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Sample records for ap-3 transport vesicles

  1. Vesicles derived via AP-3 dependent recycling contribute to asynchronous release and influence information transfer

    PubMed Central

    Evstratova, Alesya; Chamberland, Simon; Faundez, Victor; Tóth, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Action potentials trigger synchronous and asynchronous neurotransmitter release. Temporal properties of both types of release could be altered in an activity-dependent manner. While the effects of activity-dependent changes in synchronous release on postsynaptic signal integration have been studied, the contribution of asynchronous release to information transfer during natural stimulus patterns is unknown. Here we find that during trains of stimulations, asynchronous release contributes to the precision of action potential firing. Our data show that this form of release is selectively diminished in AP-3b2 KO animals, which lack functional neuronal AP-3, an adaptor protein regulating vesicle formation from endosomes generated during bulk endocytosis. We find that in the absence of neuronal AP-3, asynchronous release is attenuated and the activity-dependent increase in the precision of action potential timing is compromised. Lack of asynchronous release decreases the capacity of synaptic information transfer and renders synaptic communication less reliable in response to natural stimulus patterns. PMID:25410111

  2. Evolution of chloroplast vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Sabine; Soll, Jürgen; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2003-02-01

    Vesicle traffic plays a central role in eukaryotic transport. The presence of a vesicle transport system inside chloroplasts of spermatophytes raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. To elucidate the evolution of this transport system we analyzed organisms belonging to different lineages that arose from the first photosynthetic eukaryote, i.e. glaucocystophytes, chlorophytes, rhodophytes, and charophytes/embryophytes. Intriguingly, vesicle transport is not apparent in any group other than embryophytes. The transfer of this eukaryotic-type vesicle transport system from the cytosol into the chloroplast thus seems a late evolutionary development that was acquired by land plants in order to adapt to new environmental challenges.

  3. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, −2, and −3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  4. An AP-3-dependent mechanism drives synaptic-like microvesicle biogenesis in pancreatic islet β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Suckow, Arthur T.; Craige, Branch; Faundez, Victor; Cain, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic islet β-cells contain synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The origin, trafficking, and role of these SLMVs are poorly understood. In neurons, synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis is mediated by two different cytosolic adaptor protein complexes, a ubiquitous AP-2 complex and the neuron-specific AP-3B complex. Mice lacking AP-3B subunits exhibit impaired GABAergic (inhibitory) neurotransmission and reduced neuronal vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) content. Since β-cell maturation and exocytotic function seem to parallel that of the inhibitory synapse, we predicted that AP-3B-associated vesicles would be present in β-cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that AP-3B is expressed in islets and mediates β-cell SLMV biogenesis. A secondary aim was to test whether the sedimentation properties of INS-1 β-cell microvesicles are identical to those of bona fide SLMVs isolated from PC12 cells. Our results show that the two neuron-specific AP-3 subunits β3B and μ3B are expressed in β-cells, the first time these proteins have been found to be expressed outside the nervous system. We found that β-cell SLMVs share the same sedimentation properties as PC12 SLMVs and contain SV proteins that sort specifically to AP-3B-associated vesicles in the brain. Brefeldin A, a drug that interferes with AP-3-mediated SV biogenesis, inhibits the delivery of AP-3 cargoes to β-cell SLMVs. Consistent with a role for AP-3 in the biogenesis of GABAergic SLMV in β-cells, INS-1 cell VGAT content decreases upon inhibition of AP-3 δ-subunit expression. Our findings suggest that β-cells and neurons share molecules and mechanisms important for mediating the neuron-specific membrane trafficking pathways that underlie synaptic vesicle formation. PMID:20442321

  5. Compartmentalization and Transport in Synthetic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Christine; Lippert, Anna H.; Bonakdar, Navid; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Voll, Lars M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale vesicles have become a popular tool in life sciences. Besides liposomes that are generated from phospholipids of natural origin, polymersomes fabricated of synthetic block copolymers enjoy increasing popularity, as they represent more versatile membrane building blocks that can be selected based on their specific physicochemical properties, such as permeability, stability, or chemical reactivity. In this review, we focus on the application of simple and nested artificial vesicles in synthetic biology. First, we provide an introduction into the utilization of multicompartmented vesosomes as compartmentalized nanoscale bioreactors. In the bottom-up development of protocells from vesicular nanoreactors, the specific exchange of pathway intermediates across compartment boundaries represents a bottleneck for future studies. To date, most compartmented bioreactors rely on unspecific exchange of substrates and products. This is either based on changes in permeability of the coblock polymer shell by physicochemical triggers or by the incorporation of unspecific porin proteins into the vesicle membrane. Since the incorporation of membrane transport proteins into simple and nested artificial vesicles offers the potential for specific exchange of substances between subcompartments, it opens new vistas in the design of protocells. Therefore, we devote the main part of the review to summarize the technical advances in the use of phospholipids and block copolymers for the reconstitution of membrane proteins. PMID:26973834

  6. Characteristics of endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated vesicles that mediate protein transport from the ER to Golgi membranes in perforated yeast. These vesicles, which form de novo during in vitro incubations, carry lumenal and membrane proteins that include core-glycosylated pro-alpha-factor, Bet1, Sec22, and Bos1, but not ER-resident Kar2 or Sec61 proteins. Thus, lumenal and membrane proteins in the ER are sorted prior to transport vesicle scission. Inhibition of Ypt1p-function, which prevents newly formed vesicles from docking to cis-Golgi membranes, was used to block transport. Vesicles that accumulate are competent for fusion with cis-Golgi membranes, but not with ER membranes, and thus are functionally committed to vectorial transport. A 900-fold enrichment was developed using differential centrifugation and a series of velocity and equilibrium density gradients. Electron microscopic analysis shows a uniform population of 60 nm vesicles that lack peripheral protein coats. Quantitative Western blot analysis indicates that protein markers of cytosol and cellular membranes are depleted throughout the purification, whereas the synaptobrevin-like Bet1, Sec22, and Bos1 proteins are highly enriched. Uncoated ER-derived transport vesicles (ERV) contain twelve major proteins that associate tightly with the membrane. The ERV proteins may represent abundant cargo and additional targeting molecules. PMID:8063853

  7. Cholinergic synaptic vesicle heterogeneity: evidence for regulation of acetylcholine transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gracz, L.M.; Wang, W.; Parsons, S.M.

    1988-07-12

    Crude cholinergic synaptic vesicles from a homogenate of the electric organ of Torpedo californica were centrifuged to equilibrium in an isosmotic sucrose density gradient. The classical VP/sub 1/ synaptic vesicles banding at 1.055 g/mL actively transported (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine (AcCh). An organelle banding at about 1.071 g/mL transported even more (/sup 3/H)AcCh. Transport by both organelles was inhibited by the known AcCh storage blockers trans-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (vesamicol, formerly AH5183) and nigericin. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the denser organelle was slightly smaller as shown by size-exclusion chromatography. It is concluded that the denser organelle corresponds to the recycling VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicle originally described in intact Torpedo marmorata electric organ. The properties of the receptor for vesamicol were studied by measuring binding of (/sup 3/H)vesamicol, and the amount of SV2 antigen characteristic of secretory vesicles was assayed with a monoclonal antibody directed against it. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the VP/sub 2/ vesicles had a ratio of (/sup 3/H)AcCh transport activity to vesamicol receptor concentration that typically was 4-7-fold higher, whereas the ratio of SV2 antigen concentration to vesamicol receptor concentration was about 2-fold higher. The Hill coefficients ..cap alpha../sub H/ and equilibrium dissociation constants K for vesamicol binding to VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ vesicles were essentially the same. The positive Hill coefficient suggests that the vesamicol receptor exists as a homotropic oligomeric complex. The results demonstrate that VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicles exhibit functional differences in the AcCh transport system, presumably as a result of regulatory phenomena.

  8. Single-vesicle imaging reveals different transport mechanisms between glutamatergic and GABAergic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Zohreh; Preobraschenski, Julia; van den Bogaart, Geert; Riedel, Dietmar; Jahn, Reinhard; Woehler, Andrew

    2016-02-26

    Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters, which involves exo-endocytotic cycling of synaptic vesicles. To maintain synaptic function, synaptic vesicles are refilled with thousands of neurotransmitter molecules within seconds after endocytosis, using the energy provided by an electrochemical proton gradient. However, it is unclear how transmitter molecules carrying different net charges can be efficiently sequestered while maintaining charge neutrality and osmotic balance. We used single-vesicle imaging to monitor pH and electrical gradients and directly showed different uptake mechanisms for glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) operating in parallel. In contrast to glutamate, GABA was exchanged for protons, with no other ions participating in the transport cycle. Thus, only a few components are needed to guarantee reliable vesicle filling with different neurotransmitters. PMID:26912364

  9. Directed vesicle transport by diffusio-osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michler, D.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Sprik, R.; Bonn, D.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study on surfactant vesicles that spontaneously move towards an oil droplet that is deposited on a glass substrate. Tracer particles in the surfactant solution show that the motion is not self-propelled: the vesicles are entrained by a macroscopic hydrodynamic flow. Measurements of the flow velocity suggest that the flow is of diffusio-osmotic nature. The surfactant is observed to move into the oil phase which creates a gradient in ion concentration in the vicinity of the droplet. As the diffusion coefficients of the surfactant's co- and counter-ions differ, a charge separation takes place and an electric field arises. This electric field then generates a hydrodynamic flow along the charged glass substrate in which the vesicles are entrained.

  10. Lysosomal Targeting of Cystinosin Requires AP-3.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, Zuzanna; Névo, Nathalie; Thomas, Lucie; Bailleux, Anne; Chauvet, Véronique; Benmerah, Alexandre; Antignac, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Cystinosin is a lysosomal cystine transporter defective in cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is composed of seven transmembrane (TM) domains and contains two lysosomal targeting motifs: a tyrosine-based signal (GYDQL) in its C-terminal tail and a non-classical motif in its fifth inter-TM loop. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed that the GYDQL motif specifically interacted with the μ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3). Moreover, cell surface biotinylation and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that cystinosin was partially mislocalized to the plasma membrane (PM) in AP-3-depleted cells. We generated a chimeric CD63 protein to specifically analyze the function of the GYDQL motif. This chimeric protein was targeted to lysosomes in a manner similar to cystinosin and was partially mislocalized to the PM in AP-3 knockdown cells where it also accumulated in the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Together with the fact that the surface levels of cystinosin and of the CD63-GYDQL chimeric protein were not increased when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was impaired, our data show that the tyrosine-based motif of cystinosin is a 'strong' AP-3 interacting motif responsible for lysosomal targeting of cystinosin by a direct intracellular pathway.

  11. The Vesicle Protein SAM-4 Regulates the Processivity of Synaptic Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. PMID:25329901

  12. Taurine transport in renal brush-border-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, R; Tenenhouse, H S; Scriver, C R

    1979-01-01

    Taurine transport in isolated brush-border-membrane vesicles from rat kidney is concentrative and it is driven by the Na+ gradient and transmembrane potential difference; binding is not a significant component of net uptake. The Na+-dependent component of net uptake is saturable with an apparent Km of 17 microM. The taurine-transport mechanism is selective for beta-amino compounds. PMID:486101

  13. Comparison of nerve terminal events in vivo effecting retrograde transport of vesicles containing neurotrophins or synaptic vesicle components.

    PubMed

    Weible, M W; Ozsarac, N; Grimes, M L; Hendry, I A

    2004-03-15

    Although vesicular retrograde transport of neurotrophins in vivo is well established, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that underlie vesicle endocytosis and formation before transport. We demonstrate that in vivo not all retrograde transport vesicles are alike, nor are they all formed using identical mechanisms. As characterized by density, there are at least two populations of vesicles present in the synaptic terminal that are retrogradely transported along the axon: those containing neurotrophins (NTs) and those resulting from synaptic vesicle recycling. Vesicles containing nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3, or NT-4 had similar densities with peak values at about 1.05 g/ml. Synaptic-derived vesicles, labeled with anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), had densities with peak values at about 1.16 g/ml. We assayed the effects of pharmacologic agents in vivo on retrograde transport from the anterior eye chamber to the superior cervical ganglion. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH (PI-3) kinase and actin function blocked transport of both anti-DBH and NGF, demonstrating an essential role for these molecules in retrograde transport of both vesicle types. Dynamin, a key element in synaptic vesicle recycling, was axonally transported in retrograde and anterograde directions, and compounds able to interfere with dynamin function had a differential effect on retrograde transport of NTs and anti-DBH. Okadaic acid significantly decreased retrograde axonal transport of anti-DBH and increased NGF retrograde transport. We conclude that there are both different and common proteins involved in endocytosis and targeting of retrograde transport of these two populations of vesicles. PMID:14994338

  14. Self-propelling vesicles define glycolysis as the minimal energy machinery for neuronal transport

    PubMed Central

    Hinckelmann, María-Victoria; Virlogeux, Amandine; Niehage, Christian; Poujol, Christel; Choquet, Daniel; Hoflack, Bernard; Zala, Diana; Saudou, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) facilitates fast axonal transport in neurons. However, given that GAPDH does not produce ATP, it is unclear whether glycolysis per se is sufficient to propel vesicles. Although many proteins regulating transport have been identified, the molecular composition of transported vesicles in neurons has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we selectively enrich motile vesicles and perform quantitative proteomic analysis. In addition to the expected molecular motors and vesicular proteins, we find an enrichment of all the glycolytic enzymes. Using biochemical approaches and super-resolution microscopy, we observe that most glycolytic enzymes are selectively associated with vesicles and facilitate transport of vesicles in neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that mouse brain vesicles produce ATP from ADP and glucose, and display movement in a reconstituted in vitro transport assay of native vesicles. We conclude that transport of vesicles along microtubules can be autonomous. PMID:27775035

  15. Phospholipid flippases: building asymmetric membranes and transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Tessy T.; Baldridge, Ryan D.; Xu, Peng; Graham, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase family (P4-ATPases) are essential components of the Golgi, plasma membrane and endosomal system that play critical roles in membrane biogenesis. These pumps flip phospholipid across the bilayer to create an asymmetric membrane structure with substrate phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, enriched within the cytosolic leaflet. The P4-ATPases also help form transport vesicles that bud from Golgi and endosomal membranes, thereby impacting the sorting and localization of many different proteins in the secretory and endocytic pathways. At the organismal level, P4-ATPase deficiencies are linked to liver disease, obesity, diabetes, hearing loss, neurological deficits, immune deficiency and reduced fertility. Here, we review the biochemical, cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases, with an emphasis on their roles in vesicle-mediated protein transport. PMID:22234261

  16. Inositol depletion restores vesicle transport in yeast phospholipid flippase mutants.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Kanako; Yamamoto, Takaharu; Sakai, Shota; Mioka, Tetsuo; Sano, Takamitsu; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, type 4 P-type ATPases function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Flippases function in the formation of transport vesicles, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we isolate an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, ART5, as a multicopy suppressor of the growth and endocytic recycling defects of flippase mutants in budding yeast. Consistent with a previous report that Art5p downregulates the inositol transporter Itr1p by endocytosis, we found that flippase mutations were also suppressed by the disruption of ITR1, as well as by depletion of inositol from the culture medium. Interestingly, inositol depletion suppressed the defects in all five flippase mutants. Inositol depletion also partially restored the formation of secretory vesicles in a flippase mutant. Inositol depletion caused changes in lipid composition, including a decrease in phosphatidylinositol and an increase in phosphatidylserine. A reduction in phosphatidylinositol levels caused by partially depleting the phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1p also suppressed a flippase mutation. These results suggest that inositol depletion changes the lipid composition of the endosomal/TGN membranes, which results in vesicle formation from these membranes in the absence of flippases.

  17. APP anterograde transport requires Rab3A GTPase activity for assembly of the transport vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Szodorai, A; Kuan, Y-H; Hunzelmann, S; Engel, U; Sakane, A; Sasaki, T; Takai, Y; Kirsch, J; Müller, U; Beyreuther, K; Brady, S; Morfini, G; Kins, S

    2010-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) may be sequentially cleaved by β- and γ-secretases leading to accumulation of Aβ peptides in brains of Alzheimer’s Disease patients. Cleavage by α-secretase prevents Aβ generation. APP is anterogradely transported by conventional kinesin in a distinct transport vesicle, but both the biochemical composition of such a vesicle as well as the specific kinesin-1 motor responsible for transport are poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate by time-lapse analysis and immunoisolations that APP is a cargo of a vesicle containing the kinesin heavy chain isoform kinesin-1C, the small GTPase Rab3A and a specific subset of presynaptic protein components. Moreover, we report that assembly of kinesin-1C and APP in this vesicle type requires Rab3A GTPase activity. Finally, we show cleavage of APP in the analyzed transport vesicles by α-secretase activity, likely mediated by ADAM10. Together, these data indicate for the first time that maturation of transport vesicles, including coupling of conventional kinesin, requires Rab GTPase activity. PMID:19923287

  18. Characterization of a Phytophthora infestans gene involved in vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Roxby, R

    1996-11-28

    Members of the Ras superfamily of monomeric GTP-binding proteins have been shown to be essential in specific steps of vesicle transport and secretion in widely divergent organisms. We report here the characterization of a gene from Phytophthora infestans encoding a deduced amino acid (aa) sequence belonging to the Ypt class of monomeric GTP-binding proteins, products shown in other organisms to be essential for vesicle transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cis-Golgi compartments. Analysis of genomic and cDNA sequences of this gene, Piypt1, indicates that it contains five introns, one in the 5'-untranslated region. All introns are typical in beginning with GT and ending with AG. The region of the transcription start point displays a number of features characteristic of fungi and other eukaryotes, but it does not contain TATA or CAAT motifs. A single transcript is produced from the gene, which is polyadenylated, but the gene does not contain a recognizable polyadenylation signal. Genomic DNA blots indicate that Piypt1 is a single-copy gene. Comparisons of Ypt1 aa sequences indicate that P. infestans is more closely related to algae and higher plants than to the true fungi. The protein product of the Piypt1 gene, expressed in Escherichia coli, cross-reacts with antiserum against yeast Ypt1 protein and binds GTP. Furthermore, the Piypt1 gene is able to functionally complement a mutant ypt1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aa sequence similarity, immunological cross-reactivity and functional attributes of Piypt1 make it likely that it is an authentic ypt1 gene which participates in vesicle transport in Phytophthora infestans.

  19. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  20. Linking Phospholipid flippases to vesicle-mediated protein transport

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Baby-Periyanayaki; Natarajan, Paramasivam; Zhou, Xiaoming; Graham, Todd R.

    2013-01-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) are a large family of putative phospholipid translocases (flippases) implicated in the generation of phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes. P4-ATPases are typically the largest P-type ATPase subgroup found in eukaryotic cells, with five members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, six members in Caenorhabditis elegans, 12 members in Arabidopsis thaliani and 14 members in humans. In addition, many of the P4-ATPases require interaction with a noncatalytic subunit from the CDC50 gene family for their transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deficiency of a P4-ATPase (Atp8b1) causes liver disease in humans, and studies in a variety of model systems indicate that P4-ATPases play diverse and essential roles in membrane biogenesis. In addition to their proposed role in establishing and maintaining plasma membrane asymmetry, P4-ATPases are linked to vesicle-mediated protein transport in the exocytic and endocytic pathways. Recent studies have also suggested a role for P4-ATPases in the nonvesicular intracellular trafficking of sterols. Here, we discuss the physiological requirements for yeast P4-ATPases in phospholipid translocase activity, transport vesicle budding and ergosterol metabolism, with an emphasis on Drs2p and its noncatalytic subunit, Cdc50p. PMID:19286470

  1. Membrane vesicles: A simplified system for studying auxin transport

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin responsible for regulation of growth, is transported polarly in plants. Several different models have been suggested to account for IAA transport by cells and its accumulation by membrane vesicles. One model sees diffusion of IAA driven by a pH gradient. The anion of a lipophilic weak acid like IAA or butyrate accumulates in an alkaline compartment in accord with the size of the pH gradient The accumulation of IAA may be diminished by the permeability of its lipophilic anion. This anion leak may be blocked by NPA. With anion efflux blocked, a gradient of two pH units would support an IAA accumulation of less than 50-fold at equilibrium (2) Another model sees diffusion of IAA in parallel with a saturable symport (IAA[sup [minus

  2. Ultrastructural localization of active zone and synaptic vesicle proteins in a preassembled multi-vesicle transport aggregate.

    PubMed

    Tao-Cheng, J-H

    2007-12-12

    Although it has been suggested that presynaptic active zone (AZ) may be preassembled, it is still unclear which entities carry the various proteins to the AZ during synaptogenesis. Here, I propose that aggregates of dense core vesicles (DCV) and small clear vesicles in the axons of young rat hippocampal cultures are carriers containing preformed AZ and synaptic vesicle (SV) components on their way to developing synapses. The aggregates were positively labeled with antibodies against Bassoon and Piccolo (two AZ cytomatrix proteins), VAMP, SV2, synaptotagmin (three SV membrane proteins), and synapsin I (a SV-associated protein). Bassoon and Piccolo labeling were localized at dense material both in the aggregates and at the AZ. In addition to the SV at the synapses, the SV membrane proteins labeled the clear vesicles in the aggregate as well as many other SV-like and pleiomorphic vesicular structures in the axons, and synapsin I labeling was associated with the vesicles in the aggregates. In single sections, these axonal vesicle aggregates were approximately 0.22 by 0.13 microm in average dimensions and contain one to two DCV and five to six small clear vesicles. Serial sections confirmed that the aggregates were not synaptic junctions sectioned en face. Labeling intensities of Bassoon and Piccolo measured from serially sectioned transport aggregates and AZ were within range of each other, suggesting that one or a few aggregates, but not individual DCV, can carry sufficient Bassoon and Piccolo to form an AZ. The present findings provide the first ultrastructural evidence localizing various AZ and SV proteins in a preassembled multi-vesicle transport aggregate that has the potential to quickly form a functional active zone.

  3. Astrocyte VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent cycling and modulate glutamate transporter trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongdong; Hérault, Karine; Zylbersztejn, Kathleen; Lauterbach, Marcel A; Guillon, Marc; Oheim, Martin; Ropert, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Key points Mouse cortical astrocytes express VAMP3 but not VAMP2. VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo- and endocytotic cycling at the plasma membrane. VAMP3 vesicle traffic regulates the recycling of plasma membrane glutamate transporters. cAMP modulates VAMP3 vesicle cycling and glutamate uptake. Abstract Previous studies suggest that small synaptic-like vesicles in astrocytes carry vesicle-associated vSNARE proteins, VAMP3 (cellubrevin) and VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2), both contributing to the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of gliotransmitters, thereby modulating brain information processing. Here, using cortical astrocytes taken from VAMP2 and VAMP3 knock-out mice, we find that astrocytes express only VAMP3. The morphology and function of VAMP3 vesicles were studied in cultured astrocytes at single vesicle level with stimulated emission depletion (STED) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopies. We show that VAMP3 antibodies label small diameter (∼80 nm) vesicles and that VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo-endocytosis. We also show that this pathway modulates the surface expression of plasma membrane glutamate transporters and the glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Finally, using pharmacological and optogenetic tools, we provide evidence suggesting that the cytosolic cAMP level influences astrocytic VAMP3 vesicle trafficking and glutamate transport. Our results suggest a new role for VAMP3 vesicles in astrocytes. PMID:25864578

  4. Sulfate transport in apical membrane vesicles isolated from tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Elgavish, A.; DiBona, D.R.; Norton, P.; Meezan, E.

    1987-09-01

    Sulfate uptake in apical membrane vesicles isolated from bovine tracheal epithelium is shown to occur into an osmotically sensitive intravesicular space, via a carrier-mediated system. This conclusion is based on three lines of evidence: 1) saturation kinetics: 2) substrate specificity; and 3) inhibition by the anion transport inhibitors SITS and DIDS. The affinity of the transport system is highest in low ionic strength media and decreases in the presence of gluconate. Chloride appears to cis-inhibit sulfate uptake and to trans-stimulate sulfate efflux. Cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies with a variety of anions indicate that this exchange system may be shared by HCO/sub 3//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SeO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ but not by H/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup -/ or HAsO/sub 4//sup 2/. Studies indicate that protons may play two distinct roles in sulfate transport in this system. These studies show that the carrier-mediated system can function in the absence of chloride. The overshoot observed in the presence of a proton gradient indicates that under those conditions the mechanism of transport may be a SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-OH/sup -/ exchange.

  5. A perspective from transport protein particle: vesicle tether and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunman; Yu, Sidney

    2014-02-25

    Vesicle-mediated transport of proteins is a highly regulated, multi-step process. When the vesicle is approaching its target membrane compartment, many factors are required to provide specificity and tethering between the incoming vesicle and the target membrane, before vesicle fusion can occur. Tethering factors, which include multisubunit complexes, coiled-coil proteins, with the help of small GTPases, provide the initial interaction between the vesicle and its target membrane. Of the multisubunit tethering factors, the transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes function in a number of trafficking steps, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport, intra- and post-Golgi traffic and autophagosome formation. In this review, we summarize the updated progress in structure and function of TRAPP complexes as well as human diseases caused by genetic mutations in TRAPP.

  6. Coats, tethers, Rabs, and SNAREs work together to mediate the intracellular destination of a transport vesicle.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huaqing; Reinisch, Karin; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2007-05-01

    Tethering factors have been shown to interact with Rabs and SNAREs and, more recently, with coat proteins. Coat proteins are required for cargo selection and membrane deformation to bud a transport vesicle from a donor compartment. It was once thought that a vesicle must uncoat before it recognizes its target membrane. However, recent findings have revealed a role for the coat in directing a vesicle to its correct intracellular destination. In this review we will discuss the literature that links coat proteins to vesicle targeting events. PMID:17488620

  7. Vesicle Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  8. A Novel Pulse-Chase Paradigm to Visualize the Trafficking of Transport Vesicles in Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bassam, Sarmad

    In neurons transmembrane proteins are targeted to dendrites in vesicles that traffic solely within the somatodendritic compartment. How these vesicles are retained within the somatodendritic domain is unknown. Here we adapt a novel pulse chase system that allows synchronous release of exogenous transmembrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum using FKBP12 and Rapamycin. We demonstrate proof-of-concept and establish protein trafficking controls in incremental steps. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in studying protein trafficking and establish parameters for analysis of time-lapse images. We implement this novel pulse-chase strategy to track the movements of post-Golgi transport vesicles. Surprisingly, we found that post-Golgi vesicles carrying dendritic proteins were equally likely to enter axons and dendrites. However, once such vesicles entered the axon they very rarely moved beyond the axon initial segment, but instead either halted or reversed direction in an actin and Myosin Va-dependent manner. In contrast, vesicles carrying either an axonal or a nonspecifically localized protein only rarely halted or reversed and instead generally proceeded to the distal axon. Thus, our results are consistent with the axon initial segment behaving as a vesicle filter that mediates the differential trafficking of transport vesicles.

  9. Preferential localization of a vesicular monoamine transporter to dense core vesicles in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Neurons and endocrine cells have two types of secretory vesicle that undergo regulated exocytosis. Large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) store neural peptides whereas small clear synaptic vesicles store classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, and glutamate. However, monoamines differ from other classical transmitters and have been reported to appear in both LDCVs and smaller vesicles. To localize the transporter that packages monoamines into secretory vesicles, we have raised antibodies to a COOH- terminal sequence from the vesicular amine transporter expressed in the adrenal gland (VMAT1). Like synaptic vesicle proteins, the transporter occurs in endosomes of transfected CHO cells, accounting for the observed vesicular transport activity. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, the transporter occurs principally in LDCVs by both immunofluorescence and density gradient centrifugation. Synaptic-like microvesicles in PC12 cells contain relatively little VMAT1. The results appear to account for the storage of monoamines by LDCVs in the adrenal medulla and indicate that VMAT1 provides a novel membrane protein marker unique to LDCVs. PMID:7962100

  10. Vesicles on strings: morphological evidence for processive transport within the Golgi stack.

    PubMed

    Orci, L; Perrelet, A; Rothman, J E

    1998-03-01

    Cis-Golgi cisternae have a higher freeze-fracture particle density than trans-cisternae. Transport vesicles neighboring cis or trans positions of the Golgi stack have a particle concentration comparable to that of the adjacent cisterna and the buds emerging from it. This implies that transport vesicles remain locally within the stack during their lifetime, near their origin, favoring a processive pattern of transport in which vesicle transfers occur preferentially between adjacent cisternae in the stack. A "string theory" is proposed to account for processive transport, in which a carpet of fibrous attachment proteins located at the surface of cisternae (the strings) prevent budded vesicles from diffusing away but still allow them to diffuse laterally, effectively limiting transfers to adjoining cisternae in the stack. Fibrous elements that multivalently connect otherwise free COPI-coated vesicles and uncoated transport vesicles to one or two cisternae simultaneously are discerned readily by electron microscopy. It is suggested that long, coiled coil, motif-rich, Golgi-specific proteins including p115, GM130, and possibly giantin, among others, function as the proposed strings.

  11. Biliary transport of glutathione S-conjugate by rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Akerboom, T P; Sies, H; Kinne, R; Thao, T; Arias, I M

    1984-04-25

    Transport of S-dinitrophenyl glutathione, a model compound of glutathione S-conjugates, was studied in isolated rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles by a rapid filtration technique. The membrane vesicles exhibited time-dependent uptake of [2-3H]glycine-glutathione conjugate into an osmotically sensitive intravesicular space. Inactivation of vesicle-associated gamma-glutamyltransferase by affinity labeling with L-(alpha-S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole-acetic acid had no effect on the initial rate of transport. Chemical analysis revealed that the intact glutathione conjugate accounted for most vesicle-associated radioactivity, reflecting the low transferase activity in the liver and membrane vesicles. The initial rate of transport followed saturation kinetics with respect to conjugate concentrations; an apparent Km of 1.0 mM and Vmax of 1.7 nmol/mg of protein X 20 s were calculated. These results indicate that transport of the glutathione S-conjugate across the canalicular membranes is a carrier-mediated process. Sodium chloride in the transport medium could be replaced by KCl, LiCl, or choline chloride without any changes in transport activity. The rate of conjugate transport was enhanced by a valinomycin-induced K+ diffusion potential (vesicle-inside-positive). The rate of conjugate uptake was enhanced by replacing KCl in the transport medium with K gluconate, providing a less permeant anion, and was reduced by replacing KCl with KSCN, providing a more permeant anion. These data indicate that conjugate transport is electrogenic and involves the transfer of negative charge. Transport of S-dinitrophenyl glutathione was inhibited by S-benzyl glutathione, oxidized glutathione, or reduced glutathione. This transport system in canalicular membranes may function in biliary secretion of glutathione S-conjugates of xenobiotics whose synthesis in hepatocytes requires glutathione S-transferases.

  12. Visualization and quantification of transmembrane ion transport into giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Valkenier, Hennie; López Mora, Néstor; Kros, Alexander; Davis, Anthony P

    2015-02-01

    Transmembrane ion transporters (ionophores) are widely investigated as supramolecular agents with potential for biological activity. Tests are usually performed in synthetic membranes that are assembled into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). However transport must be followed through bulk properties of the vesicle suspension, because LUVs are too small for individual study. An alternative approach is described whereby ion transport can be revealed and quantified through direct observation. The method employs giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), which are 20-60 μm in diameter and readily imaged by light microscopy. This allows characterization of individual GUVs containing transporter molecules, followed by studies of transport through fluorescence emission from encapsulated indicators. The method provides new levels of certainty and relevance, given that the GUVs are similar in size to living cells. It has been demonstrated using a highly active anion carrier, and should aid the development of compounds for treating channelopathies such as cystic fibrosis.

  13. Active transport of vesicles in neurons is modulated by mechanical tension.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Saif, Taher A

    2014-03-27

    Effective intracellular transport of proteins and organelles is critical in cells, and is especially important for ensuring proper neuron functionality. In neurons, most proteins are synthesized in the cell body and must be transported through thin structures over long distances where normal diffusion is insufficient. Neurons transport subcellular cargo along axons and neurites through a stochastic interplay of active and passive transport. Mechanical tension is critical in maintaining proper function in neurons, but its role in transport is not well understood. To this end, we investigate the active and passive transport of vesicles in Aplysia neurons while changing neurite tension via applied strain, and quantify the resulting dynamics. We found that tension in neurons modulates active transport of vesicles by increasing the probability of active motion, effective diffusivity, and induces a retrograde bias. We show that mechanical tension modulates active transport processes in neurons and that external forces can couple to internal (subcellular) forces and change the overall transport dynamics.

  14. Transport Vesicle Tethering at the Trans Golgi Network: Coiled Coil Proteins in Action.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pak-Yan P; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is decorated with so-called Golgin proteins that share a common feature: a large proportion of their amino acid sequences are predicted to form coiled-coil structures. The possible presence of extensive coiled coils implies that these proteins are highly elongated molecules that can extend a significant distance from the Golgi surface. This property would help them to capture or trap inbound transport vesicles and to tether Golgi mini-stacks together. This review will summarize our current understanding of coiled coil tethers that are needed for the receipt of transport vesicles at the trans Golgi network (TGN). How do long tethering proteins actually catch vesicles? Golgi-associated, coiled coil tethers contain numerous binding sites for small GTPases, SNARE proteins, and vesicle coat proteins. How are these interactions coordinated and are any or all of them important for the tethering process? Progress toward understanding these questions and remaining, unresolved mysteries will be discussed.

  15. Unitary assembly of presynaptic active zones from Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Mika; Zhai, R Grace; Dresbach, Thomas; Bresler, Tal; Torres, Viviana I; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Ziv, Noam E; Garner, Craig C

    2003-04-24

    Recent studies indicate that active zones (AZs)-sites of neurotransmitter release-may be assembled from preassembled AZ precursor vesicles inserted into the presynaptic plasma membrane. Here we report that one putative AZ precursor vesicle of CNS synapses-the Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicle (PTV)-carries a comprehensive set of AZ proteins genetically and functionally coupled to synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Time-lapse imaging reveals that PTVs are highly mobile, consistent with a role in intracellular transport. Quantitative analysis reveals that the Bassoon, Piccolo, and RIM content of individual PTVs is, on average, half of that of individual presynaptic boutons and shows that the synaptic content of these molecules can be quantitatively accounted for by incorporation of integer numbers (typically two to three) of PTVs into presynaptic membranes. These findings suggest that AZs are assembled from unitary amounts of AZ material carried on PTVs.

  16. Individual synaptic vesicles from the electroplaque of Torpedo californica, a classic cholinergic synapse, also contain transporters for glutamate and ATP.

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Harlow, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The type of neurotransmitter secreted by a neuron is a product of the vesicular transporters present on its synaptic vesicle membranes and the available transmitters in the local cytosolic environment where the synaptic vesicles reside. Synaptic vesicles isolated from electroplaques of the marine ray, Torpedo californica, have served as model vesicles for cholinergic neurotransmission. Many lines of evidence support the idea that in addition to acetylcholine, additional neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators are also released from cholinergic synapses. We identified the types of vesicular neurotransmitter transporters present at the electroplaque using immunoblot and immunofluoresence techniques with antibodies against the vesicle acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, 2, and 3), and the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT). We found that VAChT, VNUT, VGLUT 1 and 2, but not 3 were present by immunoblot, and confirmed that the antibodies were specific to proteins of the axons and terminals of the electroplaque. We used a single-vesicle imaging technique to determine whether these neurotransmitter transporters were present on the same or different populations of synaptic vesicles. We found that greater than 85% of vesicles that labeled for VAChT colabeled with VGLUT1 or VGLUT2, and approximately 70% colabeled with VNUT. Based upon confidence intervals, at least 52% of cholinergic vesicles isolated are likely to contain all four transporters. The presence of multiple types of neurotransmitter transporters - and potentially neurotransmitters - in individual synaptic vesicles raises fundamental questions about the role of cotransmitter release and neurotransmitter synergy at cholinergic synapses.

  17. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  18. Two-compartment behavior during transport of folate compounds in L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.H.; Dembo, M.; Sirotnak, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of (/sup 3/H) 1,L 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, (/sup 3/H) folic acid, and (/sup 3/H)methotrexate by L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles exhibited multicompartmental behavior. Two separate vesicular compartments (parallel relationship) of approximately equal volume were revealed during measurements of influx and efflux. Flux in one compartment was rapid, saturable, highly temperature-sensitive, and inhibited by pCMBS. Flux in the other compartment exhibited all of the characteristics of passive diffusion. These results imply that our plasma membrane vesicle preparations consist of a mixture of two functional species. Transport of folate into one of these species occurs by passive diffusion alone, whereas transport into the other kind of vesicle occurs by both passive diffusion and carrier-facilitated transport.

  19. ATP-driven calcium transport in membrane vesicles of Streptococcus sanguis. [Streptococcus sanguis; Streptococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Houng, H.; Lynn, A.R.; Rosen, B.P.

    1986-11-01

    Calcium transport was investigated in membrane vesicles prepared from the oral bacterium Streptococcus sanguis. Procedures were devised for the preparation of membrane vesicles capable of accumulation /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Uptake was ATP dependent and did not require a proton motive force. Calcium transport in these vesicles was compared with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in membrane vesicles from Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The data support the existence of an ATP-driven calcium pump in S. sanguis similar to that in S. faecalis. This pump, which catalyzes uptake into membrane vesicles, would be responsible for extrusion of calcium from intact cells.

  20. Hypoxia directly increases serotonin transport by porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, G.B.; Block, E.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Alterations in the physical state and composition of membrane lipids have been shown to interfere with a number of critical cellular and membrane functions including transmembrane transport. The authors have reported that hypoxia has profound effects upon the physical state and lipid composition of the PAEC plasma membrane bilayer and have suggested that this is responsible for increased serotonin uptake by these cells. In order to determine whether hypoxia has a direct effect on the plasma membrane transport of serotonin, they measured serotonin transport activity (1) in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from normoxic (20% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2}) and hypoxic (0% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2}) PAEC and (2) in PAEC plasma membrane vesicles that were exposed directly to normoxia or hypoxia. A 24-h exposure of PAEC to hypoxia resulted in a 40% increase in specific serotonin transport by plasma membrane vesicles derived from these cells. When plasma membrane vesicles were isolated and then directly exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 1 h at 37C, a 31% increase in specific 5-HT transport was observed in hypoxic vesicles. Hypoxia did not alter the Km of serotonin transport (normoxia = 3.47 {mu}M versus hypoxia = 3.76 {mu}M) but markedly increased the maximal rate of transport (V{sup max}) (normoxia = 202.4 pmol/min/mg protein versus hypoxia = 317.9 pmol/min/mg protein). These results indicate that hypoxia increases serotonin transport in PAEC by a direct effect on the plasma membrane leading to an increase in the effective number of transporter molecules without alteration in transporter affinity for serotonin.

  1. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  2. Mutations in AP3D1 associated with immunodeficiency and seizures define a new type of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Sandra; Schulz, Ansgar; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Dieckmann, Nele M G; Niethammer, Klaus; Fuchs, Sebastian; Eckl, Katja Martina; Plank, Roswitha; Werner, Roland; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Bank, Julia; Strauss, Anne; von Bernuth, Horst; Zur Stadt, Udo; Grieve, Samantha; Griffiths, Gillian M; Lehmberg, Kai; Hennies, Hans Christian; Ehl, Stephan

    2016-02-25

    Genetic disorders affecting biogenesis and transport of lysosome-related organelles are heterogeneous diseases frequently associated with albinism. We studied a patient with albinism, neutropenia, immunodeficiency, neurodevelopmental delay, generalized seizures, and impaired hearing but with no mutation in genes so far associated with albinism and immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous mutation in AP3D1 that leads to destabilization of the adaptor protein 3 (AP3) complex. AP3 complex formation and the degranulation defect in patient T cells were restored by retroviral reconstitution. A previously described hypopigmented mouse mutant with an Ap3d1 null mutation (mocha strain) shares the neurologic phenotype with our patient and shows a platelet storage pool deficiency characteristic of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) that was not studied in our patient because of a lack of bleeding. HPS2 caused by mutations in AP3B1A leads to a highly overlapping phenotype without the neurologic symptoms. The AP3 complex exists in a ubiquitous and a neuronal form. AP3D1 codes for the AP3δ subunit of the complex, which is essential for both forms. In contrast, the AP3β3A subunit, affected in HPS2 patients, is substituted by AP3β3B in the neuron-specific heterotetramer. AP3δ deficiency thus causes a severe neurologic disorder with immunodeficiency and albinism that we propose to classify as HPS10. PMID:26744459

  3. Transport of gibberellin a(1) in cowpea membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    O'neill, S D; Keith, B; Rappaport, L

    1986-04-01

    The permeability properties of gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) were examined in membrane vesicles isolated from cowpea hypocotyls. The rate of GA(1) uptake was progressively greater as pH decreased, indicating that the neutral molecule is more permeable than anionic GA(1). Membrane vesicles used in this study possessed a tonoplast-type H(+)-translocating ATPase as assayed by MgATP-dependent quenching of acridine orange fluorescence and methylamine uptake. However, GA(1) uptake was not stimulated by MgATP. At concentrations in excess of 1 micromolar, GA(1), GA(5), and GA, collapsed both MgATP-generated and artifically imposed pH gradients, apparently by shuttling H(+) across the membrane as neutral GA. The relatively high permeability of neutral GA and the potentially detrimental effects of GA in uncoupling pH gradients across intracellular membranes supports the view that GA(1) accumulation and compartmentation must occur by conversion of GA(1) to more polar metabolites.

  4. Role of vesicle-mediated transport pathways in hepatocellular bile secretion.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J M

    1996-05-01

    Bile formation by hepatocytes involves the secretion of organic and inorganic solutes derived from a number of intracellular sources. Plasma-to-bile trafficking of bile salts and proteins, in particular, is a major route for solute movement through the hepatocyte. Intracellular vesicle trafficking is the primary pathway for delivery of plasma proteins to bile, via either fluid-phase or receptor-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, bile salts do not appear to traffic via vesicles. Rather, bile salts appear to promote the insertion of vesicles containing the apical transport proteins into the hepatocyte canalicular membrane. Lysosomal protein also is released into bile by fusion of vesicles or possibly of tubular lysosomes with the canalicular membrane. Structural phospholipid is presumably delivered to the canalicular membrane as part of vesicular traffic, but biliary phosphatidylcholine molecules are more likely delivered via binding to cytosolic transfer proteins. Cholesterol may be delivered either via cystolic proteins or via vesicular trafficking, the latter in conjunction with sphingomyelin recycling to and from the canalicular membrane. Lastly, the primary mechanism for phospholipid secretion into bile appears to be the budding of phospholipid vesicles from the exoplasmic hemileaflet of the hepatocyte canalicular membrane. Thus, vesicle-mediated pathways play a major role in a number of bile secretory mechanisms.

  5. Transport of ER vesicles on actin filaments in neurons by myosin V.

    PubMed

    Tabb, J S; Molyneaux, B J; Cohen, D L; Kuznetsov, S A; Langford, G M

    1998-11-01

    Axoplasmic organelles in the giant axon of the squid have been shown to move on both actin filaments and microtubules and to switch between actin filaments and microtubules during fast axonal transport. The objectives of this investigation were to identify the specific classes of axoplasmic organelles that move on actin filaments and the myosin motors involved. We developed a procedure to isolate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from extruded axoplasm and to reconstitute its movement in vitro. The isolated ER vesicles moved on exogenous actin filaments adsorbed to coverslips in an ATP-dependent manner without the addition of soluble factors. Therefore myosin was tightly bound and not extracted during isolation. These vesicles were identified as smooth ER by use of an antibody to an ER-resident protein, ERcalcistorin/protein disulfide isomerase (EcaSt/PDI). Furthermore, an antibody to squid myosin V was used in immunogold EM studies to show that myosin V localized to these vesicles. The antibody was generated to a squid brain myosin (p196) that was classified as myosin V based on comparisons of amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of this myosin with those of other known members of the myosin V family. Dual labeling with the squid myosin V antibody and a kinesin heavy chain antibody showed that the two motors colocalized on the same vesicles. Finally, antibody inhibition experiments were performed with two myosin V-specific antibodies to show that myosin V motor activity is required for transport of vesicles on actin filaments in axoplasm. One antibody was made to a peptide in the globular tail domain and the other to the globular head fragment of myosin V. Both antibodies inhibited vesicle transport on actin filaments by greater than 90% compared to controls. These studies provide the first direct evidence that ER vesicles are transported on actin filaments by myosin V. These data confirm the role of actin filaments in fast axonal transport and provide support for

  6. Direct measurement of calcium transport across chloroplast inner-envelope vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Roh, M.H.; Shingles, R.; Cleveland, M.J.; McCarty, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    The initial rate of Ca{sup 2+} movement across the inner-envelope membrane of pea (Pisum sativum L.) chloroplasts was directly measured by stopped-flow spectrofluorometry using membrane vesicles loaded with the Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive fluorophore fura-2. Calibration of fura-2 fluorescence was achieved by combining a ratiometric method with Ca{sup 2+}-selective minielectrodes to determine pCa values. The initial rate of Ca{sup 2+} influx in predominantly right-side-out inner-envelope membrane vesicles was greater than that in largely inside-out vesicles. Ca{sup 2+} movement was stimulated by an inwardly directed electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane vesicles, an effect that was diminished by the addition of valinomycin in the presence of K{sup +}. In addition, Ca{sup 2+} was shown to move across the membrane vesicles in the presence of K{sup +} diffusion potential gradient. The potential-stimulated rate of Ca{sup 2+} transport was slightly inhibited by diltiazem and greatly inhibited by ruthenium red. Other pharmacological agents such as LaCl{sub 3}, verapamil, and nifedipine had little or no effect. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} transport across the chloroplast inner envelope can occur by a potential-stimulated uniport mechanism.

  7. ATP-dependent bile-salt transport in canalicular rat liver plasma-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, B; O'Neill, B; Meier, P J

    1992-01-01

    The present study identifies and characterizes a novel ATP-dependent bile-salt transport system in isolated canalicular rat liver plasma-membrane (cLPM) vesicles. ATP (1-5 mM) stimulated taurocholate uptake into cLPM vesicles between 6- and 8-fold above equilibrium uptake values (overshoot) and above values for incubations in the absence of ATP. The ATP-dependent portion of taurocholate uptake was 2-fold higher in the presence of equilibrated KNO3 as compared with potassium gluconate, indicating that the stimulatory effect of ATP was not due to the generation of an intravesicular positive membrane potential. Saturation kinetics revealed a very high affinity (Km approximately 2.1 microM) of the system for taurocholate. The system could only minimally be stimulated by nucleotides other than ATP. Furthermore, it was preferentially inhibited by conjugated univalent bile salts. Further strong inhibitory effects were observed with valinomycin, oligomycin, 4,4'-di-isothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulphonate, sulphobromophthalein, leukotriene C4 and N-ethylmaleimide, whereas nigericin, vanadate, GSH, GSSG and daunomycin exerted only weak inhibitory effects or none at all. These results indicate the presence of a high-affinity primary ATP-dependent bile-salt transport system in cLPM vesicles. This transport system might be regulated in vivo by the number of carriers present at the perspective transport site(s), which, in addition to the canalicular membrane, might also include pericanalicular membrane vesicles. PMID:1599411

  8. Uptake of auxins into membrane vesicles isolated from pea stems: an in vitro auxin transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test the applicability of the chemiosmotic theory of auxin transport to a subcellular system. Membrane vesicles were isolated from the basal portion of the third internode of etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska) by differential centrifugation. Uptake of auxin was determined by adding /sup 14/C-labeled indoleacetic acid (IAA) to vesicles. Nigericin, a monovalent cation ionophore, and the electrogenic protonophore, carbonyl-cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), at micromolar concentrations abolished saturable uptake. Bursting vesicles by sonication, osmotic shock and freeze/thawing also eliminated saturable uptake. As the temperature increased from 0 to 30/sup 0/C, saturable uptake decreased markedly. Nonsaturable auxin uptake was less affected by these treatments. The pH gradient-dependent uptake of auxin appeared to be a transmembrane uptake of auxin into the vesicles rather than surface binding. Unlabeled IAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at low concentrations reduced the saturable accumulation of (/sup 14/C)IAA in vesicles, while phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, and 1-NAA were effective only at high concentrations. Kinetic analysis revealed two types of sites: a high affinity site with an uptake capacity of 25 to 40 pmoles/g tissue, and a low affinity site with an uptake capacity of 260 to 600 pmole/g tissue, fresh wt. In conclusion, several principal elements of an auxin transport system, as specific by the chemiosmotic theory of polar auxin transport, were present in membrane vesicles isolated from relatively mature pea stem tissue. However, one important aspect of the theory was not demonstrated in this in vitro system - a TIBA/NPA-sensitive auxin efflux. The kinetics and specificity of auxin uptake strongly suggested that this system was physiologically significant.

  9. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  10. Pantophysin is a ubiquitously expressed synaptophysin homologue and defines constitutive transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Certain properties of the highly specialized synaptic transmitter vesicles are shared by constitutively occurring vesicles. We and others have thus identified a cDNA in various nonneuroendocrine cell types of rat and human that is related to synaptophysin, one of the major synaptic vesicle membrane proteins, which we termed pantophysin. Here we characterize the gene structure, mRNA and protein expression, and intracellular distribution of pantophysin. Its mRNA is detected in murine cell types of nonneuroendocrine as well as of neuroendocrine origin. The intron/exon structure of the murine pantophysin gene is identical to that of synaptophysin except for the last intron that is absent in pantophysin. The encoded polypeptide of calculated mol wt 28,926 shares many sequence features with synaptophysin, most notably the four hydrophobic putative transmembrane domains, although the cytoplasmic end domains are completely different. Using antibodies against the unique carboxy terminus pantophysin can be detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in both exocrine and endocrine cells of human pancreas, and in cultured cells, colocalizing with constitutive secretory and endocytotic vesicle markers in nonneuroendocrine cells and with synaptophysin in cDNA-transfected epithelial cells. By immunoelectron microscopy, the majority of pantophysin reactivity is detected at vesicles with a diameter of < 100 nm that have a smooth surface and an electron-translucent interior. Using cell fractionation in combination with immunoisolation, these vesicles are enriched in a light fraction and shown to contain the cellular vSNARE cellubrevin and the ubiquitous SCAMPs in epithelial cells and synaptophysin in neuroendocrine or cDNA-transfected nonneuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine tissues. Pantophysin is therefore a broadly distributed marker of small cytoplasmic transport vesicles independent of their content. PMID:8707851

  11. Phosphate transport by rat intestinal basolateral-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Ghishan, F K; Kikuchi, K; Arab, N

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of phosphate transport across intestinal basolateral membranes of the rat were determined by using enriched preparations in which uphill Na+-dependent D-glucose transport could not be demonstrated, but ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport was present. Phosphate transport was saturable, Na+-dependent and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Vmax. was 51.1 +/- 4.2 pmol/10 s per mg of protein and Km was 14 +/- 3.9 microM. The transport process was electroneutral. Tracer-exchange experiments and counter-transport studies confirmed the presence of a Na+-Pi carrier at the basolateral membrane. The presence of inside-positive membrane potential did not enhance phosphate uptake, indicating that the Na+ effect is secondary to the presence of the Na+-Pi carrier rather than an induction of positive membrane potential. The stoichiometry of this carrier at pH 7.4 was 2 Na+:1 phosphate, as shown by direct studies utilizing the static-head method. These studies are the first to determine the presence of a phosphate carrier at the basolateral membrane. PMID:3663094

  12. Modulation by small hydrophobic molecules of valinomycin-mediated potassium transport across phospholipid vesicle membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, N.R.; Gould, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small hydrophobic molecules on valinonycin-mediated K/sup +/ transport in small unilamellar soybean phospholipid vesicles have been studied by using a vesicle-entrapped pH-sensitive hydropholic fluorescence probe to monitor counterion-limited, passive H/sup +/ diffusion into vesicles after an abrupt decrease in external pH. Under conditions where, even in the absence of valinomycin, transmembrane K/sup +/ movement represented the primary and limiting counterion flux, <1 valinomycin molecule/vesicle was sufficient to accelerate the rate of H/sup +/ entry into all of the vesicles. Incorporation of the bulkily substituted molecules butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and p-di-tert-butylbenzene into soybean lipid bilayers had no effect upon K/sup +/ diffusion in the absence of valinomycin. However, the presence of these hydrophobic molecules increased the apparent efficacy for K/sup +/ transport of a given valinomycin concentration by as much as 4-6 fold. The less bulky membrane perturbants tert-butyl alcohol, phenol, and heptane showed very much less dramatic effects. While the rate of valinomycin-mediated K/sup +/ transport (in the presence or absence of BHT) was very sensitive to temperature-induced changes in membrane fluidity, the degree of synergistic interaction between valinomycin and BHT was independent of temperature. Furthermore, BHT, BHA, and p-di-tert-butylbenzene, at levels which alter valinomycin-mediated K/sup +/ transport, did not by themselves induce changes in membrane fluidity. It is postulated that changes in phospholipid head-group packing and/or surface charge density brought about by the presence of bulky perturber molecules leads to changes in partitioning of valinomycin or the valinomycin-K/sup +/ complex between the aqueous and membrane phases.

  13. The Complexity of Vesicle Transport Factors in Plants Examined by Orthology Search

    PubMed Central

    Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the ‘core-set’ of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed. PMID:24844592

  14. Transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen from surfactant-based vesicles: particle characterization and the effect of water on in vitro transport.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Yuiko; Murata, Akiko; Oka, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Yasunori; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-10

    Flurbiprofen loaded rigid and elastic vesicles comprising the bilayer-forming surfactant sucrose-ester laurate were prepared by the film rehydration and extrusion method. The charge-inducing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate, and the micelle-forming surfactants, sorbitan monolaurate, polyethylene glycol monolaurate, and polysorbate 20, were used to enhance elasticity. Vesicle formulations were evaluated for size, zeta potential, (1)H and (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and in vitro skin permeation across Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin. Vesicle formulations were stable for 2 weeks and their mean sizes were 95-135 nm. NMR spectroscopy showed that flurbiprofen molecular mobility was restricted by interaction with vesicle components because of entrapment in vesicle bilayers. Moreover, sorbitan monolaurate-containing vesicles strongly retained flurbiprofen molecules. After non-occlusive application to YMP skin, flurbiprofen transport from all vesicle formulations was superior to that of flurbiprofen alone and remarkably decreased after water vaporization. Polarization microscopy and small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the vesicle formulation was transferred to liquid crystalline state. Suppression of vesicle transition to the liquid crystalline state was observed with applications of both large quantities and diluted samples. The presence of water in the formulations was associated with maintenance of the vesicle structure and greater flurbiprofen transport across YMP skin.

  15. How to get to the right place at the right time: Rab/Ypt small GTPases and vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Ragnini-Wilson, A

    1999-01-01

    Vesicles often must be transported over long distances in a very crowded cytoplasmic environment encumbered by the cytoskeleton and membranes of different origin that provide an important barrier to their free diffusion. In animal cells with specialised tasks, such as neurons or endothelial cells, vesicles that are directed to the cell periphery are linked to the microtubular cytoskeleton tracks via association with motor proteins that allow their vectorial movement. In lower eukaryotes the actin cytoskeleton plays a prominent role in organising vesicle movement during polarised growth and mating. The Ras-like small GTPases of the Rab/Ypt family play an essential role in vesicle trafficking and due to their diversity and specific localisation have long been implicated in the selective delivery of vesicles. Recent evidence has cast doubt on the classical point of view of how this class of proteins acts in vesicle transport and suggests their involvement also in the events that permit vesicle anchoring to the cytoskeleton. Therefore, after a brief review of what is known about how vesicle movement is achieved in mammalian and yeast systems, and how Rab/Ypt proteins regulate the vesicle predocking events, it is discussed how these proteins might participate in the events that lead to vesicle movement through association with the cytoskeleton machinery. PMID:18987791

  16. Synapse-Assembly Proteins Maintain Synaptic Vesicle Cluster Stability and Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Transport in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Stacey L.; Yorks, Rosalina M.; Morrison, Logan M.; Hoover, Christopher M.; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. The kinesin motor KIF1A transports SVs from somas to stable SV clusters at synapses, while dynein moves them in the opposite direction. However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. We addressed these questions by isolating a rare temperature-sensitive allele of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-104 (KIF1A) that allowed us to manipulate SV levels in axons and dendrites. Growth at 20° and 14° resulted in locomotion rates that were ∼3 and 50% of wild type, respectively, with similar effects on axonal SV levels. Corresponding with the loss of SVs from axons, mutants grown at 14° and 20° showed a 10- and 24-fold dynein-dependent accumulation of SVs in their dendrites. Mutants grown at 14° and switched to 25° showed an abrupt irreversible 50% decrease in locomotion and a 50% loss of SVs from the synaptic region 12-hr post-shift, with no further decreases at later time points, suggesting that the remaining clustered SVs are stable and resistant to retrograde removal by dynein. The data further showed that the synapse-assembly proteins SYD-1, SYD-2, and SAD-1 protected SV clusters from degradation by motor proteins. In syd-1, syd-2, and sad-1 mutants, SVs accumulate in an UNC-104-dependent manner in the distal axon region that normally lacks SVs. In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport. PMID:26354975

  17. Synapse-Assembly Proteins Maintain Synaptic Vesicle Cluster Stability and Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Transport in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Stacey L; Yorks, Rosalina M; Morrison, Logan M; Hoover, Christopher M; Miller, Kenneth G

    2015-09-01

    The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. The kinesin motor KIF1A transports SVs from somas to stable SV clusters at synapses, while dynein moves them in the opposite direction. However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. We addressed these questions by isolating a rare temperature-sensitive allele of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-104 (KIF1A) that allowed us to manipulate SV levels in axons and dendrites. Growth at 20° and 14° resulted in locomotion rates that were ∼3 and 50% of wild type, respectively, with similar effects on axonal SV levels. Corresponding with the loss of SVs from axons, mutants grown at 14° and 20° showed a 10- and 24-fold dynein-dependent accumulation of SVs in their dendrites. Mutants grown at 14° and switched to 25° showed an abrupt irreversible 50% decrease in locomotion and a 50% loss of SVs from the synaptic region 12-hr post-shift, with no further decreases at later time points, suggesting that the remaining clustered SVs are stable and resistant to retrograde removal by dynein. The data further showed that the synapse-assembly proteins SYD-1, SYD-2, and SAD-1 protected SV clusters from degradation by motor proteins. In syd-1, syd-2, and sad-1 mutants, SVs accumulate in an UNC-104-dependent manner in the distal axon region that normally lacks SVs. In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport.

  18. Spatial Modeling of Vesicle Transport and the Cytoskeleton: The Challenge of Hitting the Right Road

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Michael; Koeppl, Heinz; Reuss, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The membrane trafficking machinery provides a transport and sorting system for many cellular proteins. We propose a mechanistic agent-based computer simulation to integrate and test the hypothesis of vesicle transport embedded into a detailed model cell. The method tracks both the number and location of the vesicles. Thus both the stochastic properties due to the low numbers and the spatial aspects are preserved. The underlying molecular interactions that control the vesicle actions are included in a multi-scale manner based on the model of Heinrich and Rapoport (2005). By adding motor proteins we can improve the recycling process of SNAREs and model cell polarization. Our model also predicts that coat molecules should have a high turnover at the compartment membranes, while the turnover of motor proteins has to be slow. The modular structure of the underlying model keeps it tractable despite the overall complexity of the vesicle system. We apply our model to receptor-mediated endocytosis and show how a polarized cytoskeleton structure leads to polarized distributions in the plasma membrane both of SNAREs and the Ste2p receptor in yeast. In addition, we can couple signal transduction and membrane trafficking steps in one simulation, which enables analyzing the effect of receptor-mediated endocytosis on signaling. PMID:22253752

  19. H+ V-ATPase-Energized Transporters in Brush Border Membrane Vesicles from Whole Larvae of Aedes Aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brush Border Membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from Whole larvae of Aedes aegypti (AeBBMVWs ) contain an H+ V-ATPase (V), a Na+/H+ antiporter, NHA1 (A) and a Na+-coupled, nutrient amino acid transporter, NAT8 (N), VAN for short. All V-ATPase subunits are present in the Ae. aegypti genome and in the vesicles...

  20. Mechanism of glucose and maltose transport in plasma-membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, P J; van Gompel, A E; Luttik, M A; Pronk, J T; van Leeuwen, C C

    1997-01-01

    Transport of glucose and maltose was studied in plasma-membrane vesicles from Candida utilis. The yeast was grown on a mixture of glucose and maltose in aerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures which enabled transport to be studied for both sugars with the same vesicles. Vesicles were prepared by fusion of isolated plasma membranes with proteoliposomes containing bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive-force-generating system. Addition of reduced cytochrome c generated a proton-motive force, consisting of a membrane potential, negative inside, and a pH gradient, alkaline inside. Energization led to accumulation of glucose and maltose in these vesicles, reaching accumulation ratios of about 40-50. Accumulation also occurred in the presence of valinomycin or nigericin, but was prevented by a combination of the two ionophores or by uncoupler, showing that glucose and maltose transport are dependent on the proton-motive force. Comparison of sugar accumulation with quantitative data on the proton-motive force indicated a 1:1 H+/sugar stoichiometry for both transport systems. Efflux of accumulated glucose was observed on dissipation of the proton-motive force. Exchange and counterflow experiments confirmed the reversible character of the H+-glucose symporter. In contrast, uncoupler or a mixture of valinomycin plus nigericin induced only a slow efflux of accumulated maltose. Moreover under counterflow conditions, the expected transient accumulation was small. Thus the H+-maltose symporter has some characteristics of a carrier that is not readily reversible. It is concluded that in C. utilis the transport systems for glucose and maltose are both driven by the proton-motive force, but the mechanisms are different. PMID:9020885

  1. A model of Stokesian peristalsis and vesicle transport in a three-dimensional closed cavity.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Vivian; Cortez, Ricardo; Fauci, Lisa

    2015-06-25

    The complexity of the mechanics involved in the mammalian reproductive process is evident. Neither an ovum nor an embryo is self-propelled, but move through the oviduct or uterus due to the peristaltic action of the tube walls, imposed pressure gradients, and perhaps ciliary motion. Here we use the method of regularized Stokeslets to model the transport of an ovum or an embryo within a peristaltic tube. We represent the ovum or the embryo as a spherical vesicle of finite volume - not a massless point particle. The outer membrane of the neutrally buoyant vesicle is discretized by nodes that are joined by a network of springs. The elastic moduli of these springs are chosen large enough so that a spherical shape is maintained. For simplicity, here we choose an axisymmetric tube where the geometry of the two-dimensional cross-section along the tube axis reflects that of the sagittal cross-section of the uterine cavity. Although the tube motion is axisymmetric, the presence of the vesicle within the tube requires a fully three-dimensional model. As was found in Yaniv et al. (2009, 2012) for a 2D closed channel, we find that the flow dynamics in a 3D peristaltic tube are strongly influenced by the closed end and the manner in which the peristaltic wave damps out towards the closure. In addition, we demonstrate that the trajectory of a vesicle of finite volume can greatly differ from the trajectory of a massless fluid particle initially placed at the vesicle׳s centroid.

