pérez, Jesús M

    2017-07-01

    In spring 2016, we analyzed the skull of 44 aoudads (Ammotragus lervia) from Sierra Espuña Regional Park (SE Spain) for the presence of oestrid larvae. Oestrus ovis larvae were found in 27.3% of sampled hosts, with a mean intensity of 1.5 ± 6.1 larvae/per parasitized host (range 1-21). To our knowledge, this is the first report of oestrosis affecting this host species.

  6. First description of gastrointestinal nematodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): the case of Camelostrongylus mentulatus as a paradigm of phylogenic and specific relationship between the parasite and its ancient host.

    PubMed

    Mayo, E; Ortiz, J; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Garijo, M M; Espeso, G; Hervías, S; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R

    2013-09-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 24 Barbary sheep or Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) maintained in the Parque de Rescate de la Fauna Sahariana (PRFS, CSIC, Almeria, Spain) was analyzed. Most animals (87.5 %) were parasitized, and multiple infections were highly present. The following species were identified: Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. leptospicularis, O. lyrata, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, T. capricola, Nematodirus spathiger, N. abnormalis, N. filicollis, N. helvetianus, Trichuris spp. and Skrjabinema ovis. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most prevalent nematode in abomasum (52.6 %) followed by C. mentulatus (50 %). However, this latter nematode had the greater mean intensity and abundance. In the small intestine, T. colubriformis and T. vitrinus had the highest prevalence (36.4 %); the last one showed also the greater mean intensity and abundance. It should be emphasized the presence of Skrjabinema ovis (prevalence 39.1 %) in the large intestine, showing the greater mean abundance and intensity, although with a low values. Camelostrongylus mentulatus could be the most primitive nematode of the family trichostrongylidae recovered in this study; attending to its high prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity, the possible specificity between this parasite and the Aoudad is discussed.

  7. DIAGNOSIS OF PREGNANCY IN BARBARY SHEEP (AMMOTRAGUS LERVIA) USING A BOVINE ASSAY FOR PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEINS.

    PubMed

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Rambaud, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Pregnancy diagnosis is an important part in reproduction management of wild ruminants involved in free-ranging and captive programs. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are placenta-expressed proteins released into maternal blood circulation. Tests with high specificity have been developed and validated in domestic species and have been used in some wild ungulate species. One hundred and seventeen serum samples collected from 72 mature female Barbary sheep ( Ammotragus lervia ) were tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Pregnancy was determined either postmortem (n = 5) or by visualization of parturition (n = 33). The other sera were controls from known nonpregnant females (n = 71). The following values were obtained: sensitivity = 100.0%, specificity = 95.8%. Using a commercial ELISA for the detection of PAGs appears to be a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate test for pregnancy diagnosis in the endangered Barbary sheep. The number of offspring cannot be determined with this method.

  8. Population effects of sarcoptic mange in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) from Sierra Espuña Regional Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    González-Candela, Mónica; León-Vizcaíno, Luis; Cubero-Pablo, María José

    2004-07-01

    The nonindigenous Barbary sheep population (Ammotragus lervia) of the Sierra Espuna Regional Park (Murcia, Spain) suffered an outbreak of sarcoptic mange between 1991 and 1995, which contributed to a population decrease of 86%. This study presents the results of two population surveys conducted in 1994 and 1999 based on the fixed point and itineraries method (FPI) and the excrement count (EC) method, as well as data from demographic estimates and clinical observations conducted by the Regional Administration of Murcia. Results of surveillance for mange are given between 1992 and 1995, because no animals were observed with sarcoptic mange in 1999. Prevalence of mange peaked in 1994 and then declined. During the regression phase of the epidemic, there was a higher infection rate in males (21.9%) than in females (16.6%) or young animals (5.1%). Males over 5 yr old were the worst affected age group, followed by subadults of both sexes. Few animals had generalized lesions of mange (7%), and most individuals (72%) had lesions of moderate severity. The most common locations of lesions were the neck, head, and back. The density of Barbary sheep in the Sierra Espuna Regional Park increased from introduction in 1972 until it peaked at 13 animals/km(2) in 1991, the year when the first case of sarcoptic mange was detected. After 2 yr of the mange epidemic, the average estimated density was 1.7 animals/km(2) in 1994, which increased to 5.0 animals/km(2) in 1999. The average group size also increased from 7.9 to 19.2 animals/group between 1994 and 1999. The sex ratio, expressed as the proportion of females in the total population observed, decreased from 0.61 in 1994 to 0.49 in 1999. The reproduction rate (kids per females per year) was essentially stable (0.59 in 1994 to 0.65 in 1999). Between 1994 and 1999 the population aged, with the number of young animals (<18 mo of age) decreasing from 45.3% to 36.6% from 1994 to 1999. In the same period, the proportion of males increased

