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Sample records for ap-3 transport vesicles

  1. HOPS interacts with Apl5 at the vacuole membrane and is required for consumption of AP-3 transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Angers, Cortney G; Merz, Alexey J

    2009-11-01

    Adaptor protein complexes (APs) are evolutionarily conserved heterotetramers that couple cargo selection to the formation of highly curved membranes during vesicle budding. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AP-3 mediates vesicle traffic from the late Golgi to the vacuolar lysosome. The HOPS subunit Vps41 is one of the few proteins reported to have a specific role in AP-3 traffic, yet its function remains undefined. We now show that although the AP-3 delta subunit, Apl5, binds Vps41 directly, this interaction occurs preferentially within the context of the HOPS docking complex. Fluorescence microscopy indicates that Vps41 and other HOPS subunits do not detectably colocalize with AP-3 at the late Golgi or on post-Golgi (Sec7-negative) vesicles. Vps41 and HOPS do, however, transiently colocalize with AP-3 vesicles when these vesicles dock at the vacuole membrane. In cells with mutations in HOPS subunits or the vacuole SNARE Vam3, AP-3 shifts from the cytosol to a membrane fraction. Fluorescence microscopy suggests that this fraction consists of post-Golgi AP-3 vesicles that have failed to dock or fuse at the vacuole membrane. We propose that AP-3 remains associated with budded vesicles, interacts with Vps41 and HOPS upon vesicle docking at the vacuole, and finally dissociates during docking or fusion.

  2. Vesicles derived via AP-3 dependent recycling contribute to asynchronous release and influence information transfer

    PubMed Central

    Evstratova, Alesya; Chamberland, Simon; Faundez, Victor; Tóth, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Action potentials trigger synchronous and asynchronous neurotransmitter release. Temporal properties of both types of release could be altered in an activity-dependent manner. While the effects of activity-dependent changes in synchronous release on postsynaptic signal integration have been studied, the contribution of asynchronous release to information transfer during natural stimulus patterns is unknown. Here we find that during trains of stimulations, asynchronous release contributes to the precision of action potential firing. Our data show that this form of release is selectively diminished in AP-3b2 KO animals, which lack functional neuronal AP-3, an adaptor protein regulating vesicle formation from endosomes generated during bulk endocytosis. We find that in the absence of neuronal AP-3, asynchronous release is attenuated and the activity-dependent increase in the precision of action potential timing is compromised. Lack of asynchronous release decreases the capacity of synaptic information transfer and renders synaptic communication less reliable in response to natural stimulus patterns. PMID:25410111

  3. The AP-3 Complex Required for Endosomal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis is Associated with a Casein Kinase Ια-Like Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Faundez, Victor V.; Kelly, Regis B.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of small vesicles is mediated by cytoplasmic coats the assembly of which is regulated by the activity of GTPases, kinases, and phosphatases. A heterotetrameric AP-3 adaptor complex has been implicated in the formation of synaptic vesicles from PC12 endosomes (Faundez et al., 1998). When the small GTPase ARF1 is prevented from hydrolyzing GTP, we can reconstitute AP-3 recruitment to synaptic vesicle membranes in an assembly reaction that requires temperatures above 15°C and the presence of ATP suggesting that an enzymatic step is involved in the coat assembly. We have now found an enzymatic reaction, the phosphorylation of the AP-3 adaptor complex, that is linked with synaptic vesicle coating. Phosphorylation occurs in the β3 subunit of the complex by a kinase similar to casein kinase 1α. The kinase copurifies with neuronal-specific AP-3. In vitro, purified casein kinase I selectively phosphorylates the β3A and β3B subunit at its hinge domain. Inhibiting the kinase hinders the recruitment of AP-3 to synaptic vesicles. The same inhibitors that prevent coat assembly in vitro also inhibit the formation of synaptic vesicles in PC12 cells. The data suggest, therefore, that the mechanism of AP-3-mediated vesiculation from neuroendocrine endosomes requires the phosphorylation of the adaptor complex at a step during or after AP-3 recruitment to membranes. PMID:10930456

  4. A dileucine-like sorting signal directs transport into an AP-3-dependent, clathrin-independent pathway to the yeast vacuole.

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, J J; Payne, G S

    1998-01-01

    Transport of yeast alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to the vacuole depends on the clathrin adaptor-like complex AP-3, but does not depend on proteins necessary for transport through pre-vacuolar endosomes. We have identified ALP sequences that direct sorting into the AP-3-dependent pathway using chimeric proteins containing residues from the ALP cytoplasmic domain fused to sequences from a Golgi-localized membrane protein, guanosine diphosphatase (GDPase). The full-length ALP cytoplasmic domain, or ALP amino acids 1-16 separated from the transmembrane domain by a spacer, directed GDPase chimeric proteins from the Golgi complex to the vacuole via the AP-3 pathway. Mutation of residues Leu13 and Val14 within the ALP cytoplasmic domain prevented AP-3-dependent vacuolar transport of both chimeric proteins and full-length ALP. This Leucine-Valine (LV)-based sorting signal targeted chimeric proteins and native ALP to the vacuole in cells lacking clathrin function. These results identify an LV-based sorting signal in the ALP cytoplasmic domain that directs transport into a clathrin-independent, AP-3-dependent pathway to the vacuole. The similarity of the ALP sorting signal to mammalian dileucine sorting motifs, and the evolutionary conservation of AP-3 subunits, suggests that dileucine-like signals constitute a core element for AP-3-dependent transport to lysosomal compartments in all eukaryotic cells. PMID:9564031

  5. Transport vesicle formation in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Inhwan; Robinson, David G

    2009-12-01

    In protein trafficking, transport vesicles bud from donor compartments and carry cargo proteins to target compartments with which they fuse. Thus, vesicle formation is an essential step in protein trafficking. As for mammals, plant cells contain the three major types of vesicles: COPI, COPII, and CCV and the major molecular players in vesicle-mediated protein transport are also present. However, plant cells generally contain more isoforms of the coat proteins, ARF GTPases and their regulatory proteins, as well as SNAREs. In addition, plants have established some unique subfamilies, which may reflect plant cell-specific conditions such as the absence of an ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the combined activities of the TGN and early endosome. Thus, even though we are still at an early stage in understanding the physiological function of these proteins, it is already clear that vesicle-mediated protein transport in plant cells displays both similarities as well as differences in animal cells.

  6. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, −2, and −3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  7. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane.

    PubMed

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-11-18

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, -2, and -3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells.

  8. Calcyon, a mammalian specific NEEP21 family member, interacts with adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and regulates targeting of AP-3 cargoes.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

    2012-10-01

    Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (μ) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133-136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of μ3, and also impacted μ1 and μ2 binding to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIα), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIα are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with μ3A and μ3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes.

  9. CALCYON, A MAMMALIAN SPECIFIC NEEP21 FAMILY MEMBER, INTERACTS WITH ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 (AP-3) AND REGULATES TARGETING OF AP-3 CARGOES

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain (CLC) and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (µ) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133–136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of µ3, and also impacted µ1 and µ2 binding but to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null-alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIα), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIα are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with µ3A and µ3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes. PMID:22650988

  10. The transport of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Peter, D; Liu, Y; Brecha, N; Edwards, R H

    1995-01-01

    Using selection in the neurotoxin MPP+, we have isolated a cDNA encoding vesicular amine transport. The transporter protects against MPP+ by sequestering the toxin in vesicles, away from its primary site of action in mitochondria. Unexpectedly, two distinct but highly related genes encode vesicular amine transport in the adrenal gland and the central nervous system. The sequence of both predicts twelve transmembrane domains and weak homology to a class of bacterial antibiotic resistance proteins. The two human genes occur on different chromosomes. In addition, the two transporters show a number of differences in function, including substrate specificity and the interaction with one inhibitor and the amphetamines.

  11. An AP-3-dependent mechanism drives synaptic-like microvesicle biogenesis in pancreatic islet beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Suckow, Arthur T; Craige, Branch; Faundez, Victor; Cain, William J; Chessler, Steven D

    2010-07-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cells contain synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The origin, trafficking, and role of these SLMVs are poorly understood. In neurons, synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis is mediated by two different cytosolic adaptor protein complexes, a ubiquitous AP-2 complex and the neuron-specific AP-3B complex. Mice lacking AP-3B subunits exhibit impaired GABAergic (inhibitory) neurotransmission and reduced neuronal vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) content. Since beta-cell maturation and exocytotic function seem to parallel that of the inhibitory synapse, we predicted that AP-3B-associated vesicles would be present in beta-cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that AP-3B is expressed in islets and mediates beta-cell SLMV biogenesis. A secondary aim was to test whether the sedimentation properties of INS-1 beta-cell microvesicles are identical to those of bona fide SLMVs isolated from PC12 cells. Our results show that the two neuron-specific AP-3 subunits beta3B and mu3B are expressed in beta-cells, the first time these proteins have been found to be expressed outside the nervous system. We found that beta-cell SLMVs share the same sedimentation properties as PC12 SLMVs and contain SV proteins that sort specifically to AP-3B-associated vesicles in the brain. Brefeldin A, a drug that interferes with AP-3-mediated SV biogenesis, inhibits the delivery of AP-3 cargoes to beta-cell SLMVs. Consistent with a role for AP-3 in the biogenesis of GABAergic SLMV in beta-cells, INS-1 cell VGAT content decreases upon inhibition of AP-3 delta-subunit expression. Our findings suggest that beta-cells and neurons share molecules and mechanisms important for mediating the neuron-specific membrane trafficking pathways that underlie synaptic vesicle formation.

  12. Compartmentalization and Transport in Synthetic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Christine; Lippert, Anna H.; Bonakdar, Navid; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Voll, Lars M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale vesicles have become a popular tool in life sciences. Besides liposomes that are generated from phospholipids of natural origin, polymersomes fabricated of synthetic block copolymers enjoy increasing popularity, as they represent more versatile membrane building blocks that can be selected based on their specific physicochemical properties, such as permeability, stability, or chemical reactivity. In this review, we focus on the application of simple and nested artificial vesicles in synthetic biology. First, we provide an introduction into the utilization of multicompartmented vesosomes as compartmentalized nanoscale bioreactors. In the bottom-up development of protocells from vesicular nanoreactors, the specific exchange of pathway intermediates across compartment boundaries represents a bottleneck for future studies. To date, most compartmented bioreactors rely on unspecific exchange of substrates and products. This is either based on changes in permeability of the coblock polymer shell by physicochemical triggers or by the incorporation of unspecific porin proteins into the vesicle membrane. Since the incorporation of membrane transport proteins into simple and nested artificial vesicles offers the potential for specific exchange of substances between subcompartments, it opens new vistas in the design of protocells. Therefore, we devote the main part of the review to summarize the technical advances in the use of phospholipids and block copolymers for the reconstitution of membrane proteins. PMID:26973834

  13. Glucocorticoid affects dendritic transport of BDNF-containing vesicles.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Nakajima, Shingo; Fukuoka, Masashi; Odaka, Haruki; Katanuma, Yusuke; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-08-04

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal survival, differentiation, and functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Because BDNF protein is sorted into secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network in the cell body after translation, transport of BDNF-containing vesicles to the secretion sites is an important process for its function. Here we examined the effect of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on BDNF-containing vesicle transport and found that DEX decreased the proportion of stationary vesicles and increased velocity of the microtubule-based vesicle transport in dendrites of cortical neurons. Furthermore, DEX increased huntingtin (Htt) protein levels via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation, and reduction in the amount of Htt by a specific shRNA reversed the action of DEX on BDNF vesicle transport. Given that Htt protein is a positive regulator for the microtubule-dependent vesicular transport in neurons, our data suggest that glucocorticoid stimulates BDNF vesicle transport through upregulation of Htt protein levels.

  14. Glucocorticoid affects dendritic transport of BDNF-containing vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Nakajima, Shingo; Fukuoka, Masashi; Odaka, Haruki; Katanuma, Yusuke; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal survival, differentiation, and functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Because BDNF protein is sorted into secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network in the cell body after translation, transport of BDNF-containing vesicles to the secretion sites is an important process for its function. Here we examined the effect of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on BDNF-containing vesicle transport and found that DEX decreased the proportion of stationary vesicles and increased velocity of the microtubule-based vesicle transport in dendrites of cortical neurons. Furthermore, DEX increased huntingtin (Htt) protein levels via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation, and reduction in the amount of Htt by a specific shRNA reversed the action of DEX on BDNF vesicle transport. Given that Htt protein is a positive regulator for the microtubule-dependent vesicular transport in neurons, our data suggest that glucocorticoid stimulates BDNF vesicle transport through upregulation of Htt protein levels. PMID:26239075

  15. The puzzle of chloroplast vesicle transport – involvement of GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sazzad; Aronsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In the cytosol of plant cells vesicle transport occurs via secretory pathways among the endoplasmic reticulum network, Golgi bodies, secretory granules, endosome, and plasma membrane. Three systems transfer lipids, proteins and other important molecules through aqueous spaces to membrane-enclosed compartments, via vesicles that bud from donor membranes, being coated and uncoated before tethered and fused with acceptor membranes. In addition, molecular, biochemical and ultrastructural evidence indicates presence of a vesicle transport system in chloroplasts. Little is known about the protein components of this system. However, as chloroplasts harbor the photosynthetic apparatus that ultimately supports most organisms on the planet, close attention to their pathways is warranted. This may also reveal novel diversification and/or distinct solutions to the problems posed by the targeted intra-cellular trafficking of important molecules. To date two homologs to well-known yeast cytosolic vesicle transport proteins, CPSAR1 and CPRabA5e (CP, chloroplast localized), have been shown to have roles in chloroplast vesicle transport, both being GTPases. Bioinformatic data indicate that several homologs of cytosolic vesicle transport system components are putatively chloroplast-localized and in addition other proteins have been implicated to participate in chloroplast vesicle transport, including vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1, thylakoid formation 1, snowy cotyledon 2/cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis factor, curvature thylakoid 1 proteins, and a dynamin like GTPase FZO-like protein. Several putative potential cargo proteins have also been identified, including building blocks of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we discuss details of the largely unknown putative chloroplast vesicle transport system, focusing on GTPase-related components. PMID:25295043

  16. Characteristics of endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated vesicles that mediate protein transport from the ER to Golgi membranes in perforated yeast. These vesicles, which form de novo during in vitro incubations, carry lumenal and membrane proteins that include core-glycosylated pro-alpha-factor, Bet1, Sec22, and Bos1, but not ER-resident Kar2 or Sec61 proteins. Thus, lumenal and membrane proteins in the ER are sorted prior to transport vesicle scission. Inhibition of Ypt1p-function, which prevents newly formed vesicles from docking to cis-Golgi membranes, was used to block transport. Vesicles that accumulate are competent for fusion with cis-Golgi membranes, but not with ER membranes, and thus are functionally committed to vectorial transport. A 900-fold enrichment was developed using differential centrifugation and a series of velocity and equilibrium density gradients. Electron microscopic analysis shows a uniform population of 60 nm vesicles that lack peripheral protein coats. Quantitative Western blot analysis indicates that protein markers of cytosol and cellular membranes are depleted throughout the purification, whereas the synaptobrevin-like Bet1, Sec22, and Bos1 proteins are highly enriched. Uncoated ER-derived transport vesicles (ERV) contain twelve major proteins that associate tightly with the membrane. The ERV proteins may represent abundant cargo and additional targeting molecules. PMID:8063853

  17. Recognition and tethering of transport vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2017-02-23

    The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane. In this review we discuss our current understanding of how golgins and MTCs function together to mediate the specific recognition of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

  18. Membrane Transport in Isolated Vesicles from Sugarbeet Taproot 1

    PubMed Central

    Briskin, Donald P.; Thornley, W. Robert; Wyse, Roger E.

    1985-01-01

    Sealed membrane vesicles were isolated from homogenates of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot by a combination of differential centrifugation, extraction with KI, and dextran gradient centrifugation. Relative to the KI-extracted microsomes, the content of plasma membranes, mitochondrial membranes, and Golgi membranes was much reduced in the final vesicle fraction. A component of ATPase activity that was inhibited by nitrate co-enriched with the capacity of the vesicles to form a steady state pH gradient during the purification procedure. This suggests that the nitrate-sensitive ATPase may be involved in driving H+-transport, and this is consistent with the observation that H+-transport, in the final vesicle fraction was inhibited by nitrate. Proton transport in the sugarbeet vesicles was substrate specific for ATP, insensitive to sodium vanadate and oligomycin but was inhibited by diethylstilbestrol and N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The formation of a pH gradient in the vesicles was enhanced by halide ions in the sequence I− > Br− > Cl− while F− was inhibitory. These stimulatory effects occur from both a direct stimulation of the ATPase by anions and a reduction in the vesicle membrane potential. In the presence of Cl−, alkali cations reduce the pH gradient relative to that observed with bis-tris-propane, possibly by H+/alkali cation exchange. Based upon the properties of the H+-transporting vesicles, it is proposed that they are most likely derived from the tonoplast so that this vesicle preparation would represent a convenient system for studying the mechanism of transport at this membrane boundary. PMID:16664342

  19. Cholinergic synaptic vesicle heterogeneity: evidence for regulation of acetylcholine transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gracz, L.M.; Wang, W.; Parsons, S.M.

    1988-07-12

    Crude cholinergic synaptic vesicles from a homogenate of the electric organ of Torpedo californica were centrifuged to equilibrium in an isosmotic sucrose density gradient. The classical VP/sub 1/ synaptic vesicles banding at 1.055 g/mL actively transported (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine (AcCh). An organelle banding at about 1.071 g/mL transported even more (/sup 3/H)AcCh. Transport by both organelles was inhibited by the known AcCh storage blockers trans-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (vesamicol, formerly AH5183) and nigericin. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the denser organelle was slightly smaller as shown by size-exclusion chromatography. It is concluded that the denser organelle corresponds to the recycling VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicle originally described in intact Torpedo marmorata electric organ. The properties of the receptor for vesamicol were studied by measuring binding of (/sup 3/H)vesamicol, and the amount of SV2 antigen characteristic of secretory vesicles was assayed with a monoclonal antibody directed against it. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the VP/sub 2/ vesicles had a ratio of (/sup 3/H)AcCh transport activity to vesamicol receptor concentration that typically was 4-7-fold higher, whereas the ratio of SV2 antigen concentration to vesamicol receptor concentration was about 2-fold higher. The Hill coefficients ..cap alpha../sub H/ and equilibrium dissociation constants K for vesamicol binding to VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ vesicles were essentially the same. The positive Hill coefficient suggests that the vesamicol receptor exists as a homotropic oligomeric complex. The results demonstrate that VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicles exhibit functional differences in the AcCh transport system, presumably as a result of regulatory phenomena.

  20. Directed vesicle transport by diffusio-osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michler, D.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Sprik, R.; Bonn, D.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study on surfactant vesicles that spontaneously move towards an oil droplet that is deposited on a glass substrate. Tracer particles in the surfactant solution show that the motion is not self-propelled: the vesicles are entrained by a macroscopic hydrodynamic flow. Measurements of the flow velocity suggest that the flow is of diffusio-osmotic nature. The surfactant is observed to move into the oil phase which creates a gradient in ion concentration in the vicinity of the droplet. As the diffusion coefficients of the surfactant's co- and counter-ions differ, a charge separation takes place and an electric field arises. This electric field then generates a hydrodynamic flow along the charged glass substrate in which the vesicles are entrained.

  1. Single-vesicle imaging reveals different transport mechanisms between glutamatergic and GABAergic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Zohreh; Preobraschenski, Julia; van den Bogaart, Geert; Riedel, Dietmar; Jahn, Reinhard; Woehler, Andrew

    2016-02-26

    Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters, which involves exo-endocytotic cycling of synaptic vesicles. To maintain synaptic function, synaptic vesicles are refilled with thousands of neurotransmitter molecules within seconds after endocytosis, using the energy provided by an electrochemical proton gradient. However, it is unclear how transmitter molecules carrying different net charges can be efficiently sequestered while maintaining charge neutrality and osmotic balance. We used single-vesicle imaging to monitor pH and electrical gradients and directly showed different uptake mechanisms for glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) operating in parallel. In contrast to glutamate, GABA was exchanged for protons, with no other ions participating in the transport cycle. Thus, only a few components are needed to guarantee reliable vesicle filling with different neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Membrane Transport in Isolated Vesicles from Sugarbeet Taproot

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, John L.; Miller, Gene W.; Briskin, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of fluoride on the tonoplast type ATPase and transport activities associated with sealed membrane vesicles isolated from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue were examined. This anion had two distinct effects upon the proton-pumping vesicles. When ATP hydrolysis was measured in the presence of gramicidin D, significant inhibition (approximately 50%) only occurred when the fluoride concentration approached 50 millimolar. In contrast, the same degree of inhibition of proton transport occurred when the fluoride concentration was about 24 millimolar. Effects on proton pumping at this concentration of fluoride could be attributed to an inhibition of chloride movement which serves to dissipate the vesicle membrane potential. Valinomycin could partially restore ATPase activity in sealed vesicles which were inhibited by fluoride and this restoration occurred with a reduction in the membrane potential. Fluoride demonstrated a competitive interaction with chloride-stimulation of proton transport and inhibited the uptake of radioactive chloride into sealed vesicles. When the vesicles were allowed to develop a pH gradient in the absence of KCl, and KCl was subsequently added, fluoride reduced enhancement of the existing pH gradient by KCl. The results are consistent with a chloride carrier that is inhibited by fluoride. PMID:16665312

  3. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Normal and Perturbed Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Iacobucci, Gary J.; Rahman, Noura Abdel; Valtueña, Aida Andrades; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-01-01

    Efficient intracellular transport is essential for healthy cellular function and structural integrity, and problems in this pathway can lead to neuronal cell death and disease. To spatially and temporally evaluate how transport defects are initiated, we adapted a primary neuronal culture system from Drosophila larval brains to visualize the movement dynamics of several cargos/organelles along a 90 micron axonal neurite over time. All six vesicles/organelles imaged showed robust bi-directional motility at both day 1 and day 2. Reduction of motor proteins decreased the movement of vesicles/organelles with increased numbers of neurite blocks. Neuronal growth was also perturbed with reduction of motor proteins. Strikingly, we found that all blockages were not fixed, permanent blocks that impeded transport of vesicles as previously thought, but that some blocks were dynamic clusters of vesicles that resolved over time. Taken together, our findings suggest that non-resolving blocks may likely initiate deleterious pathways leading to death and degeneration, while resolving blocks may be benign. Therefore evaluating the spatial and temporal characteristics of vesicle transport has important implications for our understanding of how transport defects can affect other pathways to initiate death and degeneration. PMID:24878565

  4. Mapping of the spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mice: fast and reliable genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Holm, Mai Marie; Delenclos, Marion; Jensen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    Background The mocha mouse carries a spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene, encoding the delta 1 subunit of the adaptor related protein complex 3, (Ap3d1), and subsequently lack the expression of functional AP-3. This leads to a deficiency in vesicle transport and storage, which affects neurotransmitter vesicle turnover and release in the central nervous system. Since the genomic sequence of the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mouse is not known, precise mapping of the deletion as well as reliable genotyping protocols are lacking. Findings We sequenced the Ap3d1 gene (HGNC GeneID: 8943) around the deletion site in the mocha mouse and revealed a 10639 bp deletion covering exon 2 to 6. Subsequently, new PCR primers were designed yielding a reliable genotyping protocol of both newborn and adult tissue. To examine the genotypes further, hippocampal neurons were cultured from mocha and control mice. Patch-clamp recordings showed that mocha neurons had a higher input resistance, and that autaptic EPSC in mocha cultures depressed faster and stronger as compared with control cultures. Conclusion Our study reports the sequence of the deleted part of the Ap3d1 gene in mocha mice, as well as a reliable PCR-based genotyping protocol. We cultured hippocampal neurons from control and mocha mice, and found a difference in input resistance of the neurons, and in the synaptic short-term plasticity of glutamatergic autapses showing a larger synaptic depression than controls. The described procedures may be useful for the future utilization of the mocha mouse as a model of defective vesicle biogenesis. Importantly, as genotyping by eye color is complicated in newborn mice, the designed protocol is so fast and reliable that newborn mice could rapidly be genotyped and hippocampal neurons dissociated and cultured, which is normally best done at P0-P2. PMID:19032734

  5. Endo-lysosomal vesicles positive for Rab7 and LAMP1 are terminal vesicles for the transport of dextran.

    PubMed

    Humphries, William H; Szymanski, Craig J; Payne, Christine K

    2011-01-01

    The endo-lysosomal pathway is essential for intracellular transport and the degradation of extracellular cargo. The relationship between three populations of endo-lysosomal vesicles--Rab7-positive, LAMP1-positive, and both Rab7- and LAMP1-postive--was probed with fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. Of specific interest was determining if these vesicles were intermediate or terminal vesicles in the transport of extracellular cargo. We find that the major organelle in the endo-lysosomal pathway, both in terms of population and cargo transport, is positive for Rab7 and LAMP1. Dextran, a fluid phase cargo, shifts from localization within all three populations of vesicles at 30 minutes and 1 hour to primarily LAMP1- and Rab7/LAMP1-vesicles at longer times. This demonstrates that LAMP1- and Rab7/LAMP1-vesicles are terminal vesicles in the endo-lysosomal pathway. We tested two possible mechanisms for this distribution of cargo, delivery to mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR)-negative vesicles and the fusion dynamics of individual vesicles. We find no correlation with M6PR but do find that Rab7-vesicles undergo significantly fewer fusion events than LAMP1- or Rab7/LAMP1-vesicles suggesting that the distribution of fluid phase cargo is driven by vesicle dynamics.

  6. Phosphate transport in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Konings, W N; Rosenberg, H

    1978-04-04

    Escherichia coli strain AN710 possesses only the PIT system for phosphate transport. Membrane vesicles from this strain, which contain phosphate internally, perform exchange and active transport of phosphate. The energy for active transport is supplied by the respiratory chain with ascorbate phenazine methosulphate as electron donor. To a lesser extent also the oxidation of D-lactate energizes phosphate transport; the oxidation of succinate is only marginally effective. Phosphate transport is driven by the proton-motive force and in particular by the pH gradient across the membrane. This view is supported by the observation that phosphate transport is stimulated by valinomycin, inhibited by nigericin and abolished by the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Neither inhibitor affects phosphate exchange. The phosphate analogue arsenate inhibits both the exchange reaction and active transport. Both processes are stimulated by K+ and Mg2+, the highest activities being observed with both ions present. Membrane vesicles have also been isolated from Escherichia coli K10, a strain which possesses only a functional PST phosphate transport system. These vesicles perform neither exchange nor active transport of phosphate, although active transport of amino acids is observed in the presence of ascorbate-phenazine methosulphate or D-lactate.

  7. Endo-Lysosomal Vesicles Positive for Rab7 and LAMP1 Are Terminal Vesicles for the Transport of Dextran

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, William H.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Payne, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    The endo-lysosomal pathway is essential for intracellular transport and the degradation of extracellular cargo. The relationship between three populations of endo-lysosomal vesicles—Rab7-positive, LAMP1-positive, and both Rab7- and LAMP1-postive—was probed with fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. Of specific interest was determining if these vesicles were intermediate or terminal vesicles in the transport of extracellular cargo. We find that the major organelle in the endo-lysosomal pathway, both in terms of population and cargo transport, is positive for Rab7 and LAMP1. Dextran, a fluid phase cargo, shifts from localization within all three populations of vesicles at 30 minutes and 1 hour to primarily LAMP1- and Rab7/LAMP1-vesicles at longer times. This demonstrates that LAMP1- and Rab7/LAMP1-vesicles are terminal vesicles in the endo-lysosomal pathway. We tested two possible mechanisms for this distribution of cargo, delivery to mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR)-negative vesicles and the fusion dynamics of individual vesicles. We find no correlation with M6PR but do find that Rab7-vesicles undergo significantly fewer fusion events than LAMP1- or Rab7/LAMP1-vesicles suggesting that the distribution of fluid phase cargo is driven by vesicle dynamics. PMID:22039519

  8. Fewer active motors per vesicle may explain slowed vesicle transport in chick motoneurons after three days in vitro.

    PubMed

    Macosko, Jed C; Newbern, Jason M; Rockford, Jean; Chisena, Ernest N; Brown, Charlotte M; Holzwarth, George M; Milligan, Carol E

    2008-05-23

    Vesicle transport in cultured chick motoneurons was studied over a period of 3 days using motion-enhanced differential interference contrast (MEDIC) microscopy, an improved version of video-enhanced DIC. After 3 days in vitro (DIV), the average vesicle velocity was about 30% less than after 1 DIV. In observations at 1, 2 and 3 DIV, larger vesicles moved more slowly than small vesicles, and retrograde vesicles were larger than anterograde vesicles. The number of retrograde vesicles increased relative to anterograde vesicles after 3 DIV, but this fact alone could not explain the decrease in velocity, since the slowing of vesicle transport in maturing motoneurons was observed independently for both anterograde and retrograde vesicles. In order to better understand the slowing trend, the distance vs. time trajectories of individual vesicles were examined at a frame rate of 8.3/s. Qualitatively, these trajectories consisted of short (1-2 s) segments of constant velocity, and the changes in velocity between segments were abrupt (<0.2 s). The trajectories were therefore fit to a series of connected straight lines. Surprisingly, the slopes of theses lines, i.e. the vesicle velocities, were often found to be multiples of ~0.6 mum/s. The velocity histogram showed multiple peaks, which, when fit with Gaussians using a least squares minimization, yielded an average spacing of 0.57 mum/s (taken as the slope of a fit to peak position vs. peak number, R(2)=0.994). We propose that the abrupt velocity changes occur when 1 or 2 motors suddenly begin or cease actively participating in vesicle transport. Under this hypothesis, the decrease in average vesicle velocity observed for maturing motoneurons is due to a decrease in the average number of active motors per vesicle.

  9. Fewer active motors per vesicle may explain slowed vesicle transport in chick motoneurons after three days in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Macosko, Jed C.; Newbern, Jason M.; Rockford, Jean; Chisena, Ernest N.; Brown, Charlotte M.; Holzwarth, George M.; Milligan, Carol E.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicle transport in cultured chick motoneurons was studied over a period of 3 days using motion enhanced differential interference contrast (MEDIC) microscopy, an improved version of video-enhanced DIC. After 3 days in vitro (DIV), the average vesicle velocity was about 30% less than after 1 DIV. In observations at 1, 2 and 3 DIV, larger vesicles moved more slowly than small vesicles, and retrograde vesicles were larger than anterograde vesicles. The number of retrograde vesicles increased relative to anterograde vesicles after 3 DIV, but this fact alone could not explain the decrease in velocity, since the slowing of vesicle transport in maturing motoneurons was observed independently for both anterograde and retrograde vesicles. In order to better understand the slowing trend, the distance vs. time trajectories of individual vesicles were examined at a frame rate of 8.3/s. Qualitatively, these trajectories consisted of short (1–2 s) segments of constant velocity, and the changes in velocity between segments were abrupt (<0.2 s). The trajectories were therefore fit to a series of connected straight lines. Surprisingly, the slopes of theses lines, i.e. the vesicle velocities, were often found to be multiples of ~0.6 µm/s. The velocity histogram showed multiple peaks, which, when fit with Gaussians using a least squares minimization, yielded an average spacing of 0.57 µm/s (taken as the slope of a fit to peak position vs. peak number, R2 = 0.994). We propose that the abrupt velocity changes occur when 1 or 2 motors suddenly begin or cease actively participating in vesicle transport. Under this hypothesis, the decrease in average vesicle velocity observed for maturing motoneurons is due to a decrease in the average number of active motors per vesicle. PMID:18433736

  10. The Vesicle Protein SAM-4 Regulates the Processivity of Synaptic Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. PMID:25329901

  11. The vesicle protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of synaptic vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P; Nonet, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport.

  12. Transport properties of tomato fruit tonoplast membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Oleski, N.; Joyce, D.; Osteryoung, K.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    To study the role of the tonoplast in tomato fruit development, methods were developed to isolate sealed tonoplast membrane vesicles. Low density (approx. 1.23 g/cc) membrane vesicles they found to possess a NO/sub 3//sup -/-sensitive H/sup +/-translocating ATPase. The properties of this H/sup +/-ATPase are similar to those described for other tonoplast H/sup +/-ATPases. ATP-dependent Ca/sup + +/ transport into the vesicles proceeded by two mechanisms, one operative at low Ca/sup + +/ concentrations (1 ..mu..M) and inhibited by vanadate, and the other operative at high Ca/sup + +/ concentrations (10 ..mu..M) and inhibited by NO/sub 3//sup -/. Their present results indicate that the high affinity (vanadate-sensitive) Ca/sup + +/ transporter resides in E.R. membrane that contaminates the tonoplast preparation. Citrate uptake in tonoplast vesicles is stimulated by ATP and inhibited by NO/sub 3//sup -/ suggesting that citrate uptake is driven indirectly by the H/sup +/-ATPase. The substrate for sugar uptake is UDP-glucose resulting in the appearance of sucrose inside the tonoplast vesicle. No evidence for ATP stimulation of glucose, fructose, or sucrose uptake was observed.

  13. Phospholipid flippases: building asymmetric membranes and transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Tessy T; Baldridge, Ryan D; Xu, Peng; Graham, Todd R

    2012-08-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase family (P4-ATPases) are essential components of the Golgi, plasma membrane and endosomal system that play critical roles in membrane biogenesis. These pumps flip phospholipid across the bilayer to create an asymmetric membrane structure with substrate phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, enriched within the cytosolic leaflet. The P4-ATPases also help form transport vesicles that bud from Golgi and endosomal membranes, thereby impacting the sorting and localization of many different proteins in the secretory and endocytic pathways. At the organismal level, P4-ATPase deficiencies are linked to liver disease, obesity, diabetes, hearing loss, neurological deficits, immune deficiency and reduced fertility. Here, we review the biochemical, cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases, with an emphasis on their roles in vesicle-mediated protein transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipids and Vesicular Transport. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Golgi cisternal unstacking stimulates COPI vesicle budding and protein transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanzhuang; Wei, Jen-Hsuan; Bisel, Blaine; Tang, Danming; Seemann, Joachim

    2008-02-20

    The Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells is composed of flattened cisternae that are densely packed to form stacks. We have used the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 as a tool to modify the stacking state of Golgi cisternae. We established an assay to measure protein transport to the cell surface in post-mitotic cells in which the Golgi was unstacked. Cells with an unstacked Golgi showed a higher transport rate compared to cells with stacked Golgi membranes. Vesicle budding from unstacked cisternae in vitro was significantly increased compared to stacked membranes. These results suggest that Golgi cisternal stacking can directly regulate vesicle formation and thus the rate of protein transport through the Golgi. The results further suggest that at the onset of mitosis, unstacking of cisternae allows extensive and rapid vesiculation of the Golgi in preparation for its subsequent partitioning.

  15. Golgi Cisternal Unstacking Stimulates COPI Vesicle Budding and Protein Transport

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhuang; Wei, Jen-Hsuan; Bisel, Blaine; Tang, Danming; Seemann, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells is composed of flattened cisternae that are densely packed to form stacks. We have used the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 as a tool to modify the stacking state of Golgi cisternae. We established an assay to measure protein transport to the cell surface in post-mitotic cells in which the Golgi was unstacked. Cells with an unstacked Golgi showed a higher transport rate compared to cells with stacked Golgi membranes. Vesicle budding from unstacked cisternae in vitro was significantly increased compared to stacked membranes. These results suggest that Golgi cisternal stacking can directly regulate vesicle formation and thus the rate of protein transport through the Golgi. The results further suggest that at the onset of mitosis, unstacking of cisternae allows extensive and rapid vesiculation of the Golgi in preparation for its subsequent partitioning. PMID:18297130

  16. Self-propelling vesicles define glycolysis as the minimal energy machinery for neuronal transport.

    PubMed

    Hinckelmann, María-Victoria; Virlogeux, Amandine; Niehage, Christian; Poujol, Christel; Choquet, Daniel; Hoflack, Bernard; Zala, Diana; Saudou, Frédéric

    2016-10-24

    The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) facilitates fast axonal transport in neurons. However, given that GAPDH does not produce ATP, it is unclear whether glycolysis per se is sufficient to propel vesicles. Although many proteins regulating transport have been identified, the molecular composition of transported vesicles in neurons has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we selectively enrich motile vesicles and perform quantitative proteomic analysis. In addition to the expected molecular motors and vesicular proteins, we find an enrichment of all the glycolytic enzymes. Using biochemical approaches and super-resolution microscopy, we observe that most glycolytic enzymes are selectively associated with vesicles and facilitate transport of vesicles in neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that mouse brain vesicles produce ATP from ADP and glucose, and display movement in a reconstituted in vitro transport assay of native vesicles. We conclude that transport of vesicles along microtubules can be autonomous.

  17. Self-propelling vesicles define glycolysis as the minimal energy machinery for neuronal transport

    PubMed Central

    Hinckelmann, María-Victoria; Virlogeux, Amandine; Niehage, Christian; Poujol, Christel; Choquet, Daniel; Hoflack, Bernard; Zala, Diana; Saudou, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) facilitates fast axonal transport in neurons. However, given that GAPDH does not produce ATP, it is unclear whether glycolysis per se is sufficient to propel vesicles. Although many proteins regulating transport have been identified, the molecular composition of transported vesicles in neurons has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we selectively enrich motile vesicles and perform quantitative proteomic analysis. In addition to the expected molecular motors and vesicular proteins, we find an enrichment of all the glycolytic enzymes. Using biochemical approaches and super-resolution microscopy, we observe that most glycolytic enzymes are selectively associated with vesicles and facilitate transport of vesicles in neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that mouse brain vesicles produce ATP from ADP and glucose, and display movement in a reconstituted in vitro transport assay of native vesicles. We conclude that transport of vesicles along microtubules can be autonomous. PMID:27775035

  18. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 Orchestrates Recruitment of Other Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Proteins during Synaptic Vesicle Recycling*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ping-Yue; Marrs, Julia; Ryan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    A long standing question in synaptic physiology is how neurotransmitter-filled vesicles are rebuilt after exocytosis. Among the first steps in this process is the endocytic retrieval of the transmembrane proteins that are enriched in synaptic vesicles (SVs). At least six types of transmembrane proteins must be recovered, but the rules for how this multiple cargo selection is accomplished are poorly understood. Among these SV cargos is the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut). We show here that vGlut1 has a strong influence on the kinetics of retrieval of half of the known SV cargos and that specifically impairing the endocytosis of vGlut1 in turn slows down other SV cargos, demonstrating that cargo retrieval is a collective cargo-driven process. Finally, we demonstrate that different cargos can be retrieved in the same synapse with different kinetics, suggesting that additional post-endocytic sorting steps likely occur in the nerve terminal. PMID:26224632

  19. Phosphatidylinositol-4-Kinase Type II α Is a Component of Adaptor Protein-3-derived VesiclesD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria; Craige, Branch; Wainer, Bruce H.; Guo, Jun; De Camilli, Pietro; Faundez, Victor

    2005-01-01

    A membrane fraction enriched in vesicles containing the adaptor protein (AP) -3 cargo zinc transporter 3 was generated from PC12 cells and was used to identify new components of these organelles by mass spectrometry. Proteins prominently represented in the fraction included AP-3 subunits, synaptic vesicle proteins, and lysosomal proteins known to be sorted in an AP-3-dependent way or to interact genetically with AP-3. A protein enriched in this fraction was phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type IIα (PI4KIIα). Biochemical, pharmacological, and morphological analyses supported the presence of PI4KIIα in AP-3-positive organelles. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of PI4KIIα was altered in cells from AP-3-deficient mocha mutant mice. The PI4KIIα normally present both in perinuclear and peripheral organelles was substantially decreased in the peripheral membranes of AP-3-deficient mocha fibroblasts. In addition, as is the case for other proteins sorted in an AP-3-dependent way, PI4KIIα content was strongly reduced in nerve terminals of mocha hippocampal mossy fibers. The functional relationship between AP-3 and PI4KIIα was further explored by PI4KIIα knockdown experiments. Reduction of the cellular content of PI4KIIα strongly decreased the punctate distribution of AP-3 observed in PC12 cells. These results indicate that PI4KIIα is present on AP-3 organelles where it regulates AP-3 function. PMID:15944223

  20. Phospholipid flippases: building asymmetric membranes and transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Tessy T.; Baldridge, Ryan D.; Xu, Peng; Graham, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase family (P4-ATPases) are essential components of the Golgi, plasma membrane and endosomal system that play critical roles in membrane biogenesis. These pumps flip phospholipid across the bilayer to create an asymmetric membrane structure with substrate phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, enriched within the cytosolic leaflet. The P4-ATPases also help form transport vesicles that bud from Golgi and endosomal membranes, thereby impacting the sorting and localization of many different proteins in the secretory and endocytic pathways. At the organismal level, P4-ATPase deficiencies are linked to liver disease, obesity, diabetes, hearing loss, neurological deficits, immune deficiency and reduced fertility. Here, we review the biochemical, cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases, with an emphasis on their roles in vesicle-mediated protein transport. PMID:22234261

  1. APP anterograde transport requires Rab3A GTPase activity for assembly of the transport vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Szodorai, A; Kuan, Y-H; Hunzelmann, S; Engel, U; Sakane, A; Sasaki, T; Takai, Y; Kirsch, J; Müller, U; Beyreuther, K; Brady, S; Morfini, G; Kins, S

    2010-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) may be sequentially cleaved by β- and γ-secretases leading to accumulation of Aβ peptides in brains of Alzheimer’s Disease patients. Cleavage by α-secretase prevents Aβ generation. APP is anterogradely transported by conventional kinesin in a distinct transport vesicle, but both the biochemical composition of such a vesicle as well as the specific kinesin-1 motor responsible for transport are poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate by time-lapse analysis and immunoisolations that APP is a cargo of a vesicle containing the kinesin heavy chain isoform kinesin-1C, the small GTPase Rab3A and a specific subset of presynaptic protein components. Moreover, we report that assembly of kinesin-1C and APP in this vesicle type requires Rab3A GTPase activity. Finally, we show cleavage of APP in the analyzed transport vesicles by α-secretase activity, likely mediated by ADAM10. Together, these data indicate for the first time that maturation of transport vesicles, including coupling of conventional kinesin, requires Rab GTPase activity. PMID:19923287

  2. Annexin A1 Complex Mediates Oxytocin Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Makani, Vishruti; Sultana, Rukhsana; Sie, Khin Sander; Orjiako, Doris; Tatangelo, Marco; Dowling, Abigail; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William; Butterfield, D. Allan; Hill, Jennifer; Park, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is a major neuropeptide that modulates the brain functions involved in social behavior and interaction. Despite of the importance of oxytocin for neural control of social behavior, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) by which oxytocin secretion in the brain is regulated. Pro-oxytocin is synthesized in the cell bodies of hypothalamic neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and processed to a 9-amino-acid mature form during post-Golgi transport to the secretion sites at the axon terminals and somatodendritic regions. Oxytocin secreted from the somatodendritic regions diffuses throughout the hypothalamus and its neighboring brain regions. Some oxytocin-positive axons innervate and secrete oxytocin to the brain regions distal to the hypothalamus. Brain oxytocin binds to its receptors in the brain regions involved in social behavior. Oxytocin is also secreted from the axon terminal at the posterior pituitary gland into the blood circulation. We have discovered a new molecular complex consisting of annexin A1 (ANXA1), A-kinase anchor protein 150 (AKAP150), and microtubule motor, that controls the distribution of oxytocin vesicles between the axon and the cell body in a protein kinase A (PKA)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-sensitive manner. ANXA1 showed significant co-localization with oxytocin vesicles. Activation of PKA enhanced the association of kinesin-2 with ANXA1, thus increasing the axon-localization of oxytocin vesicles. Conversely, activation of PKC decreased the binding of kinesin-2 to ANXA1, thus attenuating the axon-localization of oxytocin vesicles. Our study suggests that ANXA1 complex coordinates the actions of PKA and PKC to control the distribution of oxytocin vesicles between the axon and the cell body. PMID:24118254

  3. Mechanisms of calcium transport in human colonic basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Seema; Ammar, Mohammad S; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Elsharydah, Ahmed; Gill, Ravinder K; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2002-10-01

    Human colon has been suggested to play an important role in calcium absorption especially after extensive disease or resection of the small intestine. We have previously demonstrated the presence of a carrier-mediated calcium uptake mechanism in the human colonic luminal membrane vesicles. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of calcium exit across the basolateral membrane domain of the human colon. Human colonic basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) were isolated and purified from mucosal scrapings of organ donor colons, utilizing a technique developed in our laboratory. 45Ca uptake was measured by a rapid filtration technique. 45Ca uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evidenced by an osmolarity study and by the demonstration of Ca2' efflux from calcium preloaded vesicles by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Calcium uptake was stimulated by Mg2+ ATP. The kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake revealed saturation kinetics with Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.22 +/- 0.04 microM and a maximum rate of uptake (Vmax) of 0.38 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein/min. The Km of ATP concentration required for half maximal Ca2+ uptake was 0.39 +/- 0.04 mM. ATP-stimulated calcium uptake into these vesicles was further stimulated in the presence of calmodulin and was inhibited by calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. Uptake of 45Ca into BLMVs was markedly inhibited by cis-Na+ but was significantly stimulated by trans-Na+ (40-50% stimulation). Our results demonstrate the presence of a Mg2+/ATP-dependent calmodulin-regulated Ca2+ transport system and a Na+-Ca2+ exchange process in the human colonic basolateral membranes.

  4. Rab proteins: the key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  6. AP-3 regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting via an ALIX-mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dores, Michael R.; Paing, May M.; Lin, Huilan; Montagne, William A.; Marchese, Adriano; Trejo, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    The sorting of signaling receptors within the endocytic system is important for appropriate cellular responses. After activation, receptors are trafficked to early endosomes and either recycled or sorted to lysosomes and degraded. Most receptors trafficked to lysosomes are modified with ubiquitin and recruited into an endosomal subdomain enriched in hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), a ubiquitin-binding component of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, and then sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/lysosomes. However, not all receptors use ubiquitin or the canonical ESCRT machinery to sort to MVBs/lysosomes. This is exemplified by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein–coupled receptor for thrombin, which sorts to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and HRS. We recently showed that the adaptor protein ALIX binds to PAR1, recruits ESCRT-III, and mediates receptor sorting to ILVs of MVBs. However, the mechanism that initiates PAR1 sorting at the early endosome is not known. We now report that the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent sorting to MVBs through an ALIX-dependent pathway. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 cytoplasmic tail–localized tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation independent of ubiquitination. Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting. PMID:22833563

  7. Active transport of calcium in Neurospora plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Stroobant, P; Scarborough, G A

    1979-01-01

    Functionally inverted plasma membrane vesicles isolated from the eukaryotic microorganism Neurospora crassa catalyze Mg2+/ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. Inhibitors induced efflux studies and isotope-exchange experiments indicate that the Ca2+ is accumulated inside the vesicles against a concentration gradient of about 40-fold, and that the majority of the transported Ca2+ is present essentially in free solution. Comparisons of Mg2+/ATP-driven 45Ca2+ uptake and [14C]SCN-uptake with respect to the Mg2+/ATP concentration dependence, the effects of inhibitors, and the nucleotide and divalent cation specificities indicate that the energy for Ca2+ accumulation is derived from ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the electrogenic plasma membrane ATPase. Energized Ca2+ uptake is stimulated by the permeant anion SCN- to a degree that varies reciprocally with the ability of this anion to dissipate the membrane potential, and is inhibited by K+ in the presence of nigericin. All of these data point to the conclusion that the active transport of Ca2+ across the Neurospora plasma membrane takes place via a Ca2+/H+ antiporter, which functions to pump Ca2+ out of the intact cell. PMID:40223

  8. Membrane vesicles: A simplified system for studying auxin transport

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin responsible for regulation of growth, is transported polarly in plants. Several different models have been suggested to account for IAA transport by cells and its accumulation by membrane vesicles. One model sees diffusion of IAA driven by a pH gradient. The anion of a lipophilic weak acid like IAA or butyrate accumulates in an alkaline compartment in accord with the size of the pH gradient The accumulation of IAA may be diminished by the permeability of its lipophilic anion. This anion leak may be blocked by NPA. With anion efflux blocked, a gradient of two pH units would support an IAA accumulation of less than 50-fold at equilibrium (2) Another model sees diffusion of IAA in parallel with a saturable symport (IAA[sup [minus

  9. Inorganic phosphate transport in matrix vesicles from bovine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Solomon, D H; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J

    2007-06-01

    In mineralizing tissues such as growth plate cartilage extracellular organelles derived from the chondrocyte membrane are present. These matrix vesicles (MV), possess membrane transporters that accumulate Ca(2+) and inorganic phosphate (P(i)), and initiate the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals. MV are also present in articular cartilage, and hydroxyapatite crystals are believed to promote cartilage degradation in osteoarthritic joints. This study characterizes P(i) transport in MV derived from articular cartilage. Matrix vesicles were harvested from collagenase digests of bovine articular cartilage by serial centrifugation. P(i) uptake by MV was measured using radioactive phosphate ((33)[P]HPO(4)(2-)). The Na(+) dependence, pH sensitivity and effects of P(i) analogues that inhibit P(i) transport were determined. P(i) uptake was temperature-sensitive and comprised Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent components. The Na(+)-dependent component saturated at high extracellular P(i) concentrations, with a K(m) of 0.16 mM. In Na(+)-free solutions, uptake did not fully saturate implying that carrier-mediated uptake is supplemented by a diffusive pathway. Uptake was inhibited by phosphonoacetate and arsenate, although a fraction of Na(+)-independent P(i) uptake persisted. Total P(i) uptake was maximal at pH 6.5, and reduced at more acidic or alkaline values, representing inhibition of both components. These properties are highly similar to those of P(i) uptake by chondrocytes, suggesting that MV inherit P(i) transporters of the chondrocyte membrane from which they are derived. Na(+)-independent P(i) uptake has not previously been described in MV from growth plate cartilage and is relatively uncharacterized, but warrants further attention in articular cartilage, given its likely role in initiating inappropriate mineral formation.