  2. A model of Stokesian peristalsis and vesicle transport in a three-dimensional closed cavity.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Vivian; Cortez, Ricardo; Fauci, Lisa

    2015-06-25

    The complexity of the mechanics involved in the mammalian reproductive process is evident. Neither an ovum nor an embryo is self-propelled, but move through the oviduct or uterus due to the peristaltic action of the tube walls, imposed pressure gradients, and perhaps ciliary motion. Here we use the method of regularized Stokeslets to model the transport of an ovum or an embryo within a peristaltic tube. We represent the ovum or the embryo as a spherical vesicle of finite volume - not a massless point particle. The outer membrane of the neutrally buoyant vesicle is discretized by nodes that are joined by a network of springs. The elastic moduli of these springs are chosen large enough so that a spherical shape is maintained. For simplicity, here we choose an axisymmetric tube where the geometry of the two-dimensional cross-section along the tube axis reflects that of the sagittal cross-section of the uterine cavity. Although the tube motion is axisymmetric, the presence of the vesicle within the tube requires a fully three-dimensional model. As was found in Yaniv et al. (2009, 2012) for a 2D closed channel, we find that the flow dynamics in a 3D peristaltic tube are strongly influenced by the closed end and the manner in which the peristaltic wave damps out towards the closure. In addition, we demonstrate that the trajectory of a vesicle of finite volume can greatly differ from the trajectory of a massless fluid particle initially placed at the vesicle׳s centroid. PMID:25817334

  3. Secretory vesicle transport velocity in living cells depends on the myosin-V lever arm length.

    PubMed

    Schott, Daniel H; Collins, Ruth N; Bretscher, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that exert force against actin filaments. One widely conserved myosin class, the myosin-Vs, recruits organelles to polarized sites in animal and fungal cells. However, it has been unclear whether myosin-Vs actively transport organelles, and whether the recently challenged lever arm model developed for muscle myosin applies to myosin-Vs. Here we demonstrate in living, intact yeast that secretory vesicles move rapidly toward their site of exocytosis. The maximal speed varies linearly over a wide range of lever arm lengths genetically engineered into the myosin-V heavy chain encoded by the MYO2 gene. Thus, secretory vesicle polarization is achieved through active transport by a myosin-V, and the motor mechanism is consistent with the lever arm model.

  4. Axonal transport of muscarinic receptors in vesicles containing noradrenaline and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Laduron, P M

    1984-01-01

    Presynaptic muscarinic receptors labeled with [3H]dexetimide and noradrenaline in dog splenic nerves accumulated proximally to a ligature at the same rate of axonal transport. After fractionation by differential centrifugation, specific [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [3H]dexetimide binding revealed a distribution profile similar to that of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and noradrenaline. Subfractionation by density gradient centrifugation showed two peaks of muscarinic receptors; the peak of density 1.17 contained noradrenaline and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase whereas that of density 1.14 was devoid of noradrenaline. Therefore the foregoing experiments provide evidence that presynaptic muscarinic receptors are transported in sympathetic nerves in synaptic vesicles which are similar to those containing noradrenaline and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. This suggests a possible coexistence of receptor and neurotransmitter in the same vesicle. PMID:6198205

  5. Comparative Transport Activity of Intact Cells, Membrane Vesicles, and Mesosomes of Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Robert A.; Thurman, Paul; Rogers, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Sodium ion was shown to stimulate strongly the transport of l-glutamic acid into cells of Bacillus licheniformis 6346 His−. Lithium ion had a slight capacity to replace Na+ in this capacity, but K+ was without effect. Three of five amino acids tested. l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-alanine, were concentrated against a gradient in the cells. Intracellular pools of these amino acids were extractable with 5% trichloroacetic acid. Pools of l-histidine and l-lysine could not be detected. No evidence of active transport of lysine into cells could be detected, and histidine was taken up in the absence of chloramphenicol but not in its presence. The uptake of glutamic acid by membrane vesicle preparations was strongly stimulated by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and to a lesser extent by succinate. The presence of phenazine methosulfate increased uptake in the presence of succinate. Either l- or d-lactate and adenosine triphosphate were without effect. None of these compounds stimulated the uptake of glutamic acid by mesosomes, although some mesosome preparations contained separable membrane which was very active. NADH strongly stimulated the uptake of aspartic acid and alanine by membrane vesicles but had only a slight effect on the uptake of histidine and lysine. No evidence of active transport of any of the amino acids into mesosomes could be detected either in the presence or absence of NADH. NADH stimulation of the uptake of glutamic acid by membrane vesicles was destroyed by exposure to light of 360 nm; this inactivation was reversible by vitamin K2(5) or K2(10). Sodium ion stimulated transport of glutamic acid by membrane vesicles. PMID:4347247

  6. A carrier-mediated transport for folate in basolateral membrane vesicles of rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Said, H M; Redha, R

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of exit of folate from the enterocyte, i.e. transport across the basolateral membrane, is not known. In this study we examined, using basolateral membrane vesicles, the transport of folic acid across the basolateral membrane of rat intestine. Uptake of folic acid by these vesicles represents transport of the substrate into the intravesicular compartment and not binding to the membrane surface. The rate of folic acid transport was linear for the first 1 min of incubation but decreased thereafter, reaching equilibrium after 5 min of incubation. The transport of folic acid was: (1) saturable as a function of concentration with an apparent Km of 0.6 +/- 0.17 microM and Vmax. of 1.01 +/- 0.11 pmol/30 s per mg of protein; (2) inhibited in a competitive manner by the structural analogues 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methotrexate (Ki = 2 and 1.4 microM, respectively); (4) electroneutral; (5) Na+-independent; (6) sensitive to the effect of the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). These data indicate the existence of a carrier-mediated transport system for folic acid in rat intestinal basolateral membrane and demonstrate that the transport process is electroneutral, Na+-independent and sensitive to the effect of anion exchange inhibition. PMID:3689340

  7. Effect of diet on insulin binding and glucose transport in rat sarcolemmal vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Sternlicht, E.; Whitson, R.H.; Kaplan, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFS) and a low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet (LFC) on glucose tolerance, insulin binding, and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. During the intravenous glucose tolerance test, peak glucose values at 5 min were significantly higher in the HFS group; 0-, 20-, and 60-min values were similar. Insulin values were significantly higher in the HFS group at all time points (except 60 min), indicating whole-body insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle was responsible, in part, for this insulin resistance, because specific D-glucose transport in isolated sarcolemmal (SL) vesicles under basal conditions was similar between LFC and HFS rats, despite the higher plasma insulin levels. Scatchard analyses of insulin binding curves to sarcolemmal vesicles revealed that the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity binding sites was significantly reduced by the HFS diet; no other binding changes were noted. Specific D-glucose transport in SL vesicles after maximum insulin stimulation (1 U/kg) was significantly depressed in the HFS group, indicating that HFS feeding also caused a postbinding defect. These results indicate that the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle associated with a HFS diet is due to both a decrease in the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity insulin receptors and a postbinding defect.

  8. Cell secretion mediated by granule-associated vesicle transport: a glimpse at evolution.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Nico, Beatrice; Gallo, Valentina Patrizia; Ribatti, Domenico

    2010-07-01

    Regulated secretion allows extrusion of cell products stored in specialized membrane-bound organelles called secretory granules or secretory vesicles. Regulated secretion provides basic functions in living organisms, and in a phylogenetic perspective, it is recognizable in the most primitive eukaryotic forms. This article is an attempt to trace the evolutionary history of a special type of secretory pattern, which has been referred to as vesicle-mediated degranulation or piecemeal degranulation (PMD). First described in the early 70s of the last century in inflammatory cells, such as the basophils, mast cells, and eosinophils, this regulated secretory route has subsequently been recognized in endocrine cells, in particular in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. This vesicle-mediated degranulation is held to mobilize small and specific aliquots of granule-associated material for selective paracrine or endocrine transport to the cell exterior. PMD has been identified in many vertebrate classes. By contrast, no data are available for invertebrates. We speculate that this pattern of cell secretion emerged early in phylogenesis, when the first metazoans appeared. In this review article, we will first revise the concept of vesicle-mediated degranulation in the light of the most recent experimental discoveries and theoretical implications. Then, the distribution of this secretory mode among vertebrates and its molecular basis will be highlighted. Finally, the potential occurrence of PMD in invertebrates, its biological significance from an evolutionary perspective and the future direction of investigations will be briefly sketched.

  9. Analysis of COPII Vesicles Indicates a Role for the Emp47-Ssp120 Complex in Transport of Cell Surface Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Neil G; Wilson, Joshua D; Bentivoglio, Christine M; Dhungel, Nripesh; Gitler, Aaron D; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transports nascent secretory proteins forward to the Golgi complex. To further define the machinery that packages secretory cargo and targets vesicles to Golgi membranes, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified COPII vesicles. In addition to previously known proteins, we identified new vesicle proteins including Coy1, Sly41 and Ssp120, which were efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles for trafficking between the ER and Golgi compartments. Further characterization of the putative calcium-binding Ssp120 protein revealed a tight association with Emp47 and in emp47Δ cells Ssp120 was mislocalized and secreted. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EMP47 and SSP120 display identical synthetic positive interactions with IRE1 and synthetic negative interactions with genes involved in cell wall assembly. Our findings support a model in which the Emp47-Ssp120 complex functions in transport of plasma membrane glycoproteins through the early secretory pathway.

  10. The mechanism of biliary secretion of reduced glutathione. Analysis of transport process in isolated rat-liver canalicular membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kinne, R; Tran, T; Arias, I M

    1983-08-15

    Transport of reduced glutathione (GSH) was studied in isolated rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles by a rapid filtration technique. The membrane vesicles exhibit uptake of [2-3H]glycine--labeled GSH into an osmotically reactive intravesicular space. Although the canalicular membrane vesicles possess gamma-glutamyltransferase and aminopeptidase M, enzymes that hydrolyze glutathione into component amino acids, inactivation of the vesicle-associated transferase by affinity labeling with L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid (AT-125) had no effect on the initial rate of GSH transport. Chemical analysis revealed that intact GSH accounted for most of vesicle-associated radioactivity. The initial rate of transport followed saturation kinetics with respect to GSH concentration; an apparent Km of 0.33 mM and V of 1.47 nmol/mg protein in 20 s were calculated. These results indicate that transport of GSH across the canalicular membranes is a carrier-mediated process. Replacement of NaCl in the transport medium by KCl, LiCl or choline chloride had no effect on the transport activity of the vesicles. The rate of GSH uptake by the vesicles was enhanced by valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potential (vesicle inside-positive) and was inhibited by probenecid, indicating that GSH transport across the canalicular membranes is electrogenic and involves the transfer of negative charge. The transport of GSH was inhibited by oxidized glutathione or S-benzyl-glutathione. This transport system in canalicular plasma membranes may function in biliary secretion of GSH and its derivatives which are synthesized in hepatocytes by oxidative processes or glutathione S-transferase.

  11. Effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and papaverine on intrahepatocytic bile acid transport. Role of vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, M; Ohiwa, T; Hayakawa, T; Kamiya, Y; Tanaka, A; Hirano, A; Kumai, T; Katagiri, K; Miyaji, M; Takeuchi, T

    1993-09-01

    The secondary messenger cyclic AMP plays an important role in regulating biliary excretory function by stimulating the transcytotic vesicle transport system, whereas papaverine exerts an inhibitory effect on this system. We therefore investigated their effects on bile acid-induced cytotoxicity and intrahepatocytic content of bile acid in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Simultaneous addition of 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP), an analogue of cAMP, with 1 mM taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) significantly decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as compared with the case with 1 mM TCDCA alone (7.1 +/- 0.13% of total versus 10.7 +/- 0.3%). In contrast, 0.1 mM papaverine approximately doubled the amount of LDH (22.0 +/- 0.6% of total versus 10.7 +/- 0.3%; P < 0.01). The intracellular content of TCDCA 180 min after the administration of 1 mM TCDCA alone was 20.8 +/- 0.7 nmol/mg protein, that after simultaneous administration of 1 mM DBcAMP, 16.2 +/- 1.0 nmol/mg protein, and that after the simultaneous administration of 0.1 mM papaverine, 38.5 +/- 1.9 nmol/mg protein. A clear correlation between the release of LDH from hepatocytes and the intracellular content of TCDCA was thus observed. When given together with 1 mM taurocholic acid (TCA) or 1 mM tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), papaverine exerted little effect on cytotoxicity or intrahepatocytic bile acid content. When cells were bathed in a medium free of bile acid after pretreatment with 1 mM TCDCA and 1 mM DBcAMP, additional exposure to DBcAMP for 30 min significantly stimulated reduction of intracellular TCDCA content (30.2 +/- 0.4% of total versus 44.0 +/- 1.4%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Maltose/proton co-transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Comparative study with cells and plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, C C; Weusthuis, R A; Postma, E; Van den Broek, P J; Van Dijken, J P

    1992-01-01

    Maltose/proton co-transport was studied in intact cells and in plasma membrane vesicles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to determine uphill transport in vesicles, plasma membranes were fused with proteoliposomes containing cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive force-generating system. Maltose accumulation, dependent on the electrical and pH gradients, was observed. The initial uptake velocity and accumulation ratio in vesicles proved to be dependent on the external pH. Moreover, kinetic analysis of maltose transport showed that Vmax. values greatly decreased with increasing pH, whereas the Km remained virtually constant. These observations were in good agreement with results obtained with intact cells, and suggest that proton binding to the carrier proceeds with an apparent pK of 5.7. The observation with intact cells that maltose is co-transported with protons in a one-to-one stoichiometry was ascertained in the vesicle system by measuring the balance between proton-motive force and the chemical maltose gradient. These results show that maltose transport in vesicles prepared by fusion of plasma membranes with cytochrome c oxidase proteoliposomes behaves in a similar way as in intact cells. It is therefore concluded that this vesicle model system offers a wide range of new possibilities for the study of maltose/proton co-transport in more detail. PMID:1318030

  13. Calcium transport in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells. [Daucus carota Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, D.R.; Sze, H.

    1986-02-01

    Two active calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers). Both transport systems required MgATP for activity and were enhanced by 10 millimolar oxalate. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with Cl/sup -/-stimulated, NO/sub 3//sup -/-inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in this system was insensitive to vanadate, but was inhibited by nitrate, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 4,4-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid (DIDS). The K/sub m/ for MgATP and Ca/sup 2 +/ were 0.1 mM and 21 micromolar, respectively. The predominant Ca/sup 2 +/ transport system detectable in microsomal membrane preparations equilibrated at a density of 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport activity and the ER marker also shifted in parallel in ER shifting experiments. This transport system was inhibited by vanadate (I/sub 50/ = 12 micromolar) and was insensitive to nitrate, CCCP, DCCD, and DIDS. Transport exhibited cooperative MgATP dependent kinetics. Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent kinetics were complex with an apparent K/sub m/ ranging from 0.7 to 2 micromolar. We conclude that the vacuolar-derived system is a Ca/sup 2 +//H/sup +/ antiport located on the tonoplast and that the microsomal transport system is a Ca,Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. These two Ca/sup 2 +/ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis under changing cellular and environmental conditions.

  14. Nitrite transport in chloroplast inner envelope vesicles. I. Direct measurement of proton-linked transport

    SciTech Connect

    Shingles, R.; Roh, M.H.; McCarty, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    Chloroplast inner envelope membrane vesicles that are loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorophore, pyranine, show rapid internal acidification when nitrite is added. Acidification is dependent upon {Delta}pH, with the inside of vesicles being alkaline with respect to the outside. The rate of vesicle acidification was directly proportional to the concentration of nitrite that was added and the imposed pH difference across the membrane. In contrast, added nitrate had no effect on vesicle acidification. Nitrite also caused acidification of asolectin vesicles that were prepared by extrusion were approximately the same size, allowing them to be compared when the final extent of acidification, measured after the pH gradient had collapsed, was similar. The rate of nitrite-dependent acidification was similar in these two preparations at any single nitrite concentration. These results indicate that nitrite movement occurs by rapid diffusion across membranes as nitrous acid, and this movement is dependent on a proton gradient across the lipid bilayer. Under conditions approximating these in vivo, the rate of diffusion of nitrous acid far exceeds that of nitrite reduction within chloroplasts. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Characterization of L-carnitine transport by rat kidney brush-border-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, B; O'Neill, B; Krähenbühl, S

    1995-01-01

    In the presence of a 100 mM Na+ gradient, transport of L-carnitine into rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles was linear over 30 s and showed an overshoot at 5 min. The uptake of L-carnitine was clearly less active in the presence of other cations such as Li+, K+, Cs+ or choline. In the presence of a Na+ gradient, L-carnitine uptake after 20 s was much higher for chloride as an anion than for SCN-, NO3-, gluconate or SO4(2-). In comparison with conditions with inside positive or no membrane potential, transport was higher in vesicles with an inside negative membrane potential, suggesting an electrogenic mechanism. The kinetic characterization of the Na(+)-dependent portion of L-carnitine transport revealed two transport systems with Km values of 17.4 +/- 3.9 microM and 15.0 +/- 6.0 mM, respectively. The transport could be inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by structural analogues such as butyrobetaine, L-acetylcarnitine, trimethyl-lysine and D-carnitine, but not by L-arginine or glycinebetaine. PMID:7626031

  16. Aboral changes in D-glucose transport by human intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, M K; Abumrad, N N; Arab, N; Ghishan, F K

    1986-01-01

    D-Glucose transport was investigated in isolated brush-border membrane vesicles from human small intestine. Characteristics of D-glucose transport from the jejunum were compared with that in the mid and terminal ileum. Jejunal and mid-ileal D-glucose transport was Na+-dependent and electrogenic. The transient overshoot of jejunal D-glucose transport was significantly greater than corresponding values in mid-ileum. The terminal ileum did not exhibit Na+-dependent D-glucose transport, but did exhibit Na+-dependent taurocholate transport. Na+-glucose co-transport activity as measured by tracer-exchange experiments was greatest in the jejunum, and diminished aborally. We conclude that D-glucose transport in man is Na+-dependent and electrogenic in the proximal intestine and directly related to the activity of D-glucose-Na+ transporters present in the brush-border membranes. D-Glucose transport in the terminal ileum resembles colonic transport of D-glucose. PMID:3800877

  17. Ceramide transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus is not vesicle-mediated.

    PubMed

    Kok, J W; Babia, T; Klappe, K; Egea, G; Hoekstra, D

    1998-08-01

    Ceramide (Cer) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus was measured under conditions that block vesicle-mediated protein transfer. This was done either in intact cells by reducing the incubation temperature to 15 degreesC, or in streptolysin O-permeabilized cells by manipulating the intracellular environment. In both cases, Cer transfer was not inhibited, as demonstrated by the biosynthesis of ceramide monohexosides and sphingomyelin (SM) de novo from metabolically (with [14C]serine) labelled Cer. This assay is based on the knowledge that Cer is synthesized, starting from serine and palmitoyl-CoA, at the ER, whereas glycosphingolipids and SM are synthesized in the (early) Golgi apparatus. Formation of [14C]glycosphingolipids and [14C]SM was observed under conditions that block vesicle-mediated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transport. These results indicate that [14C]Cer is transferred from ER to Golgi by a non-vesicular mechanism.

  18. Calcium transport in sealed vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ) storage tissue. II. Characterization of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Giannini, J.L.; Ruiz-Cristin, J.; Briskin, D.P.

    1987-12-01

    Calcium uptake was examined in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue using /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ by the vesicles was ATP-dependent and radiotracer accumulated by the vesicles could be released by the addition of the calcium ionophore A23187. The uptake was stimulated by gramicidin D but slightly inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Although the latter result might suggest some degree of indirect coupling of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake to ATP utilization via ..delta mu..H/sup +/, no evidence for a secondary H/sup +//Ca/sup 2 +/ antiport in this vesicle system could be found. Following the imposition of an acid-interior pH gradient, proton efflux from the vesicle was not enhanced by the addition of Ca/sup 2 +/ and an imposed pH gradient could not drive /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Optimal uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ occurred broadly between pH 7.0 and 7.5 and the transport was inhibited by orthovanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol but insensitive to nitrate and azide. The dependence of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake on both calcium and Mg:ATP concentration demonstrated saturation kinetics with K/sub m/ values of 6 micromolar and 0.37 millimolar, respectively. While ATP was the preferred substrate for driving /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake, GTP could drive transport at about 50% of the level observed for ATP. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of a unique primary calcium transport system associated with the plasma membrane which could drive calcium efflux from the plant cell.

  19. Multiple sodium-dependent nucleoside transport systems in bovine renal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T C; Jarvis, S M

    1991-01-01

    Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transport was examined in bovine renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Two separate Na+/nucleoside cotransporters were shown to be present: (1) a system specific for purine nucleosides and uridine, designated as the N1 carrier, and (2) an Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter that accepts pyrimidine nucleosides, adenosine and analogues of adenosine, designated as the N2 system. Both systems exhibit a high affinity for nucleosides (apparent Km values approximately 10 microM), are insensitive to inhibition by facilitated-diffusion nucleoside transport inhibitors, are rheogenic and exhibit a high specificity for Na+. Na+ increases the affinity of the influx of guanosine and thymidine, nucleosides that serve as model permeants for the N1 and N2 nucleoside transporters respectively. The Na+/nucleoside coupling stoichiometry is consistent with 1:1 for both carriers. PMID:2001243

  20. The synapse-specific phosphoprotein F1-20 is identical to the clathrin assembly protein AP-3.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S; Tannery, N H; Yang, J; Puszkin, S; Lafer, E M

    1993-06-15

    F1-20 and AP-3 are independently described, synapse-associated, developmentally regulated phosphoproteins with similar apparent molecular masses on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). F1-20 was cloned and characterized because of its synapse specificity. AP-3 was purified and studied biochemically because of its function as a clathrin assembly protein. Here we present evidence that establishes the identity of F1-20 and AP-3. Monoclonal antibodies against F1-20 and AP-3 both specifically recognize a single protein from mouse brain with an apparent molecular mass of 190 kDa on SDS-PAGE. These monoclonal antibodies also specifically recognize the cloned F1-20 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. The anti-F1-20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stains a bovine protein with an apparent molecular mass on SDS-PAGE of 190 kDa that copurifies with brain clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and that can be extracted from the brain CCVs under conditions that extract AP-3. The anti-F1-20 and anti-AP-3 mAbs specifically recognize the same spot on a two-dimensional gel run on a bovine brain clathrin-coated vesicle extract. AP-3 purified from bovine brain CCVs is recognized by both the anti-F1-20 and anti-AP-3 mAbs. Purified preparations of bovine AP-3 and bacterially expressed mouse F1-20 give identical patterns of protease digestion with bromelain and subtilisin. Sequence analyses reveal that F1-20 has an essentially neutral 30-kDa NH2-terminal domain with an amino acid composition typical of a globular structure and an acidic COOH-terminal domain rich in proline, serine, threonine, and alanine. This is consistent with proteolysis experiments that suggested that AP-3 could be divided into a 30-kDa globular uncharged clathrin-binding domain and an acidic, anomalously migrating domain.

  1. Biophysics of Active Vesicle Transport, an Intermediate Step That Couples Excitation and Exocytosis of Serotonin in the Neuronal Soma

    PubMed Central

    De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Santamaría-Holek, Iván; Noguez, Paula; Bustos, Carlos; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52–951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60–6.18 µm distances at average 11–95 nms−1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4–72.0), calculated from the ratio of the ΔGprocess/ΔGATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6–2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a quantitative

  2. The structure of the COPII transport-vesicle coat assembled on membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Giulia; Prinz, Simone; Daum, Sebastian; Meister, Annette; Schekman, Randy; Bacia, Kirsten; Briggs, John AG

    2013-01-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates formation of the membrane vesicles that export newly synthesised proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. The inner COPII proteins bind to cargo and membrane, linking them to the outer COPII components that form a cage around the vesicle. Regulated flexibility in coat architecture is essential for transport of a variety of differently sized cargoes, but structural data on the assembled coat has not been available. We have used cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to determine the structure of the complete, membrane-assembled COPII coat. We describe a novel arrangement of the outer coat and find that the inner coat can assemble into regular lattices. The data reveal how coat subunits interact with one another and with the membrane, suggesting how coordinated assembly of inner and outer coats can mediate and regulate packaging of vesicles ranging from small spheres to large tubular carriers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00951.001 PMID:24062940

  3. Release of kinesin from vesicles by hsc70 and regulation of fast axonal transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, M. Y.; Morfini, G.; Szebenyi, G.; Brady, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The nature of kinesin interactions with membrane-bound organelles and mechanisms for regulation of kinesin-based motility have both been surprisingly difficult to define. Most kinesin is recovered in supernatants with standard protocols for purification of motor proteins, but kinesin recovered on membrane-bound organelles is tightly bound. Partitioning of kinesin between vesicle and cytosolic fractions is highly sensitive to buffer composition. Addition of either N-ethylmaleimide or EDTA to homogenization buffers significantly increased the fraction of kinesin bound to organelles. Given that an antibody against kinesin light chain tandem repeats also releases kinesin from vesicles, these observations indicated that specific cytoplasmic factors may regulate kinesin release from membranes. Kinesin light tandem repeats contain DnaJ-like motifs, so the effects of hsp70 chaperones were evaluated. Hsc70 released kinesin from vesicles in an MgATP-dependent and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive manner. Recombinant kinesin light chains inhibited kinesin release by hsc70 and stimulated the hsc70 ATPase. Hsc70 actions may provide a mechanism to regulate kinesin function by releasing kinesin from cargo in specific subcellular domains, thereby effecting delivery of axonally transported materials.

  4. Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Sato, Takashi; Gonda, Kohsuke; Higuchi, Hideo . E-mail: higuchi@tubero.tohoku.ac.jp

    2007-07-20

    Dual-focus imaging optics for three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots has been developed to study the molecular mechanisms of motor proteins in cells. The new system has a high spatial and temporal precision, 2 nm in the x-y sample plane and 5 nm along the z-axis at a frame time of 2 ms. Three-dimensional positions of the vesicles labeled with quantum dots were detected in living cells. Vesicles were transported on the microtubules using 8-nm steps towards the nucleus. The steps had fluctuation of {approx}20 nm which were perpendicular to the axis of the microtubule but with the constant distance from the microtubule. The most of perpendicular movement was not synchronized with the 8-nm steps, indicating that dynein moved on microtubules without changing the protofilaments. When the vesicles changed their direction of movement toward the cell membrane, they moved perpendicular with the constant distance from the microtubule. The present method is powerful tool to investigate three dimensional movement of molecules in cells with nanometer and millisecond accuracy.

  5. AP-1 and AP-3 mediate sorting of melanosomal and lysosomal membrane proteins into distinct post-Golgi trafficking pathways.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, Björn; Tikkanen, Ritva; Mühlhausen, Chris; Wenzel, Dirk; von Figura, Kurt; Höning, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    The adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-3 are localized to endosomes and/or the trans Golgi network (TGN). Because of limitations in analysing intracellular adaptor function directly, their site of function is a matter of ongoing uncertainty. To overcome this problem and to analyse adaptor sorting at the TGN, we reconstituted vesicle formation from Golgi/TGN-enriched membranes in a novel in vitro budding assay. Melanocytes were metabolically labelled followed by a 19 degrees C temperature block to accumulate newly synthesized proteins in Golgi membranes, which were then enriched by subcellular fractionation and used as donor membranes for vesicle formation in vitro. The incorporation of the melanosomal proteins tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) as well as Lamp-1 and 46 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR46) into Golgi/TGN-derived vesicles was temperature, nucleotide, cytosol, ADP ribosylation factor 1 and adaptor dependent. We show that sorting of TRP-1 and MPR46 was AP-1 dependent, while budding of tyrosinase and Lamp-1 required AP-3. Depletion of clathrin inhibited sorting of all four cargo proteins, suggesting that AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in the formation of distinct types of clathrin-coated vesicles, each of which is characterized by the incorporation of specific cargo membrane proteins.

  6. Proline transport by brush-border membrane vesicles of lobster antennal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.D.; Wong, R.K.; Huse, S.M.; Reshkin, S.J.; Ahearn, G.A. )

    1990-02-01

    Purified brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of lobster antennal gland labyrinth and bladder were separately formed by a magnesium precipitation technique. L-(3H)proline uptake was stimulated by a transmembrane NaCl gradient (outside (o) greater than inside (i)) to a greater extent in BBMV from labyrinth than those from the bladder. Detailed study of the labyrinth proline-transport processes revealed a specific dependence on NaCl, with negligible stimulatory effects by NaSCN, Na-gluconate, or KCl. A transmembrane proton gradient (o greater than i) was without stimulatory effect on proline transport. A transmembrane potential difference alone, in the presence of equilibrated NaCl and L-(3H)proline, led to net influx of the labeled amino acid, suggesting that the uptake process was electrogenic and capable of bringing about the net transfer of positive charge to the vesicle interior. Although a transmembrane Na gradient alone, in the presence of equilibrated Cl and L-(3H)proline, was able to bring about the net influx of the amino acid, a transmembrane Cl gradient alone under Na- and L-(3H)proline-equilibrated conditions was not, suggesting that only the Na gradient could energize the carrier process through cotransport, while the anion served an essential activating role. Proline influx by these vesicles occurred by the combination of at least one saturable Michaelis-Menten carrier system (apparent Kt = 0.37 mM; apparent JM = 1.19 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1) and apparent diffusion (P = 0.33 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1.mM-1). Static head analysis of the transport process suggested a cotransport stoichiometry of 2 Na:1 proline with essential activation by Cl ion.

  7. A role for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in synaptic vesicle clustering and mobility.

    PubMed

    Siksou, Léa; Silm, Kätlin; Biesemann, Christoph; Nehring, Ralf B; Wojcik, Sonja M; Triller, Antoine; El Mestikawy, Salah; Marty, Serge; Herzog, Etienne

    2013-05-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) from excitatory synapses carry vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) that fill the vesicles with neurotransmitter. Although the essential function of VGLUTs as glutamate transporters has been well established, the evidence for additional cell-biological functions is more controversial. Both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 disruptions in mice result in a reduced number of SVs away from release sites, flattening of SVs, and the appearance of tubular structures. Therefore, we analysed the morphology, biochemical composition and trafficking of SVs at synapses of VGLUT1(-/-) mice in order to test for a function of VGLUTs in the formation or clustering of SVs. Analyses with high-pressure freezing immobilisation and electron tomography pointed to a role of VGLUT1 transport function in the tonicity of excitatory SVs, explaining the aldehyde-induced flattening of SVs observed in VGLUT1(-/-) synapses. We confirmed the steep reduction in the number of SVs previously observed in VGLUT1(-/-) presynaptic terminals, but did not observe accumulation of endocytotic intermediates. Furthermore, SV proteins of adult VGLUT1(-/-) mouse brain tissue were expressed at normal levels in all subcellular fractions, suggesting that they were not displaced to another organelle. We thus assessed the mobility of the recently documented superpool of SVs. Synaptobrevin2-enhanced green fluorescent protein time lapse experiments revealed an oversized superpool of SVs in VGLUT1(-/-) neurons. Our results support the idea that, beyond glutamate loading, VGLUT1 enhances the tonicity of excitatory SVs and stabilises SVs at presynaptic terminals. PMID:23581566

  8. Vesicular Monoamine and Glutamate Transporters Select Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Recycling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Onoa, Bibiana; Li, Haiyan; Gagnon-Bartsch, Johann A.; Elias, Laura A. B.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has characterized the properties of neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, but we know remarkably little about the properties of monoamine release because these neuromodulators do not generally produce a fast ionotropic response. Since dopamine and serotonin neurons can also release glutamate in vitro and in vivo, we have used the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 and the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 to compare the localization and recycling of synaptic vesicles that store, respectively, monoamines and glutamate. First, VMAT2 segregates partially from VGLUT1 in the boutons of midbrain dopamine neurons, indicating the potential for distinct release sites. Second, endocytosis after stimulation is slower for VMAT2 than VGLUT1. During the stimulus, however, the endocytosis of VMAT2 (but not VGLUT1) accelerates dramatically in midbrain dopamine but not hippocampal neurons, indicating a novel, cell-specific mechanism to sustain high rates of release. On the other hand, we find that in both midbrain dopamine and hippocampal neurons, a substantially smaller proportion of VMAT2 than VGLUT1 is available for evoked release, and VMAT2 shows considerably more dispersion along the axon after exocytosis than VGLUT1. Even when expressed in the same neuron, the two vesicular transporters thus target to distinct populations of synaptic vesicles, presumably due to their selection of distinct recycling pathways. PMID:20534840

  9. Fractional vesamicol receptor occupancy and acetylcholine active transport inhibition in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R; Rogers, G A; Fehlmann, C; Parsons, S M

    1989-09-01

    Vesamicol [(-)-(trans)-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol] receptor binding and inhibition of acetylcholine (AcCh) active transport by cholinergic synaptic vesicles that were isolated from Torpedo electric organ were studied for 23 vesamicol enantiomers, analogues, and other drugs. Use of trace [3H]vesamicol and [14C]AcCh allowed simultaneous determination of the concentrations of enantiomer, analogue, or drug required to half-saturate the vesamicol receptor (Ki) and to half-inhibit transport (IC50), respectively. Throughout a wide range of potencies for different compounds, the Ki/IC50 ratios varied from 1.5 to 24. Compounds representative of the diverse structures studied, namely deoxyvesamicol, chloroquine, and levorphanol, were competitive inhibitors of vesamicol binding. It is concluded that many drugs can bind to the vesamicol receptor and binding to only a small fraction of the receptors can result in AcCh active transport inhibition. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:2550778

  10. ATP-dependent transport of vinblastine in vesicles from human multidrug-resistant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horio, M.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I. )

    1988-05-01

    Resistance of human cancer cells to multiple cytotoxic hydrophobic agents (multidrug resistance) is due to overexpression of the MDR1 gene, whose product is the plasma membrane P-glycoprotein. Plasma membrane vesicles partially purified from multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma cells, but not from drug-sensitive cells, accumulate ({sup 3}H)vinblastine in an ATP-dependent manner. This transport is osmotically sensitive, with an apparent K{sub m} of 38 {mu}M for ATP and of {approx} 2 {mu}M for vinblastine. The nonhydrolyzable analog adenosine 5{prime}-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate does not substitute for ATP but is a competitive inhibitor of ATP for the transport process. Vanadate, and ATPase inhibitor, is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of transport. These results indicate that hydrolysis of ATP is probably required for active transport vinblastine. Several other drugs to which multidrug-resistant cell lines are resistant inhibit transport, with relative potencies as follows: vincristine > actinomycin D > daunomycin > colchicine = puromycin. Verapamil and quinidine, which reverse the multidrug-resistance phenotype, are good inhibitors of the transport process. These results confirm that multidrug-resistant cells express an energy-dependent plasma membrane transporter for hydrophobic drugs, and establish a system for the detailed biochemical analysis of this transport process.

  11. Alpha-Synuclein affects neurite morphology, autophagy, vesicle transport and axonal degeneration in CNS neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koch, J C; Bitow, F; Haack, J; d'Hedouville, Z; Zhang, J-N; Tönges, L; Michel, U; Oliveira, L M A; Jovin, T M; Liman, J; Tatenhorst, L; Bähr, M; Lingor, P

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropathological and experimental studies suggest that the degeneration of dopaminergic terminals and axons precedes the demise of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which finally results in the clinical symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). The mechanisms underlying this early axonal degeneration are, however, still poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of overexpression of human wildtype alpha-synuclein (αSyn-WT), a protein associated with PD, and its mutant variants αSyn-A30P and -A53T on neurite morphology and functional parameters in rat primary midbrain neurons (PMN). Moreover, axonal degeneration after overexpression of αSyn-WT and -A30P was analyzed by live imaging in the rat optic nerve in vivo. We found that overexpression of αSyn-WT and of its mutants A30P and A53T impaired neurite outgrowth of PMN and affected neurite branching assessed by Sholl analysis in a variant-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the number of primary neurites per neuron was increased in neurons transfected with αSyn. Axonal vesicle transport was examined by live imaging of PMN co-transfected with EGFP-labeled synaptophysin. Overexpression of all αSyn variants significantly decreased the number of motile vesicles and decelerated vesicle transport compared with control. Macroautophagic flux in PMN was enhanced by αSyn-WT and -A53T but not by αSyn-A30P. Correspondingly, colocalization of αSyn and the autophagy marker LC3 was reduced for αSyn-A30P compared with the other αSyn variants. The number of mitochondria colocalizing with LC3 as a marker for mitophagy did not differ among the groups. In the rat optic nerve, both αSyn-WT and -A30P accelerated kinetics of acute axonal degeneration following crush lesion as analyzed by in vivo live imaging. We conclude that αSyn overexpression impairs neurite outgrowth and augments axonal degeneration, whereas axonal vesicle transport and autophagy are severely altered. PMID:26158517

  12. Vesicles versus Tubes: Is Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Transport in Plants Fundamentally Different from Other Eukaryotes?

    PubMed

    Robinson, David G; Brandizzi, Federica; Hawes, Chris; Nakano, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the gateway to the secretory pathway in all eukaryotic cells. Its products subsequently pass through the Golgi apparatus on the way to the cell surface (true secretion) or to the lytic compartment of the cell (vacuolar protein transport). In animal cells, the Golgi apparatus is present as a stationary larger order complex near the nucleus, and transport between the cortical ER and the Golgi complex occurs via an intermediate compartment which is transported on microtubules. By contrast, higher plant cells have discrete mobile Golgi stacks that move along the cortical ER, and the intermediate compartment is absent. Although many of the major molecular players involved in ER-Golgi trafficking in mammalian and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells have homologs in higher plants, the narrow interface (less than 500 nm) between the Golgi and the ER, together with the motility factor, makes the identification of the transport vectors responsible for bidirectional traffic between these two organelles much more difficult. Over the years, a controversy has arisen over the two major possibilities by which transfer can occur: through vesicles or direct tubular connections. In this article, four leading plant cell biologists attempted to resolve this issue. Unfortunately, their opinions are so divergent and often opposing that it was not possible to reach a consensus. Thus, we decided to let each tell his or her version individually. The review begins with an article by Federica Brandizzi that provides the necessary molecular background on coat protein complexes in relation to the so-called secretory units model for ER-Golgi transport in highly vacuolated plant cells. The second article, written by Chris Hawes, presents the evidence in favor of tubules. It is followed by an article from David Robinson defending the classical notion that transport occurs via vesicles. The last article, by Akihiko Nakano, introduces the reader to possible

  13. Reduced Expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter and Neurotransmitter Content Affects Synaptic Vesicle Distribution and Shape in Mouse Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Hermann A.; Fonseca, Matheus de C.; Camargo, Wallace L.; Lima, Patrícia M. A.; Martinelli, Patrícia M.; Naves, Lígia A.; Prado, Vânia F.; Prado, Marco A. M.; Guatimosim, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, nerve muscle communication is mediated by the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine packed inside synaptic vesicles by a specific vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Here we used a mouse model (VAChT KDHOM) with 70% reduction in the expression of VAChT to investigate the morphological and functional consequences of a decreased acetylcholine uptake and release in neuromuscular synapses. Upon hypertonic stimulation, VAChT KDHOM mice presented a reduction in the amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials, FM 1–43 staining intensity, total number of synaptic vesicles and altered distribution of vesicles within the synaptic terminal. In contrast, under electrical stimulation or no stimulation, VAChT KDHOM neuromuscular junctions did not differ from WT on total number of vesicles but showed altered distribution. Additionally, motor nerve terminals in VAChT KDHOM exhibited small and flattened synaptic vesicles similar to that observed in WT mice treated with vesamicol that blocks acetylcholine uptake. Based on these results, we propose that decreased VAChT levels affect synaptic vesicle biogenesis and distribution whereas a lower ACh content affects vesicles shape. PMID:24260111

  14. Reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and neurotransmitter content affects synaptic vesicle distribution and shape in mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Hermann A; Fonseca, Matheus de C; Camargo, Wallace L; Lima, Patrícia M A; Martinelli, Patrícia M; Naves, Lígia A; Prado, Vânia F; Prado, Marco A M; Guatimosim, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, nerve muscle communication is mediated by the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine packed inside synaptic vesicles by a specific vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Here we used a mouse model (VAChT KD(HOM)) with 70% reduction in the expression of VAChT to investigate the morphological and functional consequences of a decreased acetylcholine uptake and release in neuromuscular synapses. Upon hypertonic stimulation, VAChT KD(HOM) mice presented a reduction in the amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials, FM 1-43 staining intensity, total number of synaptic vesicles and altered distribution of vesicles within the synaptic terminal. In contrast, under electrical stimulation or no stimulation, VAChT KD(HOM) neuromuscular junctions did not differ from WT on total number of vesicles but showed altered distribution. Additionally, motor nerve terminals in VAChT KD(HOM) exhibited small and flattened synaptic vesicles similar to that observed in WT mice treated with vesamicol that blocks acetylcholine uptake. Based on these results, we propose that decreased VAChT levels affect synaptic vesicle biogenesis and distribution whereas a lower ACh content affects vesicles shape. PMID:24260111

  15. VESICULAR TRANSPORT. A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly.

    PubMed

    Dodonova, S O; Diestelkoetter-Bachert, P; von Appen, A; Hagen, W J H; Beck, R; Beck, M; Wieland, F; Briggs, J A G

    2015-07-10

    Transport of material within cells is mediated by trafficking vesicles that bud from one cellular compartment and fuse with another. Formation of a trafficking vesicle is driven by membrane coats that localize cargo and polymerize into cages to bend the membrane. Although extensive structural information is available for components of these coats, the heterogeneity of trafficking vesicles has prevented an understanding of how complete membrane coats assemble on the membrane. We combined cryo-electron tomography, subtomogram averaging, and cross-linking mass spectrometry to derive a complete model of the assembled coat protein complex I (COPI) coat involved in traffic between the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum. The highly interconnected COPI coat structure contradicted the current "adaptor-and-cage" understanding of coated vesicle formation.

  16. DBcAMP stimulates vesicle transport and HRP excretion in isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Bruck, R; Ng, O C; Boyer, J L

    1990-11-01

    To clarify the effect of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) on the transcytotic vesicle pathway, we measured the biliary excretion of bile acid, phospholipid, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) with or without infusion of N6,2'-O-dibutyryl-cAMP (DBcAMP). A linear relationship between bile flow and bile acid excretion was observed in both control and DBcAMP-infused livers. DBcAMP increased the y-axis intercept from 1.10 +/- 0.16 to 1.48 +/- 0.19 microliters.min-1.g liver-1 (P less than 0.01) and the slope from 6.5 +/- 1.99 to 10.77 +/- 1.71 microliters/mumol bile acid (P less than 0.01). DBcAMP also increased the biliary excretion of bile acid and phospholipid during a 1.0 mumol/min infusion of taurocholate. When HRP was pulse loaded for 1 min, HRP appeared in bile in early (4-6 min) and late (20-25 min) peaks. DBcAMP markedly increased the late peak of HRP from 0.33 +/- 0.08 to 1.15 +/- 0.32 ng.min-1.g liver-1 (P less than 0.01), a phenomenon blocked by colchicine. An electron-microscopic morphometric analysis indicated that DBcAMP increased both the density and %area of HRP-containing vesicles in the pericanalicular area, compared with controls, 18 min after a 1-min pulse of HRP. DBcAMP had no effect on the uptake rate of HRP in 4-h primary hepatocyte cultures but stimulated biliary excretion of HRP when preloaded in the IPRL. These findings indicate that cAMP regulates excretory function in part by stimulating the microtubule-dependent transcytotic vesicle transport system.

  17. Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )

    1991-05-01

    The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

  18. Use of membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying auxin transport of auxin: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin regulating growth, is transported polarly in plants. IAA stimulates a rapid increase in the rate of electrogenic proton secretion by the plasma membrane. This not only increases the magnitude of the pH and electrical gradients providing the driving force for polar auxin transport and uptake of sugars, amino acids and inorganic ions, but, by acidifying the cell wall, also leads to growth. We find that auxin uptake by membrane vesicles isolated from actively growing plant tissues exhibits some of the same properties as by cells: the accumulation depends on the pH gradient, is saturable and specific for auxin, and enhanced by herbicides that inhibit polar auxin transport. We are using accumulation of a radioactive weak acid to quantify the pH gradient and distribution of fluorescent cyanine dyes to monitor the membrane potential. The magnitude of IAA accumulation exceeds that predicted from the pH gradient, and in the absence of a pH gradient, a membrane potential fails to support any auxin accumulation, leading to the conclusion that the transmembrane potential is not a significant driving force for auxin accumulation in this system. Since increasing the external ionic strength decreases saturable auxin accumulation, we are investigating how modifying the surface potential of the vesicles affects the interaction of the amphipathic IAA molecules with the membranes and whether protein modifying reagents affect the saturability and stimulation by NPA. These studies should provide information on the location and function of the auxin binding site and may enable us to identify the solubilized protein. 5 refs.

  19. Membrane vesicles: A simplified system for studying auxin transport. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1989-12-31

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin responsible for regulation of growth, is transported polarly in plants. Several different models have been suggested to account for IAA transport by cells and its accumulation by membrane vesicles. One model sees diffusion of IAA driven by a pH gradient. The anion of a lipophilic weak acid like IAA or butyrate accumulates in an alkaline compartment in accord with the size of the pH gradient The accumulation of IAA may be diminished by the permeability of its lipophilic anion. This anion leak may be blocked by NPA. With anion efflux blocked, a gradient of two pH units would support an IAA accumulation of less than 50-fold at equilibrium (2) Another model sees diffusion of IAA in parallel with a saturable symport (IAA{sup {minus}} + nH{sup +}), driven by both the pH gradient and membrane voltage. Such a symport should be highly accumulative, however, with a lipophilic weak acid such as IAA, net diffusive efflux of IAAH whenever IAAHI{sub i} > IAAH{sub o} would constitute a leak. (3) A third model sees a pH change driven IAA uptake and saturable symport enhanced by internal binding sites. Following pH gradient-driven accumulation of IAA, the anion may bind to an intravesicular site, permitting further uptake of IAA. NPA, by blocking anion efflux, enhances this binding. We have reported that membrane vesicles isolated from actively growing plant tissues are a good system for studying the mechanisms involved in the transport and accumulation of auxin.

  20. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. PMID:20176067

  1. Pep7p provides a novel protein that functions in vesicle-mediated transport between the yeast Golgi and endosome.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, G C; Zhang, J; Garlow, S J; Wesp, A; Riezman, H; Jones, E W

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae pep7 mutants are defective in transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolases to the lysosome-like vacuole. PEP7 is a nonessential gene that encodes a hydrophilic protein of 515 amino acids. A cysteine-rich tripartite motif in the N-terminal half of the polypeptide shows striking similarity to sequences found in many other eukaryotic proteins. Several of these proteins are thought to function in the vacuolar/lysosomal pathway. Mutations that change highly conserved cysteine residues in this motif lead to a loss of Pep7p function. Kinetic studies demonstrate that Pep7p function is required for the transport of the Golgi-precursors of the soluble hydrolases carboxypeptidase Y, proteinase A, and proteinase B to the endosome. Integral membrane hydrolase alkaline phosphatase is transported to the vacuole by a parallel intracellular pathway that does not require Pep7p function. pep7 mutants accumulate a 40-60-nm vesicle population, suggesting that Pep7p functions in a vesicle consumption step in vesicle-mediated transport of soluble hydrolases to the endosome. Whereas pep7 mutants demonstrate no defects in endocytic uptake at the plasma membrane, the mutants demonstrate defects in transport of receptor-mediated macromolecules through the endocytic pathway. Localization studies indicate that Pep7p is found both as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and associated with particulate fractions. We conclude that Pep7p functions as a novel regulator of vesicle docking and/or fusion at the endosome. Images PMID:9168472

  2. Biochemical requirements for the targeting and fusion of ER-derived transport vesicles with purified yeast Golgi membranes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In order for secretion to progress, ER-derived transport vesicles must target to, and fuse with the cis-Golgi compartment. These processes have been reconstituted using highly enriched membrane fractions and partially purified soluble components. The functionally active yeast Golgi membranes that have been purified are highly enriched in the cis- Golgi marker enzymes alpha 1,6 mannosyltransferase and GDPase. Fusion of transport vesicles with these membranes requires both GTP and ATP hydrolysis, and depends on cytosolic and peripheral membrane proteins. At least two protein fractions from yeast cytosol are required for the reconstitution of ER-derived vesicle fusion. Soluble fractions prepared from temperature-sensitive mutants revealed requirements for the Ypt1p, Sec19p, Sly1p, Sec7p, and Uso1 proteins. A model for the sequential involvement of these components in the targeting and fusion reaction is proposed. PMID:8636207

  3. Effect of medium-chain glycerides on the membrane transport of D-glucose and sulfanilic acid in the intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sagara, K; Higaki, K; Yamazaki, A; Hashida, M; Sezaki, H

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the influence of medium-chain glycerides (MCG) on a biological membrane, we investigated the membrane transport of D-glucose and sulfanilic acid in the brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles pretreated with MCG. The size distribution of the BBM vesicles determined by electron microscopic observation was not significantly different between the vesicles incorporated with MCG and those of the control. However, the amount of D-glucose taken up by the vesicles at an equilibrated stage (30 min) was significantly decreased in the MCG-treated ones based on unit content of protein. Based on these results we estimated the membrane transport of D-glucose and sulfanilic acid in consideration of vesiculation or filter-capturing efficiency in MCG-treated vesicles. The rates of Na+ gradient-independent D-glucose transport and sulfanilic acid transport were significantly greater in MCG-treated vesicles than in the control. On the other hand, the magnitude of overshooting effect in Na+ gradient-dependent uptake of D-glucose in MCG-treated vesicles was maintained similar to the control. Comparison of kinetic parameters for active D-glucose transport at different concentrations indicated that Km and Vmax were not significantly different between MCG-treated and the control vesicles. These results indicated that passive diffusion of D-glucose and sulfanilic acid was significantly increased but Na(+)-glucose cotransporter was not significantly changed by the incorporation of MCG in the intestinal BBM vesicles.

  4. Functional reconstitution of the. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transporter from synaptic vesicles using artificial ion gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Hell, J.W.; Edelmann, L.; Hartinger, J.; Jahn, R. )

    1991-12-24

    The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter of rat brain synaptic vesicles was reconstituted in proteoliposomes, and its activity was studied in response to artificially created membrane potentials or proton gradients. Changes of the membrane potential were monitored using the dyes oxonol VI and 3,3{prime}-diisopropylthiodicarbocyanine iodide, and changes of the H{sup +} gradient were followed using acridine orange. An inside positive membrane potential was generated by the creation of an inwardly directed K{sup +} gradient and the subsequent addition of valinomycin. Under these conditions, valinomycin evoked uptake of ({sup 3}H)GABA which was saturable. Similarly, ({sup 3}H)glutamate uptake was stimulated by valinomycin, indicating that both transporters can be driven by the membrane potential. Proton gradients were generated by the incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in a buffer free of K{sup +} or Na{sup +} ions and the subsequent addition of nigericin. Proton gradients were also generated via the endogenous H{sup +} ATPase by incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in equimolar K{sup +} buffer in the presence of valinomycin. These proton gradients evoked nonspecific, nonsaturable uptake of GABA and {beta}-alanine but not of glycine in proteoliposomes as well as protein-free liposomes. Therefore, transporter activity was monitored using glycine as an alternative substrate. Proton gradients generated by both methods elicited saturable glycine uptake in proteoliposomes. Together, these data confirm that the vesicular GABA transporter can be energized by both the membrane potential and the pH gradient and show that transport can be achieved by artificial gradients independently of the endogenous proton ATPase.

  5. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 (MRP2) Mediated Transport of Oxaliplatin-Derived Platinum in Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Myint, Khine; Li, Yan; Paxton, James; McKeage, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The platinum-based anticancer drug oxaliplatin is important clinically in cancer treatment. However, the role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in controlling oxaliplatin membrane transport, in vivo handling, toxicity and therapeutic responses is unclear. In the current study, preparations of MRP2-expressing and control membrane vesicles, containing inside-out orientated vesicles, were used to directly characterise the membrane transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxaliplatin inhibited the ATP-dependent accumulation of the model MRP2 fluorescent probe, 5(6)-carboxy-2,'7'-dichlorofluorescein, in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles. MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles accumulated up to 19-fold more platinum during their incubation with oxaliplatin and ATP as compared to control membrane vesicles and in the absence of ATP. The rate of ATP-dependent MRP2-mediated active transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum increased non-linearly with increasing oxaliplatin exposure concentration, approaching a plateau value (Vmax) of 2680 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes (95%CI, 2010 to 3360 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes), with the half-maximal platinum accumulation rate (Km) at an oxaliplatin exposure concentration of 301 μM (95% CI, 163 to 438 μM), in accordance with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (r2 = 0.954). MRP2 inhibitors (myricetin and MK571) reduced the ATP-dependent accumulation of oxaliplatin-derived platinum in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner. To identify whether oxaliplatin, or perhaps a degradation product, was the likely substrate for this active transport, HPLC studies were undertaken showing that oxaliplatin degraded slowly in membrane vesicle incubation buffer containing chloride ions and glutathione, with approximately 95% remaining intact after a 10 minute incubation time and a degradation half-life of 2.24 hours (95%CI, 2.08 to 2.43 hours). In

  6. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 (MRP2) Mediated Transport of Oxaliplatin-Derived Platinum in Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Khine; Li, Yan; Paxton, James; McKeage, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The platinum-based anticancer drug oxaliplatin is important clinically in cancer treatment. However, the role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in controlling oxaliplatin membrane transport, in vivo handling, toxicity and therapeutic responses is unclear. In the current study, preparations of MRP2-expressing and control membrane vesicles, containing inside-out orientated vesicles, were used to directly characterise the membrane transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxaliplatin inhibited the ATP-dependent accumulation of the model MRP2 fluorescent probe, 5(6)-carboxy-2,'7'-dichlorofluorescein, in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles. MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles accumulated up to 19-fold more platinum during their incubation with oxaliplatin and ATP as compared to control membrane vesicles and in the absence of ATP. The rate of ATP-dependent MRP2-mediated active transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum increased non-linearly with increasing oxaliplatin exposure concentration, approaching a plateau value (Vmax) of 2680 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes (95%CI, 2010 to 3360 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes), with the half-maximal platinum accumulation rate (Km) at an oxaliplatin exposure concentration of 301 μM (95% CI, 163 to 438 μM), in accordance with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (r2 = 0.954). MRP2 inhibitors (myricetin and MK571) reduced the ATP-dependent accumulation of oxaliplatin-derived platinum in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner. To identify whether oxaliplatin, or perhaps a degradation product, was the likely substrate for this active transport, HPLC studies were undertaken showing that oxaliplatin degraded slowly in membrane vesicle incubation buffer containing chloride ions and glutathione, with approximately 95% remaining intact after a 10 minute incubation time and a degradation half-life of 2.24 hours (95%CI, 2.08 to 2.43 hours). In

  7. Distinct stages in the recognition, sorting, and packaging of proTGFα into COPII-coated transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Schekman, Randy

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role in forming vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the coat protein complex II (COPII) is also responsible for selecting specific cargo proteins to be packaged into COPII transport vesicles. Comparison of COPII vesicle formation in mammalian systems and in yeast suggested that the former uses more elaborate mechanisms for cargo recognition, presumably to cope with a significantly expanded repertoire of cargo that transits the secretory pathway. Using proTGFα, the transmembrane precursor of transforming growth factor α (TGFα), as a model cargo protein, we demonstrate in cell-free assays that at least one auxiliary cytosolic factor is specifically required for the efficient packaging of proTGFα into COPII vesicles. Using a knockout HeLa cell line generated by CRISPR/Cas9, we provide functional evidence showing that a transmembrane protein, Cornichon-1 (CNIH), acts as a cargo receptor of proTGFα. We show that both CNIH and the auxiliary cytosolic factor(s) are required for efficient recruitment of proTGFα to the COPII coat in vitro. Moreover, we provide evidence that the recruitment of cargo protein by the COPII coat precedes and may be distinct from subsequent cargo packaging into COPII vesicles. PMID:27122606

  8. Defective pigment granule biogenesis and aberrant behavior caused by mutations in the Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin gene ruby.

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, D; Poeck, B; Roth, H; Ernst, R; Keller, A; Porsch, M; Strauss, R; Pflugfelder, G O

    2000-01-01

    Lysosomal protein trafficking is a fundamental process conserved from yeast to humans. This conservation extends to lysosome-like organelles such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. Recently, eye and coat color mutations in mouse (mocha and pearl) and Drosophila (garnet and carmine) were shown to affect subunits of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP-3 involved in vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila eye color mutant ruby is defective in the AP-3beta subunit gene. ruby expression was found in retinal pigment and photoreceptor cells and in the developing central nervous system. ruby mutations lead to a decreased number and altered size of pigment granules in various cell types in and adjacent to the retina. Humans with lesions in the related AP-3betaA gene suffer from Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, which is caused by defects in a number of lysosome-related organelles. Hermansky-Pudlak patients have a reduced skin pigmentation and suffer from internal bleeding, pulmonary fibrosis, and visual system malfunction. The Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin also appears to be involved in processes other than eye pigment granule biogenesis because all ruby allele combinations tested exhibited defective behavior in a visual fixation paradigm. PMID:10790396

  9. Synaptic vesicles in electromotoneurones. I. Axonal transport, site of transmitter uptake and processing of a core proteoglycan during maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, M L; Stadler, H

    1987-01-01

    We were able by using an in vivo pulse-label technique to trace part of the life cycle of a secretory organelle, the acetylcholine-storing synaptic vesicle from electromotoneurones of Torpedo marmorata. This technique uses [35S]sulphate incorporation into the cell bodies of the electromotoneurones which results in radioactive labelling of a synaptic vesicle heparansulphate proteoglycan--a major core component. Vesicles are anterogradely transported in the axons at a fast rate as 'empty' organelles (VP0 population). In the nerve terminal, maturation of the granule to a population (VP1) fully charged with acetylcholine and ATP occurs. Finally after a longer time interval a change to a third population (VP2) is observed. This population is reduced in diameter as compared to VP0 and VP1 suggesting, in agreement with earlier reports, that it has undergone exo-endocytosis. The changes from VP0 to VP1 and VP2 are accompanied by a degradation of the core proteoglycan as measured by gel filtration of the 35S-labelled compound. The results show that vesicles are axonally transported as preformed organelles, exist in the neurone at least in three different populations and that the nerve terminal is the major site of transmitter uptake. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2444433

  10. Insulin-stimulated plasma membrane fusion of Glut4 glucose transporter-containing vesicles is regulated by phospholipase D1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Altshuller, Yelena M; Hou, June Chunqiu; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Frohman, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by mobilizing Glut4 glucose transporters from intracellular membrane storage sites to the plasma membrane. This process requires the trafficking of Glut4-containing vesicles toward the cell periphery, docking at exocytic sites, and plasma membrane fusion. We show here that phospholipase D (PLD) production of the lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) is a key event in the fusion process. PLD1 is found on Glut4-containing vesicles, is activated by insulin signaling, and traffics with Glut4 to exocytic sites. Increasing PLD1 activity facilitates glucose uptake, whereas decreasing PLD1 activity is inhibitory. Diminished PA production does not substantially hinder trafficking of the vesicles or their docking at the plasma membrane, but it does impede fusion-mediated extracellular exposure of the transporter. The fusion block caused by RNA interference-mediated PLD1 deficiency is rescued by exogenous provision of a lipid that promotes fusion pore formation and expansion, suggesting that the step regulated by PA is late in the process of vesicle fusion. PMID:15772157

  11. Leucine transport in brush border membrane vesicles from freshwater insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Forcella, Matilde; Berra, Elisa; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Leucine transport across brush border membrane vesicles prepared from four insect species common to European freshwater streams has been characterized. The species studied were: Ephemera danica (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), Isoperla grammatica (Plecoptera: Perlodidae), Hydropsyche pellucidula (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae), and Hybomitra bimaculata (Diptera: Tabanidae). The transport differed among the studied taxa for several features, including pH and sodium dependence, substrate affinity and specificity, and efficiency. In H. pellucidula and E. danica, leucine uptake was higher at pH 7.4 than at more alkaline or acidic pH values, whereas in I. grammatica and H. bimaculata, the uptake was rather constant when pH varied from 5.0 to 7.4, then strongly decreased at pH 8.8. All but E. danica displayed a transient intravescicular leucine accumulation in the presence of sodium, suggesting the existence of a cation-leucine symport mechanism. The sodium dependence ranged according to the following order: H. pellucidula > I. grammatica > H. bimaculata > E. danica. Moreover, in H. pellucidula and I. grammatica, the sodium-dependence was stronger at pH 8.8 than at pH 7.4. In E. danica, leucine uptake was sodium-independent at all pH values. The highest value of V(max) (45.3 pmol.s(-1).mg proteins(-1)) was in E. danica, which, however, displayed the lowest affinity (K(m) 137 muM) when compared to the kinetic parameters of other taxa. The V(max) and K(m) values were: 40 and 52.5, 32.1 and 12.5, and 4.5 and 230 for H. bimaculata, H. pellucidula, and I. grammatica, respectively. The obtained results are discussed within our current knowledge of amino acid transport systems in insects.

  12. Photosensitized electron transport across lipid vesicle walls: enhancement of quantum yield by ionophores and transmembrane potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Laane, C.; Ford, W.E.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1981-04-01

    The photosensitized reduction of heptylviologen in the bulk aqueous phase of phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing EDTA inside and a membrane-bound tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(2+) derivative is enhanced by a factor of 6.5 by the addition of valinomycin in the presence of K/sup +/. A 3-fold stimulation by gramicidin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone is observed. The results suggest that, under these conditions, the rate of photoinduced electron transfer across vesicle walls in the absence of ion carriers is limited by cotransport of cations. The rate of electron transfer across vesicle walls could be influenced further by generating transmembrane potentials with K/sup +/ gradients inatthe presence of valinomycin. When vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more negative, the quantum yield of heptylviologen reduction is doubled, and, converseley, when vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more positive, the quantum yield is decreased and approaches the value found in the absence of valinomycin.