  9. Sarcoptic mange in wild ruminants in zoological gardens in Israel.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Rosen, S; Hadani, A; Nyska, A

    1996-01-01

    Sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) occurred among wild ruminant species in five zoological gardens in Israel, from 1984 to 1994. Infestation of five ruminants by S. scabiei is reported for the first time: mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella), Nubian ibexes (Capra ibex nubiana), a barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), elands (Taurotragus oryx), and an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). All animals in the herds were administered ivermectin orally at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight daily for 3 consecutive days. This was repeated three times at 2-wk intervals. The disease was eradicated in four small zoos, whereas in the biggest zoo, only control was achieved. Mortality among animals < 4 mo and > 8-yr-old animals composed 65% of mortality among all age classes.

  10. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in non-carnivorous wildlife from Spain.

    PubMed

    Almería, S; Vidal, D; Ferrer, D; Pabón, M; Fernández-de-Mera, M I G; Ruiz-Fons, F; Alzaga, V; Marco, I; Calvete, C; Lavin, S; Gortazar, C; López-Gatius, F; Dubey, J P

    2007-01-19

    Serum samples from 1034 non-carnivorous wildlife from Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). High agreement was observed between results in both techniques (kappa value higher than 0.9). Prevalences of N. caninum antibodies positive by both techniques were 11.8% of 237 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 7.7% of 13 barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), 6.1% of 33 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 0.3% of 298 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In one of 53 hares (Lepus granatensis), antibodies were found in the ELISA but could not be confirmed by IFAT due to lack of sample. Antibodies to N. caninum were not found in any of 251 wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 79 fallow deer (Dama dama), 27 mouflon (Ovis ammon), 40 chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and three Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Statistically significant differences were observed between N. caninum seroprevalence in red deer and management of hunting estates (open versus fenced) with higher prevalence in fenced estates, and among sampling sites. Seroprevalence was particularly high in some areas (MO estate in South-Central Spain or some estates of Catalonia, North-East Spain), while no contact with N. caninum was observed in others. Results indicate that in certain areas of Spain, N. caninum is present in wildlife, especially in red deer. These results have important implications in both sylvatic cycles and may influence the prevalence of infection in cattle farms in those areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in wildlife from Spain and the first report of N. caninum antibodies in barbary sheep and wild boar.

  11. A serologic survey of viral infections in captive ungulates in Turkish zoos.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Alpay, Gizem; Karakuzulu, Hatice

    2011-03-01

    Zoos and zoologic gardens make optimal environments for interspecies transmission of viral infections. There are seven zoos and several small zoologic collections in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the current status of viral infections in captive ungulates living in these environments. Blood samples were taken from 163 captive animals from two zoos. There were 39 Cameroon sheep (Ovis ammon f aries), 11 Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), 57 pygmy goats (Capra hircus), 9 Angora goats (Capra hircus), 21 mountain goats (Capra aegagrus-aegagrus), 7 llamas (Lama glama), 8 Persian goitred gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa), 7 Caspian red deer (Cervus elaphus maral), 2 fallow deer (Dama dama), and 2 camels (Camelus dromedarius). Antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine adenoviruses (BAV-1 and -3), parainfluenzavirus 3 (PI-3), and bluetongue viruses (BTV-4 and -9) were investigated using the virus neutralization test, and malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) antibodies were screened by ELISA. All animals were negative for BVDV and BHV-1 antibodies. Seroprevalence of BAV-1, BAV-3, PI-3, BRSV, BT-4, BT-9, and MCF were detected as follows: 46.6%, 60.1%, 0.6%, 7.3%, 1.8%, 1.2%, and 51.6%, respectively. Seroprevalence of BAVs and MCF were more common than all other viruses (P < 0.0001). Ten sheep (37.0%), 48 goats (84.2), and 1 Ilama (14.2%) were the only species positive for MCF antibodies. Prevalence of BRSV and MCF antibodies were found to be significantly higher in goats than in sheep. BTV antibodies were detected both in Cameroon sheep and mountain goats and suggest that zoo animals are at risk for BTV in endemic regions.

  12. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries) and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for livestock. PMID:20205703

  13. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Pilar M; Boadella, Mariana; Arnal, Maricruz; de Miguel, María J; Revilla, Miguel; Martínez, David; Vicente, Joaquín; Acevedo, Pelayo; Oleaga, Alvaro; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Marín, Clara M; Prieto, José M; de la Fuente, José; Barral, Marta; Barberán, Montserrat; de Luco, Daniel Fernández; Blasco, José M; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-03-05

    The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries) and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for livestock.