  10. Understanding Plastid Vesicle Transport - Could it Provide Benefit for Human Medicine?

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadir Zaman; Lindquist, Emelie; Alezzawi, Mohamed; Aronsson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In plants, vesicle transport occurs in the secretory pathway in the cytosol, between the membranes of different compartments. Several protein components have been identified to be involved in the process and their functions were characterized. Both cargos and other molecules (such as hormones) have been shown to use vesicle transport, although the major constituents of vesicles are lipids which are transferred from donor to acceptor membranes. In humans, malfunction of the cytosolic vesicle transport system leads to different diseases. To better understand and ultimately cure these human diseases, studying other model systems such as yeast can be beneficial. Plants with their cytosolic vesicle transport system could serve as another model system. However, this review focuses on plant vesicles not present in the cytosol but in the chloroplasts, where lipids produced in the surrounding envelope are transported through the aqueous stroma to the thylakoid membranes. Although chloroplast vesicles have found both biochemical and ultrastructural support, only two proteins have been characterized as components of the pathway. However, using bioinformatics a number of other proteins have been suggested as homologs to the cytosolic system. Based on these findings vesicles of chloroplasts are likely most similar to the vesicles trafficking from ER to Golgi, or may even be unique, but important experimental support is yet lacking. In this review, proposed vesicle transport components in chloroplasts are presented, and their possible future implementation for human medicine is discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Vesicles

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top of a pin or up to 5 millimeters wide. A larger blister is called a bulla. In many cases, vesicles break easily and release their fluid onto the skin. When this fluid dries, yellow crusts may remain on the skin surface.

  12. Calcium and proton transport in membrane vesicles from barley roots

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, F.M.; Windle, J.J. ); Bush, D.S.; Jones, R.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Ca{sup 2+} uptake by membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM72) roots was characterized. Uptake of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} was measured in membrane vesicles obtained from continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients. A single, large peak of Ca{sup 2+} uptake coincided with the peak of proton transport by the tonoplast H{sup +}-ATPase. Depending on the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the assay, Ca{sup 2+} uptake was inhibited 50 to 75% by those combinations of ionophores and solutes that eliminated the pH gradient and membrane potential. However, 25 to 50% of the Ca{sup 2+} uptake in the tonoplast-enriched fraction was not sensitive to ionophores but was inhibited by vanadate. The results suggest that {sup 45}Ca uptake was driven by the low affinity, high capacity tonoplast Ca{sup 2+}/nH{sup +} antiporter and also by a high affinity, lower capacity Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase. The Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase may be associated with tonoplast, Golgi or contaminating vesicles of unknown origin. No Ca{sup 2+} transport was specifically associated with the distinct peak of endoplasmic reticulum that was identified by NADH cytochrome c reductase, choline phosphotransferase, and dolichol-P-mannosyl synthase activities. A small shoulder of Ca{sup 2+} uptake in the plasma membrane region of the gradient was inhibited by vanadate and erythrosin B and may represent the activity of a separate plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase. Vesicle volumes were estimated using electron spin resonance techniques, and intravesicular Ca{sup 2+} concentrations were estimated to be as high as 5 millimolar. ATP-driven uptake of Ca{sup 2+} created 800- to 2,000-fold concentration gradients within minutes. Problems in interpreting the effects of Ca{sup 2+} on ATP-generated pH gradients are discussed and the suggestion is made that Ca{sup 2+} dissipates pH gradients by a different mechanism than is responsible for Ca{sup 2+} uptake into tonoplast vesicles.

  13. Astrocyte VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent cycling and modulate glutamate transporter trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongdong; Hérault, Karine; Zylbersztejn, Kathleen; Lauterbach, Marcel A; Guillon, Marc; Oheim, Martin; Ropert, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Key points Mouse cortical astrocytes express VAMP3 but not VAMP2. VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo- and endocytotic cycling at the plasma membrane. VAMP3 vesicle traffic regulates the recycling of plasma membrane glutamate transporters. cAMP modulates VAMP3 vesicle cycling and glutamate uptake. Abstract Previous studies suggest that small synaptic-like vesicles in astrocytes carry vesicle-associated vSNARE proteins, VAMP3 (cellubrevin) and VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2), both contributing to the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of gliotransmitters, thereby modulating brain information processing. Here, using cortical astrocytes taken from VAMP2 and VAMP3 knock-out mice, we find that astrocytes express only VAMP3. The morphology and function of VAMP3 vesicles were studied in cultured astrocytes at single vesicle level with stimulated emission depletion (STED) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopies. We show that VAMP3 antibodies label small diameter (∼80 nm) vesicles and that VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo-endocytosis. We also show that this pathway modulates the surface expression of plasma membrane glutamate transporters and the glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Finally, using pharmacological and optogenetic tools, we provide evidence suggesting that the cytosolic cAMP level influences astrocytic VAMP3 vesicle trafficking and glutamate transport. Our results suggest a new role for VAMP3 vesicles in astrocytes. PMID:25864578

  14. Sulfate transport in apical membrane vesicles isolated from tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Elgavish, A.; DiBona, D.R.; Norton, P.; Meezan, E.

    1987-09-01

    Sulfate uptake in apical membrane vesicles isolated from bovine tracheal epithelium is shown to occur into an osmotically sensitive intravesicular space, via a carrier-mediated system. This conclusion is based on three lines of evidence: 1) saturation kinetics: 2) substrate specificity; and 3) inhibition by the anion transport inhibitors SITS and DIDS. The affinity of the transport system is highest in low ionic strength media and decreases in the presence of gluconate. Chloride appears to cis-inhibit sulfate uptake and to trans-stimulate sulfate efflux. Cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies with a variety of anions indicate that this exchange system may be shared by HCO/sub 3//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SeO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ but not by H/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup -/ or HAsO/sub 4//sup 2/. Studies indicate that protons may play two distinct roles in sulfate transport in this system. These studies show that the carrier-mediated system can function in the absence of chloride. The overshoot observed in the presence of a proton gradient indicates that under those conditions the mechanism of transport may be a SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-OH/sup -/ exchange.

  15. Amiloride transport in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.H.; Wunz, T.M.

    1989-03-01

    Rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were used to study amiloride transport across the luminal membrane of proximal tubular cells. An outwardly directed H+ gradient (pHi 6.0; pHo 7.5) stimulated 8 microM (/sup 14/C)-amiloride uptake into BBMV and supported a transient active accumulation of substrate consistent with the presence of an amiloride-H+ exchange process. Uptake was inhibited, in the presence or absence of a pH gradient, by 1 mM unlabeled amiloride or 20 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA). Amiloride transport was not directly affected by the presence of 100 mM Na+ in the extravesicular medium, suggesting that Na-H exchange did not mediate amiloride flux. Amiloride transport was a saturable process with a maximal flux (under pH gradient conditions) of 3 nmol.mg-1.min-1 and an apparent Kt of 8 microM. TEA acted as a competitive inhibitor of this process with an apparent Ki of approximately 80 microM, similar to the Kt of TEA transport via the TEA-H+ exchanger. Likewise, amiloride acted as a competitive inhibitor of TEA uptake with an apparent Ki of approximately 11 microM. Preloading BBMV with 1-2 mM TEA stimulated the rate of amiloride uptake and supported a transient active accumulation of amiloride. We conclude that amiloride and TEA are transported by a common pathway in BBMV, which involves a carrier-mediated exchange with H+ and which may play a role in the tubular secretion of these compounds.

  16. Yarrowia lipolytica vesicle-mediated protein transport pathways

    PubMed Central

    Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Background Protein secretion is a universal cellular process involving vesicles which bud and fuse between organelles to bring proteins to their final destination. Vesicle budding is mediated by protein coats; vesicle targeting and fusion depend on Rab GTPase, tethering factors and SNARE complexes. The Génolevures II sequencing project made available entire genome sequences of four hemiascomycetous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata. Y. lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast and has good capacities to secrete proteins. The translocation of nascent protein through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was well studied in Y. lipolytica and is largely co-translational as in the mammalian protein secretion pathway. Results We identified S. cerevisiae proteins involved in vesicular secretion and these protein sequences were used for the BLAST searches against Génolevures protein database (Y. lipolytica, C. glabrata, K. lactis and D. hansenii). These proteins are well conserved between these yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We note several specificities of Y. lipolytica which may be related to its good protein secretion capacities and to its dimorphic aspect. An expansion of the Y. lipolytica Rab protein family was observed with autoBLAST and the Rab2- and Rab4-related members were identified with BLAST against NCBI protein database. An expansion of this family is also found in filamentous fungi and may reflect the greater complexity of the Y. lipolytica secretion pathway. The Rab4p-related protein may play a role in membrane recycling as rab4 deleted strain shows a modification of colony morphology, dimorphic transition and permeability. Similarly, we find three copies of the gene (SSO) encoding the plasma membrane SNARE protein. Quantification of the percentages of proteins with the greatest homology between S. cerevisiae, Y. lipolytica and animal homologues involved in vesicular transport shows that 40% of Y

  17. cGMP transport by vesicles from human and mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Wolf, Cornelia J F; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; van der Heijden, Ingrid; Wielinga, Peter R; Hundscheid, Stefanie L; Ono, Nobuhito; Scheffer, George L; de Haas, Marcel; Schuetz, John D; Wijnholds, Jan; Borst, Piet

    2007-01-01

    cGMP secretion from cells can be mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCC4, ABCC5, and ABCC11. Indirect evidence suggests that ABCC4 and ABCC5 contribute to cGMP transport by erythrocytes. We have re-investigated the issue using erythrocytes from wild-type and transporter knockout mice. Murine wild-type erythrocyte vesicles transported cGMP with an apparent Km that was 100-fold higher than their human counterparts, the apparent Vmax being similar. Whereas cGMP transport into human vesicles was efficiently inhibited by the ABCC4-specific substrate prostaglandin E1, cGMP transport into mouse vesicles was inhibited equally by Abcg2 and Abcc4 inhibitors/substrates. Similarly, cGMP transport into vesicles from Abcc4-/- and Abcg2-/- mice was 42% and 51% of that into wild-type mouse vesicles, respectively, whereas cGMP transport into vesicles from Abcc4(-/-)/Abcg2(-/-) mice was near background. The knockout mice were used to show that Abcg2-mediated cGMP transport occurred with lower affinity but higher Vmax than Abcc4-mediated transport. Involvement of Abcg2 in cGMP transport by Abcc4-/- erythrocyte vesicles was supported by higher transport at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.4, a characteristic of Abcg2-mediated transport. The relative contribution of ABCC4/Abcc4 and ABCG2/Abcg2 in cGMP transport was confirmed with a new inhibitor of ABCC4 transport, the protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride.

  18. Maltose transport in membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli is linked to ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, D A; Davidson, A L; Nikaido, H

    1989-01-01

    We examined the energy requirement for maltose transport in right-side-out membrane vesicles derived from Escherichia coli. When membrane vesicles were made from strains producing tethered maltose-binding proteins by dilution of spheroplasts into phosphate buffer, those from an F0F1 ATPase-containing (unc+) strain transported maltose in the presence of an exogenous electron donor, such as ascorbate/phenazine methosulfate, at a rate of 1-5 nmol/min per mg of protein, whereas those from an isogenic unc- strain failed to transport maltose. Transport in vesicles obtained from the latter strain could be restored in the presence of electron donors if the vesicles were made to contain NAD+ and either ATP or an ATP-regenerating system. ATP hydrolysis was apparently required for transport, since nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues did not sustain transport. Maltose transport significantly increased ATP hydrolysis in ATP-containing vesicles from unc- cells. Finally, ATP-containing vesicles from unc- strains producing normal maltose-binding proteins could accumulate maltose in the absence of electron donors. These results provide convincing evidence that it is the hydrolysis of ATP that drives maltose transport, and probably also other periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent transport systems. PMID:2531894

  19. A biochemical and functional protein complex involving dopamine synthesis and transport into synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Etienne A; Parra, Leonardo A; Baust, Tracy B; Quiroz, Marisol; Salazar, Gloria; Faundez, Victor; Egaña, Loreto; Torres, Gonzalo E

    2010-01-15

    Synaptic transmission depends on neurotransmitter pools stored within vesicles that undergo regulated exocytosis. In the brain, the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT(2)) is responsible for the loading of dopamine (DA) and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles. Prior to storage within vesicles, DA synthesis occurs at the synaptic terminal in a two-step enzymatic process. First, the rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) converts tyrosine to di-OH-phenylalanine. Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) then converts di-OH-phenylalanine into DA. Here, we provide evidence that VMAT(2) physically and functionally interacts with the enzymes responsible for DA synthesis. In rat striata, TH and AADC co-immunoprecipitate with VMAT(2), whereas in PC 12 cells, TH co-immunoprecipitates with the closely related VMAT(1) and with overexpressed VMAT(2). GST pull-down assays further identified three cytosolic domains of VMAT(2) involved in the interaction with TH and AADC. Furthermore, in vitro binding assays demonstrated that TH directly interacts with VMAT(2). Additionally, using fractionation and immunoisolation approaches, we demonstrate that TH and AADC associate with VMAT(2)-containing synaptic vesicles from rat brain. These vesicles exhibited specific TH activity. Finally, the coupling between synthesis and transport of DA into vesicles was impaired in the presence of fragments involved in the VMAT(2)/TH/AADC interaction. Taken together, our results indicate that DA synthesis can occur at the synaptic vesicle membrane, where it is physically and functionally coupled to VMAT(2)-mediated transport into vesicles.

  20. Vesicle Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  1. Presenilin controls kinesin-1 and dynein function during APP-vesicle transport in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Shermali; Yang, Ge; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons and other cells require intracellular transport of essential components for viability and function. Previous work has shown that while net amyloid precursor protein (APP) transport is generally anterograde, individual vesicles containing APP move bi-directionally. This discrepancy highlights our poor understanding of the in vivo regulation of APP-vesicle transport. Here, we show that reduction of presenilin (PS) or suppression of gamma-secretase activity substantially increases anterograde and retrograde velocities for APP vesicles. Strikingly, PS deficiency has no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle class containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased velocities caused by PS or gamma-secretase reduction require functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. Together, our findings suggest that a normal function of PS is to repress kinesin-1 and dynein motor activity during axonal transport of APP vesicles. Furthermore, our data suggest that axonal transport defects induced by loss of PS-mediated regulatory effects on APP-vesicle motility could be a major cause of neuronal and synaptic defects observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Thus, perturbations of APP/PS transport could contribute to early neuropathology observed in AD, and highlight a potential novel therapeutic pathway for early intervention, prior to neuronal loss and clinical manifestation of disease. PMID:23710041

  2. Calcium uptake by intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. Comparison with in vivo calcium transport.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, H P; Wilson, H D

    1985-01-01

    In prior studies, we examined kinetics of steady state in vivo transepithelial calcium transport in rat and hamster. The present studies related calcium uptake by the brush border to in vivo transport. We measured calcium uptake by brush border membrane vesicles from the two species. In the rat, our prior in vivo studies had shown that (a) calcium transport was mediated, (b) no nonmediated component was detectable, and (c) Vmax was 2.5 times greater in proximal than distal small intestine. In brush border membrane vesicles from the rat, Vmax for the saturable component of calcium uptake was again 2.5 times greater in proximal than distal intestine. Contrasting with in vivo studies, a major nonsaturable component was present in vesicles from proximal and distal small intestine. In the hamster, our previous in vivo studies had shown (1) both mediated and nonmediated components of calcium transport, (2) greater nonmediated transport in proximal than distal small intestines, and (3) Vmax for calcium transport twice as great in distal as in proximal small intestine. In the present study with brush border membrane vesicles from hamster, Vmax for saturable calcium transport was again twice as great in distal as in proximal small intestine. However, nonsaturable calcium transport rates relative to saturable rates were much greater with vesicles than in in vivo studies, and were greater in vesicles from distal than proximal small intestine. Since rates of saturable calcium uptake by brush border membrane vesicles parallel corresponding in vivo mediated transport rates, we conclude that the segmental rates of calcium transport in rat and hamster could be determined by brush border function. PMID:2997294

  3. A Novel Pulse-Chase Paradigm to Visualize the Trafficking of Transport Vesicles in Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bassam, Sarmad

    In neurons transmembrane proteins are targeted to dendrites in vesicles that traffic solely within the somatodendritic compartment. How these vesicles are retained within the somatodendritic domain is unknown. Here we adapt a novel pulse chase system that allows synchronous release of exogenous transmembrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum using FKBP12 and Rapamycin. We demonstrate proof-of-concept and establish protein trafficking controls in incremental steps. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in studying protein trafficking and establish parameters for analysis of time-lapse images. We implement this novel pulse-chase strategy to track the movements of post-Golgi transport vesicles. Surprisingly, we found that post-Golgi vesicles carrying dendritic proteins were equally likely to enter axons and dendrites. However, once such vesicles entered the axon they very rarely moved beyond the axon initial segment, but instead either halted or reversed direction in an actin and Myosin Va-dependent manner. In contrast, vesicles carrying either an axonal or a nonspecifically localized protein only rarely halted or reversed and instead generally proceeded to the distal axon. Thus, our results are consistent with the axon initial segment behaving as a vesicle filter that mediates the differential trafficking of transport vesicles.

  4. Differential trafficking of transport vesicles contributes to the localization of dendritic proteins.

    PubMed

    Al-Bassam, Sarmad; Xu, Min; Wandless, Thomas J; Arnold, Don B

    2012-07-26

    In neurons, transmembrane proteins are targeted to dendrites in vesicles that traffic solely within the somatodendritic compartment. How these vesicles are retained within the somatodendritic domain is unknown. Here, we use a novel pulse-chase system, which allows synchronous release of exogenous transmembrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to follow movements of post-Golgi transport vesicles. Surprisingly, we found that post-Golgi vesicles carrying dendritic proteins were equally likely to enter axons and dendrites. However, once such vesicles entered the axon, they very rarely moved beyond the axon initial segment but instead either halted or reversed direction in an actin and Myosin Va-dependent manner. In contrast, vesicles carrying either an axonal or a nonspecifically localized protein only rarely halted or reversed and instead generally proceeded to the distal axon. Thus, our results are consistent with the axon initial segment behaving as a vesicle filter that mediates the differential trafficking of transport vesicles. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Riboflavin transport by rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, N; Jo, O D; Said, H M

    1997-12-04

    The present study examined riboflavin (RF) uptake by isolated rabbit renal brush border membrane (BBM). RF uptake was linear for up to 30 s and leveled off thereafter reaching an equilibrium with longer incubation. Studies on RF uptake as a function of incubation medium osmolarity indicated that the uptake was the results of transport (61.4%) into the intravesicular space as well as binding (38.6%) to membrane surfaces. The process of RF uptake was saturable as a function of substrate concentration with an apparent Km of 25.7 +/- 7.6 microM and Vmax of 75.6 +/- 14.7 pmol/mg protein/10 s. cis-Addition of unlabeled RF and its structural analogues, lumiflavin and lumichrome, inhibited the uptake of [3H]RF significantly, indicating the involvement of a carrier-mediated process in RF uptake by renal BBM. RF uptake by renal BBM was partly Na+-dependent so that when Na+ was replaced by potassium, choline, lithium or tetramethylammonium, the RF uptake was reduced to ca. 60% of the control. This Na+-dependency was unlikely to be due to Na+-cotransport mechanism because RF uptake occurred without the characteristic 'overshoot' phenomenon as for other Na+-cotransport systems and the elimination of transmembrane Na+-gradient by preloading Na+ to the intravesicular space did not affect RF uptake. In contrast, removal of Na+ eliminated the binding component of RF uptake, suggesting the requirement of Na+ for RF binding to BBM. The RF uptake was not affected when extravesicular pH was varied within the physiological pH range of 6.5 to 8.5. No effect on BBM [3H]RF uptake was found when the transmembrane electrical potential was altered by either the presence of anions with different membrane permeability (Cl- = NO3- > SO4- > gluconate-) or by using nigericin (10 microg/mg protein) with an outwardly or inwardly directed transmembrane K+ gradient. The uptake of RF by BBM vesicles was, however, inhibited by probenecid and organic anion transport inhibitors, 4,4-diiso

  6. Vesicular transport system in myotubes: ultrastructural study and signposting with vesicle-associated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Myofibers have characteristic membrane compartments in their cytoplasm and sarcolemma, such as the sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubules, neuromuscular junction, and myotendinous junction. Little is known about the vesicular transport that is believed to mediate the development of these membrane compartments. We determined the locations of organelles in differentiating myotubes. Electron microscopic observation of a whole myotube revealed the arrangement of Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, autolysosomes, mitochondria, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum from the perinuclear region toward the end of myotubes and the existence of a large number of vesicles near the ends of myotubes. Vesicles in myotubes were further characterized using immunofluorescence microscopy to analyze expression and localization of vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VAMPs are a family of seven proteins that regulate post-Golgi vesicular transport via the fusion of vesicles to the target membranes. Myotubes express five VAMPs in total. Vesicles with VAMP2, VAMP3, or VAMP5 were found near the ends of the myotubes. Some of these vesicles are also positive for caveolin-3, suggesting their participation in the development of T-tubules. Our morphological analyses revealed the characteristic arrangement of organelles in myotubes and the existence of transport vesicles near the ends of the myotubes.

  7. Active transport of vesicles in neurons is modulated by mechanical tension.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Saif, Taher A

    2014-03-27

    Effective intracellular transport of proteins and organelles is critical in cells, and is especially important for ensuring proper neuron functionality. In neurons, most proteins are synthesized in the cell body and must be transported through thin structures over long distances where normal diffusion is insufficient. Neurons transport subcellular cargo along axons and neurites through a stochastic interplay of active and passive transport. Mechanical tension is critical in maintaining proper function in neurons, but its role in transport is not well understood. To this end, we investigate the active and passive transport of vesicles in Aplysia neurons while changing neurite tension via applied strain, and quantify the resulting dynamics. We found that tension in neurons modulates active transport of vesicles by increasing the probability of active motion, effective diffusivity, and induces a retrograde bias. We show that mechanical tension modulates active transport processes in neurons and that external forces can couple to internal (subcellular) forces and change the overall transport dynamics.

  8. Active transport of vesicles in neurons is modulated by mechanical tension

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Wylie W.; Saif, Taher A.

    2014-01-01

    Effective intracellular transport of proteins and organelles is critical in cells, and is especially important for ensuring proper neuron functionality. In neurons, most proteins are synthesized in the cell body and must be transported through thin structures over long distances where normal diffusion is insufficient. Neurons transport subcellular cargo along axons and neurites through a stochastic interplay of active and passive transport. Mechanical tension is critical in maintaining proper function in neurons, but its role in transport is not well understood. To this end, we investigate the active and passive transport of vesicles in Aplysia neurons while changing neurite tension via applied strain, and quantify the resulting dynamics. We found that tension in neurons modulates active transport of vesicles by increasing the probability of active motion, effective diffusivity, and induces a retrograde bias. We show that mechanical tension modulates active transport processes in neurons and that external forces can couple to internal (subcellular) forces and change the overall transport dynamics. PMID:24670781

  9. Active transport of vesicles in neurons is modulated by mechanical tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Wylie W.; Saif, Taher A.

    2014-03-01

    Effective intracellular transport of proteins and organelles is critical in cells, and is especially important for ensuring proper neuron functionality. In neurons, most proteins are synthesized in the cell body and must be transported through thin structures over long distances where normal diffusion is insufficient. Neurons transport subcellular cargo along axons and neurites through a stochastic interplay of active and passive transport. Mechanical tension is critical in maintaining proper function in neurons, but its role in transport is not well understood. To this end, we investigate the active and passive transport of vesicles in Aplysia neurons while changing neurite tension via applied strain, and quantify the resulting dynamics. We found that tension in neurons modulates active transport of vesicles by increasing the probability of active motion, effective diffusivity, and induces a retrograde bias. We show that mechanical tension modulates active transport processes in neurons and that external forces can couple to internal (subcellular) forces and change the overall transport dynamics.

  10. Motor coordination via a tug-of-war mechanism drives bidirectional vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Adam G; Perlson, Eran; Ross, Jennifer L; Schroeder, Harry W; Tokito, Mariko; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2010-04-27

    The microtubule motors kinesin and dynein function collectively to drive vesicular transport. High-resolution tracking of vesicle motility in the cell indicates that transport is often bidirectional, characterized by frequent directional changes. However, the mechanisms coordinating the collective activities of oppositely oriented motors bound to the same cargo are not well understood. To examine motor coordination, we purified neuronal transport vesicles and analyzed their motility via automated particle tracking with nanometer resolution. The motility of purified vesicles reconstituted in vitro closely models the movement of LysoTracker-positive vesicles in primary neurons, where processive bidirectional motility is interrupted with frequent directional switches, diffusional movement, and pauses. Quantitative analysis indicates that vesicles copurify with a low number of stably bound motors: one to five dynein and one to four kinesin motors. These observations compare well to predictions from a stochastic tug-of-war model, where transport is driven by the force-dependent kinetics of teams of opposing motors in the absence of external regulation. Together, these observations indicate that vesicles move robustly with a small complement of tightly bound motors and suggest an efficient regulatory scheme for bidirectional motility where small changes in the number of engaged motors manifest in large changes in the motility of cargo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motor Coordination Via Tug-Of-War Mechanism Drives Bidirectional Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Adam G.; Perlson, Eran; Ross, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Harry W.; Tokito, Mariko; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The microtubule motors kinesin and dynein function collectively to drive vesicular transport. High resolution tracking of vesicle motility in the cell indicates that transport is often bidirectional, characterized by frequent directional changes. However, the mechanisms coordinating the collective activities of oppositely-oriented motors bound to the same cargo are not well understood. To examine motor coordination, we purified neuronal transport vesicles and analyzed their motility using automated particle tracking with nanometer resolution. The motility of purified vesicles reconstituted in vitro closely models the movement of Lysotracker-positive vesicles in primary neurons, where processive bidirectional motility is interrupted with frequent directional switches, diffusional movement and pauses. Quantitative analysis indicates that vesicles co-purify with a low number of stably-bound motors: 1–5 dynein and 1–4 kinesin motors. These observations compare well to predictions from a stochastic tug-of-war model, where transport is driven by the force-dependent kinetics of teams of opposing motors in the absence of external regulation. Together, these observations indicate that vesicles move robustly with a small complement of tightly-bound motors, and suggest an efficient regulatory scheme for bidirectional motility where small changes in the number of engaged motors manifest in large changes in the motility of cargo. PMID:20399099

  12. Two-compartment behavior during transport of folate compounds in L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.H.; Dembo, M.; Sirotnak, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of (/sup 3/H) 1,L 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, (/sup 3/H) folic acid, and (/sup 3/H)methotrexate by L1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles exhibited multicompartmental behavior. Two separate vesicular compartments (parallel relationship) of approximately equal volume were revealed during measurements of influx and efflux. Flux in one compartment was rapid, saturable, highly temperature-sensitive, and inhibited by pCMBS. Flux in the other compartment exhibited all of the characteristics of passive diffusion. These results imply that our plasma membrane vesicle preparations consist of a mixture of two functional species. Transport of folate into one of these species occurs by passive diffusion alone, whereas transport into the other kind of vesicle occurs by both passive diffusion and carrier-facilitated transport.

  13. Computational modelling of amino acid exchange and facilitated transport in placental membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Panitchob, N; Widdows, K L; Crocker, I P; Hanson, M A; Johnstone, E D; Please, C P; Sibley, C P; Glazier, J D; Lewis, R M; Sengers, B G

    2015-01-21

    Placental amino acid transport is required for fetal development and impaired transport has been associated with poor fetal growth. It is well known that placental amino acid transport is mediated by a broad array of specific membrane transporters with overlapping substrate specificity. However, it is not fully understood how these transporters function, both individually and as an integrated system. We propose that mathematical modelling could help in further elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how these transporters mediate placental amino acid transport. The aim of this work is to model the sodium independent transport of serine, which has been assumed to follow an obligatory exchange mechanism. However, previous amino acid uptake experiments in human placental microvillous plasma membrane vesicles have persistently produced results that are seemingly incompatible with such a mechanism; i.e. transport has been observed under zero-trans conditions, in the absence of internal substrates inside the vesicles to drive exchange. This observation raises two alternative hypotheses; (i) either exchange is not fully obligatory, or (ii) exchange is indeed obligatory, but an unforeseen initial concentration of amino acid substrate is present within the vesicle which could drive exchange. To investigate these possibilities, a mathematical model for tracer uptake was developed based on carrier mediated transport, which can represent either facilitated diffusion or obligatory exchange (also referred to as uniport and antiport mechanisms, respectively). In vitro measurements of serine uptake by placental microvillous membrane vesicles were carried out and the model applied to interpret the results based on the measured apparent Michaelis-Menten parameters Km and Vmax. In addition, based on model predictions, a new time series experiment was implemented to distinguish the hypothesised transporter mechanisms. Analysis of the results indicated the presence of a facilitated

  14. The role of vesicles in the transport of ferritin through frog endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Clough, G; Michel, C C

    1981-01-01

    1. The transport of ferritin molecules by endothelial cell vesicles has been quantitatively investigated by electron microscopy. Single mesenteric capillaries of pithed frogs were perfused with solutions containing 6.7 g ferritin 100 ml.-1 for known periods before fixation in situ with osmium tetroxide. 2. Two series of experiments were carried out: in the first series the perfusate contained bovine serum albumin (1.0 g 100 ml.-1); in the second series the perfusate contained no protein other than the ferritin. To assess the molecular radius of ferritin in solution, the free diffusion coefficient of ferritin was measured in the presence and absence of albumin. 3. The free diffusion coefficient of ferritin in saline solution (110 m-mole 1.-1) was found to be 0.35 X 10(-6) cm2 sec-1 at 21 degrees C and was not affected by the presence of bovine serum albumin. This indicates that there is no significant binding of albumin to ferritin in solution and yields a value for the Stokes-Einstein radius of ferritin of 6.1 nm. 4. In all perfusion experiments the percentage of luminal vesicles containing ferritin exceeded the percentage of labelled cytoplasmic vesicles, which in turn exceeded the percentage of labelled abluminal vesicles. 5. Labelling of all vesicle populations was seen after perfusions lasting less than 1 sec. At this time luminal vesicles were more heavily labelled in the absence of albumin. 6. The labelling of luminal vesicles increased with lengthening perfusion times up to 30-40 sec, after which steady levels of labelling were achieved. The rate of rise in luminal labelling and the steady-state levels reached were both greater in the absence of albumin. By contrast cytoplasmic labelling increased above its initial value only after perfusions of longer than 10 sec. 7. In the steady state, labelled cytoplasmic vesicles contained, on average, fewer ferritin molecules than labelled luminal vesicles. This finding is inconsistent with translocation of labelled

  15. The reversibility of active sulphate transport in membrane vesicles of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, J N; John, P; Whatley, F R

    1975-01-01

    An uncoupler-sensitive active transport of sulphate into membrane vesicles prepared from the plasma membrane of Paracoccus denitrificans (previously Micrococcus denitrificans) can be driven by respiration or by a trans-membrane pH gradient (alkaline inside) generated by the addition either of KCL ( in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL. Valinomycin does not substitute for nigericin. Respiration-driven transport is observed in right-side-out vesicles but not in inside-out vesicles, whereas transport driven by the addition of KCL (in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL is observed in both types of membrane vesicle. The active transport of sulphate into these vesicles is shown to be carrier-mediated by its sensitivity to thiol-group reagents. It is proposed that the sulphate carrier in the plasma membrane of P. denitrificans operates by a mechanism of electroneutral proton symport, and is capable of actively transporting sulphate in either direction across the plasma membrane, but that in whole cells respiration-driven proton expulsion drives the accumulative uptake of sulphate. PMID:1212205

  16. The reversibility of active sulphate transport in membrane vesicles of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Burnell, J N; John, P; Whatley, F R

    1975-09-01

    An uncoupler-sensitive active transport of sulphate into membrane vesicles prepared from the plasma membrane of Paracoccus denitrificans (previously Micrococcus denitrificans) can be driven by respiration or by a trans-membrane pH gradient (alkaline inside) generated by the addition either of KCL ( in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL. Valinomycin does not substitute for nigericin. Respiration-driven transport is observed in right-side-out vesicles but not in inside-out vesicles, whereas transport driven by the addition of KCL (in the presence of nigericin) or of NH4CL is observed in both types of membrane vesicle. The active transport of sulphate into these vesicles is shown to be carrier-mediated by its sensitivity to thiol-group reagents. It is proposed that the sulphate carrier in the plasma membrane of P. denitrificans operates by a mechanism of electroneutral proton symport, and is capable of actively transporting sulphate in either direction across the plasma membrane, but that in whole cells respiration-driven proton expulsion drives the accumulative uptake of sulphate.

  17. ATP-driven calcium transport in membrane vesicles of Streptococcus sanguis. [Streptococcus sanguis; Streptococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Houng, H.; Lynn, A.R.; Rosen, B.P.

    1986-11-01

    Calcium transport was investigated in membrane vesicles prepared from the oral bacterium Streptococcus sanguis. Procedures were devised for the preparation of membrane vesicles capable of accumulation /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Uptake was ATP dependent and did not require a proton motive force. Calcium transport in these vesicles was compared with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in membrane vesicles from Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The data support the existence of an ATP-driven calcium pump in S. sanguis similar to that in S. faecalis. This pump, which catalyzes uptake into membrane vesicles, would be responsible for extrusion of calcium from intact cells.

  18. Light-induced DELTApH and DELTApsi in halobacterial vesicles related to sodium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kamo, N.; Racanclli, T.; Packer, L.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes of Halobacterium halobium contain two retinoproteins, baceteriorhodopsin (BR/sub 568nm/) and halorhodopsin (HR/sub 588nm/). We have investigated the light- and sodium-dependent activities in vesicles from the HR containing R/sub 1/mR strain, and the BR + HR containing S/sub 9/ strain to study energy conversion and ion flow mechanisms. Simultaneous ..delta..pH and ..delta..psi measurements have been made with electrodes. In R/sub 1/mR vesicles, -..delta..psi and H/sup +/ uptake occurs in NaCl but not in KCl medium. In S/sub 9/ vesicles, net H/sup +/ extrusion is reduced at high light intensity in NaCl but not KCl medium. Such results indicate Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange in vesicles from both strains. As S/sub 9/ contains BR + HR, it is unclear whether the Na/sup +/ extrusion is due to a Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter and/or HR which has been proposed to be a light driven Na/sup +/ pump. To evaluate these concepts for Na/sup +/ transport, the light intensity dependence and action of several membrane transport active agents have been compared. Digitoxin, electro-neutral exchangers (triphenyltin and monensin), and phloretin yielded similar results for HR (R/sub 1/mR) and HR + BR (S/sub 9/) vesicles. Moreover treatment of vesicles with carboxyl reacting reagents inhibited Na/sup +/ dependent activity in both types of vesicles. Thus, common mechanisms of Na/sup +/ transport are indicated in S/sub 9/ and R/sub 1/mR vesicles. 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Lattice-gas model for active vesicle transport by molecular motors with opposite polarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhuri, Sudipto; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a multispecies lattice-gas model for motor protein driven collective cargo transport on cellular filaments. We use this model to describe and analyze the collective motion of interacting vesicle cargos being carried by oppositely directed molecular motors, moving on a single biofilament. Building on a totally asymmetric exclusion process to characterize the motion of the interacting cargos, we allow for mass exchange with the environment, input, and output at filament boundaries and focus on the role of interconversion rates and how they affect the directionality of the net cargo transport. We quantify the effect of the various different competing processes in terms of nonequilibrium phase diagrams. The interplay of interconversion rates, which allow for flux reversal and evaporation-deposition processes, introduces qualitatively unique features in the phase diagrams. We observe regimes of three-phase coexistence, the possibility of phase re-entrance, and a significant flexibility in how the different phase boundaries shift in response to changes in control parameters. The moving steady-state solutions of this model allows for different possibilities for the spatial distribution of cargo vesicles, ranging from homogeneous distribution of vesicles to polarized distributions, characterized by inhomogeneities or shocks. Current reversals due to internal regulation emerge naturally within the framework of this model. We believe that this minimal model will clarify the understanding of many features of collective vesicle transport, apart from serving as the basis for building more exact quantitative models for vesicle transport relevant to various in vivo situations.

  20. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  1. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  2. Chloride ion transport into pig jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, G W; Gabriel, S E

    1988-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to determine the types and activities of carrier proteins which transport the chloride ion in pig jejunal brush-border membranes, with an emphasis on studying the properties of chloride conductance activity in vesicles prepared from these membranes. 2. Sodium-chloride co-transport activity was not detected in this tissue. A sodium-proton antiport with typical amiloride sensitivity was present. An anion exchanger linking chloride to hydroxyl or bicarbonate ions was also found in the pig jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles. 3. Chloride conductance activity in this system was specifically dependent on the buffering agents used for vesicle preparation. Conductance activity could not be demonstrated in vesicles prepared in imidazolium acetate or in HEPES-Tris buffers. HEPES-tetramethylammonium buffering of vesicles in the chloride uptake system produced a significant conductance response to a potassium gradient plus valinomycin. 4. Chloride conductance showed saturable kinetics with respect to substrate concentration, with a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 116 mM and a maximum velocity (Vmax) of 132 nmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. 5. Preliminary screening of potential inhibitors of chloride conductance showed only minimal inhibitor effects of SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-sulphonic acid), anthracene-9-carboxylate, N-phenylanthranilate and piretanide. 6. The conductance activity in pig jejunal vesicles appears to have stringent buffer requirements, and to be relatively insensitive to the effects of reported conductance inhibitors. PMID:2466986

  3. Quantification of volume and lipid filling of intracellular vesicles carrying the ABCA3 transporter.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Stefanie; Kinting, Susanna; Torrano, Adriano A; Schindlbeck, Ulrike; Bräuchle, Christoph; Zarbock, Ralf; Wittmann, Thomas; Griese, Matthias

    2017-09-06

    The ABCA3 lipid transporter is located in the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies (LBs) in type-II-pneumocytes. Mutations within the ABCA3 gene may functionally impair the transporter, causing lung diseases in newborns, children and adults. Assays to quantify volume and lipid filling of the LBs on the level of the vesicular structures and thereby assess the function of ABCA3 are still lacking. In the present study human influenza haemagglutinin- (HA-) tagged wild type and mutant ABCA3 proteins were stably expressed in lung A549 cells. Fluorescently-labelled TopFluor phosphatidylcholine (TopF-PC) incorporated in surfactant-like liposomes was delivered to the cells and visualized by confocal microscopy. Subsequently, a comprehensive image analysis method was applied to quantify volume and fluorescence intensity of TopF-PC in ABCA3-HA-positive vesicles. TopF-PC accumulated within the vesicles in a time and concentration-dependent manner, whereas the volume remained unchanged, suggesting active transport into preformed ABCA3 containing vesicles. Furthermore, this finding was supported by a decrease of the fluorescence intensity within the vesicles when either the ATPase of the transporter was inhibited by vanadate, or when a disease-causing mutation (K1388N) close to the ABCA3-nucleotide binding domain 2 was introduced. Conversely, a mutation (E292V) located in the first cytoplasmic loop of ABCA3 did not significantly affect lipid transport, but rather resulted in smaller vesicles. In addition to these findings, the assay used in this work for analysing the PC-lipid transport into ABCA3 positive vesicles will be useful to screen for compounds susceptible to restore function in mutated ABCA3 protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel method to quantify H+-ATPase-dependent Na+ transport across plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqing; Hu, Lei; Chen, Xuemei; Ottow, Eric A; Polle, Andrea; Jiang, Xiangning

    2007-09-01

    To prevent sodium toxicity in plants, Na(+) is excluded from the cytosol to the apoplast or the vacuole by Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. The secondary active transport of Na(+) to apoplast against its electrochemical gradient is driven by plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases that hydrolyze ATP and pump H(+) across the plasma membrane. Current methods to determine Na(+) flux rely either on the use of Na-isotopes ((22)Na) which require special working permission or sophisticated equipment or on indirect methods estimating changes in the H(+) gradient due to H(+)-ATPase in the presence or absence of Na(+) by pH-sensitive probes. To date, there are no methods that can directly quantify H(+)-ATPase-dependent Na(+) transport in plasma membrane vesicles. We developed a method to measure bidirectional H(+)-ATPase-dependent Na(+) transport in isolated membrane vesicle systems using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The experiments were performed using plasma membrane-enriched vesicles isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from leaves of Populus tomentosa. Since most of the plasma membrane vesicles have a sealed right-side-out orientation after repeated aqueous two-phase partitioning, the ATP-binding sites of H(+)-ATPases are exposed towards inner side. Leaky vesicles were preloaded with Na(+) sealed for the study of H(+)-ATPase-dependent Na(+) transport. Our data implicate that Na(+) movement across vesicle membranes is highly dependent on H(+)-ATPase activity requiring ATP and Mg(2+) and displays optimum rates of 2.50 microM Na(+) mg(-1) membrane protein min(-1) at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C. In this study, for the first time, we establish new protocols for the preparation of sealed preloaded right-side-out vesicles for the study of H(+)-ATPase-dependent Na(+) transport. The results demonstrate that the Na(+) content of various types of plasma membrane vesicle can be directly quantified by AAS, and the results measured using AAS method were consistent with those determined by the

  5. Myosin II Is Involved in the Production of Constitutive Transport Vesicles from the TGN

    PubMed Central

    Müsch, Anne; Cohen, David; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    1997-01-01

    The participation of nonmuscle myosins in the transport of organelles and vesicular carriers along actin filaments has been documented. In contrast, there is no evidence for the involvement of myosins in the production of vesicles involved in membrane traffic. Here we show that the putative TGN coat protein p200 (Narula, N., I. McMorrow, G. Plopper, J. Doherty, K.S. Matlin, B. Burke, and J.L. Stow. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 114: 1113–1124) is myosin II. The recruitment of myosin II to Golgi membranes is dependent on actin and is regulated by G proteins. Using an assay that studies the release of transport vesicles from the TGN in vitro, we provide functional evidence that p200/myosin is involved in the assembly of basolateral transport vesicles carrying vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSVG) from the TGN of polarized MDCK cells. The 50% reduced efficiency in VSVG vesicle release from the TGN in vitro after depletion of p200/myosin II could be reestablished to control levels by the addition of purified nonmuscle myosin II. Several inhibitors of the actin-stimulated ATPase activity of myosin specifically inhibited the release of VSVG-containing vesicles from the TGN. PMID:9230072

  6. Bioenergetics of serotonin transport by membrane vesicles derived from platelet dense granules.

    PubMed

    Fishkes, H; Rudnick, G

    1982-05-25

    A population of membrane vesicles derived from platelet-dense granules was isolated from platelet osmotic lysates by density gradient centrifugation. The preparation is relatively free from contamination by mitochondrial and soluble enzymatic activities and contains only traces of serotonin and adenine nucleotides, but retains significant amounts of Na+-dependent serotonin transport (plasma membrane) activity. In the presence of ATP and in the absence of Na+, these vesicles accumulate serotonin to intravesicular concentrations over 100 times that of the medium. Transport is a saturable process (Km = 1.15 microM) inhibited by reserpine, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, ammonia, and nigericin (in the presence of external potassium), but not by imipramine. When diluted into assay medium at pH 8.5, the interior of these vesicles remains relatively acidic. Addition of ATP further induced generation of a membrane potential (interior positive). The vesicles accumulate maximal concentrations of serotonin only when the vesicle interior is both acidic and positive with respect to the medium. These results are consistent with a transporter which catalyzes countertransport of at least two protons for each serotonin cation accumulated.

  7. Plastocyanin stimulation of whole chain and photosystem I electron transport in inside-out thylakoid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Atta-Asafo-Adjei, E.; Dilley, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Inside-out and right-side-out thylakoid vesicles were isolated from spinach chloroplasts by aqueous-polymer two-phase (dextran/polyethylene glycol) partitioning. Externally added plastocyanin stimulated the whole-chain and PSI electron transport rates in the inside-out thylakoid vesicles by about 500 and 350%, respectively, compared to about 50% stimulation for both assays in the fraction enriched in right-side-out vesicles. No apparent stimulation by plastocyanin was observed in unbroken Class II thylakoids. The electron transport between PSII and PSI in inside-out thylakoid vesicles appears to be interrupted due to plastocyanin release from the thylakoids by the Yeda press treatment, but it was restored by externally added plastocyanin. The P700 content of the inside-out membrane preparations, measured by chemical and photochemical methods, was 1 P700 per 1100 to 1500 chlorophylls while it was about 1 P700 per 500 chlorophylls for the right-side-out vesicles. The data presented support the concept of lateral heterogeneity of PS I and II in thylakoid membranes, but does not support a virtual or total absence of PSI in the appressed grana partitions. Further, the heterogeneity does not appear to be as extreme as suggested earlier. Although PSI is somewhat depleted in the appressed grana membrane region, there is adequate photochemically active P700, when sufficient plastocyanin is available, to effectively couple PSI electron transfer with the preponderant PSII in linear electron transport.