  13. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Roberta Peres; Heiss, Christian; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Gerlach, Jared Q.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Joshi, Lokesh; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Puccia, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) and α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)-Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin microarray profiling revealed terminal Man and GlcNAc residues exposed at the EVs surface. Mammalian lectin microarray profiling showed that DC-SIGN receptors recognized surface carbohydrate in Paracoccidioides EVs. Our results suggest that oligosaccharides, cytoplasmic storage, and cell wall polysaccharides can be exported in fungal EVs, which also expose surface PAMPs and lectins. The role of these newly identified components in the interaction with the host remains to be unraveled. PMID:26387503

  14. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors

    DOE PAGES

    da Silva, Roberta Peres; Heiss, Christian; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Gerlach, Jared Q.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Joshi, Lokesh; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Puccia, Rosana

    2015-09-21

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) andmore » α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)- Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin microarray profiling revealed terminal Man and GlcNAc residues exposed at the EVs surface. Mammalian lectin microarray profiling showed that DC-SIGN receptors recognized surface carbohydrate in Paracoccidioides EVs. Our results suggest that oligosaccharides, cytoplasmic storage, and cell wall polysaccharides can be exported in fungal EVs, which also expose surface PAMPs and lectins. As a result, the role of these newly identified components in the interaction with the host remains to be unraveled.« less

  15. Energization of amino acid transport in energy-depleted Ehrlich cells and plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, M; Kilberg, M S; Kimmel, G; Christensen, H N

    1980-06-20

    We redirect attention to contributions to the energization, of the active transport of amino acids in the Ehrlich cell, beyond the known energization, by down-gradient comigration of Na+, beyond possible direct energization by coupling to ATP breakdown, and beyond known energization by exchange with prior accumulations of amino acids. We re-emphasize the uphill operation of System L, and by prior depletion of cellular amino acids show that this system must receive energy beyond that made available by their coupled exodus. After this depletion the Na+-indepdendent accumulation of the norbornane amino acid, 2-aminobicycloheptane-2-carboxylic acid becomes strongly subject to stimulation by incubation with glucose. Energy transfer between Systems A and L through the mutual substrate action of ordinary amino acids was minimized although not entirely avoided by the use of amino acid analogs specific to each system. When 2,4-dinitrophenol was included in the depleting treatment, and pyruvate, phenazine methosulfate, or glucose used for restoration, recovery of uptake of the norbornane amino acid was independent of external Na+ or K+ levels. Restoration or the uptake of 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid was, however, decreased by omission of external K+. Contrary to an earlier finding, restoration of uptake of each of these amino acids was associated with distinct and usually correlated rises in cellular ATP levels. ATP addition failed to stimulate exodus of the norbornane amino acid from plasma membrane vesicles, although either NADH or phenazine methosulfate did stimulate exodus. ATP production and use is thus associated with transport energization although evidence for a direct role failed to appear.

  16. Effect of chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of ethanol on transport of proline into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Beesley, R.C.; Jones, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    Hamsters were separated into two groups and fed liquid diets ad lib. Controls were given a diet similar to that described by DeCarli and Lieber while alcoholics received the same diet containing 5% ethanol isocalorically substituted for sucrose. The volume of diet consumed daily and the gain in body weights of alcoholics were not significantly different from those of controls. After four weeks the animals were sacrificed and the upper third of the small intestine was used to prepare brush border membrane vesicles. In the presence of a Na/sup +/ gradient, uptake of proline into vesicles prepared from both groups was rapid, reaching a maximum accumulation in 1 to 2 min and then decreasing to the equilibrium level. To normalize the results, the amount of proline take up at each time point was divided by the amount present at equilibrium. From the normalized data it was concluded that both the rate of uptake and the maximum accumulation of proline into brush border membrane vesicles isolated from alcoholics were significantly less than those obtained with vesicles from controls. These results suggest that chronic ingestion of ethanol results in a reduction in Na/sup +/-dependent transport of proline across the brush border membrane and, thus, may contribute to the malnutrition which is frequently associated with chronic alcoholism.

  17. ΔpH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Chang; Bush, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Proton-coupled aliphatic, neutral amino acid transport was investigated in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv Great Western) leaves. Two neutral amino acid symport systems were resolved based on inter-amino acid transport competition and on large variations in the specific activity of each porter in different species. Competitive inhibition was observed for transport competition between alanine, methionine, glutamine, and leucine (the alanine group) and between isoleucine, valine, and threonine (the isoleucine group). The apparent Km and Ki values were similar for transport competition among amino acids within the alanine group. In contrast, the kinetics of transport competition between these two groups of amino acids did not fit a simple competitive model. Furthermore, members of the isoleucine group were weak transport antagonists of the alanine group. These results are consistent with two independent neutral amino acid porters. In support of that conclusion, the ratio of the specific activity of alanine transport versus isoleucine transport varied from two- to 13-fold in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from different plant species. This ratio would be expected to remain relatively stable if these amino acids were moving through a single transport system and, indeed, the ratio of alanine to glutamine transport varied less than twofold. Analysis of the predicted structure of the aliphatic, neutral amino acids in solution shows that isoleucine, valine, and threonine contain a branched methyl or hydroxyl group at the β-carbon position that places a dense electron cloud close to the α-amino group. This does not occur for the unbranched amino acids or those that branch further away, e.g. leucine. We hypothesize that this structural feature of isoleucine, valine, and threonine results in unfavorable steric interactions with the alanine transport system that limits their flux through this porter. Hydrophobicity and hydrated

  18. The Redistribution of Drosophila Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Mutants from Synaptic Vesicles to Large Dense-Core Vesicles Impairs Amine-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Grygoruk, Anna; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Ciara A.; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Fei, Hao; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Biedermann, Traci; Najibi, Rod; Hadi, Richard; Chouhan, Amit K.; Murphy, Niall P.; Schweizer, Felix E.; Macleod, Gregory T.; Maidment, Nigel T.

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are stored in both synaptic vesicles (SVs), which are required for release at the synapse, and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs), which mediate extrasynaptic release. The contributions of each type of vesicular release to specific behaviors are not known. To address this issue, we generated mutations in the C-terminal trafficking domain of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT), which is required for the vesicular storage of monoamines in both SVs and LDCVs. Deletion of the terminal 23 aa (DVMAT-Δ3) reduced the rate of endocytosis and localization of DVMAT to SVs, but supported localization to LDCVs. An alanine substitution mutation in a tyrosine-based motif (DVMAT-Y600A) also reduced sorting to SVs and showed an endocytic deficit specific to aminergic nerve terminals. Redistribution of DVMAT-Y600A from SV to LDCV fractions was also enhanced in aminergic neurons. To determine how these changes might affect behavior, we expressed DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A in a dVMAT null genetic background that lacks endogenous dVMAT activity. When expressed ubiquitously, DVMAT-Δ3 showed a specific deficit in female fertility, whereas DVMAT-Y600A rescued behavior similarly to DVMAT-wt. In contrast, when expressed more specifically in octopaminergic neurons, both DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A failed to rescue female fertility, and DVMAT-Y600A showed deficits in larval locomotion. DVMAT-Y600A also showed more severe dominant effects than either DVMAT-wt or DVMAT-Δ3. We propose that these behavioral deficits result from the redistribution of DVMAT from SVs to LDCVs. By extension, our data suggest that the balance of amine release from SVs versus that from LDCVs is critical for the function of some aminergic circuits. PMID:24828646

  19. The redistribution of Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter mutants from synaptic vesicles to large dense-core vesicles impairs amine-dependent behaviors.

    PubMed

    Grygoruk, Anna; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Ciara A; Lawal, Hakeem O; Fei, Hao; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Biedermann, Traci; Najibi, Rod; Hadi, Richard; Chouhan, Amit K; Murphy, Niall P; Schweizer, Felix E; Macleod, Gregory T; Maidment, Nigel T; Krantz, David E

    2014-05-14

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are stored in both synaptic vesicles (SVs), which are required for release at the synapse, and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs), which mediate extrasynaptic release. The contributions of each type of vesicular release to specific behaviors are not known. To address this issue, we generated mutations in the C-terminal trafficking domain of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT), which is required for the vesicular storage of monoamines in both SVs and LDCVs. Deletion of the terminal 23 aa (DVMAT-Δ3) reduced the rate of endocytosis and localization of DVMAT to SVs, but supported localization to LDCVs. An alanine substitution mutation in a tyrosine-based motif (DVMAT-Y600A) also reduced sorting to SVs and showed an endocytic deficit specific to aminergic nerve terminals. Redistribution of DVMAT-Y600A from SV to LDCV fractions was also enhanced in aminergic neurons. To determine how these changes might affect behavior, we expressed DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A in a dVMAT null genetic background that lacks endogenous dVMAT activity. When expressed ubiquitously, DVMAT-Δ3 showed a specific deficit in female fertility, whereas DVMAT-Y600A rescued behavior similarly to DVMAT-wt. In contrast, when expressed more specifically in octopaminergic neurons, both DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A failed to rescue female fertility, and DVMAT-Y600A showed deficits in larval locomotion. DVMAT-Y600A also showed more severe dominant effects than either DVMAT-wt or DVMAT-Δ3. We propose that these behavioral deficits result from the redistribution of DVMAT from SVs to LDCVs. By extension, our data suggest that the balance of amine release from SVs versus that from LDCVs is critical for the function of some aminergic circuits. PMID:24828646

  20. Characterization of calcium transport by basolateral membrane vesicles of human small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Toshiko; Ghishan, F.K. )

    1988-10-01

    The present studies investigated the mechanism of Ca{sup 2+} transport across basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) prepared from human small intestine. Ca{sup 2+} uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evident by osmolality study and by the demonstration of Ca{sup 2+} efflux from the intravesicular space by Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was stimulated by Mg{sup 2+}-ATP. Kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake revealed a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 0.02{plus minus}0.01 {mu}M and a maximum rate of uptake (V{sub max}) of 1.00{plus minus}0.03 nmol{center dot}mg protein{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}. Ca{sup 2+} uptake in the presence of Mg{sup 2+} was inhibited by 75%. The K{sub m} of ATP concentration required for half-maximal Ca{sup 2+} uptake was 0.50{plus minus}0.1 mM. Basolateral membranes depleted of calmodulin by EDTA osmotic shock decreased ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake by 65%. Trifluoperazine, an anticalmodulin drug, inhibited ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake by 50%, while no inhibition was noted in calmodulin-depleted membranes. Efflux of Ca{sup 2+} in the BLMVs was stimulated by trans-Na{sup +}. Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake was saturable with respect to Ca{sup 2+} concentration and exhibited a K{sub m} of 0.09{plus minus}0.03 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 1.08{plus minus}0.01 nmol{center dot}mg protein{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}. These results are consistent with the existence of a Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange system and ATP and Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, calmodulin-regulated Ca{sup 2+}, transport mechanism in BLMVs of human enterocytes.

  1. Nano-pipette directed transport of nanotube transmembrane channels and hybrid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2013-09-01

    Using computational modeling, we simulate the interactions between a nanopipette and transmembrane, end-functionalized nanotubes that are localized within flat bilayers or nanoscopic vesicles. The functional groups (hairs) provide a ``handle'' for the moving pipette to controllably pick up and move the nanotubes to specific locations in the flat membrane, or the hybrid vesicle to specified regions on a surface. The ability to localize these hybrid vesicles on surfaces paves the way for creating nanoreactor arrays in fluidic devices.Using computational modeling, we simulate the interactions between a nanopipette and transmembrane, end-functionalized nanotubes that are localized within flat bilayers or nanoscopic vesicles. The functional groups (hairs) provide a ``handle'' for the moving pipette to controllably pick up and move the nanotubes to specific locations in the flat membrane, or the hybrid vesicle to specified regions on a surface. The ability to localize these hybrid vesicles on surfaces paves the way for creating nanoreactor arrays in fluidic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33991b

  2. Myosin Va Transports Dense Core Secretory Vesicles in Pancreatic MIN6 β-CellsV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Aniko; Tsuboi, Takashi; Rutter, Guy A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of unconventional myosins in neuroendocrine cells is not fully understood, with involvement suggested in the movement of both secretory vesicles and mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate colocalization of myosin Va (MyoVa) with insulin in pancreatic β-cells and show that MyoVa copurifies with insulin in density gradients and with the vesicle marker phogrin-enhanced green fluorescent protein upon fluorescence-activated sorting of vesicles. By contrast, MyoVa immunoreactivity was poorly colocalized with mitochondrial or other markers. Demonstrating an important role for MyoVa in the recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface, a reduction of MyoVa protein levels achieved by RNA interference caused a significant decrease in glucose- or depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, expression of the dominant-negative–acting globular tail domain of MyoVa decreased by ∼50% the number of vesicles docked at the plasma membrane and by 87% the number of depolarization-stimulated exocytotic events detected by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that MyoVa-driven movements of vesicles along the cortical actin network are essential for the terminal stages of regulated exocytosis in β-cells. PMID:15788565

  3. Golgi Fragmentation in ALS Motor Neurons. New Mechanisms Targeting Microtubules, Tethers, and Transport Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Haase, Georg; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Pathological alterations of the Golgi apparatus, such as its fragmentation represent an early pre-clinical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases and have been widely studied in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained cryptic. In principle, Golgi fragmentation may result from defects in three major classes of proteins: structural Golgi proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors, as well as proteins mediating transport to and through the Golgi. Here, we present the different mechanisms that may underlie Golgi fragmentation in animal and cellular models of ALS linked to mutations in SOD1, TARDBP (TDP-43), VAPB, and C9Orf72 and we propose a novel one based on findings in progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mice. These mice are mutated in the TBCE gene encoding the cis-Golgi localized tubulin-binding cofactor E, one of five chaperones that assist in tubulin folding and microtubule polymerization. Loss of TBCE leads to alterations in Golgi microtubules, which in turn impedes on the maintenance of the Golgi architecture. This is due to down-regulation of COPI coat components, dispersion of Golgi tethers and strong accumulation of ER-Golgi SNAREs. These effects are partially rescued by the GTPase ARF1 through recruitment of TBCE to the Golgi. We hypothesize that defects in COPI vesicles, microtubules and their interaction may also underlie Golgi fragmentation in human ALS linked to other mutations, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and related motor neuron diseases. We also discuss the functional relevance of pathological Golgi alterations, in particular their potential causative, contributory, or compensatory role in the degeneration of motor neuron cell bodies, axons and synapses. PMID:26696811

  4. Golgi Fragmentation in ALS Motor Neurons. New Mechanisms Targeting Microtubules, Tethers, and Transport Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Georg; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Pathological alterations of the Golgi apparatus, such as its fragmentation represent an early pre-clinical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases and have been widely studied in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained cryptic. In principle, Golgi fragmentation may result from defects in three major classes of proteins: structural Golgi proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors, as well as proteins mediating transport to and through the Golgi. Here, we present the different mechanisms that may underlie Golgi fragmentation in animal and cellular models of ALS linked to mutations in SOD1, TARDBP (TDP-43), VAPB, and C9Orf72 and we propose a novel one based on findings in progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mice. These mice are mutated in the TBCE gene encoding the cis-Golgi localized tubulin-binding cofactor E, one of five chaperones that assist in tubulin folding and microtubule polymerization. Loss of TBCE leads to alterations in Golgi microtubules, which in turn impedes on the maintenance of the Golgi architecture. This is due to down-regulation of COPI coat components, dispersion of Golgi tethers and strong accumulation of ER-Golgi SNAREs. These effects are partially rescued by the GTPase ARF1 through recruitment of TBCE to the Golgi. We hypothesize that defects in COPI vesicles, microtubules and their interaction may also underlie Golgi fragmentation in human ALS linked to other mutations, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and related motor neuron diseases. We also discuss the functional relevance of pathological Golgi alterations, in particular their potential causative, contributory, or compensatory role in the degeneration of motor neuron cell bodies, axons and synapses. PMID:26696811

  5. Papaverine inhibits transcytotic vesicle transport and lipid excretion into bile in isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Katagiri, K; Hoshino, M; Nakai, T; Ohiwa, T; Kumai, T; Miyaji, M; Takeuchi, T; Corasanti, J; Boyer, J L

    1992-10-01

    Papaverine is a nonspecific smooth muscle relaxant and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Its effects on biliary excretion of lipids and horseradish peroxidase were investigated in a single-pass isolated perfused rat liver model. A constant infusion of papaverine (1.6 mumol/min; 40 mumol/L) significantly increased bile flow (microliters per minute per gram of liver) before (2.03 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.06) and after sodium taurocholate infusion (2.77 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.11). However, papaverine significantly and reversibly reduced biliary excretion of phospholipids and cholesterol (nanomoles per minute per gram of liver) after a 1.0 mumol/min sodium taurocholate infusion, from 7.45 +/- 0.83 and 1.42 +/- 0.15 to 1.75 +/- 0.18 and 0.39 +/- 0.06, respectively (p less than 0.01), whereas secretion of bile acids was unaffected. When a 1-min pulse of horseradish peroxidase (25 mg) was infused in isolated perfused rat liver after a continuous infusion of N6,O-2'-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (0.25 mumol/min; 6.25 mumol/L), horseradish peroxidase appeared in bile in an early (4 to 6 min) and late (20 to 25 min) peak. Papaverine significantly reduced the late peak, from 1.211 +/- 0.264 to 0.498 +/- 0.107 (p less than 0.01). Papaverine had no significant effects on either cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP in the liver and bile, although it has been reported that papaverine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These findings indicate that papaverine inhibits biliary excretion of lipids but not bile acids, and they suggest that papaverine has an inhibitory effect on transcytotic vesicle transport independent of an increase of cyclic nucleotides in hepatocytes.

  6. Effects of internal and external pH on amiloride-blockable Na transport across toad urinary bladder vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, E.D.; Civan, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of internal and external pH on Na+ transport across toad bladder membrane vesicles. Of the total SSNa uptake measured 0.5-2.0 min after introducing tracer, 80 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE, n = 9) is blocked by the diuretic with a KI of 2 X 10(-8) M. Thus, this amiloride-sensitive flux is mediated by the apical sodium-selective channels. Varying the internal (cytosolic) pH over the physiologic range 7.0-8.0 had no effect on sodium transport; this result suggests that variation of intracellular pH in vivo has no direct apical effect on modulating sodium uptake. On the other hand, SSNa was directly and monotonically dependent on external pH. External acidification also reduced the amiloride-sensitive efflux across the walls of the vesicles. This inhibition of 22Na efflux was noted at external Na concentrations of both 0.2 microM and 53 mM. These results are different from those reported with whole toad bladder. A number of possible bases for these differences are considered and discussed. They suggest that the natriferic response induced by mucosal acidification of whole toad urinary bladder appears to operate indirectly through one or more factors, presumably cytosolic, present in whole cells and absent from the vesicles.

  7. In vitro effect of ethanol on sodium and glucose transport in rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Parenti, P; Giordana, B; Hanozet, G M

    1991-11-18

    The effect of ethanol on sodium and glucose transport in rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles was examined. When membrane vesicles were preincubated in the presence of ethanol the sodium-dependent D-glucose uptake was significantly inhibited. This effect, as suggested by O'Neill et al. (1986) FEBS Lett. 194, 183-188, may be due to a faster collapse of the Na+ gradient. As a matter of fact, the amiloride-insensitive sodium pathway was increased by ethanol in our brush border membrane preparation. However, sodium/D-glucose cotransport was inhibited by ethanol, although to a lesser degree, also in the absence of a sodium gradient. In addition, ethanol inhibited glucose-dependent sodium uptake, suggesting that a direct interaction with the translocator was involved. This conclusion was also supported by kinetic measurements showing a decrease of Vmax and an increase in Km for glucose in membrane vesicles treated with ethanol. Moreover, ethanol influenced the interaction of phlorizin with the cotransporter: uptake experiments performed in the presence of the two inhibitors demonstrated that phlorizin and ethanol behave as not mutually exclusive inhibitors of D-glucose transport. These data indicate that in rabbit renal brush border membranes ethanol not only affects the 'passive pathway', i.e. the sodium permeability, but it also directly interferes with carrier functions.

  8. Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation.

  9. Large-scale preparation of plasma membrane vesicles from PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells and their use in noradrenaline transport studies.

    PubMed

    Harder, R; Bönisch, H

    1984-08-01

    Plasma membranes were isolated from rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) grown in spinner culture. The rapid and simple isolation procedure consisted of a differential and isopycnic centrifugation (in a linear sucrose gradient) with the aid of a high capacity fixed angle rotor equipped with siliconized centrifuge tubes. The isolated membranes were closed and osmotically active vesicles (about 0.3 micron in diameter) with a mean intravesicular water space of 1.84 microliters/mg protein. In the presence of an inward gradient of sodium chloride and an outward gradient of potassium, [3H]noradrenaline (50 nM) was taken up and accumulated 550-fold (at 31 degrees C). The uptake and accumulation of [3H]noradrenaline was temperature-sensitive and inhibited by the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Membrane vesicles isolated from PC-12 cells represent a useful model for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of the neuronal noradrenaline transport system. PMID:6466664

  10. Kinetics of D-glucose and L-leucine transport into sheep and pig intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wolffram, S; Eggenberger, E; Scharrer, E

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic parameters (Vmax, Kt) of Na+-dependent D-glucose transport into brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from sheep and pig jejunum were determined. Due to the fermentation of ingested carbohydrates in the rumen the small intestine of ruminants (sheep) has to absorb much less glucose than the small intestine of monogastric omnivores (pigs) or herbivores. Kinetic analysis of the concentration dependence of D-glucose transport revealed a ten-fold smaller Vmax value combined with a five times lower Kt value in sheep BBMV compared with pig BBMV. The Vmax value for L-leucine transport did not differ between the two species investigated, whereas the Kt value in the sheep exceeded that in the pig. It is concluded from these results that the mechanism for Na+-dependent D-glucose transport in ruminants is adapted to the small amounts of carbohydrates reaching the small intestine.

  11. Vesicles and mixed micelles in hypothyroid rat bile before and after thyroid hormone treatment: evidence for a vesicle transport system for biliary cholesterol secretion.

    PubMed

    Andreini, J P; Prigge, W F; Ma, C; Gebbard, R L

    1994-08-01

    Hypothyroid rats show reduced secretion of biliary lipids, especially cholesterol. Secretion of biliary cholesterol is markedly augmented to levels above euthryroid beginning 12-24 h after administration of thyroid hormone. In the current studies, bile from hypothyroid and triiodothyronine-treated chronic bile-fistula rats was analyzed for vesicles and mixed micelles by metrizamide gradient ultracentrifugation. For euthryoid and hypothyroid animals, less than 12% of biliary cholesterol was in a vesicle gradient fraction. After treatment with triiodothyronine, biliary cholesterol increased markedly, and 50% of total cholesterol, 60% of excess cholesterol secreted, appeared in the vesicle fraction. Triiodothyronine stimulation of vesicle secretion resulted in cholesterol-rich vesicles (cholesterol:phospholipid ratio rose from less than 0.1 to 0.56), but no change in the distinct fatty acid composition of vesicle phospholipids. The microtubule inhibitor colchicine, given 12 h after triiodothyronine, prevented subsequent increase in cholesterol secretion in the form of vesicles. These studies, in a model that allows rapid changes in biliary lipid secretion, support the hypothesis that an important component of cholesterol and phospholipid secretion into bile involves microtubules and may involve a vesicle pathway.

  12. Use of membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying transport of auxin. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) inside microsomal vesicles depends on the presence of a pH gradient and is reversible when the ..delta..pH is collapsed by ionosphores. Accumulation is stimulated by either napthylphthalamic acid or TIBA. The accumulation of IAA by the vesicles can be saturated. At concentrations of 1 ..mu..M or less, IAA, synthetic auxins, or auxin antagonists do not affect the pH gradient, but decrease the accumulation of /sup 3/H-IAA, and therefore compete specifically for uptake. Concentrations of 10 ..mu..M and above, uptake of either the auxins or weak acids is sufficient to overcome the buffering capacity of the solution within the vesicles. The collapse of the pH gradient by such high concentrations affects uptake of either /sup 3/H-IAA or /sup 14/C-BA to similar extents and thus is nonspecific. 3 refs.

  13. Relationship between proton motive force and potassium ion transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.; Helgerson, S. L.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    The permeability of Halobacterium halobium vesicle membranes to potassium ions was investigated, and possible mechanisms for the regulation of the gradient of protons by the transmembrane movement of these ions were studied. The lack of a potassium ion diffusion potential in the absence of valinomycin, light-induced electrical potentials in excess of the chemical potential difference for potassium ions, and direct measurements of potassium ion influx during illumination show that the membranes are relatively impermeable to these ions. As a result of sodium ion extrusion during illumination, chlorine ions and water must be lost and the vesicles collapse. The light-induced collapse of vesicles is diminished only if the influx of potassium ions is increased.

  14. Molecular transport into and out of ionic-liquid filled block copolymer vesicles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Timothy; Yao, Letitia; So, Soonyong

    We have developed a method to prepare stable, size-controlled block copolymer vesicles that contain ionic liquid in the interior, but that are dispersed in water. Such nanoemulsions are of interest as nanoreactors, because the mass transfer and cost limitations of ionic liquids are circumvented. However, a crucial question is whether target molecules (e . g ., reagents and products) can enter and leave the vesicles, respectively, on a useful time scale (i . e ., seconds or shorter). In this talk we will briefly describe methods to prepare such vesicles with narrow size distributions, using poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(butadiene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers of various compositions. We will then present results of pulsed-field gradient NMR measurements of probe diffusion that yield independent measurements of the entry and escape rates for selected small molecules, as a function of membrane thickness and temperature.

  15. A vacuolar-type proton pump in a vesicle fraction enriched with potassium transporting plasma membranes from tobacco hornworm midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, H.; Weerth, S.; Schindlbeck, M.; Klein, U.

    1989-07-05

    Mg-ATP dependent electrogenic proton transport, monitored with fluorescent acridine orange, 9-aminoacridine, and oxonol V, was investigated in a fraction enriched with potassium transporting goblet cell apical membranes of Manduca sexta larval midgut. Proton transport and the ATPase activity from the goblet cell apical membrane exhibited similar substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. ATP and GTP were far better substrates than UTP, CTP, ADP, and AMP. Azide and vanadate did not inhibit proton transport, whereas 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide were inhibitors. The pH gradient generated by ATP and limiting its hydrolysis was 2-3 pH units. Unlike the ATPase activity, proton transport was not stimulated by KCl. In the presence of 20 mM KCl, a proton gradient could not be developed or was dissipated. Monovalent cations counteracted the proton gradient in an order of efficacy like that for stimulation of the membrane-bound ATPase activity: K+ = Rb+ much greater than Li+ greater than Na+ greater than choline (chloride salts). Like proton transport, the generation of an ATP dependent and azide- and vanadate-insensitive membrane potential (vesicle interior positive) was prevented largely by 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide. Unlike proton transport, the membrane potential was not affected by 20 mM KCl. In the presence of 150 mM choline chloride, the generation of a membrane potential was suppressed, whereas the pH gradient increased 40%, indicating an anion conductance in the vesicle membrane. Altogether, the results led to the following new hypothesis of electrogenic potassium transport in the lepidopteran midgut. A vacuolar-type electrogenic ATPase pumps protons across the apical membrane of the goblet cell, thus energizing electroneutral proton/potassium antiport. The result is a net active and electrogenic potassium flux.

  16. Role of tetanus neurotoxin insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) in vesicular transport mediating neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Arca, S; Alberts, P; Zahraoui, A; Louvard, D; Galli, T

    2000-05-15

    How vesicular transport participates in neurite outgrowth is still poorly understood. Neurite outgrowth is not sensitive to tetanus neurotoxin thus does not involve synaptobrevin-mediated vesicular transport to the plasma membrane of neurons. Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) is a vesicle-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein [SNAP] receptor), involved in transport to the apical plasma membrane in epithelial cells, a tetanus neurotoxin-resistant pathway. Here we show that TI-VAMP is essential for vesicular transport-mediating neurite outgrowth in staurosporine-differentiated PC12 cells. The NH(2)-terminal domain, which precedes the SNARE motif of TI-VAMP, inhibits the association of TI-VAMP with synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP25). Expression of this domain inhibits neurite outgrowth as potently as Botulinum neurotoxin E, which cleaves SNAP25. In contrast, expression of the NH(2)-terminal deletion mutant of TI-VAMP increases SNARE complex formation and strongly stimulates neurite outgrowth. These results provide the first functional evidence for the role of TI-VAMP in neurite outgrowth and point to its NH(2)-terminal domain as a key regulator in this process.

  17. Role of Tetanus Neurotoxin Insensitive Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein (Ti-Vamp) in Vesicular Transport Mediating Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arca, Sonia; Alberts, Philipp; Zahraoui, Ahmed; Louvard, Daniel; Galli, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    How vesicular transport participates in neurite outgrowth is still poorly understood. Neurite outgrowth is not sensitive to tetanus neurotoxin thus does not involve synaptobrevin-mediated vesicular transport to the plasma membrane of neurons. Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) is a vesicle-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein [SNAP] receptor), involved in transport to the apical plasma membrane in epithelial cells, a tetanus neurotoxin-resistant pathway. Here we show that TI-VAMP is essential for vesicular transport-mediating neurite outgrowth in staurosporine-differentiated PC12 cells. The NH2-terminal domain, which precedes the SNARE motif of TI-VAMP, inhibits the association of TI-VAMP with synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP25). Expression of this domain inhibits neurite outgrowth as potently as Botulinum neurotoxin E, which cleaves SNAP25. In contrast, expression of the NH2-terminal deletion mutant of TI-VAMP increases SNARE complex formation and strongly stimulates neurite outgrowth. These results provide the first functional evidence for the role of TI-VAMP in neurite outgrowth and point to its NH2-terminal domain as a key regulator in this process. PMID:10811829

  18. A molecular network for the transport of the TI-VAMP/VAMP7 vesicles from cell center to periphery.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Andrea; Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Sotirakis, Emmanuel; Bun, Philippe; Casano, Alessandra; Verraes, Agathe; Liem, Ronald K H; Formstecher, Etienne; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Galli, Thierry

    2012-07-17

    The compartmental organization of eukaryotic cells is maintained dynamically by vesicular trafficking. SNARE proteins play a crucial role in intracellular membrane fusion and need to be targeted to their proper donor or acceptor membrane. The molecular mechanisms that allow for the secretory vesicles carrying the v-SNARE TI-VAMP/VAMP7 to leave the cell center, load onto microtubules, and reach the periphery to mediate exocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we show that the TI-VAMP/VAMP7 partner Varp, a Rab21 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, interacts with GolginA4 and the kinesin 1 Kif5A. Activated Rab21-GTP in turn binds to MACF1, an actin and microtubule regulator, which is itself a partner of GolginA4. These components are required for directed movement of TI-VAMP/VAMP7 vesicles from the cell center to the cell periphery. The molecular mechanisms uncovered here suggest an integrated view of the transport of vesicles carrying a specific v-SNARE toward the cell surface.

  19. Cadmium inhibition of L-alanine transport into renal brush border membrane vesicles isolated from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, C.; Kinne-Saffran, E.; Foulkes, E.C.; Kinne, R.K. )

    1989-12-01

    Using isolated brush border membrane vesicles from the kidney of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), we have studied the effect of cadmium on L-alanine transport. Pretreatment of vesicles with 0.1 mM Cd{sup 2+} resulted in inhibition of L-alanine uptake in the presence of a NaCl (but not KCl) gradient. Inhibition was due to a specific interaction with the sodium-alanine cotransport system and not a change in the driving forces for alanine transport, since Cd{sup 2+} did not affect sodium-dependent D-glucose uptake. The effect of Cd{sup 2+} on Na{sup +}-alanine cotransport showed mixed-type inhibition which is only partially reversible by EDTA. Cd{sup 2+} uptake itself was shown to be time and temperature dependent, resulting in binding to both sides of the membrane. No direct correlation was possible between inhibition of L-alanine transport and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} taken up by the membranes. Nevertheless, the striking time dependence of the effect of Cd{sup 2+} on sodium-dependent L-alanine uptake and the inability of EDTA to reverse the inhibitory action of Cd{sup 2+} suggest that Cd{sup 2+} inhibits Na+-alanine cotransport at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.

  20. Isolation of plasma membrane vesicles from mouse placenta at term and measurement of system A and system beta amino acid transporter activity.

    PubMed

    Kusinski, L C; Jones, C J P; Baker, P N; Sibley, C P; Glazier, J D

    2010-01-01

    Placental amino acid transport is essential for optimal fetal growth and development, with a reduced fetal provision of amino acids being implicated as a potential cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Understanding placental insufficiency related FGR has been aided by the development of mouse models that have features of the human disease. However, to take maximal advantage of these, methods are required to study placental function in the mouse. Here, we report a method to isolate plasma membrane vesicles from mouse placenta near-term and have used these to investigate two amino acid transporters, systems A and beta, the activities of which are reduced in human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles from FGR pregnancies. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated at embryonic day 18 by a protocol involving homogenisation, MgCl(2) precipitation and centrifugation. Vesicles were enriched 11.3+/-0.5-fold in alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to initial homogenate, with minimal intracellular organelle contamination as judged by marker analyses. Cytochemistry revealed alkaline phosphatase was localised between trophoblast layers I and II, with intense reaction product deposited on the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II, suggesting that vesicles were derived from this trophoblast membrane. System A and system beta activity in mouse placental vesicles, measured as Na(+)-dependent uptake of (14)C-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) and (3)H-taurine respectively confirmed localisation of these transporters to the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II. Comparison to human placental MVM showed that system A activity was comparable at initial rate between species whilst system beta activity was significantly lower in mouse. This mirrored the lower expression of TAUT observed in mouse placental vesicles. We conclude that syncytiotrophoblast layer II-derived plasma membrane vesicles can be isolated and used to examine transporter function.

  1. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  2. Vesicles versus Tubes: Is Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Transport in Plants Fundamentally Different from Other Eukaryotes?1

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David G.; Brandizzi, Federica; Nakano, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the gateway to the secretory pathway in all eukaryotic cells. Its products subsequently pass through the Golgi apparatus on the way to the cell surface (true secretion) or to the lytic compartment of the cell (vacuolar protein transport). In animal cells, the Golgi apparatus is present as a stationary larger order complex near the nucleus, and transport between the cortical ER and the Golgi complex occurs via an intermediate compartment which is transported on microtubules. By contrast, higher plant cells have discrete mobile Golgi stacks that move along the cortical ER, and the intermediate compartment is absent. Although many of the major molecular players involved in ER-Golgi trafficking in mammalian and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells have homologs in higher plants, the narrow interface (less than 500 nm) between the Golgi and the ER, together with the motility factor, makes the identification of the transport vectors responsible for bidirectional traffic between these two organelles much more difficult. Over the years, a controversy has arisen over the two major possibilities by which transfer can occur: through vesicles or direct tubular connections. In this article, four leading plant cell biologists attempted to resolve this issue. Unfortunately, their opinions are so divergent and often opposing that it was not possible to reach a consensus. Thus, we decided to let each tell his or her version individually. The review begins with an article by Federica Brandizzi that provides the necessary molecular background on coat protein complexes in relation to the so-called secretory units model for ER-Golgi transport in highly vacuolated plant cells. The second article, written by Chris Hawes, presents the evidence in favor of tubules. It is followed by an article from David Robinson defending the classical notion that transport occurs via vesicles. The last article, by Akihiko Nakano, introduces the reader to possible

  3. Microfluidic trapping of giant unilamellar vesicles to study transport through a membrane pore

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T.; Kuhn, P.; Eyer, K.; Dittrich, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a microfluidic platform able to trap single GUVs in parallel. GUVs are used as model membranes across many fields of biophysics including lipid rafts, membrane fusion, and nanotubes. While their creation is relatively facile, handling and addressing single vesicles remains challenging. The PDMS microchip used herein contains 60 chambers, each with posts able to passively capture single GUVs without compromising their integrity. The design allows for circular valves to be lowered from the channel ceiling to isolate the vesicles from rest of the channel network. GUVs containing calcein were trapped and by rapidly opening the valves, the membrane pore protein α-hemolysin (αHL) was introduced to the membrane. Confocal microscopy revealed the kinetics of the small molecule efflux for different protein concentrations. This microfluidic approach greatly improves the number of experiments possible and can be applied to a wide range of biophysical applications. PMID:24404039

  4. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  5. K⁺-dependent ³H-D-glucose transport by hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles of a marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Obi, Ijeoma E; Sterling, Kenneth M; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sodium, potassium, sugar inhibitors, and membrane potential on ³H-D-glucose uptake by hepatopancreatic epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the Atlantic marine shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were investigated. Brush border membrane vesicles were prepared using a MgCl₂/EGTA precipitation method and uptake experiments were conducted using a high speed filtration technique. ³H-D-Glucose uptake was stimulated by both sodium and potassium and these transport rates were almost doubled in the presence of an inside-negative-induced membrane potential. Kinetics of ³H-D-glucose influx were hyperbolic functions of both external Na⁺ or K⁺, and an induced membrane potential increased influx J(max) and lowered K(m) in both salts. ³H-D-Glucose influx versus [glucose] in both Na⁺ or K⁺ media also displayed Michaelis-Menten properties that were only slightly affected by induced membrane potential. Phloridzin was a poor inhibitor of 0.5 mM ³H-D-glucose influx, requiring at least 5 mM in NaCl and 10 mM in KCl to significantly reduce hexose transport. Several sugars (D-galactose, α-methyl-D-gluco-pyranoside, unlabeled D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose) were used at 75 mM as potential inhibitors of 0.1 mM ³H-D-glucose influx. Only unlabeled D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose significantly (p < 0.05) reduced labeled glucose transport. An additional experiment using increasing concentrations of D-mannose (0, 10, 25, 75, and 100 mM) showed this hexose to be an effective inhibitor of 0.1 mM ³H-D-glucose uptake at concentrations of 75 mM and higher. As a whole these results suggest that ³H-D-glucose transport by hepatopancreatic BBMV occurs by a carrier system that is able to use both Na⁺ and K⁺ as drivers, is enhanced by membrane potential, is relatively refractory to phloridzin, and is only inhibited by itself, D-fructose, and D-mannose. These properties are similar to those exhibited by the mammalian SLC5A9/SGLT4 transporter

  6. A novel chloroplast localized Rab GTPase protein CPRabA5e is involved in stress, development, thylakoid biogenesis and vesicle transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sazzad; Alezzawi, Mohamed; Garcia-Petit, Christel; Solymosi, Katalin; Khan, Nadir Zaman; Lindquist, Emelie; Dahl, Peter; Hohmann, Stefan; Aronsson, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    A novel Rab GTPase protein in Arabidopsis thaliana, CPRabA5e (CP = chloroplast localized) is located in chloroplasts and has a role in transport. Transient expression of CPRabA5e:EGFP fusion protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves, and immunoblotting using Arabidopsis showed localization of CPRabA5e in chloroplasts (stroma and thylakoids). Ypt31/32 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in regulating vesicle transport, and CPRabA5e a close homolog of Ypt31/32, restores the growth of the ypt31Δ ypt32(ts) mutant at 37 °C in yeast complementation. Knockout mutants of CPRabA5e displayed delayed seed germination and growth arrest during oxidative stress. Ultrastructural studies revealed that after preincubation at 4 °C mutant chloroplasts contained larger plastoglobules, lower grana, and more vesicles close to the envelopes compared to wild type, and vesicle formation being enhanced under oxidative stress. This indicated altered thylakoid development and organization of the mutants. A yeast-two-hybrid screen with CPRabA5e as bait revealed 13 interacting partner proteins, mainly located in thylakoids and plastoglobules. These proteins are known or predicted to be involved in development, stress responses, and photosynthesis related processes, consistent with the stress phenotypes observed. The results observed suggest a role of CPRabA5e in transport to and from thylakoids, similar to cytosolic Rab proteins involved in vesicle transport.

  7. Plus-end motors override minus-end motors during transport of squid axon vesicles on microtubules

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Plus- and minus-end vesicle populations from squid axoplasm were isolated from each other by selective extraction of the minus-end vesicle motor followed by 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP)- induced microtubule affinity purification of the plus-end vesicles. In the presence of cytosol containing both plus- and minus-end motors, the isolated populations moved strictly in opposite directions along microtubules in vitro. Remarkably, when treated with trypsin before incubation with cytosol, purified plus-end vesicles moved exclusively to microtubule minus ends instead of moving in the normal plus-end direction. This reversal in the direction of movement of trypsinized plus-end vesicles, in light of further observation that cytosol promotes primarily minus-end movement of liposomes, suggests that the machinery for cytoplasmic dynein-driven, minus-end vesicle movement can establish a functional interaction with the lipid bilayers of both vesicle populations. The additional finding that kinesin overrides cytoplasmic dynein when both are bound to bead surfaces indicates that the direction of vesicle movement could be regulated simply by the presence or absence of a tightly bound, plus-end kinesin motor; being processive and tightly bound, the kinesin motor would override the activity of cytoplasmic dynein because the latter is weakly bound to vesicles and less processive. In support of this model, it was found that (a) only plus-end vesicles copurified with tightly bound kinesin motors; and (b) both plus- and minus-end vesicles bound cytoplasmic dynein from cytosol. PMID:8896596

  8. Ca2+ Transport in Membrane Vesicles from Pinto Bean Leaves and Its Alteration after Ozone Exposure 1

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Federico J.; Heath, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of ozone on Ca2+ transport in plant membranes from pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves was investigated in vitro by means of a filtration method using purified vesicles. Two transport mechanisms located at the plasma membrane are involved in a response to ozone: (a) passive Ca2+ influx into the cell and (b) active Ca2+ efflux driven by an ATP-dependent system, which has two components: a primary Ca2+ transport directly linked to ATP which is partially activated by calmodulin and a H+/Ca2+ antiport coupled to activity of a H+-ATPase. The passive Ca2+ permeability is increased by ozone. A triangular pulse of ozone stimulates a higher influx of Ca2+ than does a square wave, even though the total dose was the same (0.6 microliter per liter × hour). Leaves exposed to a square wave did not exhibit visible injury and were still able to recover from oxidant stress by activation of calmodulin-dependent Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms. On the other hand, leaves exposed to a triangular wave of ozone, exhibit visible injury and lost the ability of extruding Ca2+ out of the cell. PMID:16667780

  9. Na-dependent L-proline transport by eel intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Vilella, S.; Ahearn, G.A.; Cassano, G.; Storelli, C. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu )

    1988-10-01

    L-({sup 3}H)proline uptake by brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from intestinal mucosa of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla, was stimulated by a transmembrane Na gradient (out > in.) Kinetic analysis of L-proline influx, under short-circuited membrane potential conditions, indicated the presence of an apparent single Na-dependent carrier process and a nonsaturable transfer component with an apparent diffusional permeability (P) of 1.53 {plus minus} 0.35 {mu}l{center dot}mg protein{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}. An imposed transmembrane potential (inside negative) increased apparent L-proline binding affinity (lowered K{sub app}) without appreciably altering maximal amino acid influx (J{sub max}). Hill analysis of L-proline influx over a wide range of external Na concentrations indicated a 1:1 stoichiometry for Na-proline cotransport. Use of amino acid inhibitors of L-proline influx suggested that L-proline transfer may occur by either a classical Na-dependent A System with a wide substrate specificity or by the combination of Na-dependent PHE (phenylalanine preferring) and IMINO (proline, {alpha}-methylaminoisobutyric acid preferring) Systems.

  10. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  11. 78 kDa receptor for Man6P-independent lysosomal enzyme targeting: Biosynthetic transport from endoplasmic reticulum to 'high-density vesicles'

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso . E-mail: gonor@biomedicas.unam.mx; Ortega Cuellar, Daniel D.; Michalak, Colette

    2006-04-15

    Recent work has shown that the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate and the 78 kDa receptors for lysosomal enzyme targeting are located in different cell compartments. While the mannose 6-phosphate receptor is enriched in the Percoll fractions that contain Golgi apparatus, most of the 78 kDa receptor is localized in a heavy fraction at the bottom of the Percoll gradient. This report presents the biosynthetic transport of the 78 kDa receptor. Newly synthesized 78 kDa receptor was transported to Golgi from endoplasmic reticulum with a half life of 5 min. From the Golgi apparatus, the receptor takes two routes; about 15-25% is transported to the plasma membrane, and the rest migrates to late endosomes, subsequently to prelysosomes and finally to the dense vesicles. The 78 kDa receptor starts appearing at the dense vesicles 120 min after biosynthesis and reaches a maximum of 40-50% of the total receptor. Treatment of cells with NH{sub 4}Cl causes depletion of the receptor from the dense vesicles and prelysosomes and corresponding augmentation in endosomes and plasma membrane. These results suggest that the 78 kDa receptor cycles between compartments and that the dense vesicles seem to represent the most distal compartment in the biosynthetic pathway of this receptor.

  12. The Ap3b1 gene regulates the ocular melanosome biogenesis and tyrosinase distribution differently from the Hps1 gene.

    PubMed

    Jing, Renwei; Dong, Xuan; Li, Kailin; Yan, Jie; Chen, Xiangyuan; Feng, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder in humans and mice. The pearl (pe) mouse, a mouse model for the human HPS-2, bears a mutation in Ap3b1 gene. Here we investigated the pigmentation in eyes of pearl (pe) mice, and compared it with our previously published data in pale ear (ep) mice. We revealed that the hypopigmentation in eyes of pearl mice was more severe than pale ear mice, especially in the neural crest-derived tissues. However, the total tyrosinase activity in eyes of pearl mice was stronger than pale ear mice, suggesting that the degradation of aberrantly transported tyrosinase in eyes of pearl mice was weaker than that of pale ear mice. Furthermore, the pigmentation in eyes of mice doubly heterozygous for Hps1 and Ap3b1 genes was similar to the wild-type, while the hypopigmentation in iris of double mutant mice was more severe than either single mutant. Besides, we found several previously reported characters in pale ear mice, including macromelanosomes in the neural crest-derived melanocytes and increased accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE, were absent in pearl mice. Our study indicates that Ap3b1 gene play distinct roles in melanin production and tyrosinase distribution compared with Hps1 gene. PMID:25160823

  13. Exosomes account for vesicle-mediated transcellular transport of activatable phospholipases and prostaglandins[S

    PubMed Central

    Subra, Caroline; Grand, David; Laulagnier, Karine; Stella, Alexandre; Lambeau, Gérard; Paillasse, Michael; De Medina, Philippe; Monsarrat, Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc; Record, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are bioactive vesicles released from multivesicular bodies (MVB) by intact cells and participate in intercellular signaling. We investigated the presence of lipid-related proteins and bioactive lipids in RBL-2H3 exosomes. Besides a phospholipid scramblase and a fatty acid binding protein, the exosomes contained the whole set of phospholipases (A2, C, and D) together with interacting proteins such as aldolase A and Hsp 70. They also contained the phospholipase D (PLD) / phosphatidate phosphatase 1 (PAP1) pathway leading to the formation of diglycerides. RBL-2H3 exosomes also carried members of the three phospholipase A2 classes: the calcium-dependent cPLA2-IVA, the calcium-independent iPLA2-VIA, and the secreted sPLA2-IIA and V. Remarkably, almost all members of the Ras GTPase superfamily were present, and incubation of exosomes with GTPγS triggered activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)and PLD2. A large panel of free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA) and derivatives such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandinJ2 (15-d PGJ2), were detected. We observed that the exosomes were internalized by resting and activated RBL cells and that they accumulated in an endosomal compartment. Endosomal concentrations were in the micromolar range for prostaglandins; i.e., concentrations able to trigger prostaglandin-dependent biological responses. Therefore exosomes are carriers of GTP-activatable phospholipases and lipid mediators from cell to cell. PMID:20424270

  14. Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Transport of Biologically Active Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K.; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Conclusion/Significance Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and

  15. A metal-ion NMR investigation of the antibiotic facilitated transport of monovalent cations through the walls of phospholipid vesicles. II. Sulfur-33 NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Buster, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed to investigate the antibiotic facilitated transmembrane transport of monovalent cations using {sup 23}Na and {sup 7}Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The initial portion of this thesis outlines the production and characterization of a model lipid system amenable to the NMR detection of cation transport. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) have been prepared from a 4:1 mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The presence of the anionic chemical shift reagent dysprosium (III) tripolyphosphate, either inside or outside of the vesicles, allows for the spectroscopic separation of the NMR resonances arising from the inter- and extravesicular cation pools. The cation transporting properties of the channel-forming pentadecapeptide, gramicidin D, have been studied using the NMR technique.

  16. A Putative Small Solute Transporter Is Responsible for the Secretion of G377 and TRAP-Containing Secretory Vesicles during Plasmodium Gamete Egress and Sporozoite Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, Jessica; Singer, Mirko; Lemgruber, Leandro; Silva, Patricia A. G. C.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mair, Gunnar R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulated protein secretion is required for malaria parasite life cycle progression and transmission between the mammalian host and mosquito vector. During transmission from the host to the vector, exocytosis of highly specialised secretory vesicles, such as osmiophilic bodies, is key to the dissolution of the red blood cell and parasitophorous vacuole membranes enabling gamete egress. The positioning of adhesins from the TRAP family, from micronemes to the sporozoite surface, is essential for gliding motility of the parasite and transmission from mosquito to mammalian host. Here we identify a conserved role for the putative pantothenate transporter PAT in Plasmodium berghei in vesicle fusion of two distinct classes of vesicles in gametocytes and sporozoites. PAT is a membrane component of osmiophilic bodies in gametocytes and micronemes in sporozoites. Despite normal formation and trafficking of osmiophilic bodies to the cell surface upon activation, PAT-deficient gametes fail to discharge their contents, remain intraerythrocytic and unavailable for fertilisation and further development in the mosquito. Sporozoites lacking PAT fail to secrete TRAP, are immotile and thus unable to infect the subsequent rodent host. Thus, P. berghei PAT appears to regulate exocytosis in two distinct populations of vesicles in two different life cycle forms rather than acting as pantothenic transporter during parasite transmission. PMID:27427910

  17. A Model for Growth of a Single Fungal Hypha Based on Well-Mixed Tanks in Series: Simulation of Nutrient and Vesicle Transport in Aerial Reproductive Hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Balmant, Wellington; Sugai-Guérios, Maura Harumi; Coradin, Juliana Hey; Krieger, Nadia; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Current models that describe the extension of fungal hyphae and development of a mycelium either do not describe the role of vesicles in hyphal extension or do not correctly describe the experimentally observed profile for distribution of vesicles along the hypha. The present work uses the n-tanks-in-series approach to develop a model for hyphal extension that describes the intracellular transport of nutrient to a sub-apical zone where vesicles are formed and then transported to the tip, where tip extension occurs. The model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature for the extension of reproductive aerial hyphae of three different fungi, and was able to describe different profiles involving acceleration and deceleration of the extension rate. A sensitivity analysis showed that the supply of nutrient to the sub-apical vesicle-producing zone is a key factor influencing the rate of extension of the hypha. Although this model was used to describe the extension of a single reproductive aerial hypha, the use of the n-tanks-in-series approach to representing the hypha means that the model has the flexibility to be extended to describe the growth of other types of hyphae and the branching of hyphae to form a complete mycelium. PMID:25785863

  18. A model for growth of a single fungal hypha based on well-mixed tanks in series: simulation of nutrient and vesicle transport in aerial reproductive hyphae.

    PubMed

    Balmant, Wellington; Sugai-Guérios, Maura Harumi; Coradin, Juliana Hey; Krieger, Nadia; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Current models that describe the extension of fungal hyphae and development of a mycelium either do not describe the role of vesicles in hyphal extension or do not correctly describe the experimentally observed profile for distribution of vesicles along the hypha. The present work uses the n-tanks-in-series approach to develop a model for hyphal extension that describes the intracellular transport of nutrient to a sub-apical zone where vesicles are formed and then transported to the tip, where tip extension occurs. The model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature for the extension of reproductive aerial hyphae of three different fungi, and was able to describe different profiles involving acceleration and deceleration of the extension rate. A sensitivity analysis showed that the supply of nutrient to the sub-apical vesicle-producing zone is a key factor influencing the rate of extension of the hypha. Although this model was used to describe the extension of a single reproductive aerial hypha, the use of the n-tanks-in-series approach to representing the hypha means that the model has the flexibility to be extended to describe the growth of other types of hyphae and the branching of hyphae to form a complete mycelium.

  19. NINL and DZANK1 Co-function in Vesicle Transport and Are Essential for Photoreceptor Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dona, Margo; Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra; Texier, Yves; Toedt, Grischa; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Tonnaer, Edith L; Peters, Theo A; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Bergboer, Judith G M; Horn, Nicola; de Vrieze, Erik; Slijkerman, Ralph W N; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Flik, Gert; Keunen, Jan E; Ueffing, Marius; Gibson, Toby J; Roepman, Ronald; Boldt, Karsten; Kremer, Hannie; van Wijk, Erwin

    2015-10-01

    Ciliopathies are Mendelian disorders caused by dysfunction of cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in fluid propulsion (motile cilia) or signal transduction (primary cilia). Retinal dystrophy is a common phenotypic characteristic of ciliopathies since photoreceptor outer segments are specialized primary cilia. These ciliary structures heavily rely on intracellular minus-end directed transport of cargo, mediated at least in part by the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, for their formation, maintenance and function. Ninein-like protein (NINL) is known to associate with this motor complex and is an important interaction partner of the ciliopathy-associated proteins lebercilin, USH2A and CC2D2A. Here, we scrutinize the function of NINL with combined proteomic and zebrafish in vivo approaches. We identify Double Zinc Ribbon and Ankyrin Repeat domains 1 (DZANK1) as a novel interaction partner of NINL and show that loss of Ninl, Dzank1 or both synergistically leads to dysmorphic photoreceptor outer segments, accumulation of trans-Golgi-derived vesicles and mislocalization of Rhodopsin and Ush2a in zebrafish. In addition, retrograde melanosome transport is severely impaired in zebrafish lacking Ninl or Dzank1. We further demonstrate that NINL and DZANK1 are essential for intracellular dynein-based transport by associating with complementary subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, thus shedding light on the structure and stoichiometry of this important motor complex. Altogether, our results support a model in which the NINL-DZANK1 protein module is involved in the proper assembly and folding of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex in photoreceptor cells, a process essential for outer segment formation and function.

  20. NINL and DZANK1 Co-function in Vesicle Transport and Are Essential for Photoreceptor Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Texier, Yves; Toedt, Grischa; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Tonnaer, Edith L.; Peters, Theo A.; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Bergboer, Judith G. M.; Horn, Nicola; de Vrieze, Erik; Slijkerman, Ralph W. N.; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Flik, Gert; Keunen, Jan E.; Ueffing, Marius; Gibson, Toby J.; Roepman, Ronald; Boldt, Karsten; Kremer, Hannie; van Wijk, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Ciliopathies are Mendelian disorders caused by dysfunction of cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in fluid propulsion (motile cilia) or signal transduction (primary cilia). Retinal dystrophy is a common phenotypic characteristic of ciliopathies since photoreceptor outer segments are specialized primary cilia. These ciliary structures heavily rely on intracellular minus-end directed transport of cargo, mediated at least in part by the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, for their formation, maintenance and function. Ninein-like protein (NINL) is known to associate with this motor complex and is an important interaction partner of the ciliopathy-associated proteins lebercilin, USH2A and CC2D2A. Here, we scrutinize the function of NINL with combined proteomic and zebrafish in vivo approaches. We identify Double Zinc Ribbon and Ankyrin Repeat domains 1 (DZANK1) as a novel interaction partner of NINL and show that loss of Ninl, Dzank1 or both synergistically leads to dysmorphic photoreceptor outer segments, accumulation of trans-Golgi-derived vesicles and mislocalization of Rhodopsin and Ush2a in zebrafish. In addition, retrograde melanosome transport is severely impaired in zebrafish lacking Ninl or Dzank1. We further demonstrate that NINL and DZANK1 are essential for intracellular dynein-based transport by associating with complementary subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, thus shedding light on the structure and stoichiometry of this important motor complex. Altogether, our results support a model in which the NINL-DZANK1 protein module is involved in the proper assembly and folding of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex in photoreceptor cells, a process essential for outer segment formation and function. PMID:26485514

  1. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors

    SciTech Connect

    da Silva, Roberta Peres; Heiss, Christian; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Gerlach, Jared Q.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Joshi, Lokesh; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Puccia, Rosana

    2015-09-21

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) and α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)- Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin microarray profiling revealed terminal Man and GlcNAc residues exposed at the EVs surface. Mammalian lectin microarray profiling showed that DC-SIGN receptors recognized surface carbohydrate in Paracoccidioides EVs. Our results suggest that oligosaccharides, cytoplasmic storage, and cell wall polysaccharides can be exported in fungal EVs, which also expose surface PAMPs and lectins. As a result, the role of these newly identified components in the interaction with the host remains to be unraveled.

  2. Ablation of Vacuole Protein Sorting 18 (Vps18) Gene Leads to Neurodegeneration and Impaired Neuronal Migration by Disrupting Multiple Vesicle Transport Pathways to Lysosomes*♦

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chao; Ye, Jian; Yan, Shunfei; Kong, Shanshan; Shen, Ye; Li, Chenyu; Li, Qinyu; Zheng, Yufang; Deng, Kejing; Xu, Tian; Tao, Wufan

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular vesicle transport pathways are critical for neuronal survival and central nervous system development. The Vps-C complex regulates multiple vesicle transport pathways to the lysosome in lower organisms. However, little is known regarding its physiological function in mammals. We deleted Vps18, a central member of Vps-C core complex, in neural cells by generating Vps18F/F; Nestin-Cre mice (Vps18 conditional knock-out mice). These mice displayed severe neurodegeneration and neuronal migration defects. Mechanistic studies revealed that Vps18 deficiency caused neurodegeneration by blocking multiple vesicle transport pathways to the lysosome, including autophagy, endocytosis, and biosynthetic pathways. Our study also showed that ablation of Vps18 resulted in up-regulation of β1 integrin in mouse brain probably due to lysosome dysfunction but had no effects on the reelin pathway, expression of N-cadherin, or activation of JNK, which are implicated in the regulation of neuronal migration. Finally, we demonstrated that knocking down β1 integrin partially rescued the migration defects, suggesting that Vps18 deficiency-mediated up-regulation of β1 integrin may contribute to the defect of neuronal migration in the Vps18-deficient brain. Our results demonstrate important roles of Vps18 in neuron survival and migration, which are disrupted in multiple neural disorders. PMID:22854957

  3. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  4. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  5. Gas vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Walsby, A E

    1994-01-01

    The gas vesicle is a hollow structure made of protein. It usually has the form of a cylindrical tube closed by conical end caps. Gas vesicles occur in five phyla of the Bacteria and two groups of the Archaea, but they are mostly restricted to planktonic microorganisms, in which they provide buoyancy. By regulating their relative gas vesicle content aquatic microbes are able to perform vertical migrations. In slowly growing organisms such movements are made more efficiently than by swimming with flagella. The gas vesicle is impermeable to liquid water, but it is highly permeable to gases and is normally filled with air. It is a rigid structure of low compressibility, but it collapses flat under a certain critical pressure and buoyancy is then lost. Gas vesicles in different organisms vary in width, from 45 to > 200 nm; in accordance with engineering principles the narrower ones are stronger (have higher critical pressures) than wide ones, but they contain less gas space per wall volume and are therefore less efficient at providing buoyancy. A survey of gas-vacuolate cyanobacteria reveals that there has been natural selection for gas vesicles of the maximum width permitted by the pressure encountered in the natural environment, which is mainly determined by cell turgor pressure and water depth. Gas vesicle width is genetically determined, perhaps through the amino acid sequence of one of the constituent proteins. Up to 14 genes have been implicated in gas vesicle production, but so far the products of only two have been shown to be present in the gas vesicle: GvpA makes the ribs that form the structure, and GvpC binds to the outside of the ribs and stiffens the structure against collapse. The evolution of the gas vesicle is discussed in relation to the homologies of these proteins. Images PMID:8177173

  6. KIF1A, an Axonal Transporter of Synaptic Vesicles, Is Mutated in Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Ramalingam, Siriram; Lavastre, Valérie; Shekarabi, Masoud; Holbert, Sébastien; Lafontaine, Julie; Srour, Myriam; Merner, Nancy; Rochefort, Daniel; Hince, Pascale; Gaudet, Rébecca; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Baets, Jonathan; Houlden, Henry; Brais, Bernard; Nicholson, Garth A.; Van Esch, Hilde; Nafissi, Shahriar; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M.; Timmerman, Vincent; Dion, Patrick A.; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSANII) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by peripheral nerve degeneration resulting in a severe distal sensory loss. Although mutations in FAM134B and the HSN2 exon of WNK1 were associated with HSANII, the etiology of a substantial number of cases remains unexplained. In addition, the functions of WNK1/HSN2 and FAM134B and their role in the peripheral nervous system remain poorly understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that KIF1A, an axonal transporter of synaptic vesicles, interacts with the domain encoded by the HSN2 exon. In parallel to this screen, we performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping in a consanguineous Afghan family affected by HSANII and identified a unique region of homozygosity located on chromosome 2q37.3 and spanning the KIF1A gene locus. Sequencing of KIF1A in this family revealed a truncating mutation segregating with the disease phenotype. Subsequent sequencing of KIF1A in a series of 112 unrelated patients with features belonging to the clinical spectrum of ulcero-mutilating sensory neuropathies revealed truncating mutations in three additional families, thus indicating that mutations in KIF1A are a rare cause of HSANII. Similarly to WNK1 mutations, pathogenic mutations in KIF1A were almost exclusively restricted to an alternatively spliced exon. This study provides additional insights into the molecular pathogenesis of HSANII and highlights the potential biological relevance of alternative splicing in the peripheral sensory nervous system. PMID:21820098

  7. Human SEC13Rp functions in yeast and is located on transport vesicles budding from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sec13p is required for intracellular protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, and has also been identified as a component of the COPII vesicle coat structure. Recently, a human cDNA encoding a protein 53% identical to yeast Sec13p has been isolated. In this report, we apply the genetic assays of complementation and synthetic lethality to demonstrate the conservation of function between this human protein, designated SEC13Rp, and yeast Sec13p. We show that two reciprocal human/yeast fusion constructs, encoding the NH2-terminal half of one protein and the COOH-terminal half of the other, can each complement the secretion defect of a sec13-1 mutant at 36 degrees C. The chimera encoding the NH2-terminal half of the yeast protein and the COOH-terminal half of the human protein is also able to complement a SEC13 deletion. Overexpression of either the entire human SEC13Rp protein or the chimera encoding the NH2-terminal half of the human protein and the COOH-terminal half of the yeast protein inhibits the growth of a sec13- 1 mutant at 24 degrees C; this growth inhibition is not seen in a wild- type strain nor in other sec mutants, suggesting that the NH2-terminal half of SEC13Rp may compete with Sec13-1p for a common target. We show by immunoelectronmicroscopy of mammalian cells that SEC13Rp (like the putative mammalian homologues of the COPII subunits Sar1p and Sec23p) resides in the region of the transitional ER. We also show that the distribution of SEC13Rp is not affected by brefeldin A treatment. This report presents the first demonstration of a putative mammalian COPII component functioning in yeast, and highlights a potentially useful approach for the study of conserved mammalian proteins in a genetically tractable system. PMID:7876304

  8. The Arabidopsis Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III Regulates Internal Vesicle Formation of the Prevacuolar Compartment and Is Required for Plant Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yi; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Gao, Caiji; Wang, Xiangfeng; Jiang, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    We have established an efficient transient expression system with several vacuolar reporters to study the roles of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III subunits in regulating the formation of intraluminal vesicles of prevacuolar compartments (PVCs)/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in plant cells. By measuring the distributions of reporters on/within the membrane of PVC/MVB or tonoplast, we have identified dominant negative mutants of ESCRT-III subunits that affect membrane protein degradation from both secretory and endocytic pathways. In addition, induced expression of these mutants resulted in reduction in luminal vesicles of PVC/MVB, along with increased detection of membrane-attaching vesicles inside the PVC/MVB. Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with induced expression of ESCRT-III dominant negative mutants also displayed severe cotyledon developmental defects with reduced cell size, loss of the central vacuole, and abnormal chloroplast development in mesophyll cells, pointing out an essential role of the ESCRT-III complex in postembryonic development in plants. Finally, membrane dissociation of ESCRT-III components is important for their biological functions and is regulated by direct interaction among Vacuolar Protein Sorting-Associated Protein20-1 (VPS20.1), Sucrose Nonfermenting7-1, VPS2.1, and the adenosine triphosphatase VPS4/SUPPRESSOR OF K+ TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1. PMID:24812106

  9. The glucose transporter (GLUT-4) and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2) are segregated from recycling endosomes in insulin- sensitive cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose transport in adipocytes by translocation of the glucose transporter (GLUT-4) from an intracellular site to the cell surface. We have characterized different synaptobrevin/vesicle- associated membrane protein (VAMP) homologues in adipocytes and studied their intracellular distribution with respect to GLUT-4. VAMP-1, VAMP- 2, and cellubrevin cDNAs were isolated from a 3T3-L1 adipocyte expression library. VAMP-2 and cellubrevin were: (a) the most abundant isoforms in adipocytes, (b) detectable in all insulin responsive tissues, (c) translocated to the cell surface in response to insulin, and (d) found in immunoadsorbed GLUT-4 vesicles. To further define their intracellular distribution, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with a transferrin/HRP conjugate (Tf/HRP) and endosomes ablated following addition of DAB and H2O2. While this resulted in ablation of > 90% of the transferrin receptor (TfR) and cellubrevin found in intracellular membranes, 60% of GLUT-4 and 90% of VAMP-2 was not ablated. Immuno-EM on intracellular vesicles from adipocytes revealed that VAMP-2 was colocalized with GLUT-4, whereas only partial colocalization was observed between GLUT-4 and cellubrevin. These studies show that two different v-SNAREs, cellubrevin and VAMP-2, are partially segregated in different intracellular compartments in adipocytes, implying that they may define separate classes of secretory vesicles in these cells. We conclude that a proportion of GLUT-4 is found in recycling endosomes in nonstimulated adipocytes together with cellubrevin and the transferrin receptor. In addition, GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 are selectively enriched in a postendocytic compartment. Further study is required to elucidate the function of this latter compartment in insulin-responsive cells. PMID:8707843

  10. Functional specialization of duplicated AP3-like genes in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Roque, Edelín; Serwatowska, Joanna; Cruz Rochina, M; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Yenush, Lynne; Beltrán, José Pío; Cañas, Luis A

    2013-02-01

    The B-class of MADS box genes has been studied in a wide range of plant species, but has remained largely uncharacterized in legumes. Here we investigate the evolutionary fate of the duplicated AP3-like genes of a legume species. To obtain insight into the extent to which B-class MADS box gene functions are conserved or have diversified in legumes, we isolated and characterized the two members of the AP3 lineage in Medicago truncatula: MtNMH7 and MtTM6 (euAP3 and paleoAP3 genes, respectively). A non-overlapping and complementary expression pattern of both genes was observed in petals and stamens. MtTM6 was expressed predominantly in the outer cell layers of both floral organs, and MtNMH7 in the inner cell layers of petals and stamens. Functional analyses by reverse genetics approaches (RNAi and Tnt1 mutagenesis) showed that the contribution of MtNMH7 to petal identity is more important than that of MtTM6, whereas MtTM6 plays a more important role in stamen identity than its paralog MtNMH7. Our results suggest that the M. truncatula AP3-like genes have undergone a functional specialization process associated with complete partitioning of gene expression patterns of the ancestral gene lineage. We provide information regarding the similarities and differences in petal and stamen development among core eudicots.