  14. Fecal steroid evaluation to monitor reproductive status in wild ungulate females using enzyme immunoassay commercial kits.

    PubMed

    Borque, Conception; Pérez-Garnelo, Sonia S; Delclaux, Maria; Martínez, Eva; De la Fuente, Julio

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of reproductive hormones in fecal samples is necessary for the noninvasive monitoring of reproductive status in free-ranging species. The aim of the present study was to establish an easy noninvasive method to monitor reproductive status in wild ungulate females. Feces were collected daily, weekly, or three or four times a week directly from the soil for a period ranging from 1 to 9.8 mo. Fecal estradiol and progestagens were monitored in nine wild ungulate females (Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia [n = 3]; European bison, Bison bonasus [n = 1]; auroch, Bos taurus primigenius [n = 2]; sitatunga, Tragelaphus spekii gratus [n = 2]; and Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis [n = 1]) by using commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits prepared for human serum or plasma. In the species evaluated in this study, luteal phase, abortion, and gestation patterns corresponded closely with changes in fecal progestagens. Luteal phase and gestation values differed significantly (P < 0.001) from basal values, whereas progestagens values after abortion were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from basal values. For estradiol excretory patterns, follicular phase and pregnancy values differed significantly (P < 0.001) from basal values, but differences between values after abortion and basal values were not significant (P > 0.05); length of estrous cycles were clearly defined through estradiol data. This study demonstrates that ovarian function in the wild ungulate females studied can be monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, ELISA methodologies used here could be a practical alternative to other ELISAs that require more complex procedures or whose commercial availability is difficult.

  15. Ancient mitochondrial pseudogenes reveal hybridization between distant lineages in the evolution of the Rupicapra genus.

    PubMed

    Pérez, T; Rodríguez, F; Fernández, M; Albornoz, J; Domínguez, A

    2017-09-10

    Mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) inserted in the nuclear genome are frequently found in population studies. Its presence is commonly connected with problems and errors when they are confounded with true mitochondrial sequences. In the opposite side, numts can provide valuable phylogenetic information when they are copies of ancient mitochondrial lineages. We show that Rupicapra individuals of different geographic origin from the Cantabrian Mountains to the Apennines and the Caucasus share a nuclear COI fragment. The numt copies are monophyletic, and their pattern of differentiation shows two outstanding features: a long evolution as differentiated true mitochondrial lineage, and a recent integration and spread through the chamois populations. The COI pseudogene is much older than the present day mitochondrial clades of Rupicapra and occupies a basal position within the Rupicapra-Ammotragus-Arabitragus node. Joint analysis of this numt and a cytb pseudogene with a similar pattern of evolution places the source mitochondrial lineage as a sister branch that separated from the Ammotragus-Arabitragus lineage 6millionyearsago (Mya). The occurrence of this sequence in the nucleus of chamois suggests hybridization between highly divergent lineages. The integration event seems to be very recent, more recent than the split of the present day mtDNA lineages of Rupicapra (1.9Mya). This observation invites to think of the spread across the genus by horizontal transfer through recent male-biased dispersal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Globally dispersed Y chromosomal haplotypes in wild and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Meadows, J R S; Hanotte, O; Drögemüller, C; Calvo, J; Godfrey, R; Coltman, D; Maddox, J F; Marzanov, N; Kantanen, J; Kijas, J W

    2006-10-01

    To date, investigations of genetic diversity and the origins of domestication in sheep have utilised autosomal microsatellites and variation in the mitochondrial genome. We present the first analysis of both domestic and wild sheep using genetic markers residing on the ovine Y chromosome. Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (oY1) in the SRY promoter region revealed that allele A-oY1 was present in all wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), two subspecies of thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli), European Mouflon (Ovis musimon) and the Barbary (Ammontragis lervia). A-oY1 also had the highest frequency (71.4%) within 458 domestic sheep drawn from 65 breeds sampled from Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of a second locus, microsatellite SRYM18, revealed a compound repeat array displaying fixed differences, which identified bighorn and thinhorn sheep as distinct from the European Mouflon and domestic animals. Combined genotypic data identified 11 male-specific haplotypes that represented at least two separate lineages. Investigation of the geographical distribution of each haplotype revealed that one (H6) was both very common and widespread in the global sample of domestic breeds. The remaining haplotypes each displayed more restricted and informative distributions. For example, H5 was likely founded following the domestication of European breeds and was used to trace the recent transportation of animals to both the Caribbean and Australia. A high rate of Y chromosomal dispersal appears to have taken place during the development of domestic sheep as only 12.9% of the total observed variation was partitioned between major geographical regions.