  8. Calcium Transport in Sealed Vesicles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Storage Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, John L.; Gildensoph, Lynne H.; Reynolds-Niesman, Ingrid; Briskin, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium transport was examined in microsomal membrane vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue using chlorotetracycline as a fluorescent probe. This probe demonstrates an increase in fluorescence corresponding to calcium accumulation within the vesicles which can be collapsed by the addition of the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium uptake in the microsomal vesicles was ATP dependent and completely inhibited by orthovanadate. Centrifugation of the microsomal membrane fraction on a linear 15 to 45% (w/w) sucrose density gradient revealed the presence of a single peak of calcium uptake which comigrated with the marker for endoplasmic reticulum. The calcium transport system associated with endoplasmic reticulum vesicles was then further characterized in fractions produced by centrifugation on discontinous sucrose density gradients. Calcium transport was insensitive to carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone indicating the presence of a primary transport system directly linked to ATP utilization. The endoplasmic reticulum vesicles contained an ATPase activity that was calcium dependent and further stimulated by A23187 (Ca2+, A23187 stimulated-ATPase). Both calcium uptake and Ca2+, A23187 stimulated ATPase demonstrated similar properties with respect to pH optimum, inhibitor sensitivity, substrate specificity, and substrate kinetics. Treatment of the red beet endoplasmic reticulum vesicles with [γ-32P]-ATP over short time intervals revealed the presence of a rapidly turning over 96 kilodalton radioactive peptide possibly representing a phosphorylated intermediate of this endoplasmic reticulum associated ATPase. It is proposed that this ATPase activity may represent the enzymic machinery responsible for mediating primary calcium transport in the endoplasmic reticulum linked to ATP utilization. Images Fig. 7 PMID:16665816

  9. Electrogenic bromosulfalein transport in isolated membrane vesicles: implementation in both animal and plant preparations for the study of flavonoid transporters.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Sabina; Tramer, Federica; Petrussa, Elisa; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Bromosulfalein is an organic anion dye used in the study of a variety of membrane carriers expressed in animal tissues and involved in transport of drugs and metabolites. The spectrophotometric assay of electrogenic bromosulfalein transport in membrane vesicles, isolated from various mammalian organs or tissues, enables to specifically measure the transport activity of bilitranslocase (TCDB 2.A.65.1.1). The latter is a bilirubin- and flavonoid-specific transporter expressed in rat liver, the organ where its function has been best characterized. The spectrophotometric assay of electrogenic bromosulfalein transport requires minimal volumes of membrane vesicles, is completed within 1 min, and, therefore, is a useful tool to screen the transporter spectrum of potential substrates, by testing them as reversible inhibitors of bromosulfalein transport kinetics. Furthermore, the assay enables to study the progress of time-dependent inactivation of bromosulfalein transport, caused by different protein-specific reagents, including specific anti-sequence antibodies. Inactivation can be retarded by the presence of substrates in a concentration-dependent manner, enabling to derive the dissociation constants of the transporter-substrate complex and thus to gain further insight into the transporter structure-function relationship. This assay, implemented in membrane vesicles isolated from plant organs, has paved the way to the discovery of homologues of bilitranslocase in plants.

  10. Segregation of the Qb-SNAREs GS27 and GS28 into Golgi vesicles regulates intra-Golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Fusella, Aurora; Micaroni, Massimo; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Mironov, Alexandre A; Beznoussenko, Galina V

    2013-05-01

    The Golgi apparatus is the main glycosylation and sorting station along the secretory pathway. Its structure includes the Golgi vesicles, which are depleted of anterograde cargo, and also of at least some Golgi-resident proteins. The role of Golgi vesicles remains unclear. Here, we show that Golgi vesicles are enriched in the Qb-SNAREs GS27 (membrin) and GS28 (GOS-28), and depleted of nucleotide sugar transporters. A block of intra-Golgi transport leads to accumulation of Golgi vesicles and partitioning of GS27 and GS28 into these vesicles. Conversely, active intra-Golgi transport induces fusion of these vesicles with the Golgi cisternae, delivering GS27 and GS28 to these cisternae. In an in vitro assay based on a donor compartment that lacks UDP-galactose translocase (a sugar transporter), the segregation of Golgi vesicles from isolated Golgi membranes inhibits intra-Golgi transport; re-addition of isolated Golgi vesicles devoid of UDP-galactose translocase obtained from normal cells restores intra-Golgi transport. We conclude that this activity is due to the presence of GS27 and GS28 in the Golgi vesicles, rather than the sugar transporter. Furthermore, there is an inverse correlation between the number of Golgi vesicles and the number of inter-cisternal connections under different experimental conditions. Finally, a rapid block of the formation of vesicles via COPI through degradation of ϵCOP accelerates the cis-to-trans delivery of VSVG. These data suggest that Golgi vesicles, presumably with COPI, serve to inhibit intra-Golgi transport by the extraction of GS27 and GS28 from the Golgi cisternae, which blocks the formation of inter-cisternal connections. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. ATP-dependent transport of reduced glutathione in yeast secretory vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeor, J F; Connolly, G C; Dumont, M E; Ballatori, N

    1998-01-01

    Turnover of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) is accomplished predominantly by export into the extracellular space; however, the plasma membrane transport mechanisms that mediate GSH efflux are not well characterized. The present study examined GSH transport using secretory vesicles isolated from the sec6-4 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast with studies in mammalian membrane vesicles, GSH transport in yeast secretory vesicles was mediated largely by an ATP-dependent, low-affinity pathway (Km 19+/-5 mM). ATP-dependent [3H]GSH transport was cis-inhibited by substrates of the yeast YCF1 transporter, including sulphobromophthalein, glutathione S-conjugates and the alkaloid verapamil, and was competitively inhibited by S-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione (DNP-SG). Similarly, GSH competitively inhibited ATP-dependent [3H]DNP-SG transport, with a Ki of 18+/-2 mM, but had no effect on ATP-dependent [3H]taurocholate transport. ATP-dependent GSH transport was not affected by either membrane potential or pH-gradient uncouplers, but was inhibited by 4, 4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate, probenecid and sulphinpyrazone, which are inhibitors of mrp1 and mrp2, mammalian homologues of the yeast YCF1 transporter. Western blot analysis of the secretory vesicle membrane fraction confirmed the presence of Ycf1p. These results provide the first direct evidence for low-affinity, ATP-dependent transport of GSH, and demonstrate that this ATP-dependent pathway displays kinetic characteristics similar to those of the yeast YCF1 transporter. PMID:9729482

  12. Inter-Golgi transport mediated by COPI-containing vesicles carrying small cargoes.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Patrina A; Dietrich, Felix; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Rothman, James E; Lavieu, Grégory

    2013-10-01

    A core prediction of the vesicular transport model is that COPI vesicles are responsible for trafficking anterograde cargoes forward. In this study, we test this prediction by examining the properties and requirements of inter-Golgi transport within fused cells, which requires mobile carriers in order for exchange of constituents to occur. We report that both small soluble and membrane-bound secretory cargo and exogenous Golgi resident glycosyl-transferases are exchanged between separated Golgi. Large soluble aggregates, which traverse individual stacks, do not transfer between Golgi, implying that small cargoes (which can fit in a typical transport vesicle) are transported by a different mechanism. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that the carriers of both anterograde and retrograde cargoes are the size of COPI vesicles, contain coatomer, and functionally require ARF1 and coatomer for transport. The data suggest that COPI vesicles traffic both small secretory cargo and steady-state Golgi resident enzymes among stacked cisternae that are stationary. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01296.001.

  13. Inter-Golgi transport mediated by COPI-containing vesicles carrying small cargoes

    PubMed Central

    Pellett, Patrina A; Dietrich, Felix; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Rothman, James E; Lavieu, Grégory

    2013-01-01

    A core prediction of the vesicular transport model is that COPI vesicles are responsible for trafficking anterograde cargoes forward. In this study, we test this prediction by examining the properties and requirements of inter-Golgi transport within fused cells, which requires mobile carriers in order for exchange of constituents to occur. We report that both small soluble and membrane-bound secretory cargo and exogenous Golgi resident glycosyl-transferases are exchanged between separated Golgi. Large soluble aggregates, which traverse individual stacks, do not transfer between Golgi, implying that small cargoes (which can fit in a typical transport vesicle) are transported by a different mechanism. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that the carriers of both anterograde and retrograde cargoes are the size of COPI vesicles, contain coatomer, and functionally require ARF1 and coatomer for transport. The data suggest that COPI vesicles traffic both small secretory cargo and steady-state Golgi resident enzymes among stacked cisternae that are stationary. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01296.001 PMID:24137546

  14. Hydration-driven transport of deformable lipid vesicles through fine pores and the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor; Gebauer, Dieter

    2003-02-01

    We studied aggregate transport through semipermeable, nano-porous barriers experimentally and theoretically. By measuring and modeling the effect of hydration gradient across such barriers, spontaneous transbarrier transport of suitable lipid aggregates in vesicular form was proven to be driven by partial aggregate dehydration at the application site. By generalizing the Onsager transport model we derived a set of equations that rationalize all pertinent observations. Dehydration-induced vesicle motion starts with a lag time. This corresponds to the time needed to reach the limiting vesicle hydration; both are proportional to the starting excess water volume and decrease with increasing relative humidity at application site. The rate of transbarrier transport is insensitive to these parameters but increases with vesicle deformability and volume exchange capability. Both these properties depend on membrane composition. Reversible demixing of bilayer components is the cause of nonlinear bilayer characteristics and also potentially affects the effective membrane hydrophilicity. High hydrophilicity of vesicle surface and extreme aggregate shape adaptability together are necessary for successful material transport across the skin. This demonstrates the significance of basic biophysical investigations for better understanding of biological systems and for the practical use of artificial, nature-inspired carriers in drug delivery.

  15. Direct measurement of calcium transport across chloroplast inner-envelope vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Roh, M.H.; Shingles, R.; Cleveland, M.J.; McCarty, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    The initial rate of Ca{sup 2+} movement across the inner-envelope membrane of pea (Pisum sativum L.) chloroplasts was directly measured by stopped-flow spectrofluorometry using membrane vesicles loaded with the Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive fluorophore fura-2. Calibration of fura-2 fluorescence was achieved by combining a ratiometric method with Ca{sup 2+}-selective minielectrodes to determine pCa values. The initial rate of Ca{sup 2+} influx in predominantly right-side-out inner-envelope membrane vesicles was greater than that in largely inside-out vesicles. Ca{sup 2+} movement was stimulated by an inwardly directed electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane vesicles, an effect that was diminished by the addition of valinomycin in the presence of K{sup +}. In addition, Ca{sup 2+} was shown to move across the membrane vesicles in the presence of K{sup +} diffusion potential gradient. The potential-stimulated rate of Ca{sup 2+} transport was slightly inhibited by diltiazem and greatly inhibited by ruthenium red. Other pharmacological agents such as LaCl{sub 3}, verapamil, and nifedipine had little or no effect. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} transport across the chloroplast inner envelope can occur by a potential-stimulated uniport mechanism.

  16. Use of inside-out chloroplast thylakoid membrane vesicles for studying electron transport and membrane structure

    SciTech Connect

    Atta-Asafo-Adjei, E.

    1987-01-01

    Inside-out and right-side-out thylakoid vesicles were isolated from spinach chloroplasts by aqueous-polymer two-phase partitioning following mechanical fragmentation of thylakoid membranes by Yeda press treatment. Externally added plastocyanin stimulated the whole-chain and PSI electron transport rates in the inside-out thylakoid vesicles by about 500 and 350%, respectively, compared to about 50% stimulation for both assays in the fraction enriched in right-side-out vesicles. The electron transport between PSII and PSI in inside-out thylakoid vesicles appears to be interrupted due to plastocyanin release from the thylakoids by the Yeda press treatment, but it was restored by externally added plastocyanin. Acetic anhydride chemical modification and uncoupler-induced proton release from dark-adapted membranes are probes for detecting the sequested proton domains in thylakoid membranes. Both assays were used to find out if inside-out membranes retain metastable, localized proton binding domains. Treatment of dark-maintained inside-out thylakoid membrane vesicles with ({sup 3}H)acetic anhydride showed no uncoupler-induced increase in acetylation of the 33, 24, and 18 kDa polypeptides of the oxygen-evolving-complex, indicating complete loss of the implicated proton domains in these polypeptides. The various steps in the inside-out preparation were studied to discern which steps(s) leads to the loss of the metastable domain proton pool.

  17. Energy coupling of L-glutamate transport and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in brain synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Y; Maeda, M; Futai, M

    1990-10-01

    Energy coupling of L-glutamate transport in brain synaptic vesicles has been studied. ATP-dependent acidification of the bovine brain synaptic vesicles was shown to require CI-, to be accelerated by valinomycin and to be abolished by ammonium sulfate, nigericin or CCCP plus valinomycin, and K+. On the other hand, ATP-driven formation of a membrane potential (positive inside) was found to be stimulated by ammonium sulfate, not to be affected by nigericin and to be abolished by CCCP plus valinomycin and K+. Like formation of a membrane potential, ATP-dependent L-[3H]glutamate uptake into vesicles was stimulated by ammonium sulfate, not affected by nigericin and abolished by CCCP plus valinomycin and K+. The L-[3H]glutamate uptake differed in specificity from the transport system in synaptic plasma membranes. Both ATP-dependent H+ pump activity and L-glutamate uptake were inhibited by bafilomycin and cold treatment (common properties of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase). ATP-dependent acidification in the presence of L-glutamate was also observed, suggesting that L-glutamate uptake lowered the membrane potential to drive further entry of H+. These results were consistent with the notion that the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase of synpatic vesicles formed a membrane potential to drive L-glutamate uptake. ATPase activity of the vesicles was not affected by the addition of Cl-, glutamate or nigericin, indicating that an electrochemical H+ gradient had no effect on the ATPase activity.

  18. Uptake of auxins into membrane vesicles isolated from pea stems: an in vitro auxin transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test the applicability of the chemiosmotic theory of auxin transport to a subcellular system. Membrane vesicles were isolated from the basal portion of the third internode of etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska) by differential centrifugation. Uptake of auxin was determined by adding /sup 14/C-labeled indoleacetic acid (IAA) to vesicles. Nigericin, a monovalent cation ionophore, and the electrogenic protonophore, carbonyl-cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), at micromolar concentrations abolished saturable uptake. Bursting vesicles by sonication, osmotic shock and freeze/thawing also eliminated saturable uptake. As the temperature increased from 0 to 30/sup 0/C, saturable uptake decreased markedly. Nonsaturable auxin uptake was less affected by these treatments. The pH gradient-dependent uptake of auxin appeared to be a transmembrane uptake of auxin into the vesicles rather than surface binding. Unlabeled IAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at low concentrations reduced the saturable accumulation of (/sup 14/C)IAA in vesicles, while phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, and 1-NAA were effective only at high concentrations. Kinetic analysis revealed two types of sites: a high affinity site with an uptake capacity of 25 to 40 pmoles/g tissue, and a low affinity site with an uptake capacity of 260 to 600 pmole/g tissue, fresh wt. In conclusion, several principal elements of an auxin transport system, as specific by the chemiosmotic theory of polar auxin transport, were present in membrane vesicles isolated from relatively mature pea stem tissue. However, one important aspect of the theory was not demonstrated in this in vitro system - a TIBA/NPA-sensitive auxin efflux. The kinetics and specificity of auxin uptake strongly suggested that this system was physiologically significant.

  19. Evidence for tripeptide/H+ co-transport in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Tiruppathi, C; Kulanthaivel, P; Ganapathy, V; Leibach, F H

    1990-01-01

    L-Phe-L-Pro-L-Ala is a tripeptide which is hydrolysable almost exclusively by dipeptidyl peptidase IV in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles. In order to delineate the mechanism of the transport of an intact tripeptide across the brush-border membrane, we studied the characteristics of the uptake of [3H]Phe-Pro-Ala in membrane vesicles in which the activity of dipeptidylpeptidase IV was completely inhibited by treatment with di-isopropyl fluorophosphate. In these vesicles, uptake of radiolabel from the tripeptide was found to be Na(+)-independent, but was greatly stimulated by an inwardly directed H+ gradient. The H(+)-gradient-dependent radiolabel uptake appeared to be an active process, because the time course of uptake exhibited an overshoot phenomenon. The process was also electrogenic, being stimulated by an inside-negative membrane potential. Under the uptake-measurement conditions there was no detectable hydrolysis of [3H]Phe-Pro-Ala in the incubation medium when di-isopropyl fluorophosphate-treated membrane vesicles were used. Analysis of intravesicular contents revealed that the radiolabel inside the vesicles was predominantly (greater than 90%) in the form of intact tripeptide. These data indicate that the uptake of radiolabel from [3H]Phe-Pro-Ala in the presence of an inwardly directed H+ gradient represents almost exclusively uptake of intact tripeptide. Uphill transport of the tripeptide was also demonstrable in the presence of an inwardly directed Na+ or K+ gradient, but only if nigericin was added to the medium. Under these conditions, nigericin, an ionophore for Na+, K+ and H+, was expected to generate a transmembrane H+ gradient. Uptake of Phe-Pro-Ala in the presence of a H+ gradient was inhibited by di- and tri-peptides, but not by free amino acids. It is concluded that tripeptide/H+ co-transport is the mechanism of Phe-Pro-Ala uptake in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles. PMID:2160811

  20. Evidence for tripeptide/H+ co-transport in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tiruppathi, C; Kulanthaivel, P; Ganapathy, V; Leibach, F H

    1990-05-15

    L-Phe-L-Pro-L-Ala is a tripeptide which is hydrolysable almost exclusively by dipeptidyl peptidase IV in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles. In order to delineate the mechanism of the transport of an intact tripeptide across the brush-border membrane, we studied the characteristics of the uptake of [3H]Phe-Pro-Ala in membrane vesicles in which the activity of dipeptidylpeptidase IV was completely inhibited by treatment with di-isopropyl fluorophosphate. In these vesicles, uptake of radiolabel from the tripeptide was found to be Na(+)-independent, but was greatly stimulated by an inwardly directed H+ gradient. The H(+)-gradient-dependent radiolabel uptake appeared to be an active process, because the time course of uptake exhibited an overshoot phenomenon. The process was also electrogenic, being stimulated by an inside-negative membrane potential. Under the uptake-measurement conditions there was no detectable hydrolysis of [3H]Phe-Pro-Ala in the incubation medium when di-isopropyl fluorophosphate-treated membrane vesicles were used. Analysis of intravesicular contents revealed that the radiolabel inside the vesicles was predominantly (greater than 90%) in the form of intact tripeptide. These data indicate that the uptake of radiolabel from [3H]Phe-Pro-Ala in the presence of an inwardly directed H+ gradient represents almost exclusively uptake of intact tripeptide. Uphill transport of the tripeptide was also demonstrable in the presence of an inwardly directed Na+ or K+ gradient, but only if nigericin was added to the medium. Under these conditions, nigericin, an ionophore for Na+, K+ and H+, was expected to generate a transmembrane H+ gradient. Uptake of Phe-Pro-Ala in the presence of a H+ gradient was inhibited by di- and tri-peptides, but not by free amino acids. It is concluded that tripeptide/H+ co-transport is the mechanism of Phe-Pro-Ala uptake in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles.

  1. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  2. Phosphate transport by rat intestinal basolateral-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Ghishan, F K; Kikuchi, K; Arab, N

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of phosphate transport across intestinal basolateral membranes of the rat were determined by using enriched preparations in which uphill Na+-dependent D-glucose transport could not be demonstrated, but ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport was present. Phosphate transport was saturable, Na+-dependent and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Vmax. was 51.1 +/- 4.2 pmol/10 s per mg of protein and Km was 14 +/- 3.9 microM. The transport process was electroneutral. Tracer-exchange experiments and counter-transport studies confirmed the presence of a Na+-Pi carrier at the basolateral membrane. The presence of inside-positive membrane potential did not enhance phosphate uptake, indicating that the Na+ effect is secondary to the presence of the Na+-Pi carrier rather than an induction of positive membrane potential. The stoichiometry of this carrier at pH 7.4 was 2 Na+:1 phosphate, as shown by direct studies utilizing the static-head method. These studies are the first to determine the presence of a phosphate carrier at the basolateral membrane. PMID:3663094

  3. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

  4. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S

    2012-08-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine-based sorting signal in the pigment cell-specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1- and AP-3-favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs.

  5. The complexity of vesicle transport factors in plants examined by orthology search.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puneet; Simm, Stefan; Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the 'core-set' of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed.

  6. The Complexity of Vesicle Transport Factors in Plants Examined by Orthology Search

    PubMed Central

    Mirus, Oliver; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the ‘core-set’ of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-)orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-)orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-)orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-)orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527) of the (co-)orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-)orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-)orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-)orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-)orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed. PMID:24844592

  7. New Putative Chloroplast Vesicle Transport Components and Cargo Proteins Revealed Using a Bioinformatics Approach: An Arabidopsis Model

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nadir Zaman; Lindquist, Emelie; Aronsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Proteins and lipids are known to be transported to targeted cytosolic compartments in vesicles. A similar system in chloroplasts is suggested to transfer lipids from the inner envelope to the thylakoids. However, little is known about both possible cargo proteins and the proteins required to build a functional vesicle transport system in chloroplasts. A few components have been suggested, but only one (CPSAR1) has a verified location in chloroplast vesicles. This protein is localized in the donor membrane (envelope) and vesicles, but not in the target membrane (thylakoids) suggesting it plays a similar role to a cytosolic homologue, Sar1, in the secretory pathway. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be more similarities, in addition to lipid transport, between the vesicle transport systems in the cytosol and chloroplast, i.e. similar vesicle transport components, possible cargo proteins and receptors. Therefore, using a bioinformatics approach we searched for putative chloroplast components in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding mainly to components of the cytosolic vesicle transport system that may act in coordination with previously proposed COPII chloroplast homologues. We found several additional possible components, supporting the notion of a fully functional vesicle transport system in chloroplasts. Moreover, we found motifs in thylakoid-located proteins similar to those of COPII vesicle cargo proteins, supporting the hypothesis that chloroplast vesicles may transport thylakoid proteins from the envelope to the thylakoid membrane. Several putative cargo proteins are involved in photosynthesis, thus we propose the existence of a novel thylakoid protein pathway that is important for construction and maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery. PMID:23573218

  8. Individual synaptic vesicles from the electroplaque of Torpedo californica, a classic cholinergic synapse, also contain transporters for glutamate and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huinan; Harlow, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The type of neurotransmitter secreted by a neuron is a product of the vesicular transporters present on its synaptic vesicle membranes and the available transmitters in the local cytosolic environment where the synaptic vesicles reside. Synaptic vesicles isolated from electroplaques of the marine ray, Torpedo californica, have served as model vesicles for cholinergic neurotransmission. Many lines of evidence support the idea that in addition to acetylcholine, additional neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators are also released from cholinergic synapses. We identified the types of vesicular neurotransmitter transporters present at the electroplaque using immunoblot and immunofluoresence techniques with antibodies against the vesicle acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, 2, and 3), and the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT). We found that VAChT, VNUT, VGLUT 1 and 2, but not 3 were present by immunoblot, and confirmed that the antibodies were specific to proteins of the axons and terminals of the electroplaque. We used a single‐vesicle imaging technique to determine whether these neurotransmitter transporters were present on the same or different populations of synaptic vesicles. We found that greater than 85% of vesicles that labeled for VAChT colabeled with VGLUT1 or VGLUT2, and approximately 70% colabeled with VNUT. Based upon confidence intervals, at least 52% of cholinergic vesicles isolated are likely to contain all four transporters. The presence of multiple types of neurotransmitter transporters – and potentially neurotransmitters – in individual synaptic vesicles raises fundamental questions about the role of cotransmitter release and neurotransmitter synergy at cholinergic synapses. PMID:24744885

  9. Identification of an Axonal Kinesin-3 Motor for Fast Anterograde Vesicle Transport that Facilitates Retrograde Transport of Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Barkus, Rosemarie V.; Klyachko, Olga; Horiuchi, Dai; Dickson, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    A screen for genes required in Drosophila eye development identified an UNC-104/Kif1 related kinesin-3 microtubule motor. Analysis of mutants suggested that Drosophila Unc-104 has neuronal functions that are distinct from those of the classic anterograde axonal motor, kinesin-1. In particular, unc-104 mutations did not cause the distal paralysis and focal axonal swellings characteristic of kinesin-1 (Khc) mutations. However, like Khc mutations, unc-104 mutations caused motoneuron terminal atrophy. The distributions and transport behaviors of green fluorescent protein-tagged organelles in motor axons indicate that Unc-104 is a major contributor to the anterograde fast transport of neuropeptide-filled vesicles, that it also contributes to anterograde transport of synaptotagmin-bearing vesicles, and that it contributes little or nothing to anterograde transport of mitochondria, which are transported primarily by Khc. Remarkably, unc-104 mutations inhibited retrograde runs by neurosecretory vesicles but not by the other two organelles. This suggests that Unc-104, a member of an anterograde kinesin subfamily, contributes to an organelle-specific dynein-driven retrograde transport mechanism. PMID:17989365

  10. Synapse-Assembly Proteins Maintain Synaptic Vesicle Cluster Stability and Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Transport in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Stacey L.; Yorks, Rosalina M.; Morrison, Logan M.; Hoover, Christopher M.; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. The kinesin motor KIF1A transports SVs from somas to stable SV clusters at synapses, while dynein moves them in the opposite direction. However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. We addressed these questions by isolating a rare temperature-sensitive allele of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-104 (KIF1A) that allowed us to manipulate SV levels in axons and dendrites. Growth at 20° and 14° resulted in locomotion rates that were ∼3 and 50% of wild type, respectively, with similar effects on axonal SV levels. Corresponding with the loss of SVs from axons, mutants grown at 14° and 20° showed a 10- and 24-fold dynein-dependent accumulation of SVs in their dendrites. Mutants grown at 14° and switched to 25° showed an abrupt irreversible 50% decrease in locomotion and a 50% loss of SVs from the synaptic region 12-hr post-shift, with no further decreases at later time points, suggesting that the remaining clustered SVs are stable and resistant to retrograde removal by dynein. The data further showed that the synapse-assembly proteins SYD-1, SYD-2, and SAD-1 protected SV clusters from degradation by motor proteins. In syd-1, syd-2, and sad-1 mutants, SVs accumulate in an UNC-104-dependent manner in the distal axon region that normally lacks SVs. In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport. PMID:26354975

  11. Transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen from surfactant-based vesicles: particle characterization and the effect of water on in vitro transport.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Yuiko; Murata, Akiko; Oka, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Yasunori; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-10

    Flurbiprofen loaded rigid and elastic vesicles comprising the bilayer-forming surfactant sucrose-ester laurate were prepared by the film rehydration and extrusion method. The charge-inducing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate, and the micelle-forming surfactants, sorbitan monolaurate, polyethylene glycol monolaurate, and polysorbate 20, were used to enhance elasticity. Vesicle formulations were evaluated for size, zeta potential, (1)H and (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and in vitro skin permeation across Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin. Vesicle formulations were stable for 2 weeks and their mean sizes were 95-135 nm. NMR spectroscopy showed that flurbiprofen molecular mobility was restricted by interaction with vesicle components because of entrapment in vesicle bilayers. Moreover, sorbitan monolaurate-containing vesicles strongly retained flurbiprofen molecules. After non-occlusive application to YMP skin, flurbiprofen transport from all vesicle formulations was superior to that of flurbiprofen alone and remarkably decreased after water vaporization. Polarization microscopy and small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the vesicle formulation was transferred to liquid crystalline state. Suppression of vesicle transition to the liquid crystalline state was observed with applications of both large quantities and diluted samples. The presence of water in the formulations was associated with maintenance of the vesicle structure and greater flurbiprofen transport across YMP skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Ca2+ Transport in Purified Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Vesicles from Lepidium sativum L. Roots

    PubMed Central

    Buckhout, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of Ca2+ transport into endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from roots of Lepidium sativum L. cv Krause have been investigated. The concentration of free Ca2+ and ATP needed for half-maximal activity were 2.5 and 73 micromolar, respectively, and the enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. The pH maximum occurred at 7.5 and the activity was greatly reduced at either pH 7.0 or 8.0. The Ca2+-dependent modulation protein, calmodulin, was tested for its effect on Ca2+ transport into endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Although the phenothiazine inhibitors chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, and trifluoperazine all inhibited Ca2+ transport activity with a half-maximal effect at approximately 35 micromolar, authentic bovine brain calmodulin did not alter the activity at concentrations of 0.5 to 8 micrograms per milliliter. Calmodulin also showed no influence on the time-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ into vesicles. The membranes did not contain endogenously bound calmodulin since washing with (ethylenebis[oxyethylenenitrile])tetraacetic acid or fluphenazine, treatments which disrupt calmodulin binding, did not alter Ca2+ transport activity. The inhibition of Ca2+ transport by phenothiazine drugs was likely related to their nonspecific interaction with the membrane. Thus, there was no indication that calmodulin regulated Ca2+ uptake into root endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:16663981

  13. Visualization and quantification of transmembrane ion transport into giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Valkenier, Hennie; López Mora, Néstor; Kros, Alexander; Davis, Anthony P

    2015-02-09

    Transmembrane ion transporters (ionophores) are widely investigated as supramolecular agents with potential for biological activity. Tests are usually performed in synthetic membranes that are assembled into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). However transport must be followed through bulk properties of the vesicle suspension, because LUVs are too small for individual study. An alternative approach is described whereby ion transport can be revealed and quantified through direct observation. The method employs giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), which are 20-60 μm in diameter and readily imaged by light microscopy. This allows characterization of individual GUVs containing transporter molecules, followed by studies of transport through fluorescence emission from encapsulated indicators. The method provides new levels of certainty and relevance, given that the GUVs are similar in size to living cells. It has been demonstrated using a highly active anion carrier, and should aid the development of compounds for treating channelopathies such as cystic fibrosis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Spatial Modeling of Vesicle Transport and the Cytoskeleton: The Challenge of Hitting the Right Road

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Michael; Koeppl, Heinz; Reuss, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The membrane trafficking machinery provides a transport and sorting system for many cellular proteins. We propose a mechanistic agent-based computer simulation to integrate and test the hypothesis of vesicle transport embedded into a detailed model cell. The method tracks both the number and location of the vesicles. Thus both the stochastic properties due to the low numbers and the spatial aspects are preserved. The underlying molecular interactions that control the vesicle actions are included in a multi-scale manner based on the model of Heinrich and Rapoport (2005). By adding motor proteins we can improve the recycling process of SNAREs and model cell polarization. Our model also predicts that coat molecules should have a high turnover at the compartment membranes, while the turnover of motor proteins has to be slow. The modular structure of the underlying model keeps it tractable despite the overall complexity of the vesicle system. We apply our model to receptor-mediated endocytosis and show how a polarized cytoskeleton structure leads to polarized distributions in the plasma membrane both of SNAREs and the Ste2p receptor in yeast. In addition, we can couple signal transduction and membrane trafficking steps in one simulation, which enables analyzing the effect of receptor-mediated endocytosis on signaling. PMID:22253752

  15. Mechanism of glucose and maltose transport in plasma-membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, P J; van Gompel, A E; Luttik, M A; Pronk, J T; van Leeuwen, C C

    1997-01-01

    Transport of glucose and maltose was studied in plasma-membrane vesicles from Candida utilis. The yeast was grown on a mixture of glucose and maltose in aerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures which enabled transport to be studied for both sugars with the same vesicles. Vesicles were prepared by fusion of isolated plasma membranes with proteoliposomes containing bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive-force-generating system. Addition of reduced cytochrome c generated a proton-motive force, consisting of a membrane potential, negative inside, and a pH gradient, alkaline inside. Energization led to accumulation of glucose and maltose in these vesicles, reaching accumulation ratios of about 40-50. Accumulation also occurred in the presence of valinomycin or nigericin, but was prevented by a combination of the two ionophores or by uncoupler, showing that glucose and maltose transport are dependent on the proton-motive force. Comparison of sugar accumulation with quantitative data on the proton-motive force indicated a 1:1 H+/sugar stoichiometry for both transport systems. Efflux of accumulated glucose was observed on dissipation of the proton-motive force. Exchange and counterflow experiments confirmed the reversible character of the H+-glucose symporter. In contrast, uncoupler or a mixture of valinomycin plus nigericin induced only a slow efflux of accumulated maltose. Moreover under counterflow conditions, the expected transient accumulation was small. Thus the H+-maltose symporter has some characteristics of a carrier that is not readily reversible. It is concluded that in C. utilis the transport systems for glucose and maltose are both driven by the proton-motive force, but the mechanisms are different. PMID:9020885

  16. Mechanism of glucose and maltose transport in plasma-membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, P J; van Gompel, A E; Luttik, M A; Pronk, J T; van Leeuwen, C C

    1997-01-15

    Transport of glucose and maltose was studied in plasma-membrane vesicles from Candida utilis. The yeast was grown on a mixture of glucose and maltose in aerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures which enabled transport to be studied for both sugars with the same vesicles. Vesicles were prepared by fusion of isolated plasma membranes with proteoliposomes containing bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive-force-generating system. Addition of reduced cytochrome c generated a proton-motive force, consisting of a membrane potential, negative inside, and a pH gradient, alkaline inside. Energization led to accumulation of glucose and maltose in these vesicles, reaching accumulation ratios of about 40-50. Accumulation also occurred in the presence of valinomycin or nigericin, but was prevented by a combination of the two ionophores or by uncoupler, showing that glucose and maltose transport are dependent on the proton-motive force. Comparison of sugar accumulation with quantitative data on the proton-motive force indicated a 1:1 H+/sugar stoichiometry for both transport systems. Efflux of accumulated glucose was observed on dissipation of the proton-motive force. Exchange and counterflow experiments confirmed the reversible character of the H+-glucose symporter. In contrast, uncoupler or a mixture of valinomycin plus nigericin induced only a slow efflux of accumulated maltose. Moreover under counterflow conditions, the expected transient accumulation was small. Thus the H+-maltose symporter has some characteristics of a carrier that is not readily reversible. It is concluded that in C. utilis the transport systems for glucose and maltose are both driven by the proton-motive force, but the mechanisms are different.

  17. Rab and actomyosin-dependent fission of transport vesicles at the Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    Miserey-Lenkei, S; Chalancon, G; Bardin, S; Formstecher, E; Goud, B; Echard, A

    2010-07-01

    Trafficking between membrane compartments is a characteristic of eukaryotic cells and relies on transport carriers that bud and fission from a donor membrane, before being transported and fusing with the correct acceptor compartment. Rab GTPases ensure specificity and directionality of trafficking steps by regulating the movement of transport carriers along cytoskeletal tracks, and the recruitment of tethering factors required for the docking and fusion processes. Here we show that Rab6, a Golgi-associated Rab, forms a complex with myosin II, contributes to its localization at the Golgi complex and, unexpectedly, controls the fission of Rab6 vesicles. Inhibition of either Rab6 or myosin II function impairs both the fission of Rab6 transport carriers from Golgi membranes and the trafficking of anterograde and retrograde cargo from the Golgi. These effects are consistent with myosin II being an effector of Rab6 in these processes. Our results provide evidence that the actomyosin system is required in vesicle biogenesis at the Golgi, and uncover a function for Rab GTPases in vesicle fission.

  18. H+ V-ATPase-Energized Transporters in Brush Border Membrane Vesicles from Whole Larvae of Aedes Aegypti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brush Border Membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from Whole larvae of Aedes aegypti (AeBBMVWs ) contain an H+ V-ATPase (V), a Na+/H+ antiporter, NHA1 (A) and a Na+-coupled, nutrient amino acid transporter, NAT8 (N), VAN for short. All V-ATPase subunits are present in the Ae. aegypti genome and in the vesicles...

  19. Role of phosphatidylserine in phospholipid flippase-mediated vesicle transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Miyoko; Yamagami, Kanako; Tanaka, Kazuma

    2014-03-01

    Phospholipid flippases translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes to generate and maintain phospholipid asymmetry. The genome of budding yeast encodes four heteromeric flippases (Drs2p, Dnf1p, Dnf2p, and Dnf3p), which associate with the Cdc50 family noncatalytic subunit, and one monomeric flippase Neo1p. Flippases have been implicated in the formation of transport vesicles, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We show here that overexpression of the phosphatidylserine synthase gene CHO1 suppresses defects in the endocytic recycling pathway in flippase mutants. This suppression seems to be mediated by increased cellular phosphatidylserine. Two models can be envisioned for the suppression mechanism: (i) phosphatidylserine in the cytoplasmic leaflet recruits proteins for vesicle formation with its negative charge, and (ii) phosphatidylserine flipping to the cytoplasmic leaflet induces membrane curvature that supports vesicle formation. In a mutant depleted for flippases, a phosphatidylserine probe GFP-Lact-C2 was still localized to endosomal membranes, suggesting that the mere presence of phosphatidylserine in the cytoplasmic leaflet is not enough for vesicle formation. The CHO1 overexpression did not suppress the growth defect in a mutant depleted or mutated for all flippases, suggesting that the suppression was dependent on flippase-mediated phospholipid flipping. Endocytic recycling was not blocked in a mutant lacking phosphatidylserine or depleted in phosphatidylethanolamine, suggesting that a specific phospholipid is not required for vesicle formation. These results suggest that flippase-dependent vesicle formation is mediated by phospholipid flipping, not by flipped phospholipids.

  20. A carrier-mediated transport for folate in basolateral membrane vesicles of rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Said, H M; Redha, R

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of exit of folate from the enterocyte, i.e. transport across the basolateral membrane, is not known. In this study we examined, using basolateral membrane vesicles, the transport of folic acid across the basolateral membrane of rat intestine. Uptake of folic acid by these vesicles represents transport of the substrate into the intravesicular compartment and not binding to the membrane surface. The rate of folic acid transport was linear for the first 1 min of incubation but decreased thereafter, reaching equilibrium after 5 min of incubation. The transport of folic acid was: (1) saturable as a function of concentration with an apparent Km of 0.6 +/- 0.17 microM and Vmax. of 1.01 +/- 0.11 pmol/30 s per mg of protein; (2) inhibited in a competitive manner by the structural analogues 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methotrexate (Ki = 2 and 1.4 microM, respectively); (4) electroneutral; (5) Na+-independent; (6) sensitive to the effect of the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). These data indicate the existence of a carrier-mediated transport system for folic acid in rat intestinal basolateral membrane and demonstrate that the transport process is electroneutral, Na+-independent and sensitive to the effect of anion exchange inhibition. PMID:3689340

  1. MPP+ is transported by the TEA(+)-H+ exchanger of renal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Lazaruk, K D; Wright, S H

    1990-03-01

    Rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were used to study the transport of the cationic neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). An outwardly directed H(+)-gradient stimulated MPP+ uptake and led to the development of an active accumulation of MPP+ within the vesicles. H(+)-gradient driven MPP+ transport was saturable, with a maximal transport rate of 3 nmol.mg-1.min-1 and an apparent Michaelis constant (Kt) of 8 microM. MPP+ and tetraethylammonium (TEA) behaved as competitive inhibitors of one another's transport in renal BBMV, suggesting the presence of a common transport pathway for these organic cations. At an ambient pH of 7.5, preloading BBMV with MPP+ failed to stimulate TEA uptake, although trans TEA did stimulate MPP+ uptake. Increasing ambient pH to 8.5 (i.e., reducing competition between H+ and these organic cations for a common transport pathway) led to a clear reciprocal trans stimulation of TEA and MPP+ fluxes. With an equilibrium-shift protocol, a trans concentration of MPP+ energized uphill transport of TEA. We conclude that MPP+ and TEA share a common organic cation-H+ exchange pathway in the renal brush border, although turnover of an MPP(+)-loaded exchanger is slow compared with that for a TEA or H(+)-loaded exchanger.

  2. Comparative Transport Activity of Intact Cells, Membrane Vesicles, and Mesosomes of Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Robert A.; Thurman, Paul; Rogers, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Sodium ion was shown to stimulate strongly the transport of l-glutamic acid into cells of Bacillus licheniformis 6346 His−. Lithium ion had a slight capacity to replace Na+ in this capacity, but K+ was without effect. Three of five amino acids tested. l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-alanine, were concentrated against a gradient in the cells. Intracellular pools of these amino acids were extractable with 5% trichloroacetic acid. Pools of l-histidine and l-lysine could not be detected. No evidence of active transport of lysine into cells could be detected, and histidine was taken up in the absence of chloramphenicol but not in its presence. The uptake of glutamic acid by membrane vesicle preparations was strongly stimulated by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and to a lesser extent by succinate. The presence of phenazine methosulfate increased uptake in the presence of succinate. Either l- or d-lactate and adenosine triphosphate were without effect. None of these compounds stimulated the uptake of glutamic acid by mesosomes, although some mesosome preparations contained separable membrane which was very active. NADH strongly stimulated the uptake of aspartic acid and alanine by membrane vesicles but had only a slight effect on the uptake of histidine and lysine. No evidence of active transport of any of the amino acids into mesosomes could be detected either in the presence or absence of NADH. NADH stimulation of the uptake of glutamic acid by membrane vesicles was destroyed by exposure to light of 360 nm; this inactivation was reversible by vitamin K2(5) or K2(10). Sodium ion stimulated transport of glutamic acid by membrane vesicles. PMID:4347247

  3. Effect of diet on insulin binding and glucose transport in rat sarcolemmal vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Sternlicht, E.; Whitson, R.H.; Kaplan, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFS) and a low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet (LFC) on glucose tolerance, insulin binding, and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. During the intravenous glucose tolerance test, peak glucose values at 5 min were significantly higher in the HFS group; 0-, 20-, and 60-min values were similar. Insulin values were significantly higher in the HFS group at all time points (except 60 min), indicating whole-body insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle was responsible, in part, for this insulin resistance, because specific D-glucose transport in isolated sarcolemmal (SL) vesicles under basal conditions was similar between LFC and HFS rats, despite the higher plasma insulin levels. Scatchard analyses of insulin binding curves to sarcolemmal vesicles revealed that the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity binding sites was significantly reduced by the HFS diet; no other binding changes were noted. Specific D-glucose transport in SL vesicles after maximum insulin stimulation (1 U/kg) was significantly depressed in the HFS group, indicating that HFS feeding also caused a postbinding defect. These results indicate that the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle associated with a HFS diet is due to both a decrease in the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity insulin receptors and a postbinding defect.

  4. Proteins affecting thylakoid morphology - the key to understanding vesicle transport in chloroplasts?

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Emelie; Aronsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that a Rab protein, CPRabA5e (CP = chloroplast localized), is located in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana where it is involved in various processes, such as thylakoid biogenesis and vesicle transport. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, CPRabA5e was shown to interact with a number of chloroplast proteins, including the CURVATURE THYLAKOID 1A (CURT1A) protein and the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein (LHCB1.5). CURT1A has recently been shown to modify thylakoid architecture by inducing membrane curvature in grana, whereas LHCB1.5 is a protein of PSII (Photosystem II) facilitating light capture. LHCB1.5 is imported to chloroplasts and transported to thylakoid membranes using the post-translational Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) pathway. With this information as starting point, we here discuss their subsequent protein-protein interactions, given by the literature and Interactome 3D. CURT1A itself and several of the proteins interacting with CURT1A and LHCB1.5 have relations to vesicle transport and thylakoid morphology, which are also characteristics of cprabA5e mutants. This highlights the previous hypothesis of an alternative thylakoid targeting pathway for LHC proteins using vesicles, in addition to the SRP pathway.

  5. Carrier-mediated concentrative urate transport in rat renal membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Abramson, R G; Lipkowitz, M S

    1985-04-01

    [2-14C]Urate uptake and efflux were studied in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles of rat renal cortex that were exposed to 20 microM copper chloride. In the presence of inwardly directed NaCl gradients urate uptake was maintained at levels in excess of chemical equilibrium. Comparison of glucose and chloride uptakes revealed that equilibrium glucose uptake was not affected by copper, but chloride failed to reach equilibrium in copper-exposed vesicles. It is suggested that the persistence of an electrolyte gradient could provide a driving force to raise the concentration of free intravesicular urate above that in the media. Preincubation of vesicles with unlabeled urate failed to diminish uptake of added urate; rather, urate uptake was trans stimulated. Uptake of labeled urate was also significantly accelerated when an outward gradient for unlabeled urate was created. Pyrazinoic and oxonic acids also trans stimulated urate uptake. The demonstration of accelerated homeo- and heteroexchange diffusion indicates that transport is carrier mediated in both brush border and basolateral vesicles. Outwardly directed hydroxyl gradients failed to influence urate uptake in either the presence or absence of copper or NaCl. Thus, this carrier, which is active only in the presence of trace amounts of copper, is distinct from a urate/anion exchanger.

  6. Riboflavin transport by rabbit renal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, N; Jo, O D; Said, H M

    1998-12-09

    The present study examined riboflavin (RF) uptake by isolated rabbit renal basolateral membrane (BLM). RF uptake was linear during the initial 10 seconds and leveled off thereafter with longer incubation. Studies on RF uptake as a function of incubation medium osmolarity indicated that the BLM RF uptake was the results of transport (approximately 45%) into the intravesicular space as well as binding (approximately 55%) to membrane surfaces. The RF binding to BLM was Na+-dependent so that replacement of Na+ by other cations eliminated the binding component of RF uptake. The process of BLM RF uptake was saturable as a function of substrate concentration and was significantly inhibited by cis-addition of its structural analogs, lumiflavin and lumichrome, indicating the involvement of a carrier-mediated process. The BLM RF uptake was affected by changes in extravesicular pH so that, as compared to pH 7.5, RF uptake was lower at pH 6.5 and higher at pH 8.5. The effect of extravesicular pH persisted when the transmembrane H+ gradient was dissipated by FCCP, indicating the direct effect of pH on BLM RF uptake. The BLM RF uptake was not affected by alterations of the transmembrane electrical potential, induced by either the presence of anions with different membrane permeability (Cl-=NO-3>SO-4>gluconate-) or using nigericin (10 microg/mg protein) with an outwardly or inwardly directed transmembrane K+ gradient. The BLM RF uptake was, however, inhibited by probenecid and p-aminohippurate, and was enhanced by trans-RF. In summary, these results demonstrate the existence of a Na+-dependent BLM binding of RF and a membrane-associated carrier system for RF uptake by renal BLM.

  7. 65Zn2+ transport by lobster hepato-pancreatic baso-lateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Capo, J A; Mandal, P K; Eyyunni, S; Ahearn, G A

    2005-01-01

    The lobster (Homarus americanus) hepato-pancreatic epithelial baso-lateral cell membrane possesses three transport proteins that transfer calcium between the cytoplasm and hemolymph: an ATP-dependent calcium ATPase, a sodium-calcium exchanger, and a verapamil-sensitive cation channel. We used standard centrifugation methods to prepare purified hepato-pancreatic baso-lateral membrane vesicles and a rapid filtration procedure to investigate whether (65)Zn(2+) transfer across this epithelial cell border occurs by any of these previously described transporters for calcium. Baso-lateral membrane vesicles were osmotically reactive and exhibited a time course of uptake that was linear for 10-15 s and approached equilibrium by 120 s. In the absence of sodium, (65)Zn(2+) influx was a hyperbolic function of external zinc concentration and followed the Michaelis-Menten equation for carrier transport. This carrier transport was stimulated by the addition of 150 microM ATP (increase in K(m) and J(max)) and inhibited by the simultaneous presence of 150 micromol l(-1) ATP+250 micromol l(-1) vanadate (decrease in both K(m) and J(max)). In the absence of ATP, (65)Zn(2+) influx was a sigmoidal function of preloaded vesicular sodium concentration (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 75 mmol l(-1)) and exhibited a Hill Coefficient of 4.03+/-1.14, consistent with the exchange of 3 Na(+)/1Zn(2+). Using Dixon analysis, calcium was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of baso-lateral membrane vesicle (65)Zn(2+) influx by both the ATP-dependent (K(i)=205 nmol l(-1) Ca(2+)) and sodium-dependent (K(i)=2.47 micromol l(-1) Ca(2+)) transport processes. These results suggest that zinc transport across the lobster hepato-pancreatic baso-lateral membrane largely occurred by the ATP-dependent calcium ATPase and sodium-calcium exchanger carrier proteins.

  8. Calcium transport in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells. [Daucus carota Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, D.R.; Sze, H.