  11. Decrease of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles by NO/sub 3//sup -/ and Cl/sup -/: evidence for H/sup +/-coupled anion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, K.S.; Sze, H.

    1987-03-01

    Chloride or nitrate decreased a pH gradient (measured as (/sup 14/C)methylamine accumulation) in tonoplast-enriched vesicles. The ..delta..pH decrease was dependent on the anion concentration. These effects are independent of the anion-sensitive H/sup +/-ATPase of the tonoplast, since the pH gradient (acid inside) was imposed artificially using a pH jump or a K/sup +/ gradient and nigericin. 4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid partially prevented the decrease in pH gradient induced by Cl/sup -/. Two possible models to account for this anion-dependent decrease of ..delta..pH are: (a) H/sup +/ loss is accompanied by Cl/sup -/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/ efflux from the vesicles via H/sup +//anion symport systems on the tonoplast and (b) H/sup +/ loss is accompanied by Cl/sup -/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake into the vesicles via H/sup +//anion antiport systems. Depending on the requirements and conditions of the cell, these two systems would serve to either mobilize Cl/sup -/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ stored in the vacuole for use in the cytoplasm or to drive anions into the vacuole. Chloride or nitrate also decreased a pH gradient in fractions containing plasma membrane and Golgi, implying that these membranes may have similar H/sup +/-coupled anion transport systems.

  12. Matrix Proteins of Nipah and Hendra Viruses Interact with Beta Subunits of AP-3 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S.; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998

  13. Optimization of the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice for Antiproton Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; /Fermilab

    2001-01-22

    During 8 GeV antiproton transfers between the Accumulator to the Main Injector, the antiprotons must travel through four separate beam lines, AP3, AP1, P2, and P1. This note describes the optimization of a single lattice that describes these beam lines for 8 GeV antiproton transfers from the Accumulator to the Main Injector and 8 GeV proton transfers from the Main Injector to the Accumulator.

  14. Proteolytic cleavage of cellubrevin and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) by tetanus toxin does not impair insulin-stimulated glucose transport or GLUT4 translocation in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hajduch, E; Aledo, J C; Watts, C; Hundal, H S

    1997-01-01

    Acute insulin stimulation of glucose transport in fat and skeletal muscle occurs principally as a result of the hormonal induced translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular vesicular stores to the plasma membrane. The precise mechanisms governing the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane are very poorly understood at present but may share some similarities with synaptic vesicle fusion, as vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) and cellubrevin, two proteins implicated in the process of membrane fusion, are resident in GLUT4-containing vesicles isolated from rat and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes respectively. In this study we show that proteolysis of both cellubrevin and VAMP, induced by electroporation of isolated rat adipocytes with tetanus toxin, does not impair insulin-stimulated glucose transport or GLUT4 translocation. The hormone was found to stimulate glucose uptake by approx. 16-fold in freshly isolated rat adipocytes. After a single electroporating pulse, the ability of insulin to activate glucose uptake was lowered, but the observed stimulation was nevertheless nearly 5-fold higher than the basal rate of glucose uptake. Electroporation of adipocytes with 600 nM tetanus toxin resulted in a complete loss of both cellubrevin and VAMP expression within 60 min. However, toxin-mediated proteolysis of both these proteins had no effect on the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose transport which was elevated approx. 5-fold, an activation of comparable magnitude to that observed in cells electroporated without tetanus toxin. The lack of any significant change in insulin-stimulated glucose transport was consistent with the finding that toxin-mediated proteolysis of both cellubrevin and VAMP had no detectable effect on insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Our findings indicate that, although cellubrevin and VAMP are resident proteins in adipocyte GLUT4-containing vesicles, they are not required for the acute insulin

  15. Chlordecone impairs Na(+)-stimulated L-( sup 3 H)glutamate transport and mobility of 16-doxyl stearate in rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, L.G.; Miller, T.L.; Curtis, L.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Chlordecone (CD) treatment of rat liver plasma membranes (LPM) provided in vitro evidence for mechanisms of in vivo liver dysfunction caused by CD. LPM preparations enriched 14- to 19-fold in the bile canalicular markers gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and leucine aminopeptidase were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. CD inhibited the bile canalicular-specific active transport of Na(+)-stimulated L-({sup 3}H)glutamate in LPM vesicles. CD (0.08 and 0.5 mumol/mg protein) reduced both the initial velocity and the maximum level of Na(+)-stimulated L-(3H)glutamate uptake without significantly reducing Na(+)-independent uptake. In vitro treatment of LPM with CD (0.2-1.0 mumols/mg protein) also reduced the mobility of a 16-doxyl stearate spin label probe in a concentration-dependent manner. No change in mobility was apparent at CD concentrations below 0.2 mumol/mg protein. These results demonstrated that CD impaired a bile canalicular-specific transport system and induced liver plasma membrane perturbation. Na(+)-stimulated L-({sup 3}H)glutamate uptake was more sensitive to CD than was detectable immobilization of the spin label probe.

  16. Improved Pharmacological and Structural Properties of HIV Fusion Inhibitor AP3 over Enfuvirtide: Highlighting Advantages of Artificial Peptide Strategy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Yun; Ye, Sheng; Wang, Qian; Xu, Wei; Su, Shan; Sun, Zhiwu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Chao; et al

    2015-08-19

    Enfuvirtide (T20), is the first HIV fusion inhibitor approved for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, its clinical application is limited because of short half-life, drug resistance and cross-reactivity with the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients. Using an artificial peptide strategy, we designed a peptide with non-native protein sequence, AP3, which exhibited potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains, including those resistant to T20, and had remarkably longer in vivo half-life than T20. While the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients significantly suppressed T20’s antiviral activity, these antibodies neither recognizedmore » AP3, nor attenuated its anti-HIV-1 activity. Structurally different from T20, AP3 could fold into single-helix and interact with gp41 NHR. The two residues, Met and Thr, at the N-terminus of AP3 form a hook-like structure to stabilize interaction between AP3 and NHR helices. Therefore, AP3 has potential for further development as a new HIV fusion inhibitor with improved antiviral efficacy, resistance profile and pharmacological properties over enfuvirtide. Meanwhile, this study highlighted the advantages of artificially designed peptides, and confirmed that this strategy could be used in developing artificial peptide-based viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses.« less

  17. Small GTPases in vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Arthur J; Ruperti, Benedetto; Palme, Klaus

    2004-12-01

    Plant small GTPases belonging to the Rop, Arf, and Rab families are regulators of vesicle trafficking. Rop GTPases regulate actin dynamics and modulate H(2)O(2) production in polar cell growth and pathogen defence. A candidate Rop GDP to Rop GTP exchange factor (RopGEF) SPIKE1 is involved in the morphogenesis of leaf epidermal cells. The ArfGEF GNOM regulates the endosomal recycling of the PIN proteins, which are involved in polar auxin transport. Intracellular localisation of small GTPases and functional studies using dominant mutant versions of Arf and Rab GTPases are defining novel plant-specific membrane compartments, especially those that participate in endosomal vesicle trafficking.

  18. Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein 3 (VAMP3) Mediates Constitutive Trafficking of the Renal Co-transporter NKCC2 in Thick Ascending Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Paulo S.; Mendez, Mariela; Haque, Mohammed Z.; Ortiz, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Renal cells of the thick ascending limb (TAL) reabsorb NaCl via the apical Na+/K+/2Cl− co-transporter NKCC2. Trafficking of NKCC2 to the apical surface regulates NKCC2-mediated NaCl absorption and blood pressure. The molecular mechanisms by which NKCC2 reaches the apical surface and their role in renal function and maintenance of blood pressure are poorly characterized. Here we report that NKCC2 interacts with the vesicle fusion protein VAMP3, and they co-localize at the TAL apical surface. We observed that silencing VAMP3 in vivo blocks constitutive NKCC2 exocytic delivery, decreasing the amount of NKCC2 at the TAL apical surface. VAMP3 is not required for cAMP-stimulated NKCC2 exocytic delivery. Additionally, genetic deletion of VAMP3 in mice decreased total expression of NKCC2 in the TAL and lowered blood pressure. Consistent with these results, urinary excretion of water and electrolytes was higher in VAMP3 knock-out mice, which produced more diluted urine. We conclude that VAMP3 interacts with NKCC2 and mediates its constitutive exocytic delivery to the apical surface. Additionally, VAMP3 is required for normal NKCC2 expression, renal function, and blood pressure. PMID:27551042

  19. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko; Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G.; Zorec, Robert

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  20. Fluconazole transport into Candida albicans secretory vesicles by the membrane proteins Cdr1p, Cdr2p, and Mdr1p.

    PubMed

    Basso, Luiz R; Gast, Charles E; Mao, Yuxin; Wong, Brian

    2010-06-01

    A major cause of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and/or MDR1, which encode plasma membrane efflux pumps. To analyze the catalytic properties of these pumps, we used ACT1- and GAL1-regulated expression plasmids to overexpress CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 in a C. albicans cdr1 cdr2 mdr1-null mutant. When the genes of interest were expressed, the resulting transformants were more resistant to multiple azole antifungals, and accumulated less [(3)H]fluconazole intracellularly, than empty-vector controls. Next, we used a GAL1-regulated dominant negative sec4 allele to cause cytoplasmic accumulation of post-Golgi secretory vesicles (PGVs), and we found that PGVs isolated from CDR1-, CDR2-, or MDR1-overexpressing cells accumulated much more [(3)H]fluconazole than did PGVs from empty-vector controls. The K(m)s (expressed in micromolar concentrations) and V(max)s (expressed in picomoles per milligram of protein per minute), respectively, for [(3)H]fluconazole transport were 0.8 and 0.91 for Cdr1p, 4.3 and 0.52 for Cdr2p, and 3.5 and 0.59 for Mdr1p. [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Cdr1p and Cdr2p required ATP and was unaffected by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Mdr1p did not require ATP and was inhibited by CCCP. [(3)H]fluconazole uptake by all 3 pumps was inhibited by all other azoles tested, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s; expressed as proportions of the [(3)H]fluconazole concentration) of 0.2 to 5.6 for Cdr1p, 0.3 to 3.1 for Cdr2p, and 0.3 to 3.1 for Mdr1p. The methods used in this study may also be useful for studying other plasma membrane transporters in C. albicans and other medically important fungi.

  1. Demyelination induces transport of ribosome-containing vesicles from glia to axons: evidence from animal models and MS patient brains.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Schenk, Geert J; Hay, Curtis; Kawasoe, Jean; Klaver, Roel; Yong, V Wee; Geurts, Jeroen J G; van Minnen, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Glial cells were previously proven capable of trafficking polyribosomes to injured axons. However, the occurrence of such transfer in the general pathological context, such as demyelination-related diseases, needs further evidence. Since this may be a yet unidentified universal contributor to axonal survival, we study putative glia-axonal ribosome transport in response to demyelination in animal models and patients in both peripheral and central nervous system. In the PNS we investigate whether demyelination in a rodent model has the potential to induce ribosome transfer. We also probe the glia-axonal ribosome supply by implantation of transgenic Schwann cells engineered to produce fluorescent ribosomes in the same demyelination model. We furthermore examine the presence of axonal ribosomes in mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established model for multiple sclerosis (MS), and in human MS autopsy brain material. We provide evidence for increased axonal ribosome content in a pharmacologically demyelinated sciatic nerve, and demonstrate that at least part of these ribosomes originate in the transgenic Schwann cells. In the CNS one of the hallmarks of MS is demyelination, which is associated with severe disruption of oligodendrocyte-axon interaction. Here, we provide evidence that axons from spinal cords of EAE mice, and in the MS human brain contain an elevated amount of axonal ribosomes compared to controls. Our data provide evidence that increased axonal ribosome content in pathological axons is at least partly due to glia-to-axon transfer of ribosomes, and that demyelination in the PNS and in the CNS is one of the triggers capable to initiate this process. PMID:27115494

  2. Synaptosomes as a Platform for Loading Nanoparticles into Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Synaptosomes are intact, isolated nerve terminals that contain the necessary machinery to recycle synaptic vesicles via endocytosis and exocytosis upon stimulation. Here we use this property of synaptosomes to load quantum dots into synaptic vesicles. Vesicles are then isolated from the synaptosomes, providing a method to probe isolated, individual synaptic vesicles where each vesicle contains a single, encapsulated nanoparticle. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of ∼16%; that is, ∼16% of the vesicles contained a single quantum dot while the remaining vesicles were empty. The ability to load single nanoparticles into synaptic vesicles opens new opportunity for employing various nanoparticle-based sensors to study the dynamics of vesicular transporters. PMID:21666849

  3. Engineered Asymmetric Synthetic Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li; Chiarot, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic vesicles are small, fluid-filled spheres that are enclosed by a bilayer of lipid molecules. They can be used as models for investigating membrane biology and as delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals. In practice, it is difficult to simultaneously control membrane asymmetry, unilamellarity, vesicle size, vesicle-to-vesicle uniformity, and luminal content. Membrane asymmetry, where each leaflet of the bilayer is composed of different lipids, is of particular importance as it is a feature of most natural membranes. In this study, we leverage microfluidic technology to build asymmetric vesicles at high-throughput. We use the precise flow control offered by microfluidic devices to make highly uniform emulsions, with controlled internal content, that serve as templates to build the synthetic vesicles. Flow focusing, dielectrophoretic steering, and interfacial lipid self-assembly are critical procedures performed on-chip to produce the vesicles. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy are used to evaluate the vesicle characteristics.

  4. Vesicles Are Persistent Features of Different Plastids.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Emelie; Solymosi, Katalin; Aronsson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Peripheral vesicles in plastids have been observed repeatedly, primarily in proplastids and developing chloroplasts, in which they are suggested to function in thylakoid biogenesis. Previous observations of vesicles in mature chloroplasts have mainly concerned low temperature pretreated plants occasionally treated with inhibitors blocking vesicle fusion. Here, we show that such vesicle-like structures occur not only in chloroplasts and proplastids, but also in etioplasts, etio-chloroplasts, leucoplasts, chromoplasts and even transforming desiccoplasts without any specific pretreatment. Observations are made both in C3 and C4 species, in different cell types (meristematic, epidermis, mesophyll, bundle sheath and secretory cells) and different organs (roots, stems, leaves, floral parts and fruits). Until recently not much focus has been given to the idea that vesicle transport in chloroplasts could be mediated by proteins, but recent data suggest that the vesicle system of chloroplasts has similarities with the cytosolic coat protein complex II system. All current data taken together support the idea of an ongoing, active and protein-mediated vesicle transport not only in chloroplasts but also in other plastids, obviously occurring regardless of chemical modifications, temperature and plastid developmental stage.

  5. Vesicles Are Persistent Features of Different Plastids.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Emelie; Solymosi, Katalin; Aronsson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Peripheral vesicles in plastids have been observed repeatedly, primarily in proplastids and developing chloroplasts, in which they are suggested to function in thylakoid biogenesis. Previous observations of vesicles in mature chloroplasts have mainly concerned low temperature pretreated plants occasionally treated with inhibitors blocking vesicle fusion. Here, we show that such vesicle-like structures occur not only in chloroplasts and proplastids, but also in etioplasts, etio-chloroplasts, leucoplasts, chromoplasts and even transforming desiccoplasts without any specific pretreatment. Observations are made both in C3 and C4 species, in different cell types (meristematic, epidermis, mesophyll, bundle sheath and secretory cells) and different organs (roots, stems, leaves, floral parts and fruits). Until recently not much focus has been given to the idea that vesicle transport in chloroplasts could be mediated by proteins, but recent data suggest that the vesicle system of chloroplasts has similarities with the cytosolic coat protein complex II system. All current data taken together support the idea of an ongoing, active and protein-mediated vesicle transport not only in chloroplasts but also in other plastids, obviously occurring regardless of chemical modifications, temperature and plastid developmental stage. PMID:27405297

  6. AP-3 mediated trafficking of TLR2 ligands controls specificity of inflammatory responses but not adaptor complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja; Kern, Aurelie; Killpack, Tess L.; Bunnell, Stephen C.; Hu, Linden T.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune engagement results in the activation of host defenses that produce microbe-specific inflammatory responses. A long-standing interest in the field of innate immunity is to understand how varied host responses are generated through the signaling of just a limited number of receptors. Recently, intracellular trafficking and compartmental partitioning have been identified as mechanism that provide signaling specificity for receptors by regulating signaling platform assembly. We show that cytokine activation as a result of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulation occurs at different intracellular locations and is mediated by the phagosomal trafficking molecule AP-3. AP-3 is required for trafficking TLR2 purified ligands or the Lyme disease causing bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, to LAMP-1 lysosomal compartments. The presence of AP-3 is necessary for the activation of cytokines such as IL-6 but not TNF-α or type I interferons, suggesting induction of these cytokines occurs from a different compartment. Lack of AP-3 does not interfere with the recruitment of TLR signaling adaptors TRAM and MyD88 to the phagosome, indicating that the TLR-MyD88 signaling complex is assembled at a pre-lysosomal stage and that IL-6 activation depends on proper localization of signaling molecules downstream of MyD88. Finally, infection of AP-3 deficient mice with B. burgdorferi resulted in altered joint inflammation during murine Lyme arthritis. Our studies further elucidate the effects of phagosomal trafficking on tailoring immune responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26423153

  7. Coated vesicles: a diversity of form and function.

    PubMed

    Schmid, S L; Damke, H

    1995-11-01

    In every well-characterized example, the small transport vesicles that mediate membrane trafficking between intracellular organelles are encased in a protein coat. In general, the coat proteins assemble from cytosolic pools onto the membrane and play a critical role in vesicle formation. Recent reviews have emphasized the clear similarities in the mechanisms that drive vesicle budding at distinct cellular locations. Here we focus on the diversity of solutions to an apparently related biological task. These mechanistic differences are likely to be physiologically important determinants of the diversity in form, and function of coated transport vesicles. PMID:7589986

  8. Nanotubes from gelly vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, S.; Campillo, C.; Pepin-Donat, B.; Viallat, A.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    2008-05-01

    Hydrodynamic extrusions of tethers from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) enclosing a poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (polyNIPAM) gel are studied. The collapse of the gel upon heating induces a deswelling of the GUV, showing that the membrane is linked to the polymer network. The gelly vesicle is attached to a micro-rod and submitted to a flow (velocity U). Above a threshold velocity (U>Uc) a tether is extruded and reaches a stationary length L∞simeτ0U in a characteristic time τ0. The vesicle behaves like an entropic spring with a tether length L∞ proportional to the Stokes friction force. Compared to viscous "sol" vesicles, gelly vesicle are much stiffer: L∞ and τ0 being hundred times smaller. We conclude that the mobility of lipids is reduced, only a small portion of the vesicle area being free to flow into the tube.

  9. An API LC/MS/MS quantitation method for ansamitocin P-3 (AP3) and its preclinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongfa; Floss, Heinz G; Cassady, John M; Xiao, Jim; Chan, Kenneth K

    2004-11-19

    Ansamitocin P-3 (AP3) is a potent maytansinoid antitumor agent isolated from microorganisms and mosses. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for quantitation of AP3 was developed and validated. AP3 was extracted from rat plasma along with the internal standard, depsipeptide FK228 (NSC-630176, FR) with ethyl acetate. Components in the extract were separated on a 50mm x 2.1mm Betabasic C 85 microm stainless steel column by isocratic elution with 70% acetonitrile/0.9% formic acid. The liquid flow was passed through a pre-source splitter and 5% of the eluent was introduced into the API source. The components were analyzed in the multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode as the precursor/product ion pair of m/z 635.2/547.2 for AP3 and of m/z 541.5/424.0 for the internal standard FR. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range 1-500 ng/mL using 0.2 mL rat plasma. The within-day coefficients of variation (CVs) were 12.9, 6.7, and 5.5% and the between-day CVs were 10.4, 6.5, and 6.4% (all n = 5) at 1, 10, and 200 ng/mL, respectively. A formulation based on normal saline and PEG300 was then developed and Sprague-Dawley male rats were given this formulated drug by i.v. bolus. Plasma drug concentrations were measured by this method and the pharmacokinetics were analyzed by standard techniques. Plasma concentration-time profiles were found to follow a triexponential decline and the terminal phase was nearly flat, suggesting that the drug distributed in deep tissue compartments or organs and then equilibrates slowly with the blood stream. PMID:15533675

  10. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-09-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization.

  11. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  12. Membrane trafficking: decoding vesicle identity with contrasting chemistries.

    PubMed

    Frost, Adam

    2011-10-11

    Proteins involved in membrane traffic must distinguish between different classes of vesicles. New work now shows that α-synuclein and ALPS motifs represent two extreme types of amphipathic helix that are tuned to detect both the curvature of transport vesicles as well as their bulk lipid content.

  13. Large vesicles record pathways of degassing at basalic volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Polacci, M.; Baker, D.R.; Bai, L.; Mancini, L.

    2008-10-08

    Volcanic degassing is directly linked to magma dynamics and controls the style of eruptive activity. To better understand how gas is transported within basaltic magma we perform a 3D investigation of vesicles preserved in scoria from the 2005 activity at Stromboli volcano (Italy). We find that clasts are characterized by the ubiquitous occurrence of one to a few large vesicles, exhibiting mostly irregular, tortuous, channel-like textures, orders of magnitude greater in volume than all the other vesicles in the sample. We compare observations on natural samples with results from numerical simulations and experimental investigations of vesicle size distributions and demonstrate that this type of vesicle invariably forms in magmas with vesicularities > 0.30 (and possibly > 0.10). We suggest that large vesicles represent pathways used by gas to flow non-explosively to the surface and that they indicate the development of an efficient system that sustains persistent degassing in basaltic systems.

  14. Pulling on adhered vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ana-Suncana; Goennenwein, Stefanie; Lorz, Barbara; Seifert, Udo; Sackmann, Erich

    2004-03-01

    A theoretical model describing pulling of vesicles adhered in a contact potential has been developed. Two different regimes have been recognized. For weak to middle-strength adhesive potentials, locally stable shapes are found in a range of applied forces, separated from the free shape by an energy barrier. The phase diagram contains regions with either a unique bound shape or an additional meta-stable shape. Upon pulling, these shapes unbind discontinuously since the vesicle disengage from the surface while still possessing a finite adhesion area (Smith 2003a). In a strong adhesion regime, a competition between adhesion and tether formation is observed. A critical onset force is identified where a tether spontaneously appears as a part of a second order shape transition. Further growth of a tether is followed by a detachment process which terminates at a finite force when a vesicle continuously unbinds from the substrate (Smith 2003b). Both critical forces, as well as all shape parameters, are calculated as a function of the reduced volume and the strength of adhesive potential. Analogous experimental study has been performed where a vertical magnetic tweezers are used in combination with micro-interferometric and confocal techniques to reproduce the same symmetry as in the theoretical investigation. Giant vesicles are bound to the substrate by numerous specific bonds formed between ligands and receptors incorporated into the vesicle and the substrate, respectively. Application of a constant force is inducing a new thermodynamic equilibrium of the system where the vesicle is partially unbound from the substrate (Goennenwein 2003). The shapes of vesicles are compared prior and during application of the force. Very good agreement is obtained, particularly in the middle-strength adhesion regime (Smith 2003c). References: 1. A.-S. Smith, E. Sackmann, U. Seifert: Effects of a pulling force on the shape of a bound vesicle, Europhys. Lett., 64, 2 (2003). 2. A.-S. Smith

  15. Microfluidic Fabrication of Bio-compatible Vesicles by Self-assembly in Double Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung Shum, Ho; Kim, Jinwoong; Lee, Daeyeon; Weitz, David

    2008-03-01

    Vesicles are compartments surrounded by bilayered membranes of amphiphilic molecules such as diblock copolymers and phospholipids. To minimize the exposure of their hydrophobic part to water, amphiphilic molecules self-assemble into aggregates of different structures. When the hydrophobic to hydrophilic ratio is close to unity, amphiphiles self assemble into bilayers, which tend to fold themselves into vesicles. These vesicles are useful for encapsulating and transporting actives such as drugs, flavor, and fragrance. To solve the problems of low encapsulation efficiency and large vesicle size distributions afforded by traditional techniques to create vesicles, we engineer a novel route to generate vesicles using monodisperse double emulsions prepared in microfluidics as templates. The double emulsion-to-vesicle transition exhibits different behaviors depending on the properties of the amphiphilic molecules such as the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic ratio. Using this technique, we have fabricated both bio-compatible diblock copolymer vesicles, also known as polymersomes, and also lipid vesicles with high encapsulation efficiency.

  16. Characterization of Yeast Extracellular Vesicles: Evidence for the Participation of Different Pathways of Cellular Traffic in Vesicle Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Luna S.; Guimarães, Allan J.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Almeida, Igor C.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles in yeast cells are involved in the molecular traffic across the cell wall. In yeast pathogens, these vesicles have been implicated in the transport of proteins, lipids, polysaccharide and pigments to the extracellular space. Cellular pathways required for the biogenesis of yeast extracellular vesicles are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized extracellular vesicle production in wild type (WT) and mutant strains of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using transmission electron microscopy in combination with light scattering analysis, lipid extraction and proteomics. WT cells and mutants with defective expression of Sec4p, a secretory vesicle-associated Rab GTPase essential for Golgi-derived exocytosis, or Snf7p, which is involved in multivesicular body (MVB) formation, were analyzed in parallel. Bilayered vesicles with diameters at the 100–300 nm range were found in extracellular fractions from yeast cultures. Proteomic analysis of vesicular fractions from the cells aforementioned and additional mutants with defects in conventional secretion pathways (sec1-1, fusion of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane; bos1-1, vesicle targeting to the Golgi complex) or MVB functionality (vps23, late endosomal trafficking) revealed a complex and interrelated protein collection. Semi-quantitative analysis of protein abundance revealed that mutations in both MVB- and Golgi-derived pathways affected the composition of yeast extracellular vesicles, but none abrogated vesicle production. Lipid analysis revealed that mutants with defects in Golgi-related components of the secretory pathway had slower vesicle release kinetics, as inferred from intracellular accumulation of sterols and reduced detection of these lipids in vesicle fractions in comparison with WT cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that both conventional and unconventional pathways of secretion are required for

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Justine E.; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L.

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release. PMID:27392064

  18. Association of Endophilin B1 with Cytoplasmic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Barylko, Barbara; Eichorst, John P; Mueller, Joachim D; Albanesi, Joseph P; Chen, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Endophilins are SH3- and BAR domain-containing proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and vesicle formation. Endophilins A1 and A2 promote the budding of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, whereas endophilin B1 has been implicated in vesicle budding from intracellular organelles, including the trans-Golgi network and late endosomes. We previously reported that endophilins A1 and A2 exist almost exclusively as soluble dimers in the cytosol. Here, we present results of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy analyses indicating that, in contrast, the majority of endophilin B1 is present in multiple copies on small, highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles. Formation of these vesicles was enhanced by overexpression of wild-type dynamin 2, but suppressed by expression of a catalytically inactive dynamin 2 mutant. Using dual-color heterospecies partition analysis, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor on endophilin B1 vesicles. Moreover, a proportion of endophilin B1 vesicles also contained caveolin, whereas clathrin was almost undetectable on those vesicles. These results raise the possibility that endophilin B1 participates in dynamin 2-dependent formation of a population of transport vesicles distinct from those generated by A-type endophilins. PMID:27508440

  19. Stimulatory effects of the putative metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist L-AP3 on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, R.; Prabhu, G.; Godwin, M.; Challiss, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist, L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionate (L-AP3) on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat cerebral cortex slices has been investigated. 2. At concentrations of < or = 300 microM, L-AP3 inhibited total [3H]-inositol phosphate ([3H]-InsPx) and Ins(1,4,5)P3 mass responses stimulated by the selective mGluR agonist, 1-amino-cyclopentane-1S, 3R-dicarboxylic acid (1S, 3R-ACPD). Comparison with the competitive mGluR antagonist (+/-)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+/-)-MCPG) clearly demonstrated that L-AP3 caused inhibition by a mechanism that was not competitive, as L-AP3 decreased the maximal response to 1S, 3R-ACPD (by approximately 40% at 300 microM L-AP3) without significantly affecting the concentration of 1S, 3R-ACPD required to cause half-maximal stimulation of the [3H]-InsPx response. 3. In contrast, at a higher concentration L-AP3 (1 mM) caused a large increase in [3H]-InsPx accumulation which was similar in magnitude in both the absence and presence of 1S, 3R-ACPD (300 microM). D-AP3 (1 mM) had no stimulatory effect alone and did not affect the response evoked by 1S, 3R-ACPD. L-AP3 (1 mM) also caused a large increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation. The magnitude of the response (4-5 fold increase over basal) approached that evoked by a maximally effective concentration of 1S, 3R-ACPD, but differed substantially in the time-course of the response. The stimulatory effects of 1S, 3R-ACPD and L-AP3 on Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation were also similarly affected by decreases in extracellular calcium concentration. 4. Detailed analysis of the inositol phospholipid labelling pattern and the inositol (poly)phosphate isomeric species generated following addition of L-AP3 was also performed. In the continued presence of myo-[3H]-inositol, L-AP3 (1 mM) stimulated a significant increase in phosphatidylinositol labelling, but not that of the polyphosphoinositides, and the inositol (poly)phosphate profile

  20. Astrocytic vesicle mobility in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Potokar, Maja; Vardjan, Nina; Stenovec, Matjaž; Gabrijel, Mateja; Trkov, Saša; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Zorec, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are no longer considered subservient to neurons, and are, instead, now understood to play an active role in brain signaling. The intercellular communication of astrocytes with neurons and other non-neuronal cells involves the exchange of molecules by exocytotic and endocytotic processes through the trafficking of intracellular vesicles. Recent studies of single vesicle mobility in astrocytes have prompted new views of how astrocytes contribute to information processing in nervous tissue. Here, we review the trafficking of several types of membrane-bound vesicles that are specifically involved in the processes of (i) intercellular communication by gliotransmitters (glutamate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, atrial natriuretic peptide), (ii) plasma membrane exchange of transporters and receptors (EAAT2, MHC-II), and (iii) the involvement of vesicle mobility carrying aquaporins (AQP4) in water homeostasis. The properties of vesicle traffic in astrocytes are discussed in respect to networking with neighboring cells in physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and states in which astrocytes contribute to neuroinflammatory conditions.

  1. Astrocytic Vesicle Mobility in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Potokar, Maja; Vardjan, Nina; Stenovec, Matjaž; Gabrijel, Mateja; Trkov, Saša; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Zorec, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are no longer considered subservient to neurons, and are, instead, now understood to play an active role in brain signaling. The intercellular communication of astrocytes with neurons and other non-neuronal cells involves the exchange of molecules by exocytotic and endocytotic processes through the trafficking of intracellular vesicles. Recent studies of single vesicle mobility in astrocytes have prompted new views of how astrocytes contribute to information processing in nervous tissue. Here, we review the trafficking of several types of membrane-bound vesicles that are specifically involved in the processes of (i) intercellular communication by gliotransmitters (glutamate, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, atrial natriuretic peptide), (ii) plasma membrane exchange of transporters and receptors (EAAT2, MHC-II), and (iii) the involvement of vesicle mobility carrying aquaporins (AQP4) in water homeostasis. The properties of vesicle traffic in astrocytes are discussed in respect to networking with neighboring cells in physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and states in which astrocytes contribute to neuroinflammatory conditions. PMID:23712361

  2. Hyperviscous diblock copolymer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova, R.; Seifert, U.; Pouligny, B.; Förster, S.; Döbereiner, H.-G.

    2002-03-01

    Giant vesicles prepared from the diblock copolymer polybutadien-b-polyethyleneoxide (PB-PEO) exhibit a shear surface viscosity, which is about 500 times higher than those found in common phospholipid bilayers. Our result constitutes the first direct measurement of the shear surface viscosity of such polymersomes. At the same time, we measure bending and stretching elastic constants, which fall in the range of values typical for lipid membranes. Pulling out a tether from an immobilized polymersome and following its relaxation back to the vesicle body provides an estimate of the viscous coupling between the two monolayers composing the polymer membrane. The detected intermonolayer friction is about an order of magnitude higher than the characteristic one for phospholipid membranes. Polymersomes are tough vesicles with a high lysis tension. This, together with their robust rheological properties, makes them interesting candidates for a number of technological applications.

  3. Electrohydrodynamics Of Multicomponent Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gera, Prerna; Salac, David

    2015-11-01

    The addition of cholesterol into a lipid membrane induces the formation of distinct domains. These domains try to minimize the overall energy of the system by coalescence and migration. The application of electric fields will induce flow of these membrane domains and influence the rate at which they coarsen. In this work the electrohydrodynamics of multicomponent vesicles is numerically modelled. The method uses a Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model of the lipid domains restricted to a deforming three-dimensional vesicle and will be briefly discussed. Sample results will be presented and compared to experimental observations. This work supported by NSF Grant #1253739.

  4. Trafficking of Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Hao; Grygoruk, Anna; Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Chen, Audrey; Krantz, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters are required for the storage of all classical and amino acid neurotransmitters in secretory vesicles. Transporter expression can influence neurotransmitter storage and release, and trafficking targets the transporters to different types of secretory vesicles. Vesicular transporters traffic to synaptic vesicles as well as large dense core vesicles, and are recycled to synaptic vesicles at the nerve terminal. Some of the intrinsic signals for these trafficking events have been defined and include a dileucine motif present in multiple transporter subtypes, an acidic cluster in the neural isoform of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and a polyproline motif in the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1. The sorting of VMAT2 and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) to secretory vesicles is regulated by phosphorylation. In addition, VGLUT1 uses alternative endocytic pathways for recycling back to synaptic vesicles following exocytosis. Regulation of these sorting events has the potential to influence synaptic transmission and behavior. PMID:18507811

  5. Formation of Golgi-derived active zone precursor vesicles.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Torres, Viviana I; Altrock, Wilko D; Leal-Ortiz, Sergio; Wagh, Dhananjay; Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan T; Fejtova, Anna; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Ziv, Noam E; Garner, Craig C

    2012-08-01

    Vesicular trafficking of presynaptic and postsynaptic components is emerging as a general cellular mechanism for the delivery of scaffold proteins, ion channels, and receptors to nascent and mature synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the selection of cargos and their differential transport to subneuronal compartments are not well understood, in part because of the mixing of cargos at the plasma membrane and/or within endosomal compartments. In the present study, we have explored the cellular mechanisms of active zone precursor vesicle assembly at the Golgi in dissociated hippocampal neurons of Rattus norvegicus. Our studies show that Piccolo, Bassoon, and ELKS2/CAST exit the trans-Golgi network on a common vesicle that requires Piccolo and Bassoon for its proper assembly. In contrast, Munc13 and synaptic vesicle proteins use distinct sets of Golgi-derived transport vesicles, while RIM1α associates with vesicular membranes in a post-Golgi compartment. Furthermore, Piccolo and Bassoon are necessary for ELKS2/CAST to leave the Golgi in association with vesicles, and a core domain of Bassoon is sufficient to facilitate formation of these vesicles. While these findings support emerging principles regarding active zone differentiation, the cellular and molecular analyses reported here also indicate that the Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicles leaving the Golgi may undergo further changes in protein composition before arriving at synaptic sites.

  6. Regulation of synaptic activity by snapin-mediated endolysosomal transport and sorting

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovanni, Jerome; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Recycling synaptic vesicles (SVs) transit through early endosomal sorting stations, which raises a fundamental question: are SVs sorted toward endolysosomal pathways? Here, we used snapin mutants as tools to assess how endolysosomal sorting and trafficking impact presynaptic activity in wild-type and snapin−/− neurons. Snapin acts as a dynein adaptor that mediates the retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs) and interacts with dysbindin, a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex BLOC-1. Expressing dynein-binding defective snapin mutants induced SV accumulation at presynaptic terminals, mimicking the snapin−/− phenotype. Conversely, over-expressing snapin reduced SV pool size by enhancing SV trafficking to the endolysosomal pathway. Using a SV-targeted Ca2+ sensor, we demonstrate that snapin–dysbindin interaction regulates SV positional priming through BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting. Our study reveals a bipartite regulation of presynaptic activity by endolysosomal trafficking and sorting: LE transport regulates SV pool size, and BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting fine-tunes the Ca2+ sensitivity of SV release. Therefore, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance and regulation of SV pool size and synchronized SV fusion through snapin-mediated LE trafficking and endosomal sorting. PMID:26108535

  7. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions--which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes-to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated in

  8. Interaction between silicon dioxide and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, Hur Munawar Kabir; Ahmad, Ainee Fatimah; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rosli, Nur Ratasha Alia Md; Ayob, Muhammad Taqiyuddin Mawardi; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2014-09-03

    Many of the cellular process depend on the ability of the membrane to separate areas while allowing exchange and tightly regulated transport of material within and across the membrane to occur, which is the driving principle behind cell communication. The complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development of a wide variety of simpler model systems whose size, geometry and composition can be tailored with precision. This study was conducted to investigate the interactions between silica nanoparticles and Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles. The size range of DPPC vesicles formed was from 50 to 150 nm. Concentration of silica added to the vesicles was varied from 0.25 to 1.5 mg/ml. The change in vesicle size distribution, localization and positioning of silica nanoparticles in vesicles was studied via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  9. Vesicle-Mediated Steroid Hormone Secretion in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Naoki; Marqués, Guillermo; O'Connor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are a large family of cholesterol derivatives regulating development and physiology in both the animal and plant kingdoms, but little is known concerning mechanisms of their secretion from steroidogenic tissues. Here, we present evidence that in Drosophila, endocrine release of the steroid hormone ecdysone is mediated through a regulated vesicular trafficking mechanism. Inhibition of calcium signaling in the steroidogenic prothoracic gland results in the accumulation of unreleased ecdysone, and the knockdown of calcium-mediated vesicle exocytosis components in the gland caused developmental defects due to deficiency of ecdysone. Accumulation of synaptotagmin-labeled vesicles in the gland is observed when calcium signaling is disrupted, and these vesicles contain an ABC transporter that functions as an ecdysone pump to fill vesicles. We propose that trafficking of steroid hormones out of endocrine cells is not always through a simple diffusion mechanism as presently thought, but instead can involve a regulated vesicle-mediated release process. PMID:26544939

  10. Cellular COPII Proteins Are Involved in Production of the Vesicles That Form the Poliovirus Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Rust, René C.; Landmann, Lukas; Gosert, Rainer; Tang, Bor Luen; Hong, Wanjin; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Egger, Denise; Bienz, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) replicates its genome in association with membranous vesicles in the cytoplasm of infected cells. To elucidate the origin and mode of formation of PV vesicles, immunofluorescence labeling with antibodies against the viral vesicle marker proteins 2B and 2BC, as well as cellular markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), anterograde transport vesicles, and the Golgi complex, was performed in BT7-H cells. Optical sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy were subjected to a deconvolution process to enhance resolution and signal-to-noise ratio and to allow for a three-dimensional representation of labeled membrane structures. The mode of formation of the PV vesicles was, on morphological grounds, similar to the formation of anterograde membrane traffic vesicles in uninfected cells. ER-resident membrane markers were excluded from both types of vesicles, and the COPII components Sec13 and Sec31 were both found to be colocalized on the vesicular surface, indicating the presence of a functional COPII coat. PV vesicle formation during early time points of infection did not involve the Golgi complex. The expression of PV protein 2BC or the entire P2 and P3 genomic region led to the production of vesicles carrying a COPII coat and showing the same mode of formation as vesicles produced after PV infection. These results indicate that PV vesicles are formed at the ER by the cellular COPII budding mechanism and thus are homologous to the vesicles of the anterograde membrane transport pathway. PMID:11559814

  11. Association of the fusion protein NSF with clathrin-coated vesicle membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Steel, G J; Tagaya, M; Woodman, P G

    1996-01-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is a component of intracellular transport reactions. In order to understand the role of NSF during the fusion of endocytic transport vesicles with the endosome, we have investigated the binding of NSF to purified clathrin-coated vesicle components. First, we have examined whether detergent-solubilized coated vesicle membranes will support formation of NSF-containing 'fusion complexes'. Our results show that these membranes are substantially enriched in components capable of driving formation of these complexes, when compared with membranes from other sources. Secondly, we have analysed coated vesicle preparations for their NSF content. Coated vesicle preparations contain significant amounts of NSF. This was shown to be associated with coated vesicles rather than contaminating membranes by a number of criteria, and was found to be bound in an ATP-independent manner. These findings are discussed in the light of current models for vesicle fusion. Images PMID:8631296

  12. H/sup +/-translocating ATPases: advances using membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, two primary active transport systems (H/sup +/ -ATPases) in plant cells are examined using membrane vesicles as a simple experimental tool. One electrogenic, H/sup +/ -translocating ATPase is vanadate-sensitive and associated with the plasma membrane. Another electrogenic, H/sup +/ -translocating ATPases is anion-sensitive, and localized on the tonoplast (and perhaps other membranes). According to the working model, the plasma membrane and tonoplast-type H/sup +/ -ATPases are detectable in inside-out plasma membrane and right-side-out tonoplast vesicles. The direction of H/sup +/ pumping into these vesicles would be consistent with the results from intact cells where H/sup +/ are extruded from the cell across the plasma membrane and pumped into the vacuole from the cytoplasm. Understanding the properties of H/sup +/ -pumping ATPases using membrane vesicles has paved the way for studies to identify secondary active transport systems coupled to the proton electrochemical gradient. Redox-driven transport systems can also be studied directly using the isolated vesicles. As transport proteins are identified, the functional activities can be specifically studied after reconstitution of the purified protein(s) into phospholipid membrane vesicles. 154 references.

  13. Atg9 Vesicles Recruit Vesicle-tethering Proteins Trs85 and Ypt1 to the Autophagosome Formation Site*

    PubMed Central

    Kakuta, Soichiro; Yamamoto, Hayashi; Negishi, Lumi; Kondo-Kakuta, Chika; Hayashi, Nobuhiro; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Atg9 is a transmembrane protein that is essential for autophagy. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has recently been revealed that Atg9 exists on cytoplasmic small vesicles termed Atg9 vesicles. To identify the components of Atg9 vesicles, we purified the Atg9 vesicles and subjected them to mass spectrometry. We found that their protein composition was distinct from other organellar membranes and that Atg9 and Atg27 in particular are major components of Atg9 vesicles. In addition to these two components, Trs85, a specific subunit of the transport protein particle III (TRAPPIII) complex, and the Rab GTPase Ypt1 were also identified. Trs85 directly interacts with Atg9, and the Trs85-containing TRAPPIII complex facilitates the association of Ypt1 onto Atg9 vesicles. We also showed that Trs85 and Ypt1 are localized to the preautophagosomal structure in an Atg9-dependent manner. Our data suggest that Atg9 vesicles recruit the TRAPPIII complex and Ypt1 to the preautophagosomal structure. The vesicle-tethering machinery consequently acts in the process of autophagosome formation. PMID:23129774

  14. Molecular chaperone Hsp110 rescues a vesicle transport defect produced by an ALS-associated mutant SOD1 protein in squid axoplasm.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuyu; Nagy, Maria; Ni, Weiming; Tyagi, Navneet K; Fenton, Wayne A; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Overton, John D; Horwich, Arthur L; Brady, Scott T

    2013-04-01

    Mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is associated with motor neuron toxicity and death in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig disease). One aspect of toxicity in motor neurons involves diminished fast axonal transport, observed both in transgenic mice and, more recently, in axoplasm isolated from squid giant axons. The latter effect appears to be directly mediated by misfolded SOD1, whose addition activates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and phosphorylation of kinesin. Here, we observe that several different oligomeric states of a fusion protein, comprising ALS-associated human G85R SOD1 joined with yellow fluorescent protein (G85R SOD1YFP), which produces ALS in transgenic mice, inhibited anterograde transport when added to squid axoplasm. Inhibition was blocked both by an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1; MAPKKK) inhibitor and by a p38 inhibitor, indicating the transport defect is mediated through the MAPK cascade. In further incubations, we observed that addition of the mammalian molecular chaperone Hsc70, abundantly associated with G85R SOD1YFP in spinal cord of transgenic mice, exerted partial correction of the transport defect, associated with diminished phosphorylation of p38. Most striking, the addition of the molecular chaperone Hsp110, in a concentration substoichiometric to the mutant SOD1 protein, completely rescued both the transport defect and the phosphorylation of p38. Hsp110 has been demonstrated to act as a nucleotide exchange factor for Hsc70 and, more recently, to be able to cooperate with it to mediate protein disaggregation. We speculate that it can cooperate with endogenous squid Hsp(c)70 to mediate binding and/or disaggregation of mutant SOD1 protein, abrogating toxicity.

  15. Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Biller, Steven J; Schubotz, Florence; Roggensack, Sara E; Thompson, Anne W; Summons, Roger E; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2014-01-10

    Many heterotrophic bacteria are known to release extracellular vesicles, facilitating interactions between cells and their environment from a distance. Vesicle production has not been described in photoautotrophs, however, and the prevalence and characteristics of vesicles in natural ecosystems is unknown. Here, we report that cultures of Prochlorococcus, a numerically dominant marine cyanobacterium, continuously release lipid vesicles containing proteins, DNA, and RNA. We also show that vesicles carrying DNA from diverse bacteria are abundant in coastal and open-ocean seawater samples. Prochlorococcus vesicles can support the growth of heterotrophic bacterial cultures, which implicates these structures in marine carbon flux. The ability of vesicles to deliver diverse compounds in discrete packages adds another layer of complexity to the flow of information, energy, and biomolecules in marine microbial communities.

  16. Cooperative stabilization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 promoter open complexes by RbpA and CarD.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L; Prusa, Jerome; Stallings, Christina L; Galburt, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The essential mycobacterial transcriptional regulators RbpA and CarD act to modulate transcription by associating to the initiation complex and increasing the flux of transcript production. Each of these factors interacts directly with the promoter DNA template and with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. We recently reported on the energetics of CarD-mediated open complex stabilization on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal promoter using a stopped-flow fluorescence assay. Here, we apply this approach to RbpA and show that RbpA stabilizes RNAP-promoter open complexes (RPo) via a distinct mechanism from that of CarD. Furthermore, concentration-dependent stopped-flow experiments with both factors reveal positive linkage (cooperativity) between RbpA and CarD with regard to their ability to stabilize RPo The observation of positive linkage between RbpA and CarD demonstrates that the two factors can act on the same transcription initiation complex simultaneously. Lastly, with both factors present, the kinetics of open complex formation is significantly faster than in the presence of either factor alone and approaches that of E. coli RNAP on the same promoter. This work provides a quantitative framework for the molecular mechanisms of these two essential transcription factors and the critical roles they play in the biology and pathology of mycobacteria.

  17. Cooperative stabilization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 promoter open complexes by RbpA and CarD

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L.; Prusa, Jerome; Stallings, Christina L.; Galburt, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The essential mycobacterial transcriptional regulators RbpA and CarD act to modulate transcription by associating to the initiation complex and increasing the flux of transcript production. Each of these factors interacts directly with the promoter DNA template and with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. We recently reported on the energetics of CarD-mediated open complex stabilization on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal promoter using a stopped-flow fluorescence assay. Here, we apply this approach to RbpA and show that RbpA stabilizes RNAP-promoter open complexes (RPo) via a distinct mechanism from that of CarD. Furthermore, concentration-dependent stopped-flow experiments with both factors reveal positive linkage (cooperativity) between RbpA and CarD with regard to their ability to stabilize RPo. The observation of positive linkage between RbpA and CarD demonstrates that the two factors can act on the same transcription initiation complex simultaneously. Lastly, with both factors present, the kinetics of open complex formation is significantly faster than in the presence of either factor alone and approaches that of E. coli RNAP on the same promoter. This work provides a quantitative framework for the molecular mechanisms of these two essential transcription factors and the critical roles they play in the biology and pathology of mycobacteria. PMID:27342278

  18. Cooperative stabilization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 promoter open complexes by RbpA and CarD.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L; Prusa, Jerome; Stallings, Christina L; Galburt, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The essential mycobacterial transcriptional regulators RbpA and CarD act to modulate transcription by associating to the initiation complex and increasing the flux of transcript production. Each of these factors interacts directly with the promoter DNA template and with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. We recently reported on the energetics of CarD-mediated open complex stabilization on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal promoter using a stopped-flow fluorescence assay. Here, we apply this approach to RbpA and show that RbpA stabilizes RNAP-promoter open complexes (RPo) via a distinct mechanism from that of CarD. Furthermore, concentration-dependent stopped-flow experiments with both factors reveal positive linkage (cooperativity) between RbpA and CarD with regard to their ability to stabilize RPo The observation of positive linkage between RbpA and CarD demonstrates that the two factors can act on the same transcription initiation complex simultaneously. Lastly, with both factors present, the kinetics of open complex formation is significantly faster than in the presence of either factor alone and approaches that of E. coli RNAP on the same promoter. This work provides a quantitative framework for the molecular mechanisms of these two essential transcription factors and the critical roles they play in the biology and pathology of mycobacteria. PMID:27342278

  19. Studying calcium triggered vesicle fusion in a single vesicle-vesicle content/lipid mixing system

    PubMed Central

    Kyoung, Minjoung; Zhang, Yunxiang; Diao, Jiajie; Chu, Steven; Brunger, Axel T.

    2013-01-01

    This Protocol describes a single vesicle-vesicle microscopy system to study Ca2+-triggered vesicle fusion. Donor vesicles contain reconstituted synaptobrevin and synaptotagmin-1. Acceptor vesicles contain reconstituted syntaxin and SNAP-25, and are tethered to a PEG-coated glass surface. Donor vesicles are mixed with the tethered acceptor vesicles and incubated for several minutes at zero Ca2+-concentration, resulting in a collection of single interacting vesicle pairs. The donor vesicles also contain two spectrally distinct fluorophores that allow simultaneous monitoring of temporal changes of the content and membrane. Upon Ca2+-injection into the sample chamber, our system therefore differentiates between hemifusion and complete fusion of interacting vesicle pairs and determines the temporal sequence of these events on a sub-hundred millisecond timescale. Other factors, such as complexin, can be easily added. Our system is unique by monitoring both content and lipid mixing, and by starting from a metastable state of interacting vesicle pairs prior to Ca2+-injection. PMID:23222454

  20. Studies of matrix vesicle-induced mineralization in a gelatin gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Boyan, B. D.; Doty, S. B.; Feliciano, A.; Greer, K.; Weiland, D.; Swain, L. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix vesicles isolated from fourth-passage cultures of chondrocytes were tested for their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel in order to gain insight into the function of matrix vesicles in in situ mineralization. These matrix vesicles did not appear to be hydroxyapatite nucleators per se since the extent of mineral accumulation in the gel diffusion system was not altered by the presence of matrix vesicles alone, and in the vesicle containing gels, mineral crystals were formed whether associated with vesicles or not. In gels with these matrix vesicles and beta-glycerophosphate, despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, there was no increase in mineral deposition. This suggested that in the gel system these culture-derived vesicles did not increase local phosphate concentrations. However, when known inhibitors of mineral crystal formation and growth (proteoglycan aggregates [4 mg/ml], or ATP [1 mM], or both proteoglycan and ATP) were included in the gel, more mineral was deposited in gels with the vesicles than in comparable gels without vesicles, indicating that enzymes within these vesicles were functioning to remove the inhibition. These data support the suggestion that one function of the extracellular matrix vesicles is to transport enzymes for matrix modification.

  1. Overexpression of Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein (VAMP) 3, but Not VAMP2, Protects Glucose Transporter (GLUT) 4 Protein Translocation in an in Vitro Model of Cardiac Insulin Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Robert W.; Angin, Yeliz; Steinbusch, Laura K. M.; Dirkx, Ellen; Hoebers, Nicole; Coumans, Will A.; Bonen, Arend; Broers, Jos L. V.; van Eys, Guillaume J. J. M.; Glatz, Jan F. C.; Luiken, Joost J. F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac glucose utilization is regulated by reversible translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane. During the onset of diet-induced insulin resistance, elevated lipid levels in the circulation interfere with insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, leading to impaired glucose utilization. Recently, we identified vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2 and 3 to be required for insulin- and contraction-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, respectively, in cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated whether overexpression of VAMP2 and/or VAMP3 could protect insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation under conditions of insulin resistance. HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes transiently overexpressing either VAMP2 or VAMP3 were cultured for 16 h with elevated concentrations of palmitate and insulin. Upon subsequent acute stimulation with insulin, we measured GLUT4 translocation, plasmalemmal presence of the fatty acid transporter CD36, and myocellular lipid accumulation. Overexpression of VAMP3, but not VAMP2, completely prevented lipid-induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, the plasmalemmal presence of CD36 and intracellular lipid levels remained normal in cells overexpressing VAMP3. However, insulin signaling was not retained, indicating an effect of VAMP3 overexpression downstream of PKB/Akt. Furthermore, we revealed that endogenous VAMP3 is bound by the contraction-activated protein kinase D (PKD), and contraction and VAMP3 overexpression protect insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation via a common mechanism. These observations indicate that PKD activates GLUT4 translocation via a VAMP3-dependent trafficking step, which pathway might be valuable to rescue constrained glucose utilization in the insulin-resistant heart. PMID:22936810

  2. Overexpression of vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 3, but not VAMP2, protects glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 protein translocation in an in vitro model of cardiac insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Robert W; Angin, Yeliz; Steinbusch, Laura K M; Dirkx, Ellen; Hoebers, Nicole; Coumans, Will A; Bonen, Arend; Broers, Jos L V; van Eys, Guillaume J J M; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P

    2012-10-26

    Cardiac glucose utilization is regulated by reversible translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane. During the onset of diet-induced insulin resistance, elevated lipid levels in the circulation interfere with insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, leading to impaired glucose utilization. Recently, we identified vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2 and 3 to be required for insulin- and contraction-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, respectively, in cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated whether overexpression of VAMP2 and/or VAMP3 could protect insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation under conditions of insulin resistance. HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes transiently overexpressing either VAMP2 or VAMP3 were cultured for 16 h with elevated concentrations of palmitate and insulin. Upon subsequent acute stimulation with insulin, we measured GLUT4 translocation, plasmalemmal presence of the fatty acid transporter CD36, and myocellular lipid accumulation. Overexpression of VAMP3, but not VAMP2, completely prevented lipid-induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, the plasmalemmal presence of CD36 and intracellular lipid levels remained normal in cells overexpressing VAMP3. However, insulin signaling was not retained, indicating an effect of VAMP3 overexpression downstream of PKB/Akt. Furthermore, we revealed that endogenous VAMP3 is bound by the contraction-activated protein kinase D (PKD), and contraction and VAMP3 overexpression protect insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation via a common mechanism. These observations indicate that PKD activates GLUT4 translocation via a VAMP3-dependent trafficking step, which pathway might be valuable to rescue constrained glucose utilization in the insulin-resistant heart.

  3. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A.; Dell’Angelica, Esteban C.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions–which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes–to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated

  4. Freeze-thaw and high-voltage discharge allow macromolecule uptake into ileal brush-border vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Donowitz, M.; Emmer, E.; McCullen, J.; Reinlib, L.; Cohen, M.E.; Rood, R.P.; Madara, J.; Sharp, G.W.G.; Murer, H.; Malmstrom, K.

    1987-06-01

    High-voltage discharge or one cycle of freeze-thawing are shown to transiently permeabilize rabbit ileal brush-border membrane vesicles to macromolecules. Uptake of the radiolabeled macromolecule dextran, mol wt 70,000, used as a marker for vesicle permeability, was determined by a rapid filtration technique, with uptake defined as substrate associated with the vesicle and releasable after incubation of vesicles with 0.1% saponin. Dextran added immediately after electric shock (2000 V) or at the beginning of one cycle of freeze-thawing was taken up approximately eightfold compared with control. ATP also was taken up into freeze-thawed vesicles, whereas there was no significant uptake into control vesicles. The increase in vesicle permeability was reversible, based on Na-dependent D-glucose uptake being decreased when studied 5 but not 15 min after electric shock, and was not significantly decreased after completion of one cycle of freeze-thawing. In addition, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and Ca/sup 2 +/-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity were similar in control vesicles and vesicles exposed to high-voltage discharge or freeze-thawing. Also, vesicles freeze-thawed with (/sup 32/P)ATP demonstrated increased phosphorylation compared with nonfrozen vesicles, while freeze-thawing did not alter vesicle protein as judged by Coomassie blue staining. These techniques should allow intestinal membrane vesicles to be used for studies of intracellular control of transport processes, for instance, studies of protein kinase regulation of transport.

  5. Rapid Degeneration of Noncoding DNA Regions Surrounding SlAP3X/Y After Recombination Suppression in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Nishiyama, Rie; Shibata, Fukashi; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes. Previous studies of sex chromosome–linked genes have suggested a gradual divergence between the X-linked and the Y-linked genes in proportion to the distance from the pseudoautosomal region. However, such a comparison has yet to be made for the noncoding regions. To better characterize the nonrecombining region of the X and Y chromosomes, we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing the sex chromosome–linked paralogs SlAP3X and SlAP3Y, including 115 kb and 73 kb of sequences, respectively, flanking these genes. The synonymous nucleotide divergence between SlAP3X and SlAP3Y indicated that recombination stopped approximately 3.4 million years ago. Sequence homology analysis revealed the presence of six long terminal repeat retrotransposon-like elements. Using the nucleotide divergence calculated between left and right long terminal repeat sequences, insertion dates were estimated to be 0.083–1.6 million years ago, implying that all elements detected were inserted after recombination stopped. A reciprocal sequence homology search facilitated the identification of four homologous noncoding DNA regions between the X and Y chromosomes, spanning 6.7% and 10.6% of the X chromosome–derived and Y chromosome–derived sequences, respectively, investigated. Genomic Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the noncoding DNA flanking SlAP3X/Y has homology to many regions throughout the genome, regardless of whether they were homologous between the X and Y chromosomes. This finding suggests that most noncoding DNA regions rapidly lose their counterparts because of the introduction of transposable elements and indels (insertion–deletions) after recombination has stopped. PMID:24122056

  6. Shapes of Mixed Phospholipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Maldonado, Amir

    2006-01-01

    We studied the shape of phospholipid vesicles prepared by hydration of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine (SOPC) and phosphatidylserine (SOPS) in different proportions. The aim of the work is to obtain some insight into the influence of the chemical composition of a biomembrane on its shape. The optical microscopy results show that the shape of the vesicles depend on the SOPC:SOPS composition. For low SOPS contents, coiled cylindrical vesicles are observed. The results suggest that specific compositions of the SOPC:SOPS vesicles produce some spontaneous curvature on the membrane and then a coiling instability. PMID:19669461

  7. Vesicle Size Regulates Nanotube Formation in the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qian Peter; Du, Wanqing; Ji, Qinghua; Xue, Boxin; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Yueyao; Lou, Jizhong; Yu, Li; Sun, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular membrane nanotube formation and its dynamics play important roles for cargo transportation and organelle biogenesis. Regarding the regulation mechanisms, while much attention has been paid on the lipid composition and its associated protein molecules, effects of the vesicle size has not been studied in the cell. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are often used for in vitro membrane deformation studies, but they are much larger than most intracellular vesicles and the in vitro studies also lack physiological relevance. Here, we use lysosomes and autolysosomes, whose sizes range between 100 nm and 1 μm, as model systems to study the size effects on nanotube formation both in vivo and in vitro. Single molecule observations indicate that driven by kinesin motors, small vesicles (100–200 nm) are mainly transported along the tracks while a remarkable portion of large vesicles (500–1000 nm) form nanotubes. This size effect is further confirmed by in vitro reconstitution assays on liposomes and purified lysosomes and autolysosomes. We also apply Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to measure the initiation force for nanotube formation. These results suggest that the size-dependence may be one of the mechanisms for cells to regulate cellular processes involving membrane-deformation, such as the timing of tubulation-mediated vesicle recycling. PMID:27052881

  8. Vesicle Size Regulates Nanotube Formation in the Cell.

    PubMed

    Su, Qian Peter; Du, Wanqing; Ji, Qinghua; Xue, Boxin; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Yueyao; Lou, Jizhong; Yu, Li; Sun, Yujie

    2016-04-07

    Intracellular membrane nanotube formation and its dynamics play important roles for cargo transportation and organelle biogenesis. Regarding the regulation mechanisms, while much attention has been paid on the lipid composition and its associated protein molecules, effects of the vesicle size has not been studied in the cell. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are often used for in vitro membrane deformation studies, but they are much larger than most intracellular vesicles and the in vitro studies also lack physiological relevance. Here, we use lysosomes and autolysosomes, whose sizes range between 100 nm and 1 μm, as model systems to study the size effects on nanotube formation both in vivo and in vitro. Single molecule observations indicate that driven by kinesin motors, small vesicles (100-200 nm) are mainly transported along the tracks while a remarkable portion of large vesicles (500-1000 nm) form nanotubes. This size effect is further confirmed by in vitro reconstitution assays on liposomes and purified lysosomes and autolysosomes. We also apply Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to measure the initiation force for nanotube formation. These results suggest that the size-dependence may be one of the mechanisms for cells to regulate cellular processes involving membrane-deformation, such as the timing of tubulation-mediated vesicle recycling.

  9. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:24489879

  10. VAMP-1: a synaptic vesicle-associated integral membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, W S; Cowan, D M; Scheller, R H

    1988-01-01

    Several proteins are associated with, or are integral components of, the lipid bilayer that forms the delineating membrane of neuronal synaptic vesicles. To characterize these molecules, we used a polyclonal antiserum raised against purified cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo to screen a cDNA expression library constructed from mRNA of the electromotor nucleus. One clone encodes VAMP-1 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 1), a nervous-system-specific protein of 120 amino acids whose primary sequence can be divided into three domains: a proline-rich amino terminus, a highly charged internal region, and a hydrophobic carboxyl-terminal domain that is predicted to comprise a membrane anchor. Tryptic digestion of intact and lysed vesicles suggests that the protein faces the cytoplasm, where it may play a role in packaging, transport, or release of neurotransmitters. Images PMID:3380805

  11. Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mobility of vesicles capturing anti-VGLUT1 antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stenovec, Matjaz Kreft, Marko Grilc, Sonja Potokar, Maja Kreft, Mateja Erdani Pangrsic, Tina Zorec, Robert

    2007-11-01

    Several aspects of secretory vesicle cycle have been studied in the past, but vesicle trafficking in relation to the fusion site is less well understood. In particular, the mobility of recaptured vesicles that traffic back toward the central cytoplasm is still poorly defined. We exposed astrocytes to antibodies against the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), a marker of glutamatergic vesicles, to fluorescently label vesicles undergoing Ca{sup 2+}-dependent exocytosis and examined their number, fluorescence intensity, and mobility by confocal microscopy. In nonstimulated cells, immunolabeling revealed discrete fluorescent puncta, indicating that VGLUT1 vesicles, which are approximately 50 nm in diameter, cycle slowly between the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. When the cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} level was raised with ionomycin, the number and fluorescence intensity of the puncta increased, likely because the VGLUT1 epitopes were more accessible to the extracellularly applied antibodies following Ca{sup 2+}-triggered exocytosis. In nonstimulated cells, the mobility of labeled vesicles was limited. In stimulated cells, many vesicles exhibited directional mobility that was abolished by cytoskeleton-disrupting agents, indicating dependence on intact cytoskeleton. Our findings show that postfusion vesicle mobility is regulated and may likely play a role in synaptic vesicle cycle, and also more generally in the genesis and removal of endocytic vesicles.

  12. The native structure of cytoplasmic dynein at work translocating vesicles in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masaki; Aihara, Marilynn S; Allen, Richard D; Fok, Agnes K

    2011-01-01

    In Paramecium multimicronucleatum, the discoidal vesicles, the acidosomes and the 100-nm carrier vesicles are involved in phagosome formation, phagosome acidification and endosomal processing, respectively. Numerous cross bridges link these vesicles to the kinetic side of the microtubules of a cytopharyngeal microtubular ribbon. Vesicles are translocated along these ribbons in a minus-end direction towards the cytopharynx. A monoclonal antibody specific for the light vanadate-photocleaved fragment of the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein was used to show that this dynein is located between the discoidal vesicles and the ribbons as well as on the cytosolic surface of the acidosomes and the 100-nm carrier vesicles. This antibody inhibited the docking of the vesicles to the microtubular ribbons so that the transport of discoidal vesicles and acidosomes were reduced by 60% and 70%, respectively. It had little effect on the dynein's velocity of translocation. These results show that cytoplasmic dynein is the motor for vesicle translocation and its location, between the vesicles and the ribbons, indicates that the cross bridges seen at this location in thin sections and in quick-frozen, deep-etched replicas are apparently the working dyneins. Such a working dynein cross bridge, as preserved by ultra-rapid freezing, is 54 nm long and has two legs arising from a globular head that appears to be firmly bound to its cargo vesicle and each leg consists of ≥3 beaded subunits with the last subunit making contact with the microtubular ribbon.

  13. Preeclampsia and Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Sarwat I; Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive pregnancy disorder characterized by development of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation that remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. While preeclampsia is believed to result from complex interactions between maternal and placental factors, the proximate pathophysiology of this syndrome remains elusive. Cell-to-cell communication is a critical signaling mechanism for feto-placental development in normal pregnancies. One mechanism of cellular communication relates to activated cell-derived sealed membrane vesicles called extracellular vesicles (EVs). The concentrations and contents of EVs in biological fluids depend upon their cells of origin and the stimuli which trigger their production. Research on EVs in preeclampsia has focused on EVs derived from the maternal vasculature (endothelium, vascular smooth muscle) and blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets), as well as placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Changes in the concentrations and contents of these EVs may contribute to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia by accentuating the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory states of pregnancy. This review focuses on possible interactions among placental- and maternal-derived EVs and their contents in the initiation and progression of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Understanding the contributions of EVs in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia may facilitate their use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:27590522

  14. Osmophoresis—a possible mechanism for vesicle trafficking in tip-growing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipchinsky, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    A mechanism for polarized transport of vesicles by means of osmotic propulsions is proposed and substantiated for tip-growing cells. An analysis is presented which shows that in pollen tubes the gradient of cytosolic water potential can drive vesicle movement either in the anterograde or retrograde direction, depending on the vesicle position, its radius and the phase of growth oscillation. The importance of transcellular water flow for cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility is highlighted.

  15. Sugar uptake by intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; van Os, C H; Mircheff, A K

    1980-03-27

    A high yield of membrane vesicles was prepared from the basolateral surface of rat intestinal cells using an N2 cavitation bomb and density gradient centrifugation. The membranes were enriched 10-fold and were free of significatn contamination by brush border membranes and mitochondria. The rate of D-E114C]glucose and L-E13H]glucose uptake into the vesicle was measured using a rapid filtration technique. D-Glucose equilibrated within the vesicles with a half-time 1/25th that for L-glucose. The stereospecific uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 44 mM and a V of approx. 110 nmol . mg-1 min-1 at 10 degrees C. The activation energy for the process was 14 kcal . mol-1 below 15 degrees C and it approached 3 kcal . mol-1 above 22 degrees C. Carrier-mediated uptake was eliminated in the presence of 1 mM HgCl2 and 0.5 mM phloretin. The rate of transport was unaffected by the absence or presence of sodium concentration gradients. Competition studies demonstrated that all sugars with the D-glucose pyranose ring chair conformation shared the transport system, and that, with the possible exception of the -OH group at carbon No. 1, there were no specific requirements for an equatorial -OH group at any position in the pyranose ring. In the case of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside its inability to share the D-glucose transport system may be due to steric hindrance posed by the -OCH3 group rather than by a specific requirement for a free hydroxyl group at the position in the ring. It is concluded that sugars are transported across the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium by a facilitated diffusion system reminiscent of that in human red blood cells. PMID:6245688

  16. Sugar uptake by intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; van Os, C H; Mircheff, A K

    1980-03-27

    A high yield of membrane vesicles was prepared from the basolateral surface of rat intestinal cells using an N2 cavitation bomb and density gradient centrifugation. The membranes were enriched 10-fold and were free of significatn contamination by brush border membranes and mitochondria. The rate of D-E114C]glucose and L-E13H]glucose uptake into the vesicle was measured using a rapid filtration technique. D-Glucose equilibrated within the vesicles with a half-time 1/25th that for L-glucose. The stereospecific uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 44 mM and a V of approx. 110 nmol . mg-1 min-1 at 10 degrees C. The activation energy for the process was 14 kcal . mol-1 below 15 degrees C and it approached 3 kcal . mol-1 above 22 degrees C. Carrier-mediated uptake was eliminated in the presence of 1 mM HgCl2 and 0.5 mM phloretin. The rate of transport was unaffected by the absence or presence of sodium concentration gradients. Competition studies demonstrated that all sugars with the D-glucose pyranose ring chair conformation shared the transport system, and that, with the possible exception of the -OH group at carbon No. 1, there were no specific requirements for an equatorial -OH group at any position in the pyranose ring. In the case of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside its inability to share the D-glucose transport system may be due to steric hindrance posed by the -OCH3 group rather than by a specific requirement for a free hydroxyl group at the position in the ring. It is concluded that sugars are transported across the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium by a facilitated diffusion system reminiscent of that in human red blood cells.

  17. Giant vesicles: preparations and applications.

    PubMed

    Walde, Peter; Cosentino, Katia; Engel, Helen; Stano, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    There is considerable interest in preparing cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles from natural or nonnatural amphiphiles because a giant vesicle membrane resembles the self-closed lipid matrix of the plasma membrane of all biological cells. Currently, giant vesicles are applied to investigate certain aspects of biomembranes. Examples include lateral lipid heterogeneities, membrane budding and fission, activities of reconstituted membrane proteins, or membrane permeabilization caused by added chemical compounds. One of the challenging applications of giant vesicles include gene expressions inside the vesicles with the ultimate goal of constructing a dynamic artificial cell-like system that is endowed with all those essential features of living cells that distinguish them from the nonliving form of matter. Although this goal still seems to be far away and currently difficult to reach, it is expected that progress in this and other fields of giant vesicle research strongly depend on whether reliable methods for the reproducible preparation of giant vesicles are available. The key concepts of currently known methods for preparing giant unilamellar vesicles are summarized, and advantages and disadvantages of the main methods are compared and critically discussed. PMID:20336703

  18. DNA-Mediated Self-Assembly of Artificial Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Hadorn, Maik; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    versatility and productivity. (iii) Personalized medicine. Transport and targeting of long-lived, pharmacologically inert prodrugs and their conversion to short-lived, active drug molecules directly at the site of action may be accomplished if multi-vesicle assemblies of predefined architecture are used. PMID:20360854

  19. Proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, X.

    1985-01-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles were prepared from bovine brain catalyze ATP-driven proton translocation and a /sup 32/Pi-ATP exchange reaction. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) at 1 mM and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) at 0.5 mM inhibit the pump completely, whereas neither vanadate, efrapeptin, NaN/sub 3/, nor mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor has an effect. The coated vesicle proton pump is characterized by ATP specificity. dATP, but no other nucleotide, can replace ATP as a substrate. The pump is electrogenic and the electrogenicity is neutralized by chloride or bromide serving as co-ions. ATP-driven proton translocation can be observed in the absence of chloride, provided that the membrane potential is collapsed by K/sup +/ moving out in the presence of valinomycin. Chloride transport can be observed independent of proton movements in the absence of ATP, provided that an inside positive membrane potential is generated by K/sup +/ influx in the presence of valinomycin. The proton-translocating ATPase of coated vesicles was solubilized with a nonionic detergent polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether, and purified about 700 fold to near homogeneity. During purification the enzymatic activity was lost. A purified brain phospholipid fraction restored the activity and was subsequently identified as phosphatidylserine.

  20. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits.

  1. Variation in PTCHD2, CRISP3, NAP1L4, FSCB, and AP3B2 associated with spherical equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Duggal, Priya; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Truitt, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Iyengar, Sudha K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ocular refraction is measured in spherical equivalent as the power of the external lens required to focus images on the retina. Myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness) are the most common refractive errors, and the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in the world. The goal of this study is to identify rare and low-frequency variants that influence spherical equivalent. Methods We conducted variant-level and gene-level quantitative trait association analyses for mean spherical equivalent, using data from 1,560 individuals in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Genotyping was conducted using the Illumina exome array. We analyzed 34,976 single nucleotide variants and 11,571 autosomal genes across the genome, using single-variant tests as well as gene-based tests. Results Spherical equivalent was significantly associated with five genes in gene-based analysis: PTCHD2 at 1p36.22 (p = 3.6 × 10−7), CRISP3 at 6p12.3 (p = 4.3 × 10−6), NAP1L4 at 11p15.5 (p = 3.6 × 10−6), FSCB at 14q21.2 (p = 1.5 × 10−7), and AP3B2 at 15q25.2 (p = 1.6 × 10−7). The variant-based tests identified evidence suggestive of association with two novel variants in linkage disequilibrium (pairwise r2 = 0.80) in the TCTE1 gene region at 6p21.1 (rs2297336, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 14.1%, β = –0.62 p = 3.7 × 10−6; rs324146, MAF = 16.9%, β = –0.55, p = 1.4 × 10−5). In addition to these novel findings, we successfully replicated a previously reported association with rs634990 near GJD2 at 15q14 (MAF = 47%, β = –0.29, p=1.8 × 10−3). We also found evidence of association with spherical equivalent on 2q37.1 in PRSS56 at rs1550094 (MAF = 31%, β = –0.33, p = 1.7 × 10−3), a region previously associated with myopia. Conclusions We identified several novel candidate genes that may play a role in the control of spherical equivalent. However, further studies are needed to replicate these findings. In addition, our results contribute to the

  2. Nanotube-Enabled Vesicle-Vesicle Communication: A Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-07-01

    Cell-to-cell communications via the tunneling nanotubes or gap junction channels are vital for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Instead of these intrinsic communication pathways, how to design artificial communication channels between cells remains a challenging but interesting problem. Here, we perform dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to analyze the interaction between rotational nanotubes (RNTs) and vesicles so as to provide a novel design mechanism for cell-to-cell communication. Simulation results have demonstrated that the RNTs are capable of generating local disturbance and promote vesicle translocation toward the RNTs. Through ligand pattern designing on the RNTs, we can find a suitable nanotube candidate with a specific ligand coating pattern for forming the RNT-vesicle network. The results also show that a RNT can act as a bridged channel between vesicles, which facilitates substance transfer. Our findings provide useful guidelines for the molecular design of patterned RNTs for creating a synthetic channel between cells. PMID:26266730

  3. Nanotube-Enabled Vesicle-Vesicle Communication: A Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-07-01

    Cell-to-cell communications via the tunneling nanotubes or gap junction channels are vital for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Instead of these intrinsic communication pathways, how to design artificial communication channels between cells remains a challenging but interesting problem. Here, we perform dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to analyze the interaction between rotational nanotubes (RNTs) and vesicles so as to provide a novel design mechanism for cell-to-cell communication. Simulation results have demonstrated that the RNTs are capable of generating local disturbance and promote vesicle translocation toward the RNTs. Through ligand pattern designing on the RNTs, we can find a suitable nanotube candidate with a specific ligand coating pattern for forming the RNT-vesicle network. The results also show that a RNT can act as a bridged channel between vesicles, which facilitates substance transfer. Our findings provide useful guidelines for the molecular design of patterned RNTs for creating a synthetic channel between cells.

  4. Influence of N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine N-oxide on the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase reconstituted into diacylphosphatidylcholine vesicles: efects of bilayer physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Karlovská, J; Uhríková, D; Kucerka, N; Teixeira, J; Devínsky, F; Lacko, I; Balgavý, P

    2006-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.1.38) was isolated from rabbit white muscle, purified and reconstituted into vesicles of synthetic diacylphosphatidylcholines with monounsaturated acyl chains using the cholate dilution method. In fluid bilayers at 37 degrees C, the specific activity of ATPase displays a maximum (31.5+/-0.8 IU/mg) for dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (diC18:1PC) and decreases progressively for both shorter and longer acyl chain lengths. Besides the hydrophobic mismatch between protein and lipid bilayer, changes in the bilayer hydration and lateral interactions detected by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can contribute to this acyl chain length dependence. When reconstituted into dierucoylphosphatidylcholine (diC22:1PC), the zwitterionic surfactant N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine N-oxide (C12NO) stimulates the ATPase activity from 14.2+/-0.6 to 32.5+/-0.8 IU/mg in the range of molar ratios C12NO:diC22:1PC=0/1.2. In dilauroylphosphatidylcholines (diC12:0PC) and diC18:1PC, the effect of C12NO is twofold-the ATPase activity is stimulated at low and inhibited at high C12NO concentrations. In diC18:1PC, it is observed an increase of activity induced by C12NO in the range of molar ratios C12NO:diC18:1PC< or =1.3 in bilayers, where the bilayer thickness estimated by SANS decreases by 0.4+/-0.1 nm. In this range, the 31P-NMR chemical shift anisotropy increases indicating an effect of C12NO on the orientation of the phosphatidylcholine dipole N(+)-P- accompanied by a variation of the local membrane dipole potential. A decrease of the ATPase activity is observed in the range of molar ratios C12NO:diC18:1PC=1.3/2.5, where mixed tubular micelles are detected by SANS in C12NO+diC18:1PC mixtures. It is concluded that besides hydrophobic thickness changes, the changes in dipole potential and curvature frustration of the bilayer could contribute as well to C12NO effects on Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. PMID:16223561

  5. Benzaldehyde-functionalized Polymer Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guorong; Fang, Huafeng; Cheng, Chong; Lu, Peng; Zhang, Ke; Walker, Amy V.; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer vesicles with diameters of ca. 100-600 nm and bearing benzaldehyde functionalities within the vesicular walls were constructed through self assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer PEO45-b-PVBA26 in water. The reactivity of the benzaldehyde functionalities was verified by crosslinking the polymersomes, and also by a one-pot crosslinking and functionalization approach to further render the vesicles fluorescent, each via reductive amination. In vitro studies found these labelled nanostructures to undergo cell association. PMID:19309173

  6. Synaptic vesicle pools: an update.

    PubMed

    Denker, Annette; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2010-01-01

    During the last few decades synaptic vesicles have been assigned to a variety of functional and morphological classes or "pools". We have argued in the past (Rizzoli and Betz, 2005) that synaptic activity in several preparations is accounted for by the function of three vesicle pools: the readily releasable pool (docked at active zones and ready to go upon stimulation), the recycling pool (scattered throughout the nerve terminals and recycling upon moderate stimulation), and finally the reserve pool (occupying most of the vesicle clusters and only recycling upon strong stimulation). We discuss here the advancements in the vesicle pool field which took place in the ensuing years, focusing on the behavior of different pools under both strong stimulation and physiological activity. Several new findings have enhanced the three-pool model, with, for example, the disparity between recycling and reserve vesicles being underlined by the observation that the former are mobile, while the latter are "fixed". Finally, a number of altogether new concepts have also evolved such as the current controversy on the identity of the spontaneously recycling vesicle pool. PMID:21423521

  7. Active endocannabinoids are secreted on extracellular membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Martina; Battista, Natalia; Riganti, Loredana; Prada, Ilaria; Antonucci, Flavia; Cantone, Laura; Matteoli, Michela; Maccarrone, Mauro; Verderio, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    Endocannabinoids primarily influence neuronal synaptic communication within the nervous system. To exert their function, endocannabinoids need to travel across the intercellular space. However, how hydrophobic endocannabinoids cross cell membranes and move extracellularly remains an unresolved problem. Here, we show that endocannabinoids are secreted through extracellular membrane vesicles produced by microglial cells. We demonstrate that microglial extracellular vesicles carry on their surface N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), which is able to stimulate type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1), and inhibit presynaptic transmission, in target GABAergic neurons. This is the first demonstration of a functional role of extracellular vesicular transport of endocannabinoids.

  8. Structural Basis for the Recognition of Tyrosine-based Sorting Signals by the μ3A Subunit of the AP-3 Adaptor Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Lin, Yimo; Kloer, Daniel P.; Magadán, Javier G.; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine-based signals fitting the YXXØ motif mediate sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes, lysosomes, the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, and the somatodendritic domain of neurons through interactions with the homologous μ1, μ2, μ3, and μ4 subunits of the corresponding AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4 complexes. Previous x-ray crystallographic analyses identified distinct binding sites for YXXØ signals on μ2 and μ4, which were located on opposite faces of the proteins. To elucidate the mode of recognition of YXXØ signals by other members of the μ family, we solved the crystal structure at 1.85 Å resolution of the C-terminal domain of the μ3 subunit of AP-3 (isoform A) in complex with a peptide encoding a YXXØ signal (SDYQRL) from the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38. The μ3A C-terminal domain consists of an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich organized into two subdomains, A and B. The YXXØ signal binds in an extended conformation to a site on μ3A subdomain A, at a location similar to the YXXØ-binding site on μ2 but not μ4. The binding sites on μ3A and μ2 exhibit similarities and differences that account for the ability of both proteins to bind distinct sets of YXXØ signals. Biochemical analyses confirm the identification of the μ3A site and show that this protein binds YXXØ signals with 14–19 μm affinity. The surface electrostatic potential of μ3A is less basic than that of μ2, in part explaining the association of AP-3 with intracellular membranes having less acidic phosphoinositides. PMID:23404500

  9. Smart nanocontainers: progress on novel stimuli-responsive polymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Anchao; Yuan, Jinying

    2014-04-01

    In the past decade, polymer vesicles prepared by self-assembly techniques have attracted increasing scientific interest based on their unique features highlighted with tunable membrane properties, versatility, stability, and capacity of transporting hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic species. Polymersomes exhibit intriguing potential applications such as cell mimicking dimensions and functions, tunable delivery vehicles, for the templating of biomineralization, nanoreactors, and as scaffolds for biological conjugation. In this Feature Article, an overview of the preparation and application of recently developed "smart" polymer vesicles, which can respond to the novel external stimuli, including carbon dioxide (CO2), electrochemical potential, ultrasound, enzyme, near-infrared light, and magnetic field is given. The response mechanism and morphology change are explored with specific focus on the functionalization of various domains of the polymer vesicles. In addition, the current limitations are explored as well as the challenges facing the development of these nanostructures toward real-world applications.

  10. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A enters a non-recycling pool of synaptic vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Callista B.; Papadopulos, Andreas; Martin, Sally; Matthews, Daniel R.; Morgan, Garry P.; Nguyen, Tam H.; Wang, Tong; Nair, Deepak; Choquet, Daniel; Meunier, Frederic A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal communication relies on synaptic vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis and recycling for multiple rounds of fusion. Whether all synaptic vesicles have identical protein content has been challenged, suggesting that their recycling ability may differ greatly. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that is internalized in synaptic vesicles at motor nerve terminals and induces flaccid paralysis. Recently, BoNT/A was also shown to undergo retrograde transport, suggesting it might enter a specific pool of synaptic vesicles with a retrograde trafficking fate. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques including electron microscopy and single molecule imaging, we found that the BoNT/A binding domain is internalized within a subset of vesicles that only partially co-localize with cholera toxin B-subunit and have markedly reduced VAMP2 immunoreactivity. Synaptic vesicles loaded with pHrodo-BoNT/A-Hc exhibited a significantly reduced ability to fuse with the plasma membrane in mouse hippocampal nerve terminals when compared with pHrodo-dextran-containing synaptic vesicles and pHrodo-labeled anti-GFP nanobodies bound to VAMP2-pHluorin or vGlut-pHluorin. Similar results were also obtained at the amphibian neuromuscular junction. These results reveal that BoNT/A is internalized in a subpopulation of synaptic vesicles that are not destined to recycle, highlighting the existence of significant molecular and functional heterogeneity between synaptic vesicles. PMID:26805017

  11. Physicochemical characterization and cytotoxic studies of nonionic surfactant vesicles using sucrose esters as oral delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Karina; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder; Chávez, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Several nanotechnological solutions for mucosal immunization have been proposed, such as nanoparticles, liposomes, solid lipidic particles, micelles, and surfactant vesicles. In recent years, surfactant vesicles have gained increasing scientific attention as an alternative potential drug delivery system to the conventional liposome. This type of vesicle known as niosomes or nonionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs) has a structure and properties similar to those of liposomes. Both of them can transport hydrophilic drugs by encapsulation in the aqueous inner pool or hydrophobic drugs by intercalation into hydrophobic domains. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize vesicles formed by sucrose esters as protective systems of bioactive molecules for oral administration. Vesicles were prepared using two commercial products formed by mixtures of mono and diesters S-570 and S-770, respectively. Determined parameters were size and zeta potential; the stability of formulations was tested in presence of increasing concentrations of a surfactant, and at several pH values observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Solubilization experiences showed an initial decrease in size for vesicles of both ester mixtures, samples showed detergent resistance at higher Triton X-100 concentrations. Vesicles showed stability at pH 5-7.4 up to 90 min; however, both formulations showed colloidal instability at pH=2, which corresponds to the isoelectric point of these vesicles. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of both vesicle formulations and separately each pure ester, Caco-2 cells were used. Cytotoxic evaluation indicated that both types of vesicles and free sucrose distearate were safe for Caco-2 viability; however, free sucrose monostearate was toxic for the cells. As a conclusion of these preliminary studies, it can be stated that vesicles formed with mixtures of sucrose esters showed a size in the range of 200 nm maintaining their size when exposed to the action of a surfactant, but

  12. Transferring intercellular signals and traits between cancer cells: extracellular vesicles as "homing pigeons".

    PubMed

    Cesi, Giulia; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Margue, Christiane; Kreis, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived vesicles, which can transport various cargos out of cells. From their cell of origin, the content molecules (proteins, non-coding RNAs including miRNAs, DNA and others) can be delivered to neighboring or distant cells and as such extracellular vesicles can be regarded as vehicles of intercellular communication or "homing pigeons". Extracellular vesicle shuttling is able to actively modulate the tumor microenvironment and can partake in tumor dissemination. In various diseases, including cancer, levels of extracellular vesicle secretion are altered resulting in different amounts and/or profiles of detectable vesicular cargo molecules and these distinct content profiles are currently being evaluated as biomarkers. Apart from their potential as blood-derived containers of specific biomarkers, the transfer of extracellular vesicles to surrounding cells also appears to be involved in the propagation of phenotypic traits. These interesting properties have put extracellular vesicles into the focus of many recent studies.Here we review findings on the involvement of extracellular vesicles in transferring traits of cancer cells to their surroundings and briefly discuss new data on oncosomes, a larger type of vesicle. A pressing issue in cancer treatment is rapidly evolving resistance to many initially efficient drug therapies. Studies investigating the role of extracellular vesicles in this phenomenon together with a summary of the technical challenges that this field is still facing, are also presented. Finally, emerging areas of research such as the analysis of the lipid composition on extracellular vesicles and cutting-edge techniques to visualise the trafficking of extracellular vesicles are discussed. PMID:27282631

  13. Microfluidic electroporation of robust 10-microm vesicles for manipulation of picoliter volumes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunice S; Robinson, David; Rognlien, Judith L; Harnett, Cindy K; Simmons, Blake A; Bowe Ellis, C R; Davalos, Rafael V

    2006-09-01

    We present a new way to transport and handle picoliter volumes of analytes in a microfluidic context through electrically monitored electroporation of 10-25 microm vesicles. In this method, giant vesicles are used to isolate analytes in a microfluidic environment. Once encapsulated inside a vesicle, contents will not diffuse and become diluted when exposed to pressure-driven flow. Two vesicle compositions have been developed that are robust enough to withstand electrical and mechanical manipulation in a microfluidic context. These vesicles can be guided and trapped, with controllable transfer of material into or out of their confined environment. Through electroporation, vesicles can serve as containers that can be opened when mixing and diffusion are desired, and closed during transport and analysis. Both vesicle compositions contain lecithin, an ethoxylated phospholipid, and a polyelectrolyte. Their performance is compared using a prototype microfluidic device and a simple circuit model. It was observed that the energy density threshold required to induce breakdown was statistically equivalent between compositions, 10.2+/-5.0 mJ/m2 for the first composition and 10.5+/-1.8 mJ/m2 for the second. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using giant, robust vesicles with microfluidic electroporation technology to manipulate picoliter volumes on-chip.

  14. Protein flexibility is required for vesicle tethering at the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Pak-yan Patricia; Limouse, Charles; Mabuchi, Hideo; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi is decorated with coiled-coil proteins that may extend long distances to help vesicles find their targets. GCC185 is a trans Golgi-associated protein that captures vesicles inbound from late endosomes. Although predicted to be relatively rigid and highly extended, we show that flexibility in a central region is required for GCC185’s ability to function in a vesicle tethering cycle. Proximity ligation experiments show that that GCC185’s N-and C-termini are within <40 nm of each other on the Golgi. In physiological buffers without fixatives, atomic force microscopy reveals that GCC185 is shorter than predicted, and its flexibility is due to a central bubble that represents local unwinding of specific sequences. Moreover, 85% of the N-termini are splayed, and the splayed N-terminus can capture transport vesicles in vitro. These unexpected features support a model in which GCC185 collapses onto the Golgi surface, perhaps by binding to Rab GTPases, to mediate vesicle tethering. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12790.001 PMID:26653856

  15. Protein flexibility is required for vesicle tethering at the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pak-yan Patricia; Limouse, Charles; Mabuchi, Hideo; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2015-12-14

    The Golgi is decorated with coiled-coil proteins that may extend long distances to help vesicles find their targets. GCC185 is a trans Golgi-associated protein that captures vesicles inbound from late endosomes. Although predicted to be relatively rigid and highly extended, we show that flexibility in a central region is required for GCC185’s ability to function in a vesicle tethering cycle. Proximity ligation experiments show that that GCC185’s N-and C-termini are within <40 nm of each other on the Golgi. In physiological buffers without fixatives, atomic force microscopy reveals that GCC185 is shorter than predicted, and its flexibility is due to a central bubble that represents local unwinding of specific sequences. Moreover, 85% of the N-termini are splayed, and the splayed N-terminus can capture transport vesicles in vitro. These unexpected features support a model in which GCC185 collapses onto the Golgi surface, perhaps by binding to Rab GTPases, to mediate vesicle tethering.

  16. Souffle/Spastizin Controls Secretory Vesicle Maturation during Zebrafish Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Dietmar; Schomburg, Christoph; Cerdà, Joan; Vollack, Nadine; Dosch, Roland

    2014-01-01

    During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf) mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15). We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research. PMID:24967841

  17. Functional interactions between OCA2 and the protein complexes BLOC-1, BLOC-2, and AP-3 inferred from epistatic analyses of mouse coat pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Diego J; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'angelica, Esteban C

    2011-04-01

    The biogenesis of melanosomes is a multistage process that requires the function of cell-type-specific and ubiquitously expressed proteins. OCA2, the product of the gene defective in oculocutaneous albinism type 2, is a melanosomal membrane protein with restricted expression pattern and a potential role in the trafficking of other proteins to melanosomes. The ubiquitous protein complexes AP-3, BLOC-1, and BLOC-2, which contain as subunits the products of genes defective in various types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, have been likewise implicated in trafficking to melanosomes. We have tested for genetic interactions between mutant alleles causing deficiency in OCA2 (pink-eyed dilution unstable), AP-3 (pearl), BLOC-1 (pallid), and BLOC-2 (cocoa) in C57BL/6J mice. The pallid allele was epistatic to pink-eyed dilution, and the latter behaved as a semi-dominant phenotypic enhancer of cocoa and, to a lesser extent, of pearl. These observations suggest functional links between OCA2 and these three protein complexes involved in melanosome biogenesis.

  18. Morphological docking of secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-dependent secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones is essential for brain function and neuroendocrine-signaling. Prior to exocytosis, neurotransmitter-containing vesicles dock to the target membrane. In electron micrographs of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, like chromaffin cells many synaptic vesicles (SVs) and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are docked. For many years the molecular identity of the morphologically docked state was unknown. Recently, we resolved the minimal docking machinery in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells using embryonic mouse model systems together with electron-microscopic analyses and also found that docking is controlled by the sub-membrane filamentous (F-)actin. Currently it is unclear if the same docking machinery operates in synapses. Here, I will review our docking assay that led to the identification of the LDCV docking machinery in chromaffin cells and also discuss whether identical docking proteins are required for SV docking in synapses. PMID:20577884

  19. Ellipsoidal Relaxation of Deformed Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Lira, Rafael B.; Riske, Karin A.; Dimova, Rumiana; Lin, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical analysis and experimental quantification on the ellipsoidal relaxation of vesicles are presented. The current work reveals the simplicity and universal aspects of this process. The Helfrich formula is shown to apply to the dynamic relaxation of moderate-to-high tension membranes, and a closed-form solution is derived which predicts the vesicle aspect ratio as a function of time. Scattered data are unified by a time scale, which leads to a similarity behavior, governed by a distinctive solution for each vesicle type. Two separate regimes in the relaxation are identified, namely, the "entropic" and the "constant-tension" regimes. The bending rigidity and the initial membrane tension can be simultaneously extracted from the data analysis, posing the current approach as an effective means for the mechanical analysis of biomembranes.

  20. Plasmadesmatal frequency, apoplast-symplast ratio, and photosynthetic transfer in grapefruit juice vesicles. [Citrus paradisi Macf

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, K.E.; Lowell, C.A.; Avigne, W.T.

    1986-04-01

    Structure and function were examined in phloem-free vesicles and vesicle stalks of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) by light and electron microscopy and /sup 14/C-photosynthate transport in intact and dissected tissues. Plasmodesmatal frequencies were approximately 0.3 to 0.5 ..mu..m/sup -1/ cell wall interface (3 to 5 ..mu..m/sup -2/), less than that of known secretory structures but similar to root parenchyma. Cell wall or apoplast comprised 18 to 24% of the total cross-sectional area of the vesicle stalk. The mass of total photosynthate transfer through individual vesicle stalks was ca. 0.5 ..mu..g C h/sup -1/ and rate of /sup 14/C-movement 0.1 to 0.4 mm h/sup -1/. Transport continued in rows of vesicles dissected in association with a vascular bundle. If isolated from fully-expanded fruit, translocation was similar for systems with frozen vs. non-frozen vesicle stalks. Similar freezing treatment decreased transport in vesicles from younger fruit. Symplastic and apoplastic pathways may therefore both operate in this system.

  1. The Arabidopsis adaptor protein AP-3μ interacts with the G-protein β subunit AGB1 and is involved in abscisic acid regulation of germination and post-germination development.

    PubMed

    Kansup, Jeeraporn; Tsugama, Daisuke; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2013-12-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins) have been implicated in ubiquitous signalling mechanisms in eukaryotes. In plants, G-proteins modulate hormonal and stress responses and regulate diverse developmental processes. However, the molecular mechanisms of their functions are largely unknown. A yeast two-hybrid screen was performed to identify interacting partners of the Arabidopsis G-protein β subunit AGB1. One of the identified AGB1-interacting proteins is the Arabidopsis adaptor protein AP-3µ. The interaction between AGB1 and AP-3µ was confirmed by an in vitro pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Two ap-3µ T-DNA insertional mutants were found to be hyposensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during germination and post-germination growth, whereas agb1 mutants were hypersensitive to ABA. During seed germination, agb1/ap-3µ double mutants were more sensitive to ABA than the wild type but less sensitive than agb1 mutants. However, in post-germination growth, the double mutants were as sensitive to ABA as agb1 mutants. These data suggest that AP-3µ positively regulates the ABA responses independently of AGB1 in seed germination, while AP-3µ does require AGB1 to regulate ABA responses during post-germination growth.

  2. Pearling of lipid vesicles induced by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Granick, Steve

    2009-10-14

    We show that cationic nanoparticles encapsulated within vesicles of phosphocholine lipid can induce pearling. The dynamic process occurs as two stages: formation of tubular protrusions followed by pearling instability. The breakup into individual vesicles can be controlled by nanoparticle concentration.

  3. Ellipsoidal relaxation of electrodeformed vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Lin, Hao; Lira, Rafael; Dimova, Rumiana; Riske, Karin

    2015-11-01

    Electrodeformation has been extensively applied to investigate the mechanical behavior of vesicles and cells. While the deformation process often exhibits complex behavior and reveals interesting physics, the relaxation process post-pulsation is equally intriguing yet less frequently studied. In this work theoretical analysis and experimental quantification on the ellipsoidal relaxation of vesicles are presented, which reveal the simplicity and universal aspects of this process. The Helfrich formula, which is derived only for equilibrated shapes, is shown to be applicable to dynamic situations such as in relaxation. A closed-form solution is derived which predicts the vesicle aspect ratio as a function of time. Scattered data are unified by a timescale, which leads to a similarity behavior, governed by a distinctive solution for each vesicle type. Two separate regimes in the relaxation are identified, namely, the ``entropic'' and the ``constant-tension'' regime. The bending rigidity and the initial membrane tension can be simultaneously extracted from the data/model analysis, posing the current approach as an effective means for the mechanical analysis of biomembranes.

  4. Sulfur vesicles from Thermococcales: A possible role in sulfur detoxifying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gorlas, A.; Marguet, E.; Gill, S.; Geslin, C.; Guigner, J.-M.; Guyot, F.; Forterre, P.

    2015-01-01

    The euryarchaeon Thermococcus prieurii inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents, one of the most extreme environments on Earth, which is reduced and enriched with heavy metals. Transmission electron microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy imaging of T. prieurii revealed the production of a plethora of diverse membrane vesicles (MVs) (from 50 nm to 400 nm), as is the case for other Thermococcales. T. prieurii also produces particularly long nanopods/nanotubes, some of them containing more than 35 vesicles encased in a S-layer coat. Notably, cryo-electron microscopy of T. prieurii cells revealed the presence of numerous intracellular dark vesicles that bud from the host cells via interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. These dark vesicles are exclusively found in conjunction with T. prieurii cells and never observed in the purified membrane vesicles preparations. Energy-Dispersive-X-Ray analyses revealed that these dark vesicles are filled with sulfur. Furthermore, the presence of these sulfur vesicles (SVs) is exclusively observed when elemental sulfur was added into the growth medium. In this report, we suggest that these atypical vesicles sequester the excess sulfur not used for growth, thus preventing the accumulation of toxic levels of sulfur in the host's cytoplasm. These SVs transport elemental sulfur out of the cell where they are rapidly degraded. Intriguingly, closely related archaeal species, Thermococcus nautili and Thermococcus kodakaraensis, show some differences about the production of sulfur vesicles. Whereas T. kodakaraensis produces less sulfur vesicles than T. prieurii, T. nautili does not produce such sulfur vesicles, suggesting that Thermococcales species exhibit significant differences in their sulfur metabolic pathways. PMID:26234734

  5. Sulfur vesicles from Thermococcales: A possible role in sulfur detoxifying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gorlas, A; Marguet, E; Gill, S; Geslin, C; Guigner, J-M; Guyot, F; Forterre, P

    2015-11-01

    The euryarchaeon Thermococcus prieurii inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents, one of the most extreme environments on Earth, which is reduced and enriched with heavy metals. Transmission electron microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy imaging of T. prieurii revealed the production of a plethora of diverse membrane vesicles (MVs) (from 50 nm to 400 nm), as is the case for other Thermococcales. T. prieurii also produces particularly long nanopods/nanotubes, some of them containing more than 35 vesicles encased in a S-layer coat. Notably, cryo-electron microscopy of T. prieurii cells revealed the presence of numerous intracellular dark vesicles that bud from the host cells via interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. These dark vesicles are exclusively found in conjunction with T. prieurii cells and never observed in the purified membrane vesicles preparations. Energy-Dispersive-X-Ray analyses revealed that these dark vesicles are filled with sulfur. Furthermore, the presence of these sulfur vesicles (SVs) is exclusively observed when elemental sulfur was added into the growth medium. In this report, we suggest that these atypical vesicles sequester the excess sulfur not used for growth, thus preventing the accumulation of toxic levels of sulfur in the host's cytoplasm. These SVs transport elemental sulfur out of the cell where they are rapidly degraded. Intriguingly, closely related archaeal species, Thermococcus nautili and Thermococcus kodakaraensis, show some differences about the production of sulfur vesicles. Whereas T. kodakaraensis produces less sulfur vesicles than T. prieurii, T. nautili does not produce such sulfur vesicles, suggesting that Thermococcales species exhibit significant differences in their sulfur metabolic pathways.

  6. Endocytic structures and synaptic vesicle recycling at a central synapse in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Körber, Christoph; Horstmann, Heinz; Sätzler, Kurt; Kuner, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle has been studied extensively in cultured cells and slice preparations, but not much is known about the roles and relative contributions of endocytic pathways and mechanisms of SV recycling in vivo, under physiological patterns of activity. We employed horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an in vivo marker of endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse in the awake rat. Ex vivo serial section scanning electron microscopy and 3D reconstructions revealed two categories of labelled structures: HRP-filled SVs and large cisternal endosomes. Inhibition of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 (AP-1, AP-3) by in vivo application of Brefeldin A (BFA) disrupted endosomal SV budding while SV recycling via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) remained unaffected. In conclusion, our study establishes cisternal endosomes as an intermediate of the SV cycle and reveals CME and endosomal budding as the predominant mechanisms of SV recycling in a tonically active central synapse in vivo.

  7. Ciliary vesicle formation: a prelude to ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yee, Laura E; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-03-23

    Reporting recently in Nature Cell Biology, Lu et al. (2015) identify two Eps15-homology-domain-containing proteins as critical effectors of ciliary vesicle formation, an early event in ciliogenesis. Functional dissection reveals that one of them works to convert small vesicles associated with mother centriole distal appendages into a larger ciliary vesicle. PMID:25805133

  8. Biomimetic proteolipid vesicles for targeting inflamed tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinaro, R.; Corbo, C.; Martinez, J. O.; Taraballi, F.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Minardi, S.; Yazdi, I. K.; Zhao, P.; De Rosa, E.; Sherman, M. B.; de Vita, A.; Toledano Furman, N. E.; Wang, X.; Parodi, A.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-09-01

    A multitude of micro- and nanoparticles have been developed to improve the delivery of systemically administered pharmaceuticals, which are subject to a number of biological barriers that limit their optimal biodistribution. Bioinspired drug-delivery carriers formulated by bottom-up or top-down strategies have emerged as an alternative approach to evade the mononuclear phagocytic system and facilitate transport across the endothelial vessel wall. Here, we describe a method that leverages the advantages of bottom-up and top-down strategies to incorporate proteins derived from the leukocyte plasma membrane into lipid nanoparticles. The resulting proteolipid vesicles--which we refer to as leukosomes--retained the versatility and physicochemical properties typical of liposomal formulations, preferentially targeted inflamed vasculature, enabled the selective and effective delivery of dexamethasone to inflamed tissues, and reduced phlogosis in a localized model of inflammation.

  9. Biomimetic proteolipid vesicles for targeting inflamed tissues.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, R; Corbo, C; Martinez, J O; Taraballi, F; Evangelopoulos, M; Minardi, S; Yazdi, I K; Zhao, P; De Rosa, E; Sherman, M B; De Vita, A; Toledano Furman, N E; Wang, X; Parodi, A; Tasciotti, E

    2016-09-01

    A multitude of micro- and nanoparticles have been developed to improve the delivery of systemically administered pharmaceuticals, which are subject to a number of biological barriers that limit their optimal biodistribution. Bioinspired drug-delivery carriers formulated by bottom-up or top-down strategies have emerged as an alternative approach to evade the mononuclear phagocytic system and facilitate transport across the endothelial vessel wall. Here, we describe a method that leverages the advantages of bottom-up and top-down strategies to incorporate proteins derived from the leukocyte plasma membrane into lipid nanoparticles. The resulting proteolipid vesicles-which we refer to as leukosomes-retained the versatility and physicochemical properties typical of liposomal formulations, preferentially targeted inflamed vasculature, enabled the selective and effective delivery of dexamethasone to inflamed tissues, and reduced phlogosis in a localized model of inflammation. PMID:27213956

  10. Pathologic potential of astrocytic vesicle traffic: new targets to treat neurologic diseases?

    PubMed

    Vardjan, Nina; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Zorec, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Vesicles are small intracellular organelles that are fundamental for constitutive housekeeping of the plasmalemma, intercellular transport, and cell-to-cell communications. In astroglial cells, traffic of vesicles is associated with cell morphology, which determines the signaling potential and metabolic support for neighboring cells, including when these cells are considered to be used for cell transplantations or for regulating neurogenesis. Moreover, vesicles are used in astrocytes for the release of vesicle-laden chemical messengers. Here we review the properties of membrane-bound vesicles that store gliotransmitters, endolysosomes that are involved in the traffic of plasma membrane receptors, and membrane transporters. These vesicles are all linked to pathological states, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, neuroinflammation, trauma, edema, and states in which astrocytes contribute to developmental disorders. In multiple sclerosis, for example, fingolimod, a recently introduced drug, apparently affects vesicle traffic and gliotransmitter release from astrocytes, indicating that this process may well be used as a new pathophysiologic target for the development of new therapies.

  11. ATP-dependent directional movement of rat synaptic vesicles injected into the presynaptic terminal of squid giant synapse.

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, R; Sugimori, M; Lin, J W; Leopold, P L; Brady, S T

    1989-01-01

    The question as to whether synaptic vesicles prepared from vertebrate brain can be transported to the active zones of the squid giant synapse was studied by using a combined optical and electrophysiological approach. In order to visualize the behavior of the vertebrate synaptic vesicles in situ, synaptic vesicles isolated from rat brain were labeled with a fluorescent dye (Texas red) and injected into the presynaptic terminal of the squid giant synapse. The pattern of fluorescence that would result from passive diffusion was determined by coinjection of an unconjugated fluorescent dye (fluorescein). The patterns obtained with fluorescent synaptic vesicles were strikingly different from that obtained by simple diffusion of fluorescein. Although the fluorescein diffused freely in both directions, the vesicles moved preferentially into the terminal--i.e., toward the release sites--at a rate of 0.5 microns/sec. The final distribution of the injected fluorescent synaptic vesicles displayed a discrete localization that suggested a distribution coincident with the active zones of the presynaptic terminal. Like fast axonal transport, but unlike fluorescein movements in the terminal, the vesicle movement was energy dependent, since the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol blocked the redistribution of vesicles completely. In addition, reduction of extracellular calcium concentration reversibly blocked vesicular movement as well. In conclusion, mammalian synaptic vesicles retain the cytoplasmic surface components necessary for translocation, sorting, and targeting to the proper locations by the native machinery of the squid giant synapse. Images PMID:2748609

  12. ATP-dependent directional movement of rat synaptic vesicles injected into the presynaptic terminal of squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Llinás, R; Sugimori, M; Lin, J W; Leopold, P L; Brady, S T

    1989-07-01

    The question as to whether synaptic vesicles prepared from vertebrate brain can be transported to the active zones of the squid giant synapse was studied by using a combined optical and electrophysiological approach. In order to visualize the behavior of the vertebrate synaptic vesicles in situ, synaptic vesicles isolated from rat brain were labeled with a fluorescent dye (Texas red) and injected into the presynaptic terminal of the squid giant synapse. The pattern of fluorescence that would result from passive diffusion was determined by coinjection of an unconjugated fluorescent dye (fluorescein). The patterns obtained with fluorescent synaptic vesicles were strikingly different from that obtained by simple diffusion of fluorescein. Although the fluorescein diffused freely in both directions, the vesicles moved preferentially into the terminal--i.e., toward the release sites--at a rate of 0.5 microns/sec. The final distribution of the injected fluorescent synaptic vesicles displayed a discrete localization that suggested a distribution coincident with the active zones of the presynaptic terminal. Like fast axonal transport, but unlike fluorescein movements in the terminal, the vesicle movement was energy dependent, since the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol blocked the redistribution of vesicles completely. In addition, reduction of extracellular calcium concentration reversibly blocked vesicular movement as well. In conclusion, mammalian synaptic vesicles retain the cytoplasmic surface components necessary for translocation, sorting, and targeting to the proper locations by the native machinery of the squid giant synapse.

  13. Temporal separation of vesicle release from vesicle fusion during exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Kevin P; Wightman, R Mark

    2002-08-01

    During exocytosis, vesicles in secretory cells fuse with the cellular membrane and release their contents in a Ca2+-dependent process. Release occurs initially through a fusion pore, and its rate is limited by the dissociation of the matrix-associated contents. To determine whether this dissociation is promoted by osmotic forces, we have examined the effects of elevated osmotic pressure on release and extrusion from vesicles at mast and chromaffin cells. The identity of the molecules released and the time course of extrusion were measured with fast scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon fiber microelectrodes. In external solutions of high osmolarity, release events following entry of divalent ions (Ba2+ or Ca2+) were less frequent. However, the vesicles appeared to be fused to the membrane without extruding their contents, since the maximal observed concentrations of events were less than 7% of those evoked in isotonic media. Such an isolated, intermediate fusion state, which we term "kiss-and-hold," was confirmed by immunohistochemistry at chromaffin cells. Transient exposure of cells in the kiss and hold state to isotonic solutions evoked massive release. These results demonstrate that an osmotic gradient across the fusion pore is an important driving force for exocytotic extrusion of granule contents from secretory cells following fusion pore formation. PMID:12034731

  14. Membrane Elasticity in Giant Vesicles with Fluid Phase Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, T.; Das, S.; Webb, W. W.; Jenkins, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Biological membranes are known to contain compositional heterogeneities, often termed rafts, with distinguishable composition and function, and these heterogeneities participate in vigorous transport processes. Membrane lipid phase coexistence is expected to modulate these processes through the differing mechanical properties of the bulk domains and line tension at phase boundaries. In this contribution, we compare the predictions from a shape theory derived for vesicles with fluid phase coexistence to the geometry of giant unilamellar vesicles with coexisting liquid-disordered (Ld) and liquid-ordered (Lo) phases. We find a bending modulus for the Lo phase higher than that of the Ld phase and a saddle-splay (Gauss) modulus difference with the Gauss modulus of the Lo phase being more negative than the Ld phase. The Gauss modulus critically influences membrane processes that change topology, such as vesicle fission or fusion, and could therefore be of significant biological relevance in heterogeneous membranes. Our observations of experimental vesicle geometries being modulated by Gaussian curvature moduli differences confirm the prediction by the theory of Juelicher and Lipowsky. PMID:15894634

  15. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T.; Baeck, Nils; Andersson, Leif C.

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  16. Occurrence and Characteristics of a Rapid Exchange of Phosphate Oxygens Catalyzed by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kanazawa, T.; Boyer, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle actively take up Ca{sup ++} from the medium in the presence of Mg{sup ++} and ATP. This transport is coupled to ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by membrane-bound Ca{sup++}, Mg{sup ++}-ATPase which is activated by concurrent presence of Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++}. Considerable informations have accumulated that give insight into the ATPase and its coupling to the calcium transport. The hydrolysis of ATP by this enzyme occurs through a phosphorylated intermediate. Formation and decomposition of the intermediate show vectorial requirements for Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++}, suggesting an intimate involvement of the intermediate in the transport process. ATP synthesis from P{sub i} and ADP coupled to outflow of Ca{sup ++} from sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles has recently been demonstrated. This indicates the reversibility of the entire process of calcium transport in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

  17. Demonstration of a transcellular vesicle pathway for biliary excretion of inulin in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, I; Sakisaka, S; Meier, P J; Boyer, J L

    1986-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the blood to bile transport of hydrophilic inert nonelectrolytes such as inulin is mediated in part by a transcellular pathway involving endosomelike vesicles (transcytosis). Forty minutes after intravenous injection of [3H]methoxyinulin into renal pedicle ligated rats, 0.8% of the radioactivity was recovered in liver homogenate and 85% +/- 3.6% of this radioactivity was associated with membrane bound vesicles. Subcellular fractionation studies and electron microscopy confirmed this association. If rats were treated with taurochenodeoxycholic acid, 5 mumol/100 g body wt, the hepatocellular uptake of [3H]methoxyinulin increased approximately twofold and [3H]methoxyinulin was again recovered in small subcellular vesicles. Furthermore, taurochenodeoxycholic acid also stimulated the biliary excretion of [3H]methoxyinulin, which peaked in bile at 20 min. Taurochenodeoxycholic acid had similar effects on the biliary excretion of horseradish peroxidase, a protein known to be transported from blood to bile by membrane vesicles. Thus under the conditions of these experiments, the dihydroxy bile acid taurochenodeoxycholic acid can stimulate the rate of vesicle-dependent transcellular transport into bile. If inulin clearance represents a maximal estimate of this process, only 6%-8% of total bile production in the rat under basal conditions would be mediated by vesicle-mediated transcytosis.

  18. Spontaneous vesicle recycling in the synaptic bouton.

    PubMed

    Truckenbrodt, Sven; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2014-01-01

    The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca(2+), which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca(2+) levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca(2+) sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca(2+). The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs) rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs) responding to Ca(2+) fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  19. Alignment of synaptic vesicle macromolecules with the macromolecules in active zone material that direct vesicle docking.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Mark L; Szule, Joseph A; Xu, Jing; Jung, Jae Hoon; Marshall, Robert M; McMahan, Uel J

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles dock at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of a neuron's axon terminals as a precondition for fusing with the membrane and releasing their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Typically, docked vesicles are next to aggregates of plasma membrane-bound macromolecules called active zone material (AZM). Electron tomography on tissue sections from fixed and stained axon terminals of active and resting frog neuromuscular junctions has led to the conclusion that undocked vesicles are directed to and held at the docking sites by the successive formation of stable connections between vesicle membrane proteins and proteins in different classes of AZM macromolecules. Using the same nanometer scale 3D imaging technology on appropriately stained frog neuromuscular junctions, we found that ∼10% of a vesicle's luminal volume is occupied by a radial assembly of elongate macromolecules attached by narrow projections, nubs, to the vesicle membrane at ∼25 sites. The assembly's chiral, bilateral shape is nearly the same vesicle to vesicle, and nubs, at their sites of connection to the vesicle membrane, are linked to macromolecules that span the membrane. For docked vesicles, the orientation of the assembly's shape relative to the AZM and the presynaptic membrane is the same vesicle to vesicle, whereas for undocked vesicles it is not. The connection sites of most nubs on the membrane of docked vesicles are paired with the connection sites of the different classes of AZM macromolecules that regulate docking, and the membrane spanning macromolecules linked to these nubs are also attached to the AZM macromolecules. We conclude that the luminal assembly of macromolecules anchors in a particular arrangement vesicle membrane macromolecules, which contain the proteins that connect the vesicles to AZM macromolecules during docking. Undocked vesicles must move in a way that aligns this arrangement with the AZM macromolecules for docking

  20. Relationship between vesicle size and steric hindrance influences vesicle rupture on solid supports.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Joshua A; Kim, Min Chul; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-28

    Phospholipid assemblies on solid supports mimic the cell membrane, and provide a platform to study membrane biology. Among the different types of model membranes, the planar bilayer is a two-dimensional lipid bilayer sheet that can be formed by the adsorption and spontaneous rupture of vesicles. The formation process is influenced by the interactions between vesicles and the solid support as well as between vesicles. On silicon oxide, which is a commonly used solid support, vesicles typically adsorb until reaching a critical coverage and then spontaneous rupture begins. Although it is generally understood that spontaneous rupture leads to planar bilayer formation, oversaturation of vesicles at the critical coverage can hinder the whole process due to a steric factor. To date, the role of this factor has been scrutinized only in relation to temperature, and the influence of additional parameters remains to be elucidated. In this work, we have investigated how vesicle size and corresponding steric constraints influence the kinetics of vesicle adsorption and rupture and, more specifically, how the state of adsorbed vesicles after fusion depends on the vesicle size. Using quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we characterized the adsorption kinetics of vesicles onto silicon oxide and the lateral mobility of solid-supported lipid assemblies. While the vesicle adsorption kinetics were diffusion-limited up to the onset of vesicle rupture, the extent of rupture depended on vesicle size and it was observed that larger vesicles are more prone to steric effects than smaller vesicles. We discuss this finding in terms of the structural transformation from adsorbed vesicles to a planar bilayer, including how the interplay of thermodynamic, kinetic and steric factors can affect vesicle rupture on solid supports. PMID:26739602

  1. Relationship between vesicle size and steric hindrance influences vesicle rupture on solid supports.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Joshua A; Kim, Min Chul; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-28

    Phospholipid assemblies on solid supports mimic the cell membrane, and provide a platform to study membrane biology. Among the different types of model membranes, the planar bilayer is a two-dimensional lipid bilayer sheet that can be formed by the adsorption and spontaneous rupture of vesicles. The formation process is influenced by the interactions between vesicles and the solid support as well as between vesicles. On silicon oxide, which is a commonly used solid support, vesicles typically adsorb until reaching a critical coverage and then spontaneous rupture begins. Although it is generally understood that spontaneous rupture leads to planar bilayer formation, oversaturation of vesicles at the critical coverage can hinder the whole process due to a steric factor. To date, the role of this factor has been scrutinized only in relation to temperature, and the influence of additional parameters remains to be elucidated. In this work, we have investigated how vesicle size and corresponding steric constraints influence the kinetics of vesicle adsorption and rupture and, more specifically, how the state of adsorbed vesicles after fusion depends on the vesicle size. Using quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we characterized the adsorption kinetics of vesicles onto silicon oxide and the lateral mobility of solid-supported lipid assemblies. While the vesicle adsorption kinetics were diffusion-limited up to the onset of vesicle rupture, the extent of rupture depended on vesicle size and it was observed that larger vesicles are more prone to steric effects than smaller vesicles. We discuss this finding in terms of the structural transformation from adsorbed vesicles to a planar bilayer, including how the interplay of thermodynamic, kinetic and steric factors can affect vesicle rupture on solid supports.

  2. Resident CAPS on dense-core vesicles docks and primes vesicles for fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kabachinski, Greg; Kielar-Grevstad, D. Michelle; Zhang, Xingmin; James, Declan J.; Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells requires a priming step during which SNARE protein complexes assemble. CAPS (aka CADPS) is one of several factors required for vesicle priming; however, the localization and dynamics of CAPS at sites of exocytosis in live neuroendocrine cells has not been determined. We imaged CAPS before, during, and after single-vesicle fusion events in PC12 cells by TIRF micro­scopy. In addition to being a resident on cytoplasmic dense-core vesicles, CAPS was present in clusters of approximately nine molecules near the plasma membrane that corresponded to docked/tethered vesicles. CAPS accompanied vesicles to the plasma membrane and was present at all vesicle exocytic events. The knockdown of CAPS by shRNA eliminated the VAMP-2–dependent docking and evoked exocytosis of fusion-competent vesicles. A CAPS(ΔC135) protein that does not localize to vesicles failed to rescue vesicle docking and evoked exocytosis in CAPS-depleted cells, showing that CAPS residence on vesicles is essential. Our results indicate that dense-core vesicles carry CAPS to sites of exocytosis, where CAPS promotes vesicle docking and fusion competence, probably by initiating SNARE complex assembly. PMID:26700319

  3. Loss of vps54 function leads to vesicle traffic impairment, protein mis-sorting and embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Páll; Droce, Aida; Moser, Jakob M; Cuhlmann, Simon; Padilla, Carolina Ortiz; Heimann, Peter; Bartsch, Jörg W; Füchtbauer, Annette; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the mutation causing the phenotype of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model mouse, wobbler, has linked motor neuron degeneration with retrograde vesicle traffic. The wobbler mutation affects protein stability of Vps54, a ubiquitously expressed vesicle-tethering factor and leads to partial loss of Vps54 function. Moreover, the Vps54 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, which is associated with extensive membrane blebbing in the neural tube and is most likely a consequence of impaired vesicle transport. Investigation of cells derived from wobbler and Vps54 null mutant embryos demonstrates impaired retrograde transport of the Cholera-toxin B subunit to the trans-Golgi network and mis-sorting of mannose-6-phosphate receptors and cargo proteins dependent on retrograde vesicle transport. Endocytosis assays demonstrate no difference between wobbler and wild type cells, indicating that the retrograde vesicle traffic to the trans-Golgi network, but not endocytosis, is affected in Vps54 mutant cells. The results obtained on wobbler cells were extended to test the use of cultured skin fibroblasts from human ALS patients to investigate the retrograde vesicle traffic. Analysis of skin fibroblasts of ALS patients will support the investigation of the critical role of the retrograde vesicle transport in ALS pathogenesis and might yield a diagnostic prospect.