    1986-02-01

    Two active calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers). Both transport systems required MgATP for activity and were enhanced by 10 millimolar oxalate. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with Cl/sup -/-stimulated, NO/sub 3//sup -/-inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in this system was insensitive to vanadate, but was inhibited by nitrate, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 4,4-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid (DIDS). The K/sub m/ for MgATP and Ca/sup 2 +/ were 0.1 mM and 21 micromolar, respectively. The predominant Ca/sup 2 +/ transport system detectable in microsomal membrane preparations equilibrated at a density of 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport activity and the ER marker also shifted in parallel in ER shifting experiments. This transport system was inhibited by vanadate (I/sub 50/ = 12 micromolar) and was insensitive to nitrate, CCCP, DCCD, and DIDS. Transport exhibited cooperative MgATP dependent kinetics. Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent kinetics were complex with an apparent K/sub m/ ranging from 0.7 to 2 micromolar. We conclude that the vacuolar-derived system is a Ca/sup 2 +//H/sup +/ antiport located on the tonoplast and that the microsomal transport system is a Ca,Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. These two Ca/sup 2 +/ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis under changing cellular and environmental conditions.

  9. Maltose/proton co-transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Comparative study with cells and plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, C C; Weusthuis, R A; Postma, E; Van den Broek, P J; Van Dijken, J P

    1992-01-01

    Maltose/proton co-transport was studied in intact cells and in plasma membrane vesicles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to determine uphill transport in vesicles, plasma membranes were fused with proteoliposomes containing cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive force-generating system. Maltose accumulation, dependent on the electrical and pH gradients, was observed. The initial uptake velocity and accumulation ratio in vesicles proved to be dependent on the external pH. Moreover, kinetic analysis of maltose transport showed that Vmax. values greatly decreased with increasing pH, whereas the Km remained virtually constant. These observations were in good agreement with results obtained with intact cells, and suggest that proton binding to the carrier proceeds with an apparent pK of 5.7. The observation with intact cells that maltose is co-transported with protons in a one-to-one stoichiometry was ascertained in the vesicle system by measuring the balance between proton-motive force and the chemical maltose gradient. These results show that maltose transport in vesicles prepared by fusion of plasma membranes with cytochrome c oxidase proteoliposomes behaves in a similar way as in intact cells. It is therefore concluded that this vesicle model system offers a wide range of new possibilities for the study of maltose/proton co-transport in more detail. PMID:1318030

  10. ATP regulation of calcium transport in back-inhibited sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

    PubMed

    de Meis, L; Sorenson, M M

    1989-09-18

    At high concentrations of ATP, ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport by the (Ca2+ + MG2+)-ATPase of intact sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles exhibit a secondary activation that varies with the extent of back-inhibition by Ca2+ accumulated within the vesicles. When the internal ionized Ca2+ is clamped at low and intermediate levels by the use of Ca-precipitating anions, the apparent Km values for activation by ATP are lower than in fully back-inhibited vesicles (high internal Ca2+). In leaky vesicles unable to accumulate Ca2+, raising Ca2+ in the assay medium from 20-30 microM to 5 mM abolishes the activation of hydrolysis by high concentrations of ATP. The level of [32P]phosphoenzyme formed during ATP hydrolysis from [32P]phosphate added to the medium also varies with the extent of back-inhibition; it is highest when Ca2+ is raised to a level that saturates the internal, low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites. In intact vesicles, increasing the ATP concentration from 10 to 400 microM competitively inhibits the reaction of inorganic phosphate with the enzyme but does not change the rate of hydrolysis. In a previous report (De Meis, L., Gomez-Puyou, M.T. and Gomez-Puyou, A. (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 171, 343-349), it has been shown that the hydrophobic molecules trifluoperazine and iron bathophenanthroline compete for the catalytic site of the Pi-reactive form of the enzyme. Here it is shown that inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by these compounds is reduced or abolished when Ca2+ binds to the low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites of the enzyme. Since inhibition by these agents is indifferent to activation of hydrolysis by high concentrations of ATP, it is suggested that the second Km for ATP and the inhibition by hydrophobic molecules involve two different Ca-free forms of the enzyme.

  11. Aboral changes in D-glucose transport by human intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, M K; Abumrad, N N; Arab, N; Ghishan, F K

    1986-01-01

    D-Glucose transport was investigated in isolated brush-border membrane vesicles from human small intestine. Characteristics of D-glucose transport from the jejunum were compared with that in the mid and terminal ileum. Jejunal and mid-ileal D-glucose transport was Na+-dependent and electrogenic. The transient overshoot of jejunal D-glucose transport was significantly greater than corresponding values in mid-ileum. The terminal ileum did not exhibit Na+-dependent D-glucose transport, but did exhibit Na+-dependent taurocholate transport. Na+-glucose co-transport activity as measured by tracer-exchange experiments was greatest in the jejunum, and diminished aborally. We conclude that D-glucose transport in man is Na+-dependent and electrogenic in the proximal intestine and directly related to the activity of D-glucose-Na+ transporters present in the brush-border membranes. D-Glucose transport in the terminal ileum resembles colonic transport of D-glucose. PMID:3800877

  12. Cimetidine transport in rabbit renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    McKinney, T D; Kunnemann, M E

    1987-03-01

    Cimetidine is an organic cation and commonly prescribed drug that is eliminated primarily by proximal renal tubular secretion. The present studies evaluated cimetidine transport in rabbit renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). [3H]Cimetidine uptake varied inversely with media osmolarity and was stimulated with uphill transport above equilibrium values (overshoot) produced by an initial proton gradient directed from the vesicle interior outwardly. Uphill transport occurred earlier and was of greater magnitude at 25 degrees C than at 5 degrees C. pH-stimulated [3H]cimetidine uptake was inhibited by excess nonradiolabeled cimetidine, quinidine, and procainamide but was affected little by probenecid. Tetraethylammonium inhibited cimetidine uptake in the presence and absence of an initial proton gradient, indicating that nonionic diffusion and simple diffusion cannot totally account for cimetidine transport in BBMV. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) inhibited pH-stimulated cimetidine uptake but had no effect on uptake occurring in the absence of an initial pH gradient. Preloading BBMV with an excess of procainamide enhanced cimetidine uptake. However, in the presence of FCCP, the combination of FCCP and valinomycin, or nigericin the effect of preloading with procainamide was diminished, suggesting that the apparent countertransport of cimetidine produced by procainamide was indirect and due to generation of a transvesicular proton gradient. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cimetidine is transported across BBMV by organic cation-proton exchange.

  13. Cimetidine transport in rabbit renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, T.D.; Kunnemann, M.E.

    1987-03-01

    Cimetidine is an organic cation and commonly prescribed drug that is eliminated primarily by proximal renal tubular secretion. The present studies evaluated cimetidine transport in rabbit renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). (/sup 3/H)Cimetidine uptake varied inversely with media osmolarity and was stimulated with uphill transport above equilibrium values (overshoot) produced by an initial proton gradient directed from the vesicle interior outwardly. Uphill transport occurred earlier and was of greater magnitude at 25/sup 0/C than at 5/sup 0/C. pH-stimulated (/sup 3/H)cimetidine uptake was inhibited by excess nonradiolabeled cimetidine, quinidine, and procainamide but was affected little by probenecid. Tetraethylammonium inhibited cimetidine uptake in the presence and absence of an initial proton gradient, indicating that nonionic diffusion and simple diffusion cannot totally account for cimetidine transport in BBMV. Preloading BBMV with an excess of procainamide enhanced cimetidine uptake. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cimetidine is transported across BBMV by organic cation-proton exchange.

  14. A mutation in Rab27a causes the vesicle transport defects observed in ashen mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Scott M.; Yip, Richard; Swing, Deborah A.; O'Sullivan, T. Norene; Zhang, Yuke; Novak, Edward K.; Swank, Richard T.; Russell, Liane B.; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.

    2000-01-01

    The dilute (d), leaden (ln), and ashen (ash) mutations provide a unique model system for studying vesicle transport in mammals. All three mutations produce a lightened coat color because of defects in pigment granule transport. In addition, all three mutations are suppressed by the semidominant dilute-suppressor (dsu), providing genetic evidence that these mutations function in the same or overlapping transport pathways. Previous studies showed that d encodes a major vesicle transport motor, myosin-VA, which is mutated in Griscelli syndrome patients. Here, using positional cloning and bacterial artificial chromosome rescue, we show that ash encodes Rab27a. Rab GTPases represent the largest branch of the p21 Ras superfamily and are recognized as key players in vesicular transport and organelle dynamics in eukaryotic cells. We also show that ash mice have platelet defects resulting in increased bleeding times and a reduction in the number of platelet dense granules. These defects have not been reported for d and ln mice. Collectively, our studies identify Rab27a as a critical gene for organelle-specific protein trafficking in melanocytes and platelets and suggest that Rab27a functions in both MyoVa dependent and independent pathways. PMID:10859366

  15. Cimetidine transport in isolated brush border membrane vesicles from bovine choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Whittico, M.T.; Gang, Y.A.; Giacomini, K.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the transport of cimetidine across the brush border membrane of choroid plexus epithelium. Brush border membrane vesicles were prepared from bovine choroid plexus and the uptake of (3H)cimetidine was studied using the methods of rapid vacuum filtration and scintillation counting. Cimetidine accumulated in the vesicles with time reaching equilibrium within 2 hr. The amount of cimetidine taken up by the vesicles at equilibrium decreased with increasing extravesicular media osmolarity suggesting that cimetidine accumulates in an osmotically reactive intravesicular space. Binding of cimetidine to the membrane was estimated to be less than 18%. Michaelis-Menten studies demonstrated that cimetidine transport involved both a saturable and a nonsaturable component. The Vmax and Km (mean +/- S.E.) were 16.7 +/- 5.9 pmol/sec/mg protein and 58.1 +/- 3.1 microM, respectively, suggesting that cimetidine is transported across the choroid plexus brush border membrane with a lower affinity and a higher capacity than across the renal brush border membrane. The organic cation, quinidine (0.1 mM), and the amino acid, histidine (20 mM), both significantly reduced the initial, but not the equilibrium, uptake of cimetidine. However, high concentrations (5 mM) of more polar organic cations including tetraethylammonium, as well as of several organic anions including salicylate did not inhibit cimetidine transport. Studies with unlabeled cimetidine revealed a countertransport phenomenon. Attempts to drive the concentrative uptake of cimetidine with various ion gradients were unsuccessful. Of note was the fact that an outwardly directed proton gradient could significantly accelerate the uptake of cimetidine.

  16. Calcium transport in sealed vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ) storage tissue. II. Characterization of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Giannini, J.L.; Ruiz-Cristin, J.; Briskin, D.P.

    1987-12-01

    Calcium uptake was examined in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue using /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ by the vesicles was ATP-dependent and radiotracer accumulated by the vesicles could be released by the addition of the calcium ionophore A23187. The uptake was stimulated by gramicidin D but slightly inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Although the latter result might suggest some degree of indirect coupling of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake to ATP utilization via ..delta mu..H/sup +/, no evidence for a secondary H/sup +//Ca/sup 2 +/ antiport in this vesicle system could be found. Following the imposition of an acid-interior pH gradient, proton efflux from the vesicle was not enhanced by the addition of Ca/sup 2 +/ and an imposed pH gradient could not drive /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Optimal uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ occurred broadly between pH 7.0 and 7.5 and the transport was inhibited by orthovanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol but insensitive to nitrate and azide. The dependence of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake on both calcium and Mg:ATP concentration demonstrated saturation kinetics with K/sub m/ values of 6 micromolar and 0.37 millimolar, respectively. While ATP was the preferred substrate for driving /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake, GTP could drive transport at about 50% of the level observed for ATP. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of a unique primary calcium transport system associated with the plasma membrane which could drive calcium efflux from the plant cell.

  17. Bicaudal-D binds clathrin heavy chain to promote its transport and augments synaptic vesicle recycling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Kuromi, Hiroshi; Briggs, Laura; Green, David B; Rocha, João J; Sweeney, Sean T; Bullock, Simon L

    2010-01-01

    Cargo transport by microtubule-based motors is essential for cell organisation and function. The Bicaudal-D (BicD) protein participates in the transport of a subset of cargoes by the minus-end-directed motor dynein, although the full extent of its functions is unclear. In this study, we report that in Drosophila zygotic BicD function is only obligatory in the nervous system. Clathrin heavy chain (Chc), a major constituent of coated pits and vesicles, is the most abundant protein co-precipitated with BicD from head extracts. BicD binds Chc directly and interacts genetically with components of the pathway for clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking. Directed transport and subcellular localisation of Chc is strongly perturbed in BicD mutant presynaptic boutons. Functional assays show that BicD and dynein are essential for the maintenance of normal levels of neurotransmission specifically during high-frequency electrical stimulation and that this is associated with a reduced rate of recycling of internalised synaptic membrane. Our results implicate BicD as a new player in clathrin-associated trafficking processes and show a novel requirement for microtubule-based motor transport in the synaptic vesicle cycle. PMID:20111007

  18. Active transport of maltose in membrane vesicles obtained from Escherichia coli cells producing tethered maltose-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, D A; Fikes, J D; Gehring, K; Bassford, P J; Nikaido, H

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to reconstitute periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport activity in membrane vesicles have often resulted in systems with poor and rather inconsistent activity, possibly because of the need to add a large excess of purified binding protein to the vesicles. We circumvented this difficulty by using a mutant which produces a precursor maltose-binding protein that is translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane but is not cleaved by the signal peptidase (J. D. Fikes and P. J. Bassford, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 169:2352-2359, 1987). The protein remains tethered to the cytoplasmic membrane, presumably through the hydrophobic signal sequence, and we show here that the spheroplasts and membrane vesicles prepared from this mutant catalyze active maltose transport without the addition of purified maltose-binding protein. In vesicles, the transport requires electron donors, such as ascorbate and phenazine methosulfate or D-lactate. However, inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and stimulation of transport by the inculsion of ADP or ATP in the intravesicular space suggest that ATP (or compounds derived from it) is involved in the energization of the transport. The transport activity of intact cells can be recovered without much inactivation in the vesicles, and their high activity and ease of preparation will be useful in studies of the mechanism of the binding protein-dependent transport process. Images PMID:2644203

  19. Biophysics of active vesicle transport, an intermediate step that couples excitation and exocytosis of serotonin in the neuronal soma.

    PubMed

    De-Miguel, Francisco F; Santamaría-Holek, Iván; Noguez, Paula; Bustos, Carlos; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Rubí, J Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1) velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0), calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process)/ΔG(ATP), depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a quantitative method

  20. Biophysics of Active Vesicle Transport, an Intermediate Step That Couples Excitation and Exocytosis of Serotonin in the Neuronal Soma

    PubMed Central

    De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Santamaría-Holek, Iván; Noguez, Paula; Bustos, Carlos; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52–951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60–6.18 µm distances at average 11–95 nms−1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4–72.0), calculated from the ratio of the ΔGprocess/ΔGATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6–2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a quantitative

  1. The structure of the COPII transport-vesicle coat assembled on membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Giulia; Prinz, Simone; Daum, Sebastian; Meister, Annette; Schekman, Randy; Bacia, Kirsten; Briggs, John AG

    2013-01-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates formation of the membrane vesicles that export newly synthesised proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. The inner COPII proteins bind to cargo and membrane, linking them to the outer COPII components that form a cage around the vesicle. Regulated flexibility in coat architecture is essential for transport of a variety of differently sized cargoes, but structural data on the assembled coat has not been available. We have used cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to determine the structure of the complete, membrane-assembled COPII coat. We describe a novel arrangement of the outer coat and find that the inner coat can assemble into regular lattices. The data reveal how coat subunits interact with one another and with the membrane, suggesting how coordinated assembly of inner and outer coats can mediate and regulate packaging of vesicles ranging from small spheres to large tubular carriers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00951.001 PMID:24062940

  2. The structure of the COPII transport-vesicle coat assembled on membranes.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Giulia; Prinz, Simone; Daum, Sebastian; Meister, Annette; Schekman, Randy; Bacia, Kirsten; Briggs, John A G

    2013-09-17

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates formation of the membrane vesicles that export newly synthesised proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. The inner COPII proteins bind to cargo and membrane, linking them to the outer COPII components that form a cage around the vesicle. Regulated flexibility in coat architecture is essential for transport of a variety of differently sized cargoes, but structural data on the assembled coat has not been available. We have used cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to determine the structure of the complete, membrane-assembled COPII coat. We describe a novel arrangement of the outer coat and find that the inner coat can assemble into regular lattices. The data reveal how coat subunits interact with one another and with the membrane, suggesting how coordinated assembly of inner and outer coats can mediate and regulate packaging of vesicles ranging from small spheres to large tubular carriers. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00951.001.

  3. Release of kinesin from vesicles by hsc70 and regulation of fast axonal transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, M. Y.; Morfini, G.; Szebenyi, G.; Brady, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The nature of kinesin interactions with membrane-bound organelles and mechanisms for regulation of kinesin-based motility have both been surprisingly difficult to define. Most kinesin is recovered in supernatants with standard protocols for purification of motor proteins, but kinesin recovered on membrane-bound organelles is tightly bound. Partitioning of kinesin between vesicle and cytosolic fractions is highly sensitive to buffer composition. Addition of either N-ethylmaleimide or EDTA to homogenization buffers significantly increased the fraction of kinesin bound to organelles. Given that an antibody against kinesin light chain tandem repeats also releases kinesin from vesicles, these observations indicated that specific cytoplasmic factors may regulate kinesin release from membranes. Kinesin light tandem repeats contain DnaJ-like motifs, so the effects of hsp70 chaperones were evaluated. Hsc70 released kinesin from vesicles in an MgATP-dependent and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive manner. Recombinant kinesin light chains inhibited kinesin release by hsc70 and stimulated the hsc70 ATPase. Hsc70 actions may provide a mechanism to regulate kinesin function by releasing kinesin from cargo in specific subcellular domains, thereby effecting delivery of axonally transported materials.

  4. Release of kinesin from vesicles by hsc70 and regulation of fast axonal transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, M. Y.; Morfini, G.; Szebenyi, G.; Brady, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The nature of kinesin interactions with membrane-bound organelles and mechanisms for regulation of kinesin-based motility have both been surprisingly difficult to define. Most kinesin is recovered in supernatants with standard protocols for purification of motor proteins, but kinesin recovered on membrane-bound organelles is tightly bound. Partitioning of kinesin between vesicle and cytosolic fractions is highly sensitive to buffer composition. Addition of either N-ethylmaleimide or EDTA to homogenization buffers significantly increased the fraction of kinesin bound to organelles. Given that an antibody against kinesin light chain tandem repeats also releases kinesin from vesicles, these observations indicated that specific cytoplasmic factors may regulate kinesin release from membranes. Kinesin light tandem repeats contain DnaJ-like motifs, so the effects of hsp70 chaperones were evaluated. Hsc70 released kinesin from vesicles in an MgATP-dependent and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive manner. Recombinant kinesin light chains inhibited kinesin release by hsc70 and stimulated the hsc70 ATPase. Hsc70 actions may provide a mechanism to regulate kinesin function by releasing kinesin from cargo in specific subcellular domains, thereby effecting delivery of axonally transported materials.

  5. Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Sato, Takashi; Gonda, Kohsuke; Higuchi, Hideo . E-mail: higuchi@tubero.tohoku.ac.jp

    2007-07-20

    Dual-focus imaging optics for three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots has been developed to study the molecular mechanisms of motor proteins in cells. The new system has a high spatial and temporal precision, 2 nm in the x-y sample plane and 5 nm along the z-axis at a frame time of 2 ms. Three-dimensional positions of the vesicles labeled with quantum dots were detected in living cells. Vesicles were transported on the microtubules using 8-nm steps towards the nucleus. The steps had fluctuation of {approx}20 nm which were perpendicular to the axis of the microtubule but with the constant distance from the microtubule. The most of perpendicular movement was not synchronized with the 8-nm steps, indicating that dynein moved on microtubules without changing the protofilaments. When the vesicles changed their direction of movement toward the cell membrane, they moved perpendicular with the constant distance from the microtubule. The present method is powerful tool to investigate three dimensional movement of molecules in cells with nanometer and millisecond accuracy.

  6. Inhibition by Levorphanol and Related Drugs of Amino Acid Transport by Isolated Membrane Vesicles from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Mary J. C.; Simon, Eric J.

    1975-01-01

    Levorphanol inhibits the transport of the amino acids proline and lysine by cytoplasmic membrane vesicles derived from Escherichia coli. The degree of inhibition increases with increasing levorphanol concentration and ranges from 26% at 10−6 M levorphanol to 92% at 10−3 M levorphanol. The effect is independent of the energy source, since levorphanol inhibits proline uptake to the same extent in the presence of 20 mM d-lactate or 20 mM succinate and in the absence of an exogenous energy source. Levorphanol does not irreversibly alter the ability of membrane vesicles to transport proline, since incubation of membrane vesicles for 15 min in the presence of 0.25 mM levorphanol, a concentration which inhibits proline transport by more than 75%, has no effect on the rate of proline transport by these vesicles once the drug is removed. Both the maximum velocity and the Km of proline transport are modified by levorphanol, hence, the type of inhibition produced by levorphanol is mixed. The inhibitor constant (Ki) for levorphanol inhibition of proline transport is approximately 3 × 10−4 M. Membrane vesicles incubated in the presence of levorphanol accumulate much less proline at the steady state than do control vesicles. Furthermore, the addition of levorphanol to membrane vesicles preloaded to the steady state with proline produces a marked net efflux of proline. Levorphanol does not block either temperature-induced efflux or exchange of external proline with [14C]proline present in the intravesicular pool. Dextrorphan, the enantiomorph of levorphanol, and levallorphan, the N-allyl analogue of levorphanol, inhibit proline and lysine transport in a similar manner. Possible mechanisms of the effects of these drugs on cell membranes are discussed. PMID:1096802

  7. Proline transport by brush-border membrane vesicles of lobster antennal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.D.; Wong, R.K.; Huse, S.M.; Reshkin, S.J.; Ahearn, G.A. )

    1990-02-01

    Purified brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of lobster antennal gland labyrinth and bladder were separately formed by a magnesium precipitation technique. L-(3H)proline uptake was stimulated by a transmembrane NaCl gradient (outside (o) greater than inside (i)) to a greater extent in BBMV from labyrinth than those from the bladder. Detailed study of the labyrinth proline-transport processes revealed a specific dependence on NaCl, with negligible stimulatory effects by NaSCN, Na-gluconate, or KCl. A transmembrane proton gradient (o greater than i) was without stimulatory effect on proline transport. A transmembrane potential difference alone, in the presence of equilibrated NaCl and L-(3H)proline, led to net influx of the labeled amino acid, suggesting that the uptake process was electrogenic and capable of bringing about the net transfer of positive charge to the vesicle interior. Although a transmembrane Na gradient alone, in the presence of equilibrated Cl and L-(3H)proline, was able to bring about the net influx of the amino acid, a transmembrane Cl gradient alone under Na- and L-(3H)proline-equilibrated conditions was not, suggesting that only the Na gradient could energize the carrier process through cotransport, while the anion served an essential activating role. Proline influx by these vesicles occurred by the combination of at least one saturable Michaelis-Menten carrier system (apparent Kt = 0.37 mM; apparent JM = 1.19 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1) and apparent diffusion (P = 0.33 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1.mM-1). Static head analysis of the transport process suggested a cotransport stoichiometry of 2 Na:1 proline with essential activation by Cl ion.

  8. The human synaptic vesicle protein, SV2A, functions as a galactose transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Marianna; Kovács, Attila D; Pearce, David A

    2014-11-28

    SV2A is a synaptic vesicle membrane protein expressed in neurons and endocrine cells and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Although the exact function of SV2A still remains elusive, it was identified as the specific binding site for levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug. Our sequence analysis demonstrates that SV2A has significant homology with several yeast transport proteins belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Many of these transporters are involved in sugar transport into yeast cells. Here we present evidence showing, for the first time, that SV2A is a galactose transporter. We expressed human SV2A in hexose transport-deficient EBY.VW4000 yeast cells and demonstrated that these cells are able to grow on galactose-containing medium but not on other fermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, the addition of the SV2A-binding antiepileptic drug levetiracetam to the medium inhibited the galactose-dependent growth of hexose transport-deficient EBY.VW4000 yeast cells expressing human SV2A. Most importantly, direct measurement of galactose uptake in the same strain verified that SV2A is able to transport extracellular galactose inside the cells. The newly identified galactose transport capability of SV2A may have an important role in regulating/modulating synaptic function. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Glycine transport by intestinal brush border vesicles of the amphibian Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Saidane, D; Boge, G; Tritar, B; Peres, G

    1991-01-01

    1. In order to determine the different components of glycine uptake by the intestine of the frog, Discoglossus pictus, we have used brush border membrane vesicles isolated by a classical precipitation technique. 2. Enzymatic tests showed that a good purification was obtained. The concentration ratio of alkaline phosphatase was 14.8. 3. Glycine entry in vesicles as a function of time, in presence or absence of sodium, indicated an overshoot which decreased when incubation time was prolonged. The overshoot was dependent on the presence of sodium. 4. The nature of the anion associated to sodium had little effect on glycine uptake. Nevertheless, chloride and thiocyanate appeared more efficient than glutarate. 5. The effect of transmembrane potential was studied by using valinomycin associated with a potassium gradient. The addition of this substance stimulated glycine transport by 43%. 6. The transport at different glycine concentrations showed two components: one non-saturable with weak affinity and the other saturable with strong affinity (Kt = 0.338 mM). 7. In conclusion, glycine transport by the brush border of D. pictus intestine presents a saturable component depending on sodium and on transmembrane electrical potential.

  10. The in vitro transport of pergolide from surfactant-based elastic vesicles through human skin: a suggested mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Honeywell-Nguyen, P Loan; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2003-01-09

    This paper reports the in vitro transport of pergolide from L-595-PEG-8-L elastic vesicle formulations. Several aspects of vesicular delivery were studied in order to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action and to establish the optimal conditions and drug candidates for usage with L-595-PEG-8-L elastic vesicles. All studies were performed using human skin and flow-through Franz diffusion cells. Pergolide was chosen as model drug. The findings show that there was a strong correlation between the drug incorporation to saturated levels and the drug transport, both of which were influenced by the pH of the drug-vesicular system. The optimal pH was found to be 5.0, giving the highest drug incorporation as well as the highest drug transport. Non-occlusive co-treatment with elastic vesicles improved the skin delivery of pergolide compared to the non-occlusive buffer control by more than 2-fold. However, non-occlusive pre-treatment of skin with empty vesicles did not enhance drug transport. Occlusion improved drug transport from both elastic vesicle as well as buffer solutions due to the fact that water is an excellent penetration enhancer for pergolide. However, in contrast to non-occlusive application, the action of the elastic vesicles themselves was diminished, as occlusive treatments with elastic vesicles showed a lower flux compared to occlusive treatment with the buffer control. Hence, the highest pergolide skin permeation in this study was obtained from an occluded saturated buffer solution, giving a steady-state flux of 137.9 ng/h cm(-2). The volume of application did not have any effect on the drug transport. In conclusion, these results showed no evidence that a penetration enhancing effect is the main mechanism of action. The pH of the drug-vesicular system is an important factor to consider when optimising elastic vesicle delivery systems. Occlusion reduces the actions of elastic vesicles, but could increase the pergolide transport since water is a good

  11. Calcium transport driven by a proton gradient and inverted membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Rosen, B P

    1976-02-25

    Calcium transport into inverted vesicles of Escherichia coli was observed to occur without an exogenous energy source when an artificial proton gradient was used. The orientation of the proton gradient was acid inside and alkaline outside. Either phosphate or oxalate was necessary for transport, as was found for respiratory-driven or ATP-driven uptake (Tsuchiya, T., and Rosen, B.P. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 7687-7692). Phosphate accumulation was found to occur in conjunction with calcium accumulation. Calcium transport driven by an artificial proton gradient was stimulated by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an inhibitor of the Mg2+ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3). Valinomycin, which catalyzes electrogenic potassium movement, stimulated calcium accumulation, while nigericin, which catalyzes electroneutral exchange of potassium and protons, inhibited both artificial proton gradient-driven transport and respiratory-driven transport. Other properties of the proton gradient-driven system and the previously reported energy-linked calcium transport system are similar, indicating that calcium is transported by the same carrier whether energy is supplied through an artificial proton gradient or an energized membrane state. These results suggest the existence of a calcium/proton antiport.

  12. Huntingtin differentially regulates the axonal transport of a sub-set of Rab-containing vesicles in vivo

    PubMed Central

    White, Joseph A.; Anderson, Eric; Zimmerman, Katherine; Zheng, Kan Hong; Rouhani, Roza; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2015-01-01

    Loss of huntingtin (HTT), the Huntington's disease (HD) protein, was previously shown to cause axonal transport defects. Within axons, HTT can associate with kinesin-1 and dynein motors either directly or via accessory proteins for bi-directional movement. However, the composition of the vesicle-motor complex that contains HTT during axonal transport is unknown. Here we analyze the in vivo movement of 16 Rab GTPases within Drosophila larval axons and show that HTT differentially influences the movement of a particular sub-set of these Rab-containing vesicles. While reduction of HTT perturbed the bi-directional motility of Rab3 and Rab19-containing vesicles, only the retrograde motility of Rab7-containing vesicles was disrupted with reduction of HTT. Interestingly, reduction of HTT stimulated the anterograde motility of Rab2-containing vesicles. Simultaneous dual-view imaging revealed that HTT and Rab2, 7 or 19 move together during axonal transport. Collectively, our findings indicate that HTT likely influences the motility of different Rab-containing vesicles and Rab-mediated functions. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the complex role HTT plays within neurons normally, which when disrupted may lead to neuronal death and disease. PMID:26450517

  13. Huntingtin differentially regulates the axonal transport of a sub-set of Rab-containing vesicles in vivo.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph A; Anderson, Eric; Zimmerman, Katherine; Zheng, Kan Hong; Rouhani, Roza; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2015-12-20

    Loss of huntingtin (HTT), the Huntington's disease (HD) protein, was previously shown to cause axonal transport defects. Within axons, HTT can associate with kinesin-1 and dynein motors either directly or via accessory proteins for bi-directional movement. However, the composition of the vesicle-motor complex that contains HTT during axonal transport is unknown. Here we analyze the in vivo movement of 16 Rab GTPases within Drosophila larval axons and show that HTT differentially influences the movement of a particular sub-set of these Rab-containing vesicles. While reduction of HTT perturbed the bi-directional motility of Rab3 and Rab19-containing vesicles, only the retrograde motility of Rab7-containing vesicles was disrupted with reduction of HTT. Interestingly, reduction of HTT stimulated the anterograde motility of Rab2-containing vesicles. Simultaneous dual-view imaging revealed that HTT and Rab2, 7 or 19 move together during axonal transport. Collectively, our findings indicate that HTT likely influences the motility of different Rab-containing vesicles and Rab-mediated functions. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the complex role HTT plays within neurons normally, which when disrupted may lead to neuronal death and disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Characterization of putrescine transport across the intestinal epithelium: study using isolated brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles of the enterocyte.

    PubMed

    Milovic, V; Stein, J; Piiper, A; Gerhard, R; Zeuzem, S; Caspary, W F

    1995-02-01

    Putrescine transport was investigated in isolated brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from the rabbit enterocyte. Brush border vesicles were oriented right-side-out and basolateral vesicles inside-out, forming a model representing uptake and extrusion across the intestinal epithelium. Putrescine transport across both membranes was initially rapid, and 66% of the equilibrium uptake was achieved within the first minute. According to osmoplots and measurements at 4 degrees C, 20% of total incorporation presented binding to the membrane. In order to estimate actual uptake into the vesicles, Km was calculated from the differences in putrescine incorporation at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, and was 12.7 mumol L-1 for brush border uptake and 38.2 mumol L-1 for basolateral extrusion. Putrescine uptake into brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles was not enhanced in the presence of an Na+ gradient. When Na+ was substituted with an uncharged solute, mannitol, putrescine incorporation was increased, indicating that putrescine uptake is not Na(+)-dependent and that cations might interfere with the carrier. Paraquat and methylglyoxalbis(guanylhydrazone), known to share the polyamine transport system, inhibited putrescine incorporation in both membrane vesicle preparations. Basolateral carrier showed significantly higher sensitivity to cations. We conclude that putrescine uptake across the apical membrane and extrusion across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte are mediated by two different and independent carriers which differ in their electrical properties.

  15. Vesicles versus Tubes: Is Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Transport in Plants Fundamentally Different from Other Eukaryotes?

    PubMed

    Robinson, David G; Brandizzi, Federica; Hawes, Chris; Nakano, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the gateway to the secretory pathway in all eukaryotic cells. Its products subsequently pass through the Golgi apparatus on the way to the cell surface (true secretion) or to the lytic compartment of the cell (vacuolar protein transport). In animal cells, the Golgi apparatus is present as a stationary larger order complex near the nucleus, and transport between the cortical ER and the Golgi complex occurs via an intermediate compartment which is transported on microtubules. By contrast, higher plant cells have discrete mobile Golgi stacks that move along the cortical ER, and the intermediate compartment is absent. Although many of the major molecular players involved in ER-Golgi trafficking in mammalian and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells have homologs in higher plants, the narrow interface (less than 500 nm) between the Golgi and the ER, together with the motility factor, makes the identification of the transport vectors responsible for bidirectional traffic between these two organelles much more difficult. Over the years, a controversy has arisen over the two major possibilities by which transfer can occur: through vesicles or direct tubular connections. In this article, four leading plant cell biologists attempted to resolve this issue. Unfortunately, their opinions are so divergent and often opposing that it was not possible to reach a consensus. Thus, we decided to let each tell his or her version individually. The review begins with an article by Federica Brandizzi that provides the necessary molecular background on coat protein complexes in relation to the so-called secretory units model for ER-Golgi transport in highly vacuolated plant cells. The second article, written by Chris Hawes, presents the evidence in favor of tubules. It is followed by an article from David Robinson defending the classical notion that transport occurs via vesicles. The last article, by Akihiko Nakano, introduces the reader to possible

  16. Alpha-Synuclein affects neurite morphology, autophagy, vesicle transport and axonal degeneration in CNS neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koch, J C; Bitow, F; Haack, J; d'Hedouville, Z; Zhang, J-N; Tönges, L; Michel, U; Oliveira, L M A; Jovin, T M; Liman, J; Tatenhorst, L; Bähr, M; Lingor, P

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropathological and experimental studies suggest that the degeneration of dopaminergic terminals and axons precedes the demise of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which finally results in the clinical symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). The mechanisms underlying this early axonal degeneration are, however, still poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of overexpression of human wildtype alpha-synuclein (αSyn-WT), a protein associated with PD, and its mutant variants αSyn-A30P and -A53T on neurite morphology and functional parameters in rat primary midbrain neurons (PMN). Moreover, axonal degeneration after overexpression of αSyn-WT and -A30P was analyzed by live imaging in the rat optic nerve in vivo. We found that overexpression of αSyn-WT and of its mutants A30P and A53T impaired neurite outgrowth of PMN and affected neurite branching assessed by Sholl analysis in a variant-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the number of primary neurites per neuron was increased in neurons transfected with αSyn. Axonal vesicle transport was examined by live imaging of PMN co-transfected with EGFP-labeled synaptophysin. Overexpression of all αSyn variants significantly decreased the number of motile vesicles and decelerated vesicle transport compared with control. Macroautophagic flux in PMN was enhanced by αSyn-WT and -A53T but not by αSyn-A30P. Correspondingly, colocalization of αSyn and the autophagy marker LC3 was reduced for αSyn-A30P compared with the other αSyn variants. The number of mitochondria colocalizing with LC3 as a marker for mitophagy did not differ among the groups. In the rat optic nerve, both αSyn-WT and -A30P accelerated kinetics of acute axonal degeneration following crush lesion as analyzed by in vivo live imaging. We conclude that αSyn overexpression impairs neurite outgrowth and augments axonal degeneration, whereas axonal vesicle transport and autophagy are severely altered. PMID:26158517

  17. Vaccinia virus p37 interacts with host proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yali; Honeychurch, Kady M; Yang, Guang; Byrd, Chelsea M; Harver, Chris; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2009-04-28

    Proteins associated with the late endosome (LE) appear to play a central role in the envelopment of a number of taxonomically diverse viruses. How viral proteins interact with LE-associated proteins to facilitate envelopment is not well understood. LE-derived transport vesicles form through the interaction of Rab9 GTPase with cargo proteins, and TIP47, a Rab9-specific effector protein. Vaccinia virus (VV) induces a wrapping complex derived from intracellular host membranes to envelope intracellular mature virus particles producing egress-competent forms of virus. We show that VV p37 protein associates with TIP47-, Rab9-, and CI-MPR-containing membranes. Mutation of a di-aromatic motif in p37 blocks association with TIP47 and inhibits plaque formation. ST-246, a specific inhibitor of p37 function, inhibits these interactions and also blocks wrapped virus particle formation. Vaccinia virus expressing p37 variants with reduced ST-246 susceptibility associates with Rab9 and co-localizes with CI-MPR in the presence and absence of compound. These results suggest that p37 localizes to the LE and interacts with proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis to facilitate assembly of extracellular forms of virus.

  18. Vaccinia virus p37 interacts with host proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yali; Honeychurch, Kady M; Yang, Guang; Byrd, Chelsea M; Harver, Chris; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteins associated with the late endosome (LE) appear to play a central role in the envelopment of a number of taxonomically diverse viruses. How viral proteins interact with LE-associated proteins to facilitate envelopment is not well understood. LE-derived transport vesicles form through the interaction of Rab9 GTPase with cargo proteins, and TIP47, a Rab9-specific effector protein. Vaccinia virus (VV) induces a wrapping complex derived from intracellular host membranes to envelope intracellular mature virus particles producing egress-competent forms of virus. Results We show that VV p37 protein associates with TIP47-, Rab9-, and CI-MPR-containing membranes. Mutation of a di-aromatic motif in p37 blocks association with TIP47 and inhibits plaque formation. ST-246, a specific inhibitor of p37 function, inhibits these interactions and also blocks wrapped virus particle formation. Vaccinia virus expressing p37 variants with reduced ST-246 susceptibility associates with Rab9 and co-localizes with CI-MPR in the presence and absence of compound. Conclusion These results suggest that p37 localizes to the LE and interacts with proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis to facilitate assembly of extracellular forms of virus. PMID:19400954

  19. The electrochemical gradient of protons and its relationship to active transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, S; Schuldiner, S; Kaback, H R

    1976-01-01

    Membrane vesicles isolated from E. coli generate a trans-membrane proton gradient of 2 pH units under appropriate conditions when assayed by flow dialysis. Using the distribution of weak acids to measure the proton gradient (deltapH) and the distribution of the lipophilic cation triphenyl-methylphosphonium to measure the electrical potential across the membrane (delta psi), the vesicles are shown to generate an electrochemical proton gradient (deltamuH+) of approximately-180 mV at pH 5.5 in the presence of ascorbate and phenazine methosulfate, the major component of which is a deltapH of about -110mV. As external pH is increased, deltapH decreases, reaching 0 at pH 7.5 and above, while delta psi remains at about-75 mV and internal pH remains at pH 7.5. Moreover, the ability of various electron donors to drive transport is correlated with their ability to generate deltamuH+. In addition, deltapH and delta psi can be varied reciprocally in the presence of valinomycin and nigericin. These data and others (manuscript in preparation) provide convincing support for the role of chemiosmotic phenomena in active transport. PMID:6961

  20. The electrochemical gradient of protons and its relationship to active transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ramos, S; Schuldiner, S; Kaback, H R

    1976-06-01

    Membrane vesicles isolated from E. coli generate a trans-membrane proton gradient of 2 pH units under appropriate conditions when assayed by flow dialysis. Using the distribution of weak acids to measure the proton gradient (deltapH) and the distribution of the lipophilic cation triphenyl-methylphosphonium to measure the electrical potential across the membrane (delta psi), the vesicles are shown to generate an electrochemical proton gradient (deltamuH+) of approximately-180 mV at pH 5.5 in the presence of ascorbate and phenazine methosulfate, the major component of which is a deltapH of about -110mV. As external pH is increased, deltapH decreases, reaching 0 at pH 7.5 and above, while delta psi remains at about-75 mV and internal pH remains at pH 7.5. Moreover, the ability of various electron donors to drive transport is correlated with their ability to generate deltamuH+. In addition, deltapH and delta psi can be varied reciprocally in the presence of valinomycin and nigericin. These data and others (manuscript in preparation) provide convincing support for the role of chemiosmotic phenomena in active transport.

  1. [Vesicular intracellular transport in the digestive organs. Membrane vesicle--the universal mechanism of the functional transport].

    PubMed

    Morozov, I A

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of long-term research of the morpho-functional characteristics of the cells of the stomach, small intestine and gallbladder the mechanism and function of membrane vesicles in the implementation of the main functions of these organs sets out in this article: the secretion of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells, the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine and the fluid at a concentration of bile epitheliocytes of gallbladder. Proofs of the intracellular formation of hydrochloric acid in tubulovesicles of the parietal cells and turnover of its secretory membranes in the process of secretory cycle, that has ensured the re-use and explained the extraordinary life of these unique cells are presented. The credible mechanism of HCl output oppression by H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity blockers has set out on this basis. The article provides detailed endocytosis mechanism of the ions and nutrients absorption by enterocytes. The mechanism of participation of the apical contractile complex of brush border of epithelial cells in the initiation of endocytosis and cytoplasmic microtubules in transport of membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm was analyzed. Based on our research and numerous of the world scientific proceedings the conclusion was done about the existence of two energy dependent types of transport in the absorptive epithelium of the digestive--transmembrane (ionic and nutritive) homeostatic type which is realized by the ATP-system of the basal plasmalemma, and vesicular (endocytosis) type which is impltmented by apical contractile complex of brush border and cytoplasmic microtubules. Both types of transport are interrelated and are under constant cellular control. This observation is relevant to the majority of cells, including those involved in the secretion of various substances: hydrochloric acid by parietal cells, enzymes by main cells of the gastric glands and exocrinocytes of the pancreas, hormone by endocrine cells of the APUD system and, finally

  2. Mycalolide B dissociates dynactin and abolishes retrograde axonal transport of dense-core vesicles.

    PubMed

    Cavolo, Samantha L; Zhou, Chaoming; Ketcham, Stephanie A; Suzuki, Matthew M; Ukalovic, Kresimir; Silverman, Michael A; Schroer, Trina A; Levitan, Edwin S

    2015-07-15

    Axonal transport is critical for maintaining synaptic transmission. Of interest, anterograde and retrograde axonal transport appear to be interdependent, as perturbing one directional motor often impairs movement in the opposite direction. Here live imaging of Drosophila and hippocampal neuron dense-core vesicles (DCVs) containing a neuropeptide or brain-derived neurotrophic factor shows that the F-actin depolymerizing macrolide toxin mycalolide B (MB) rapidly and selectively abolishes retrograde, but not anterograde, transport in the axon and the nerve terminal. Latrunculin A does not mimic MB, demonstrating that F-actin depolymerization is not responsible for unidirectional transport inhibition. Given that dynactin initiates retrograde transport and that amino acid sequences implicated in macrolide toxin binding are found in the dynactin component actin-related protein 1, we examined dynactin integrity. Remarkably, cell extract and purified protein experiments show that MB induces disassembly of the dynactin complex. Thus imaging selective retrograde transport inhibition led to the discovery of a small-molecule dynactin disruptor. The rapid unidirectional inhibition by MB suggests that dynactin is absolutely required for retrograde DCV transport but does not directly facilitate ongoing anterograde DCV transport in the axon or nerve terminal. More generally, MB's effects bolster the conclusion that anterograde and retrograde axonal transport are not necessarily interdependent. © 2015 Cavolo et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Comparison of glucose-transporter-containing vesicles from rat fat and muscle tissues: evidence for a unique endosomal compartment.

    PubMed Central

    Kandror, K V; Coderre, L; Pushkin, A V; Pilch, P F

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-sensitive tissues (fat and muscle) express a specific isoform of glucose-transporter protein, GLUT4, which normally resides in intracellular vesicular structures and is translocated to the cell surface in response to insulin. Here we provide a biochemical comparison of GLUT4-containing structures from fat and muscle cells. We demonstrate that, in spite of totally different protocols for cell homogenization and fractionation used for adipocytes as compared with skeletal-muscle tissue, GLUT4-containing vesicles from both sources have identical buoyant densities, sedimentation coefficients, and a very similar, if not identical, protein composition. The individual proteins first identified in GLUT4-containing vesicles from adipocytes (GTV3/SCAMPs proteins and aminopeptidase gp160) are also present in the analogous vesicles from muscle. Intracellular microsomes from rat adipocytes also contain GLUT1, a ubiquitously expressed glucose-transporter isoform. GLUT1 has not been detected in intracellular vesicular pool(s) from skeletal-muscle cells, probably because of its low abundance there. GLUT1 in adipocytes is excluded from GLUT4-containing vesicles, but is found in membrane structures which are indistinguishable from the former by all methods tested and demonstrate the same type of regulation by insulin. That is, the GLUT1- and GLUT4-containing vesicles have identical densities and sedimentation coefficients in sucrose gradients, and translocate to the cell surface in response to hormonal exposure. Also, we describe a simple procedure for the purification of native glucose-transporter vesicles from rat adipocytes. Overall, our data suggest the existence of a unique endosomal compartment in fat and muscle cells which is functionally and compositionally different from other microsomal vesicles and which is responsible for insulin-sensitive glucose transport in these tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9

  4. Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )

    1991-05-01

    The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

  5. β-COP as a Component of Transport Vesicles for HDL Apolipoprotein-Mediated Cholesterol Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Weilie; Lin, Margarita; Ding, Hang; Lin, Guorong; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Objective HDL and its apolipoproteins protect against atherosclerotic disease partly by removing excess cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. But the underlying mechanisms of cholesterol clearance are still not well defined. We investigated roles of vesicle trafficking of coatomer β-COP in delivering cholesterol to the cell surface during apoA-1 and apoE-mediated lipid efflux from fibroblasts and THP-1 macrophages. Methods shRNA knockout, confocal and electron microscopy and biochemical analysis were used to investigate the roles of β-COP in apolipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux in fibroblasts and THP-1 macrophages. Results We showed that β-COP knockdown by lentiviral shRNA resulted in reduced apoA-1-mediated cholesterol efflux, while increased cholesterol accumulation and formation of larger vesicles were observed in THP-1 macrophages by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that β-COP appeared on the membrane protrusion complexes and colocalized with apoA-1 or apoE during cholesterol efflux. This was associated with releasing heterogeneous sizes of small particles into the culture media of THP-1 macrophage. Western blotting also showed that apoA-1 promotes β-COP translocation to the cell membrane and secretion into culture media, in which a total of 17 proteins were identified by proteomics. Moreover, β-COP exclusively associated with human plasma HDL fractions. Conclusion ApoA-1 and apoE promoted transport vesicles consisting of β-COP and other candidate proteins to exocytose cholesterol, forming the protrusion complexes on cell surface, which were then released from the cell membrane as small particles to media. PMID:26986486

  6. Identification of myosin XI receptors in Arabidopsis defines a distinct class of transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Morgun, Eva A; Kurth, Elizabeth G; Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V

    2013-08-01

    To characterize the mechanism through which myosin XI-K attaches to its principal endomembrane cargo, a yeast two-hybrid library of Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs was screened using the myosin cargo binding domain as bait. This screen identified two previously uncharacterized transmembrane proteins (hereinafter myosin binding proteins or MyoB1/2) that share a myosin binding, conserved domain of unknown function 593 (DUF593). Additional screens revealed that MyoB1/2 also bind myosin XI-1, whereas myosin XI-I interacts with the distantly related MyoB7. The in vivo interactions of MyoB1/2 with myosin XI-K were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and colocalization analyses. In epidermal cells, the yellow fluorescent protein-tagged MyoB1/2 localize to vesicles that traffic in a myosin XI-dependent manner. Similar to myosin XI-K, MyoB1/2 accumulate in the tip-growing domain of elongating root hairs. Gene knockout analysis demonstrated that functional cooperation between myosin XI-K and MyoB proteins is required for proper plant development. Unexpectedly, the MyoB1-containing vesicles did not correspond to brefeldin A-sensitive Golgi and post-Golgi or prevacuolar compartments and did not colocalize with known exocytic or endosomal compartments. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that DUF593 emerged in primitive land plants and founded a multigene family that is conserved in all flowering plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that MyoB are membrane-anchored myosin receptors that define a distinct, plant-specific transport vesicle compartment.