  4. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Robert J; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  5. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  6. Lipidomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles from the Pathogenic Phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Larissa V. G.; Ganiko, Luciane; Lopes, Felipe G.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Almeida, Igor C.; Puccia, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Background Fungal extracellular vesicles are able to cross the cell wall and transport molecules that help in nutrient acquisition, cell defense, and modulation of the host defense machinery. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a detailed lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles released by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis at the yeast pathogenic phase. We compared data of two representative isolates, Pb3 and Pb18, which have distinct virulence profiles and phylogenetic background. Vesicle lipids were fractionated into different classes and analyzed by either electrospray ionization- or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found two species of monohexosylceramide and 33 phospholipid species, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Among the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in extracellular vesicles, C181 predominated in Pb3, whereas C18:2 prevailed in Pb18. The prevalent sterol in Pb3 and Pb18 vesicles was brassicasterol, followed by ergosterol and lanosterol. Inter-isolate differences in sterol composition were observed, and also between extracellular vesicles and whole cells. Conclusions/Significance The extensive lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from two P. brasiliensis isolates will help to understand the composition of these fungal components/organelles and will hopefully be useful to study their biogenesis and role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22745761

  7. Interactions of End-Functionalized Nanotubes with Lipid Vesicles: Spontaneous Insertion and Nanotube Self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Kuksenok, Olga; Nayhouse, Michael; Little, Steven R.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2011-03-01

    Via Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) approach, we study the self-assembly of amphiphilic nanotubes into a lipid vesicle, which is immersed in a hydrophilic solvent. Individual lipids are composed of a hydrophilic head group and two hydrophobic tails. Each nanotube encompasses an ABA architecture, with a hydrophobic shaft (B) and two hydrophilic ends (A). To allow controlled transport through the nanotube, we also introduce hydrophilic tethers at one end of the tube. We show that nanotubes initially located in the outer solvent spontaneously penetrate the vesicle's membrane and assume a trans-membrane position, with the hydrophilic tethers extending from the surface of the vesicle. We add nanotubes one at a time after the previous nanotube has been inserted. We characterize the interactions among the nanotubes that have self-assembled into the vesicles' membrane and focus on their clustering within the membrane. We also show that the nanotube insertion and clustering within the vesicle strongly affects the vesicle shape in cases of a sufficiently large number of tubes. Ultimately, these nanotube-lipid systems can be used for making hybrid controlled release vesicles.

  8. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  9. Autonomous movement of a chemically powered vesicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shivam; Sreeja, K. K.; Thakur, Snigdha

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the diffusio-phoretic motion of a deformable vesicle. A vesicle is built from the linked catalytic and noncatalytic vertices that consumes fuel in the environment and utilize the resulting self-generated concentration gradient to exhibit propulsive motion. Under nonequilibrium conditions it is found that the self-propulsion velocity of the vesicle depends on its shape, which in turn is controlled by the bending rigidity of the membrane and solvent density around it. The self-propulsion velocity of the vesicle for different shapes has been calculated and the factors which affect the velocity are identified.

  10. Autonomous movement of a chemically powered vesicle.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shivam; Sreeja, K K; Thakur, Snigdha

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the diffusio-phoretic motion of a deformable vesicle. A vesicle is built from the linked catalytic and noncatalytic vertices that consumes fuel in the environment and utilize the resulting self-generated concentration gradient to exhibit propulsive motion. Under nonequilibrium conditions it is found that the self-propulsion velocity of the vesicle depends on its shape, which in turn is controlled by the bending rigidity of the membrane and solvent density around it. The self-propulsion velocity of the vesicle for different shapes has been calculated and the factors which affect the velocity are identified. PMID:26565268

  11. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  12. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  13. Defensive slime formation in Pacific hagfish requires Ca2+- and aquaporin-mediated swelling of released mucin vesicles.

    PubMed

    Herr, Julia E; Clifford, Alexander M; Goss, Greg G; Fudge, Douglas S

    2014-07-01

    Hagfishes defend themselves from fish predators via the rapid deployment of a fibrous slime that adheres to and clogs gills. The slime transforms from a thick glandular exudate to a fully hydrated product in a fraction of a second through a process that involves the swelling and rupture of numerous mucin vesicles. Here we demonstrate that the vesicle membrane plays an important role in regulating the swelling of mucin granules, and provide evidence that the membrane contains proteins that facilitate the movement of ions and water molecules. By exposing isolated mucin vesicles to varying combinations of inorganic ions, organic compounds and membrane channel inhibitors, we found that the majority of hagfish mucin vesicles require Ca(2+) to rupture. We also show that Ca(2+)-dependent rupture can be pharmacologically inhibited, which suggests a role for Ca(2+)-activated membrane transporters. We demonstrate that the aquaporin inhibitor mercuric chloride reduces the rate of vesicle swelling by an order of magnitude, which suggests that aquaporins facilitate the influx of water during vesicle deployment. Molecular evidence of two aquaporin homologues expressed in the slime glands further supports this idea. We propose a model of hagfish slime mucin vesicle rupture that involves Ca(2+)-activated transporters and aquaporins, and suggest that the presence of these proteins is an adaptation for increasing the speed of vesicle rupture and, consequently, the speed of the sliming response of hagfishes.

  14. Alignment of Synaptic Vesicle Macromolecules with the Macromolecules in Active Zone Material that Direct Vesicle Docking

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jung, Jae Hoon; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles dock at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of a neuron’s axon terminals as a precondition for fusing with the membrane and releasing their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Typically, docked vesicles are next to aggregates of plasma membrane-bound macromolecules called active zone material (AZM). Electron tomography on tissue sections from fixed and stained axon terminals of active and resting frog neuromuscular junctions has led to the conclusion that undocked vesicles are directed to and held at the docking sites by the successive formation of stable connections between vesicle membrane proteins and proteins in different classes of AZM macromolecules. Using the same nanometer scale 3D imaging technology on appropriately stained frog neuromuscular junctions, we found that ∼10% of a vesicle’s luminal volume is occupied by a radial assembly of elongate macromolecules attached by narrow projections, nubs, to the vesicle membrane at ∼25 sites. The assembly’s chiral, bilateral shape is nearly the same vesicle to vesicle, and nubs, at their sites of connection to the vesicle membrane, are linked to macromolecules that span the membrane. For docked vesicles, the orientation of the assembly’s shape relative to the AZM and the presynaptic membrane is the same vesicle to vesicle, whereas for undocked vesicles it is not. The connection sites of most nubs on the membrane of docked vesicles are paired with the connection sites of the different classes of AZM macromolecules that regulate docking, and the membrane spanning macromolecules linked to these nubs are also attached to the AZM macromolecules. We conclude that the luminal assembly of macromolecules anchors in a particular arrangement vesicle membrane macromolecules, which contain the proteins that connect the vesicles to AZM macromolecules during docking. Undocked vesicles must move in a way that aligns this arrangement with the AZM macromolecules for

  15. Binding and Unbinding of Vesicles and Capsules in Axisymmetric Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, L. Gary; Keh, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Prof. Andreas Acrivos pioneered the use of scaling and asymptotic analysis, as well as the use of boundary integral methods, by chemical engineers in fluid flow and transport problems. These are skills that have been used by many of his former students in their own research. Here we consider the title problem using a combination of boundary-integral based numerical methods and scaling analysis to study the dynamics and mechanisms of adhesion and de-adhesion of vesicles at a solid boundary in the presence of flow. The adhesion process is dominated by drainage of the thin film down to a point where non-hydrodynamic attractive forces cause adherence. The unbinding process is dominated by peeling, though the final force to pull a vesicle from a solid surface is larger than expected due to lubrication effects.

  16. Structural Basis of Vesicle Formation at the Inner Nuclear Membrane.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christoph; Dent, Kyle C; Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Grange, Michael; Bosse, Jens B; Whittle, Cathy; Klupp, Barbara G; Siebert, C Alistair; Vasishtan, Daven; Bäuerlein, Felix J B; Cheleski, Juliana; Werner, Stephan; Guttmann, Peter; Rehbein, Stefan; Henzler, Katja; Demmerle, Justin; Adler, Barbara; Koszinowski, Ulrich; Schermelleh, Lothar; Schneider, Gerd; Enquist, Lynn W; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Grünewald, Kay

    2015-12-17

    Vesicular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is becoming recognized as a general cellular mechanism for translocation of large cargoes across the nuclear envelope. Cargo is recruited, enveloped at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), and delivered by membrane fusion at the outer nuclear membrane. To understand the structural underpinning for this trafficking, we investigated nuclear egress of progeny herpesvirus capsids where capsid envelopment is mediated by two viral proteins, forming the nuclear egress complex (NEC). Using a multi-modal imaging approach, we visualized the NEC in situ forming coated vesicles of defined size. Cellular electron cryo-tomography revealed a protein layer showing two distinct hexagonal lattices at its membrane-proximal and membrane-distant faces, respectively. NEC coat architecture was determined by combining this information with integrative modeling using small-angle X-ray scattering data. The molecular arrangement of the NEC establishes the basic mechanism for budding and scission of tailored vesicles at the INM.

  17. A vesicle carrier that mediates peroxisome protein traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sheung Kwan; Yoda, Naofumi; Schekman, Randy

    2010-12-14

    Pex19p, a soluble cytoplasmic transport protein, is required for the traffic of the peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex3p and Pex15p from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome. We documented Pex15p traffic from the ER using a chimeric protein containing a C-terminal glycosylation acceptor peptide. Pex15Gp expressed in wild-type yeast cells is N-glycosylated and functions properly in the peroxisome. In contrast, pex19Δ-mutant cells accumulate the glycoprotein Pex15Gp in the ER. We developed a cell-free preperoxisomal vesicle-budding reaction in which Pex15Gp and Pex3p are packaged into small vesicles in the presence of cytosol, Pex19p, and ATP. Secretory vesicle budding (COPII) detected by the packaging of a SNARE protein (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachment protein receptor) occurs in the same incubation but does not depend on Pex19p. Conversely a dominant GTPase mutant Sar1p which inhibits COPII has no effect on Pex3p packaging. Pex15Gp and Pex3p budded vesicles sediment as low-buoyant-density membranes on a Nycodenz gradient and copurify by affinity isolation using native but not Triton X-100-treated budded vesicles. ER-peroxisome transport vesicles appear to rely on a novel budding mechanism requiring Pex19p and additional unknown factors.

  18. Exosomes and Other Extracellular Vesicles: The New Communicators in Parasite Infections

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Gillian; Maizels, Rick M.; Buck, Amy H.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a ubiquitous mechanism for transferring information between cells and organisms across all three kingdoms of life. In addition to their roles in normal physiology, vesicles also transport molecules from pathogens to hosts and can spread antigens as well as infectious agents. Although initially described in the host–pathogen context for their functions in immune surveillance, vesicles enable multiple modes of communication by, and between, parasites. Here we review the literature demonstrating that EVs are secreted by intracellular and extracellular eukaryotic parasites, as well as their hosts, and detail the functional properties of these vesicles in maturation, pathogenicity and survival. We further describe the prospects for targeting or exploiting these complexes in therapeutic and vaccine strategies. PMID:26433251

  19. Construction of macroscopic cytomimetic vesicle aggregates based on click chemistry: controllable vesicle fusion and phase separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haibao; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Yongli; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2012-07-01

    Vesicle-vesicle aggregation to mimic cell-cell aggregation has attracted much attention. Here, hyperbranched polymer vesicles (branched-polymersomes, BPs) with a cell-like size were selected as model membranes, and the vesicle aggregation process, triggered by click chemistry of the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction, was systematically studied. For this purpose, azide and alkynyl groups were loaded on the membranes of BPs through the co-assembly method to obtain N(3)-BPs and Alk-BPs, respectively. Subsequently, macroscopic vesicle aggregates were obtained when these two kinds of functional BPs were mixed together with the ratio of azide to alkynyl groups of about 1:1. Both the vesicle fusion events and lateral phase separation on the vesicle membrane occurred during such a vesicle aggregation process, and the fusion rate and phase-separation degree could be controlled by adjusting the clickable group content. The vesicle aggregation process with N(3) -micelles as desmosome mimics to connect with Alk-BPs through click-chemistry reaction was also studied, and large-scale vesicle aggregates without vesicle fusion were obtained in this process. The present work has extended the controllable cytomimetic vesicle aggregation process with the use of covalent bonds, instead of noncovalent bonds, as the driving force.

  20. Small Angle Neutron-Scattering Studies of the Core Structure of Intact Neurosecretory Vesicles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Susan Takacs

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the state of the dense cores within intact neurosecretory vesicles. These vesicles transport the neurophysin proteins, along with their associated hormones, oxytocin or vasopressin, from the posterior pituitary gland to the bloodstream, where the entire vesicle contents are released. Knowledge of the vesicle core structure is important in developing an understanding of this release mechanism. Since the core constituents exist in a dense state at concentrations which cannot be reproduced (in solution) in the laboratory, a new method was developed to determine the core structure from SANS experiments performed on intact neurosecretory vesicles. These studies were complemented by biochemical assays performed to determine the role, if any, played by phospholipids in the interactions between the core constituents. H_2O/D_2 O ratio in the solvent can be adjusted, using the method of contrast variation, such that the scattering due to the vesicle membranes is minimized, thus emphasizing the scattering originating from the cores. The applicability of this method for examining the interior of biological vesicles was tested by performing an initial study on human red blood cells, which are similar in structure to other biological vesicles. Changes in intermolecular hemoglobin interactions, occurring when the ionic strength of the solvent was varied or when the cells were deoxygenated, were examined. The results agreed with those expected for dense protein solutions, indicating that the method developed was suitable for the study of hemoglobin within the cells. Similar SANS studies were then performed on intact neurosecretory vesicles. The experimental results were inconsistent with model calculations which assumed that the cores consisted of small, densely-packed particles or large, globular aggregates. Although a unique model could not be determined, the data suggest that the core constituents form long aggregates of

  1. Proteomics of extracellular vesicles: Exosomes and ectosomes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Sic; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-01-01

    Almost all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic cells shed extracellular vesicles either constitutively or in a regulated manner. These nanosized membrane vesicles are spherical, bilayered proteolipids that harbor specific subsets of proteins, DNAs, RNAs, and lipids. Recent research has facilitated conceptual advancements in this emerging field that indicate that extracellular vesicles act as intercellular communicasomes by transferring signals to their target cell via surface ligands and delivering receptors and functional molecules. Recent progress in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles derived from diverse cell types and body fluids has resulted in the identification of several thousand vesicular proteins that provide us with essential clues to the molecular mechanisms involved in vesicle cargo sorting and biogenesis. Furthermore, cell-type- or disease-specific vesicular proteins help us to understand the pathophysiological functions of extracellular vesicles and contribute to the discovery of diagnostic and therapeutic target proteins. This review focuses on the high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles (i.e., exosomes and ectosomes), EVpedia (a free web-based integrated database of high-throughput data for systematic analyses of extracellular vesicles; http://evpedia.info), and the intravesicular protein-protein interaction network analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles. The goal of this article is to encourage further studies to construct a comprehensive proteome database for extracellular vesicles that will help us to not only decode the biogenesis and cargo-sorting mechanisms during vesicle formation but also elucidate the pathophysiological roles of these complex extracellular organelles.

  2. Cholesterol transport in model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.

  3. Na sup + -glycine cotransport in canalicular liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, R.H.; Ballatori, N.; Murphy, S.M. Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY )

    1988-08-01

    By use of purified rat canalicular liver plasma membrane (cLPM) vesicles, the present study determined the driving forces for glycine transport across this membrane domain. Initial rates of ({sup 3}H)glycine uptake in cLPM vesicles were stimulated by an inwardly directed Na{sup +} gradient but not by a K{sup +} gradient. Na{sup +} gradient-dependent uptake of glycine demonstrated cation specificity for Na{sup +}, dependence on extravesicular Cl{sup {minus}}, stimulation by an intravesicular-negative membrane potential, and inhibition by dissipation of the Na{sup +} gradient with gramicidin D. Na{sup +} gradient-dependent glycine cotransport also demonstrated greater sensitivity to inhibition by sarcosine than 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid. Accelerated exchange diffusion of ({sup 3}H)glycine was demonstrated in the presence of Na{sup +} when cLPM vesicles were preloaded with glycine but not with L-alanine or L-proline. Substrate velocity analysis of net Na{sup +}-dependent ({sup 3}H)glycine uptake over the range of amino acid concentrations from 5 {mu}M to 5 mM demonstrated two saturable transport systems, one of high capacity and low affinity and one of low capacity and comparatively high affinity. These results indicate that, in addition to previously described neutral and anionic amino acid transport systems, Na{sup +} gradient-dependent glycine transport mechanisms are present on the canalicular domain of the liver plasma membrane. These canalicular reabsorptive mechanisms may serve to reclaim some of the glycine generated within the canalicular lumen from the intrabiliary hydrolysis of glutathione.

  4. Comparative expression analysis of senescence gene CsNAP and B-class floral development gene CsAP3 during different stages of flower development in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wafai, Asrar H; Bukhari, Shoiab; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Amin, Asif; Wani, Zubair; Hussaini, Amjad; Mir, Javid I; Qadri, Raies A

    2015-07-01

    Crocus sativus, a monocot triploid species belonging to the Iridaceae family, is cultivated for its red stigmatic lobes of the carpel that constitute saffron. Flower development has been extensively studied in different plants. Different floral developmental pathways have been deciphered in many plants. In Crocus sativus, flower is the most important part and understanding the pathway underlying the flower development can pave the way for new avenues to improve its productivity and quality. The combination of class A genes (including APETALA1; CsAP1 and APETALA2; CsAP2), class B genes (including APETALA3; CsAP3 and PISTILLATA; CsPI) and class C genes (including AGAMOUS; CsAG) that are active in each whorl, determines the identity of the organs that will later develop in that whorl. CsAP3 is a class B homeotic gene which promotes petal and stamen formation and has a very important role in flower development. It also activates other genes playing pivotal role in flower development. It has been earlier reported that CsAP3 gene has direct role in activation of CsNAP gene which promotes senescence in plants. Present work was focused on study of relative gene expression changes of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene during different stages of flower development. CsAP3 gene expression was found maximum during late-preanthesis stages of stigma development. Expression increases from stage 5 to stage 6 of flower development and then reduces again from stage 6 to stage 7. CsNAP gene had moderate expression during stage 3 to stage 4 transition and its expression increased abruptly from stage 6 to stage 7 of flower development. There is no direct concordance in the expression of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene expression in saffron. We may conclude that some other factor(s) may be responsible for initiation of CsNAP expression and CsAP3 gene may directly/indirectly be involved in regulating the factors responsible for CsNAP activation.

  5. Leiomyoma of the seminal vesicles: laparoscopic excision.

    PubMed

    Casado Varela, Javier; Hermida Gutiérrez, Juan Francisco; Castillón Vela, Ignacio T; León Rueda, Maria Eugenia; Ortega Medina, Luis; Moreno Sierra, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the seminal vesicles is an extremely rare type of benign tumor of the genitourinary system and can cause lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite their low incidence, these tumors can be identified with transrectal ultrasound of the seminal vesicles during prostate examination. The removal of these tumors is facilitated by a laparoscopic approach.

  6. Dynamical simulations of vesicle growth and division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Prebiotic cells constitute a beautiful and intriguing example of self-replicating vesicles. How these cells managed to grow and divide without sophisticated machinery is still an open question. The properties of these primitive vesicles can shed light on the ways modern cells have evolved by exploiting those characteristics to develop their replication mechanisms. The equilibrium configurations of elastic shells are well understood, however the dynamical behavior during growth still lacks of a deep theoretical understanding. To study vesicle growth from a general perspective, we have developed a minimal generic model where vesicles are represented by a 2D spring network and characterized by a minimum set of magnitudes: growth rate, permeability, bending stiffness, viscosity and temperature. We have performed hybrid molecuar dynamic simulations as a function of a reduced set of dimensionless parameters. Three main outcomes were observed: vesicles that grow without division, vesicles that divide symmetrically, and vesicles that act as generators of daughter vesicles. The type of outcome depends on the system parameters and specifically on its dynamics via two timescales. Furthermore, we found sets of parameters where the system shows size homeostasis. TRH was supported by Ramon Areces Foundation.

  7. Synaptic vesicle distribution by conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Moughamian, Armen J; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2012-03-01

    The equal distribution of synaptic vesicles among synapses along the axon is critical for robust neurotransmission. Wong et al. show that the continuous circulation of synaptic vesicles throughout the axon driven by molecular motors ultimately yields this even distribution. PMID:22385955

  8. Molecular underpinnings of synaptic vesicle pool heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Devon C; Kavalali, Ege T

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal communication relies on chemical synaptic transmission for information transfer and processing. Chemical neurotransmission is initiated by synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic active zone resulting in release of neurotransmitters. Classical models have assumed that all synaptic vesicles within a synapse have the same potential to fuse under different functional contexts. In this model, functional differences among synaptic vesicle populations are ascribed to their spatial distribution in the synapse with respect to the active zone. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that synaptic vesicles are not a homogenous population of organelles, and they possess intrinsic molecular differences and differential interaction partners. Recent studies have reported a diverse array of synaptic molecules that selectively regulate synaptic vesicles' ability to fuse synchronously and asynchronously in response to action potentials or spontaneously irrespective of action potentials. Here we discuss these molecular mediators of vesicle pool heterogeneity that are found on the synaptic vesicle membrane, on the presynaptic plasma membrane, or within the cytosol and consider some of the functional consequences of this diversity. This emerging molecular framework presents novel avenues to probe synaptic function and uncover how synaptic vesicle pools impact neuronal signaling.

  9. Nanoplasmonic ruler to measure lipid vesicle deformation.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Joshua A; Špačková, Barbora; Linardy, Eric; Kim, Min Chul; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Homola, Jiří; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    A nanoplasmonic ruler method is presented in order to measure the deformation of adsorbed, nm-scale lipid vesicles on solid supports. It is demonstrated that single adsorbed vesicles undergo greater deformation on silicon oxide over titanium oxide, offering direct experimental evidence to support membrane tension-based theoretical models of supported lipid bilayer formation.

  10. Fusion Competent Synaptic Vesicles Persist upon Active Zone Disruption and Loss of Vesicle Docking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan Shan H; Held, Richard G; Wong, Man Yan; Liu, Changliang; Karakhanyan, Aziz; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-08-17

    In a nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle docking and release are restricted to an active zone. The active zone is a protein scaffold that is attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane and opposed to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we generated conditional knockout mice removing the active zone proteins RIM and ELKS, which additionally led to loss of Munc13, Bassoon, Piccolo, and RIM-BP, indicating disassembly of the active zone. We observed a near-complete lack of synaptic vesicle docking and a strong reduction in vesicular release probability and the speed of exocytosis, but total vesicle numbers, SNARE protein levels, and postsynaptic densities remained unaffected. Despite loss of the priming proteins Munc13 and RIM and of docked vesicles, a pool of releasable vesicles remained. Thus, the active zone is necessary for synaptic vesicle docking and to enhance release probability, but releasable vesicles can be localized distant from the presynaptic plasma membrane. PMID:27537483

  11. Emergence and stability of intermediate open vesicles in disk-to-vesicle transitions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongdong; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

    2013-07-01

    The transition between two basic structures, a disk and an enclosed vesicle, of a finite membrane is studied by examining the minimum energy path (MEP) connecting these two states. The MEP is constructed using the string method applied to continuum elastic membrane models. The results reveal that, besides the commonly observed disk and vesicle, open vesicles (bowl-shaped vesicles or vesicles with a pore) can become stable or metastable shapes. The emergence, stability, and probability distribution of these open vesicles are analyzed. It is demonstrated that open vesicles can be stabilized by higher-order elastic energies. The estimated probability distribution of the different structures is in good agreement with available experiments. PMID:23944502

  12. Fusion Competent Synaptic Vesicles Persist upon Active Zone Disruption and Loss of Vesicle Docking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan Shan H; Held, Richard G; Wong, Man Yan; Liu, Changliang; Karakhanyan, Aziz; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-08-17

    In a nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle docking and release are restricted to an active zone. The active zone is a protein scaffold that is attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane and opposed to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we generated conditional knockout mice removing the active zone proteins RIM and ELKS, which additionally led to loss of Munc13, Bassoon, Piccolo, and RIM-BP, indicating disassembly of the active zone. We observed a near-complete lack of synaptic vesicle docking and a strong reduction in vesicular release probability and the speed of exocytosis, but total vesicle numbers, SNARE protein levels, and postsynaptic densities remained unaffected. Despite loss of the priming proteins Munc13 and RIM and of docked vesicles, a pool of releasable vesicles remained. Thus, the active zone is necessary for synaptic vesicle docking and to enhance release probability, but releasable vesicles can be localized distant from the presynaptic plasma membrane.

  13. [Transvesical Removal of Seminal Vesicle Cystadenoma].

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Kenta; Harada, Jiro; Kawa, Gen; Ota, Syuichi; Sakurai, Takanori

    2015-07-01

    Primary tumors of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. There have been 25 reports of this tumor from overseas and most cases are cystadenoma. We report a case of seminal vesicle cystadenoma in a 70-year-old man who presented with lower abdominal pain and urinary frequency. A digital rectal examination detected a projecting and hard mass in the right side of the prostate. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 15 cm multiple cystic mass continuous with the right seminal vesicle. A transrectal needle biopsy revealed benign tissue. The tumor was resected using an open transvesical approach that enabled full exposure of the seminal vesicle without damaging the nerves and blood supply of the bladder. Pathology was consistent with a benign seminal vesicle cystadenoma. We describe the natural history, pathology,and surgical approach in this case.

  14. Development and characterization of nanopore system for nano-vesicle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Gaurav

    Nano-vesicles have recently attracted a lot of attention in research and medical communities and are very promising next-generation drug delivery vehicles. This is due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and their ability to protect drug cargo and deliver it to site-specific locations, while maintaining the desired pharmacokinetic profile. The interaction of these drug loaded vesicles with the recipient cells via adsorption, endocytosis or receptor mediated internalization involve significant bending and deformation and is governed by mechanical properties of the nano-vesicles. Currently, the mechanical characteristics of nano-vesicles are left unexplored because of the difficulties associated with vesicle analysis at sub-100 nm length scale. The need for a complete understanding of nano-vesicle interaction with each other and the recipient cells warrants development of an analytical tool capable of mechanical investigation of individual vesicles at sub-100 nm scale. This dissertation presents investigation of nano-vesicle deformability using resistive pulse sensing and solid-state nanopore devices. The dissertation is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the motivation, specific aims and presents an overview of nanoparticle characterization techniques, resistive pulse sensing background and principles, techniques for fabricating solid-state nanopores, as well the deformation behavior of giant vesicles when placed in electric field. Chapter 2 is dedicated to understanding of the scientific principles governing transport of sub-100 nm particles in dilute solutions. We investigated the translocation of rigid nanoparticles through nanopores at salt concentrations < 50 mM. When using low electrolyte strength, surface effects become predominant and resulted in unconventional current signatures in our experiments. It prompted us to explore the effects of different experimental parameters using Multiphysics simulations, in order to optimize our system

  15. Three-dimensional flow in Kupffer's Vesicle.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Johnson, T D; Baker, D I; Smith, D J; Lopes, S S

    2016-09-01

    Whilst many vertebrates appear externally left-right symmetric, the arrangement of internal organs is asymmetric. In zebrafish, the breaking of left-right symmetry is organised by Kupffer's Vesicle (KV): an approximately spherical, fluid-filled structure that begins to form in the embryo 10 hours post fertilisation. A crucial component of zebrafish symmetry breaking is the establishment of a cilia-driven fluid flow within KV. However, it is still unclear (a) how dorsal, ventral and equatorial cilia contribute to the global vortical flow, and (b) if this flow breaks left-right symmetry through mechanical transduction or morphogen transport. Fully answering these questions requires knowledge of the three-dimensional flow patterns within KV, which have not been quantified in previous work. In this study, we calculate and analyse the three-dimensional flow in KV. We consider flow from both individual and groups of cilia, and (a) find anticlockwise flow can arise purely from excess of cilia on the dorsal roof over the ventral floor, showing how this vortical flow is stabilised by dorsal tilt of equatorial cilia, and (b) show that anterior clustering of dorsal cilia leads to around 40 % faster flow in the anterior over the posterior corner. We argue that these flow features are supportive of symmetry breaking through mechano-sensory cilia, and suggest a novel experiment to test this hypothesis. From our new understanding of the flow, we propose a further experiment to reverse the flow within KV to potentially induce situs inversus.

  16. Analysis of Yeast Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcio L; Oliveira, Debora L; Vargas, Gabriele; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Franzen, Anderson J; Frasés, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important carriers of biologically active components in a number of organisms, including fungal cells. Experimental characterization of fungal EVs suggested that these membranous compartments are likely involved in the regulation of several biological events. In fungal pathogens, these events include mechanisms of disease progression and/or control, suggesting potential targets for therapeutic intervention or disease prophylaxis. In this manuscript we describe methods that have been used in the last 10 years for the characterization of EVs produced by yeast forms of several fungal species. Experimental approaches detailed in this chapter include ultracentrifugation methods for EV fractionation, chromatographic approaches for analysis of EV lipids, microscopy techniques for analysis of both intracellular and extracellular vesicular compartments, interaction of EVs with host cells, and physical chemical analysis of EVs by dynamic light scattering. PMID:27665559

  17. Analysis of Yeast Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcio L; Oliveira, Debora L; Vargas, Gabriele; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Franzen, Anderson J; Frasés, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important carriers of biologically active components in a number of organisms, including fungal cells. Experimental characterization of fungal EVs suggested that these membranous compartments are likely involved in the regulation of several biological events. In fungal pathogens, these events include mechanisms of disease progression and/or control, suggesting potential targets for therapeutic intervention or disease prophylaxis. In this manuscript we describe methods that have been used in the last 10 years for the characterization of EVs produced by yeast forms of several fungal species. Experimental approaches detailed in this chapter include ultracentrifugation methods for EV fractionation, chromatographic approaches for analysis of EV lipids, microscopy techniques for analysis of both intracellular and extracellular vesicular compartments, interaction of EVs with host cells, and physical chemical analysis of EVs by dynamic light scattering.

  18. Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barlowe, Charles

    1997-01-01

    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function. PMID:9382859

  19. Unveiling the secret lives of glutamate transporters: VGLUTs engage in multiple transport modes.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Alessio

    2014-12-17

    Accumulation of glutamate in synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters called VGLUTs. In the current issue of Neuron, Preobraschenski et al. (2014) show that the VGLUTs, in addition to transporting glutamate, also provide the conductances necessary to maintain the appropriate voltage and pH inside these vesicles. PMID:25521371

  20. Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Contain miRNAs and are Released as Early Biomarkers for Cardiac Injury.

    PubMed

    Deddens, Janine C; Vrijsen, Krijn R; Colijn, Johanna M; Oerlemans, Martinus I; Metz, Corina H G; van der Vlist, Els J; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; den Ouden, Krista; Jansen Of Lorkeers, Sanne J; van der Spoel, Tycho I G; Koudstaal, Stefan; Arkesteijn, Ger J; Wauben, Marca H M; van Laake, Linda W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2016-08-01

    Plasma-circulating microRNAs have been implicated as novel early biomarkers for myocardial infarction (MI) due to their high specificity for cardiac injury. For swift clinical translation of this potential biomarker, it is important to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics upon MI. Therefore, we studied the temporal release, potential source, and transportation of circulating miRNAs in different models of ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. We demonstrated that extracellular vesicles are released from the ischemic myocardium upon I/R injury. Moreover, we provided evidence that cardiac and muscle-specific miRNAs are transported by extracellular vesicles and are rapidly detectable in plasma. Since these vesicles are enriched for the released miRNAs and their detection precedes traditional damage markers, they hold great potential as specific early biomarkers for MI. PMID:27383837

  1. Emerging role of the scaffolding protein Dlg1 in vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Walch, Laurence

    2013-09-01

    Discs large 1 (Dlg1) is a modular scaffolding protein implicated in the control of cell polarity through assembly of specific multiprotein complexes, including receptors, ion channels and signaling proteins, at specialized zones of the plasma membrane. Recent data have shown that in addition to these well-known interaction partners, Dlg1 may also recruit components of the vesicle trafficking machinery either to the plasma membrane or to transport vesicles. Here, we discuss Dlg1 function in vesicle formation, targeting, tethering and fusion, in both the exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. These pathways contribute to cell functions as major and diverse as glutamatergic activity in the neurons, membrane homeostasis in Schwann cell myelination, insulin stimulation of glucose transport in adipocytes, or endothelial secretion of the hemostatic protein, von Willebrand factor (VWF).

  2. Structural Evidence for Common Ancestry of the Nuclear Pore Complex and Vesicle Coats

    SciTech Connect

    Brohawn, S.; Leksa, N; Spear, E; Rajashankar, K; Schwartz, T

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport. These massive assemblies comprise an eightfold symmetric scaffold of architectural proteins and central-channel phenylalanine-glycine-repeat proteins forming the transport barrier. We determined the nucleoporin 85 (Nup85)bulletSeh1 structure, a module in the heptameric Nup84 complex, at 3.5 angstroms resolution. Structural, biochemical, and genetic analyses position the Nup84 complex in two peripheral NPC rings. We establish a conserved tripartite element, the ancestral coatomer element ACE1, that reoccurs in several nucleoporins and vesicle coat proteins, providing structural evidence of coevolution from a common ancestor. We identified interactions that define the organization of the Nup84 complex on the basis of comparison with vesicle coats and confirmed the sites by mutagenesis. We propose that the NPC scaffold, like vesicle coats, is composed of polygons with vertices and edges forming a membrane-proximal lattice that provides docking sites for additional nucleoporins.

  3. Extracellular Vesicles and a Novel Form of Communication in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Manuela; Bonetto, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    In numerous neurodegenerative diseases, the interplay between neurons and glia modulates the outcome and progression of pathology. One particularly intriguing mode of interaction between neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes is characterized by the release of extracellular vesicles that transport proteins, lipids, and nucleotides from one cell to another. Notably, several proteins that cause disease, including the prion protein and mutant SOD1, have been detected in glia-derived extracellular vesicles and observed to fuse with neurons and trigger pathology in vitro. Here we review the structural and functional characterization of such extracellular vesicles in neuron-glia interactions. Furthermore, we discuss possible mechanisms of extracellular vesicle biogenesis and release from activated glia and microglia, and their effects on neurons. Given that exosomes, the smallest type of extracellular vesicles, have been reported to recognize specific cellular populations and act as carriers of very specialized cargo, a thorough analysis of these vesicles may aid in their engineering in vitro and targeted delivery in vivo, opening opportunities for therapeutics. PMID:27065789

  4. Sequential interactions with Sec23 control the direction of vesicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Lord, Christopher; Bhandari, Deepali; Menon, Shekar; Ghassemian, Majid; Nycz, Deborah; Hay, Jesse; Ghosh, Pradipta; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2011-05-12

    How the directionality of vesicle traffic is achieved remains an important unanswered question in cell biology. The Sec23p/Sec24p coat complex sorts the fusion machinery (SNAREs) into vesicles as they bud from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Vesicle tethering to the Golgi begins when the tethering factor TRAPPI binds to Sec23p. Where the coat is released and how this event relates to membrane fusion is unknown. Here we use a yeast transport assay to demonstrate that an ER-derived vesicle retains its coat until it reaches the Golgi. A Golgi-associated kinase, Hrr25p (CK1δ orthologue), then phosphorylates the Sec23p/Sec24p complex. Coat phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are needed for vesicle fusion and budding, respectively. Additionally, we show that Sec23p interacts in a sequential manner with different binding partners, including TRAPPI and Hrr25p, to ensure the directionality of ER-Golgi traffic and prevent the back-fusion of a COPII vesicle with the ER. These events are conserved in mammalian cells.

  5. RhoGTPase-binding proteins, the exocyst complex and polarized vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Sen, Arpita; Aguilar, R Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity, the asymmetric distribution of proteins and lipids, is essential for a variety of cellular functions. One mechanism orchestrating cell polarity is polarized vesicle trafficking; whereby cargo loaded secretory vesicles are specifically transported to predetermined areas of the cell. The evolutionarily conserved exocyst complex and its small GTPase regulators play crucial roles in spatiotemporal control of polarized vesicle trafficking. In studies on neuronal membrane remodeling and synaptic plasticity, conserved mechanisms of exocyst regulation and cargo recycling during polarized vesicle trafficking are beginning to emerge as well. Recently, our lab demonstrated that RhoGTPase-binding proteins in both yeast (Bem3) and mammals (Ocrl1) are also required for the efficient traffic of secretory vesicles to sites of polarized growth and signaling. Together with our studies, we highlight the evolutionary conservation of the basic elements essential for polarized vesicle traffic across different cellular functions and model systems. In conclusion, we emphasize that studies on RhoGTPase-binding proteins in these processes should be included in the next level of investigation, for a more complete understanding of their hitherto unknown roles in polarized membrane traffic and exocyst regulation.

  6. Atg9 vesicles are an important membrane source during early steps of autophagosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hayashi; Kakuta, Soichiro; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Kitamura, Akira; Sekito, Takayuki; Kondo-Kakuta, Chika; Ichikawa, Rie; Kinjo, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    During the process of autophagy, cytoplasmic materials are sequestered by double-membrane structures, the autophagosomes, and then transported to a lytic compartment to be degraded. One of the most fundamental questions about autophagy involves the origin of the autophagosomal membranes. In this study, we focus on the intracellular dynamics of Atg9, a multispanning membrane protein essential for autophagosome formation in yeast. We found that the vast majority of Atg9 existed on cytoplasmic mobile vesicles (designated Atg9 vesicles) that were derived from the Golgi apparatus in a process involving Atg23 and Atg27. We also found that only a few Atg9 vesicles were required for a single round of autophagosome formation. During starvation, several Atg9 vesicles assembled individually into the preautophagosomal structure, and eventually, they are incorporated into the autophagosomal outer membrane. Our findings provide conclusive linkage between the cytoplasmic Atg9 vesicles and autophagosomal membranes and offer new insight into the requirement for Atg9 vesicles at the early step of autophagosome formation. PMID:22826123

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans rab-3 mutant synapses exhibit impaired function and are partially depleted of vesicles.

    PubMed

    Nonet, M L; Staunton, J E; Kilgard, M P; Fergestad, T; Hartwieg, E; Horvitz, H R; Jorgensen, E M; Meyer, B J

    1997-11-01

    Rab molecules regulate vesicular trafficking in many different exocytic and endocytic transport pathways in eukaryotic cells. In neurons, rab3 has been proposed to play a crucial role in regulating synaptic vesicle release. To elucidate the role of rab3 in synaptic transmission, we isolated and characterized Caenorhabditis elegans rab-3 mutants. Similar to the mouse rab3A mutants, these mutants survived and exhibited only mild behavioral abnormalities. In contrast to the mouse mutants, synaptic transmission was perturbed in these animals. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings revealed that synaptic transmission in the pharyngeal nervous system was impaired. Furthermore, rab-3 animals were resistant to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, suggesting that cholinergic transmission was generally depressed. Last, synaptic vesicle populations were redistributed in rab-3 mutants. In motor neurons, vesicle populations at synapses were depleted to 40% of normal levels, whereas in intersynaptic regions of the axon, vesicle populations were elevated. On the basis of the morphological defects at neuromuscular junctions, we postulate that RAB-3 may regulate recruitment of vesicles to the active zone or sequestration of vesicles near release sites.

  8. On the Computing Potential of Intracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Richard; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Collision-based computing (CBC) is a form of unconventional computing in which travelling localisations represent data and conditional routing of signals determines the output state; collisions between localisations represent logical operations. We investigated patterns of Ca2+-containing vesicle distribution within a live organism, slime mould Physarum polycephalum, with confocal microscopy and observed them colliding regularly. Vesicles travel down cytoskeletal ‘circuitry’ and their collisions may result in reflection, fusion or annihilation. We demonstrate through experimental observations that naturally-occurring vesicle dynamics may be characterised as a computationally-universal set of Boolean logical operations and present a ‘vesicle modification’ of the archetypal CBC ‘billiard ball model’ of computation. We proceed to discuss the viability of intracellular vesicles as an unconventional computing substrate in which we delineate practical considerations for reliable vesicle ‘programming’ in both in vivo and in vitro vesicle computing architectures and present optimised designs for both single logical gates and combinatorial logic circuits based on cytoskeletal network conformations. The results presented here demonstrate the first characterisation of intracelluar phenomena as collision-based computing and hence the viability of biological substrates for computing. PMID:26431435

  9. Optical Manipulation of Vesicles for Optofluidic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; O'Neil, C. P.; Psaltis, D.; Hubbell, J. A.

    2013-09-12

    In this report, we review our recent results in the optical micromanipulation of vesicles. Traditionally, vesicle manipulation has been possible by employing photon momentum and optical trapping, giving rise to unique observations of vesicle shape changes and soft matter mechanics. Contrary to these attempts, we employ photon energy rather than momentum, by sensitizing vesicles with an oxidizing moiety. The later converts incident photons to reactive oxygen species, which in turn attack and compromise the stability of the vesicle membrane. Both coherent and incoherent radiation was employed. Polymersome re-organization into smaller diameter vesicles was possible by focusing the excitation beam in the vicinity of the polymersomes. Extended vesicle illumination with a collimated beam lead to their complete destabilization and micelle formation. Single particle analysis revealed that payload release takes place within seconds of illumination in an explosive burst. We will discuss the destabilization and payload release kinetics, as revealed by high resolution microscopy at the single particle level, as well as potential applications in single cell biomodulation.

  10. Optical manipulation of vesicles for optofluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Scott, E. A.; O'Neil, C. P.; Psaltis, D.; Hubbell, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    In this report, we review our recent results in the optical micromanipulation of vesicles. Traditionally, vesicle manipulation has been possible by employing photon momentum and optical trapping, giving rise to unique observations of vesicle shape changes and soft matter mechanics. Contrary to these attempts, we employ photon energy rather than momentum, by sensitizing vesicles with an oxidizing moiety. The later converts incident photons to reactive oxygen species, which in turn attack and compromise the stability of the vesicle membrane. Both coherent and incoherent radiation was employed. Polymersome re-organization into smaller diameter vesicles was possible by focusing the excitation beam in the vicinity of the polymersomes. Extended vesicle illumination with a collimated beam lead to their complete destabilization and micelle formation. Single particle analysis revealed that payload release takes place within seconds of illumination in an explosive burst. We will discuss the destabilization and payload release kinetics, as revealed by high resolution microscopy at the single particle level, as well as potential applications in single cell biomodulation.

  11. On the Computing Potential of Intracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Richard; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Collision-based computing (CBC) is a form of unconventional computing in which travelling localisations represent data and conditional routing of signals determines the output state; collisions between localisations represent logical operations. We investigated patterns of Ca2+-containing vesicle distribution within a live organism, slime mould Physarum polycephalum, with confocal microscopy and observed them colliding regularly. Vesicles travel down cytoskeletal 'circuitry' and their collisions may result in reflection, fusion or annihilation. We demonstrate through experimental observations that naturally-occurring vesicle dynamics may be characterised as a computationally-universal set of Boolean logical operations and present a 'vesicle modification' of the archetypal CBC 'billiard ball model' of computation. We proceed to discuss the viability of intracellular vesicles as an unconventional computing substrate in which we delineate practical considerations for reliable vesicle 'programming' in both in vivo and in vitro vesicle computing architectures and present optimised designs for both single logical gates and combinatorial logic circuits based on cytoskeletal network conformations. The results presented here demonstrate the first characterisation of intracelluar phenomena as collision-based computing and hence the viability of biological substrates for computing. PMID:26431435

  12. Cholinergic synaptic vesicles contain a V-type and a P-type ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S K; Parsons, S M

    1989-11-01

    Fifty to eighty-five percent of the ATPase activity in different preparations of cholinergic synaptic vesicles isolated from Torpedo electric organ was half-inhibited by 7 microM vanadate. This activity is due to a recently purified phosphointermediate, or P-type, ATPase, Acetylcholine (ACh) active transport by the vesicles was stimulated about 35% by vanadate, demonstrating that the P-type enzyme is not the proton pump responsible for ACh active transport. Nearly all of the vesicle ATPase activity was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. The P-type ATPase could be protected from N-ethylmaleimide inactivation by vanadate, and subsequently reactivated by complexation of vanadate with deferoxamine. The inactivation-protection pattern suggests the presence of a vanadate-insensitive, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase consistent with a vacuolar, or V-type, activity expected to drive ACh active transport. ACh active transport was half-inhibited by 5 microM N-ethylmaleimide, even in the presence of vanadate. The presence of a V-type ATPase was confirmed by Western blots using antisera raised against three separate subunits of chromaffin granule vacuolar ATPase I. Both ATPase activities, the P-type polypeptides, and the 38-kilodalton polypeptide of the V-type ATPase precisely copurify with the synaptic vesicles. Solubilization of synaptic vesicles in octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether detergent results in several-fold stimulation of the P-type activity and inactivation of the V-type activity, thus explaining why the V-type activity was not detected previously during purification of the P-type ATPase. It is concluded that cholinergic vesicles contain a P-type ATPase of unknown function and a V-type ATPase which is the proton pump. PMID:2552014

  13. The C-Terminal Sequence and PI motif of the Orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey) PISTILLATA (PI) Ortholog Determine its Ability to Bind AP3 Orthologs and Enter the Nucleus to Regulate Downstream Genes Controlling Petal and Stamen Formation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Hsing-Fun; Hsu, Wei-Han; Li, Jen-Ying; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on the investigation of the effects of the PI motif and C-terminus of the Oncidium Gower Ramsey MADS box gene 8 (OMADS8), a PISTILLATA (PI) ortholog, on floral organ formation. 35S::OMADS8 completely rescued and 35S::OMADS8-PI (with the PI motif deleted) partially rescued petal/stamen formation, whereas these deficiencies were not rescued by 35S::OMADS8-C (C-terminal 29 amino acids deleted) in pi-1 mutants. OMADS8 could interact with Arabidopsis APETALA3 (AP3) and enter the nucleus. The nuclear entry efficiency was reduced for OMADS8-PI/AP3 and OMADS8-C/AP3. OMADS8 could also interact with OMADS5/OMADS9 (the Oncidium AP3 ortholog) and enter the nucleus with an efficiency only slightly affected by the deletion of the C-terminal sequence or PI motif. However, the stability of the OMADS8/OMADS5 and OMADS8/OMADS9 complexes was significantly reduced by deletion of the C-terminal sequence or PI motif. Further analysis indicated that the expression of genes downstream of AP3/PI (BNQ1/BNQ2/GNC/At4g30270) was compensated by 35S::OMADS8 and 35S::OMADS8-PI to a level similar to wild-type plants but was not affected by 35S::OMADS8-C in the pi-1 mutants. A similar FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) efficiency was observed for Arabidopsis AGAMOUS (AG) and the Oncidium AG ortholog OMADS4 for OMADS8, OMADS8-PI and OMADS8-C. These results indicated that the OMADS8 PI motif and C-terminus were valuable for the interaction of OMADS8 with the AP3 orthologs to form higher order heterotetrameric complexes that regulated petal/stamen formation in both Oncidium orchids and transgenic Arabidopsis. However, the C-terminal sequence and PI motif were dispensable for the interaction of OMADS8 with the AG orthologs.

  14. Extracellular vesicles: Exosomes, microvesicles, and friends

    PubMed Central

    Stoorvogel, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Cells release into the extracellular environment diverse types of membrane vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin called exosomes and microvesicles, respectively. These extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and RNA. Deficiencies in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for EV formation and lack of methods to interfere with the packaging of cargo or with vesicle release, however, still hamper identification of their physiological relevance in vivo. In this review, we focus on the characterization of EVs and on currently proposed mechanisms for their formation, targeting, and function. PMID:23420871

  15. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles’ arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  16. Mechanisms of amphetamine action illuminated through optical monitoring of dopamine synaptic vesicles in Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Freyberg, Zachary; Sonders, Mark S; Aguilar, Jenny I; Hiranita, Takato; Karam, Caline S; Flores, Jorge; Pizzo, Andrea B; Zhang, Yuchao; Farino, Zachary J; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Ciara A; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Fei, Hao; Hu, Gang; Lin, Yi-Ying; Mosharov, Eugene V; McCabe, Brian D; Freyberg, Robin; Wimalasena, Kandatege; Hsin, Ling-Wei; Sames, Dalibor; Krantz, David E; Katz, Jonathan L; Sulzer, David; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2016-02-16

    Amphetamines elevate extracellular dopamine, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we show in rodents that acute pharmacological inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) blocks amphetamine-induced locomotion and self-administration without impacting cocaine-induced behaviours. To study VMAT's role in mediating amphetamine action in dopamine neurons, we have used novel genetic, pharmacological and optical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster. In an ex vivo whole-brain preparation, fluorescent reporters of vesicular cargo and of vesicular pH reveal that amphetamine redistributes vesicle contents and diminishes the vesicle pH-gradient responsible for dopamine uptake and retention. This amphetamine-induced deacidification requires VMAT function and results from net H(+) antiport by VMAT out of the vesicle lumen coupled to inward amphetamine transport. Amphetamine-induced vesicle deacidification also requires functional dopamine transporter (DAT) at the plasma membrane. Thus, we find that at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, amphetamines must be actively transported by DAT and VMAT in tandem to produce psychostimulant effects.

  17. Mechanisms of amphetamine action illuminated through optical monitoring of dopamine synaptic vesicles in Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Freyberg, Zachary; Sonders, Mark S.; Aguilar, Jenny I.; Hiranita, Takato; Karam, Caline S.; Flores, Jorge; Pizzo, Andrea B.; Zhang, Yuchao; Farino, Zachary J.; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Ciara A.; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Fei, Hao; Hu, Gang; Lin, Yi-Ying; Mosharov, Eugene V.; McCabe, Brian D.; Freyberg, Robin; Wimalasena, Kandatege; Hsin, Ling-Wei; Sames, Dalibor; Krantz, David E.; Katz, Jonathan L.; Sulzer, David; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamines elevate extracellular dopamine, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we show in rodents that acute pharmacological inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) blocks amphetamine-induced locomotion and self-administration without impacting cocaine-induced behaviours. To study VMAT's role in mediating amphetamine action in dopamine neurons, we have used novel genetic, pharmacological and optical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster. In an ex vivo whole-brain preparation, fluorescent reporters of vesicular cargo and of vesicular pH reveal that amphetamine redistributes vesicle contents and diminishes the vesicle pH-gradient responsible for dopamine uptake and retention. This amphetamine-induced deacidification requires VMAT function and results from net H+ antiport by VMAT out of the vesicle lumen coupled to inward amphetamine transport. Amphetamine-induced vesicle deacidification also requires functional dopamine transporter (DAT) at the plasma membrane. Thus, we find that at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, amphetamines must be actively transported by DAT and VMAT in tandem to produce psychostimulant effects. PMID:26879809

  18. Coated vesicles in the rat adrenal glomerular zone after a low-sodium diet.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Lafarga, M

    1976-03-15

    In rats subjected to a low-sodium diet, a great activity was observed of the coated vesicles at Golgi complex and cell surfaces of glomerular adrenal zone. These findings are related to the function of these organoids in the uptake and transport of necessary substances under stimulating conditions of the zone.

  19. Mechanisms of amphetamine action illuminated through optical monitoring of dopamine synaptic vesicles in Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Freyberg, Zachary; Sonders, Mark S; Aguilar, Jenny I; Hiranita, Takato; Karam, Caline S; Flores, Jorge; Pizzo, Andrea B; Zhang, Yuchao; Farino, Zachary J; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Ciara A; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Fei, Hao; Hu, Gang; Lin, Yi-Ying; Mosharov, Eugene V; McCabe, Brian D; Freyberg, Robin; Wimalasena, Kandatege; Hsin, Ling-Wei; Sames, Dalibor; Krantz, David E; Katz, Jonathan L; Sulzer, David; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamines elevate extracellular dopamine, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we show in rodents that acute pharmacological inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) blocks amphetamine-induced locomotion and self-administration without impacting cocaine-induced behaviours. To study VMAT's role in mediating amphetamine action in dopamine neurons, we have used novel genetic, pharmacological and optical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster. In an ex vivo whole-brain preparation, fluorescent reporters of vesicular cargo and of vesicular pH reveal that amphetamine redistributes vesicle contents and diminishes the vesicle pH-gradient responsible for dopamine uptake and retention. This amphetamine-induced deacidification requires VMAT function and results from net H(+) antiport by VMAT out of the vesicle lumen coupled to inward amphetamine transport. Amphetamine-induced vesicle deacidification also requires functional dopamine transporter (DAT) at the plasma membrane. Thus, we find that at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, amphetamines must be actively transported by DAT and VMAT in tandem to produce psychostimulant effects. PMID:26879809

  20. Kinetics of particle wrapping by a vesicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2013-07-01

    We present theoretical results on kinetics for the passive wrapping of a single, rigid particle by a flexible membrane. Using a simple geometric ansatz for the shape of the membrane/particle complex we first compute free energy profiles as a function of the particle size, attraction strength between the particle and vesicle, and material properties of the vesicle—bending stiffness and stretching modulus. The free energy profiles thus computed are taken as input to a stochastic model of the wrapping process, described by a Fokker-Planck equation. We compute average uptake rates of the particle into the vesicle. We find that the rate of particle uptake falls to zero outside of a thermodynamically allowed range of particle sizes. Within the thermodynamically allowed range of particle size, the rate of uptake is variable and we compute the optimal particle size and maximal uptake rate as a function of the attraction strength, the vesicle size, and vesicle material properties.

  1. Physiopathologic dynamics of vesicle traffic in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Potokar, Maja; Stenovec, Matjaž; Kreft, Marko; Gabrijel, Mateja; Zorec, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The view of how astrocytes, a type of glial cells, contribute to the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) has changed greatly in the last decade. Although glial cells outnumber neurons in the mammalian brain, it was considered for over a century that they played a subservient role to neurons. This view changed. Functions thought to be exclusively present in neurons, i.e. excitability mediated release of chemical messengers, has also been demonstrated in astrocytes. In this process, following an increase in cytosolic calcium activity, membrane bound vesicles, storing chemical messengers (gliotransmitters), fuse with the plasma membrane, a process known as exocytosis, permitting the exit of vesicle cargo into the extracellular space. Vesicles are delivered to and are removed from the site of exocytosis by an amazingly complex set of processes that we have only started to learn about recently. In this paper we review vesicle traffic, which is subject to physiological regulation and may be changed under pathological conditions.

  2. Vesicle trafficking and cell surface membrane patchiness.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Edidin, M

    2001-07-01

    Membrane proteins and lipids often appear to be distributed in patches on the cell surface. These patches are often assumed to be membrane domains, arising from specific molecular associations. However, a computer simulation (Gheber and Edidin, 1999) shows that membrane patchiness may result from a combination of vesicle trafficking and dynamic barriers to lateral mobility. The simulation predicts that the steady-state patches of proteins and lipids seen on the cell surface will decay if vesicle trafficking is inhibited. To test this prediction, we compared the apparent sizes and intensities of patches of class I HLA molecules, integral membrane proteins, before and after inhibiting endocytic vesicle traffic from the cell surface, either by incubation in hypertonic medium or by expression of a dominant-negative mutant dynamin. As predicted by the simulation, the apparent sizes of HLA patches increased, whereas their intensities decreased after endocytosis and vesicle trafficking were inhibited. PMID:11423406

  3. Transformation of oil droplets into giant vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Li; Kurihara, Kensuke

    2016-06-14

    We propose a protocell model in which compartments are constructed via a new process involving the formation of robust vesicles using an autocatalytic, self-reproducing oil droplet system as a 'scaffold'. PMID:27152371

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of fluid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, K K; Ipsen, John H; Sunil Kumar, P B

    2015-07-15

    Lipid vesicles are closed two dimensional fluid surfaces that are studied extensively as model systems for understanding the physical properties of biological membranes. Here we review the recent developments in the Monte Carlo techniques for simulating fluid vesicles and discuss some of their applications. The technique, which treats the membrane as an elastic sheet, is most suitable for the study of large scale conformations of membranes. The model can be used to study vesicles with fixed and varying topologies. Here we focus on the case of multi-component membranes with the local lipid and protein composition coupled to the membrane curvature leading to a variety of shapes. The phase diagram is more intriguing in the case of fluid vesicles having an in-plane orientational order that induce anisotropic directional curvatures. Methods to explore the steady state morphological structures due to active flux of materials have also been described in the context of Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:26087479

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of fluid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, K. K.; Ipsen, John H.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Lipid vesicles are closed two dimensional fluid surfaces that are studied extensively as model systems for understanding the physical properties of biological membranes. Here we review the recent developments in the Monte Carlo techniques for simulating fluid vesicles and discuss some of their applications. The technique, which treats the membrane as an elastic sheet, is most suitable for the study of large scale conformations of membranes. The model can be used to study vesicles with fixed and varying topologies. Here we focus on the case of multi-component membranes with the local lipid and protein composition coupled to the membrane curvature leading to a variety of shapes. The phase diagram is more intriguing in the case of fluid vesicles having an in-plane orientational order that induce anisotropic directional curvatures. Methods to explore the steady state morphological structures due to active flux of materials have also been described in the context of Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Stability of Spherical Vesicles in Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The stability of spherical vesicles in alternating (ac) electric fields is studied theoretically for asymmetric conductivity conditions across their membranes. The vesicle deformation is obtained from a balance between the curvature elastic energies and the work done by the Maxwell stresses. The present theory describes and clarifies the mechanisms for the four types of morphological transitions observed experimentally on vesicles exposed to ac fields in the frequency range from 500 to 2 × 107 Hz. The displacement currents across the membranes redirect the electric fields toward the membrane normal to accumulate electric charges by the Maxwell−Wagner mechanism. These accumulated electric charges provide the underlying molecular mechanism for the morphological transitions of vesicles as observed on the micrometer scale. PMID:20575588

  7. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  8. Lipid vesicle aggregation induced by cooling.

    PubMed

    Howard, Frank B; Levin, Ira W

    2010-01-01

    Lipid bilayer fusion is a complex process requiring several intermediate steps. Initially, the two bilayers are brought into close contact following removal of intervening water layers and overcoming electrostatic repulsions between opposing bilayer head groups. In this study we monitor by light scattering the reversible aggregation of phosphatidylcholine single shell vesicles during which adhesion occurs but stops prior to a fusion process. Light scattering measurements of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) in water show that lowering the temperature of about 0.14 micron single shell vesicles of DPPC (from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C) and about 2 micron vesicles of DSPC (from 20 degrees C to 15 degrees C), but not of 1 micron vesicles of DMPC, results in extensive aggregation within 24 hours that is reversible by an increase in temperature. Aggregation of DSPC vesicles was confirmed by direct visual observation. Orientation of lipid head groups parallel to the plane of the bilayer and consequent reduction of the negative surface charge can account for the ability of DPPC and DSPC vesicles to aggregate. Retention of negatively charged phosphates on the surface and the burial of positively charged cholines within the bilayer offer an explanation for the failure of DMPC vesicles to aggregate. Lowering the temperature of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DPPS) vesicles from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C failed to increase aggregation within 24 hours at Mg(++)/DPPS ratios that begin to initiate aggregation and fusion.

  9. Differential detergent sensitivity of extracellular vesicle subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Sódar, Barbara; Németh, Andrea; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Tamási, Viola; Balogh, Andrea; Kittel, Ágnes; Pállinger, Éva; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2015-10-14

    Extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) are currently attracting rapidly increasing attention from various fields of biology due to their ability to carry complex information and act as autocrine, paracrine and even endocrine intercellular messengers. In the present study we investigated the sensitivity of size-based subpopulations of extracellular vesicles to different concentrations of detergents including sodium dodecyl sulphate, Triton X-100, Tween 20 and deoxycholate. We determined the required detergent concentration that lysed each of the vesicle subpopulations secreted by Jurkat, THP-1, MiaPaCa and U937 human cell lines. We characterized the vesicles by tunable resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. Microvesicles and apoptotic bodies were found to be more sensitive to detergent lysis than exosomes. Furthermore, we found evidence that sodium dodecyl sulphate and Triton X-100 were more effective in vesicle lysis at low concentrations than deoxycholate or Tween 20. Taken together, our data suggest that a combination of differential detergent lysis with tunable resistive pulse sensing or flow cytometry may prove useful for simple and fast differentiation between exosomes and other extracellular vesicle subpopulations as well as between vesicular and non-vesicular structures.

  10. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes.

  11. Vesicle-associated melanization in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, Helene C; Frases, Susana; Nicola, André M; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-12-01

    Recently, several pathogenic fungi were shown to produce extracellular vesicles that contain various components associated with virulence. In the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, these components included laccase, an enzyme that catalyses melanin synthesis. Spherical melanin granules have been observed in the cell wall of C. neoformans. Given that melanin granules have dimensions that are comparable to those of extracellular vesicles, and that metazoan organisms produce melanin in vesicular structures known as melanosomes, we investigated the role of vesicles in cryptococcal melanization. Extracellular vesicles melanized when incubated with the melanin precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). The kinetics of substrate incorporation into cells and vesicles was analysed using radiolabelled L-DOPA. The results indicated that substrate incorporation was different for cells and isolated vesicles. Acid-generated melanin ghosts stained with lipophilic dyes, implying the presence of associated lipid. A model for C. neoformans melanization is proposed that accounts for these observations and provides a mechanism for the assembly of melanin into relatively uniform spherical particles stacked in an orderly arrangement in the cell wall.

  12. Vesicle-associated melanization in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, Helene C.; Frases, Susana; Nicola, André M.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several pathogenic fungi were shown to produce extracellular vesicles that contain various components associated with virulence. In the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, these components included laccase, an enzyme that catalyses melanin synthesis. Spherical melanin granules have been observed in the cell wall of C. neoformans. Given that melanin granules have dimensions that are comparable to those of extracellular vesicles, and that metazoan organisms produce melanin in vesicular structures known as melanosomes, we investigated the role of vesicles in cryptococcal melanization. Extracellular vesicles melanized when incubated with the melanin precursor l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). The kinetics of substrate incorporation into cells and vesicles was analysed using radiolabelled l-DOPA. The results indicated that substrate incorporation was different for cells and isolated vesicles. Acid-generated melanin ghosts stained with lipophilic dyes, implying the presence of associated lipid. A model for C. neoformans melanization is proposed that accounts for these observations and provides a mechanism for the assembly of melanin into relatively uniform spherical particles stacked in an orderly arrangement in the cell wall. PMID:19729402

  13. Spontaneous unilamellar polymer vesicles in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Chaeyeon; Han, Young-Soo; Jang, Jong-Dae; Choi, Myung Chul

    2014-01-21

    A unilamellar polymeric vesicle is a self-assembled structure of a block copolymer that forms a spherical single bilayer structure with a hydrophobic interlayer and a hydrophilic surface. Due to their enhanced colloidal stability and mechanical property, controllable surface functionality, or tunable membrane thickness, polymeric vesicles are useful in nano and bio-science, providing potential applications as nanosized carriers for catalysts, drugs, and enzymes. For fabrication of a unilamellar vesicle, however, preparative procedures with a few steps are inherently required. Herein, without complicated preparative procedures, we report spontaneous unilamellar polymeric vesicles with nanometer sizes (<100 nm), which are prepared by simply mixing a triblock copolymer, Pluronic P85 (PEO26PPO40PEO26), and an organic derivative, 5-methyl salicylic acid (5mS), in aqueous solution. Depending on the 5mS concentration and the temperature, the P85-5mS mixtures presented various self-assembled nanostructures such as spherical and cylindrical micelles or vesicles, which were characterized by small angle neutron scattering and cryo-TEM, resulting in a phase diagram drawn as a function of temperature and the 5mS concentration. Interestingly the critical temperature for the micelle-to-vesicle phase transition was easily controlled by varying the 5mS concentration, i.e. it was decreased with increasing the 5mS concentration. PMID:24652418

  14. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:25389129

  15. Phosphorylcholine substituted polyolefins: New syntheses, solution assemblies, and polymer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Katrina A.