  7. Ca2+ transport in isolated mitochondrial vesicles from Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Benaim, G; Bermudez, R; Urbina, J A

    1990-02-01

    Leishmania braziliensis maintained very low (50 +/- 20 nM) intracellular concentrations of calcium ions under normal conditions, as shown by the fluorimetric indicator QUIN2. Digitonin-permeabilized cells liberated large amounts of calcium ions in the presence of the ionophore A23187, indicating the presence of a large intracellular reservoir for this ion. Given the extraordinary extension of the single giant mitochondrion of Kinetoplastida and the known capacity of mitochondria from other sources to accumulate calcium, we tested the capacity of this organelle to accumulate calcium ions in Leishmania. Coupled mitochondrial vesicles, five-fold enriched in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, were obtained from promastigotes by gentle grinding (45 s) with glass beads in hypertonic buffer solution, followed by differential centrifugation. These vesicles had a respiratory control ratio of 1.82 +/- 0.15, and two phosphorylation sites (sites II and III) using succinate as electron donor, and were capable of calcium uptake in the presence of several respiratory substrates; this uptake was enhanced in the presence of ADP and Pi and was blocked by classical electron transport inhibitors. Uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and the calcium ionophore A23187 released previously accumulated calcium ions, suggesting that the driving force for the calcium uptake by the vesicles is the respiratory generated electrochemical potential gradient of protons. A study of the affinity of this system for calcium showed that even at 90 microM free calcium, succinate-induced calcium uptake is not saturated while approaching a level of 200 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1, indicating a low-affinity, large-capacity system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Use of membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying auxin transport of auxin: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin regulating growth, is transported polarly in plants. IAA stimulates a rapid increase in the rate of electrogenic proton secretion by the plasma membrane. This not only increases the magnitude of the pH and electrical gradients providing the driving force for polar auxin transport and uptake of sugars, amino acids and inorganic ions, but, by acidifying the cell wall, also leads to growth. We find that auxin uptake by membrane vesicles isolated from actively growing plant tissues exhibits some of the same properties as by cells: the accumulation depends on the pH gradient, is saturable and specific for auxin, and enhanced by herbicides that inhibit polar auxin transport. We are using accumulation of a radioactive weak acid to quantify the pH gradient and distribution of fluorescent cyanine dyes to monitor the membrane potential. The magnitude of IAA accumulation exceeds that predicted from the pH gradient, and in the absence of a pH gradient, a membrane potential fails to support any auxin accumulation, leading to the conclusion that the transmembrane potential is not a significant driving force for auxin accumulation in this system. Since increasing the external ionic strength decreases saturable auxin accumulation, we are investigating how modifying the surface potential of the vesicles affects the interaction of the amphipathic IAA molecules with the membranes and whether protein modifying reagents affect the saturability and stimulation by NPA. These studies should provide information on the location and function of the auxin binding site and may enable us to identify the solubilized protein. 5 refs.

  9. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reserpine-induced Reduction in Norepinephrine Transporter Function Requires Catecholamine Storage Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5 min decreased [3H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the Vmax of the transport of [3H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [3H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [3H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [3H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca2+/Ca2+-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [3H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, α-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [3H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [3H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca2+-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. PMID:20176067

  11. Membrane vesicles: A simplified system for studying auxin transport. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1989-12-31

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin responsible for regulation of growth, is transported polarly in plants. Several different models have been suggested to account for IAA transport by cells and its accumulation by membrane vesicles. One model sees diffusion of IAA driven by a pH gradient. The anion of a lipophilic weak acid like IAA or butyrate accumulates in an alkaline compartment in accord with the size of the pH gradient The accumulation of IAA may be diminished by the permeability of its lipophilic anion. This anion leak may be blocked by NPA. With anion efflux blocked, a gradient of two pH units would support an IAA accumulation of less than 50-fold at equilibrium (2) Another model sees diffusion of IAA in parallel with a saturable symport (IAA{sup {minus}} + nH{sup +}), driven by both the pH gradient and membrane voltage. Such a symport should be highly accumulative, however, with a lipophilic weak acid such as IAA, net diffusive efflux of IAAH whenever IAAHI{sub i} > IAAH{sub o} would constitute a leak. (3) A third model sees a pH change driven IAA uptake and saturable symport enhanced by internal binding sites. Following pH gradient-driven accumulation of IAA, the anion may bind to an intravesicular site, permitting further uptake of IAA. NPA, by blocking anion efflux, enhances this binding. We have reported that membrane vesicles isolated from actively growing plant tissues are a good system for studying the mechanisms involved in the transport and accumulation of auxin.

  12. Effect of barium ion on p-aminohippurate transport in basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex.

    PubMed

    Hori, M; Gemba, M

    1985-06-01

    To clarify the cause of the stimulation of p-aminohippurate (PAH) accumulation in rat kidney cortical slices by barium, an experiment was carried out with basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex. The effect of barium on PAH uptake by the membrane vesicles was compared with that of verapamil which also stimulated PAH accumulation in the slices. The enzyme marker for basolateral membrane, (Na+ + K+)- ATPase, was enriched 15-fold and the brushborder enzyme marker, alkaline phosphatase, was 1.3-fold in our membrane preparation. Contamination in this preparation by lysosomes, mitochondria and cytosol was also low but that by endoplasmic reticulum was slightly high as judged by the enzyme markers. PAH uptake by the membrane vesicles possessed the usual characteristics, i.e., sodium-dependence and probenecid-sensitivity. PAH uptake by the membrane vesicles was enhanced by barium, but not by verapamil. On the other hand, barium did not affect tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake by the vesicles, and verapamil strongly inhibited it. Manganese also stimulated PAH uptake to the same extent as did barium, but calcium and strontium did not affect the uptake. Barium did not act on sodium transport in the membrane vesicles. An 'anion-sensitively transported lipophilic cation', triphenylmethylphosphonium iodide (TPMP), uptake was depressed by barium. These results suggest that barium stimulates selectively PAH uptake in basolateral membrane vesicles. Its stimulatory action may contribute at least partly to an increase in PAH accumulation in rat kidney cortical slices by this ion and may prove useful in an analysis of the mechanism of PAH transport system in renal basolateral membranes.

  13. Transport of thiamine by brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Casirola, D; Ferrari, G; Gastaldi, G; Patrini, C; Rindi, G

    1988-01-01

    1. Microvillous vesicles obtained by a Ca2+ precipitation method from the intestine of adult Wistar albino rats were incubated at 25 degrees C with [35S]- or [3H]thiamine of high specific activity. 2. The time course of thiamine uptake was not influenced by the presence of Na+ or K+ nor by the absence of alkaline cations in the incubation medium. 3. At concentrations below 1.25 microM, thiamine was taken up mainly by a saturable mechanism with apparent Km = 0.8 microM and Vmax = 0.35 pmol mg protein-1 4 s-1. At higher concentrations, a non-saturable uptake mechanism prevailed. 4. The thiamine taken up was transferred to the intravesicular space. No thiamine phosphoesters could be detected in the vesicles. 5. The vesicular transport of thiamine was inhibited competitively by several thiamine derivatives and structural analogues, including: cold thiamine; thiamine monophosphate (inhibition constant, Ki = 33 microM); pyrithiamine (Ki = 1.7 microM); 2'-ethylthiamine (Ki = 27 microM); 5-chloroethylthiamine (Ki = 70 microM): Amprolium (Ki = 55 microM); 4'-oxythiamine (Ki = 510 microM). PMID:3392675

  14. Role of a transmembrane pH gradient in epinephrine transport by chromaffin granule membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, S; Fishkes, H; Kanner, B I

    1978-08-01

    ATP-driven transport and accumulation of epinephrine in chromaffin granule membrane vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal medulla is inhibited by the proton ionophores carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and nigericin, but not by valinomycin. Moreover, an artificially imposed pH gradient (interior acid) is able to drive this reserpine-sensitive transport system in the absence of ATP. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an inactivator of the chromaffin granule membrane-bound ATPase, completely inhibits ATP-dependent epinephrine accumulation, but has much less effect when an imposed pH gradient is the driving force for epinephrine transport. The findings provide a strong indication that a pH gradient (interior acid) is the immediate driving force for epinephrine uptake in these storage granules and suggest that ATP-driven epinephrine transport is the result of two processes: (i) generation of a proton electrochemical gradient (interior acid and positive) by the membrane-bound, proton-translocating ATPase; and (ii) pH gradient-driven accumulation of the catecholamine.

  15. Role of a transmembrane pH gradient in epinephrine transport by chromaffin granule membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Schuldiner, S; Fishkes, H; Kanner, B I

    1978-01-01

    ATP-driven transport and accumulation of epinephrine in chromaffin granule membrane vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal medulla is inhibited by the proton ionophores carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and nigericin, but not by valinomycin. Moreover, an artificially imposed pH gradient (interior acid) is able to drive this reserpine-sensitive transport system in the absence of ATP. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an inactivator of the chromaffin granule membrane-bound ATPase, completely inhibits ATP-dependent epinephrine accumulation, but has much less effect when an imposed pH gradient is the driving force for epinephrine transport. The findings provide a strong indication that a pH gradient (interior acid) is the immediate driving force for epinephrine uptake in these storage granules and suggest that ATP-driven epinephrine transport is the result of two processes: (i) generation of a proton electrochemical gradient (interior acid and positive) by the membrane-bound, proton-translocating ATPase; and (ii) pH gradient-driven accumulation of the catecholamine. PMID:29292

  16. Substituted quinolines as inhibitors of L-glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, R D; Esslinger, C S; Thompson, C M; Bridges, R J

    1998-07-01

    This study investigated the structure-activity relationships and kinetic properties of a library of kynurenate analogues as inhibitors of 3H-L-glutamate transport into rat forebrain synaptic vesicles. The lack of inhibitory activity observed with the majority of the monocyclic pyridine derivatives suggested that the second aromatic ring of the quinoline-based compounds played a significant role in binding to the transporter. A total of two kynurenate derivatives, xanthurenate and 7-chloro-kynurenate, differing only in the carbocyclic ring substituents, were identified as potent competitive inhibitors, exhibiting Ki values of 0.19 and 0.59 mM, respectively. The Km value for L-glutamate was found to be 2.46 mM. Parallel experiments demonstrated that while none of the kynurenate analogues tested effectively inhibited the synaptosomal transport of 3H-D-aspartate, some cross-reactivity was observed with the EAA ionotropic receptors. Molecular modeling studies were carried out with the identified inhibitors and glutamate in an attempt to preliminarily define the pharmacophore of the vesicular transporter. It is hypothesized that the ability of the kynurenate analogues to bind to the transporter may be tied to the capacity of the quinoline carbocyclic ring to mimic the negative charge of the gamma-carboxylate of glutamate. A total of two low energy solution conformers of glutamate were identified that exhibited marked functional group overlap with the most potent inhibitor, xanthurenate. These results help to further refine the pharmacological specificity of the glutamate binding site on the vesicular transporter and identify a series of inhibitors with which to investigate transporter function.

  17. The relationship between the electrochemical proton gradient and active transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ramos, S; Kaback, H R

    1977-03-08

    In the previous paper [ramos, S., and Kaback, H.R. (1977), Biochemistry 16 (preceding paper in this issue)], it was demonstrated that Escherichia coli membrane vesicles generate a large electrochemical proton gradient (delta-muH+) under appropriate conditions, and some of the properties of delta-muH+ and its component forces [i.e., the membrane potential (delta psi) and the chemical gradient of protons (deltapH)] were described. In this paper, the relationship between delta-muH+, delta psi, and deltapH and the active transport of specific solutes is examined. Addition of lactose or glucose 6-phosphate to membrane vesicles containing the appropriate transport systems results in partial collapse of deltapH, providing direct evidence for the suggestion that respiratory energy can drive active transport via the pH gradient across the membrane. Titration studies with valinomycin and nigericin lead to the conclusion that, at pH 5.5, there are two general classes of transport systems: those that are driven primarily by delta-muH+ (lactose, proline, serine, glycine, tyrosine, glutamate, leucine, lysine, cysteine, and succinate) and those that are driven primarily by deltapH (glucose 6-phosphate, D-lactate, glucuronate, and gluconate). Importantly, however, it is also demonstrated that at pH 7.5, all of these transport systems are driven by delta psi which comprises the only component of delta-muH+ at this external pH. In addition, the effect of external pH on the steady-state levels of accumulation of different solutes is examined, and it is shown that none of the pH profiles correspond to those observed for delta-muH+, delta psi, or deltapH. Moreover, at external pH values above 6.0-6.5, delta-muH+ is insufficient to account for the concentration gradients established for each substrate unless the stoichiometry between protons and accumulated solutes is greater than unity. The results confirm many facets of the chemiosmotic hypothesis, but they also extend the concept in

  18. Pep7p provides a novel protein that functions in vesicle-mediated transport between the yeast Golgi and endosome.

    PubMed

    Webb, G C; Zhang, J; Garlow, S J; Wesp, A; Riezman, H; Jones, E W

    1997-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae pep7 mutants are defective in transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolases to the lysosome-like vacuole. PEP7 is a nonessential gene that encodes a hydrophilic protein of 515 amino acids. A cysteine-rich tripartite motif in the N-terminal half of the polypeptide shows striking similarity to sequences found in many other eukaryotic proteins. Several of these proteins are thought to function in the vacuolar/lysosomal pathway. Mutations that change highly conserved cysteine residues in this motif lead to a loss of Pep7p function. Kinetic studies demonstrate that Pep7p function is required for the transport of the Golgi-precursors of the soluble hydrolases carboxypeptidase Y, proteinase A, and proteinase B to the endosome. Integral membrane hydrolase alkaline phosphatase is transported to the vacuole by a parallel intracellular pathway that does not require Pep7p function. pep7 mutants accumulate a 40-60-nm vesicle population, suggesting that Pep7p functions in a vesicle consumption step in vesicle-mediated transport of soluble hydrolases to the endosome. Whereas pep7 mutants demonstrate no defects in endocytic uptake at the plasma membrane, the mutants demonstrate defects in transport of receptor-mediated macromolecules through the endocytic pathway. Localization studies indicate that Pep7p is found both as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and associated with particulate fractions. We conclude that Pep7p functions as a novel regulator of vesicle docking and/or fusion at the endosome.

  19. Pep7p provides a novel protein that functions in vesicle-mediated transport between the yeast Golgi and endosome.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, G C; Zhang, J; Garlow, S J; Wesp, A; Riezman, H; Jones, E W

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae pep7 mutants are defective in transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolases to the lysosome-like vacuole. PEP7 is a nonessential gene that encodes a hydrophilic protein of 515 amino acids. A cysteine-rich tripartite motif in the N-terminal half of the polypeptide shows striking similarity to sequences found in many other eukaryotic proteins. Several of these proteins are thought to function in the vacuolar/lysosomal pathway. Mutations that change highly conserved cysteine residues in this motif lead to a loss of Pep7p function. Kinetic studies demonstrate that Pep7p function is required for the transport of the Golgi-precursors of the soluble hydrolases carboxypeptidase Y, proteinase A, and proteinase B to the endosome. Integral membrane hydrolase alkaline phosphatase is transported to the vacuole by a parallel intracellular pathway that does not require Pep7p function. pep7 mutants accumulate a 40-60-nm vesicle population, suggesting that Pep7p functions in a vesicle consumption step in vesicle-mediated transport of soluble hydrolases to the endosome. Whereas pep7 mutants demonstrate no defects in endocytic uptake at the plasma membrane, the mutants demonstrate defects in transport of receptor-mediated macromolecules through the endocytic pathway. Localization studies indicate that Pep7p is found both as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and associated with particulate fractions. We conclude that Pep7p functions as a novel regulator of vesicle docking and/or fusion at the endosome. Images PMID:9168472

  20. Sulphate-ion/sodium-ion co-transport by brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lücke, Heinrich; Stange, Gertraud; Murer, Heini

    1979-01-01

    Uptake of SO42− into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kindey cortex by a Ca2+-precipitation method was investigated by using a rapid-filtration technique. Uptake of SO42− by the vesicles was osmotically sensitive and represented transport into an intra-vesicular space. Transport of SO42− by brush-border membranes was stimulated in the presence of Na+, compared with the presence of K+ or other univalent cations. A typical `overshoot' phenomenon was observed in the presence of an NaCl gradient (100mm-Na+ outside/zero mm-Na+ inside). Radioactive-SO42− exchange was faster in the presence of Na+ than in the presence of K+. Addition of gramicidin-D, an ionophore for univalent cations, decreased the Na+-gradient-driven SO42− uptake. SO42− uptake was only saturable in the presence of Na+. Counter-transport of Na+-dependent SO42− transport was shown with MoO42− and S2O32−, but not with PO42−. Changing the electrical potential difference across the vesicle membrane by establishing different diffusion potentials (anion replacement; K+ gradient±valinomycin) was not able to alter Na+-dependent SO42− uptake. The experiments indicate the presence of an electroneutral Na+/SO42−-co-transport system in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex. PMID:91368

  1. Evidence that electrostatic interactions between vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 and acidic phospholipids may modulate the fusion of transport vesicles with the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dumaine; Vicôgne, Jérome; Zaitseva, Irina; McLaughlin, Stuart; Pessin, Jeffrey E

    2009-12-01

    The juxtamembrane domain of vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2 (also known as synaptobrevin2) contains a conserved cluster of basic/hydrophobic residues that may play an important role in membrane fusion. Our measurements on peptides corresponding to this domain determine the electrostatic and hydrophobic energies by which this domain of VAMP2 could bind to the adjacent lipid bilayer in an insulin granule or other transport vesicle. Mutation of residues within the juxtamembrane domain that reduce the VAMP2 net positive charge, and thus its interaction with membranes, inhibits secretion of insulin granules in beta cells. Increasing salt concentration in permeabilized cells, which reduces electrostatic interactions, also results in an inhibition of insulin secretion. Similarly, amphipathic weak bases (e.g., sphingosine) that reverse the negative electrostatic surface potential of a bilayer reverse membrane binding of the positively charged juxtamembrane domain of a reconstituted VAMP2 protein and inhibit membrane fusion. We propose a model in which the positively charged VAMP and syntaxin juxtamembrane regions facilitate fusion by bridging the negatively charged vesicle and plasma membrane leaflets.

  2. Dominant-negative myosin Va impairs retrograde but not anterograde axonal transport of large dense core vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bittins, Claudia Margarethe; Eichler, Tilo Wolf; Hammer, John A; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann

    2010-04-01

    Axonal transport of peptide and hormone-containing large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) is known to be a microtubule-dependent process. Here, we suggest a role for the actin-based motor protein myosin Va specifically in retrograde axonal transport of LDCVs. Using live-cell imaging of transfected hippocampal neurons grown in culture, we measured the speed, transport direction, and the number of LDCVs that were labeled with ectopically expressed neuropeptide Y fused to EGFP. Upon expression of a dominant-negative tail construct of myosin Va, a general reduction of movement in both dendrites and axons was observed. In axons, it was particularly interesting that the retrograde speed of LDCVs was significantly impaired, although anterograde transport remained unchanged. Moreover, particles labeled with the dominant-negative construct often moved in the retrograde direction but rarely in the anterograde direction. We suggest a model where myosin Va acts as an actin-dependent vesicle motor that facilitates retrograde axonal transport.

  3. Effects of uricosuric and antiuricosuric agents on urate transport in human brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Roch-Ramel, F; Guisan, B; Diezi, J

    1997-02-01

    Inhibition of [14C]-urate uptake by uricosuric and antiuricosuric agents was investigated in human brush-border membrane vesicles, urate being transported either by anion exchange mechanisms or by voltage sensitive pathway. The IC50 for drugs on [14C]-urate uptake in vesicles loaded with 1 mM cold urate or with 5 mM lactate was, respectively: 0.7 and 0.3 microM for benzbromarone; 6 and 4 microM for salicylate; 133 and 13 microM for losartan; 520 and 190 microM for sulfinpyrazone and 807 and 150 microM, for probenecid. The IC50 ratio for [14C]-urate uptake in exchange for cold urate or for lactate varied from about 1 for salicylate to 10 for losartan, supporting the hypothesis that two distinct anion exchangers are involved in urate transport. Application of Hill equation revealed that urate/anion exchangers have more than one binding site, possibly two binding sites with high cooperativity, for benzbromarone and sulfinpyrazone, but only one for probenecid, salicylate and losartan. The uricosuric diuretic, tienilic acid was 10 to 50 times more potent than hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide and furosemide, for inhibiting [14C]-urate uptake in exchange for cold urate. This higher potency is the reason of its uricosuric properties. All uricosuric agents, as well as the antiuricosuric agents, pyrazinoate and ethambutol, had a much lower potency for inhibiting [14C]-urate uptake through the voltage sensitive pathway (apical secretory step) than through the urate/anion exchangers. This suggests that antiuricosuria, induced by pyrazinoate and ethambutol, as well as by low concentrations of uricosuric agents, does not result from an inhibition of the apical voltage sensitive pathway.

  4. Analysis of COPII vesicles indicates a role for the Emp47-Ssp120 complex in transport of cell surface glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Neil G.; Wilson, Joshua D.; Bentivoglio, Christine M.; Dhungel, Nripesh; Gitler, Aaron D.; Barlowe, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transports nascent secretory proteins forward to the Golgi complex. To further define the machinery that packages secretory cargo and targets vesicles to Golgi membranes, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified COPII vesicles. In addition to previously known proteins, we identified new vesicle proteins including Coy1, Sly41 and Ssp120, which were efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles for trafficking between the ER and Golgi compartments. Further characterization of the putative calcium-binding Ssp120 protein revealed a tight association with Emp47 and in emp47Δ cells Ssp120 was mislocalized and secreted. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EMP47 and SSP120 display identical synthetic positive interactions with IRE1 and synthetic negative interactions with genes involved in cell wall assembly. Our findings support a model in which the Emp47-Ssp120 complex functions in transport of plasma membrane glycoproteins through the early secretory pathway. PMID:26650540

  5. The Effect of Extracellular Components from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum on Membrane Transport in Vesicles Isolated from Bean Hypocotyl 1

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Kim R.; Anderson, Anne J.

    1987-01-01

    Extracellular components released from mycelia of the α and β races of the bean pathogen, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, inhibited proton uptake in sealed vesicles prepared from bean hypocotyls. Differential sensitivity of ATP-driven proton transport to nitrate, vanadate, N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, diethylstilbestrol, and oligomycin suggested the vesicles were enriched for tonoplast. Anion stimulation of proton transport, by enhancement of ATPase activity and dissipation of the membrane potential, was consistent with this conclusion. Although fungal components inhibited the formation of a pH gradient, the membrane potential was unaffected and the ATPase activity slightly stimulated. These data suggest that the fungal components produce an electroneutral proton exchange. Proton transport in Dark Red Kidney bean tonoplast vesicles was inhibited by mycelial preparations from the incompatible α race and compatible β race. Elicitor activity, however, was greater in the α race fractions. Elicitor purified from α race culture filtrate did not inhibit proton transport in vesicles isolated from Dark Red Kidney bean. Consequently, elicitor activity need not be associated with an ability to impair tonoplast function. PMID:16665456

  6. The Effect of Extracellular Components from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum on Membrane Transport in Vesicles Isolated from Bean Hypocotyl.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K R; Anderson, A J

    1987-06-01

    Extracellular components released from mycelia of the alpha and beta races of the bean pathogen, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, inhibited proton uptake in sealed vesicles prepared from bean hypocotyls. Differential sensitivity of ATP-driven proton transport to nitrate, vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, diethylstilbestrol, and oligomycin suggested the vesicles were enriched for tonoplast. Anion stimulation of proton transport, by enhancement of ATPase activity and dissipation of the membrane potential, was consistent with this conclusion. Although fungal components inhibited the formation of a pH gradient, the membrane potential was unaffected and the ATPase activity slightly stimulated. These data suggest that the fungal components produce an electroneutral proton exchange. Proton transport in Dark Red Kidney bean tonoplast vesicles was inhibited by mycelial preparations from the incompatible alpha race and compatible beta race. Elicitor activity, however, was greater in the alpha race fractions. Elicitor purified from alpha race culture filtrate did not inhibit proton transport in vesicles isolated from Dark Red Kidney bean. Consequently, elicitor activity need not be associated with an ability to impair tonoplast function.

  7. Cercospora beticola Toxin Inhibits Vanadate-Sensitive H+ Transport in Corn Root Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Blein, Jean-Pierre; Bourdil, Isabelle; Rossignol, Michel; Scalla, René

    1988-01-01

    The effect of Cercospora beticola toxin on the transport of protons by vanadate-sensitive ATPase was studied with corn (Zea mays) root microsomal vesicles prepared by differential centrifugation, sedimentation through a sucrose cushion, and washing with Triton X-100 plus KBr. In these preparations, addition of ATP induced intravesicular H+-accumulation as evidenced by a rapid quenching of the fluorescence of 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxy acridine. This quenching was relatively unaffected by inhibitors of mitochondrial and tonoplast-type ATPases, but was strongly reduced by inhibitors of plasma membrane H+-ATPase. C. beticola toxin markedly inhibited ATP dependent H+-transport, and this effect increased with the length of preincubation with the toxin. The same observations were made concerning ATPase activity. Inhibition of H+-transport was greater at pH 7.3 than at pH 5.7. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis showed that inhibition kinetics were competitive with respect to ATP. These data suggest a direct effect of C. beticola toxin on vanadate-sensitive ATPase presumed to be associated with the plasma membrane. PMID:16666321

  8. Molecular characterization of a trafficking organelle: dissecting the axonal paths of calsyntenin-1 transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Steuble, Martin; Gerrits, Bertran; Ludwig, Alexander; Mateos, José María; Diep, Tu-My; Tagaya, Mitsuo; Stephan, Alexander; Schätzle, Philipp; Kunz, Beat; Streit, Peter; Sonderegger, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Kinesin motors play crucial roles in the delivery of membranous cargo to its destination and thus for the establishment and maintenance of cellular polarization. Recently, calsyntenin-1 was identified as a cargo-docking protein for Kinesin-1-mediated axonal transport of tubulovesicular organelles along axons of central nervous system neurons. To further define the function of calsyntenin-1, we immunoisolated calsyntenin-1 organelles from murine brain homogenates and determined their proteome by MS. We found that calsyntenin-1 organelles are endowed with components of the endosomal trafficking machinery and contained the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Detailed biochemical analyses of calsyntenin-1 immunoisolates in conjunction with immunocytochemical colocalization studies with cultured hippocampal neurons, using endosomal marker proteins for distinct subcompartments of the endosomal pathways, indicated that neuronal axons contain at least two distinct, nonoverlapping calsyntenin-1-containing transport packages: one characterized as early-endosomal, APP positive, the other as recycling-endosomal, APP negative. We postulate that calsyntenin-1 acts as a general mediator of anterograde axonal transportation of endosomal vesicles. In this role, calsyntenin-1 may actively contribute to axonal growth and pathfinding in the developing as well as to the maintenance of neuronal polarity in the adult nervous system; further, it may actively contribute to the stabilization of APP during its anterograde axonal trajectory.

  9. Cercospora beticola Toxin Inhibits Vanadate-Sensitive H Transport in Corn Root Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Blein, J P; Bourdil, I; Rossignol, M; Scalla, R

    1988-10-01

    The effect of Cercospora beticola toxin on the transport of protons by vanadate-sensitive ATPase was studied with corn (Zea mays) root microsomal vesicles prepared by differential centrifugation, sedimentation through a sucrose cushion, and washing with Triton X-100 plus KBr. In these preparations, addition of ATP induced intravesicular H(+)-accumulation as evidenced by a rapid quenching of the fluorescence of 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxy acridine. This quenching was relatively unaffected by inhibitors of mitochondrial and tonoplast-type ATPases, but was strongly reduced by inhibitors of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. C. beticola toxin markedly inhibited ATP dependent H(+)-transport, and this effect increased with the length of preincubation with the toxin. The same observations were made concerning ATPase activity. Inhibition of H(+)-transport was greater at pH 7.3 than at pH 5.7. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis showed that inhibition kinetics were competitive with respect to ATP. These data suggest a direct effect of C. beticola toxin on vanadate-sensitive ATPase presumed to be associated with the plasma membrane.

  10. Mechanism and energetics of dipeptide transport in membrane vesicles of Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Smid, E J; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1989-01-01

    Alanyl-alpha-glutamate transport has been studied in Lactococcus lactis ML3 cells and in membrane vesicles fused with liposomes containing beefheart cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive-force-generating system. The uptake of Ala-Glu observed in de-energized cells can be stimulated 26-fold upon addition of lactose. No intracellular dipeptide pool could be detected in intact cells. In fused membranes, a 40-fold accumulation of Ala-Glu was observed in response to a proton motive force. Addition of ionophores and uncouplers resulted in a rapid efflux of the accumulated dipeptide, indicating that Ala-Glu accumulation is directly coupled to the proton motive force as a driving force. Ala-Glu uptake is an electrogenic process and the dipeptide is transported in symport with two protons. In both fused membranes and intact cells the same affinity constant (0.70 mM) for Ala-Glu uptake was found. Accumulated Ala-Glu is exchangeable with externally added alanyl-glutamate, glutamyl-glutamate, and leucyl-leucine, while no exchange occurred upon addition of the amino acid glutamate or alanine. These results indicate that the Ala-Glu transport system has a broad substrate specificity. PMID:2492499

  11. Functional reconstitution of the. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transporter from synaptic vesicles using artificial ion gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Hell, J.W.; Edelmann, L.; Hartinger, J.; Jahn, R. )

    1991-12-24

    The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter of rat brain synaptic vesicles was reconstituted in proteoliposomes, and its activity was studied in response to artificially created membrane potentials or proton gradients. Changes of the membrane potential were monitored using the dyes oxonol VI and 3,3{prime}-diisopropylthiodicarbocyanine iodide, and changes of the H{sup +} gradient were followed using acridine orange. An inside positive membrane potential was generated by the creation of an inwardly directed K{sup +} gradient and the subsequent addition of valinomycin. Under these conditions, valinomycin evoked uptake of ({sup 3}H)GABA which was saturable. Similarly, ({sup 3}H)glutamate uptake was stimulated by valinomycin, indicating that both transporters can be driven by the membrane potential. Proton gradients were generated by the incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in a buffer free of K{sup +} or Na{sup +} ions and the subsequent addition of nigericin. Proton gradients were also generated via the endogenous H{sup +} ATPase by incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in equimolar K{sup +} buffer in the presence of valinomycin. These proton gradients evoked nonspecific, nonsaturable uptake of GABA and {beta}-alanine but not of glycine in proteoliposomes as well as protein-free liposomes. Therefore, transporter activity was monitored using glycine as an alternative substrate. Proton gradients generated by both methods elicited saturable glycine uptake in proteoliposomes. Together, these data confirm that the vesicular GABA transporter can be energized by both the membrane potential and the pH gradient and show that transport can be achieved by artificial gradients independently of the endogenous proton ATPase.

  12. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 (MRP2) Mediated Transport of Oxaliplatin-Derived Platinum in Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Khine; Li, Yan; Paxton, James; McKeage, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The platinum-based anticancer drug oxaliplatin is important clinically in cancer treatment. However, the role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in controlling oxaliplatin membrane transport, in vivo handling, toxicity and therapeutic responses is unclear. In the current study, preparations of MRP2-expressing and control membrane vesicles, containing inside-out orientated vesicles, were used to directly characterise the membrane transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxaliplatin inhibited the ATP-dependent accumulation of the model MRP2 fluorescent probe, 5(6)-carboxy-2,'7'-dichlorofluorescein, in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles. MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles accumulated up to 19-fold more platinum during their incubation with oxaliplatin and ATP as compared to control membrane vesicles and in the absence of ATP. The rate of ATP-dependent MRP2-mediated active transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum increased non-linearly with increasing oxaliplatin exposure concentration, approaching a plateau value (Vmax) of 2680 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes (95%CI, 2010 to 3360 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes), with the half-maximal platinum accumulation rate (Km) at an oxaliplatin exposure concentration of 301 μM (95% CI, 163 to 438 μM), in accordance with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (r2 = 0.954). MRP2 inhibitors (myricetin and MK571) reduced the ATP-dependent accumulation of oxaliplatin-derived platinum in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner. To identify whether oxaliplatin, or perhaps a degradation product, was the likely substrate for this active transport, HPLC studies were undertaken showing that oxaliplatin degraded slowly in membrane vesicle incubation buffer containing chloride ions and glutathione, with approximately 95% remaining intact after a 10 minute incubation time and a degradation half-life of 2.24 hours (95%CI, 2.08 to 2.43 hours). In

  13. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 (MRP2) Mediated Transport of Oxaliplatin-Derived Platinum in Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Myint, Khine; Li, Yan; Paxton, James; McKeage, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The platinum-based anticancer drug oxaliplatin is important clinically in cancer treatment. However, the role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in controlling oxaliplatin membrane transport, in vivo handling, toxicity and therapeutic responses is unclear. In the current study, preparations of MRP2-expressing and control membrane vesicles, containing inside-out orientated vesicles, were used to directly characterise the membrane transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxaliplatin inhibited the ATP-dependent accumulation of the model MRP2 fluorescent probe, 5(6)-carboxy-2,'7'-dichlorofluorescein, in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles. MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles accumulated up to 19-fold more platinum during their incubation with oxaliplatin and ATP as compared to control membrane vesicles and in the absence of ATP. The rate of ATP-dependent MRP2-mediated active transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum increased non-linearly with increasing oxaliplatin exposure concentration, approaching a plateau value (Vmax) of 2680 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes (95%CI, 2010 to 3360 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes), with the half-maximal platinum accumulation rate (Km) at an oxaliplatin exposure concentration of 301 μM (95% CI, 163 to 438 μM), in accordance with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (r2 = 0.954). MRP2 inhibitors (myricetin and MK571) reduced the ATP-dependent accumulation of oxaliplatin-derived platinum in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner. To identify whether oxaliplatin, or perhaps a degradation product, was the likely substrate for this active transport, HPLC studies were undertaken showing that oxaliplatin degraded slowly in membrane vesicle incubation buffer containing chloride ions and glutathione, with approximately 95% remaining intact after a 10 minute incubation time and a degradation half-life of 2.24 hours (95%CI, 2.08 to 2.43 hours). In

  14. VAN3 ARF-GAP-mediated vesicle transport is involved in leaf vascular network formation.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Koji; Naramoto, Satoshi; Sawa, Shinichiro; Yahara, Natsuko; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Sugiyama, Munetaka; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2005-04-01

    Within the leaf of an angiosperm, the vascular system is constructed in a complex network pattern called venation. The formation of this vein pattern has been widely studied as a paradigm of tissue pattern formation in plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling the vein patterning process, we previously isolated Arabidopsis mutants van1 to van7, which show a discontinuous vein pattern. Here we report the phenotypic analysis of the van3 mutant in relation to auxin signaling and polar transport, and the molecular characterization of the VAN3 gene and protein. Double mutant analyses with pin1, emb30-7/gn and mp, and physiological analyses using the auxin-inducible marker DR5::GUS and an auxin transport inhibitor indicated that VAN3 may be involved in auxin signal transduction, but not in polar auxin transport. Positional cloning identified VAN3 as a gene that encodes an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factor-guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activating protein (ARF-GAP). It resembles animal ACAPs and contains four domains: a BAR (BIN/amphiphysin/RVS) domain, a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, an ARF-GAP domain and an ankyrin (ANK)-repeat domain. Recombinant VAN3 protein showed GTPase-activating activity and a specific affinity for phosphatidylinositols. This protein can self-associate through the N-terminal BAR domain in the yeast two-hybrid system. Subcellular localization analysis by double staining for Venus-tagged VAN3 and several green-fluorescent-protein-tagged intracellular markers indicated that VAN3 is located in a subpopulation of the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Our results indicate that the expression of this gene is induced by auxin and positively regulated by VAN3 itself, and that a specific ACAP type of ARF-GAP functions in vein pattern formation by regulating auxin signaling via a TGN-mediated vesicle transport system.

  15. Nuclear transportation of exogenous epidermal growth factor receptor and androgen receptor via extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Read, Jolene; Ingram, Alistair; Al Saleh, Hassan A; Platko, Khrystyna; Gabriel, Kathleen; Kapoor, Anil; Pinthus, Jehonathan; Majeed, Fadwa; Qureshi, Talha; Al-Nedawi, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a central role in the progression of several human malignancies. Although EGFR is a membrane receptor, it undergoes nuclear translocation, where it has a distinct signalling pathway. Herein, we report a novel mechanism by which cancer cells can directly transport EGFR to the nucleus of other cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). The transported receptor is active and stimulates the nuclear EGFR pathways. Interestingly, the translocation of EGFR via EVs occurs independently of the nuclear localisation sequence that is required for nuclear translocation of endogenous EGFR. Also, we found that the mutant receptor EGFRvIII could be transported to the nucleus of other cells via EVs. To assess the role of EVs in the regulation of an actual nuclear receptor, we studied the regulation of androgen receptor (AR). We found that full-length AR and mutant variant ARv7 are secreted in EVs derived from prostate cancer cell lines and could be transported to the nucleus of AR-null cells. The EV-derived AR was able to bind the androgen-responsive promoter region of prostate specific antigen, and recruit RNA Pol II, an indication of active transcription. The nuclear-translocated AR via EVs enhanced the proliferation of acceptor cells in the absence of androgen. Finally, we provide evidence that nuclear localisation of AR could occur in vivo via orthotopically-injected EVs in male SCID mice prostate glands. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the nuclear translocation of nuclear receptors via EVs, which significantly extends the role of EVs as paracrine transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogenesis of the crystalloid organelle in Plasmodium involves microtubule-dependent vesicle transport and assembly

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Sadia; Tremp, Annie Z.; Dessens, Johannes T.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites possess unique subcellular structures and organelles. One of these is the crystalloid, a multivesicular organelle that forms during the parasite’s development in vector mosquitoes. The formation and function of these organelles remain poorly understood. A family of six conserved and modular proteins named LCCL-lectin adhesive-like proteins (LAPs), which have essential roles in sporozoite transmission, localise to the crystalloids. In this study we analyse crystalloid formation using transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing GFP-tagged LAP3. We show that deletion of the LCCL domain from LAP3 causes retarded crystalloid development, while knockout of LAP3 prevents formation of the organelle. Our data reveal that the process of crystalloid formation involves active relocation of endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles to common assembly points via microtubule-dependent transport. Inhibition of microtubule-dependent cargo transport disrupts this process and replicates the LCCL domain deletion mutant phenotype in wildtype parasites. These findings provide the first clear insight into crystalloid biogenesis, demonstrating a fundamental role for the LAP family in this process, and identifying the crystalloid and its formation as potential targets for malaria transmission control. PMID:25900212

  17. A proton gradient is the driving force for uphill transport of lactate in human placental brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Balkovetz, D F; Leibach, F H; Mahesh, V B; Ganapathy, V

    1988-09-25

    The characteristics of lactate transport in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from normal human full-term placentas were investigated. Lactate transport in these vesicles was Na+-independent, but was greatly stimulated when the extravesicular pH was made acidic. In the presence of an inwardly directed H+ gradient ([H+]o greater than [H+]i), transient uphill transport of lactate could be demonstrated. This H+ gradient-dependent stimulation was not a result of a H+ diffusion potential. Transport of lactate in the presence of the H+ gradient was not inhibited by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid or by furosemide, ruling out the participation of an anion exchanger in placental lactate transport. Many monocarboxylates strongly interacted with the lactate transport system, whereas, with the single exception of succinate, dicarboxylates did not. The monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, but not the dicarboxylate succinate, when present inside the vesicles, were able to exert a trans-stimulatory effect on the uptake of radiolabeled lactate. Kinetic analyses provided evidence for a single transport system with a Kt of 4.1 +/- 0.4 mM for lactate and a Vmax of 54.2 +/- 9.9 nmol/mg of protein/30 s. Pyruvate inhibited lactate transport competitively, by reducing the affinity of the system for lactate without altering the maximal velocity. It is concluded that human placental brush-border membranes possess a transport system specific for lactate and other monocarboxylates and that this transport system is Na+-independent and is energized by an inwardly directed H+ gradient. Lactate-H+ symport rather than lactate-OH- antiport appears to be the mechanism of the H+ gradient-dependent lactate transport in these membranes.

  18. Ammonium ion substitutes for K/sup +/ in ATP-dependent Na/sup +/ transport by basolateral membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, D.W.; Hoelleland, T.

    1987-03-01

    Ion-transporting cells from posterior gills of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) acclimated to low salinity were used as starting material for the preparation of microsomal membrane vesicles by density gradient centrifugation. The Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase)-enriched basolateral vesicles were loaded with KCl- or NH/sub 4//sup +/-containing medium by dilution and centrifugation, and initial rates of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake into the vesicles were measured by a rapid filtration procedure. Varying the extravesicular sucrose concentration altered equilibrium uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/, indicating the existence of osmotically sensitive vesicles. Monensin, a sodium-specific ionophore, enhanced passive uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ across the vesicle membrane in the absence of ATP. With 100 mM KCl in the intravesicular medium, addition of ATP to the extravesicular medium increased initial rates of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake 10- to 20-fold over levels measured without ATP. A nonhydrolyzable ATP analog failed to stimulate /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake. Intravesicular K/sup +/ could be replaced by NH/sub 4//sup +/ but not by choline. With NH/sub 4//sup +/ as counterion, Na/sup +/ transport was inhibited by digitoxin, but valinomycin had no effect. A study of the kinetic effects of intravesicular K/sup +/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ on initial rates of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake indicated the existence of two classes of binding sites, one responding to counterion concentrations in the millimolar range and a second class responding to counterion concentrations over 50 mM. The results indicate that ATP-dependent /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake by membrane vesicles from Callinectes sapidus gill, mediated by Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase, can utilize either K/sup +/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/ as counterion.

  19. Mechanisms of transport of nontransferrin-bound iron in basolateral and canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.L.; Lake, J.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Although most iron in plasma is bound to transferrin, recent evidence suggests that the nontransferrin-bound fraction contributes to hepatic iron loading and toxicity seen in iron-overload disorders. Our studies of isolated perfused rat liver previously demonstrated saturable uptake of nontransferrin-bound iron that continues despite hepatic iron overload. To further characterize the mechanism of transport of this form of iron, we measured binding of 55Fe-labeled ferrous ascorbate to rat liver plasma membrane vesicles under varying conditions. Binding of 5 mumol/L iron by both basolateral and canalicular membranes was time-dependent and linear for the first 5 sec. Initial rate of binding of ferrous ascorbate to basolateral membrane vesicles was temperature dependent and increased by calcium but, in contrast to the perfused rat liver, was not inhibited by other divalent cations. Binding velocities by basolateral membrane vesicles were saturable at increasing iron concentration (Km = 33 mumol/L, Vmax = 16 pmol/mg protein/sec). Ferrous iron binding by canalicular membrane vesicles was also temperature dependent, but initial association rates were not saturable over the concentration range studied (2 to 20 mumol/L). We conclude that nontransferrin-bound iron associates with basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles by a saturable mechanism sensitive to temperature and calcium and consistent with a membrane carrier. Other divalent cations do not inhibit membrane association but may compete for a subsequent cytosolic binding site.

  20. Distinct stages in the recognition, sorting, and packaging of proTGFα into COPII-coated transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Schekman, Randy

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role in forming vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the coat protein complex II (COPII) is also responsible for selecting specific cargo proteins to be packaged into COPII transport vesicles. Comparison of COPII vesicle formation in mammalian systems and in yeast suggested that the former uses more elaborate mechanisms for cargo recognition, presumably to cope with a significantly expanded repertoire of cargo that transits the secretory pathway. Using proTGFα, the transmembrane precursor of transforming growth factor α (TGFα), as a model cargo protein, we demonstrate in cell-free assays that at least one auxiliary cytosolic factor is specifically required for the efficient packaging of proTGFα into COPII vesicles. Using a knockout HeLa cell line generated by CRISPR/Cas9, we provide functional evidence showing that a transmembrane protein, Cornichon-1 (CNIH), acts as a cargo receptor of proTGFα. We show that both CNIH and the auxiliary cytosolic factor(s) are required for efficient recruitment of proTGFα to the COPII coat in vitro. Moreover, we provide evidence that the recruitment of cargo protein by the COPII coat precedes and may be distinct from subsequent cargo packaging into COPII vesicles. PMID:27122606

  1. Regulation of vesicle transport and cell motility by Golgi-localized Dbs

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ethan R; Hu, Tinghui; Ciccarelli, Bryan T; Whitehead, Ian P

    2014-01-01

    DBS/MCF2L has been recently identified as a risk locus for osteoarthritis. It encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Dbs) that has been shown to regulate both normal and tumor cell motility. In the current study, we have determined that endogenous Dbs is predominantly expressed as 2 isoforms, a 130 kDa form (Dbs-130) that is localized to the Golgi complex, and an 80 kDa form (Dbs-80) that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously described an inhibitor that binds to the RhoGEF domain of Dbs and blocks its transforming activity. Here we show that the inhibitor localizes to the Golgi, where it specifically interacts with Dbs-130. Inhibition of endogenous Dbs-130 activity is associated with reduced levels of activated Cdc42, enlarged Golgi, and resistance to Brefeldin A-mediated Golgi dispersal, suggesting a role for Dbs in vesicle transport. Cells treated with the inhibitor exhibit normal protein transport from the ER to the Golgi, but are defective in transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Inhibition of Dbs-130 in MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor cells limits motility in both transwell and wound healing assays, but appears to have no effect on the organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. The reduced motility is associated with a failure to reorient the Golgi toward the leading edge. This is consistent with the Golgi localization, and suggests that the Dbs-130 regulates aspects of the secretory pathway that are required to support cell polarization during directed migration. PMID:25483302

  2. Dimethyltryptamine and other hallucinogenic tryptamines exhibit substrate behavior at the serotonin uptake transporter and the vesicle monoamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gopalakrishnan, Anupama; Anderson, Lyndsey L; Feih, Joel T; Shulgin, Alexander T; Daley, Paul F; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2009-12-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a potent plant hallucinogen that has also been found in human tissues. When ingested, DMT and related N,N-dialkyltryptamines produce an intense hallucinogenic state. Behavioral effects are mediated through various neurochemical mechanisms including activity at sigma-1 and serotonin receptors, modification of monoamine uptake and release, and competition for metabolic enzymes. To further clarify the pharmacology of hallucinogenic tryptamines, we synthesized DMT, N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (MIPT), N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine. We then tested the abilities of these N,N-dialkyltryptamines to inhibit [(3)H]5-HT uptake via the plasma membrane serotonin transporter (SERT) in human platelets and via the vesicle monoamine transporter (VMAT2) in Sf9 cells expressing the rat VMAT2. The tryptamines were also tested as inhibitors of [(3)H]paroxetine binding to the SERT and [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to VMAT2. Our results show that DMT, MIPT, DPT, and DIPT inhibit [(3)H]5-HT transport at the SERT with K ( I ) values of 4.00 +/- 0.70, 8.88 +/- 4.7, 0.594 +/- 0.12, and 2.32 +/- 0.46 microM, respectively. At VMAT2, the tryptamines inhibited [(3)H]5-HT transport with K ( I ) values of 93 +/- 6.8, 20 +/- 4.3, 19 +/- 2.3, and 19 +/- 3.1 muM, respectively. On the other hand, the tryptamines were very poor inhibitors of [(3)H]paroxetine binding to SERT and of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to VMAT2, resulting in high binding-to-uptake ratios. High binding-to-uptake ratios support the hypothesis that the tryptamines are transporter substrates, not uptake blockers, at both SERT and VMAT2, and also indicate that there are separate substrate and inhibitor binding sites within these transporters. The transporters may allow the accumulation of tryptamines within neurons to reach relatively high levels for sigma-1 receptor activation and to function as releasable transmitters.

  3. Permeability and Channel-Mediated Transport of Boric Acid across Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Squash Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Dordas, Christos; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Brown, Patrick H.

    2000-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and the boron content of plants differs greatly, but the mechanism(s) of its uptake into cells is not known. Boron is present in the soil solution as boric acid and it is in this form that it enters the roots. We determined the boron permeability coefficient of purified plasma membrane vesicles obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo) roots and found it to be 3 × 10−7 ±1.4 × 10−8 cm s−1, six times higher than the permeability of microsomal vesicles. Boric acid permeation of the plasma membrane vesicles was partially inhibited (30%–39%) by mercuric chloride and phloretin, a non-specific channel blocker. The inhibition by mercuric chloride was readily reversible by 2-mercaptoethanol. The energy of activation for boron transport into the plasma membrane vesicles was 10.2 kcal mol−1. Together these data indicate that boron enters plant cells in part by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and in part through proteinaceous channels. Expression of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) PIP1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a 30% increase in the boron permeability of the oocytes. Other MIPs tested (PIP3, MLM1, and GlpF) did not have this effect. We postulate that certain MIPs, like those that have recently been shown to transport small neutral solutes, may also be the channels through which boron enters plant cells. PMID:11080310

  4. Porewater methane transport within the gas vesicles of diurnally migrating Chaoborus spp.: An energetic advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, Daniel F.; Flury, Sabine; Tang, Kam W.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-03-01

    Diurnally-migrating Chaoborus spp. reach populations of up to 130,000 individuals m-2 in lakes up to 70 meters deep on all continents except Antarctica. Linked to eutrophication, migrating Chaoborus spp. dwell in the anoxic sediment during daytime and feed in the oxic surface layer at night. Our experiments show that by burrowing into the sediment, Chaoborus spp. utilize the high dissolved gas partial pressure of sediment methane to inflate their tracheal sacs. This mechanism provides a significant energetic advantage that allows the larvae to migrate via passive buoyancy rather than more energy-costly swimming. The Chaoborus spp. larvae, in addition to potentially releasing sediment methane bubbles twice a day by entering and leaving the sediment, also transport porewater methane within their gas vesicles into the water column, resulting in a flux of 0.01-2 mol m-2 yr-1 depending on population density and water depth. Chaoborus spp. emerging annually as flies also result in 0.1-6 mol m-2 yr-1 of carbon export from the system. Finding the tipping point in lake eutrophication enabling this methane-powered migration mechanism is crucial for ultimately reconstructing the geographical expansion of Chaoborus spp., and the corresponding shifts in the lake’s biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and food web structure.

  5. Global gene expression analysis reveals a link between NDRG1 and vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Askautrud, Hanne A; Gjernes, Elisabet; Gunnes, Gjermund; Sletten, Marit; Ross, Douglas T; Børresen-Dale, Anne Lise; Iversen, Nina; Tranulis, Michael A; Frengen, Eirik

    2014-01-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is induced by cellular stress such as hypoxia and DNA damage, and in humans, germ line mutations cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. However, the cellular roles of NDRG1 are not fully understood. Previously, NDRG1 was shown to mediate doxorubicin resistance under hypoxia, suggesting a role for NDRG1 in cell survival under these conditions. We found decreased apoptosis in doxorubicin-treated cells expressing NDRG1 shRNAs under normoxia, demonstrating a requirement for NDRG1 in apoptosis in breast epithelial cells under normal oxygen pressure. Also, different cellular stress regimens, such as hypoxia and doxorubicin treatment, induced NDRG1 through different stress signalling pathways. We further compared expression profiles in human breast epithelial cells ectopically over-expressing NDRG1 with cells expressing NDRG1 shRNAs in order to identify biological pathways where NDRG1 is involved. The results suggest that NDRG1 may have roles connected to vesicle transport.

  6. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors

    DOE PAGES

    da Silva, Roberta Peres; Heiss, Christian; Black, Ian; ...

    2015-09-21

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) andmore » α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)- Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin microarray profiling revealed terminal Man and GlcNAc residues exposed at the EVs surface. Mammalian lectin microarray profiling showed that DC-SIGN receptors recognized surface carbohydrate in Paracoccidioides EVs. Our results suggest that oligosaccharides, cytoplasmic storage, and cell wall polysaccharides can be exported in fungal EVs, which also expose surface PAMPs and lectins. As a result, the role of these newly identified components in the interaction with the host remains to be unraveled.« less

  7. Porewater methane transport within the gas vesicles of diurnally migrating Chaoborus spp.: An energetic advantage.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Daniel F; Flury, Sabine; Tang, Kam W; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-03-14

    Diurnally-migrating Chaoborus spp. reach populations of up to 130,000 individuals m(-2) in lakes up to 70 meters deep on all continents except Antarctica. Linked to eutrophication, migrating Chaoborus spp. dwell in the anoxic sediment during daytime and feed in the oxic surface layer at night. Our experiments show that by burrowing into the sediment, Chaoborus spp. utilize the high dissolved gas partial pressure of sediment methane to inflate their tracheal sacs. This mechanism provides a significant energetic advantage that allows the larvae to migrate via passive buoyancy rather than more energy-costly swimming. The Chaoborus spp. larvae, in addition to potentially releasing sediment methane bubbles twice a day by entering and leaving the sediment, also transport porewater methane within their gas vesicles into the water column, resulting in a flux of 0.01-2 mol m(-2) yr(-1) depending on population density and water depth. Chaoborus spp. emerging annually as flies also result in 0.1-6 mol m(-2) yr(-1) of carbon export from the system. Finding the tipping point in lake eutrophication enabling this methane-powered migration mechanism is crucial for ultimately reconstructing the geographical expansion of Chaoborus spp., and the corresponding shifts in the lake's biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and food web structure.

  8. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Roberta Peres; Heiss, Christian; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Gerlach, Jared Q.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Joshi, Lokesh; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Puccia, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) and α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)-Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin microarray profiling revealed terminal Man and GlcNAc residues exposed at the EVs surface. Mammalian lectin microarray profiling showed that DC-SIGN receptors recognized surface carbohydrate in Paracoccidioides EVs. Our results suggest that oligosaccharides, cytoplasmic storage, and cell wall polysaccharides can be exported in fungal EVs, which also expose surface PAMPs and lectins. The role of these newly identified components in the interaction with the host remains to be unraveled. PMID:26387503

  9. Porewater methane transport within the gas vesicles of diurnally migrating Chaoborus spp.: An energetic advantage

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Daniel F.; Flury, Sabine; Tang, Kam W.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Diurnally-migrating Chaoborus spp. reach populations of up to 130,000 individuals m−2 in lakes up to 70 meters deep on all continents except Antarctica. Linked to eutrophication, migrating Chaoborus spp. dwell in the anoxic sediment during daytime and feed in the oxic surface layer at night. Our experiments show that by burrowing into the sediment, Chaoborus spp. utilize the high dissolved gas partial pressure of sediment methane to inflate their tracheal sacs. This mechanism provides a significant energetic advantage that allows the larvae to migrate via passive buoyancy rather than more energy-costly swimming. The Chaoborus spp. larvae, in addition to potentially releasing sediment methane bubbles twice a day by entering and leaving the sediment, also transport porewater methane within their gas vesicles into the water column, resulting in a flux of 0.01–2 mol m−2 yr−1 depending on population density and water depth. Chaoborus spp. emerging annually as flies also result in 0.1–6 mol m−2 yr−1 of carbon export from the system. Finding the tipping point in lake eutrophication enabling this methane-powered migration mechanism is crucial for ultimately reconstructing the geographical expansion of Chaoborus spp., and the corresponding shifts in the lake’s biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and food web structure. PMID:28290556

  10. Tetraethylammonium transport in renal brush border membrane vesicles of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Rafizadeh, C; Roch-Ramel, F; Schäli, C

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the transport of tetraethylammonium (TEA) in the rabbit renal brush border were investigated by using membrane vesicles. Transport of [14C]TEA (0.2 mM) was measured by a rapid filtration method. We have reported previously that an imposed pH gradient (pHi = 6, pHo = 7.4) stimulates the uptake of TEA markedly, yielding a transient overshoot of 200% above the equilibrium value. Here we demonstrate that an overshoot of similar magnitude can also be obtained in the presence of indirectly induced proton gradients, via the naturally occurring Na+/H+ exchanger or via the artificial K+/H+ exchanger nigericin. The TEA exchange mechanism is shown to be electroneutral, temperature-dependent and saturable [Km, 0.328 (CL for P less than .05: 0.250-0.425) mM; Vmax, 2.13 (CL for P less than .05: 1.98-2.32) nmole/mg of protein X 15 sec]. Other organic cations interact with this exchange mechanism: mepiperphenidol and morphine both cis-inhibited and trans-stimulated TEA uptake. Quinine, which was the most potent inhibitor of TEA uptake (57% inhibition at 10(-5) M), did not trans-stimulate. The mechanism appears to be specific for organic cations inasmuch as the organic anion p-aminohippurate did not cis-inhibit or trans-stimulate TEA uptake. These results demonstrate the presence of a H+/TEA exchange mechanism in the rabbit renal brush border membrane showing many similarities with that shown to be present in the rat.

  11. Aldosterone induction of electrogenic sodium transport in the apical membrane vesicles of rat distal colon

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, V.M.; Kashgarian, M.; Binder, H.J. )

    1989-11-05

    Na-H exchange is present in apical membrane vesicles (AMV) isolated from distal colon of normal rats. Because in intact tissue aldosterone both induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium transport and inhibits electroneutral sodium absorption, these studies with AMV were designed to establish the effect of aldosterone on sodium transport. An outward-directed proton gradient stimulated 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from distal colon of normal and dietary sodium depleted (with elevated aldosterone levels) experimental rats. Unlike normal AMV, proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in experimental AMV was inhibited when uptake was measured under voltage-clamped conditions. 10 microM amiloride inhibited the initial rate of proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in AMV of normal and experimental rats by 30 and 75%, respectively. In contrast, 1 mM amiloride produced comparable inhibition (90 and 80%) of 22Na uptake in normal and experimental AMV. Intravesicular-negative potential stimulated 22Na uptake in experimental but not in normal AMV. This increase was inhibited by 90% by 10 microM amiloride. An analogue of amiloride, 5-(N-ethylisopropyl) amiloride (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of electroneutral Na-H exchange in AMV of normal rat distal colon, did not alter potassium diffusion potential-dependent 22Na uptake. Increasing sodium concentration saturated proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in normal AMV. However, in experimental AMV, 22Na uptake stimulated by both proton gradient and potassium diffusion potential did not saturate as a function of increasing sodium concentration. We conclude from these results that an electrically sensitive conductive channel, not electroneutral Na-H exchange, mediates 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from the distal colon of aldosterone rats.

  12. Characterization of a Pi transport system in cartilage matrix vesicles. Potential role in the calcification process.

    PubMed

    Montessuit, C; Caverzasio, J; Bonjour, J P

    1991-09-25

    The mechanisms by which calcium (Ca2+) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulate into matrix vesicles (MV) have not been elucidated. In the present study the characteristics of Pi uptake into MV isolated from mildly rachitic chicken growth plate cartilage have been investigated. The results indicate that Pi accumulates into MV mainly via a Na(+)-dependent Pi transport system. In the absence of NaCl in the extravesicular medium, Pi uptake was a nonsaturable process. In the presence of 150 mM NaCl, the initial rate of Pi uptake was 4.38 +/- 1.02-fold higher than with 150 mM choline chloride (mean +/- S.E., n = 8, p less than 0.005). Other cations showed partial activity to drive Pi into MV as compared to Na+:Li+ (64.4%) greater than K+ (39.8%) greater than choline (39.0%) greater than tetramethylammonium (30.0%) greater than N-methylglucamine (26.3%). Na(+)-dependent Pi transport activity displayed saturability towards increasing extra-vesicular concentrations of Na+ and Pi. The apparent Km for Pi was 0.68 +/- 0.16 mM. The Na+ concentration producing half-maximum Pi transport activity was 106.2 +/- 11.0 mM. Kinetic analysis suggests that Na+ interacts with the Pi carrier with a stoichiometry of more than one Na+ ion with one Pi molecule. In MV isolated from normal chicken growth plate cartilage, this Na(+)-dependent Pi transport system was barely expressed. In contrast to the effect on Pi uptake by MV, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was not changed when NaCl was substituted for choline chloride in the assay medium. In addition to this observation which suggests that this enzyme is not related to the Pi transport activity described in this study, levamisole, which inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity did not affect the Na(+)-dependent uptake of Pi. Both arsenate and phosphonoformic acid, two inhibitors of the epithelial Na(+)-dependent Pi transport systems, were active inhibitors of the Na(+)-dependent Pi uptake by MV with a higher potency for phosphonoformic

  13. L-lysine uptake in giant vesicles from cardiac ventricular sarcolemma: two components of cationic amino acid transport.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaodong; Zheng, Ruifang; Gonzalez, Jorge; Gaspers, Lawrence; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo; Peluffo, R Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Cationic L-amino acids enter cardiac-muscle cells through carrier-mediated transport. To study this process in detail, L-[(14)C]lysine uptake experiments were conducted within a 10(3)-fold range of L-lysine concentrations in giant sarcolemmal vesicles prepared from rat cardiac ventricles. Vesicles had a surface-to-volume ratio comparable with that of an epithelial cell, thus representing a suitable system for initial uptake rate studies. Two Na(+)-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive uptake components were found, one with high apparent affinity (K(m)=222+/-71 microM) and low transport capacity (V(max)=121+/-36 pmol/min per mg of vesicle protein) and the other with low apparent affinity (K(m)=16+/-4 mM) and high capacity (V(max)=4.0+/-0.4 nmol/min per mg of vesicle protein). L-Lysine uptake mediated by both components was stimulated by the presence of intravesicular L-lysine as well as by valinomycin-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Altogether, this behaviour is consistent with the functional properties of the CAT-1 and CAT-2A members of the system y(+) family of cationic amino acid transporters. Furthermore, mRNA transcripts for these two carrier proteins were identified in freshly isolated rat cardiac myocytes, the amount of CAT-1 mRNA, relative to beta-actin, being 33-fold larger than that of CAT-2A. These two transporters appear to function simultaneously as a homoeostatic device that supplies cardiac-muscle cells with cationic amino acids under a variety of metabolic conditions. Analysis of two carriers acting in parallel with such an array of kinetic parameters shows significant activity of the low-affinity component even at amino acid plasma levels far below its K(m).

  14. Roles of BLOC-1 and Adaptor Protein-3 Complexes in Cargo Sorting to Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Newell-Litwa, Karen; Salazar, Gloria; Smith, Yoland

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal lysosomes and their biogenesis mechanisms are primarily thought to clear metabolites and proteins whose abnormal accumulation leads to neurodegenerative disease pathology. However, it remains unknown whether lysosomal sorting mechanisms regulate the levels of membrane proteins within synaptic vesicles. Using high-resolution deconvolution microscopy, we identified early endosomal compartments where both selected synaptic vesicle and lysosomal membrane proteins coexist with the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) in neuronal cells. From these early endosomes, both synaptic vesicle membrane proteins and characteristic AP-3 lysosomal cargoes can be similarly sorted to brain synaptic vesicles and PC12 synaptic-like microvesicles. Mouse knockouts for two Hermansky–Pudlak complexes involved in lysosomal biogenesis from early endosomes, the ubiquitous isoform of AP-3 (Ap3b1−/−) and muted, defective in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), increased the content of characteristic synaptic vesicle proteins and known AP-3 lysosomal proteins in isolated synaptic vesicle fractions. These phenotypes contrast with those of the mouse knockout for the neuronal AP-3 isoform involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis (Ap3b2−/−), in which the content of select proteins was reduced in synaptic vesicles. Our results demonstrate that lysosomal and lysosome-related organelle biogenesis mechanisms regulate steady-state synaptic vesicle protein composition from shared early endosomes. PMID:19144828

  15. Functional Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance Transporter (PfCRT) in Transformed Dictyostelium discoideum Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Papakrivos, Janni; Sá, Juliana M.; Wellems, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been a global health catastrophe, yet much about the CQ resistance (CQR) mechanism remains unclear. Hallmarks of the CQR phenotype include reduced accumulation of protonated CQ as a weak base in the digestive vacuole of the erythrocyte-stage parasite, and chemosensitization of CQ-resistant (but not CQ-sensitive) P. falciparum by agents such as verapamil. Mutations in the P. falciparum CQR transporter (PfCRT) confer CQR; particularly important among these mutations is the charge-loss substitution K→T at position 76. Dictyostelium discoideum transformed with mutant PfCRT expresses key features of CQR including reduced drug accumulation and verapamil chemosensitization. Methodology and Findings We describe the isolation and characterization of PfCRT-transformed, hematin-free vesicles from D. discoideum cells. These vesicles permit assessments of drug accumulation, pH, and membrane potential that are difficult or impossible with hematin-containing digestive vacuoles from P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Mutant PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum vesicles show features of the CQR phenotype, and manipulations of vesicle membrane potential by agents including ionophores produce large changes of CQ accumulation that are dissociated from vesicular pH. PfCRT in its native or mutant form blunts the ability of valinomycin to reduce CQ accumulation in transformed vesicles and decreases the ability of K+ to reverse membrane potential hyperpolarization caused by valinomycin treatment. Conclusion Isolated vesicles from mutant-PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum exhibit features of the CQR phenotype, consistent with evidence that the drug resistance mechanism operates at the P. falciparum digestive vacuole membrane in malaria. Membrane potential apart from pH has a major effect on the PfCRT-mediated CQR phenotype of D. discoideum vesicles. These results support a model of PfCRT as an electrochemical potential

  16. Septin6 and Septin7 GTP Binding Proteins Regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-Dependent Multivesicular Body Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graça; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

  17. Effect of chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of ethanol on transport of proline into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Beesley, R.C.; Jones, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    Hamsters were separated into two groups and fed liquid diets ad lib. Controls were given a diet similar to that described by DeCarli and Lieber while alcoholics received the same diet containing 5% ethanol isocalorically substituted for sucrose. The volume of diet consumed daily and the gain in body weights of alcoholics were not significantly different from those of controls. After four weeks the animals were sacrificed and the upper third of the small intestine was used to prepare brush border membrane vesicles. In the presence of a Na/sup +/ gradient, uptake of proline into vesicles prepared from both groups was rapid, reaching a maximum accumulation in 1 to 2 min and then decreasing to the equilibrium level. To normalize the results, the amount of proline take up at each time point was divided by the amount present at equilibrium. From the normalized data it was concluded that both the rate of uptake and the maximum accumulation of proline into brush border membrane vesicles isolated from alcoholics were significantly less than those obtained with vesicles from controls. These results suggest that chronic ingestion of ethanol results in a reduction in Na/sup +/-dependent transport of proline across the brush border membrane and, thus, may contribute to the malnutrition which is frequently associated with chronic alcoholism.

  18. GPI anchor attachment is required for Gas1p transport from the endoplasmic reticulum in COP II vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Doering, T L; Schekman, R

    1996-01-01

    Inositol starvation of auxotrophic yeast interrupts glycolipid biosynthesis and prevents lipid modification of a normally glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein, Gas1p. The unanchored Gas1p precursor undergoes progressive modification in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but is not modified by Golgi-specific glycosylation. Starvation-induced defects in anchor assembly and protein processing are rapid, and occur without altered maturation of other proteins. Cells remain competent to manufacture anchor components and to process Gas1p efficiently once inositol is restored. Newly synthesized Gas1p is packaged into vesicles formed in vitro from perforated yeast spheroplasts incubated with either yeast cytosol or the purified Sec proteins (COP II) required for vesicle budding from the ER. In vitro synthesized vesicles produced by inositol-starved membranes do not contain detectable Gas1p. These studies demonstrate that COP II components fulfill the soluble protein requirements for packaging a GPI-anchored protein into ER-derived transport vesicles. However, GPI anchor attachment is required for this packaging to occur. Images PMID:8598201

  19. Distinct stages in the recognition, sorting, and packaging of proTGFα into COPII-coated transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Schekman, Randy

    2016-06-15

    In addition to its role in forming vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the coat protein complex II (COPII) is also responsible for selecting specific cargo proteins to be packaged into COPII transport vesicles. Comparison of COPII vesicle formation in mammalian systems and in yeast suggested that the former uses more elaborate mechanisms for cargo recognition, presumably to cope with a significantly expanded repertoire of cargo that transits the secretory pathway. Using proTGFα, the transmembrane precursor of transforming growth factor α (TGFα), as a model cargo protein, we demonstrate in cell-free assays that at least one auxiliary cytosolic factor is specifically required for the efficient packaging of proTGFα into COPII vesicles. Using a knockout HeLa cell line generated by CRISPR/Cas9, we provide functional evidence showing that a transmembrane protein, Cornichon-1 (CNIH), acts as a cargo receptor of proTGFα. We show that both CNIH and the auxiliary cytosolic factor(s) are required for efficient recruitment of proTGFα to the COPII coat in vitro. Moreover, we provide evidence that the recruitment of cargo protein by the COPII coat precedes and may be distinct from subsequent cargo packaging into COPII vesicles. © 2016 Zhang and Schekman. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Uptake of the neurotoxin, 4-methylphenylpyridinium, into chromaffin granules and synaptic vesicles: a proton gradient drives its uptake through monoamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Y; Amakatsu, K; Futai, M

    1993-09-01

    Energy dependence for uptake of 4-methyphenylpyridinium (MPP+), a neurotoxin causing Parkinsonism-like symptoms, by adrenal chromaffin granule membrane vesicles and brain synaptic vesicles was studied. The compound was actively taken up by the chromaffin vesicles dependent on hydrolysis of ATP with a Km value of 22 microM and maximum velocity of 2.9 nmol/min/mg protein. The uptake was sensitive to reserpine (1 microM) and bafilomycin (50 nM) (inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase, respectively) and substrates for monoamine transporters, but insensitive to imipramine (an inhibitor of the monoamine transporter present in the plasma membrane). The uptake was greatly reduced upon dissipation of the proton gradient by ammonium ion or nigericin with KCl, but stimulated 1.6-fold by valinomycin plus K+. Dissipation of the proton gradient also induced rapid efflux of MPP+ from the vesicles. The MPP+ (monoamine) transporter was solubilized from chromaffin vesicles and reconstituted into liposomes with purified bacterial F0F1-ATPase. MPP+ was taken up by the liposomes coupled with ATP hydrolysis by F0F1, and the uptake was sensitive to reserpine, dissipation of the proton gradient, and azide. Brain synaptic vesicles also accumulated MPP+, showing similar kinetics, inhibitor sensitivities, and energy coupling to those of chromaffin vesicles. Furthermore, MPP+ inhibited the uptake of dopamine without affecting the uptake of glutamate or gamma-aminobutyrate. These results indicated that MPP+ was taken up through the reserpine-sensitive monoamine transporter into chromaffin vesicles and synaptic vesicles and that the energy for accumulation of MPP+ was supplied as a proton gradient (acidic inside) established by H(+)-ATPase.

  1. Sec31 encodes an essential component of the COPII coat required for transport vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, N R; Chuang, J S; Schekman, R W

    1997-01-01

    The COPII vesicle coat protein promotes the formation of endoplasmic reticulum- (ER) derived transport vesicles that carry secretory proteins to the Golgi complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This coat protein consists of Sar1p, the Sec23p protein complex containing Sec23p and Sec24p, and the Sec13p protein complex containing Sec13p and a novel 150-kDa protein, p150. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the p150 gene. p150 is encoded by an essential gene. Depletion of this protein in vivo blocks the exit of secretory proteins from the ER and causes an elaboration of ER membranes, indicating that p150 is encoded by a SEC gene. Additionally, overproduction of the p150 gene product compromises the growth of two ER to Golgi sec mutants: sec16-2 and sec23-1. p150 is encoded by SEC31, a gene isolated in a genetic screen for mutations that accumulate unprocessed forms of the secretory protein alpha-factor. The sec31-1 mutation was mapped by gap repair, and sequence analysis revealed an alanine to valine change at position 1239, near the carboxyl terminus. Sec31p is a phosphoprotein and treatment of the Sec31p-containing fraction with alkaline phosphatase results in a 50-75% inhibition of transport vesicle formation activity in an ER membrane budding assay. Images PMID:9190202

  2. Sodium-dependent methyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside transport in membrane vesicles isolated from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, H; Kaback, H R

    1977-05-17

    Membrane vesicles isolated from Salmonella typhimurium G-30 grown in the presence of melibiose catalyze methyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (TMG) transport in the presence of sodium or lithium, as shown initially with intact cells by Stock and Roseman (Stock, J., and Roseman, S. (1971), Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 44, 132). TMG-dependent sodium uptake is also observed, but only when a potassium diffusion potential (interior negative) is induced across the vesicle membrane. Cation-dependent TMG accumulation varies with the electrochemical gradient of protons generated as a result of D-lactate oxidation, and the vesicles catalyze D-lactate-dependent sodium efflux in a manner which is consistent with the operation of a proton-sodium exchange mechanism. Although the stoichiometry between sodium and TMG appears to be 1:1 when transport is induced by a potassium diffusion potential, evidence is presented which indicates that the relationship may exceed unity under certain conditions. The results are explained in terms of a model in which TMG-sodium (lithium) symport is driven by an electrochemical gradient of protons which functions to maintain a low intravesicular sodium or lithium concentration through proton--sodium (lithium) antiport.

  3. GRIP1 interlinks N-cadherin and AMPA receptors at vesicles to promote combined cargo transport into dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Frank F.; Lee, Han Kyu; Gromova, Kira V.; Pechmann, Yvonne; Schurek, Beate; Ruschkies, Laura; Schroeder, Markus; Schweizer, Michaela; Kneussel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The GluA2 subunit of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in neurons. In addition, the transsynaptic cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin controls excitatory synapse function and stabilizes dendritic spine structures. At postsynaptic membranes, GluA2 physically binds N-cadherin, underlying spine growth and synaptic modulation. We report that N-cadherin binds to PSD-95/SAP90/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain 2 of the glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) through its intracellular C terminus. N-cadherin and GluA2-containing AMPARs are presorted to identical transport vesicles for dendrite delivery, and live imaging reveals cotransport of both proteins. The kinesin KIF5 powers GluA2/N-cadherin codelivery by using GRIP1 as a multilink interface. Notably, GluA2 and N-cadherin use different PDZ domains on GRIP1 to simultaneously bind the transport complex, and interference with either binding motif impairs the turnover of both synaptic cargoes. Depolymerization of microtubules, deletion of the KIF5 motor domain, or specific blockade of AMPAR exocytosis affects delivery of GluA2/N-cadherin vesicles. At the functional level, interference with this cotransport reduces the number of spine protrusions and excitatory synapses. Our data suggest the concept that the multi-PDZ-domain adaptor protein GRIP1 can act as a scaffold at trafficking vesicles in the combined delivery of AMPARs and N-cadherin into dendrites. PMID:24639525

  4. Effects of internal and external pH on amiloride-blockable Na transport across toad urinary bladder vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, E.D.; Civan, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of internal and external pH on Na+ transport across toad bladder membrane vesicles. Of the total SSNa uptake measured 0.5-2.0 min after introducing tracer, 80 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE, n = 9) is blocked by the diuretic with a KI of 2 X 10(-8) M. Thus, this amiloride-sensitive flux is mediated by the apical sodium-selective channels. Varying the internal (cytosolic) pH over the physiologic range 7.0-8.0 had no effect on sodium transport; this result suggests that variation of intracellular pH in vivo has no direct apical effect on modulating sodium uptake. On the other hand, SSNa was directly and monotonically dependent on external pH. External acidification also reduced the amiloride-sensitive efflux across the walls of the vesicles. This inhibition of 22Na efflux was noted at external Na concentrations of both 0.2 microM and 53 mM. These results are different from those reported with whole toad bladder. A number of possible bases for these differences are considered and discussed. They suggest that the natriferic response induced by mucosal acidification of whole toad urinary bladder appears to operate indirectly through one or more factors, presumably cytosolic, present in whole cells and absent from the vesicles.

  5. Large-scale preparation of plasma membrane vesicles from PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells and their use in noradrenaline transport studies.

    PubMed

    Harder, R; Bönisch, H

    1984-08-08

    Plasma membranes were isolated from rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) grown in spinner culture. The rapid and simple isolation procedure consisted of a differential and isopycnic centrifugation (in a linear sucrose gradient) with the aid of a high capacity fixed angle rotor equipped with siliconized centrifuge tubes. The isolated membranes were closed and osmotically active vesicles (about 0.3 micron in diameter) with a mean intravesicular water space of 1.84 microliters/mg protein. In the presence of an inward gradient of sodium chloride and an outward gradient of potassium, [3H]noradrenaline (50 nM) was taken up and accumulated 550-fold (at 31 degrees C). The uptake and accumulation of [3H]noradrenaline was temperature-sensitive and inhibited by the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Membrane vesicles isolated from PC-12 cells represent a useful model for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of the neuronal noradrenaline transport system.

  6. In vitro studies of striatal vesicles containing the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2): rat versus mouse differences in sequestration of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium.

    PubMed

    Staal, R G; Hogan, K A; Liang, C L; German, D C; Sonsalla, P K

    2000-05-01

    Significant differences exist in the sensitivity of mice and rats to the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) that cannot be explained by differences in exposure to or uptake of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) into dopamine (DA) neurons. MPP(+) is also a substrate for the brain vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2), and sequestration into synaptic vesicles may be one mechanism of protection against MPP(+) toxicity. A greater sequestration of MPP(+) into vesicles of DA neurons in rats versus mice could explain the lower vulnerability of DA neurons in the rat to MPP(+) toxicity. To test this hypothesis, the kinetics of uptake for [(3)H]MPP(+) and [(3)H]DA as well as [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to VMAT2 were compared in vesicles isolated from the striata of rats and mice. The K(m) value of [(3)H]MPP(+) transport was similar in the two species. In contrast, the maximal transport rate (V(max)) was 2-fold greater in vesicles from rats than in those from mice. Likewise, the K(m) value for [(3)H]DA transport was similar in both preparations, but the V(max) value was 2-fold greater in rat than in mouse vesicles. The B(max) value for [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding was also 2-fold greater in striatal vesicles from rats than in those from mice. Electron micrographs demonstrated that vesicles isolated from rats and mice were approximately the same size. Based on these observations, we propose that striatal vesicles from rats have more VMAT2 than vesicles from mice and that this species difference in VMAT2 density may help explain the reduced vulnerability of rat DA neurons to MPP(+) neurotoxicity.

  7. A vacuolar-type proton pump in a vesicle fraction enriched with potassium transporting plasma membranes from tobacco hornworm midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, H.; Weerth, S.; Schindlbeck, M.; Klein, U.

    1989-07-05

    Mg-ATP dependent electrogenic proton transport, monitored with fluorescent acridine orange, 9-aminoacridine, and oxonol V, was investigated in a fraction enriched with potassium transporting goblet cell apical membranes of Manduca sexta larval midgut. Proton transport and the ATPase activity from the goblet cell apical membrane exhibited similar substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. ATP and GTP were far better substrates than UTP, CTP, ADP, and AMP. Azide and vanadate did not inhibit proton transport, whereas 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide were inhibitors. The pH gradient generated by ATP and limiting its hydrolysis was 2-3 pH units. Unlike the ATPase activity, proton transport was not stimulated by KCl. In the presence of 20 mM KCl, a proton gradient could not be developed or was dissipated. Monovalent cations counteracted the proton gradient in an order of efficacy like that for stimulation of the membrane-bound ATPase activity: K+ = Rb+ much greater than Li+ greater than Na+ greater than choline (chloride salts). Like proton transport, the generation of an ATP dependent and azide- and vanadate-insensitive membrane potential (vesicle interior positive) was prevented largely by 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide. Unlike proton transport, the membrane potential was not affected by 20 mM KCl. In the presence of 150 mM choline chloride, the generation of a membrane potential was suppressed, whereas the pH gradient increased 40%, indicating an anion conductance in the vesicle membrane. Altogether, the results led to the following new hypothesis of electrogenic potassium transport in the lepidopteran midgut. A vacuolar-type electrogenic ATPase pumps protons across the apical membrane of the goblet cell, thus energizing electroneutral proton/potassium antiport. The result is a net active and electrogenic potassium flux.

  8. Carrier-mediated L-lactate transport in brush-border membrane vesicles from rat placenta during late gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso de la Torre, S R; Serrano, M A; Alvarado, F; Medina, J M

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism for L-lactate transport across microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from rat placenta was examined. Uptake of L-lactate into these vesicles was mainly the result of transport into the intravesicular (osmotically active) space. The initial rate of L-lactate uptake was not affected by the presence of an inward gradient of either Na+ or K+. In the presence of an inward-directed proton gradient, L-lactate uptake was markedly stimulated, accumulating at concentrations 6-7-fold higher than the equilibrium. Lower transmembrane pH gradients were associated with slower initial uptakes and smaller overshoots. L-Lactate uptake determined under an inside-directed pH gradient was strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonic acid, a protein-thiol oxidizing agent. L-Lactate uptake was: (1) saturable as a function of the concentration of L-lactate, (2) inhibited by monocarboxylic acids such as pyruvate, D-lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and (3) temperature-dependent. When present inside the vesicles, L-lactate, pyruvate and beta-hydroxybutyrate caused trans-stimulation of L-lactate uptake both in the presence and in the absence of an inside-directed pH gradient, indicating that L-lactate transport is a reversible process that can be shared by other monocarboxylic acids. There were no significant changes in maximal initial rate or in the kinetic parameters of L-lactate transport during the last 3 days of gestation. PMID:1654886

  9. Role of Tetanus Neurotoxin Insensitive Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein (Ti-Vamp) in Vesicular Transport Mediating Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arca, Sonia; Alberts, Philipp; Zahraoui, Ahmed; Louvard, Daniel; Galli, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    How vesicular transport participates in neurite outgrowth is still poorly understood. Neurite outgrowth is not sensitive to tetanus neurotoxin thus does not involve synaptobrevin-mediated vesicular transport to the plasma membrane of neurons. Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) is a vesicle-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein [SNAP] receptor), involved in transport to the apical plasma membrane in epithelial cells, a tetanus neurotoxin-resistant pathway. Here we show that TI-VAMP is essential for vesicular transport-mediating neurite outgrowth in staurosporine-differentiated PC12 cells. The NH2-terminal domain, which precedes the SNARE motif of TI-VAMP, inhibits the association of TI-VAMP with synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP25). Expression of this domain inhibits neurite outgrowth as potently as Botulinum neurotoxin E, which cleaves SNAP25. In contrast, expression of the NH2-terminal deletion mutant of TI-VAMP increases SNARE complex formation and strongly stimulates neurite outgrowth. These results provide the first functional evidence for the role of TI-VAMP in neurite outgrowth and point to its NH2-terminal domain as a key regulator in this process. PMID:10811829

  10. Use of membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying transport of auxin. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) inside microsomal vesicles depends on the presence of a pH gradient and is reversible when the ..delta..pH is collapsed by ionosphores. Accumulation is stimulated by either napthylphthalamic acid or TIBA. The accumulation of IAA by the vesicles can be saturated. At concentrations of 1 ..mu..M or less, IAA, synthetic auxins, or auxin antagonists do not affect the pH gradient, but decrease the accumulation of /sup 3/H-IAA, and therefore compete specifically for uptake. Concentrations of 10 ..mu..M and above, uptake of either the auxins or weak acids is sufficient to overcome the buffering capacity of the solution within the vesicles. The collapse of the pH gradient by such high concentrations affects uptake of either /sup 3/H-IAA or /sup 14/C-BA to similar extents and thus is nonspecific. 3 refs.

  11. Relationship between proton motive force and potassium ion transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.; Helgerson, S. L.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    The permeability of Halobacterium halobium vesicle membranes to potassium ions was investigated, and possible mechanisms for the regulation of the gradient of protons by the transmembrane movement of these ions were studied. The lack of a potassium ion diffusion potential in the absence of valinomycin, light-induced electrical potentials in excess of the chemical potential difference for potassium ions, and direct measurements of potassium ion influx during illumination show that the membranes are relatively impermeable to these ions. As a result of sodium ion extrusion during illumination, chlorine ions and water must be lost and the vesicles collapse. The light-induced collapse of vesicles is diminished only if the influx of potassium ions is increased.

  12. Molecular transport into and out of ionic-liquid filled block copolymer vesicles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Timothy; Yao, Letitia; So, Soonyong

    We have developed a method to prepare stable, size-controlled block copolymer vesicles that contain ionic liquid in the interior, but that are dispersed in water. Such nanoemulsions are of interest as nanoreactors, because the mass transfer and cost limitations of ionic liquids are circumvented. However, a crucial question is whether target molecules (e . g ., reagents and products) can enter and leave the vesicles, respectively, on a useful time scale (i . e ., seconds or shorter). In this talk we will briefly describe methods to prepare such vesicles with narrow size distributions, using poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(butadiene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers of various compositions. We will then present results of pulsed-field gradient NMR measurements of probe diffusion that yield independent measurements of the entry and escape rates for selected small molecules, as a function of membrane thickness and temperature.

  13. Relationship between proton motive force and potassium ion transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.; Helgerson, S. L.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    The permeability of Halobacterium halobium vesicle membranes to potassium ions was investigated, and possible mechanisms for the regulation of the gradient of protons by the transmembrane movement of these ions were studied. The lack of a potassium ion diffusion potential in the absence of valinomycin, light-induced electrical potentials in excess of the chemical potential difference for potassium ions, and direct measurements of potassium ion influx during illumination show that the membranes are relatively impermeable to these ions. As a result of sodium ion extrusion during illumination, chlorine ions and water must be lost and the vesicles collapse. The light-induced collapse of vesicles is diminished only if the influx of potassium ions is increased.

  14. Electron transport and electrochemical proton gradient in membrane vesicles of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Hugenholtz, J; Ljungdahl, L G

    1989-01-01

    Membrane vesicles of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase generated a proton motive force when exposed to CO. This proton motive force, with a value of -140 mV, consisted of only an electrical potential at pH 7.5 and above and of an electrical potential and pH gradient at a lower pH. The proton motive force drove the uptake of L-alanine by the vesicles to a concentration of 300 times that of the medium. PMID:2708323

  15. Light-dependent delta pH and membrane potential changes in halobacterial vesicles coupled to sodium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kamo, N.; Racanelli, T.; Packer, L.

    1982-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin and Halorhodopsin present in Halobacterium halobium strains have been investigated in relation to Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange in isolated cell envelope vesicles. Upon illumination, these retinal proteins result in extrusion of sodium ions by either an electrogenic Na/sup +//Ha/sup +/ antiporter and/or a direct sodium pump. Since a molecular characterization of these mechanism(s) of sodium extrusion has not yet been realized, it was of interest to measure directly the light- and sodium-dependent changes in delta pH and membrane potential under nearly identical conditions in S9 and R1mR cell membrane vesicles to gain information on the relation of these retinal proteins to sodium extrusion. These activities were evaluated in terms of their dependence on light intensity, and on the inhibitory effect of chemical modifiers of carboxyl groups (carbodiimides); electroneutral exchanges (monensin and triphenyltin); digitoxin and some analogues; and phloretin. Under most of the conditions and treatments employed, light- and sodium-dependent delta pH led to similar effects in both membrane vesicle types. Hence, it is concluded that the delta pH and delta psi which arise from sodium transport occur by either a single mechanism or by one which shares common features.

  16. The Human Synaptic Vesicle Protein, SV2A, Functions as a Galactose Transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae * ♦

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, Marianna; Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2014-01-01

    SV2A is a synaptic vesicle membrane protein expressed in neurons and endocrine cells and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Although the exact function of SV2A still remains elusive, it was identified as the specific binding site for levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug. Our sequence analysis demonstrates that SV2A has significant homology with several yeast transport proteins belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Many of these transporters are involved in sugar transport into yeast cells. Here we present evidence showing, for the first time, that SV2A is a galactose transporter. We expressed human SV2A in hexose transport-deficient EBY.VW4000 yeast cells and demonstrated that these cells are able to grow on galactose-containing medium but not on other fermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, the addition of the SV2A-binding antiepileptic drug levetiracetam to the medium inhibited the galactose-dependent growth of hexose transport-deficient EBY.VW4000 yeast cells expressing human SV2A. Most importantly, direct measurement of galactose uptake in the same strain verified that SV2A is able to transport extracellular galactose inside the cells. The newly identified galactose transport capability of SV2A may have an important role in regulating/modulating synaptic function. PMID:25326386

  17. Preorganized bis-thioureas as powerful anion carriers: chloride transport by single molecules in large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Valkenier, Hennie; Judd, Luke W; Li, Hongyu; Hussain, Sabir; Sheppard, David N; Davis, Anthony P

    2014-09-03

    Transmembrane anion carriers (anionophores) have potential in biological research and medicine, provided high activities can be obtained. There is particular interest in treating cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic illness caused by deficient anion transport. Previous work has found that anionophore designs featuring axial ureas on steroid and trans-decalin scaffolds can be especially effective. Here we show that replacement of ureas by thioureas yields substantial further enhancements. Six new bis-thioureas have been prepared and tested for Cl(-)/NO3(-) exchange in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). The bis-thioureas are typically >10 times more effective than the corresponding ureas and are sufficiently active that transport by molecules acting singly in LUVs is readily detected. The highest activity is shown by decalin 9, which features N-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thioureido and octyl ester substituents. A single molecule of transporter 9 in a 200 nm vesicle promotes Cl(-)/NO3(-) exchange with a half-life of 45 s and an absolute rate of 850 chloride anions per second. Weight-for-weight, this carrier is only slightly less effective than CFTR, the natural anion channel associated with CF.

  18. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  19. Magnesium Adenosine 5[prime]-Triphosphate-Energized Transport of Glutathione-S-Conjugates by Plant Vacuolar Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Z. S.; Zhao, Y.; Rea, P. A.

    1995-04-01

    By characterization of the uptake of glutathione-S-conjugates, principally dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-GS), by vacuolar membrane vesicles, we demonstrate that a subset of energy-dependent transport processes in plants are not H+-coupled but instead are directly energized by MgATP. The most salient features of this transport pathway are: (a) its specific, obligate requirement for MgATP as energy source; (b) the necessity for hydrolysis of the [gamma]-phosphate of MgATP for uptake; (c) the insensitivity of uptake to uncouplers of the transtonoplast H+ gradient (carbonylcyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, gramicidin-D, and NH4Cl); (d) its pronounced sensitivity to vanadate and partial inhibition by vinblastine and verapamil; (e) the lack of chemical modification of DNP-GS either during or after transport; (f) the capacity of S-conjugates of chloroacetanilide herbicides, such as metolachlor-GS, but not free herbicide, to inhibit uptake; and (g) the ability of vacuolar membrane vesicles purified from a broad range of plant species, including Arabidopsis, Beta, Vigna, and Zea, to mediate MgATP-dependent, H+-electrochemical potential difference-independent DNP-GS uptake. On the basis of these findings it is proposed that the transport of DNP-GS across the vacuolar membrane of plant cells is catalyzed by a glutathione-conjugate transporter that directly employs MgATP rather than the energy contained in the transtonoplast H+-electrochemical potential difference to drive uptake. The broad distribution of the vacuolar DNP-GS transporter and its inhibition by metolachlor-GS are consistent with the notion that it plays a general role in the vacuolar sequestration of glutathione-conjugable cytotoxic agents.

  20. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  1. Isolation of Plasma Membrane Vesicles from Mouse Placenta at Term and Measurement of System A and System β Amino Acid Transporter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kusinski, L.C.; Jones, C.J.P.; Baker, P.N.; Sibley, C.P.; Glazier, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Placental amino acid transport is essential for optimal fetal growth and development, with a reduced fetal provision of amino acids being implicated as a potential cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Understanding placental insufficiency related FGR has been aided by the development of mouse models that have features of the human disease. However, to take maximal advantage of these, methods are required to study placental function in the mouse. Here, we report a method to isolate plasma membrane vesicles from mouse placenta near-term and have used these to investigate two amino acid transporters, systems A and β, the activities of which are reduced in human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles from FGR pregnancies. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated at embryonic day 18 by a protocol involving homogenisation, MgCl2 precipitation and centrifugation. Vesicles were enriched 11.3 ± 0.5-fold in alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to initial homogenate, with minimal intracellular organelle contamination as judged by marker analyses. Cytochemistry revealed alkaline phosphatase was localised between trophoblast layers I and II, with intense reaction product deposited on the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II, suggesting that vesicles were derived from this trophoblast membrane. System A and system β activity in mouse placental vesicles, measured as Na+-dependent uptake of 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) and 3H-taurine respectively confirmed localisation of these transporters to the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II. Comparison to human placental MVM showed that system A activity was comparable at initial rate between species whilst system β activity was significantly lower in mouse. This mirrored the lower expression of TAUT observed in mouse placental vesicles. We conclude that syncytiotrophoblast layer II-derived plasma membrane vesicles can be isolated and used to examine transporter function. PMID:19954844

  2. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  3. Vesicles versus Tubes: Is Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Transport in Plants Fundamentally Different from Other Eukaryotes?1

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David G.; Brandizzi, Federica; Nakano, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the gateway to the secretory pathway in all eukaryotic cells. Its products subsequently pass through the Golgi apparatus on the way to the cell surface (true secretion) or to the lytic compartment of the cell (vacuolar protein transport). In animal cells, the Golgi apparatus is present as a stationary larger order complex near the nucleus, and transport between the cortical ER and the Golgi complex occurs via an intermediate compartment which is transported on microtubules. By contrast, higher plant cells have discrete mobile Golgi stacks that move along the cortical ER, and the intermediate compartment is absent. Although many of the major molecular players involved in ER-Golgi trafficking in mammalian and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells have homologs in higher plants, the narrow interface (less than 500 nm) between the Golgi and the ER, together with the motility factor, makes the identification of the transport vectors responsible for bidirectional traffic between these two organelles much more difficult. Over the years, a controversy has arisen over the two major possibilities by which transfer can occur: through vesicles or direct tubular connections. In this article, four leading plant cell biologists attempted to resolve this issue. Unfortunately, their opinions are so divergent and often opposing that it was not possible to reach a consensus. Thus, we decided to let each tell his or her version individually. The review begins with an article by Federica Brandizzi that provides the necessary molecular background on coat protein complexes in relation to the so-called secretory units model for ER-Golgi transport in highly vacuolated plant cells. The second article, written by Chris Hawes, presents the evidence in favor of tubules. It is followed by an article from David Robinson defending the classical notion that transport occurs via vesicles. The last article, by Akihiko Nakano, introduces the reader to possible

  4. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport against its electrochemical gradient in cytochrome oxidase vesicles reconstituted with mitochondrial hydrophobic proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rosier, R.N.; Tucker, D.A.; Meerdink, S.; Jain, I.; Gunter, T.E.