    This thesis describes the synthesis and applications of a new series of amphiphilic homopolymers and copolymers consisting of hydrophobic polyolefin backbone and hydrophilic phosphorylcholine (PC) pendant groups. These polymers are synthesized by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a novel PC- cyclooctene monomer, and copolymerization of various functionalized cyclooctene comonomers. Incorporation of different comonomers into the PC-polyolefin backbone affords copolymers with different functionalities, including crosslinkers, fluorophores, and other reactive groups, that tune the range of applications of these polymers, and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was exploited in oil-water interfacial assembly, providing robust polymer capsules to encapsulate and deliver nanoparticles to damaged regions of a substrate in a project termed `repair-and-go.' In repair-and-go, a flexible microcapsule filled with a solution of nanoparticles probes an imperfection-riddled substrate as it rolls over the surface. The thin capsule wall allows the nanoparticles to escape the capsules and enter into the cracks, driven in part by favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the cracked surface (i.e., hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions). The capsules then continue their transport along the surface, filling more cracks and depositing particles into them. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was also exploited in aqueous assembly, forming novel polymer vesicles in water. PC-polyolefin vesicles ranged in size from 50 nm to 30 µm. The mechanical properties of PC-polyolefin vesicles were measured by micropipette aspiration techniques, and found to be more robust than conventional liposomes or polymersomes prepared from block copolymers. PC-polyolefin vesicles have potential use in drug delivery; it was found that the cancer drug doxorubicin could be encapsulated efficiently in PC-polyolefin vesicles. In

  16. Vesicular transport: the core machinery of COPI recruitment and budding.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Walter; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix T

    2002-08-15

    Vesicular transport is the predominant mechanism for exchange of proteins and lipids between membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells. Golgi-derived COPI-coated vesicles are involved in several vesicular transport steps, including bidirectional transport within the Golgi and recycling to the ER. Recent work has shed light on the mechanism of COPI vesicle biogenesis, in particular the machinery required for vesicle formation. The new findings have allowed us to generate a model that covers the cycle of coat recruitment, coat polymerization, vesicle budding and uncoating. PMID:12140255

  17. Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles: Txt Msg Organelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Barr, Maureen M

    2016-04-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from cell surfaces to monitor the surrounding environment. In addition to its role as sensory receiver, the cilium also releases extracellular vesicles (EVs). The release of sub-micron sized EVs is a conserved form of intercellular communication used by all three kingdoms of life. These extracellular organelles play important roles in both short and long range signaling between donor and target cells and may coordinate systemic responses within an organism in normal and diseased states. EV shedding from ciliated cells and EV-cilia interactions are evolutionarily conserved phenomena, yet remarkably little is known about the relationship between the cilia and EVs and the fundamental biology of EVs. Studies in the model organisms Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis elegans have begun to shed light on ciliary EVs. Chlamydomonas EVs are shed from tips of flagella and are bioactive. Caenorhabditis elegans EVs are shed and released by ciliated sensory neurons in an intraflagellar transport-dependent manner. Caenorhabditis elegans EVs play a role in modulating animal-to-animal communication, and this EV bioactivity is dependent on EV cargo content. Some ciliary pathologies, or ciliopathies, are associated with abnormal EV shedding or with abnormal cilia-EV interactions. Until the 21st century, both cilia and EVs were ignored as vestigial or cellular junk. As research interest in these two organelles continues to gain momentum, we envision a new field of cell biology emerging. Here, we propose that the cilium is a dedicated organelle for EV biogenesis and EV reception. We will also discuss possible mechanisms by which EVs exert bioactivity and explain how what is learned in model organisms regarding EV biogenesis and function may provide insight to human ciliopathies. PMID:26983828

  18. Ciliary extracellular vesicles: Txt msg orgnlls

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Barr, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from cell surfaces to monitor the surrounding environment. In addition to its role as sensory receiver, the cilium also releases extracellular vesicles (EVs). The release of sub-micron sized EVs is a conserved form of intercellular communication used by all three kingdoms of life. These extracellular organelles play important roles in both short and long range signaling between donor and target cells and may coordinate systemic responses within an organism in normal and diseased states. EV shedding from ciliated cells and EV-cilia interactions are evolutionarily conserved phenomena, yet remarkably little is known about the relationship between the cilia and EVs and the fundamental biology of EVs. Studies in the model organisms Chlamydomonas and C. elegans have begun to shed light on ciliary EVs. Chlamydomonas EVs are shed from tips of flagella and are bioactive. C. elegans EVs are shed and released by ciliated sensory neurons in an intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependent manner. C. elegans EVs play a role in modulating animal-to-animal communication, and this EV bioactivity is dependent on EV cargo content. Some ciliary pathologies, or ciliopathies, are associated with abnormal EV shedding or with abnormal cilia-EV interactions, suggest the cilium may be an important organelle as an EV donor or as an EV target. Until the past few decades, both cilia and EVs were ignored as vestigial or cellular junk. As research interest in these two organelles continues to gain momentum, we envision a new field of cell biology emerging. Here, we propose that the cilium is a dedicated organelle for EV biogenesis and EV reception. We will also discuss possible mechanisms by which EVs exert bioactivity and explain how what is learned in model organisms regarding EV biogenesis and function may provide insight to human ciliopathies. PMID:26983828

  19. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Caifen; Xu, Jianghui; Singh, Vikramjeet; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-07-01

    In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles-chitosan hydrogel (IVG) improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution-chitosan hydrogel (ISG). In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin. PMID:27471675

  20. A new method of vesicle formation by salting-out and its application to the reconstitution of sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, T; Kasai, M

    1983-04-01

    This paper describes a new method of forming membrane vesicles. It was found that the addition of salt such as KCl into a solution containing lipid (asolectin) and a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-114, led to the formation of closed membrane vesicles. The vesicles were separated from Triton X-114 by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Electron microscopy revealed that the mean diameter of the vesicles was 110 nm +/- 69 nm (S.D.). Measurement of osmotic volume change showed that the permeability of the vesicle was very low to salts, sugar (glucose) and amphoteric ion (glycine), but very high to glycerol, ethylene glycol and water. Vesicle formation by this 'salting-out' method is very useful for reconstitution of transport systems in biomembranes because of its advantages: completion within a short time; high yield; and the possibility of utilizing samples in non-ionic surfactant solution. When we applied the method to the reconstitution of sarcoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+-ATPase was incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles and was enzymatically active in the membrane. PMID:6830789

  1. Secretory vesicle swelling by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Joon; Jena, Bhanu P

    2006-01-01

    The swelling of secretory vesicles has been implicated in exocytosis, but the underlying mechanism of vesicle swelling remained unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrated the association of the alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein G(alphai3) with zymogen granule membrane and implicated its involvement in vesicle swelling. Mas7, an active mastoparan analog known to stimulate Gi proteins, was found to stimulate the GTPase activity of isolated zymogen granules and cause swelling. Increase in vesicle size in the presence of GTP, NaF, and Mas7 were irreversible and found to be KCl sensitive. However, Ca2+ had no effect on zymogen granule size. Taken together, these results indicated that zymogen granules, the membrane-bound secretory vesicles in exocrine pancreas, swell in response to GTP mediated by a G(alphai3) protein. Subsequently, our studies demonstrated that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is also present at the zymogen granule membrane and participates in rapid GTP-induced and G(alphai3)-mediated vesicular water gating and swelling. Isolated zymogen granules exhibit low basal water permeability. However, exposure of granules to GTP results in a marked potentiation of water entry. Treatment of zymogen granules with the known water channel inhibitor Hg2+ is accompanied by a reversible loss in both the basal and GTP-stimulable water entry and vesicle swelling. Introduction of AQP1-specific antibody raised against the carboxy-terminal domain of AQP1 blocked GTP-stimulable swelling of vesicles. Our results demonstrate that AQPI associated at the zymogen granule membrane is involved in basal GTP-induced and G(alphai3)-mediated rapid gating of water into zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas.

  2. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles in neural cells and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Janas, Anna M; Sapoń, Karolina; Janas, Teresa; Stowell, Michael H B; Janas, Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    The function of human nervous system is critically dependent on proper interneuronal communication. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles are emerging as a novel form of information exchange within the nervous system. Intraluminal vesicles within multivesicular bodies (MVBs) can be transported in neural cells anterogradely or retrogradely in order to be released into the extracellular space as exosomes. RNA loading into exosomes can be either via an interaction between RNA and the raft-like region of the MVB limiting membrane, or via an interaction between an RNA-binding protein-RNA complex with this raft-like region. Outflow of exosomes from neural cells and inflow of exosomes into neural cells presumably take place on a continuous basis. Exosomes can play both neuro-protective and neuro-toxic roles. In this review, we characterize the role of exosomes and microvesicles in normal nervous system function, and summarize evidence for defective signaling of these vesicles in disease pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Formation of geometrically complex lipid nanotube-vesicle networks of higher-order topologies

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Mattias; Sott, Kristin; Davidson, Maximillian; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Linderholm, Pontus; Chiu, Daniel; Orwar, Owe

    2002-01-01

    We present a microelectrofusion method for construction of fluid-state lipid bilayer networks of high geometrical complexity up to fully connected networks with genus = 3 topology. Within networks, self-organizing branching nanotube architectures could be produced where intersections spontaneously arrange themselves into three-way junctions with an angle of 120° between each nanotube. Formation of branching nanotube networks appears to follow a minimum-bending energy algorithm that solves for pathway minimization. It is also demonstrated that materials can be injected into specific containers within a network by nanotube-mediated transport of satellite vesicles having defined contents. Using a combination of microelectrofusion, spontaneous nanotube pattern formation, and satellite-vesicle injection, complex networks of containers and nanotubes can be produced for a range of applications in, for example, nanofluidics and artificial cell design. In addition, this electrofusion method allows integration of biological cells into lipid nanotube-vesicle networks. PMID:12185244

  4. Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein 2 (VAMP2) but Not VAMP3 Mediates cAMP-stimulated Trafficking of the Renal Na+-K+-2Cl− Co-transporter NKCC2 in Thick Ascending Limbs*

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Paulo S.; Mendez, Mariela; Ortiz, Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    In the kidney, epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb (TAL) reabsorb NaCl via the apical Na+/K+/2Cl− co-transporter NKCC2. Steady-state surface NKCC2 levels in the apical membrane are maintained by a balance between exocytic delivery, endocytosis, and recycling. cAMP is the second messenger of hormones that enhance NaCl absorption. cAMP stimulates NKCC2 exocytic delivery via protein kinase A (PKA), increasing steady-state surface NKCC2. However, the molecular mechanism involved has not been studied. We found that several members of the SNARE family of membrane fusion proteins are expressed in TALs. Here we report that NKCC2 co-immunoprecipitates with VAMP2 in rat TALs, and they co-localize in discrete domains at the apical surface. cAMP stimulation enhanced VAMP2 exocytic delivery to the plasma membrane of renal cells, and stimulation of PKA enhanced VAMP2-NKCC2 co-immunoprecipitation in TALs. In vivo silencing of VAMP2 but not VAMP3 in TALs blunted cAMP-stimulated steady-state surface NKCC2 expression and completely blocked cAMP-stimulated NKCC2 exocytic delivery. VAMP2 was not involved in constitutive NKCC2 delivery. We concluded that VAMP2 but not VAMP3 selectively mediates cAMP-stimulated NKCC2 exocytic delivery and surface expression in TALs. We also demonstrated that cAMP stimulation enhances VAMP2 exocytosis and promotes VAMP2 interaction with NKCC2. PMID:25008321

  5. The GTPase Rab26 links synaptic vesicles to the autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Binotti, Beyenech; Pavlos, Nathan J; Riedel, Dietmar; Wenzel, Dirk; Vorbrüggen, Gerd; Schalk, Amanda M; Kühnel, Karin; Boyken, Janina; Erck, Christian; Martens, Henrik; Chua, John J E; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Small GTPases of the Rab family not only regulate target recognition in membrane traffic but also control other cellular functions such as cytoskeletal transport and autophagy. Here we show that Rab26 is specifically associated with clusters of synaptic vesicles in neurites. Overexpression of active but not of GDP-preferring Rab26 enhances vesicle clustering, which is particularly conspicuous for the EGFP-tagged variant, resulting in a massive accumulation of synaptic vesicles in neuronal somata without altering the distribution of other organelles. Both endogenous and induced clusters co-localize with autophagy-related proteins such as Atg16L1, LC3B and Rab33B but not with other organelles. Furthermore, Atg16L1 appears to be a direct effector of Rab26 and binds Rab26 in its GTP-bound form, albeit only with low affinity. We propose that Rab26 selectively directs synaptic and secretory vesicles into preautophagosomal structures, suggesting the presence of a novel pathway for degradation of synaptic vesicles.

  6. The effect of spontaneous curvature on a two-phase vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Geoffrey; Lowengrub, John

    2015-01-01

    Vesicles are membrane-bound structures commonly known for their roles in cellular transport and the shape of a vesicle is determined by its surrounding membrane (lipid bilayer). When the membrane is composed of different lipids, it is natural for the lipids of similar molecular structure to migrate towards one another (via spinodal decomposition), creating a multi-phase vesicle. In this article, we consider a two-phase vesicle model which is driven by nature’s propensity to maintain a minimal state of elastic energy. The model assumes a continuum limit, thereby treating the membrane as a closed three-dimensional surface. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the complexity of the Helfrich two-phase vesicle model with non-zero spontaneous curvature and provide further evidence to support the relevance of spontaneous curvature as a modelling parameter. In this paper, we illustrate the complexity of the Helfrich two-phase model by providing multiple examples of undocumented solutions and energy hysteresis. We also investigate the influence of spontaneous curvature on morphological effects and membrane phenomena such as budding and fusion. PMID:26097287

  7. Synaptic vesicle-bound pyruvate kinase can support vesicular glutamate uptake

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Atsuhiko; Noda, Yasuko; Ueda, Tetsufumi

    2008-01-01

    Glucose metabolism is essential for normal brain function and plays a vital role in synaptic transmission. Recent evidence suggests that ATP synthesized locally by glycolysis, particularly via glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase/3-phosphoglycerate kinase, is critical for synaptic transmission. We present evidence that ATP generated by synaptic vesicle-associated pyruvate kinase is harnessed to transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Isolated synaptic vesicles incorporated [3H]glutamate in the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ADP. Pyruvate kinase activators and inhibitors stimulated and reduced PEP/ADP-dependent glutamate uptake, respectively. Membrane potential was also formed in the presence of pyruvate kinase activators. “ATP-trapping” experiments using hexokinase and glucose suggest that ATP produced by vesicle-associated pyruvate kinase is more readily used than exogenously added ATP. Other neurotransmitters such as GABA, dopamine, and serotonin were also taken up into crude synaptic vesicles in a PEP/ADP-dependent manner. The possibility that ATP locally generated by glycolysis supports vesicular accumulation of neurotransmitters is discussed. PMID:18751889

  8. Activation of calcineurin by phosphotidylserine containing vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Politino, M.; King, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca/sup 2 +/- and calmodulin-regulated phosphatase. Recent findings suggested an association of CaN with biological membranes and prompted the present investigation into the interactions of the phosphatase with phospholipids in vitro. In the absence of calmodulin, sonicated preparations of phosphatidylserine (PS) provided a five-fold activation of the Ni- and Mn-supported activities of CaN towards (/sup 32/P) histone Hl; activation in the presence of calmodulin was much less pronounced. Half-maximal activation in the absence of calmodulin required approximately 0.1 mg/ml of PS. Activation of CaN was also observed with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC) containing 20% PS but not with PC alone, or with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Molecular sieve chromatography on Ultrogel AcA 34 provided further evidence that CaN associates with phospholipid vesicles composed of PS, or PC containing 20% PS, but not with vesicles of PC or PE. Complete association with medium sized vesicles of PS and PC/PS required Ca/sup 2 +/ ions; in the absence of the metal ion at least 60% of the enzyme failed to interact with the lipids while the remainder preferentially migrated with larger vesicles. These results suggest a role for Ca/sup 2 +/ in regulating CaN's interaction with phospholipids.

  9. Intramembrane electrostatic interactions destabilize lipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Scott D; Vanderlick, T Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Membrane stability is of central concern in many biology and biotechnology processes. It has been suggested that intramembrane electrostatic interactions play a key role in membrane stability. However, due primarily to a lack of supporting experimental evidence, they are not commonly considered in mechanical analyses of lipid membranes. In this paper, we use the micropipette aspiration technique to characterize the elastic moduli and critical tensions of lipid vesicles with varying surface charge. Charge was induced by doping neutral phosphatidylcholine vesicles with anionic lipids phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. Measurements were taken in potassium chloride (moderate ion-lipid binding) and tetramethylammonium chloride (low ion-lipid binding) solutions. We show that inclusion of anionic lipid does not appreciably alter the areal dilation elasticity of lipid vesicles. However, the tension required for vesicle rupture decreases with increasing anionic lipid fraction and is a function of electrolyte composition. Using vesicles with 30% charged (i.e., unbound) anionic lipid, we measured critical tension reductions of 75%, demonstrating the important role of electrostatic interactions in membrane stability. PMID:12324419

  10. Polypeptide vesicles with densely packed multilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Ziyuan; Kim, Hojun; Ba, Xiaochu; Baumgartner, Ryan; Lee, Jung Seok; Tang, Haoyu; Leal, Cecilia; Cheng, Jianjun

    2015-05-28

    Multilamellar membranes are important building blocks for constructing self-assembled structures with improved barrier properties, such as multilamellar lipid vesicles. Polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) have attracted growing interest, but multilamellar polymersomes are much less explored. Here, we report the formation of polypeptide vesicles with unprecedented densely packed multilayer membrane structures with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl)-l-glutamate) (PEG-b-PL), an amphiphilic diblock rod-coil copolymer containing a short PEG block and a short hydrophobic rod-like polypeptide segment. The polypeptide rods undergo smectic ordering with PEG buried between the hydrophobic polypeptide layers. The size of both blocks and the rigidity of the hydrophobic polypeptide block are critical in determining the membrane structures. Increase of the PEG length in PEG-b-PL results in the formation of bilayer sheets, while using random-coil polypeptide block leads to the formation of large compound micelles. UV treatment causes ester bond cleavage of the polypeptide side chain, which induces helix-to-coil transition, change of copolymer amphiphilicity, and eventual disassembly of vesicles. These polypeptide vesicles with unique membrane structures provide a new insight into self-assembly structure control by precisely tuning the composition and conformation of polymeric amphiphiles.

  11. Synaptic vesicle recycling: steps and principles

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle recycling is one of the best-studied cellular pathways. Many of the proteins involved are known, and their interactions are becoming increasingly clear. However, as for many other pathways, it is still difficult to understand synaptic vesicle recycling as a whole. While it is generally possible to point out how synaptic reactions take place, it is not always easy to understand what triggers or controls them. Also, it is often difficult to understand how the availability of the reaction partners is controlled: how the reaction partners manage to find each other in the right place, at the right time. I present here an overview of synaptic vesicle recycling, discussing the mechanisms that trigger different reactions, and those that ensure the availability of reaction partners. A central argument is that synaptic vesicles bind soluble cofactor proteins, with low affinity, and thus control their availability in the synapse, forming a buffer for cofactor proteins. The availability of cofactor proteins, in turn, regulates the different synaptic reactions. Similar mechanisms, in which one of the reaction partners buffers another, may apply to many other processes, from the biogenesis to the degradation of the synaptic vesicle. PMID:24596248

  12. Getting to know the extracellular vesicle glycome.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jared Q; Griffin, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a diverse population of complex biological particles with diameters ranging from approximately 20 to 1000 nm. Tremendous interest in EVs has been generated following a number of recent, high-profile reports describing their potential utility in diagnostic, prognostic, drug delivery, and therapeutic roles. Subpopulations, such as exosomes, are now known to directly participate in cell-cell communication and direct material transfer. Glycomics, the 'omic' portion of the glycobiology field, has only begun to catalog the surface oligosaccharide and polysaccharide structures and also the carbohydrate-binding proteins found on and inside EVs. The EV glycome undoubtedly contains vital clues essential to better understanding the function, biogenesis, release and transfer of vesicles, however getting at this information is technically challenging and made even more so because of the small physical size of the vesicles and the typically minute yield from physiological-scale biological samples. Vesicle micro-heterogeneity which may be related to specific vesicle origins and functions presents a further challenge. A number of primary studies carried out over the past decade have turned up specific and valuable clues regarding the composition and roles of glycan structures and also glycan binding proteins involved EV biogenesis and transfer. This review explores some of the major EV glycobiological research carried out to date and discusses the potential implications of these findings across the life sciences.

  13. Coated vesicles: characterization, selective dissociation, and reassembly.

    PubMed

    Woodward, M P; Roth, T F

    1978-09-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels of coated vesicles from porcine brain (mean 76% coated vesicles) show three major proteins (180,000, 125,000, and 55,000 daltons) that account for 73% of the total protein. Preparations consisting predominantly of coats (65%) have less of the 55,000-dalton protein. Clathrin (180,000 daltons) comprises 40% of the protein of a coated vesicle. Conditions of 2 M urea, 0.25 M MgCl2, or pH 7.5 disrupt the coat and solubilize clathrin. Solubilized clathrin reforms coat structures after dilution of urea or MgCl2. High-pH-solubilized clathrin reassembles after dialysis against buffer at pH 6.5 containing dithiothreitol (5 mM). Reassembled coats are predominantly clathrin. PMID:30086

  14. Topology and Dynamics of Active Nematic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Keber, Felix C.; Loiseau, Etienne; Sanchez, Tim; DeCamp, Stephen J.; Giomi, Luca; Bowick, Mark J.; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Dogic, Zvonimir; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering synthetic materials that mimic the remarkable complexity of living organisms is a fundamental challenge in science and technology. We study the spatiotemporal patterns that emerge when an active nematic film of microtubules and molecular motors is encapsulated within a shape-changing lipid vesicle. Unlike in equilibrium systems, where defects are largely static structures, in active nematics defects move spontaneously and can be described as self-propelled particles. The combination of activity, topological constraints and vesicle deformability produces a myriad of dynamical states. We highlight two dynamical modes: a tunable periodic state that oscillates between two defect configurations, and shape-changing vesicles with streaming filopodia-like protrusions. These results demonstrate how biomimetic materials can be obtained when topological constraints are used to control the non-equilibrium dynamics of active matter. PMID:25190790

  15. Rapid preparation of giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Moscho, A; Orwar, O; Chiu, D T; Modi, B P; Zare, R N

    1996-01-01

    We report here a rapid evaporation method that produces in high yield giant unilamellar vesicles up to 50 microns in diameter. The vesicles are obtained after only 2 min and can be prepared from different phospholipids, including L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), dipalmitoleoyl L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, and beta-arachidonoyl gamma-palmitoyl L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine. Vesicles can be produced in distilled water and in Hepes, phosphate, and borate buffers in the pH range of 7.0 to 11.5 with ionic strengths up to 50 mM. The short preparation time allows encapsulation of labile molecular targets or enzymes with high catalytic activities. Cell-sized proteoliposomes have been prepared in which gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2) was functionally incorporated into the membrane wall. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8876154

  16. Dynamics of fibers growing inside soft vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenduzzo, D.; Orlandini, E.

    2007-11-01

    We present 3D stochastic dynamic simulations of the growth of a semiflexible polymer inside a soft vesicle. We find that very stiff fibers stall soon and lock the membrane into a strongly deformed prolate shape. Fibers of intermediate stiffness buckle and form a toroidal configuration which distorts the membrane into an oblate shape. Finally, more flexible polymers form massive spool-like condensates with ordered domains, while the vesicle inflates isotropically. We discuss our results with respect to observations on cell shape in sickle red blood cells, developing erythrocytes, and genome packing inside bacteriophages. We quantify how the force felt by the fiber tip, and the vesicle aspect ratio, change during growth, and we discuss possible "synthetic biology" experiments to validate our results.

  17. Marangoni transport in lipid nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommersnes, P. G.; Orwar, O.; Brochard-Wyart, F.; Joanny, J. F.

    2005-04-01

    We give a simple picture of transient and stationary transport in lipid nanotubes connecting two vesicles, when a difference of membrane tension is imposed at time t = 0, either by pressing one vesicle with a micro-fiber, or by adding a surplus of membrane lipid. The net result is a transport of membrane from the tense towards the floppy vesicle. In the early stage, the tube remains cylindrical, and the gradient of surface tension gives rise to two opposite flows of the internal liquid: a Marangoni flow towards the direction of high tension, and a Poiseuille flow (induced by Laplace pressures) in the opposite direction. At longer time, the tube reaches a stationary state, where curvature and Laplace pressure are balanced. Marangoni flows dominate for giant vesicles, where Laplace pressure is negligible.

  18. Variable priming of a docked synaptic vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hoon; Szule, Joseph A.; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2016-01-01

    The priming of a docked synaptic vesicle determines the probability of its membrane (VM) fusing with the presynaptic membrane (PM) when a nerve impulse arrives. To gain insight into the nature of priming, we searched by electron tomography for structural relationships correlated with fusion probability at active zones of axon terminals at frog neuromuscular junctions. For terminals fixed at rest, the contact area between the VM of docked vesicles and PM varied >10-fold with a normal distribution. There was no merging of the membranes. For terminals fixed during repetitive evoked synaptic transmission, the normal distribution of contact areas was shifted to the left, due in part to a decreased number of large contact areas, and there was a subpopulation of large contact areas where the membranes were hemifused, an intermediate preceding complete fusion. Thus, fusion probability of a docked vesicle is related to the extent of its VM–PM contact area. For terminals fixed 1 h after activity, the distribution of contact areas recovered to that at rest, indicating the extent of a VM–PM contact area is dynamic and in equilibrium. The extent of VM–PM contact areas in resting terminals correlated with eccentricity in vesicle shape caused by force toward the PM and with shortness of active zone material macromolecules linking vesicles to PM components, some thought to include Ca2+ channels. We propose that priming is a variable continuum of events imposing variable fusion probability on each vesicle and is regulated by force-generating shortening of active zone material macromolecules in dynamic equilibrium. PMID:26858418

  19. alpha-Latrotoxin affects mitochondrial potential and synaptic vesicle proton gradient of nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, A S; Storchak, L G; Himmelreich, N H

    2008-02-01

    Ca(2+)-independent [(3)H]GABA release induced by alpha-latrotoxin was found to consist of two sequential processes: a fast initial release realized via exocytosis and more delayed outflow through the plasma membrane GABA transporters [Linetska, M.V., Storchak, L.G., Tarasenko, A.S., Himmelreich, N.H., 2004. Involvement of membrane GABA transporters in alpha-latrotoxin-stimulated [(3)H]GABA release. Neurochem. Int. 44, 303-312]. To characterize the toxin-stimulated events attributable to the transporter-mediated [(3)H]GABA release from rat brain synaptosomes we studied the effect of alpha-latrotoxin on membrane potentials and generation of the synaptic vesicles proton gradient, using fluorescent dyes: potential-sensitive rhodamine 6G and pH-sensitive acridine orange. We revealed that alpha-latrotoxin induced a progressive dose-dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and an irreversible run-down of the synaptic vesicle proton gradient. Both processes were insensitive to the presence of cadmium, a potent blocker of toxin-formed transmembrane pores, indicating that alpha-latrotoxin-induced disturbance of the plasma membrane permeability was not responsible to these effects. A gradual dissipation of the synaptic vesicle proton gradient closely coupled with lowering the vesicular GABA transporter activity results in a leakage of the neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles to cytoplasm. As a consequence, there is an essential increase in GABA concentration in a soluble cytosolic pool that appears to be critical parameter for altering the mode of the plasma membrane GABA transporter operation from inward to outward. Thus, our data allow clarifying what cell processes underlain a recruitment of the plasma membrane transporter-mediated pathway in alpha-LTX-stimulated secretion.

  20. Toroidal membrane vesicles in spherical confinement.

    PubMed

    Bouzar, Lila; Menas, Ferhat; Müller, Martin Michael

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the morphology of a toroidal fluid membrane vesicle confined inside a spherical container. The equilibrium shapes are assembled in a geometrical phase diagram as a function of scaled area and reduced volume of the membrane. For small area the vesicle can adopt its free form. When increasing the area, the membrane cannot avoid contact and touches the confining sphere along a circular contact line, which extends to a zone of contact for higher area. The elastic energies of the equilibrium shapes are compared to those of their confined counterparts of spherical topology to predict under which conditions a topology change is favored energetically.

  1. Biogenesis of extracellular vesicles in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Débora L; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Joffe, Luna S; Guimarães, Allan J; Sobreira, Tiago JP; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cordero, Radames JB; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Almeida, Igor C; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    The cellular events required for unconventional protein secretion in eukaryotic pathogens are beginning to be revealed. In fungi, extracellular release of proteins involves passage through the cell wall by mechanisms that are poorly understood. In recent years, several studies demonstrated that yeast cells produce vesicles that traverse the cell wall to release a wide range of cellular components into the extracellular space. These studies suggested that extracellular vesicle release involves components of both conventional and unconventional secretory pathways, although the precise mechanisms required for this process are still unknown. We discuss here cellular events that are candidates for regulating this interesting but elusive event in the biology of yeast cells. PMID:21331232

  2. Toroidal membrane vesicles in spherical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzar, Lila; Menas, Ferhat; Müller, Martin Michael

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the morphology of a toroidal fluid membrane vesicle confined inside a spherical container. The equilibrium shapes are assembled in a geometrical phase diagram as a function of scaled area and reduced volume of the membrane. For small area the vesicle can adopt its free form. When increasing the area, the membrane cannot avoid contact and touches the confining sphere along a circular contact line, which extends to a zone of contact for higher area. The elastic energies of the equilibrium shapes are compared to those of their confined counterparts of spherical topology to predict under which conditions a topology change is favored energetically.

  3. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

    PubMed Central

    Oshikawa, Sayaka; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper’s group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs from their discovery to clinical application. PMID:27322253

  4. Vesicle-MaNiA: extracellular vesicles in liquid biopsy and cancer.

    PubMed

    Torrano, Veronica; Royo, Felix; Peinado, Héctor; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Unda, Miguel; Falcón-Perez, Juan M; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2016-08-01

    Normal and tumor cells shed vesicles to the environment. Within the large family of extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles have attracted much attention in the recent years. Their interest ranges from mediators of cancer progression, inflammation, immune regulation and metastatic niche regulation, to non-invasive biomarkers of disease. In this respect, the procedures to purify and analyze extracellular vesicles have quickly evolved and represent a source of variability for data integration in the field. In this review, we provide an updated view of the potential of exosomes and microvesicles as biomarkers and the available technologies for their isolation. PMID:27366992

  5. Kinesin- and Myosin-driven Steps of Vesicle Recruitment for Ca2+-regulated Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Guo-Qiang; Morris, Robert L.; Liao, Guochun; Alderton, Janet M.; Scholey, Jonathan M.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Kinesin and myosin have been proposed to transport intracellular organelles and vesicles to the cell periphery in several cell systems. However, there has been little direct observation of the role of these motor proteins in the delivery of vesicles during regulated exocytosis in intact cells. Using a confocal microscope, we triggered local bursts of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis by wounding the cell membrane and visualized the resulting individual exocytotic events in real time. Different temporal phases of the exocytosis burst were distinguished by their sensitivities to reagents targeting different motor proteins. The function blocking antikinesin antibody SUK4 as well as the stalk-tail fragment of kinesin heavy chain specifically inhibited a slow phase, while butanedione monoxime, a myosin ATPase inhibitor, inhibited both the slow and fast phases. The blockage of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with autoinhibitory peptide also inhibited the slow and fast phases, consistent with disruption of a myosin-actin– dependent step of vesicle recruitment. Membrane resealing after wounding was also inhibited by these reagents. Our direct observations provide evidence that in intact living cells, kinesin and myosin motors may mediate two sequential transport steps that recruit vesicles to the release sites of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis, although the identity of the responsible myosin isoform is not yet known. They also indicate the existence of three semistable vesicular pools along this regulated membrane trafficking pathway. In addition, our results provide in vivo evidence for the cargo-binding function of the kinesin heavy chain tail domain. PMID:9281579

  6. Co-release of glutamate and GABA from single vesicles in GABAergic neurons exogenously expressing VGLUT3

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Herman, Melissa A.; Rosenmund, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The identity of the vesicle neurotransmitter transporter expressed by a neuron largely corresponds with the primary neurotransmitter that cell releases. However, the vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 3 (VGLUT3) is mainly expressed in non-glutamatergic neurons, including cholinergic, serotonergic, or GABAergic neurons. Though a functional role for glutamate release from these non-glutamatergic neurons has been demonstrated, the interplay between VGLUT3 and the neuron’s characteristic neurotransmitter transporter, particularly in the case of GABAergic neurons, at the synaptic and vesicular level is less clear. In this study, we explore how exogenous expression of VGLUT3 in striatal GABAergic neurons affects the packaging and release of glutamate and GABA in synaptic vesicles (SVs). We found that VGLUT3 expression in isolated, autaptic GABAergic neurons leads to action potential evoked release of glutamate. Under these conditions, glutamate and GABA could be packaged together in single vesicles release either spontaneously or asynchronously. However, the presence of glutamate in GABAergic vesicles did not affect uptake of GABA itself, suggesting a lack of synergy in vesicle filling for these transmitters. Finally, we found postsynaptic detection of glutamate released from GABAergic terminals difficult when bona fide glutamatergic synapses were present, suggesting that co-released glutamate cannot induce postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering. PMID:26441632

  7. Endocytic pathway rapidly delivers internalized molecules to lysosomes: an analysis of vesicle trafficking, clustering and mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Pangarkar, Chinmay; Dinh, Anh-Tuan; Mitragotri, Samir

    2012-08-20

    Lysosomes play a critical role in intracellular drug delivery. For enzyme-based therapies, they represent a potential target site whereas for nucleic acid or many protein drugs, they represent the potential degradation site. Either way, understanding the mechanisms and processes involved in routing of materials to lysosomes after cellular entry is of high interest to the field of drug delivery. Most therapeutic cargoes other than small hydrophobic molecules enter the cells through endocytosis. Endocytosed cargoes are routed to lysosomes via microtubule-based transport and are ultimately shared by various lysosomes via tethering and clustering of endocytic vesicles followed by exchange of their contents. Using a combined experimental and numerical approach, here we studied the rates of mass transfer into and among the endocytic vesicles in a model cell line, 3T3 fibroblasts. In order to understand the relationship of mass transfer with microtubular transport and vesicle clustering, we varied both properties through various pharmacological agents. At the same time, microtubular transport and vesicle clustering were modeled through diffusion-advection equations and the Smoluchowski equations, respectively. Our analysis revealed that the rate of mass transfer is optimally related to microtubular transport and clustering properties of vesicles. Further, the rate of mass transfer is highest in the innate state of the cell. Any perturbation to either microtubular transport or vesicle aggregation led to reduced mass transfer to lysosome. These results suggest that in the absence of an external intervention the endocytic pathway appears to maximize molecular delivery to lysosomes. Strategies are discussed to reduce mass transfer to lysosomes so as to extend the residence time of molecules in endosomes or late endosomes, thus potentially increasing the likelihood of their escape before disposition in the lysosomes.

  8. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-11-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape.

  9. Preparation of vesicles entrapped lycopene extract.

    PubMed

    Luxsuwong, Dhitaree; Indranupakorn, Ratana; Wongtrakul, Paveena

    2014-01-01

    Lycopene, a lipophilic carotenoid, has been known as an effective antioxidant in supporting the cutaneous defensive system. However, it is unstable when exposed to light and water. In this study, lycopene was isolated from tomatoes and a vesicular delivery system was developed to entrap and stabilize the lycopene in the aqueous system. A simple process, maceration in ethyl acetate, was used to extract lycopene from the tomatoes. The extract was then chromatographed on the Sephadex LH20 column using acetone as a solvent system to yield 995 μg of lycopene per gram of dried tomato weight. The vesicular delivery system was prepared from a combination of ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (AP), cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate using a thin film hydration method. The formulation was composed of AP, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate at a 44:44:12 molar ratio and with 2.12 μmol/ml of the isolated lycopene. Both blank vesicles and lycopene loaded vesicles were kept for a period of 3 months at 4±2°C and at the room temperature (28±2°C) to evaluate the effect of the encapsulation on the characteristic of the vesicles and on the antioxidant activity of the encapsulated lycopene. The result implied that lycopene could be stabilized in the vesicles and its scavenging activity against DPPH free radicals was superior to that of the free lycopene solution. PMID:24829133

  10. Merits and Limitations of Vesicle Pool Models in View of Heterogeneous Populations of Synaptic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Neher, Erwin

    2015-09-23

    The concept of a readily releasable pool (RRP) of synaptic vesicles has been used extensively for the analysis of neurotransmitter release. Traditionally the properties of vesicles in such a pool have been assumed to be homogeneous, and techniques have been developed to determine pool parameters, such as the size of the pool and the probability with which a vesicle is released during an action potential. Increasing evidence, however, indicates that vesicles may be quite heterogeneous with respect to their release probability. The question, therefore, arises: what do the estimates of pool parameters mean in view of such heterogeneity? Here, four methods for obtaining pool estimates are reviewed, together with their underlying assumptions. The consequences of violation of these assumptions are discussed, and how apparent pool sizes are influenced by stimulation strength is explored by simulations.

  11. Mechanisms, pools, and sites of spontaneous vesicle release at synapses of rod and cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Cork, Karlene M; Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2016-08-01

    Photoreceptors have depolarized resting potentials that stimulate calcium-dependent release continuously from a large vesicle pool but neurons can also release vesicles without stimulation. We characterized the Ca(2+) dependence, vesicle pools, and release sites involved in spontaneous release at photoreceptor ribbon synapses. In whole-cell recordings from light-adapted horizontal cells (HCs) of tiger salamander retina, we detected miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) when no stimulation was applied to promote exocytosis. Blocking Ca(2+) influx by lowering extracellular Ca(2+) , by application of Cd(2+) and other agents reduced the frequency of mEPSCs but did not eliminate them, indicating that mEPSCs can occur independently of Ca(2+) . We also measured release presynaptically from rods and cones by examining quantal glutamate transporter anion currents. Presynaptic quantal event frequency was reduced by Cd(2+) or by increased intracellular Ca(2+) buffering in rods, but not in cones, that were voltage clamped at -70 mV. By inhibiting the vesicle cycle with bafilomycin, we found the frequency of mEPSCs declined more rapidly than the amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) suggesting a possible separation between vesicle pools in evoked and spontaneous exocytosis. We mapped sites of Ca(2+) -independent release using total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to visualize fusion of individual vesicles loaded with dextran-conjugated pHrodo. Spontaneous release in rods occurred more frequently at non-ribbon sites than evoked release events. The function of Ca(2+) -independent spontaneous release at continuously active photoreceptor synapses remains unclear, but the low frequency of spontaneous quanta limits their impact on noise.

  12. Mechanisms, pools, and sites of spontaneous vesicle release at synapses of rod and cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Cork, Karlene M; Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2016-08-01

    Photoreceptors have depolarized resting potentials that stimulate calcium-dependent release continuously from a large vesicle pool but neurons can also release vesicles without stimulation. We characterized the Ca(2+) dependence, vesicle pools, and release sites involved in spontaneous release at photoreceptor ribbon synapses. In whole-cell recordings from light-adapted horizontal cells (HCs) of tiger salamander retina, we detected miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) when no stimulation was applied to promote exocytosis. Blocking Ca(2+) influx by lowering extracellular Ca(2+) , by application of Cd(2+) and other agents reduced the frequency of mEPSCs but did not eliminate them, indicating that mEPSCs can occur independently of Ca(2+) . We also measured release presynaptically from rods and cones by examining quantal glutamate transporter anion currents. Presynaptic quantal event frequency was reduced by Cd(2+) or by increased intracellular Ca(2+) buffering in rods, but not in cones, that were voltage clamped at -70 mV. By inhibiting the vesicle cycle with bafilomycin, we found the frequency of mEPSCs declined more rapidly than the amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) suggesting a possible separation between vesicle pools in evoked and spontaneous exocytosis. We mapped sites of Ca(2+) -independent release using total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to visualize fusion of individual vesicles loaded with dextran-conjugated pHrodo. Spontaneous release in rods occurred more frequently at non-ribbon sites than evoked release events. The function of Ca(2+) -independent spontaneous release at continuously active photoreceptor synapses remains unclear, but the low frequency of spontaneous quanta limits their impact on noise. PMID:27255664

  13. Vesicles as tools for the modulation of skin permeability.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vaibhav; Mishra, Dinesh; Nahar, Manoj; Jain, Narendra K

    2007-11-01

    Human skin is a remarkably efficient barrier designed to keep our insides in and the outside out. The modulation of this efficient barrier's properties, including its permeability to chemicals, drugs and biologically active agents is the prime target for various dermal, transdermal, drug, antigen and gene delivery approaches. Therefore, several methods have been attempted to enhance the permeation rate of biologically active agents, temporarily and locally. One of the approaches is the application of drug-laden vesicular formulations. This review presents various mechanisms involved in increasing drug transport across the skin via different vesicular approaches, such as liposomes, elastic vesicles and ethosomes, along with compiling the research work conducted in this field. PMID:17970662

  14. The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1996-01-01

    The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643484

  15. Pob1 ensures cylindrical cell shape by coupling two distinct rho signaling events during secretory vesicle targeting.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kentaro; Toya, Mika; Yoneda, Aki; Asami, Yukiko; Yamashita, Akira; Kamasawa, Naomi; Osumi, Masako; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    Proper cell morphogenesis requires the co-ordination of cell polarity, cytoskeletal organization and vesicle trafficking. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant pob1-664 has a curious lemon-like shape, the basis of which is not understood. Here, we found abundant vesicle accumulation in these cells, suggesting that Pob1 plays a role in vesicle trafficking. We identified Rho3 as a multicopy suppressor of this phenotype. Because Rho3 function is related to For3, an actin-polymerizing protein, and Sec8, a component of the exocyst complex, we analyzed their functional relationship with Pob1. Pob1 was essential for the formation of actin cables (by interacting with For3) and for the polarized localization of Sec8. Although neither For3 nor Sec8 is essential for polarized growth, their simultaneous disruption prevented tip growth and yielded a lemon-like cell morphology similar to pob1-664. Thus, Pob1 may ensure cylindrical cell shape of S. pombe by coupling actin-mediated vesicle transport and exocyst-mediated vesicle tethering during secretory vesicle targeting.

  16. Specificity of siderophore receptors in membrane vesicles of Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed Central

    Aswell, J E; Haydon, A H; Turner, H R; Dawkins, C A; Arceneaux, J E

    1977-01-01

    Membrane vesicles of Bacillus megaterium strains SK11 and Ard1 bound the ferrischizokinen and ferriferrioxamine B siderhores (iron transport cofactors). An approximately equimolar uptake of both labels of [3H, 59Fe]ferrischizokinen indicated binding of the intact chelate. Binding reached equilibrium in 2 to 5 min, was temperature independent, and was unaltered by the addition of several energy sources. A 91% dissociation of bound [Fe]ferrischizokinen was achieved in 60 s by the addition of excess ferrischizokinen. Ferriaerobactin, a siderophore which is structurally related to ferrischizokinen, caused no detectable release of bound [59Fe]ferrischizokinen. Of several other ferrigydroxamates tested, only ferriferrichrome A achieved the release (11%) of [Fe]ferrischizokinen. Rapid dissociation (92%) of bound [59Fe]ferriferrioxamine B by the addition of ferriferrioxamine B was observed, and a 67% release of [59Fe]ferriferrioxamine B was caused by ferriA2265, its structural relative. Ferrischizokinen, ferriferrichrome A, and ferrirhodotorulic acid produced a 6, 25, and 29% dissociation, respectively, of [59Fe]ferriferrioxamine B; ferriaerobactin caused no dissociation. [59Fe]ferriaerobactin was bound by the membranes, but its dissociation was not effected by unlabeled ferriaerobactin, suggesting no specific receptors for this chelate. The respective binding affinity constants and maximal binding capacities of membrane vesicles of strain SK11 were 2 x 10(7) M-1 and 280 pmol per mg of protein for ferrischizokinen and 7 x 10(7) M-1 and 37 pmol per mg of protein for ferriferrioxamine B. These values in strain Ard1 were, respectively, 1.4 x 10(7) M-1 and 186 pmol per mg of protein for ferrischizokinen and 11 x 10(7) M-1 and 23 pmol per mg of protein for ferriferrioxamine B. Separate, specific binding sites (receptors) for ferrischizokinen and ferriferrioxamine B exist on the vesicles. The ferrischizokinen receptors have a lower affinity but a higher binding capacity

  17. Uptake of Helicobacter pylori Vesicles Is Facilitated by Clathrin-Dependent and Clathrin-Independent Endocytic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Annelie; Nygård Skalman, Lars; Obi, Ikenna; Lundmark, Richard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria shed a diverse set of outer membrane vesicles that function as transport vehicles to deliver effector molecules and virulence factors to host cells. Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that infects half of the world’s population, and in some individuals the infection progresses into peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer. Here we report that intact vesicles from H. pylori are internalized by clathrin-dependent endocytosis and further dynamin-dependent processes, as well as in a cholesterol-sensitive manner. We analyzed the uptake of H. pylori vesicles by gastric epithelial cells using a method that we refer to as quantification of internalized substances (qIS). The qIS assay is based on a near-infrared dye with a cleavable linker that enables the specific quantification of internalized substances after exposure to reducing conditions. Both chemical inhibition and RNA interference in combination with the qIS assay showed that H. pylori vesicles enter gastric epithelial cells via both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and additional endocytic processes that are dependent on dynamin. Confocal microscopy revealed that H. pylori vesicles colocalized with clathrin and dynamin II and with markers of subsequent endosomal and lysosomal trafficking. Interestingly, however, knockdown of components required for caveolae had no significant effect on internalization and knockdown of components required for clathrin-independent carrier (CLIC) endocytosis increased internalization of H. pylori vesicles. Furthermore, uptake of vesicles by both clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways was sensitive to depletion, but not sequestering, of cholesterol in the host cell membrane suggesting that membrane fluidity influences the efficiency of H. pylori vesicle uptake. PMID:24846379

  18. Probing the interior of synaptic vesicles with internalized nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadd, Jennifer C.; Budzinski, Kristi L.; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Ye, Fangmao; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2012-03-01

    Synaptic vesicles are subcellular organelles that are found in the synaptic bouton and are responsible for the propagation of signals between neurons. Synaptic vesicles undergo endo- and exocytosis with the neuronal membrane to load and release neurotransmitters. Here we discuss how we utilize this property to load nanoparticles as a means of probing the interior of synaptic vesicles. To probe the intravesicular region of synaptic vesicles, we have developed a highly sensitive pH-sensing polymer dot. We feel the robust nature of the pH-sensing polymer dot will provide insight into the dynamics of proton loading into synaptic vesicles.

  19. Sec35p, a Novel Peripheral Membrane Protein, Is Required for ER to Golgi Vesicle Docking

    PubMed Central

    VanRheenen, Susan M.; Cao, Xiaochun; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Barlowe, Charles; Gerard Waters, M.

    1998-01-01

    SEC35 was identified in a novel screen for temperature-sensitive mutants in the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wuestehube et al., 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). At the restrictive temperature, the sec35-1 strain exhibits a transport block between the ER and the Golgi apparatus and accumulates numerous vesicles. SEC35 encodes a novel cytosolic protein of 32 kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec35-1 is efficiently suppressed by YPT1, which encodes the rab-like GTPase required early in the secretory pathway, or by SLY1-20, which encodes a dominant form of the ER to Golgi target -SNARE–associated protein Sly1p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle-SNAREs SEC22, BET1, or YKT6. The cold-sensitive lethality that results from deleting SEC35 is suppressed by YPT1 or SLY1-20. These genetic relationships suggest that Sec35p acts upstream of, or in conjunction with, Ypt1p and Sly1p as was previously found for Uso1p. Using a cell-free assay that measures distinct steps in vesicle transport from the ER to the Golgi, we find Sec35p is required for a vesicle docking stage catalyzed by Uso1p. These genetic and biochemical results suggest Sec35p acts with Uso1p to dock ER-derived vesicles to the Golgi complex. PMID:9606204

  20. Vesicles Bearing Toxoplasma Apicoplast Membrane Proteins Persist Following Loss of the Relict Plastid or Golgi Body Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Bouchut, Anne; Geiger, Jennifer A.; DeRocher, Amy E.; Parsons, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and malaria parasites contain a unique and essential relict plastid called the apicoplast. Most apicoplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and are transported to the organelle via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Three trafficking routes have been proposed for apicoplast membrane proteins: (i) vesicular trafficking from the ER to the Golgi and then to the apicoplast, (ii) contiguity between the ER membrane and the apicoplast allowing direct flow of proteins, and (iii) vesicular transport directly from the ER to the apicoplast. Previously, we identified a set of membrane proteins of the T. gondii apicoplast which were also detected in large vesicles near the organelle. Data presented here show that the large vesicles bearing apicoplast membrane proteins are not the major carriers of luminal proteins. The vesicles continue to appear in parasites which have lost their plastid due to mis-segregation, indicating that the vesicles are not derived from the apicoplast. To test for a role of the Golgi body in vesicle formation, parasites were treated with brefeldin A or transiently transfected with a dominant-negative mutant of Sar1, a GTPase required for ER to Golgi trafficking. The immunofluorescence patterns showed little change. These findings were confirmed using stable transfectants, which expressed the toxic dominant-negative sar1 following Cre-loxP mediated promoter juxtaposition. Our data support the hypothesis that the large vesicles do not mediate the trafficking of luminal proteins to the apicoplast. The results further show that the large vesicles bearing apicoplast membrane proteins continue to be observed in the absence of Golgi and plastid function. These data raise the possibility that the apicoplast proteome is generated by two novel ER to plastid trafficking pathways, plus the small set of proteins encoded by the apicoplast genome. PMID:25369183

  1. Topical Delivery of Interferon Alpha by Biphasic Vesicles: Evidence for a Novel Nanopathway across the Stratum Corneum

    SciTech Connect

    Foldvari, M.; Badea, B; Wettig, S; Baboolal, D; Kumar, P; Creagh, A; Haynes, C

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive delivery of macromolecules across intact skin is challenging but would allow for needle-free administration of many pharmaceuticals. Biphasic vesicles, a novel lipid-based topical delivery system, have been shown to deliver macromolecules into the skin. Investigation of the delivery mechanism of interferon alpha (IFN {alpha}), as a model protein, by biphasic vesicles could improve understanding of molecular transport through the stratum corneum and allow for the design of more effective delivery systems. The interaction of biphasic vesicles with human skin and isolated stratum corneum membrane was investigated by confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS). Confocal microscopy revealed that biphasic vesicles delivered IFN {alpha} intercellularly, to a depth of 70 {micro}m, well below the stratum corneum and into the viable epidermis. DSC and SAXS/WAXS data suggest that the interaction of biphasic vesicles with SC lipids resulted in the formation of a three-dimensional cubic Pn3m polymorphic phase by the molecular rearrangement of intercellular lipids. This cubic phase could be an intercellular permeation nanopathway that may explain the increased delivery of IFN {alpha} by biphasic vesicles. Liposomes and submicrometer emulsion (the individual building blocks of biphasic vesicles) separately and methylcellulose gel, an alternative topical vehicle, did not induce a cubic phase and delivered low amounts of IFN {alpha} below the stratum corneum. Molecular modeling of the cubic Pn3m phase and lamellar-to-cubic phase transitions provides a plausible mechanism for transport of IFN {alpha}. It is hypothesized that induction of a Pn3m cubic phase in stratum corneum lipids could make dermal and transdermal delivery of other macromolecules also possible.

  2. Surface degassing and modifications to vesicle size distributions in active basalt flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cashman, K.V.; Mangan, M.T.; Newman, S.

    1994-01-01

    The character of the vesicle population in lava flows includes several measurable parameters that may provide important constraints on lava flow dynamics and rheology. Interpretation of vesicle size distributions (VSDs), however, requires an understanding of vesiculation processes in feeder conduits, and of post-eruption modifications to VSDs during transport and emplacement. To this end we collected samples from active basalt flows at Kilauea Volcano: (1) near the effusive Kupaianaha vent; (2) through skylights in the approximately isothermal Wahaula and Kamoamoa tube systems transporting lava to the coast; (3) from surface breakouts at different locations along the lava tubes; and (4) from different locations in a single breakout from a lava tube 1 km from the 51 vent at Pu'u 'O'o. Near-vent samples are characterized by VSDs that show exponentially decreasing numbers of vesicles with increasing vesicle size. These size distributions suggest that nucleation and growth of bubbles were continuous during ascent in the conduit, with minor associated bubble coalescence resulting from differential bubble rise. The entire vesicle population can be attributed to shallow exsolution of H2O-dominated gases at rates consistent with those predicted by simple diffusion models. Measurements of H2O, CO2 and S in the matrix glass show that the melt equilibrated rapidly at atmospheric pressure. Down-tube samples maintain similar VSD forms but show a progressive decrease in both overall vesicularity and mean vesicle size. We attribute this change to open system, "passive" rise and escape of larger bubbles to the surface. Such gas loss from the tube system results in the output of 1.2 ?? 106 g/day SO2, an output representing an addition of approximately 1% to overall volatile budget calculations. A steady increase in bubble number density with downstream distance is best explained by continued bubble nucleation at rates of 7-8/cm3s. Rates are ???25% of those estimated from the vent

  3. Mobility and Turnover of Vesicles at the Synaptic Ribbon

    PubMed Central

    LoGiudice, Lisamarie; Sterling, Peter; Matthews, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Ribbon synapses release neurotransmitter continuously at high rates, and the ribbons tether a large pool of synaptic vesicles. To determine if the tethered vesicles are actually released, we tracked vesicles labeled with FM4-64 dye in mouse retinal bipolar cell terminals whose ribbons had been labeled with a fluorescent peptide. We photobleached vesicles in regions with ribbons and without them and then followed recovery of fluorescence as bleached regions were repopulated by labeled vesicles. In the resting terminal, fluorescence recovered by ~50% in non-ribbon regions, but by only ~20% at ribbons. Thus, at rest, vesicles associated with ribbons cannot exchange freely with cytoplasmic vesicles. Depolarization stimulated vesicle turnover at ribbons as bleached, immobile vesicles were released by exocytosis and were then replaced by fluorescent vesicles from the cytoplasm, producing a further increase in fluorescence specifically at the ribbon location. We conclude that vesicles immobilized at synaptic ribbons participate in the readily releasable pool that is tapped rapidly during depolarization. PMID:18354018

  4. Effect of Lysophosphatidylcholine on the Surface Hydration of Phospholipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Marilene; Bales, Barney L.; Peric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The interfacial properties of the negatively charged dimyristoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and the zwitterionic dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles mixed with the fusion inhibitor lysomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (LMPC) are investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). At 35 °C, addition of 20 mole percent of LMPC to the DMPG vesicles increases the effective concentration of water in the interfacial layer of DMPG vesicles from 19.3 M to 27.7 M, whereas in the case of mixed DMPC-LMPC vesicle the effective water concentration in the interfacial layer of DMPC vesicles only changes, from 15.1 M to 18.4 M. The hydrogen bonding structure in both mixed DMPG-LMPC and mixed DMPC-LMPC vesicles becomes stronger with an increasing fraction of LMPC in the vesicles. The average area per phospholipid decreases in mixed DMPC-LMPC vesicles, while it increases in mixed DMPG-LMPC vesicles as the proportion of LMPC in the vesicle increases. The inhibitory nature of LMPC in both vesicle and biological fusion comes from the increase in surface hydration, as well as from the dynamic cone shape of LMPC in the phospholipid bilayer PMID:18070590

  5. Migration of phospholipid vesicles in response to OH(-) stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Atsuji; Sakuma, Yuka; Imai, Masayuki; Oya, Yutaka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Puff, Nicolas; Angelova, Miglena I

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrate migration of phospholipid vesicles in response to a pH gradient. Upon simple micro-injection of a NaOH solution, the vesicles linearly moved to the tip of the micro-pipette and the migration velocity was proportional to the gradient of OH(-) concentration. Vesicle migration was characteristic of OH(-) ions and no migration was observed for monovalent salts or nonionic sucrose solutions. The migration of vesicles is quantitatively described by the surface tension gradient model where the hydrolysis of the phospholipids by NaOH solution decreases the surface tension of the vesicle. The vesicles move toward a direction where the surface energy decreases. Thus the chemical modification of lipids produces a mechanical force to drive vesicles. PMID:26883729

  6. Complex Dynamics of Compound Vesicles in Linear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levant, Michael; Steinberg, Victor

    2014-04-01

    We report first experimental observations of dynamics of compound vesicles in linear flow realized in a microfluidic four-roll mill. We show that while a compound vesicle undergoes the same main tank-treading, trembling (TR), and tumbling regimes, its dynamics are far richer and more complex than that of unilamellar vesicles. A new swinging motion of the inner vesicle is found in TR in accord with simulations. The inner and outer vesicles can exist simultaneously in different dynamical regimes and can undergo either synchronized or unsynchronized motions depending on the filling factor. A compound vesicle can be used as a physical model to study white blood cell dynamics in flow similar to a unilamellar vesicle used successfully to model anucleate cells.

  7. Complex dynamics of compound vesicles in linear flow.

    PubMed

    Levant, Michael; Steinberg, Victor

    2014-04-01

    We report first experimental observations of dynamics of compound vesicles in linear flow realized in a microfluidic four-roll mill. We show that while a compound vesicle undergoes the same main tank-treading, trembling (TR), and tumbling regimes, its dynamics are far richer and more complex than that of unilamellar vesicles. A new swinging motion of the inner vesicle is found in TR in accord with simulations. The inner and outer vesicles can exist simultaneously in different dynamical regimes and can undergo either synchronized or unsynchronized motions depending on the filling factor. A compound vesicle can be used as a physical model to study white blood cell dynamics in flow similar to a unilamellar vesicle used successfully to model anucleate cells.

  8. Ultrastructural and functional fate of recycled vesicles in hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Rey, Stephanie A; Smith, Catherine A; Fowler, Milena W; Crawford, Freya; Burden, Jemima J; Staras, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Efficient recycling of synaptic vesicles is thought to be critical for sustained information transfer at central terminals. However, the specific contribution that retrieved vesicles make to future transmission events remains unclear. Here we exploit fluorescence and time-stamped electron microscopy to track the functional and positional fate of vesicles endocytosed after readily releasable pool (RRP) stimulation in rat hippocampal synapses. We show that most vesicles are recovered near the active zone but subsequently take up random positions in the cluster, without preferential bias for future use. These vesicles non-selectively queue, advancing towards the release site with further stimulation in an actin-dependent manner. Nonetheless, the small subset of vesicles retrieved recently in the stimulus train persist nearer the active zone and exhibit more privileged use in the next RRP. Our findings reveal heterogeneity in vesicle fate based on nanoscale position and timing rules, providing new insights into the origins of future pool constitution.

  9. Characterization of restricted diffusion in uni- and multi-lamellar vesicles using short distance iMQCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, A. M.; Wilson, J. W.; Warren, W. S.

    2012-10-01

    Improved understanding of the entrapment, transport, and release of drugs and small molecules within vesicles is important for drug delivery. Most methods rely on contrast agents or probe molecules; here, we propose a new MRI method to detect signal from water spins with restricted diffusion. This method is based on intermolecular double quantum coherences (iDQCs), which can probe the restricted diffusion characteristics at well-defined and tunable microscopic distance scales. By using an exceedingly short (and previously inaccessible) distance, the iDQC signal arises only from restricted diffusion spins and thereby provides a mechanism to directly image vesicle entrapment, transport, and release. Using uni- and multi-lamellar liposomes and polymersomes, we show how the composition, lamellar structure, vesicle size, and concentration affects the iDQC signal between coupled water spins at very short separation distances. The iDQC signal correlates well with conventional diffusion MRI and a proposed biexponential (multicompartmental) diffusion model. Finally, the iDQC signal was used to monitor dynamic changes in the lamellar structure as temperature-sensitive liposomes released their contents. These short distance iDQCs can probe the amount and diffusion of water entrapped in vesicles, which may be useful to further understand vesicle properties in materials science and drug delivery applications.

  10. Signaling of Escherichia coli enterotoxin on supramolecular redox bilayer vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Q.; Peng, T.; Stevens, R.C.

    1999-07-21

    Electron transport in supramolecular assemblies containing redox centers has been a subject of great interest. Depending on spatial arrangement of redox moieties in macromolecular structures, transport of electrons may occur via a diffusion mechanism or electron hopping between the neighboring redox sites. While research has largely dealt with 3-D redox polymers, some 2-D systems such as self-assembled and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers have been exploited as well. The authors describe here a new interfacial architecture that combines the high redox concentration in 3-D polymers and controllable structure and functionality of the 2-D monolayer systems. The new interface utilizes structurally defined redox liposomes engineered with biomolecular recognition capability by incorporating cell surface receptor G{sub M1} into the bilayer membrane. The design allows for direct inspection of the dependency of electron transport on the state and extent of biomolecular recognition that has taken place on the vesicles and, thus, provides a method for direct measurement of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin binding by electrochemistry.