    1981-09-01

    Control experiments verified that the energization conditions used produced appropriately oriented membrane potentials. Partially purified hydrophobic mitochondria protein complexes were found to be less effective than complex V. The reconstituted system showed cation selectivity since Ca/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, and Rb/sup +/ were transported, while Na/sup +/ was not. Low levels of uncoupler, which did not affect oxidation rates, were found to partially inhibit Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake regardless of the membrane potential polarity. Uncoupling levels of uncoupler markedly inhibited Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake in internally negative cytochrome oxidase vesicles; however, inhibition in internally positive cytochrome oxidase vesicles was less relative to that at lower levels of uncoupler. The uncoupling combination of nigericin, valinomycin, and K/sup +/ was inhibitory to uptake regardless of membrane potential polarity. A reconstituted system of oxidative phosphorylation, which contains a hydrophobic protein fraction, energized with cytochrome oxidase similarly accumulated Ca/sup 2 +/ despite formation of an internally positive membrane potential. The results suggest that cytochrome oxidase, when coupled to appropriate hydrophobic mitochondrial proteins, can act as an electrogenic Ca/sup 2 +/ pump deriving its energy directly from electron transport. (JMT)

  5. ATP-dependent cadmium transport by the cadA cadmium resistance determinant in everted membrane vesicles of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, K J; Yoon, K P; Lynn, A R

    1992-01-01

    Resistance to cadmium conferred by the staphylococcal plasmid pI258 occurs by means of energy-dependent efflux, resulting in decreased intracellular accumulation of cadmium. Recent sequence information suggested that efflux is mediated by a P-type ATPase. The cadA gene was previously expressed in Bacillus subtilis, conferring resistance to cadmium. Everted membrane vesicles were prepared from B. subtilis cells harboring either a plasmid containing the cadA system or the vector plasmid alone. 109Cd2+ transport into the everted membranes was measured in the presence of various energy sources. Cadmium transport was detected only in the presence of ATP as an energy source. The production of an electrochemical proton gradient (delta mu H+) by using NADH or phenazine methosulfate plus ascorbate was not able to drive transport. Reagents which dissipate delta pH abolished calcium transport due to the Ca2+/H+ antiporter but only partially inhibited cadmium transport. Inhibition of transport by the antibiotic bafilomycin A1 occurred at concentrations comparable to those which inhibit P-type ATPases. A band corresponding to the cadA gene product was identified on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and antibodies to the protein were prepared. Images PMID:1530844

  6. Dynactin regulates bidirectional transport of dense-core vesicles in the axon and dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kwinter, D M; Lo, K; Mafi, P; Silverman, M A

    2009-09-15

    A critical aspect of nerve cell function is peptidergic secretion involving the packaging, transport, and processing of a large group of peptide hormones and other signaling molecules, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Dense-core vesicles (DCVs) are the organelles that transport these molecules to release sites in both the axon and dendrites of pyramidal neurons. DCVs exhibit complex transport behavior, where these organelles move bidirectionally, reverse direction, pause intermittently, and vary in velocities and run lengths. A key objective in the field of organelle transport is to define the molecules that mediate transport. This study investigated the role of dynactin, a putative opposite-polarity motor coordinator, in the microtubule-based transport of DCVs in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. First, by live cell imaging, we showed similar microtubule-based transport of BDNF, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), consistent with the co-packaging of these DCV cargoes. However, we found higher DCV velocities in both the axon and dendrites than those of previous neuronal studies likely due to faster image acquisition times. Then, using well-characterized dynactin disruptors we demonstrate the need for dynactin in bidirectional transport where overexpression of both p50/dynamitin and the first coiled-coil domain of p150(Glued) (CC1) reduces the flux of DCVs in both directions in the axon and dendrites. We also observed that only CC1 reduces axonal and dendritic run lengths. These results suggest different functions for p50 and p150 in the dynactin complex in DCV transport. These findings are significant because they demonstrate that dynactin functions as a motor coordinator for the transport of DCVs in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  7. Sucrose transport into plasma membrane vesicles from tobacco leaves by H+ symport or counter exchange does not display a linear component.

    PubMed

    Borstlap, A C; Schuurmans, J A M J

    2004-03-01

    Uptake of [14C]sucrose by plasma membrane vesicles from leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured after the imposition of an inwardly directed proton gradient (delta pH = 2) and an electrical gradient (delta psi = -68 mV, inside negative) across the vesicle membrane. The vesicles were isolated from a microsomal fraction by two-phase partitioning using media that contained 330 mM of either sorbitol or sucrose. Sucrose transport into vesicles isolated using the sorbitol-containing media showed the hallmarks of electrogenic H+-symport, as it was highly dependent on delta pH, could be increased three- to four-fold by delta psi, and was abolished by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Transport of [14C]sucrose into vesicles that were isolated using the sucrose-containing media apparently occurred by counter exchange. Its initial influx also depended on a low external pH, but it was insensitive to CCCP and hardly stimulated by delta psi. Both symport and counter exchange obeyed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Transport that depends linearly on the external sucrose concentration could not be detected, indicating that the 'linear' component that has been observed in sucrose uptake by leaf tissues does not represent a transport route that is provided by the sucrose symporter. The potential role of H+/sucrose-symporters in phloem unloading is briefly discussed.

  8. ER-to-Golgi transport by COPII vesicles in Arabidopsis involves a ribosome-excluding scaffold that is transferred with the vesicles to the Golgi matrix.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung-Ho; Staehelin, L Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Plant Golgi stacks are mobile organelles that can travel along actin filaments. How COPII (coat complex II) vesicles are transferred from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export sites to the moving Golgi stacks is not understood. We have examined COPII vesicle transfer in high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted plant cells by electron tomography. Formation of each COPII vesicle is accompanied by the assembly of a ribosome-excluding scaffold layer that extends approximately 40 nm beyond the COPII coat. These COPII scaffolds can attach to the cis-side of the Golgi matrix, and the COPII vesicles are then transferred to the Golgi together with their scaffolds. When Atp115-GFP, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein of an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of the COPII vesicle-tethering factor p115, was expressed, the GFP localized to the COPII scaffold and to the cis-side of the Golgi matrix. Time-lapse imaging of Golgi stacks in live root meristem cells demonstrated that the Golgi stacks alternate between phases of fast, linear, saltatory movements (0.9-1.25 microm/s) and slower, wiggling motions (<0.4 microm/s). In root meristem cells, approximately 70% of the Golgi stacks were connected to an ER export site via a COPII scaffold, and these stacks possessed threefold more COPII vesicles than the Golgi not associated with the ER; in columella cells, only 15% of Golgi stacks were located in the vicinity of the ER. We postulate that the COPII scaffold first binds to and then fuses with the cis-side of the Golgi matrix, transferring its enclosed COPII vesicle to the cis-Golgi.

  9. Identification of Myosin XI Receptors in Arabidopsis Defines a Distinct Class of Transport Vesicles[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Morgun, Eva A.; Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanism through which myosin XI-K attaches to its principal endomembrane cargo, a yeast two-hybrid library of Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs was screened using the myosin cargo binding domain as bait. This screen identified two previously uncharacterized transmembrane proteins (hereinafter myosin binding proteins or MyoB1/2) that share a myosin binding, conserved domain of unknown function 593 (DUF593). Additional screens revealed that MyoB1/2 also bind myosin XI-1, whereas myosin XI-I interacts with the distantly related MyoB7. The in vivo interactions of MyoB1/2 with myosin XI-K were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and colocalization analyses. In epidermal cells, the yellow fluorescent protein–tagged MyoB1/2 localize to vesicles that traffic in a myosin XI–dependent manner. Similar to myosin XI-K, MyoB1/2 accumulate in the tip-growing domain of elongating root hairs. Gene knockout analysis demonstrated that functional cooperation between myosin XI-K and MyoB proteins is required for proper plant development. Unexpectedly, the MyoB1-containing vesicles did not correspond to brefeldin A–sensitive Golgi and post-Golgi or prevacuolar compartments and did not colocalize with known exocytic or endosomal compartments. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that DUF593 emerged in primitive land plants and founded a multigene family that is conserved in all flowering plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that MyoB are membrane-anchored myosin receptors that define a distinct, plant-specific transport vesicle compartment. PMID:23995081

  10. Taurocholate transport by brush-border membrane vesicles from the developing rabbit ileum: Structure/function relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, S.M.; Watkins, J.B.; Ling, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    To examine the ontogenesis of bile acid transport in the rabbit ileum, brush-border membrane vesicles (12- to 20-fold purified) were prepared from 14- to 49-day-old animals. Taurocholate uptake was characterized by the emergence of secondary active, Na(+)-dependent transport at the start of weaning (21 days). Transient intravesicular accumulation (overshoot) of taurocholate occurred at 5-10 s of incubation, and the overshoot maximum increased significantly from 21 days (349.2 +/- 22.4 nmol/mg protein) to 35 days (569.0 +/- 84.3 nmol/mg protein; p less than 0.001), without further increase at maturity (49 days, not equal to 607.6 +/- 136.7 nmol/mg protein). No significant taurocholate active uptake component was noted at 14 days; however, ileal vesicles from sucklings showed carrier-mediated, Na+ D-glucose cotransport. In greater than or equal to 35-day-old rabbits, osmolarity studies at 20 s of incubation showed that only approximately 12% of (14C)taurocholate uptake was secondary to bile acid-to-membrane binding. Conversely, at 20 min, greater than 95% of radiolabel incorporation represented solute bound to the external and/or internal membrane surface. Arrhenius plots establish brush-border membrane taurocholate uptake as an intrinsic, lipid-dependent process, with a slope discontinuity between 24 and 28 degrees C, similar to the membrane lipid thermotropic transition region. Steady-state fluorescence polarization studies (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) demonstrate a temporal association between the maturation of taurocholate uptake and age-related decreases in ileal brush-border membrane fluidity. These data indicate that maturation of bile acid secondary active transport in the rabbit ileum may be regulated, at least in part, by changes in brush-border membrane lipid dynamics.

  11. Electrogenic Transport of Protons Driven by the Plasma Membrane ATPase in Membrane Vesicles from Radish 1

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    1985-01-01

    Mg:ATP-dependent H+ pumping has been studied in microsomal vesicles from 24-hour-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings by monitoring both intravesicular acidification and the building up of an inside positive membrane potential difference (Δ ψ). ΔpH was measured as the decrease of absorbance of Acridine orange and Δ ψ as the shift of absorbance of bis(3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl)pentamethine oxonol. Both Mg:ATP-dependent Δ pH and Δ ψ generation are completely inhibited by vanadate and insensitive to oligomycin; moreover, Δ pH generation is not inhibited by NO3−. These findings indicate that this membrane preparation is virtually devoid of mitochondrial and tonoplast H+-ATPases. Both intravesicular acidification and Δ ψ generation are influenced by anions: Δ pH increases and Δ ψ decreases following the sequence SO42−, Cl−, Br−, NO3−. ATP-dependent H+ pumping strictly requires Mg2+. It is very specific for ATP (apparent Km 0.76 millimolar) compared to GTP, UTP, CTP, ITP. Δ pH generation is inhibited by CuSO4 and diethylstilbestrol as well as vanadate. Δ pH generation is specificially stimulated by K+ (+ 80%) and to a lesser extent by Na+ and choline (+28% and +14%, respectively). The characteristics of H+ pumping in these microsomal vesicles closely resemble those described for the plasma membrane ATPase partially purified from several plant materials. PMID:16664008

  12. Indirect coupling of urate and p-aminohippurate transport to sodium in human brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Roch-Ramel, F; Guisan, B; Schild, L

    1996-01-01

    [14C]urate and p-[14C]aminohippurate (PAH) uptake by human brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were measured in the presence of an inwardly oriented sodium gradient. No direct sodium cotransport was observed. Indirect [14C]urate coupling to sodium transport was demonstrated by cis-stimulation of [14C]urate with nicotinate or pyrazinoate (PZA) in the extravesicular medium but not by adding lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, or beta-hydroxybutyrate. Indirect sodium coupling of [14C]PAH uptake was observed only when alpha-ketoglutarate was added to the extravesicular medium, a mechanism similar to that of basolateral membranes. The ability for PZA (and nicotinate) to cis-stimulate urate uptake was correlated with a high apparent affinity for the urate/anion exchanger. In urate-loaded vesicles, for identical medium concentrations, [14C]PZA uptake via the urateanion exchanger was 10 times higher than [14C]lactate uptake. Such high PZA affinity for the urate exchanger, working in parallel with PZA sodium cotransport can account for the stimulation of urate reabsorption by PZA in vivo.

  13. Vesicle miR-195 derived from Endothelial Cells Inhibits Expression of Serotonin Transporter in Vessel Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junzhong; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ji, Bingyang; Jiang, Hui; Zhao, Tao; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Zhiren; Tan, Shengjiang; Ahmed, Asif; Gu, Yuchun

    2017-03-08

    Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been shown to be essential in lots of physiological and pathological processes. It is well known that 5-HT and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) play important roles in the pulmonary artery in pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the function of 5-HTT in other arteries. In this study we found that the expression of 5-HTT was elevated in injured carotid arteries and over-expression of 5-HTT induced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs); however, this phenotype could be reversed by knocking-down of 5-HTT or endothelial cells conditional medium (EC-CM). A 5-HTT inhibitor, fluoxetine, treated animals also exhibited reduced restenosis after injury. We identified that miR-195 was packaged in the extracellular vesicles from EC-CM. We further confirmed that extracellular vesicles could transfer miR-195 from ECs to SMCs to inhibit the expression of 5-HTT in SMCs and the proliferation of SMCs. These results provide the first evidence that ECs communicate with SMCs via micro-RNA195 in the regulation of the proliferation of SMCs through 5-HTT, which will contribute to a better understanding of communications between ECs and SMCs via micro-RNA. Our findings suggest a potential target for the control of vessel restenosis.

  14. Cross talk between tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein-mediated transport and L1-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Hinners, Ina; Muzerelle, Aude; Martinez-Arca, Sonia; Irinopoulou, Theano; Marthiens, Veronique; Tooze, Sharon; Rathjen, Fritz; Gaspar, Patricia; Galli, Thierry

    2003-10-01

    The membrane-trafficking pathway mediated by tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) in neurons is still unknown. We show herein that TI-VAMP expression is necessary for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons in culture. TI-VAMP interacts with plasma membrane and endosomal target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, suggesting that TI-VAMP mediates a recycling pathway. L1, a cell-cell adhesion molecule involved in axonal outgrowth, colocalized with TI-VAMP in the developing brain, neurons in culture, and PC12 cells. Plasma membrane L1 was internalized into the TI-VAMP-containing compartment. Silencing of TI-VAMP resulted in reduced expression of L1 at the plasma membrane. Finally, using the extracellular domain of L1 and N-cadherin immobilized on beads, we found that the silencing of TI-VAMP led to impaired L1- but not N-cadherin-mediated adhesion. Furthermore, TI-VAMP- but not synaptobrevin 2-containing vesicles accumulated at the site of the L1 bead-cell junction. We conclude that TI-VAMP mediates the intracellular transport of L1 and that L1-mediated adhesion controls this membrane trafficking, thereby suggesting an important cross talk between membrane trafficking and cell-cell adhesion.

  15. Vesicle miR-195 derived from Endothelial Cells Inhibits Expression of Serotonin Transporter in Vessel Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Junzhong; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ji, Bingyang; Jiang, Hui; Zhao, Tao; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Zhiren; Tan, Shengjiang; Ahmed, Asif; Gu, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been shown to be essential in lots of physiological and pathological processes. It is well known that 5-HT and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) play important roles in the pulmonary artery in pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the function of 5-HTT in other arteries. In this study we found that the expression of 5-HTT was elevated in injured carotid arteries and over-expression of 5-HTT induced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs); however, this phenotype could be reversed by knocking-down of 5-HTT or endothelial cells conditional medium (EC-CM). A 5-HTT inhibitor, fluoxetine, treated animals also exhibited reduced restenosis after injury. We identified that miR-195 was packaged in the extracellular vesicles from EC-CM. We further confirmed that extracellular vesicles could transfer miR-195 from ECs to SMCs to inhibit the expression of 5-HTT in SMCs and the proliferation of SMCs. These results provide the first evidence that ECs communicate with SMCs via micro-RNA195 in the regulation of the proliferation of SMCs through 5-HTT, which will contribute to a better understanding of communications between ECs and SMCs via micro-RNA. Our findings suggest a potential target for the control of vessel restenosis. PMID:28272473

  16. Diacylglycerol Is Required for the Formation of COPI Vesicles in the Golgi-to-ER Transport Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Vilella, Montserrat; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Sarri, Elisabet; Martínez, Susana E.; Jiménez, Nuria; Claro, Enrique; Mérida, Isabel; Burger, Koert N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Diacylglycerol is necessary for trans-Golgi network (TGN) to cell surface transport, but its functional relevance in the early secretory pathway is unclear. Although depletion of diacylglycerol did not affect ER-to-Golgi transport, it led to a redistribution of the KDEL receptor to the Golgi, indicating that Golgi-to-ER transport was perturbed. Electron microscopy revealed an accumulation of COPI-coated membrane profiles close to the Golgi cisternae. Electron tomography showed that the majority of these membrane profiles originate from coated buds, indicating a block in membrane fission. Under these conditions the Golgi-associated pool of ARFGAP1 was reduced, but there was no effect on the binding of coatomer or the membrane fission protein CtBP3/BARS to the Golgi. The addition of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol or the diacylglycerol analogue phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate reversed the effects of endogenous diacylglycerol depletion. Our findings implicate diacylglycerol in the retrograde transport of proteins from Golgi to the ER and suggest that it plays a critical role at a late stage of COPI vesicle formation. PMID:17567948

  17. Profilin I attached to the Golgi is required for the formation of constitutive transport vesicles at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Dong, J; Radau, B; Otto, A; Müller, E; Lindschau, C; Westermann, P

    2000-07-21

    Profilin I was identified, by mass spectrometric sequencing and immunoblotting, as a component of purified Golgi cisternae from HepG2 cells. Binding to the Golgi was verified by indirect immunofluorescence in MT-1 cells showing that a fraction of profilin I colocalizes with TGN38, a marker of the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Studying the formation of constitutive exocytic vesicles at the TGN in a cell-free system demonstrated that cytosolic profilin I has no effect, while incubation of Golgi cisternae with a profilin I-specific antibody reduced vesicle formation by about 50%. Notably, the antibody displaces a fraction of the Golgi-bound dynamin II indicating that profilin I may indirectly promote vesicle formation by supporting the binding of dynamin II to the Golgi membrane. The impact of dynamin II on vesicle formation is demonstrated by incubating the Golgi with the proline-rich domain of dynamin II which concomitantly displaces dynamin II and inhibits vesicle formation. The data provide evidence that profilin I attaches to the Golgi apparatus and is required for the formation of constitutive transport vesicles.

  18. Functional roles of Na+ and H+ in SO2-4 transport by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, G A; Murer, H

    1984-01-01

    Sulphate uptake by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles was stimulated by a transmembrane sodium gradient [( Na+]o greater than [Na+]i), but not by a similar potassium gradient. 35SO4(-2) influx ( JSO4 oi ) from outside (o) to inside (i) these vesicles was a hyperbolic function of [SO4-2]o and the affinity constant for anion transport was strongly influenced by [Na+]o (100 mM Na+, KSO4 t = 0.52 mM SO4 -2; 10 mM Na+, KSO4 t = 4.32 mM SO4-2). JSO4 oi was a sigmoidal function of [Na+]o at pH 7.4 for both low (0.2 M) and high (4.0 mM) [SO4-2]o. The Na+-dependency of JSO4 oi was examined at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.0 (same pH inside and outside). At pH 6.0 and 7.4 sigmoidal Na+-dependent JSO4 oi exhibited nonlinear Eadie-Hofstee plots indicative of a transport mechanism capable of binding a variable number of sodium ions over the [Na+]o range used. Hill plots of anion transport under these conditions displayed slopes near unity at low [Na+]o and slopes approximating 2.0 at higher cation concentrations. At pH 8.0, Na+-dependent JSO4 oi was hyperbolic and showed linear Eadie-Hofstee and Hill plots, the latter with a single slope near 1.0. When a H+ gradient was imposed across the vesicle wall (pHi = 8.0, pHo = 6.0), Na+-dependent JSO4 oi was hyperbolic and significantly increased at each [Na+]o over values observed using bilateral pH 8.0. In contrast, a H+ gradient oriented in the opposite direction (pHi = 6.0, pHo = 8.0) led to Na+-dependent JSO4 oi that was sigmoidal and significantly lower at each [Na+]o than values found using bilateral pH 6.0. Electrogenicity of JSO4 oi at pH 8.0 for both high and low [Na+]o was demonstrated by using a valinomycin-induced transmembrane electrical potential difference. At pH 6.0, electrogenic JSO4 oi occurred only at low [Na+]o (5 mM); anion transfer was electroneutral at 50 mM Na+. A model is proposed for proton regulation of sodium sulphate cotransport where flux stoichiometry is controlled by [H+]i and sodium binding affinity is

  19. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS-3) among patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    PubMed

    Szlendak-Sauer, Katarzyna; Jakubik, Daniel; Kunicki, Michał; Skórska, Jolanta; Smolarczyk, Roman

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 - (APS-3), is defined as the coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with other non-ovarian autoimmune diseases without primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally the definition of APS-3 also includes primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) coexistence with autoimmune thyroiditis. The main goal of that study is to assess the prevalence of APS-3 defined as coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with POI in population of 46 XX karyotype women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The second goal is to investigate hormonal profile and insulin sensitivity in women with POI and subgroups of women with APS-3 - POI/APS-3(+) and without APS 3 - POI/APS-3(-). Anthropometric measurements, coexistence of autoimmune diseases, androgens, fasting glucose and insulin, glucose and insulin at 60' and 120' of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were determine in 98 patients aged between 18 and 39 with spontaneous 46 XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), in 33 POI/APS-3(+), 65 POI/APS-3(-), and 75 healthy controls. Continuous data were summarized by the mean±standard deviation (SD), and categorical data by number (percentages). Data were checked for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test, the comparison between groups were performed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney or Kruskall-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationships between parameters. Statistical significance was defined as p values <0.05. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) was presented in 33/98 (33.7%) patients with POI. The groups did not differ significantly in respect to age and body mass index (BMI). Women with POI, POI/APS-3(+) and POI/APS-3(-) showed significantly lower serum androgens in comparison to controls. Additionally women with POI/APS-3(+) showed hyperinsulinemia after 1h of OGTT; No significant differences in serum fasting glucose, insulin and during 2h OGTT between groups were

  20. The Yeast Adaptor Protein Complex, AP-3, Is Essential for the Efficient Delivery of Alkaline Phosphatase by the Alternate Pathway to the Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, J. David; Huang, Kristen; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    1997-01-01

    A novel clathrin adaptor-like complex, adaptor protein (AP)-3, has recently been described in yeast and in animals. To gain insight into the role of yeast AP-3, a genetic strategy was devised to isolate gene products that are required in the absence of the AP-3 μ chain encoded by APM3. One gene identified by this synthetic lethal screen was VPS45. The Vps pathway defines the route that several proteins, including carboxypeptidase Y, take from the late Golgi to the vacuole. However, vacuolar alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is transported via an alternate, intracellular route. This suggested that the apm3-Δ vps45 synthetic phenotype could be caused by a block in both the alternate and the Vps pathways. Here we demonstrate that loss of function of the AP-3 complex results in slowed processing and missorting of ALP. ALP is no longer localized to the vacuole membrane by immunofluorescence, but is found in small punctate structures throughout the cell. This pattern is distinct from the Golgi marker Kex2p, which is unaffected in AP-3 mutants. We also show that in the apm3-Δ mutant some ALP is delivered to the vacuole by diversion into the Vps pathway. Class E vps mutants accumulate an exaggerated prevacuolar compartment containing membrane proteins on their way to the vacuole or destined for recycling to the Golgi. Surprisingly, in AP-3 class E vps double mutants these proteins reappear on the vacuole. We suggest that some AP-3–dependent cargo proteins that regulate late steps in Golgi to vacuole transport are diverted into the Vps pathway allowing completion of transfer to the vacuole in the class E vps mutant. PMID:9412470

  1. K⁺-dependent ³H-D-glucose transport by hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles of a marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Obi, Ijeoma E; Sterling, Kenneth M; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sodium, potassium, sugar inhibitors, and membrane potential on ³H-D-glucose uptake by hepatopancreatic epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the Atlantic marine shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were investigated. Brush border membrane vesicles were prepared using a MgCl₂/EGTA precipitation method and uptake experiments were conducted using a high speed filtration technique. ³H-D-Glucose uptake was stimulated by both sodium and potassium and these transport rates were almost doubled in the presence of an inside-negative-induced membrane potential. Kinetics of ³H-D-glucose influx were hyperbolic functions of both external Na⁺ or K⁺, and an induced membrane potential increased influx J(max) and lowered K(m) in both salts. ³H-D-Glucose influx versus [glucose] in both Na⁺ or K⁺ media also displayed Michaelis-Menten properties that were only slightly affected by induced membrane potential. Phloridzin was a poor inhibitor of 0.5 mM ³H-D-glucose influx, requiring at least 5 mM in NaCl and 10 mM in KCl to significantly reduce hexose transport. Several sugars (D-galactose, α-methyl-D-gluco-pyranoside, unlabeled D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose) were used at 75 mM as potential inhibitors of 0.1 mM ³H-D-glucose influx. Only unlabeled D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose significantly (p < 0.05) reduced labeled glucose transport. An additional experiment using increasing concentrations of D-mannose (0, 10, 25, 75, and 100 mM) showed this hexose to be an effective inhibitor of 0.1 mM ³H-D-glucose uptake at concentrations of 75 mM and higher. As a whole these results suggest that ³H-D-glucose transport by hepatopancreatic BBMV occurs by a carrier system that is able to use both Na⁺ and K⁺ as drivers, is enhanced by membrane potential, is relatively refractory to phloridzin, and is only inhibited by itself, D-fructose, and D-mannose. These properties are similar to those exhibited by the mammalian SLC5A9/SGLT4 transporter

  2. Functional reconstitution of the purified phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol-specific transport system of Escherichia coli in phospholipid vesicles: coupling between transport and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Elferink, M G; Driessen, A J; Robillard, G T

    1990-01-01

    Purified mannitol-specific enzyme II (EII) from Escherichia coli was reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles with the aid of a detergent-dialysis procedure followed by a freeze-thaw sonication step. The orientation of EII in the proteoliposomes was random. The cytoplasmic moiety of the inverted EII could be removed with trypsin without effecting the integrity of the liposomal membrane. This enabled us to study the two different EII orientations independently. The population of inverted EII molecules was monitored by measuring active extrusion of mannitol after the addition of phosphoenolpyruvate, EI, and histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) at the outside of the vesicles. The population of correctly oriented EII molecules was monitored by measuring active uptake of mannitol with internal phosphoenolpyruvate, EI, and HPr. A low rate of facilitated diffusion of mannitol via the unphosphorylated carrier could be measured. On the other hand, a high phosphorylation activity without translocation was observed at the outside of the liposomes. The kinetics of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent transport reaction and the nonvectorial phosphorylation reaction were compared. Transport of mannitol into the liposomes via the correctly oriented EII molecules occurred with a high affinity (Km, lower than 10 microM) and with a relatively low Vmax. Phosphorylation at the outside of the liposomes catalyzed by the inverted EII molecules occurred with a low affinity (Km of about 66 microM), while the maximal velocity was about 10 times faster than the transport reaction. The latter observation is kinetic proof for the lack of strict coupling between transport and phosphorylation in these enzymes. Images PMID:2123863

  3. Visualization of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in cholinergic nerve terminals and its targeting to a specific population of small synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Weihe, E; Tao-Cheng, J H; Schäfer, M K; Erickson, J D; Eiden, L E

    1996-01-01

    Immunohistochemical visualization of the rat vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in cholinergic neurons and nerve terminals has been compared to that for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), heretofore the most specific marker for cholinergic neurons. VAChT-positive cell bodies were visualized in cerebral cortex, basal forebrain, medial habenula, striatum, brain stem, and spinal cord by using a polyclonal anti-VAChT antiserum. VAChT-immuno-reactive fibers and terminals were also visualized in these regions and in hippocampus, at neuromuscular junctions within skeletal muscle, and in sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic ganglia and target tissues. Cholinergic nerve terminals contain more VAChT than ChAT immunoreactivity after routine fixation, consistent with a concentration of VAChT within terminal neuronal arborizations in which secretory vesicles are clustered. These include VAChT-positive terminals of the median eminence or the hypothalamus, not observed with ChAT antiserum after routine fixation. Subcellular localization of VAChT in specific organelles in neuronal cells was examined by immunoelectron microscopy in a rat neuronal cell line (PC 12-c4) expressing VAChT as well as the endocrine and neuronal forms of the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1 and VMAT2). VAChT is targeted to small synaptic vesicles, while VMAT1 is found mainly but not exclusively on large dense-core vesicles. VMAT2 is found on large dense-core vesicles but not on the small synaptic vesicles that contain VAChT in PC12-c4 cells, despite the presence of VMAT2 immunoreactivity in central and peripheral nerve terminals known to contain monoamines in small synaptic vesicles. Thus, VAChT and VMAT2 may be specific markers for "cholinergic" and "adrenergic" small synaptic vesicles, with the latter not expressed in nonstimulated neuronally differentiated PC12-c4 cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622973

  4. Transmembrane electron transport in sealed and NAD(P)H-loaded right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Menckhoff, Mathias; Lüthje, Sabine

    2004-06-01

    Electron transport across plasma membranes has been observed in vivo in several plant species and tissues after the application of ferricyanide (hexacyanoferrate III, HCF III). In the present work, a transmembrane electron flow was demonstrated in sealed and NAD(P)H-loaded right-side-out (apoplastic-side-out) plasma membrane vesicles isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) roots. HCF III was reduced at a rate of up to 126 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein by NADPH-loaded vesicles, while reduction rates with NADH-loaded vesicles were several-fold lower. Coincident with the reduction of HCF III, NAD(P)H oxidation was observed inside the vesicles. The dependence of reduction on K+ indicated an electrogenic transmembrane electron flow. Application of 100 microM calcium decreased HCF III reduction up to 66%, while pre-incubation with 200 microM warfarin or diphenylene iodonium inhibited transmembrane electron transport only weakly. Fe(3+)-EDTA was not reduced significantly by NADPH-loaded plasma membrane vesicles, whereas XTT was reduced at a rate of 765 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. The results suggested a major function for NADPH in transmembrane electron flow and were discussed in conjunction with in vivo experiments.

  5. A novel chloroplast localized Rab GTPase protein CPRabA5e is involved in stress, development, thylakoid biogenesis and vesicle transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sazzad; Alezzawi, Mohamed; Garcia-Petit, Christel; Solymosi, Katalin; Khan, Nadir Zaman; Lindquist, Emelie; Dahl, Peter; Hohmann, Stefan; Aronsson, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    A novel Rab GTPase protein in Arabidopsis thaliana, CPRabA5e (CP = chloroplast localized) is located in chloroplasts and has a role in transport. Transient expression of CPRabA5e:EGFP fusion protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves, and immunoblotting using Arabidopsis showed localization of CPRabA5e in chloroplasts (stroma and thylakoids). Ypt31/32 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in regulating vesicle transport, and CPRabA5e a close homolog of Ypt31/32, restores the growth of the ypt31Δ ypt32(ts) mutant at 37 °C in yeast complementation. Knockout mutants of CPRabA5e displayed delayed seed germination and growth arrest during oxidative stress. Ultrastructural studies revealed that after preincubation at 4 °C mutant chloroplasts contained larger plastoglobules, lower grana, and more vesicles close to the envelopes compared to wild type, and vesicle formation being enhanced under oxidative stress. This indicated altered thylakoid development and organization of the mutants. A yeast-two-hybrid screen with CPRabA5e as bait revealed 13 interacting partner proteins, mainly located in thylakoids and plastoglobules. These proteins are known or predicted to be involved in development, stress responses, and photosynthesis related processes, consistent with the stress phenotypes observed. The results observed suggest a role of CPRabA5e in transport to and from thylakoids, similar to cytosolic Rab proteins involved in vesicle transport.

  6. Ca sup 2+ transport in membrane vesicles from pinto bean leaves and its alteration after ozone exposure. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The influence of ozone on Ca{sup 2+} transport in plant membranes from pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves was investigated in vitro by means of a filtration method using purified vesicles. Two transport mechanisms located at the plasma membrane are involved in a response to ozone: (a) passive Ca{sup 2+} influx into the cell and (b) active Ca{sup 2+} efflux driven by an ATP-dependent system, which has two components: a primary Ca{sup 2+} transport directly linked to ATP which is partially activated by calmodulin and a H{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} antiport coupled to activity of a H{sup +}-ATPase. The passive Ca{sup 2+} permeability is increased by ozone. A triangular pulse of ozone stimulates a higher influx of Ca{sup 2+} than does a square wave, even though the total dose with the same (0.6 microliter per liter {times} hour). Leaves exposed to a square wave did not exhibit visible injury and were still able to recover from oxidant stress by activation of calmodulin-dependent Ca{sup 2+} extrusion mechanisms. On the other hand, leaves exposed to a triangular wave of ozone, exhibit visible injury and lost the ability of extruding Ca{sup 2+} out of the cell.

  7. The transport signal on Sec22 for packaging into COPII-coated vesicles is a conformational epitope.

    PubMed

    Mancias, Joseph D; Goldberg, Jonathan

    2007-05-11

    The mechanism of cargo concentration into ER-derived vesicles involves interactions between the COPII vesicular coat complex and cargo transport signals--peptide sequences of 10-15 residues. The SNARE protein Sec22 contains a signal that binds the COPII subcomplex Sec23/24 and specifies its endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit as an unassembled SNARE. The 200 kDa crystal structure of Sec22 bound to Sec23/24 reveals that the transport signal is a folded epitope rather than a conventional short peptide sequence. The NIE segment of the SNARE motif folds against the N-terminal longin domain, and this closed form of Sec22 binds at the Sec23/24 interface. Thus, COPII recognizes unassembled Sec22 via a folded epitope, whereas Sec22 assembly into SNARE complexes would mask the NIE segment. The concept of a conformational epitope as a transport signal suggests packaging mechanisms in which a coat is sensitive to the folded state of a cargo protein or the assembled state of a multiprotein complex.

  8. Membrane proteins involved in transport, vesicle traffic and Ca(2+) signaling increase in beetroots grown in saline soils.

    PubMed

    Lino, Bárbara; Chagolla, Alicia; E González de la Vara, Luis

    2016-07-01

    By separating plasma membrane proteins according to their hydropathy from beetroots grown in saline soils, several proteins probably involved in salt tolerance were identified by mass spectrometry. Beetroots, as a salt-tolerant crop, have developed mechanisms to cope with stresses associated with saline soils. To observe which plasma membrane (PM) proteins were more abundant in beet roots grown in saline soils, beet root plants were irrigated with water or 0.2 M NaCl. PM-enriched membrane preparations were obtained from these plants, and their proteins were separated according to their hydropathy by serial phase partitioning with Triton X-114. Some proteins whose abundance increased visibly in membranes from salt-grown beetroots were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, there was a V-type H(+)-ATPase (probably from contaminating vacuolar membranes), which increased with salt at all stages of beetroots' development. Proteins involved in solute transport (an H(+)-transporting PPase and annexins), vesicle traffic (clathrin and synaptotagmins), signal perception and transduction (protein kinases and phospholipases, mostly involved in calcium signaling) and metabolism, appeared to increase in salt-grown beetroot PM-enriched membranes. These results suggest that PM and vacuolar proteins involved in transport, metabolism and signal transduction increase in beet roots adapted to saline soils. In addition, these results show that serial phase partitioning with Triton X-114 is a useful method to separate membrane proteins for their identification by mass spectrometry.

  9. Characterization of ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in the basolateral membrane vesicles from proximal and distal tubules of the rabbit kidney.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, C; Chan, M; Brunette, M G

    1991-01-01

    Basolateral membrane vesicles were prepared from purified proximal and distal tubules of the rabbit kidney. The properties of the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport were investigated. In both membranes, there was a high affinity, ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport system (Km = 0.1 microM). The optimal concentration of Mg2+ was 0.5 mM and the optimal concentration of ATP was 1 mM. The nucleotide specificity and pH dependence of the Ca2+ transport in both membranes were similar. In basolateral membrane vesicles, calmodulin had no effect on Ca2+ transport. However, in basolateral membrane vesicles depleted of calmodulin, exogenous calmodulin increased the Ca2+ transport by increasing maximal velocity. There were no major differences in the properties of the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport system in these two membranes. These findings are discussed in relation to why parathyroid hormone differentially modulates Ca2+ transport in these two segments of the nephron.

  10. Role of Organic Anion and Amino Acid Carriers in Transport of Inorganic Mercury in Rat Renal Basolateral Membrane Vesicles: Influence of Compensatory Renal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Hueni, Sarah E.; Putt, David A.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2006-01-01

    Susceptibility to renal injury induced by inorganic mercury (Hg2+) increases significantly as a result of compensatory renal growth (following reductions of renal mass). We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related in part to increased basolateral uptake of Hg2+ by proximal tubular cells. To determine the mechanistic roles of various transporters, we studied uptake of Hg2+, in the form of biologically relevant Hg2+-thiol conjugates, using baso-lateral membrane (BLM) vesicles isolated from the kidney(s) of control and uninephrectomized (NPX) rats. Binding of Hg2+ to membranes, accounted for 52–86% of total Hg2+ associated with membrane vesicles exposed to HgCl2, decreased with increasing concentrations of HgCl2, and decreased slightly in the presence of sodium ions. Conjugation of Hg2+ with thiols (glutathione, l-cysteine (Cys), N-acetyl-l-cysteine) reduced binding by more than 50%. Under all conditions, BLM vesicles from NPX rats exhibited a markedly lower proportion of binding. Of the Hg2+-thiol conjugates studied, transport of Hg-(Cys)2 was fastest. Selective inhibition of BLM carriers implicated the involvement of organic anion transporter(s) (Oat1 and/or Oat3; Slc22a6 and Slc22a8), amino acid transporter system ASC (Slc7a10), the dibasic amino acid transporter (Slc3a1), and the sodium-dicarboxylate carrier (SDCT2 or NADC3; Slc13a3). Uptake of each mercuric conjugate, when factored by membrane protein content, was higher in BLM vesicles from uninephrectomized (NPX) rats, with specific increases in transport by the carriers noted above. These results support the hypothesis that compensatory renal growth is associated with increased uptake of Hg2+ in proximal tubular cells and we have identified specific transporters involved in the process. PMID:16162843

  11. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Batuman, V.; Chadha, I. New Jersey Medical School, Newark )

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of {sup 14}C-D-glucose and {sup 14}C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC{sub 50}, of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M, and 5.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, K{sub i}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC{sub 50}s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins.

  12. Directed transport of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles enables platelet-mediated innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Rossaint, Jan; Kühne, Katharina; Skupski, Jennifer; Van Aken, Hugo; Looney, Mark R.; Hidalgo, Andres; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune response to bacterial infections requires the interaction of neutrophils and platelets. Here, we show that a multistep reciprocal crosstalk exists between these two cell types, ultimately facilitating neutrophil influx into the lung to eliminate infections. Activated platelets adhere to intravascular neutrophils through P-selectin/P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)-mediated binding, a primary interaction that allows platelets glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα)-induced generation of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (EV). EV production is directed by exocytosis and allows shuttling of arachidonic acid into platelets. EVs are then specifically internalized into platelets in a Mac1-dependent fashion, and relocated into intracellular compartments enriched in cyclooxygenase1 (Cox1), an enzyme processing arachidonic acid to synthesize thromboxane A2 (TxA2). Finally, platelet-derived-TxA2 elicits a full neutrophil response by inducing the endothelial expression of ICAM-1, intravascular crawling, and extravasation. We conclude that critical substrate–enzyme pairs are compartmentalized in neutrophils and platelets during steady state limiting non-specific inflammation, but bacterial infection triggers regulated EV shuttling resulting in robust inflammation and pathogen clearance. PMID:27845343

  13. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  14. 78 kDa receptor for Man6P-independent lysosomal enzyme targeting: Biosynthetic transport from endoplasmic reticulum to 'high-density vesicles'

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso . E-mail: gonor@biomedicas.unam.mx; Ortega Cuellar, Daniel D.; Michalak, Colette

    2006-04-15

    Recent work has shown that the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate and the 78 kDa receptors for lysosomal enzyme targeting are located in different cell compartments. While the mannose 6-phosphate receptor is enriched in the Percoll fractions that contain Golgi apparatus, most of the 78 kDa receptor is localized in a heavy fraction at the bottom of the Percoll gradient. This report presents the biosynthetic transport of the 78 kDa receptor. Newly synthesized 78 kDa receptor was transported to Golgi from endoplasmic reticulum with a half life of 5 min. From the Golgi apparatus, the receptor takes two routes; about 15-25% is transported to the plasma membrane, and the rest migrates to late endosomes, subsequently to prelysosomes and finally to the dense vesicles. The 78 kDa receptor starts appearing at the dense vesicles 120 min after biosynthesis and reaches a maximum of 40-50% of the total receptor. Treatment of cells with NH{sub 4}Cl causes depletion of the receptor from the dense vesicles and prelysosomes and corresponding augmentation in endosomes and plasma membrane. These results suggest that the 78 kDa receptor cycles between compartments and that the dense vesicles seem to represent the most distal compartment in the biosynthetic pathway of this receptor.

  15. Role of Golgi derived clathrin coated vesicles in the transport of calsequestrin to the sarcoplasmic reticulum of developing myotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is the major intracellular calcium sequestering organelle in skeletal and heart muscle. Calsequestrin (CSQ) is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 42,000. This protein is located in the lumen of the SR and it binds Ca/sup 2 +/ to maintain the concentration of this cation in the lumen at 10/sup /minus/3/M. Highly purified coated vesicles (CVs) were isolated from chick muscle and a Western blot using polyclonal anti-CSQ revealed the presence of CSQ within the CVs. Another major protein in the SR, the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, was not contained in CVs suggesting different routes of insertion into the SR. Cultured chick myotubes were labelled with Trans/sup 35/S-label contain (/sup 35/S)-methionine and (/sup 35/S)-cysteine to follow the transport of CSQ. Labelled CSQ remained high in the CVs until after 45 minutes of chase, then declined. The amount of labelled CSQ in the SR continued to rise over the chase period. No CSQ was secreted. All the CSQ in CVs and SR was sensitive to the activity of endoglycosidase H, and a significant fraction also bound wheat germ agglutinin. A small amount of CSQ was also co-transported with the muscle protein acetylcholinesterase within CVs. Non-secreted forms of acetylcholinesterase had the same carbohydrate structure as CSQ and were shown to be degraded in the SR.

  16. Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Transport of Biologically Active Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K.; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Conclusion/Significance Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and

  17. Outer membrane vesicles mediate transport of biologically active Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae strains.

    PubMed

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and induces toxicity on mammalian cells and furthermore can induce

  18. Exosomes account for vesicle-mediated transcellular transport of activatable phospholipases and prostaglandins[S

    PubMed Central

    Subra, Caroline; Grand, David; Laulagnier, Karine; Stella, Alexandre; Lambeau, Gérard; Paillasse, Michael; De Medina, Philippe; Monsarrat, Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc; Record, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are bioactive vesicles released from multivesicular bodies (MVB) by intact cells and participate in intercellular signaling. We investigated the presence of lipid-related proteins and bioactive lipids in RBL-2H3 exosomes. Besides a phospholipid scramblase and a fatty acid binding protein, the exosomes contained the whole set of phospholipases (A2, C, and D) together with interacting proteins such as aldolase A and Hsp 70. They also contained the phospholipase D (PLD) / phosphatidate phosphatase 1 (PAP1) pathway leading to the formation of diglycerides. RBL-2H3 exosomes also carried members of the three phospholipase A2 classes: the calcium-dependent cPLA2-IVA, the calcium-independent iPLA2-VIA, and the secreted sPLA2-IIA and V. Remarkably, almost all members of the Ras GTPase superfamily were present, and incubation of exosomes with GTPγS triggered activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)and PLD2. A large panel of free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA) and derivatives such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandinJ2 (15-d PGJ2), were detected. We observed that the exosomes were internalized by resting and activated RBL cells and that they accumulated in an endosomal compartment. Endosomal concentrations were in the micromolar range for prostaglandins; i.e., concentrations able to trigger prostaglandin-dependent biological responses. Therefore exosomes are carriers of GTP-activatable phospholipases and lipid mediators from cell to cell. PMID:20424270

  19. Polymer micelle assisted transport and delivery of model hydrophilic components inside a biological lipid vesicle: a coarse-grain simulation study.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Goundla; Mohan, Ram V; Kelkar, Ajit D

    2013-10-10

    Understanding drug transportation and delivery mechanism from a molecular viewpoint is essential to find better treatment pathways. Despite the fact that many significant drugs such as anticancer doxorubicin and mitoxantrone are predominantly hydrophilic, an efficient methodology to deliver hydrophilic drug components is not well established. Here we explore this problem by studying "patchy" polymeric micelle assisted hydrophilic component transportation across a lipid membrane and delivery inside a biological lipid vesicle. Using the MARTINI force field as the basis, we study the interaction of polymeric micelle with DPPC lipid vesicles in detail. In order to facilitate hydrophilic drug transportation study, a primitive CG model for hydrophilic drug component is used. Extensive simulations carried out over hundreds of nanoseconds demonstrate successful encapsulation, transportation of hydrophilic components by patchy polymeric micelles. Results show the polymeric micelle releases a significant portion of hydrophilic contents inside the lipid vesicle. The present simulation study also reveals a possible mechanism for efficient hydrophilic component transportation and delivery. Insights from this study could potentially help the experimental community to design better delivery vehicles, especially for hydrophilic drug molecules.

  20. A microRNA negative feedback loop downregulates vesicle transport and inhibits fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Rebecca S; Tatarakis, Antonis; Rudenko, Andrii; Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Yang, Yawei J; Murphy, Elisabeth A; Todd, Travis P; Schepers, Scott T; Siuti, Nertila; Martorell, Anthony J; Falls, William A; Hammack, Sayamwong E; Walsh, Christopher A; Tsai, Li-Huei; Umemori, Hisashi; Bouton, Mark E; Moazed, Danesh

    2016-01-01

    The SNARE-mediated vesicular transport pathway plays major roles in synaptic remodeling associated with formation of long-term memories, but the mechanisms that regulate this pathway during memory acquisition are not fully understood. Here we identify miRNAs that are up-regulated in the rodent hippocampus upon contextual fear-conditioning and identify the vesicular transport and synaptogenesis pathways as the major targets of the fear-induced miRNAs. We demonstrate that miR-153, a member of this group, inhibits the expression of key components of the vesicular transport machinery, and down-regulates Glutamate receptor A1 trafficking and neurotransmitter release. MiR-153 expression is specifically induced during LTP induction in hippocampal slices and its knockdown in the hippocampus of adult mice results in enhanced fear memory. Our results suggest that miR-153, and possibly other fear-induced miRNAs, act as components of a negative feedback loop that blocks neuronal hyperactivity at least partly through the inhibition of the vesicular transport pathway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22467.001 PMID:28001126

  1. Comparison between calcium transport and adenosine triphosphatase activity in membrane vesicles derived from rabbit kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Vieyra, A; Nachbin, L; de Dios-Abad, E; Goldfeld, M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; de Moraes, L

    1986-03-25

    Characteristics of Ca2+ uptake were studied in a vesicular preparation of proximal tubule plasma membranes from rabbit kidney and compared with the properties of both membrane-bound and solubilized Ca2+-ATPase activities. Calcium uptake required both ATP and MgCl2 and revealed two kinetic components with respect to Ca2+ concentration requirements, one with a high affinity for Ca2+ (1.8 microM), operative in the range of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, and one with a low affinity for Ca2+ (250 microM) which may become active only at abnormally high cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. The high- and low-affinity components were stimulated to similar extents by phosphate, and required similar concentrations of ATP (0.6 mM) for half-maximal activity. The amount of membrane-bound phosphoenzyme formed from ATP in the presence of Ca2+ was the same regardless of whether only one or both sites were saturated, suggesting that occupancy of the second Ca2+ binding site accelerates the enzyme turnover. Inhibition of Ca2+ transport by Na+ was reversed by the addition of ouabain or an ATP-regenerating system, indicating that this inhibitory effect of Na+ on Ca2+ uptake may be due to the accumulation of ADP in the medium as a result of Na+ pump activity. Low concentrations of carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and valinomycin (2.5 and 1 microM, respectively) were without effect on Ca2+ uptake in the presence of phosphate, whereas higher concentrations of the ionophores (200 and 100 microM, respectively) reduced uptake by 60% or more. The calmodulin antagonist 48/80 also reduced Ca2+ uptake with half-maximal effectiveness at 100 micrograms/ml. None of these drugs affected either ATPase activity or the EGTA-induced Ca2+ efflux from preloaded vesicles. The Ca2+ dependence of ATP hydrolysis by the membrane-bound enzyme preparation was similar to that observed for Ca2+ uptake by the vesicles. However, with solubilized enzyme, concentrations of Ca2+ similar to that found in the

  2. ATP-dependent uptake of natural product cytotoxic drugs by membrane vesicles establishes MRP as a broad specificity transporter.