  11. Tracking individual secretory vesicles during exocytosis reveals an ordered and regulated process

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Post-Golgi secretory vesicle trafficking is a coordinated process, with transport and regulatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate exocytosis. While the contributions of many individual regulatory proteins to this process are well studied, the timing and dependencies of events have not been defined. Here we track individual secretory vesicles and associated proteins in vivo during tethering and fusion in budding yeast. Secretory vesicles tether to the plasma membrane very reproducibly for ∼18 s, which is extended in cells defective for membrane fusion and significantly lengthened and more variable when GTP hydrolysis of the exocytic Rab is delayed. Further, the myosin-V Myo2p regulates the tethering time in a mechanism unrelated to its interaction with exocyst component Sec15p. Two-color imaging of tethered vesicles with Myo2p, the GEF Sec2p, and several exocyst components allowed us to document a timeline for yeast exocytosis in which Myo2p leaves 4 s before fusion, whereas Sec2p and all the components of the exocyst disperse coincident with fusion. PMID:26169352

  12. Reconstruction of a kinetic model of the chromatophore vesicles from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Tihamér; Helms, Volkhard

    2006-08-01

    We present a molecular model of a chromatophore vesicle from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. These vesicles are ideal benchmark systems for molecular and systemic simulations, because they have been well studied, they are small, and they are naturally separated from their cellular environment. To set up a photosynthetic chain working under steady-state conditions, we compiled from the experimental literature the specific activities and geometries that have been determined for their constituents. This data then allowed defining the stoichiometries for all membrane proteins. This article contains the kinetic part of the reconstructed model, while the spatial reconstruction is presented in a companion article. By considering the transport properties of the Cytochrome c(2) and ubiquinone pools, we show that their size and oxidation states allow for an efficient buffering of the statistical fluctuations that arise from the small size of the vesicles. Stoichiometric and kinetic considerations indicate that a typical chromatophore vesicle of Rb. sphaeroides with a diameter of 45 nm should contain approximately five bc(1) monomers. PMID:16714340

  13. Trafficking vesicles: pro or contra pathogens?

    PubMed

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Robatzek, Silke

    2009-08-01

    Membrane compartmentalization and trafficking are pivotal for eukaryotic life and demand a higher order of coordination. Even in their resting state, most plant cells exhibit a polarized localization of membrane compartments, which is redirected when plant cells are attacked by microbes. Repositioning of organelles at pathogen penetration sites has been reported since more than a decade; however, only recently has targeted vesicle trafficking upon biotic stress emerged. It has become evident that vesicle secretion and endocytic pathways are engaged in the plant's immune system to actively defend against potential pathogens. By contrast, invasive pathogens have evolved means to utilize these trafficking pathways for the suppression of plant defenses and to the benefit of microbial proliferation. This review summarizes recent findings of host intracellular endomembrane adaptations in response to pathogens and how pathogens exploit them. PMID:19608452

  14. Docking of Secretory Vesicles Is Syntaxin Dependent

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Heidi; Cornelisse, L. Niels; Toonen, Ruud F.G.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were observed in synapses, in line with previous observations. However, a drastic reduction in morphologically docked secretory vesicles was observed in chromaffin cells. Syntaxin-deficient chromaffin cells showed a small reduction in total and plasma membrane staining for the docking factor Munc18-1, which appears insufficient to explain the drastic reduction in docking. The sub-membrane cortical actin network was unaffected by syntaxin deletion. These observations expose a docking role for syntaxin in the neuroendocrine system. Additional layers of regulation may have evolved to make syntaxin redundant for docking in highly specialized systems like synaptic active zones. PMID:17205130

  15. Micromanaging of tumor metastasis by extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Naoomi; Katsuda, Takeshi; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometer-sized membranous vesicles that are released by a variety of cell types into the extracellular space. In the past two decades, EVs have emerged as novel mediators of cancer biology. Many reports have demonstrated the contribution of EVs to cancer metastasis. Metastasis is a multistep process that is responsible for the majority of deaths in cancer patients. This process includes proliferation, angiogenesis, immune modulation, extravasation, intravasation, and colonization. EVs from cancer cells impact these steps through modulation of the host immune system, angiogenesis, and pre-/pro-metastatic niche formation. In this review, we summarize the function of EVs in cancer metastasis. In addition, we also discuss the hurdles to be overcome for further developing this research field. PMID:25746922

  16. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  17. Routes and mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Laura Ann; Pink, Ryan Charles; Carter, David Raul Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells. PMID:25143819

  18. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-01

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.

  19. Lipid bilayer vesicle generation using microfluidic jetting.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Christopher W; Patel, Karan; Heureaux, Johanna; Stachowiak, Jeanne; Fletcher, Daniel A; Liu, Allen P

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up synthetic biology presents a novel approach for investigating and reconstituting biochemical systems and, potentially, minimal organisms. This emerging field engages engineers, chemists, biologists, and physicists to design and assemble basic biological components into complex, functioning systems from the bottom up. Such bottom-up systems could lead to the development of artificial cells for fundamental biological inquiries and innovative therapies(1,2). Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can serve as a model platform for synthetic biology due to their cell-like membrane structure and size. Microfluidic jetting, or microjetting, is a technique that allows for the generation of GUVs with controlled size, membrane composition, transmembrane protein incorporation, and encapsulation(3). The basic principle of this method is the use of multiple, high-frequency fluid pulses generated by a piezo-actuated inkjet device to deform a suspended lipid bilayer into a GUV. The process is akin to blowing soap bubbles from a soap film. By varying the composition of the jetted solution, the composition of the encompassing solution, and/or the components included in the bilayer, researchers can apply this technique to create customized vesicles. This paper describes the procedure to generate simple vesicles from a droplet interface bilayer by microjetting. PMID:24637415

  20. Lipid Bilayer Vesicle Generation Using Microfluidic Jetting

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Christopher W.; Patel, Karan; Heureaux, Johanna; Stachowiak, Jeanne; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Liu, Allen P.

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up synthetic biology presents a novel approach for investigating and reconstituting biochemical systems and, potentially, minimal organisms. This emerging field engages engineers, chemists, biologists, and physicists to design and assemble basic biological components into complex, functioning systems from the bottom up. Such bottom-up systems could lead to the development of artificial cells for fundamental biological inquiries and innovative therapies1,2. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can serve as a model platform for synthetic biology due to their cell-like membrane structure and size. Microfluidic jetting, or microjetting, is a technique that allows for the generation of GUVs with controlled size, membrane composition, transmembrane protein incorporation, and encapsulation3. The basic principle of this method is the use of multiple, high-frequency fluid pulses generated by a piezo-actuated inkjet device to deform a suspended lipid bilayer into a GUV. The process is akin to blowing soap bubbles from a soap film. By varying the composition of the jetted solution, the composition of the encompassing solution, and/or the components included in the bilayer, researchers can apply this technique to create customized vesicles. This paper describes the procedure to generate simple vesicles from a droplet interface bilayer by microjetting. PMID:24637415

  1. Asymmetric Vesicle Instability in Extensional Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, Andrew; Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Previous researchers have chronicled the breakup of drops in an extensional flow as they stretch into a dumbbell shape with a long thin neck. Motivated by recent experimental observations, we study an apparently similar problem with vesicles, which are deformable but incompressible membranes that conserve area and volume. First, we simulate vesicles in an unbounded uniaxial extensional flow which are given general radial perturbations from an initially stable symmetric equilibrium state. For sufficiently low reduced volume (< 0.74 at matched inner/outer viscosity) there exists a capillary number at which an asymmetric perturbation mode will grow, resulting in the formation of an asymmetric dumbbell shape with a thin connecting cylindrical bridge analogous to the shapes associated with drop breakup. Our simulations help elucidate a mechanism for this instability based on a competition between internal pressure differentials in the vesicle resulting from the membrane bending force and ambient flow. We compare and contrast this transition to the ``standard'' drop breakup transition. Funded by NSF GRFP and Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  2. Lipid bilayer vesicle generation using microfluidic jetting.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Christopher W; Patel, Karan; Heureaux, Johanna; Stachowiak, Jeanne; Fletcher, Daniel A; Liu, Allen P

    2014-02-21

    Bottom-up synthetic biology presents a novel approach for investigating and reconstituting biochemical systems and, potentially, minimal organisms. This emerging field engages engineers, chemists, biologists, and physicists to design and assemble basic biological components into complex, functioning systems from the bottom up. Such bottom-up systems could lead to the development of artificial cells for fundamental biological inquiries and innovative therapies(1,2). Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can serve as a model platform for synthetic biology due to their cell-like membrane structure and size. Microfluidic jetting, or microjetting, is a technique that allows for the generation of GUVs with controlled size, membrane composition, transmembrane protein incorporation, and encapsulation(3). The basic principle of this method is the use of multiple, high-frequency fluid pulses generated by a piezo-actuated inkjet device to deform a suspended lipid bilayer into a GUV. The process is akin to blowing soap bubbles from a soap film. By varying the composition of the jetted solution, the composition of the encompassing solution, and/or the components included in the bilayer, researchers can apply this technique to create customized vesicles. This paper describes the procedure to generate simple vesicles from a droplet interface bilayer by microjetting.

  3. Vesicles in a shear and Poiseuille flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2010-11-01

    Vesicles, capsules and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) under flow are subject to considerable attention from theoretical, numerical and experimental point of views. Understanding their motions and dynamics is essential both at the fundamental level as a branch of biocomplex fluids, and at the technological level, such as the lab-on-chip technologies, targeted drug delivery, and blood flow diseases. First, we describe the dynamics of individual biomimetic (vesicles and capsules) and biological entities (RBCs) under a simple shear flow, and overview the current state of the knowledge. Comparison with available experiments will be provided. We then discuss the non-trivial rheology of dilute vesicle suspensions and results from experiments involving oscillatory shear with non-zero mean shear rate. Finally, we address a longstanding puzzle in the blood microcirculatory research: why do red blood cells adopt a non-symmetrical shape (called slipper shape) even in a symmetric flow? Our work shows that the symmetric shape is unstable in flow conditions encountered in microvasculature. Moreover, by adopting a slipper shape, the RBC acquires higher flow efficiency than the symmetric (parachute) shape. The extension of this study to a collection of cells will be outlined.

  4. Electroformation of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles: Investigating Vesicle Fusion versus Bulge Merging.

    PubMed

    Micheletto, Yasmine Miguel Serafini; Marques, Carlos M; Silveira, Nádya Pesce da; Schroder, André P

    2016-08-16

    Partially ordered stacks of phospholipid bilayers on a flat substrate can be obtained by the evaporation of a spread droplet of phospholipid-in-chloroform solution. When exposed to an aqueous buffer, numerous micrometric buds populate the bilayers, grow in size over minutes, and eventually detach, forming the so-called liposomes or vesicles. While observation of vesicle growth from a hydrated lipid film under an optical microscope suggests numerous events of vesicle fusion, there is little experimental evidence for discriminating between merging of connected buds, i.e., a shape transformation that does not imply bilayer fusion and real membrane fusion. Here, we use electroformation to grow giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) from a stack of lipids in a buffer containing either (i) nanometric liposomes or (ii) previously prepared GUVs. By combining different fluorescent labels of the lipids in the substrate and in the solution, and by performing a fluorescence analysis of the resulting GUVs, we clearly demonstrate that merging of bulges is the essential pathway for vesicle growth in electroformation. PMID:27409245

  5. Ultradeformable lipid vesicles can penetrate the skin and other semi-permeable barriers unfragmented. Evidence from double label CLSM experiments and direct size measurements.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor; Schätzlein, Andreas; Richardsen, Holger

    2002-08-19

    The stability of various aggregates in the form of lipid bilayer vesicles was tested by three different methods before and after crossing different semi-permeable barriers. First, polymer membranes with pores significantly smaller than the average aggregate diameter were used as the skin barrier model; dynamic light scattering was employed to monitor vesicle size changes after barrier passage for several lipid mixtures with different bilayer elasticities. This revealed that vesicles must adapt their size and/or shape, dependent on bilayer stability and elasto-mechanics, to overcome an otherwise confining pore. For the mixed lipid aggregates with highly flexible bilayers (Transfersomes), the change is transient and only involves vesicle shape and volume adaptation. The constancy of ultradeformable vesicle size before and after pores penetration proves this. This is remarkable in light of the very strong aggregate deformation during an enforced barrier passage. Simple phosphatidylcholine vesicles, with less flexible bilayers, lack such capability and stability. Conventional liposomes are therefore fractured during transport through a semi-permeable barrier; as reported by other researchers, liposomes are fragmented to the size of a narrow pore if sufficient pressure is applied across the barrier; otherwise, liposomes clog the pores. The precise outcome depends on trans-barrier flux and/or on relative vesicle vs. pore size. Lipid vesicles applied on the skin behave accordingly. Mixed lipid vesicles penetrate the skin if they are sufficiently deformable. If this is the case, they cross inter-cellular constrictions in the organ without significant composition or size modification. To prove this, we labelled vesicles with two different fluorescent markers and applied the suspension on intact murine skin without occlusion. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the skin then revealed a practically indistinguishable distribution of both labels in the stratum

  6. Release of canine parvovirus from endocytic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Antila, Mia; Jaatinen, Anne; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Vuento, Matti

    2003-11-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A(2) like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA(2) activity on CPV entry process. PLA(2) activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA(2) inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA(2) activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA(2) activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA(2) activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA(2) activity is essential for productive

  7. Controlled deformation of vesicles by flexible structured media

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Ye; Martínez-González, José A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystalline (LC) materials, such as actin or tubulin networks, are known to be capable of deforming the shape of cells. Here, elements of that behavior are reproduced in a synthetic system, namely, a giant vesicle suspended in a LC, which we view as a first step toward the preparation of active, anisotropic hybrid systems that mimic some of the functionality encountered in biological systems. To that end, we rely on a coupled particle-continuum representation of deformable networks in a nematic LC represented at the level of a Landau–de Gennes free energy functional. Our results indicate that, depending on its elastic properties, the LC is indeed able to deform the vesicle until it reaches an equilibrium, anisotropic shape. The magnitude of the deformation is determined by a balance of elastic and surface forces. For perpendicular anchoring at the vesicle, a Saturn ring defect forms along the equatorial plane, and the vesicle adopts a pancake-like, oblate shape. For degenerate planar anchoring at the vesicle, two boojum defects are formed at the poles of the vesicle, which adopts an elongated, spheroidal shape. During the deformation, the volume of the topological defects in the LC shrinks considerably as the curvature of the vesicle increases. These predictions are confirmed by our experimental observations of spindle-like shapes in experiments with giant unilamellar vesicles with planar anchoring. We find that the tension of the vesicle suppresses vesicle deformation, whereas anchoring strength and large elastic constants promote shape anisotropy. PMID:27532056

  8. Imaging of Brain Tumors With Paramagnetic Vesicles Targeted to Phosphatidylserine

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Patrick M.; Pearce, John; Chu, Zhengtao; McPherson, Christopher M.; Takigiku, Ray; Lee, Jing-Huei; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate paramagnetic saposin C and dioleylphosphatidylserine (SapC-DOPS) vesicles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging phosphatidylserine (PS) expressed by glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Materials and Methods Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles were formulated, and the vesicle diameter and relaxivity were measured. Targeting of Gd-DTPA-BSA/ SapC-DOPS vesicles to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo was compared with nontargeted paramagnetic vesicles (lacking SapC). Mice with GBM brain tumors were imaged at 3, 10, 20, and 24 h postinjection to measure the relaxation rate (R1) in the tumor and the normal brain. Results The mean diameter of vesicles was 175 nm, and the relaxivity at 7 Tesla was 3.32 (s*mM)−1 relative to the gadolinium concentration. Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles targeted cultured cancer cells, leading to an increased R1 and gadolinium level in the cells. In vivo, Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles produced a 9% increase in the R1 of GBM brain tumors in mice 10 h postinjection, but only minimal changes (1.2% increase) in the normal brain. Nontargeted paramagnetic vesicles yielded minimal change in the tumor R1 at 10 h postinjection (1.3%). Conclusion These experiments demonstrate that Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles can selectively target implanted brain tumors in vivo, providing noninvasive mapping of the cancer biomarker PS. PMID:24797437

  9. Controlled deformation of vesicles by flexible structured media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Ye; Martínez-González, José A; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2016-08-01

    Liquid crystalline (LC) materials, such as actin or tubulin networks, are known to be capable of deforming the shape of cells. Here, elements of that behavior are reproduced in a synthetic system, namely, a giant vesicle suspended in a LC, which we view as a first step toward the preparation of active, anisotropic hybrid systems that mimic some of the functionality encountered in biological systems. To that end, we rely on a coupled particle-continuum representation of deformable networks in a nematic LC represented at the level of a Landau-de Gennes free energy functional. Our results indicate that, depending on its elastic properties, the LC is indeed able to deform the vesicle until it reaches an equilibrium, anisotropic shape. The magnitude of the deformation is determined by a balance of elastic and surface forces. For perpendicular anchoring at the vesicle, a Saturn ring defect forms along the equatorial plane, and the vesicle adopts a pancake-like, oblate shape. For degenerate planar anchoring at the vesicle, two boojum defects are formed at the poles of the vesicle, which adopts an elongated, spheroidal shape. During the deformation, the volume of the topological defects in the LC shrinks considerably as the curvature of the vesicle increases. These predictions are confirmed by our experimental observations of spindle-like shapes in experiments with giant unilamellar vesicles with planar anchoring. We find that the tension of the vesicle suppresses vesicle deformation, whereas anchoring strength and large elastic constants promote shape anisotropy. PMID:27532056

  10. Formation and structural characteristics of thermosensitive multiblock copolymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shiying; Xiao, Mengying; Wang, Rong

    2013-12-23

    The spontaneous vesicle formation of ABABA-type amphiphilic multiblock copolymers bearing thermosensitive hydrophilic A-block in a selective solvent is studied using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approach. The formation process of vesicle through nucleation and growth pathway is observed by varying the temperature. The simulation results show that spherical micelle takes shape at high temperature. As temperature decreases, vesicles with small aqueous cavity appear and the cavity expands as well as the membrane thickness decreases with the temperature further decreasing. This finding is in agreement with the experimental observation. Furthermore, by continuously varying the temperature and the length of the hydrophobic block, a phase diagram is constructed, which can indicate the thermodynamically stable region for vesicles. The morphological phase diagram shows that vesicles can form in a larger parameter scope. The relationship between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic block length versus the aqueous cavity size and vesicle size are revealed. Simulation results demonstrate that the copolymers with shorter hydrophobic blocks length or the higher hydrophilicity are more likely to form vesicles with larger aqueous cavity size and vesicle size as well as thinner wall thickness. However, the increase in A-block length results to form vesicles with smaller aqueous cavity size and larger vesicle size. PMID:24304193

  11. Abnormal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis in Drosophila Synaptogyrin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin J.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2012-01-01

    Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr) null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. PMID:23238721

  12. A genome-wide association study identifies PLCL2 and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 as new susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Megumi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikawa, Kyota; Miya, Fuyuki; Shigemizu, Daichi; Ozaki, Kouichi; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Nakatani, Daisaku; Suna, Shinichiro; Imai, Yasushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Matsuda, Koichi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Kubo, Michiaki

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable progress in preventive and therapeutic strategies, myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. A total of 55 susceptibility genes have been identified mostly in European genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Nevertheless, large-scale GWAS from other population could possibly find additional susceptibility loci. To identify as many MI susceptibility loci as possible, we performed a large-scale genomic analysis in Japanese population. To identify MI susceptibility loci in Japanese, we conducted a GWAS using 1666 cases and 3198 controls using the Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChip and HumanHap550v3 Genotyping BeadChip. We performed replication studies using a total of 11,412 cases and 28,397 controls in the Japanese population. Our study identified two novel susceptibility loci for MI: PLCL2 on chromosome 3p24.3 (rs4618210:A>G, P = 2.60 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 0.91) and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs3803915:A>C, P = 3.84 × 10(-9), OR = 0.89). Besides, a total of 14 previously reported MI susceptibility loci were replicated in our study. In particular, we validated a strong association on chromosome 12q24 (rs3782886:A>G: P = 1.14 × 10(-14), OR = 1.46). Following pathway analysis using 265 genes related to MI or coronary artery disease, we found that these loci might be involved in the pathogenesis of MI via the promotion of atherosclerosis. In the present large-scale genomic analysis, we identified PLCL2 and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 as new susceptibility loci for MI in the Japanese population. Our findings will add novel findings for MI susceptibility loci.

  13. High affinity 3H-Phe uptake by brush border membrane vesicles from whole larvae of Aedes aegypti (AaBMVw)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brush border membrane vesicles from whole Aedes aegypti larvae (AaBBMVw) are confirmed to be valid preparations for membrane transport studies. The Abdul-Rauf and Ellar method was used to isolate AaBBMVw that were frozen, stored for several months, transported to a distant site, thawed and used to s...

  14. Gamma-COP, a coat subunit of non-clathrin-coated vesicles with homology to Sec21p.

    PubMed

    Stenbeck, G; Schreiner, R; Herrmann, D; Auerbach, S; Lottspeich, F; Rothman, J E; Wieland, F T

    1992-12-14

    Constitutive secretory transport in eukaryotes is likely to be mediated by non-clathrin-coated vesicles, which have been isolated and characterized [(1989) Cell 58, 329-336; (1991) Nature 349, 215-220]. They contain a set of coat proteins (COPs) which are also likely to exist in a preformed cytosolic complex named coatomer [(1991) Nature 349, 248-250]. From peptide sequence and cDNA structure comparisons evidence is presented that one of the subunits of coatomer, gamma-COP, is a true constituent of non-clathrin-coated vesicles, and that gamma-COP is related to sec 21, a secretory mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cervisiae. PMID:1360908

  15. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Development of Extracellular Vesicle-Based Therapeutic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shin-ichiro; Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Kuroda, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Many types of cells release phospholipid membrane vesicles thought to play key roles in cell-cell communication, antigen presentation, and the spread of infectious agents. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry various proteins, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs), like a “message in a bottle” to cells in remote locations. The encapsulated molecules are protected from multiple types of degradative enzymes in body fluids, making EVs ideal for delivering drugs. This review presents an overview of the potential roles of EVs as natural drugs and novel drug-delivery systems. PMID:26861303

  16. Adhesive interactions between vesicles in the strong adhesion limit

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Arun; Anderson, Travers H.; Leal, L. Gary; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the adhesive interaction energy between a pair of vesicles in the strong adhesion limit, in which bending forces play a negligible role in determining vesicle shape compared to forces due to membrane stretching. Although force-distance or energy distance relationships characterizing adhesive interactions between fluid bilayers are routinely measured using the surface forces apparatus, the atomic force microscope and the biomembrane force probe, the interacting bilayers in these methods are supported on surfaces (e.g. mica sheet) and cannot be deformed. However, it is known that in a suspension, vesicles composed of the same bilayer can deform by stretching or bending, and can also undergo changes in volume. Adhesively interacting vesicles can thus form flat regions in the contact zone, which will result in an enhanced interaction energy as compared to rigid vesicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the magnitude of the interaction energy between adhesively interacting, deformed vesicles relative to free, undeformed vesicles as a function of the intervesicle separation. The modification of the intervesicle interaction energy due to vesicle deformability can be calculated knowing the undeformed radius of the vesicles, R0, the bending modulus kb, the area expansion modulus Ka, and the adhesive minimum WP(0) and separation DP(0) in the energy of interaction between two flat bilayers, which can be obtained from the force-distance measurements made using the above supported-bilayer methods. For vesicles with constant volumes, we show that adhesive potentials between non-deforming bilayers such as ∣WP(0)∣∼5×10−4mJ/m2, which are ordinarily considered weak in colloidal physics literature, can result in significantly deep (>10×) energy minima due to increase in vesicle area and flattening in the contact region. If the osmotic expulsion of water across the vesicles driven by the tense, stretched membrane in the presence of an osmotically active

  17. Adhesive interactions between vesicles in the strong adhesion limit.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Arun; Anderson, Travers H; Leal, L Gary; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    We consider the adhesive interaction energy between a pair of vesicles in the strong adhesion limit, in which bending forces play a negligible role in determining vesicle shape compared to forces due to membrane stretching. Although force−distance or energy−distance relationships characterizing adhesive interactions between fluid bilayers are routinely measured using the surface forces apparatus, the atomic force microscope, and the biomembrane force probe, the interacting bilayers in these methods are supported on surfaces (e.g., mica sheet) and cannot be deformed. However, it is known that, in a suspension, vesicles composed of the same bilayer can deform by stretching or bending, and can also undergo changes in volume. Adhesively interacting vesicles can thus form flat regions in the contact zone, which will result in an enhanced interaction energy as compared to rigid vesicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the magnitude of the interaction energy between adhesively interacting, deformed vesicles relative to free, undeformed vesicles as a function of the intervesicle separation. The modification of the intervesicle interaction energy due to vesicle deformability can be calculated knowing the undeformed radius of the vesicles, R0, the bending modulus, k(b), the area expansion modulus, k(a), and the adhesive minimum, W(P)(0), and separation, D(P)(0), in the energy of interaction between two flat bilayers, which can be obtained from the force−distance measurements made using the above supported-bilayer methods. For vesicles with constant volumes, we show that adhesive potentials between nondeforming bilayers such as |W(P)(0)| 5 × 10(−4) mJ/m2, which are ordinarily considered weak in the colloidal physics literature, can result in significantly deep (>10×) energy minima due to increase in vesicle area and flattening in the contact region. If the osmotic expulsion of water across the vesicles driven by the tense, stretched membrane in the presence

  18. Metabolic and Signaling Functions of Cancer Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, P; Vardaki, I; Occhionero, A; Panaretakis, T

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles have gained tremendous attention in the recent years as a novel mechanism of cell to cell communication. There are several types of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, exosome, like vesicles, apoptotic bodies that differ mainly in the mechanism of biogenesis and secretion. The most well studied type of extracellular vesicles are the exosomes which are endosome-derived vesicles with a diameter of 50-150nm and enriched in ESCRT proteins including Alix, TSG101, Hsp70, and tetraspanins. It is now well established that exosomes promote tumor growth, alter the tumor microenvironment, facilitate the dissemination of cancer cells in an organotropic manner, modulate immune responses, and mediate resistance to therapy. Exosomes have also been recently implicated in an emerging hallmark of cancer, the cancer cell metabolism. The metabolic state of the cell defines, to a certain extent, both the rate of secretion and the molecular content of tumor-derived exosomes. Furthermore, exosomes have been shown to possess intrinsic metabolic activity since they can synthesize ATP by glycolysis. It follows that exosomes carry a number of metabolic enzymes and metabolites, including lactate, PGE, LDH isoforms, pyruvate, and monocarboxylate transporters. Last but not the least, exosomes are implicated in fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism and are thought to be crucial for the transcellular metabolism procedure. Uptake of exosomes is thought to alter the intracellular metabolic state of the cell. In summary, we describe the state of the art on the role of metabolism in the secretion, uptake, and the biological effects of exosomes in the metabolism of recipient cells. PMID:27572129

  19. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jaewook; Park, Jaesung; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-04-01

    Like mammalian cells, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria release nano-sized membrane vesicles into the extracellular environment either in a constitutive manner or in a regulated manner. These bacterial extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids enriched with bioactive proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and virulence factors. Recent progress in this field supports the critical pathophysiological functions of these vesicles in both bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. This review provides an overview of the current understanding on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles, especially regarding the biogenesis, components, and functions in poly-species communities. We hope that this review will stimulate additional research in this emerging field of bacterial extracellular vesicles and contribute to the development of extracellular vesicle-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines against pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Synaptic vesicle proteins: targets and routes for botulinum neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Münster-Wandowski, Agnieszka; Höltje, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SV) are key organelles of neuronal communication. SV are responsible for the storage of neurotransmitters, which are released by Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. After release and interaction with postsynaptic receptors, transmitters rapidly diffuse out of the synaptic cleft and are sequestered by plasma membrane transporters (in some cases following enzymatic conversion). SVs undergo endocytosis and are refilled by specific vesicular transmitter transporters different in the various neuronal subtypes. Besides these differences, SVs in general are equipped with a remarkable common set of proteins. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) inhibit neurotransmitter release from almost all types of neurons by cleaving proteins required for membrane fusion localized either to SVs (synaptobrevin) or to the plasma membrane (SNAP-25 and syntaxin) depending on the BoNT serotype. To enter the neuronal cytoplasm, BoNTs specifically interact with the luminal domain of SV proteins (synaptotagmin or SV2, depending on serotype) transiently exposed during exocytotic membrane fusion and occurring in almost every neuron. Thus, the highly specific interaction with luminal domains of SV proteins commonly expressed on all SV types is one reason why BoNTs exhibit such a high neuronal specificity but attack almost every neuron type.

  1. Sequestration of organic cations by acidified hepatic endocytic vesicles and implications for biliary excretion.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, R W; Faber, E D; Meijer, D K

    1992-04-01

    these drugs, accomplished through partial vesicle alkalization by primaquin, decreased excretion of TC, vecuronium and TBuMA, perhaps reflecting the small functional size of the displaceable organellar drug compartment and/or competition between primaquin and the organic cations for membrane transport processes.

  2. Sorting of synaptophysin into special vesicles in nonneuroendocrine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Synaptophysin is a major transmembrane glycoprotein of a type of small vesicle with an electron-translucent content (SET vesicles), including the approximately 50-nm presynaptic vesicles in neuronal cells, and of similar, somewhat larger (< or = approximately 90 nm) vesicles (SLMV) in neuroendocrine (NE) cells. When certain epithelial non-NE cells, such as human hepatocellular carcinoma PLC cells, were cDNA transfected to synthesize synaptophysin, the new molecules appeared in specific SET vesicles. As this was in contrast to other reports that only NE cells were able to sort synaptophysin away from other plasma membrane proteins into presynaptic- or SLMV-type vesicles, we have further characterized the vesicles containing synaptophysin in transfected PLC cells. Using fractionation and immunoisolation techniques, we have separated different kinds of vesicles, and we have identified a distinct type of synaptophysin-rich, small (30-90-nm) vesicle that contains little, if any, protein of the constitutive secretory pathway marker hepatitis B surface antigen, of the fluid phase endocytosis marker HRP, and of the plasma membrane recycling endosomal marker transferrin receptor. In addition, we have found variously sized vesicles that contained both synaptophysin and transferrin receptor. A corresponding result was also obtained by direct visualization, using double-label immunofluorescence microscopy for the endocytotic markers and synaptophysin in confocal laser scan microscopy and in double- immunogold label electron microscopy. We conclude that diverse non-NE cells of epithelial nature are able to enrich the "foreign" molecule synaptophysin in a category of SET vesicles that are morphologically indistinguishable from SLMV of NE cells, including one type of vesicle in which synaptophysin is sorted away from endosomal marker proteins. Possible mechanisms of this sorting are discussed. PMID:7798314

  3. [Changes in human biliary vesicle sizes in pathological states].

    PubMed

    Prigun, N P; Korolevich, A N

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the sizes of aggregates of bile vesicles at various nucleation factors were studied by the method of dynamic spectroscopy. It was found that the sizes of bile vesicles in chronic cholecystitis vary from 90 to 200 nm. It was shown that the presence of a large fraction of bile vesicles characterized by a higher cholesterol concentration can serve as a criterion of acuteness of cholecystitis and the intensity of lithogenesis.

  4. The dimensions and symmetry of the seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gofrit, O N; Zorn, K C; Taxy, J B; Zagaja, G P; Steinberg, G D; Shalhav, A L

    2009-03-01

    The traditional anatomical description of the seminal vesicles is based on autopsy and imaging studies. Trans-peritoneal robotic-assisted laproscopic surgery, with its three-dimensional magnified view and miniature articulated working instruments, provides an opportunity to perform accurate dissections of the seminal vesicles even when extremely long and tortuous. We used specimens obtained by robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RLRP) for accurate anatomic assessment of the dimensions of the seminal vesicles. Digital photos of 78 specimens from men (mean age 59 ± 6.1 years) who underwent RLRP were analyzed using the Image Pro Plus software. Seminal vesicle dimensions were correlated with patients' age, weight, height, prostate weight, sexual function profile (SHIM) and symptom severity score of the lower urinary tract symptoms (IPSS). We found that the length of the seminal vesicles is highly variable (range of 8.5-94.6 mm). The average seminal vesicle length was 31 ± 10.3 mm and its average volume 7.1 ± 5.2 ml. The right seminal vesicle was significantly larger than the left in length, width and volume (P < 0.003). The seminal vesicles were found to be highly asymmetric with a mean difference of 17.8% in length and 24.9% in width between the sides. No correlation between seminal vesicle dimensions and any of the parameters tested was found. We concluded that the normal human seminal vesicles are characterized by marked (11-fold) variation in length and are asymmetric in most patients. The right seminal vesicle is significantly larger than the left. Seminal vesicle dimensions cannot be predicted from other morphometric or physiologic parameters. PMID:27628450

  5. SpatTrack: an imaging toolbox for analysis of vesicle motility and distribution in living cells.

    PubMed

    Lund, Frederik W; Jensen, Maria Louise V; Christensen, Tanja; Nielsen, Gitte K; Heegaard, Christian W; Wüstner, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The endocytic pathway is a complex network of highly dynamic organelles, which has been traditionally studied by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The data generated by this method can be overwhelming and its analysis, even for the skilled microscopist, is tedious and error-prone. We developed SpatTrack, an open source, platform-independent program collecting a variety of methods for analysis of vesicle dynamics and distribution in living cells. SpatTrack performs 2D particle tracking, trajectory analysis and fitting of diffusion models to the calculated mean square displacement. It allows for spatial analysis of detected vesicle patterns including calculation of the radial distribution function and particle-based colocalization. Importantly, all analysis tools are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of synthetic images. This allows the user to assess the reliability of the analysis and to study alternative scenarios. We demonstrate the functionality of SpatTrack by performing a detailed imaging study of internalized fluorescence-tagged Niemann Pick C2 (NPC2) protein in human disease fibroblasts. Using SpatTrack, we show that NPC2 rescued the cholesterol-storage phenotype from a subpopulation of late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LYSs). This was paralleled by repositioning and active transport of NPC2-containing vesicles to the cell surface. The potential of SpatTrack for other applications in intracellular transport studies will be discussed.

  6. Syntaxin-17 delivers PINK1/parkin-dependent mitochondrial vesicles to the endolysosomal system.

    PubMed

    McLelland, Gian-Luca; Lee, Sydney A; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are considered autonomous organelles, physically separated from endocytic and biosynthetic pathways. However, recent work uncovered a PINK1/parkin-dependent vesicle transport pathway wherein oxidized or damaged mitochondrial content are selectively delivered to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation, providing evidence that mitochondria are indeed integrated within the endomembrane system. Given that mitochondria have not been shown to use canonical soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) machinery for fusion, the mechanism by which mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are targeted to the endosomal compartment has remained unclear. In this study, we identify syntaxin-17 as a core mitochondrial SNARE required for the delivery of stress-induced PINK1/parkin-dependent MDVs to the late endosome/lysosome. Syntaxin-17 remains associated with mature MDVs and forms a ternary SNARE complex with SNAP29 and VAMP7 to mediate MDV-endolysosome fusion in a manner dependent on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) tethering complex. Syntaxin-17 can be traced to the last eukaryotic common ancestor, hinting that the removal of damaged mitochondrial content may represent one of the earliest vesicle transport routes in the cell. PMID:27458136

  7. Salmonella enterica delivers its genotoxin through outer membrane vesicles secreted from infected cells.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Riccardo; Levi, Laura; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Puiac, Speranta; Rhen, Mikael; Frisan, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    Cytolethal-distending toxins (CDTs) belong to a family of DNA damage inducing exotoxins that are produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses its CDT (named as Typhoid toxin) only in the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) of infected cells, which requires its export for cell intoxication. The mechanisms of secretion, release in the extracellular space and uptake by bystander cells are poorly understood. We have addressed these issues using a recombinant S. Typhimurium strain, MC71-CDT, where the genes encoding for the PltA, PltB and CdtB subunits of the Typhoid toxin are expressed under control of the endogenous promoters. MC71-CDT grown under conditions that mimic the SCV secreted the holotoxin in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Epithelial cells infected with MC71-CDT also secreted OMVs-like vesicles. The release of these extracellular vesicles required an intact SCV and relied on anterograde transport towards the cellular cortex on microtubule and actin tracks. Paracrine internalization of Typhoid toxin-loaded OMVs by bystander cells was dependent on dynamin-1, indicating active endocytosis. The subsequent induction of DNA damage required retrograde transport of the toxin through the Golgi complex. These data provide new insights on the mode of secretion of exotoxins by cells infected with intracellular bacteria.

  8. Membrane trafficking. The specificity of vesicle traffic to the Golgi is encoded in the golgin coiled-coil proteins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mie; Munro, Sean

    2014-10-31

    The Golgi apparatus is a multicompartment central sorting station at the intersection of secretory and endocytic vesicular traffic. The mechanisms that permit cargo-loaded transport vesicles from different origins to selectively access different Golgi compartments are incompletely understood. We developed a rerouting and capture assay to investigate systematically the vesicle-tethering activities of 10 widely conserved golgin coiled-coil proteins. We find that subsets of golgins with distinct localizations on the Golgi surface have capture activities toward vesicles of different origins. These findings demonstrate that golgins act as tethers in vivo, and hence the specificity we find to be encoded in this tethering is likely to make a major contribution to the organization of membrane traffic at the Golgi apparatus.

  9. Preparation and mechanism insight of nuclear envelope-like polymer vesicles for facile loading of biomacromolecules and enhanced biocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunqing; Wang, Fangyingkai; Zhang, Cong; Du, Jianzhong

    2014-07-22

    The facile loading of sensitive and fragile biomacromolecules, such as glucose oxidase, hemoglobin, and ribonucleic acid (RNA), via synthetic vehicles directly in pure aqueous media is an important technical challenge. Inspired by the nucleus pore complex that connects the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm across the nuclear envelope, here we describe the development of a kind of polymeric nuclear envelope-like vesicle (NEV) to address this problem. The NEV is tailored to form the polymer pore complex (70 nm, similar to a nucleus pore complex) within the vesicle membrane based on nanophase segregation, which is confirmed via fluorescence spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) during self-assembly. This pH-triggered polymer pore complex can mediate the transportation of biomacromolecules across the vesicle membrane. Moreover, the NEVs facilitate the natural consecutive enzyme-catalyzed reactions via the H(+) sponge effect. This simple strategy might also be extended for mimicking other synthetic cell organelles.

  10. Floating Escherichia coli by expressing cyanobacterial gas vesicle genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhe; Kang, Li; Li, Jiaheng; Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Peiran; Gong, Minghao; Lai, Weihong; Zhang, Chunyan; Chang, Lei; Peng, Yong; Yang, Zhongzhou; Li, Lian; Bao, Yingying; Xu, Haowen; Zhang, Xiaohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Xianghong

    2015-02-01

    Gas vesicles are hollow, air-filled polyprotein structures that provide the buoyancy to cells. They are found in a variety of prokaryotes. In this study, we isolated a partial gas vesicle protein gene cluster containing gvpA and gvpC20Ψ from Planktothrix rubescens, and inserted it into an expression vector and expressed it in E. coli. The gas vesicle was developed in bacterial cells, which made bacterial cells to float on medium surface. We also amplified gvpA and gvpC20Ψ separately and synthesized an artificial operon by fusing these two genes with the standardized gene expression controlling elements of E. coli. The artificial operon was expressed in E. coli, forming gas vesicles and floating bacteria cells. Our findings verified that the whole set of genes and the overall structure of gas vesicle gene cluster are not necessary for developing gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Two genes, gvpA and gvpC20Ψ, of the gas vesicle gene cluster are sufficient for synthesizing an artificial operon that can develop gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Our findings provided a wide range of applications including easing the harvest of cultured microalgae and bacteria, as well as enriching and remediating aquatic pollutants by constructing gas vesicles in their cells.

  11. Induced movements of giant vesicles by millimeter wave radiation.

    PubMed

    Albini, Martina; Dinarelli, Simone; Pennella, Francesco; Romeo, Stefania; Zampetti, Emiliano; Girasole, Marco; Morbiducci, Umberto; Massa, Rita; Ramundo-Orlando, Alfonsina

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study of interaction between low intensity radiation at 53.37GHz and cell-size system - such as giant vesicles - indicated that a vectorial movement of vesicles was induced. This effect among others, i.e. elongation, induced diffusion of fluorescent dye di-8-ANEPPS, and increased attractions between vesicles was attributed to the action of the field on charged and dipolar residues located at the membrane-water interface. In an attempt to improve the understanding on how millimeter wave radiation (MMW) can induce this movement we report here a real time evaluation of changes induced on the movement of giant vesicles. Direct optical observations of vesicles subjected to irradiation enabled the monitoring in real time of the response of vesicles. Changes of the direction of vesicle movement are demonstrated, which occur only during irradiation with a "switch on" of the effect. This MMW-induced effect was observed at a larger extent on giant vesicles prepared with negatively charged phospholipids. The monitoring of induced-by-irradiation temperature variation and numerical dosimetry indicate that the observed effects in vesicle movement cannot be attributed to local heating. PMID:24704354

  12. Dynamics of multicomponent vesicles in a viscous fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jin Sun Tseng, Y-H Li Shuwang Voigt, Axel Lowengrub, John S.

    2010-01-01

    We develop and investigate numerically a thermodynamically consistent model of two-dimensional multicomponent vesicles in an incompressible viscous fluid. The model is derived using an energy variation approach that accounts for different lipid surface phases, the excess energy (line energy) associated with surface phase domain boundaries, bending energy, spontaneous curvature, local inextensibility and fluid flow via the Stokes equations. The equations are high-order (fourth order) nonlinear and nonlocal due to incompressibility of the fluid and the local inextensibility of the vesicle membrane. To solve the equations numerically, we develop a nonstiff, pseudo-spectral boundary integral method that relies on an analysis of the equations at small scales. The algorithm is closely related to that developed very recently by Veerapaneni et al. [81] for homogeneous vesicles although we use a different and more efficient time stepping algorithm and a reformulation of the inextensibility equation. We present simulations of multicomponent vesicles in an initially quiescent fluid and investigate the effect of varying the average surface concentration of an initially unstable mixture of lipid phases. The phases then redistribute and alter the morphology of the vesicle and its dynamics. When an applied shear is introduced, an initially elliptical vesicle tank-treads and attains a steady shape and surface phase distribution. A sufficiently elongated vesicle tumbles and the presence of different surface phases with different bending stiffnesses and spontaneous curvatures yields a complex evolution of the vesicle morphology as the vesicle bends in regions where the bending stiffness and spontaneous curvature are small.

  13. From Vesicles to Protocells: The Roles of Amphiphilic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Yuka; Imai, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life. PMID:25738256

  14. Lipid Bilayer Vesicle Dynamics in AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Lane; Vlahovska, Petia; Miksis, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Vesicles are closed, fluid-filled lipid bilayers which are mechanically similar to biological cells and which undergo shape transitions in the presence of electric fields. Here we model the vesicle membrane as an infinitely thin, capacitive, area-incompressible interface with the surrounding fluids acting as charge-advecting leaky dielectrics. We then implement the boundary integral method to numerically investigate the dynamics of a vesicle in various AC electric field profiles. Our numerical results are then compared with recent small deformation theory and experimental data. We also note our observation of a new theoretical vesicle behavior that has yet to be observed experimentally.

  15. Fluctuation Dynamics of Block Copolymer Vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.

    2010-07-13

    X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy was used to characterize the wave-vector- and temperature-dependent dynamics of spontaneous thermal fluctuations in a vesicle (L4) phase that occurs in a blend of a symmetric poly(styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene) triblock copolymer with a polystyrene homopolymer. Measurements of the intermediate scattering function reveal stretched-exponential behavior versus time, with a stretching exponent slightly larger than 2/3. The corresponding relaxation rates show an approximate q{sup 3} dependence versus wave vector. Overall, the experimental measurements are well described by theories that treat the dynamics of independent membrane plaquettes.

  16. Role for the microtubule cytoskeleton in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking and in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, L M; Welsh, G I; Oatey, P B; Tavaré, J M

    2000-01-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake into adipocytes by promoting the translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes GLUT4 resides both in an endosomal pool, together with transferrin receptors, and in a unique pool termed 'GLUT4 storage vesicles' (GSVs), which excludes endosomal proteins. The trafficking of GLUT4 vesicles was studied in living 3T3-L1 adipocytes by time-lapse confocal microscopy of GLUT4 tagged with green fluorescent protein. GLUT4 vesicles exhibited two types of motion: rapid vibrations around a point and short (generally less than 10 microm) linear movements. The linear movements were completely blocked by incubation of the cells in the presence of microtubule-depolymerizing agents. This suggests that a subpopulation of GLUT4 vesicles can exhibit motor-driven movements along microtubules. Upon further examination, microtubule depolymerization inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by approx. 40%, but had no effect on insulin-induced translocation of the transferrin receptor to the plasma membrane from endosomes. We propose that an intact microtubule cytoskeleton may be required for optimal trafficking of GLUT4 present in the GSV pool, but not that resident in the endosomal pool. PMID:11085918

  17. Uptake of barbituric acid derivatives in small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles from retinyl palmitate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tanii, H; Horie, T

    2000-08-01

    Brush border membrane was prepared from the small intestinal (jejunum) cells along the crypt-villus axis. The fluorescence spectra of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acid and the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were measured in the brush border membrane vesicle suspension. The hydrophobicity of brush border membrane was found to be in the order villus tip >mid villus >lower villus. The fluidity of brush border membrane was in the order villus tip vesicles was well correlated with their partition coefficients (isopentyl acetate/water). No significant difference was observed between the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles from the villus tip and lower villus. When retinyl palmitate was administered to rats, the fluidity of brush border membrane was found to be higher in the retinyl palmitate-treated rats than in the control rats. However, no significant difference in the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles was observed between the retinyl palmitate-administered rats and the control rats. Thus, the retinyl palmitate treatment seems unlikely to affect the passively transported ligands like barbituric acid derivatives in brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:10989945

  18. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  19. The Neurospora crassa exocyst complex tethers Spitzenkörper vesicles to the apical plasma membrane during polarized growth

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Callejas-Negrete, Olga; Roberson, Robert W.; Ludwig, Sarah; Beltrán-Aguilar, Alejandro; Seiler, Stephan; Novick, Peter; Freitag, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fungal hyphae are among the most highly polarized cells. Hyphal polarized growth is supported by tip-directed transport of secretory vesicles, which accumulate temporarily in a stratified manner in an apical vesicle cluster, the Spitzenkörper. The exocyst complex is required for tethering of secretory vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. We determined that the presence of an octameric exocyst complex is required for the formation of a functional Spitzenkörper and maintenance of regular hyphal growth in Neurospora crassa. Two distinct localization patterns of exocyst subunits at the hyphal tip suggest the dynamic formation of two assemblies. The EXO-70/EXO-84 subunits are found at the peripheral part of the Spitzenkörper, which partially coincides with the outer macrovesicular layer, whereas exocyst components SEC-5, -6, -8, and -15 form a delimited crescent at the apical plasma membrane. Localization of SEC-6 and EXO-70 to the plasma membrane and the Spitzenkörper, respectively, depends on actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The apical region of exocyst-mediated vesicle fusion, elucidated by the plasma membrane–associated exocyst subunits, indicates the presence of an exocytotic gradient with a tip-high maximum that dissipates gradually toward the subapex, confirming the earlier predictions of the vesicle supply center model for hyphal morphogenesis. PMID:24523289

  20. Evidence that the ZNT3 protein controls the total amount of elemental zinc in synaptic vesicles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linkous, D.H.; Flinn, J.M.; Koh, J.Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Bertsch, P.M.; Jones, B.F.; Giblin, L.J.; Frederickson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ZNT3 protein decorates the presynaptic vesicles of central neurons harboring vesicular zinc, and deletion of this protein removes staining for zinc. However, it has been unclear whether only histochemically reactive zinc is lacking or if, indeed, total elemental zinc is missing from neurons lacking the Slc30a3 gene, which encodes the ZNT3 protein. The limitations of conventional histochemical procedures have contributed to this enigma. However, a novel technique, microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence, reveals that the normal 2- to 3-fold elevation of zinc concentration normally present in the hippocampal mossy fibers is absent in Slc30a3 knockout (ZNT3) mice. Thus, the ZNT3 protein evidently controls not only the "stainability" but also the actual mass of zinc in mossy-fiber synaptic vesicles. This work thus confirms the metal-transporting role of the ZNT3 protein in the brain. ?? The Histochemical Society, Inc.

  1. Light-dependent cation gradients and electrical potential in Halobacterium halobium cell envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.; Macdonald, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles can be prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes, which contain properly oriented bacteriorhodopsin and which extrude H(+) during illumination. The pH difference that is generated across the membranes is accompanied by an electrical potential of 90 to 100 mV (interior negative) and the movements of other cations. Among these is the efflux of Na(+), which proceeds against its electrochemical potential. The relationship between the size and direction of the light-induced pH gradient and the rate of depletion of Na(+) from the vesicles, as well as other evidence, suggest that the active Na(+) extrusion is facilitated by a membrane component that exchanges H(+) for Na(+) with a stoichiometry greater than 1. The gradients of H(+) and Na(+) are thus coupled to one another. The Na(+) gradient (efflux much larger than influx), which arises during illumination, plays a major role in energizing the active transport of amino acids.

  2. Cell-derived vesicles as a bioplatform for the encapsulation of theranostic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriola Silva, Amanda K.; di Corato, Riccardo; Pellegrino, Teresa; Chat, Sophie; Pugliese, Giammarino; Luciani, Nathalie; Gazeau, Florence; Wilhelm, Claire

    2013-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest in the development of nanoplatforms gathering versatility and multifunctionality. The strategy reported herein meets these requirements and further integrates a cell-friendly shell in a bio-inspired approach. By taking advantage of a cell mechanism of biomolecule transport using vesicles, we engineered a hybrid biogenic nanoplatform able to encapsulate a set of nanoparticles regardless of their chemistry or shape. As a proof of versatility, different types of hybrid nanovesicles were produced: magnetic, magnetic-metallic and magnetic-fluorescent vesicles, either a single component or multiple components, combining the advantageous properties of each integrant nanoparticle. These nanoparticle-loaded vesicles can be manipulated, monitored by MRI and/or fluorescence imaging methods, while acting as efficient nano-heaters. The resulting assets for targeting, imaging and therapy converge for the outline of a new generation of nanosystems merging versatility and multifunctionality into a bio-camouflaged and bio-inspired approach.There is a great deal of interest in the development of nanoplatforms gathering versatility and multifunctionality. The strategy reported herein meets these requirements and further integrates a cell-friendly shell in a bio-inspired approach. By taking advantage of a cell mechanism of biomolecule transport using vesicles, we engineered a hybrid biogenic nanoplatform able to encapsulate a set of nanoparticles regardless of their chemistry or shape. As a proof of versatility, different types of hybrid nanovesicles were produced: magnetic, magnetic-metallic and magnetic-fluorescent vesicles, either a single component or multiple components, combining the advantageous properties of each integrant nanoparticle. These nanoparticle-loaded vesicles can be manipulated, monitored by MRI and/or fluorescence imaging methods, while acting as efficient nano-heaters. The resulting assets for targeting, imaging and therapy

  3. Vesicle trafficking in plant immune responses.

    PubMed

    Robatzek, Silke

    2007-01-01

    In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns at the surface is the first line of defence in cellular immunity. This review summarizes recent evidence of the involvement of vesicle trafficking in the plant's immune response against pathogens. I first discuss aspects of ligand-stimulated receptor endocytosis. The best-characterized pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), FLS2, is a transmembrane leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase that recognizes bacterial flagellin. FLS2 was recently shown to undergo internalization upon activation with its cognate ligand. An animal PRR, TLR4 that mediates perception of bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharides, similarly exhibits ligand-stimulated endocytosis. The second focus is N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated immunity involving syntaxins and their cognate partners. One of the genes involved in basal immunity in Arabidopsis, PEN1, encodes a syntaxin that focally accumulates at fungal penetration sites, raising the possibility that induced exocytosis is important for active defence. Pathogen-triggered endocytic and exocytic processes have to be balanced to ensure host cell homeostasis. Thus, understanding how phytopathogens have evolved strategies to exploit host cell vesicle trafficking to manipulate immune responses is currently an area of intense study. PMID:17081192

  4. PTEN functions by recruitment to cytoplasmic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Adam; Bencze, Gyula; Cho, Hyejin; Zheng, Wu; Tocilj, Ante; Elkayam, Elad; Faehnle, Christopher R; Jaber, Nadia; Pratt, Christopher P; Chen, Muhan; Zong, Wei-Xing; Marks, Michael S; Joshua-Tor, Leemor; Pappin, Darryl J; Trotman, Lloyd C

    2015-04-16

    PTEN is proposed to function at the plasma membrane, where receptor tyrosine kinases are activated. However, the majority of PTEN is located throughout the cytoplasm. Here, we show that cytoplasmic PTEN is distributed along microtubules, tethered to vesicles via phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the signature lipid of endosomes. We demonstrate that the non-catalytic C2 domain of PTEN specifically binds PI(3)P through the CBR3 loop. Mutations render this loop incapable of PI(3)P binding and abrogate PTEN-mediated inhibition of PI 3-kinase/AKT signaling. This loss of function is rescued by fusion of the loop mutant PTEN to FYVE, the canonical PI(3)P binding domain, demonstrating the functional importance of targeting PTEN to endosomal membranes. Beyond revealing an upstream activation mechanism of PTEN, our data introduce the concept of PI 3-kinase signal activation on the vast plasma membrane that is contrasted by PTEN-mediated signal termination on the small, discrete surfaces of internalized vesicles. PMID:25866245

  5. Designing synthetic vesicles that engulf nanoscopic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt A.; Jasnow, David; Balazs, Anna C.

    2007-08-01

    We examine the interaction of a lipid bilayer membrane with a spherical particle in solution using dissipative particle dynamics, with the aim of controlling the passage of foreign objects into and out of vesicles. Parameters are chosen such that there is a favorable adhesive interaction between the membrane and the particle. Under these conditions, the membrane wraps the particle in a process resembling phagocytosis in biological cells. We find that, for a homogeneous membrane with a uniform attraction to the particle, the membrane is unable to fully wrap the particle when the adhesion strength is below a certain value. This is observed even in the limit of zero membrane tension. When the adhesion strength is increased above the threshold value, the membrane fully wraps the particle. However, the wrapped particle remains tethered to the larger membrane. We next consider an adhesive domain, or raft, in an otherwise nonadhesive membrane. We find that, when the particle is wrapped by the raft, the line tension at the raft interface promotes fission, allowing the wrapped particle to detach from the larger membrane. This mechanism could be used to allow particles to cross a vesicle membrane.

  6. Coated vesicles contain a phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C R; Fishman, J B; Fine, R E

    1985-09-15

    When coated vesicles (CVs) are incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, radioactivity is rapidly incorporated into a compound identified by thin layer chromatography as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. This activity has been identified in CVs isolated from bovine brain as well as from rat liver and chick embryo skeletal muscle. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase is not separated from CVs during agarose electrophoresis, which produces CVs of greater than 95% purity, indicating that the activity present does not derive from contamination. The specific activity of these highly purified CVs was demonstrated to be approximately twice that of synaptic plasma membranes, further ruling out contamination from this source. The PI kinase remains associated with the vesicle upon removal of clathrin and its associated proteins and is solubilized by nonionic detergents, suggesting it is an integral membrane protein. We have been unable to demonstrate the formation of significant amounts of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in any of our CV preparations. In the presence of exogenous PI, activity is stimulated, with maximal phosphorylation occurring at 0.1 mM. The enzyme appears to be maximally stimulated by 200 mM MgCl2 and 1 mM ATP and is most active at pH 7.25. Calculations indicate that, under optimal conditions, approximately 25 molecules of PIP are produced per CV within 60 s, suggesting that these structures may play an important role in cellular PI metabolism. PMID:2863269

  7. Microfluidic fabrication of asymmetric giant lipid vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peichi C.; Li, Su; Malmstadt, Noah

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic technology for the fabrication of compositionally asymmetric giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). The vesicles are assembled in two independent steps. In each step, a lipid monolayer is formed at a water-oil interface. The first monolayer is formed inside of a microfluidic device with a multiphase droplet flow configuration consisting of a continuous oil stream in which water droplets are formed. These droplets are dispensed into a vessel containing a layer of oil over a layer of water. The second lipid monolayer is formed by transferring the droplets through this second oil-water interface by centrifugation. By dissolving different lipid compositions in the different oil phases, the composition of each leaflet of the resulting lipid bilayer can be controlled. We have demonstrated membrane asymmetry by showing differential fluorescence quenching of labeled lipids in each leaflet and by demonstrating that asymmetric GUVs will bind an avidin-coated surface only when biotinylated lipids are targeted to the outer leaflet. In addition, we have demonstrated the successful asymmetric targeting of phosphatidylserine lipids to each leaflet, producing membranes with a biomimetic and physiologically relevant compositional asymmetry. PMID:21449588

  8. Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles and Vaccine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A.; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891

  9. Surfactant-Increased Glyphosate Uptake into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Common Lambsquarters Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Riechers, D. E.; Wax, L. M.; Liebl, R. A.; Bush, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from mature leaves of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) to investigate whether this membrane is a barrier to glyphosate uptake and whether surfactants possess differential abilities to enhance glyphosate permeability. Amino acids representing several structural classes showed [delta]pH-dependent transport, indicating that the proteins necessary for active, proton-coupled amino acid transport were present and functional. Glyphosate uptake was very low compared to the acidic amino acid glutamate, indicating that glyphosate is not utilizing an endogenous amino acid carrier to enter the leaf cells and that the plasma membrane appears to be a significant barrier to cellular uptake. In addition, glyphosate flux was much lower than that measured for either bentazon or atrazine, both lipid-permeable herbicides that diffuse through the bilayer. Glyphosate uptake was stimulated by 0.01% (v:v) MON 0818, the cationic surfactant used in the commercial formulation of this herbicide for foliar application. This concentration of surfactant did not disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane vesicles, as evidenced by the stability of imposed pH gradients and active amino acid transport. Nonionic surfactants that disrupt the cuticle but that do not promote glyphosate toxicity in the field also increased glyphosate transport into the membrane vesicles. Thus, no correlation was observed between whole plant toxicity and surfactant-aided uptake. Current data suggest that surfactant efficacy may be the result of charged surfactants' ability to diffuse away from the cuticle into the subtending apoplastic space, where they act directly on the plasma membrane to increase glyphosate uptake. PMID:12232297

  10. In vivo neuron-wide analysis of synaptic vesicle precursor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Celine I; San-Miguel, Adriana; Wu, Emily Ye; Lu, Hang; Shen, Kang

    2014-03-01

    During synapse development, synaptic proteins must be targeted to sites of presynaptic release. Directed transport as well as local sequestration of synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs), membranous organelles containing many synaptic proteins, might contribute to this process. Using neuron-wide time-lapse microscopy, we studied SVP dynamics in the DA9 motor neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans. SVP transport was highly dynamic and bi-directional throughout the entire neuron, including the dendrite. While SVP trafficking was anterogradely biased in axonal segments prior to the synaptic domain, directionality of SVP movement was stochastic in the dendrite and distal axon. Furthermore, frequency of movement and speed were variable between different compartments. These data provide evidence that SVP transport is differentially regulated in distinct neuronal domains. It also suggests that polarized SVP transport in concert with local vesicle capturing is necessary for accurate presynapse formation and maintenance. SVP trafficking analysis of two hypomorphs for UNC-104/KIF1A in combination with mathematical modeling identified directionality of movement, entry of SVPs into the axon as well as axonal speeds as the important determinants of steady-state SVP distributions. Furthermore, detailed dissection of speed distributions for wild-type and unc-104/kif1a mutant animals revealed an unexpected role for UNC-104/KIF1A in dendritic SVP trafficking.

  11. Functionally heterogeneous synaptic vesicle pools support diverse synaptic signalling.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Simon; Tóth, Katalin

    2016-02-15

    Synaptic communication between neurons is a highly dynamic process involving specialized structures. At the level of the presynaptic terminal, neurotransmission is ensured by fusion of vesicles to the membrane, which releases neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Depending on the level of activity experienced by the terminal, the spatiotemporal properties of calcium invasion will dictate the timing and the number of vesicles that need to be released. Diverse presynaptic firing patterns are translated to neurotransmitter release with a distinct temporal feature. Complex patterns of neurotransmitter release can be achieved when different vesicles respond to distinct calcium dynamics in the presynaptic terminal. Specific vesicles from different pools are recruited during various modes of release as the particular molecular composition of their membrane proteins define their functional properties. Such diversity endows the presynaptic terminal with the ability to respond to distinct physiological signals via the mobilization of specific subpopulation of vesicles. There are several mechanisms by which a diverse vesicle population could be generated in single presynaptic terminals, including distinct recycling pathways that utilize various adaptor proteins. Several additional factors could potentially contribute to the development of a heterogeneous vesicle pool such as specialized release sites, spatial segregation within the terminal and specialized delivery pathways. Among these factors molecular heterogeneity plays a central role in defining the functional properties of different subpopulations of vesicles. PMID:26614712

  12. Aqueous dispersions of DMPG in low salt contain leaky vesicles.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Rafael P; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Teresa Lamy, M

    2012-02-01

    Aqueous dispersions of dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), at low ionic strength, display uncommon thermal behavior. Models for such behavior need to assign a form to the lipid aggregate. Although most studies accept the presence of lipid vesicles in the lipid gel and fluid phases, this is still controversial. With electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of spin labels incorporated into DMPG aggregates, quantification of [(14)C]sucrose entrapped by the aggregates, and viscosity measurements, we demonstrate the existence of leaky vesicles in dispersions of DMPG at low ionic strength, in both gel and fluid phases of the lipid. As a control system, the ubiquitous lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was used. For DMPG in the gel phase, spin labeling only indicated the presence of lipid bilayers, strongly suggesting that DMPG molecules are organized as vesicles and not micelles or bilayer fragments (bicelles), as the latter has a non-bilayer structure at the edges. Quantification of [(14)C]sucrose entrapping by DMPG aggregates revealed the presence of highly leaky vesicles. Due to the short hydrocarbon chains ((14)C atoms), DMPC vesicles were also found to be partially permeable to sucrose, but not as much as DMPG vesicles. Viscosity measurements, with the calculation of the intrinsic viscosity of the lipid aggregate, showed that DMPG vesicles are rather similar in the gel and fluid phases, and quite different from aggregates observed along the gel-fluid transition. Taken together, our data strongly supports that DMPG forms leaky vesicles at both gel and fluid phases. PMID:22209922

  13. Vesicle-to-Micelle Oscillations and Spatial Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Lagzi, Istvan; Wang, Dawei; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-09-07

    A pH oscillator is coupled to and controls rhythmic interconversion of nanoscopic vesicles and micelles made of fatty acids. When changes in pH are combined with diffusion, self-assembly produces spatially extended patterns of vesicle/micelle “stripes” or concentric “shells”.

  14. Vesicle Stability and Dynamics: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bianco, Cristina; Torino, Domenica; Mansy, Sheref S.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory exercise is described that helps students learn about lipid self-assembly by making vesicles under different solution conditions. Concepts covering the chemical properties of different lipids, the dynamics of lipids, and vesicle stability are explored. Further, the descr