    PubMed

    Paul, S; Breuninger, L M; Tew, K D; Shen, H; Kruh, G D

    1996-07-09

    MRP is a recently isolated ATP-binding cassette family transporter. We previously reported transfection studies that established that MRP confers multidrug resistance [Kruh, G. D., Chan, A., Myers, K., Gaughan, K., Miki, T. & Aaronson, S. A. (1994) Cancer Res. 54, 1649-1652] and that expression of MRP is associated with enhanced cellular efflux of lipophilic cytotoxic agents [Breuninger, L. M., Paul, S., Gaughan, K., Miki, T., Chan, A., Aaronson, S. A. & Kruh, G. D. (1995) Cancer Res. 55, 5342-5347]. To examine the biochemical mechanism by which MRP confers multidrug resistance, drug uptake experiments were performed using inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from NIH 3T3 cells transfected with an MRP expression vector. ATP-dependent transport was observed for several lipophilic cytotoxic agents including daunorubicin, etoposide, and vincristine, as well as for the glutathione conjugate leukotriene C4 (LTC4). However, only marginally increased uptake was observed for vinblastine and Taxol. Drug uptake was osmotically sensitive and saturable with regard to substrate concentration, with Km values of 6.3 microM, 4.4 microM, 4.2 microM, 35 nM, and 38 microM, for daunorubicin, etoposide, vincristine, LTC4, and ATP, respectively. The broad substrate specificity of MRP was confirmed by the observation that daunorubicin transport was competitively inhibited by reduced and oxidized glutathione, the glutathione conjugates S-(p-azidophenacyl)-glutathione (APA-SG) and S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione (DNP-SG), arsenate, and the LTD4 antagonist MK571. This study establishes that MRP pumps unaltered lipophilic cytotoxic drugs, and suggests that this activity is an important mechanism by which the transporter confers multidrug resistance. The present study also indicates that the substrate specificity of MRP is overlapping but distinct from that of P-glycoprotein, and includes both the neutral or mildly cationic natural product cytotoxic drugs and the anionic products of

  3. NINL and DZANK1 Co-function in Vesicle Transport and Are Essential for Photoreceptor Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Texier, Yves; Toedt, Grischa; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Tonnaer, Edith L.; Peters, Theo A.; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Bergboer, Judith G. M.; Horn, Nicola; de Vrieze, Erik; Slijkerman, Ralph W. N.; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Flik, Gert; Keunen, Jan E.; Ueffing, Marius; Gibson, Toby J.; Roepman, Ronald; Boldt, Karsten; Kremer, Hannie; van Wijk, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Ciliopathies are Mendelian disorders caused by dysfunction of cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in fluid propulsion (motile cilia) or signal transduction (primary cilia). Retinal dystrophy is a common phenotypic characteristic of ciliopathies since photoreceptor outer segments are specialized primary cilia. These ciliary structures heavily rely on intracellular minus-end directed transport of cargo, mediated at least in part by the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, for their formation, maintenance and function. Ninein-like protein (NINL) is known to associate with this motor complex and is an important interaction partner of the ciliopathy-associated proteins lebercilin, USH2A and CC2D2A. Here, we scrutinize the function of NINL with combined proteomic and zebrafish in vivo approaches. We identify Double Zinc Ribbon and Ankyrin Repeat domains 1 (DZANK1) as a novel interaction partner of NINL and show that loss of Ninl, Dzank1 or both synergistically leads to dysmorphic photoreceptor outer segments, accumulation of trans-Golgi-derived vesicles and mislocalization of Rhodopsin and Ush2a in zebrafish. In addition, retrograde melanosome transport is severely impaired in zebrafish lacking Ninl or Dzank1. We further demonstrate that NINL and DZANK1 are essential for intracellular dynein-based transport by associating with complementary subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, thus shedding light on the structure and stoichiometry of this important motor complex. Altogether, our results support a model in which the NINL-DZANK1 protein module is involved in the proper assembly and folding of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex in photoreceptor cells, a process essential for outer segment formation and function. PMID:26485514

  4. NINL and DZANK1 Co-function in Vesicle Transport and Are Essential for Photoreceptor Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dona, Margo; Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra; Texier, Yves; Toedt, Grischa; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Tonnaer, Edith L; Peters, Theo A; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Bergboer, Judith G M; Horn, Nicola; de Vrieze, Erik; Slijkerman, Ralph W N; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Flik, Gert; Keunen, Jan E; Ueffing, Marius; Gibson, Toby J; Roepman, Ronald; Boldt, Karsten; Kremer, Hannie; van Wijk, Erwin

    2015-10-01

    Ciliopathies are Mendelian disorders caused by dysfunction of cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in fluid propulsion (motile cilia) or signal transduction (primary cilia). Retinal dystrophy is a common phenotypic characteristic of ciliopathies since photoreceptor outer segments are specialized primary cilia. These ciliary structures heavily rely on intracellular minus-end directed transport of cargo, mediated at least in part by the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, for their formation, maintenance and function. Ninein-like protein (NINL) is known to associate with this motor complex and is an important interaction partner of the ciliopathy-associated proteins lebercilin, USH2A and CC2D2A. Here, we scrutinize the function of NINL with combined proteomic and zebrafish in vivo approaches. We identify Double Zinc Ribbon and Ankyrin Repeat domains 1 (DZANK1) as a novel interaction partner of NINL and show that loss of Ninl, Dzank1 or both synergistically leads to dysmorphic photoreceptor outer segments, accumulation of trans-Golgi-derived vesicles and mislocalization of Rhodopsin and Ush2a in zebrafish. In addition, retrograde melanosome transport is severely impaired in zebrafish lacking Ninl or Dzank1. We further demonstrate that NINL and DZANK1 are essential for intracellular dynein-based transport by associating with complementary subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex, thus shedding light on the structure and stoichiometry of this important motor complex. Altogether, our results support a model in which the NINL-DZANK1 protein module is involved in the proper assembly and folding of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 motor complex in photoreceptor cells, a process essential for outer segment formation and function.

  5. A Model for Growth of a Single Fungal Hypha Based on Well-Mixed Tanks in Series: Simulation of Nutrient and Vesicle Transport in Aerial Reproductive Hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Balmant, Wellington; Sugai-Guérios, Maura Harumi; Coradin, Juliana Hey; Krieger, Nadia; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Current models that describe the extension of fungal hyphae and development of a mycelium either do not describe the role of vesicles in hyphal extension or do not correctly describe the experimentally observed profile for distribution of vesicles along the hypha. The present work uses the n-tanks-in-series approach to develop a model for hyphal extension that describes the intracellular transport of nutrient to a sub-apical zone where vesicles are formed and then transported to the tip, where tip extension occurs. The model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature for the extension of reproductive aerial hyphae of three different fungi, and was able to describe different profiles involving acceleration and deceleration of the extension rate. A sensitivity analysis showed that the supply of nutrient to the sub-apical vesicle-producing zone is a key factor influencing the rate of extension of the hypha. Although this model was used to describe the extension of a single reproductive aerial hypha, the use of the n-tanks-in-series approach to representing the hypha means that the model has the flexibility to be extended to describe the growth of other types of hyphae and the branching of hyphae to form a complete mycelium. PMID:25785863

  6. A Putative Small Solute Transporter Is Responsible for the Secretion of G377 and TRAP-Containing Secretory Vesicles during Plasmodium Gamete Egress and Sporozoite Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, Jessica; Singer, Mirko; Lemgruber, Leandro; Silva, Patricia A. G. C.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mair, Gunnar R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulated protein secretion is required for malaria parasite life cycle progression and transmission between the mammalian host and mosquito vector. During transmission from the host to the vector, exocytosis of highly specialised secretory vesicles, such as osmiophilic bodies, is key to the dissolution of the red blood cell and parasitophorous vacuole membranes enabling gamete egress. The positioning of adhesins from the TRAP family, from micronemes to the sporozoite surface, is essential for gliding motility of the parasite and transmission from mosquito to mammalian host. Here we identify a conserved role for the putative pantothenate transporter PAT in Plasmodium berghei in vesicle fusion of two distinct classes of vesicles in gametocytes and sporozoites. PAT is a membrane component of osmiophilic bodies in gametocytes and micronemes in sporozoites. Despite normal formation and trafficking of osmiophilic bodies to the cell surface upon activation, PAT-deficient gametes fail to discharge their contents, remain intraerythrocytic and unavailable for fertilisation and further development in the mosquito. Sporozoites lacking PAT fail to secrete TRAP, are immotile and thus unable to infect the subsequent rodent host. Thus, P. berghei PAT appears to regulate exocytosis in two distinct populations of vesicles in two different life cycle forms rather than acting as pantothenic transporter during parasite transmission. PMID:27427910

  7. A model for growth of a single fungal hypha based on well-mixed tanks in series: simulation of nutrient and vesicle transport in aerial reproductive hyphae.

    PubMed

    Balmant, Wellington; Sugai-Guérios, Maura Harumi; Coradin, Juliana Hey; Krieger, Nadia; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Current models that describe the extension of fungal hyphae and development of a mycelium either do not describe the role of vesicles in hyphal extension or do not correctly describe the experimentally observed profile for distribution of vesicles along the hypha. The present work uses the n-tanks-in-series approach to develop a model for hyphal extension that describes the intracellular transport of nutrient to a sub-apical zone where vesicles are formed and then transported to the tip, where tip extension occurs. The model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature for the extension of reproductive aerial hyphae of three different fungi, and was able to describe different profiles involving acceleration and deceleration of the extension rate. A sensitivity analysis showed that the supply of nutrient to the sub-apical vesicle-producing zone is a key factor influencing the rate of extension of the hypha. Although this model was used to describe the extension of a single reproductive aerial hypha, the use of the n-tanks-in-series approach to representing the hypha means that the model has the flexibility to be extended to describe the growth of other types of hyphae and the branching of hyphae to form a complete mycelium.

  8. BNIP-2 binds phosphatidylserine, localizes to vesicles, and is transported by kinesin-1.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Rie; Ishida-Kitagawa, Norihiro; Aoyama, Takane; Oka, Chio; Kawaichi, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    BNIP-2 shows high homology with the Cayman ataxia protein, caytaxin, which functions as a kinesin-1 adapter bridging cargos and kinesin light chains (KLCs). BNIP-2 is known to induce cell shape changes when over-expressed in culture cells, but its physiological functions are mostly unknown. BNIP-2 interacts with KLC through the conserved WED motif in the N-terminal region of BNIP-2. Interaction with KLC and transportation by kinesin-1 are essential for over-expressed BNIP-2 to elongate cells and induce cellular processes. Endogenous BNIP-2 localizes to the Golgi apparatus, early and recycling endosomes and mitochondria, aligned with microtubules, and moves at a speed compatible with kinesin-1 transportation. The CRAL-TRIO domain of BNIP-2 specifically interacts with phosphatidylserine, and the vesicular localization of BNIP-2 requires interaction with this phospholipid. BNIP-2 mutants which do not bind phosphatidylserine do not induce morphological changes in cells. These data show that similar to caytaxin, BNIP-2 is a kinesin-1 adapter involved in vesicular transportation in the cytoplasm and that association with cargos depends on interaction of the CRAL-TRIO domain with membrane phosphatidylserine.

  9. Glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles. Roles of membrane potential, pH gradient, and intravesicular pH.

    PubMed

    Tabb, J S; Kish, P E; Van Dyke, R; Ueda, T

    1992-08-05

    Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is transported into bovine synaptic vesicles in a manner that is ATP dependent and requires a vesicular electrochemical proton gradient. We studied the electrical and chemical elements of this driving force and evaluated the effects of chloride on transport. Increasing concentrations of Cl- were found to increase the steady-state ATP-dependent vesicular pH gradient (delta pH) and were found to concomitantly decrease the vesicular membrane potential (delta psi). Low millimolar chloride concentrations, which cause 3-6-fold stimulation of vesicular glutamate uptake, caused small but measurable increases in delta pH and decreases in delta psi, when compared to control vesicles in the absence of chloride. Nigericin in potassium buffers was used to alter the relative proportions of delta pH and delta psi. Compared to controls, at all chloride concentrations tested, nigericin virtually abolished delta pH and increased the vesicle interior positive delta psi. Concomitantly, nigericin increased ATP-dependent glutamate uptake in 0-1 mM chloride but decreased glutamate uptake in 4 mM (45%), 20 mM (80%), and 140 mM (75%) Cl- (where delta pH in the absence of nigericin was large). These findings suggest that either delta psi, delta pH, or a combination can drive glutamate uptake, but to different degrees. In the presence of 4 mM Cl-, where uptake is optimal, both delta psi and delta pH contribute to the driving force for uptake. When the extravesicular pH was increased from 7.4 to 8.0, more Cl- was required to stimulate vesicular glutamate uptake. In the absence of Cl-, as extravesicular pH was lowered to 6.8, uptake was over 3-fold greater than it was at pH 7.4. As extravesicular pH was reduced from 8.0 toward 6.8, less Cl- was required for maximal stimulation. Decreasing the extravesicular pH from 8.0 to 6.8 in the absence of Cl- significantly increased glutamate uptake activity, even

  10. [Effect of natural or synthetic detergents on the transport of D-glucose in the membranes of vesicles of the brush border of the intestine of the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Favilli, F; Iantomasi, T; Stio, M; Treves, C; Vanni, P; Vincenzini, M T

    1988-01-01

    We describe here the effects of natural and synthetic detergents on the D-glucose transport into brush-border membranes of vesicles of rabbit's intestine. Two synthetic detergents: Triton X-100 and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide have been found very strong inhibitors (more than 50 p. 100 of inhibition of maximal D-glucose uptake). Kinetic studies showed that these detergents behaved as mixed type inhibitors. The Na+-dependent transport of amino acids (aspartic acid, lysine, phenylalanine) is only poorly affected by dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, while Triton X-100 inhibits unspecifically all the transport studied.

  11. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors

    SciTech Connect

    da Silva, Roberta Peres; Heiss, Christian; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Gerlach, Jared Q.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Joshi, Lokesh; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Puccia, Rosana

    2015-09-21

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) and α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)- Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin microarray profiling revealed terminal Man and GlcNAc residues exposed at the EVs surface. Mammalian lectin microarray profiling showed that DC-SIGN receptors recognized surface carbohydrate in Paracoccidioides EVs. Our results suggest that oligosaccharides, cytoplasmic storage, and cell wall polysaccharides can be exported in fungal EVs, which also expose surface PAMPs and lectins. As a result, the role of these newly identified components in the interaction with the host remains to be unraveled.

  12. A dominant-negative form of Arabidopsis AP-3 β-adaptin improves intracellular pH homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Niñoles, Regina; Rubio, Lourdes; García-Sánchez, María J; Fernández, José A; Bueso, Eduardo; Alejandro, Santiago; Serrano, Ramón

    2013-05-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi ) is a crucial parameter in cellular physiology but its mechanisms of homeostasis are only partially understood. To uncover novel roles and participants of the pHi regulatory system, we have screened an Arabidopsis mutant collection for resistance of seed germination to intracellular acidification induced by weak organic acids (acetic, propionic, sorbic). The phenotypes of one identified mutant, weak acid-tolerant 1-1D (wat1-1D) are due to the expression of a truncated form of AP-3 β-adaptin (encoded by the PAT2 gene) that behaves as a as dominant-negative. During acetic acid treatment the root epidermal cells of the mutant maintain a higher pHi and a more depolarized plasma membrane electrical potential than wild-type cells. Additional phenotypes of wat1-1D roots include increased rates of acetate efflux, K(+) uptake and H(+) efflux, the latter reflecting the in vivo activity of the plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase. The in vitro activity of the enzyme was not increased but, as the H(+) -ATPase is electrogenic, the increased ion permeability would allow a higher rate of H(+) efflux. The AP-3 adaptor complex is involved in traffic from Golgi to vacuoles but its function in plants is not much known. The phenotypes of the wat1-1D mutant can be explained if loss of function of the AP-3 β-adaptin causes activation of channels or transporters for organic anions (acetate) and for K(+) at the plasma membrane, perhaps through miss-localization of tonoplast proteins. This suggests a role of this adaptin in trafficking of ion channels or transporters to the tonoplast. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The surfactant lipid transporter ABCA3 is N-terminally cleaved inside LAMP3-positive vesicles.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Stefanie; Kaltenborn, Eva; Griese, Matthias; Kern, Suncana

    2010-10-22

    ABCA3 mutations cause fatal surfactant deficiency and interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 protein is a lipid transporter indispensible for surfactant biogenesis and storage in lamellar bodies (LB). The protein folds in endoplasmic reticulum and is glycosylated in Golgi en route to the membrane of mature LB and their precursor multivesicular bodies (MVB). In immunoblots, C-terminally labeled ABCA3 appears as two protein bands of 150 and 190 kDa. Using N- and C-terminal protein tags and hindering ABCA3 processing we show that the 150 kDa protein represents the mature ABCA3 whose N-terminus is cleaved by a cysteine protease inside MVB/LB. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. COPI Vesicle Transport Is a Common Requirement for Tube Expansion in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tiklová, Katarína; Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Hemphälä, Johanna; Samakovlis, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Tube expansion defects like stenoses and atresias cause devastating human diseases. Luminal expansion during organogenesis begins to be elucidated in several systems but we still lack a mechanistic view of the process in many organs. The Drosophila tracheal respiratory system provides an amenable model to study tube size regulation. In the trachea, COPII anterograde transport of luminal proteins is required for extracellular matrix assembly and the concurrent tube expansion. Principal Findings We identified and analyzed Drosophila COPI retrograde transport mutants with narrow tracheal tubes. γCOP mutants fail to efficiently secrete luminal components and assemble the luminal chitinous matrix during tracheal tube expansion. Likewise, tube extension is defective in salivary glands, where it also coincides with a failure in the luminal deposition and assembly of a distinct, transient intraluminal matrix. Drosophila γCOP colocalizes with cis-Golgi markers and in γCOP mutant embryos the ER and Golgi structures are severely disrupted. Analysis of γCOP and Sar1 double mutants suggests that bidirectional ER-Golgi traffic maintains the ER and Golgi compartments and is required for secretion and assembly of luminal matrixes during tube expansion. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the function of COPI components in organ morphogenesis and highlight the common role of apical secretion and assembly of transient organotypic matrices in tube expansion. Intraluminal matrices have been detected in the notochord of ascidians and zebrafish COPI mutants show defects in notochord expansion. Thus, the programmed deposition and growth of distinct luminal molds may provide distending forces during tube expansion in diverse organs. PMID:18398480

  15. Erv41p and Erv46p: new components of COPII vesicles involved in transport between the ER and Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    Otte, S; Belden, W J; Heidtman, M; Liu, J; Jensen, O N; Barlowe, C

    2001-02-05

    Proteins contained on purified COPII vesicles were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry combined with database searching. We identified four known vesicle proteins (Erv14p, Bet1p, Emp24p, and Erv25p) and an additional nine species (Yip3p, Rer1p, Erp1p, Erp2p, Erv29p, Yif1p, Erv41p, Erv46p, and Emp47p) that had not been localized to ER vesicles. Using antibodies, we demonstrate that these proteins are selectively and efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles. Three of the newly identified vesicle proteins (Erv29p, Erv41p, and Erv46p) represent uncharacterized integral membrane proteins that are conserved across species. Erv41p and Erv46p were further characterized. These proteins colocalized to ER and Golgi membranes and exist in a detergent-soluble complex that was isolated by immunoprecipitation. Yeast strains lacking Erv41p and/or Erv46p are viable but display cold sensitivity. The expression levels of Erv41p and Erv46p are interdependent such that Erv46p was reduced in an erv41Delta strain, and Erv41p was not detected in an erv46Delta strain. When the erv41Delta or ev46Delta alleles were combined with other mutations in the early secretory pathway, altered growth phenotypes were observed in some of the double mutant strains. A cell-free assay that reproduces transport between the ER and Golgi indicates that deletion of the Erv41p-Erv46p complex influences the membrane fusion stage of transport.

  16. Inositol pyrophosphate mediated pyrophosphorylation of AP3B1 regulates HIV-1 Gag release

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Cristina; Burton, Adam; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel; Marsh, Mark; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    High-energy inositol pyrophosphates, such as IP7 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate), can directly donate a β-phosphate to a prephosphorylated serine residue generating pyrophosphorylated proteins. Here, we show that the β subunit of AP-3, a clathrin-associated protein complex required for HIV-1 release, is a target of IP7-mediated pyrophosphorylation. We have identified Kif3A, a motor protein of the kinesin superfamily, as an AP3B1-binding partner and demonstrate that Kif3A, like the AP-3 complex, is involved in an intracellular process required for HIV-1 Gag release. Importantly, IP7-mediated pyrophosphorylation of AP3B1 modulates the interaction with Kif3A and, as a consequence, affects the release of HIV-1 virus-like particles. This study identifies a cellular process that is regulated by IP7-mediated pyrophosphorylation. PMID:19934039

  17. The prokaryotic V4R domain is the likely ancestor of a key component of the eukaryotic vesicle transport system.

    PubMed

    Podar, Mircea; Wall, Mark A; Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-25

    Intracellular vesicle traffic that enables delivery of proteins between the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and various endosomal subcompartments is one of the hallmarks of the eukaryotic cell. Its evolutionary history is not well understood but the process itself and the core vesicle traffic machinery are believed to be ancient. We show here that the 4-vinyl reductase (V4R) protein domain present in bacteria and archaea is homologous to the Bet3 subunit of the TRAPP1 vesicle-tethering complex that is conserved in all eukaryotes. This suggests, for the first time, a prokaryotic origin for one of the key eukaryotic trafficking proteins.

  18. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  19. Flow cytometric monitoring of multidrug drug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) -mediated transport of 2',7'-bis-(3-carboxypropyl)-5-(and-6)- carboxyfluorescein (BCPCF) into human erythrocyte membrane inside-out vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bobrowska-Hägerstrand, Małgorzata; Wróbel, Anna; Rychlik, Błazej; Ohman, Ida; Hägerstrand, Henry

    2007-01-01

    The presence of human multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) in the human erythrocyte membrane is well established. In the present study, flow cytometric monitoring is introduced to identify MRP1 as the main transporter of 2',7'-bis-(3-carboxypropyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCPCF) in the erythrocyte membrane and to facilitate inhibition and kinetic studies of MRP1-mediated transport. The ATP-dependent transport of BCPCF into human erythrocyte inside-out vesicles and, for comparison, into MRP1-expressing Sf9 cell membrane inside-out vesicles were studied. The MRP1-specific monoclonal antibody, QCRL-3 and the MRP1 inhibitor, MK-571 strongly decreased the uptake of BCPCF into both erythrocyte and MRP1-expressing Sf9 cell membrane inside-out vesicles. The inhibition profiles of cyclosporin A, verapamil, benzbromarone, and probenecid in erythrocyte membrane vesicles were typical for MRP1-mediated transport. Furthermore, kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) of BCPCF transport into erythrocyte membrane inside-out vesicles were determined in the absence and in the presence of selected inhibitors (MK-571, cyclosporin A, benzbromarone and verapamil). The presented results identified MRP1 as the major transporter of BCPCF in the human erythrocyte membrane and showed for the first time that the active transport of fluorescent substrate into inside-out vesicles can be monitored by flow cytometry.

  20. Heterogeneity of L-alanine transport systems in brush-border membrane vesicles from rat placenta during late gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Torre, S R; Serrano, M A; Medina, J M; Alvarado, F

    1992-01-01

    The placental uptake of L-alanine was studied by using purified brush-border membrane vesicles from rat trophoblasts. Saturation curves were carried out at 37 degrees C in buffers containing 100 mM (zero-trans)-NaSCN, -NaCl, -KSCN, -KCl, or -N-methyl-D-glucamine gluconate. The uncorrected uptake results were fitted by non-linear regression analysis to an equation involving one diffusional component either one or two saturable Michaelian transport terms. In the presence of NaCl, two distinct L-alanine transport systems were distinguished, named respectively System 1 (S-1; Vm1 about 760 pmol/s per mg of protein; KT1 = 0.5 mM) and System 2 (S-2; Vm2 about 1700 pmol/s per mg; KT2 = 9 mM). In contrast, in the presence of K+ (KCl = KSCN) or in the absence of any alkali-metal ions (N-methyl-D-glucamine gluconate), only one saturable system was apparent, which we identify as S-2. When Na+ is present, S-1, but not S-2, appears to be rheogenic, since its maximal transport capacity significantly increases in the presence of an inside-negative membrane potential, created either by replacing Cl- with the permeant anion thiocyanate (NaSCN > NaCl) or by applying an appropriate K+ gradient and valinomycin. alpha-(Methylamino)isobutyrate (methyl-AIB) appears to be a substrate of S-1, but not of S-2. For reasons that remain to be explained, however, methyl-AIB inhibits S-2. We conclude that S-1 represents a truly Na(+)-dependent mechanism, where Na+ behaves as an obligatory activator, whereas S-2 cannot discriminate between Na+ and K+, although its activity is higher in the presence of alkali-metal ions than in their absence (Na+ = K+ > N-methyl-D-glucammonium ion). S-2 appears to be fully developed 2 days before birth, whereas S-1 undergoes a capacity-type activation between days 19.5 and 21.5 of gestation, i.e. its apparent Vmax. nearly doubles, whereas its KT remains constant. PMID:1445280

  1. An endosomal syntaxin and the AP-3 complex are required for formation and maturation of candidate lysosome-related secretory organelles (mucocysts) in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harsimran; Sparvoli, Daniela; Osakada, Hiroko; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Turkewitz, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila synthesizes large secretory vesicles called mucocysts. Mucocyst biosynthesis shares features with dense core granules (DCGs) in animal cells, including proteolytic processing of cargo proteins during maturation. However, other molecular features have suggested relatedness to lysosome-related organelles (LROs). LROs, which include diverse organelles in animals, are formed via convergence of secretory and endocytic trafficking. Here we analyzed Tetrahymena syntaxin 7-like 1 (Stx7l1p), a Qa-SNARE whose homologues in other lineages are linked with vacuoles/LROs. Stx7l1p is targeted to both immature and mature mucocysts and is essential in mucocyst formation. In STX7L1-knockout cells, the two major classes of mucocyst cargo proteins localize independently, accumulating in largely nonoverlapping vesicles. Thus initial formation of immature mucocysts involves heterotypic fusion, in which a subset of mucocyst proteins is delivered via an endolysosomal compartment. Further, we show that subsequent maturation requires AP-3, a complex widely implicated in LRO formation. Knockout of the µ-subunit gene does not impede delivery of any known mucocyst cargo but nonetheless arrests mucocyst maturation. Our data argue that secretory organelles in ciliates may represent a new class of LROs and reveal key roles of an endosomal syntaxin and AP-3 in the assembly of this complex compartment. PMID:28381425

  2. The Cortical Acto-Myosin Network: From Diffusion Barrier to Functional Gateway in the Transport of Neurosecretory Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Andreas; Tomatis, Vanesa M.; Kasula, Ravikiran; Meunier, Frederic A.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of regulated exocytosis is linked to an array of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, asthma, and diabetes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning neuroexocytosis including the processes that allow neurosecretory vesicles to access and fuse with the plasma membrane and to recycle post-fusion, is therefore critical to the design of future therapeutic drugs that will efficiently tackle these diseases. Despite considerable efforts to determine the principles of vesicular fusion, the mechanisms controlling the approach of vesicles to the plasma membrane in order to undergo tethering, docking, priming, and fusion remain poorly understood. All these steps involve the cortical actin network, a dense mesh of actin filaments localized beneath the plasma membrane. Recent work overturned the long-held belief that the cortical actin network only plays a passive constraining role in neuroexocytosis functioning as a physical barrier that partly breaks down upon entry of Ca2+ to allow secretory vesicles to reach the plasma membrane. A multitude of new roles for the cortical actin network in regulated exocytosis have now emerged and point to highly dynamic novel functions of key myosin molecular motors. Myosins are not only believed to help bring about dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton, tethering and guiding vesicles to their fusion sites, but they also regulate the size and duration of the fusion pore, thereby directly contributing to the release of neurotransmitters and hormones. Here we discuss the functions of the cortical actin network, myosins, and their effectors in controlling the processes that lead to tethering, directed transport, docking, and fusion of exocytotic vesicles in regulated exocytosis. PMID:24155741

  3. Transport of amino acids (L-valine, L-lysine, L-glutamic acid) and sucrose into plasma membrane vesicles isolated from cotyledons of developing pea seeds.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A; Borstlap, A C

    2000-10-01

    Transport of the amino acids L-valine, L-lysine, and L-glutamic acid and of sucrose was studied in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from developing cotyledons of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Marzia). The vesicles were obtained by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning of a microsomal fraction and the uptake was determined after the imposition of a H(+)-gradient (DeltapH, inside alkaline) and/or an electrical gradient (Deltapsi, inside negative) across the vesicle membrane. In the absence of gradients, a distinct, time-dependent uptake of L-valine was measured, which could be enhanced about 2-fold by the imposition of DeltapH. The imposition of Deltapsi stimulated the influx of valine by 20%, both in the absence and in the presence of DeltapH. Uptake of L-lysine was more strongly stimulated by Deltapsi than by DeltapH, and its DeltapH-dependent uptake was enhanced about 6-fold by the simultaneous imposition of Deltapsi. In the absence of gradients the uptake of L-glutamic acid was about 2-fold higher than that of L-valine, but it was not detectably affected by DeltapH or Deltapsi. Although the transport of sucrose was very low, a stimulating effect of DeltapH could be clearly demonstrated. The results lend further support to the contention that during seed development cotyledonary cells employ H(+)-symporters for the active uptake of sucrose and amino acids.

  4. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S; Bennett, Dorothy C; Cutler, Daniel F; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2005-11-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies.

  5. Gas vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Walsby, A E

    1994-01-01

    The gas vesicle is a hollow structure made of protein. It usually has the form of a cylindrical tube closed by conical end caps. Gas vesicles occur in five phyla of the Bacteria and two groups of the Archaea, but they are mostly restricted to planktonic microorganisms, in which they provide buoyancy. By regulating their relative gas vesicle content aquatic microbes are able to perform vertical migrations. In slowly growing organisms such movements are made more efficiently than by swimming with flagella. The gas vesicle is impermeable to liquid water, but it is highly permeable to gases and is normally filled with air. It is a rigid structure of low compressibility, but it collapses flat under a certain critical pressure and buoyancy is then lost. Gas vesicles in different organisms vary in width, from 45 to > 200 nm; in accordance with engineering principles the narrower ones are stronger (have higher critical pressures) than wide ones, but they contain less gas space per wall volume and are therefore less efficient at providing buoyancy. A survey of gas-vacuolate cyanobacteria reveals that there has been natural selection for gas vesicles of the maximum width permitted by the pressure encountered in the natural environment, which is mainly determined by cell turgor pressure and water depth. Gas vesicle width is genetically determined, perhaps through the amino acid sequence of one of the constituent proteins. Up to 14 genes have been implicated in gas vesicle production, but so far the products of only two have been shown to be present in the gas vesicle: GvpA makes the ribs that form the structure, and GvpC binds to the outside of the ribs and stiffens the structure against collapse. The evolution of the gas vesicle is discussed in relation to the homologies of these proteins. Images PMID:8177173

  6. Characterization of a Human Point Mutation of VGLUT3 (p.A211V) in the Rodent Brain Suggests a Nonuniform Distribution of the Transporter in Synaptic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ramet, Lauriane; Zimmermann, Johannes; Bersot, Tiphaine; Poirel, Odile; De Gois, Stéphanie; Silm, Katlin; Sakae, Diana Yae; Mansouri-Guilani, Nina; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Pietrancosta, Nicolas; Daumas, Stéphanie; Bernard, Véronique; Rosenmund, Christian; El Mestikawy, Salah

    2017-04-12

    The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by subpopulations of neurons using acetylcholine, GABA, or serotonin as neurotransmitters. In addition, VGLUT3 is expressed in the inner hair cells of the auditory system. A mutation (p.A211V) in the gene that encodes VGLUT3 is responsible for progressive deafness in two unrelated families. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the p.A211V mutation in cell cultures and in the CNS of a mutant mouse. The mutation substantially decreased VGLUT3 expression (-70%). We measured VGLUT3-p.A211V activity by vesicular uptake in BON cells, electrophysiological recording of isolated neurons, and its ability to stimulate serotonergic accumulation in cortical synaptic vesicles. Despite a marked loss of expression, the activity of the mutated isoform was only minimally altered. Furthermore, mutant mice displayed none of the behavioral alterations that have previously been reported in VGLUT3 knock-out mice. Finally, we used stimulated emission depletion microscopy to analyze how the mutation altered VGLUT3 distribution within the terminals of mice expressing the mutated isoform. The mutation appeared to reduce the expression of the VGLUT3 transporter by simultaneously decreasing the number of VGLUT3-positive synaptic vesicles and the amount of VGLUT3 per synapses. These observations suggested that VGLUT3 global activity is not linearly correlated with VGLUT3 expression. Furthermore, our data unraveled a nonuniform distribution of VGLUT3 in synaptic vesicles. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this complex vesicular sorting will be critical to understand VGLUT's involvement in normal and pathological conditions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT VGLUT3 is an atypical member of the vesicular glutamate transporter family. A point mutation of VGLUT3 (VGLUT3-p.A211V) responsible for a progressive loss of hearing has been identified in humans. We observed that this mutation dramatically reduces VGLUT3

  7. Matrix Proteins of Nipah and Hendra Viruses Interact with Beta Subunits of AP-3 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S.; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998

  8. Decrease of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles by NO/sub 3//sup -/ and Cl/sup -/: evidence for H/sup +/-coupled anion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, K.S.; Sze, H.

    1987-03-01

    Chloride or nitrate decreased a pH gradient (measured as (/sup 14/C)methylamine accumulation) in tonoplast-enriched vesicles. The ..delta..pH decrease was dependent on the anion concentration. These effects are independent of the anion-sensitive H/sup +/-ATPase of the tonoplast, since the pH gradient (acid inside) was imposed artificially using a pH jump or a K/sup +/ gradient and nigericin. 4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid partially prevented the decrease in pH gradient induced by Cl/sup -/. Two possible models to account for this anion-dependent decrease of ..delta..pH are: (a) H/sup +/ loss is accompanied by Cl/sup -/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/ efflux from the vesicles via H/sup +//anion symport systems on the tonoplast and (b) H/sup +/ loss is accompanied by Cl/sup -/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake into the vesicles via H/sup +//anion antiport systems. Depending on the requirements and conditions of the cell, these two systems would serve to either mobilize Cl/sup -/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ stored in the vacuole for use in the cytoplasm or to drive anions into the vacuole. Chloride or nitrate also decreased a pH gradient in fractions containing plasma membrane and Golgi, implying that these membranes may have similar H/sup +/-coupled anion transport systems.

  9. Different mechanisms of free fatty acid flip-flop and dissociation revealed by temperature and molecular species dependence of transport across lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kampf, J Patrick; Cupp, David; Kleinfeld, Alan M

    2006-07-28

    The mechanism of free fatty acid (FFA) transport across membranes is a subject of intense investigation. We have demonstrated recently that flip-flop is the rate-limiting step for transport of oleic acid across phospholipid vesicles (Cupp, D., Kampf, J. P., and Kleinfeld, A. M. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 4473-4481). To better understand the nature of the flip-flop barrier, we measured the temperature dependence of a series of saturated and monounsaturated FFA. We determined the rate constants for flip-flop and dissociation for small (SUV), large (LUV), and giant (GUV) unilamellar vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholine. For all FFA and vesicle types, dissociation was faster than flip-flop, and for all FFA, flip-flop and dissociation were faster in SUV than in LUV or GUV. Rate constants for both flip-flop and dissociation decreased exponentially with increasing FFA size. However, only the flip-flop rate constants increased significantly with temperature; the barrier to flip-flop was virtually entirely due to an enthalpic activation free energy. The barrier to dissociation was primarily entropic. Analysis in terms of a simple free volume (V(f)) model revealed V(f) values for flip-flop that ranged between approximately 12 and 15 Angstroms(3), with larger values for SUV than for LUV or GUV. V(f) values increased with temperature, and this temperature dependence generated the enthalpic barrier to flip-flop. The barrier for dissociation and its size dependence primarily reflect the aqueous solubility of FFA. These are the first results to distinguish the energetics of flipflop and dissociation. This should lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing FFA transport across biological membranes.

  10. KIF1A is the primary anterograde motor protein required for the axonal transport of dense-core vesicles in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lo, K Y; Kuzmin, A; Unger, S M; Petersen, J D; Silverman, M A

    2011-03-24

    Dense-core vesicles (DCVs) are responsible for transporting, processing, and secreting neuropeptide cargos that mediate a wide range of biological processes, including neuronal development, survival, and learning and memory. DCVs are synthesized in the cell body and are transported by kinesin motor proteins along microtubules to pre- and postsynaptic release sites. Due to the dependence on kinesin-based transport, we sought to determine if the kinesin-3 family member, KIF1A, transports DCVs in primary cultured hippocampal neurons, as has been described for invertebrate neurons. Two-color, live-cell imaging showed that the DCV markers, chromogranin A-RFP and BDNF-RFP, move together with KIF1A-GFP in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. To demonstrate a functional role for KIF1A in DCV transport, motor protein expression in neurons was reduced using RNA interference (shRNA). Fluorescently tagged DCV markers showed a significant reduction in organelle flux in cells expressing shRNA against KIF1A. The transport of cargo driven by motors other than KIF1A, including mitochondria and the transferrin receptor, was unaffected in KIF1A shRNA expressing cells. Taken together, these data support a primary role for KIF1A in the anterograde transport of DCVs in mammalian neurons, and also provide evidence that KIF1A remains associated with DCVs during retrograde DCV transport. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Na+-independent and nonstereospecific transport of 2-hydroxy 4-methylthiobutanoic acid by brush border membrane vesicles from chick small intestine.

    PubMed

    Brachet, P; Puigserver, A

    1989-01-01

    1. The transport of L- and DL-2-hydroxy 4-methylthiobutanoic acid (HMB), the methionine hydroxy analogue, by brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from chick small intestine was the sum of a saturable Michaelian component and a diffusive term. 2. Unlike that of L- and DL-MET, uptake was Na+-independent and electroneutral. 3. The inhibition of L-HMB transport by L-lactate, a structural analogue, and D-HMB as well, was of the competitive type. 4. Preloading of BBMV with D-HMB but not with L-lactate or L-MET trans-stimulated the influx of labelled L-HMB. 5. HMB uptake by rat and chick intestinal BBMV exhibited similar characteristics but the chick nonstereospecific transport system appeared to be unable to carry out L-lactate translocation.

  12. Presynaptic malfunction: the neurotoxic effects of cadmium and lead on the proton gradient of synaptic vesicles and glutamate transport.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Kasatkina, Ludmila; Borysov, Arseniy; Griffin, Susan; Wireman, Mike

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) has neurotoxic consequences for human health and may cause neurodegeneration. The study focused on the analysis of the presynaptic mechanisms underlying the neurotoxic effects of non-essential heavy metals Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). It was shown that the preincubation of rat brain nerve terminals with Cd(2+) (200 μM) or Pb(2+) (200 μM) resulted in the attenuation of synaptic vesicles acidification, which was assessed by the steady state level of the fluorescence of pH-sensitive dye acridine orange. A decrease in L-[(14)C]glutamate accumulation in digitonin-permeabilized synaptosomes after the addition of the metals, which reflected lowered L-[(14)C]glutamate accumulation by synaptic vesicles inside of synaptosomes, may be considered in the support of the above data. Using isolated rat brain synaptic vesicles, it was found that 50 μM Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) caused dissipation of their proton gradient, whereas the application of essential heavy metal Mn(2+) did not do it within the range of the concentration of 50-500 μM. Thus, synaptic malfunction associated with the influence of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) may result from partial dissipation of the synaptic vesicle proton gradient that leads to: (1) a decrease in stimulated exocytosis, which is associated not only with the blockage of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, but also with incomplete filling of synaptic vesicles; (2) an attenuation of Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. pH gradient effects on chloride transport across basolateral membrane vesicles from guinea-pig jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Touzani, K; Alvarado, F; Vasseur, M

    1997-01-01

    1. The effects of alkaline-inside pH gradients on 36Cl- uptake were quantified by using brush-border membrane (BBM) and basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles from guinea-pig jejunum. 2. With BBM vesicles, a pHo/pHi gradient of 5.0/7.5 yielded fast overshoots involving a random, non-obligatory Cl(-)-H+ symport, strongly inhibited by CCCP. In contrast, BLM vesicles responded to similar pH gradients with much smaller, delayed overshoots, unaffected by CCCP. 3. The initial Cl- entry rates into BLM vesicles were a function of each pHo, pHi and delta pH value. They were stimulated by valinomycin in the presence of inward-directed K+ gradients. Short-circuiting the membrane potential with equilibrated K+ and valinomycin inhibited pH gradient-dependent Cl- uptake, but only partially. 4. Taken together, these results indicate that guinea-pig jejunal BLM vesicles possess both Cl- conductance and Cl(-)-H+ symport activities. 5. Even when different, the BBM and the BLM symporters are mechanistically similar. Neither of them involves a Cl(-)-OH- antiport, nor a simultaneous Cl(-)-anion exchange mechanism. Rather, for each membrane, all of these activities (symport, anion exchange) can be explained in terms of a single mobile carrier acting as a random, non-obligatory Cl(-)-H+ symporter where exchange occurs simply by counterflow. Net Cl- translocation via either the ternary (Cl(-)-C-H+) or the binary (Cl(-)-C) complexes accounts, respectively, for the existence of two, operationally distinct, electroneutral and rheogenic components. 6. The BBM symporter appears to involve an AE2 protein, but the molecular identity of the BLM one remains to be established. PMID:9147326

  14. AP-3 and Rabip4’ Coordinately Regulate Spatial Distribution of Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ivan, Viorica; Martinez-Sanchez, Emma; Sima, Livia E.; Oorschot, Viola; Klumperman, Judith; Petrescu, Stefana M.; van der Sluijs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The RUN and FYVE domain proteins rabip4 and rabip4’ are encoded by RUFY1 and differ in a 108 amino acid N-terminal extension in rabip4’. Their identical C terminus binds rab5 and rab4, but the function of rabip4s is incompletely understood. We here found that silencing RUFY1 gene products promoted outgrowth of plasma membrane protrusions, and polarized distribution and clustering of lysosomes at their tips. An interactor screen for proteins that function together with rabip4’ yielded the adaptor protein complex AP-3, of which the hinge region in the β3 subunit bound directly to the FYVE domain of rabip4’. Rabip4’ colocalized with AP-3 on a tubular subdomain of early endosomes and the extent of colocalization was increased by a dominant negative rab4 mutant. Knock-down of AP-3 had an ever more dramatic effect and caused accumulation of lysosomes in protrusions at the plasma membrane. The most peripheral lysosomes were localized beyond microtubules, within the cortical actin network. Our results uncover a novel function for AP-3 and rabip4’ in regulating lysosome positioning through an interorganellar pathway. PMID:23144738

  15. Compartmentation of malic acid in mesophyll cells of Kalanchoee daigremontiana: indications of a intracellular cytosolic vesicle transport mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Balsamo, R.A.; Uribe, E.G.

    1987-04-01

    Leaf tissue was harvested over a 24hr period at one to three hour intervals. The malic acid levels in the tissue were assayed spectrophotometrically and the percent cell volume occupied by cytosolic vesicles in replicate samples was determined. The total volume of the cytosolic vesicles fluctuated throughout the photoperiod concommitantly with malic acid concentrations present in the tissue. An intact leaf tissue section (10.2cm/sup 2/) was radiolabeled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ seven hours into the dark period for thirty minutes. Two dimensional thin layer chromatography and electrophoresis of the tissue determined that 96% of the label was incorporated into malic acid. A freeze substitution procedure was initiated followed by microautoradiography (Fisher 1971) which allowed for the tracing of intracellular malic acid migration and compartmentation within the mesophyll cells. The results and interpretation of this experiment will be presented.

  16. Linking cytoplasmic dynein and transport of Rab8 vesicles to the midbody during cytokinesis by the doublecortin domain-containing 5 protein.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Anna; Reiner, Orly

    2011-12-01

    Completion of mitosis requires microtubule-dependent transport of membranes to the midbody. Here, we identified a role in cytokinesis for doublecortin domain-containing protein 5 (DCDC5), a member of the doublecortin protein superfamily. DCDC5 is a microtubule-associated protein expressed in both specific and dynamic fashions during mitosis. We show that DCDC5 interacts with cytoplasmic dynein and Rab8 (also known as Ras-related protein Rab-8A), as well as with the Rab8 nucleotide exchange factor Rabin8 (also known as Rab-3A-interacting protein). Following DCDC5 knockdown, the durations of the metaphase to anaphase transition and cytokinesis, and the proportion of multinucleated cells increases, whereas cell viability decreases. Furthermore, knockdown of DCDC5 or addition of a dynein inhibitor impairs the entry of Golgi-complex-derived Rab8-positive vesicles to the midbody. These findings suggest that DCDC5 plays an important role in mediating dynein-dependent transport of Rab8-positive vesicles and in coordinating late cytokinesis.

  17. An endosomal syntaxin and the AP-3 complex are required for formation and maturation of candidate lysosome-related secretory organelles (mucocysts) in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harsimran; Sparvoli, Daniela; Osakada, Hiroko; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2017-06-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila synthesizes large secretory vesicles called mucocysts. Mucocyst biosynthesis shares features with dense core granules (DCGs) in animal cells, including proteolytic processing of cargo proteins during maturation. However, other molecular features have suggested relatedness to lysosome-related organelles (LROs). LROs, which include diverse organelles in animals, are formed via convergence of secretory and endocytic trafficking. Here we analyzed Tetrahymena syntaxin 7-like 1 (Stx7l1p), a Qa-SNARE whose homologues in other lineages are linked with vacuoles/LROs. Stx7l1p is targeted to both immature and mature mucocysts and is essential in mucocyst formation. In STX7L1-knockout cells, the two major classes of mucocyst cargo proteins localize independently, accumulating in largely nonoverlapping vesicles. Thus initial formation of immature mucocysts involves heterotypic fusion, in which a subset of mucocyst proteins is delivered via an endolysosomal compartment. Further, we show that subsequent maturation requires AP-3, a complex widely implicated in LRO formation. Knockout of the µ-subunit gene does not impede delivery of any known mucocyst cargo but nonetheless arrests mucocyst maturation. Our data argue that secretory organelles in ciliates may represent a new class of LROs and reveal key roles of an endosomal syntaxin and AP-3 in the assembly of this complex compartment. © 2017 Kaur et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Fast sampling, rapid filtration apparatus: principal characteristics and validation from studies of D-glucose transport in human jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Berteloot, A; Malo, C; Breton, S; Brunette, M

    1991-06-01

    Kinetic data in (brush-border) membrane vesicles which rely on the validity of the initial rate assumption for their interpretation and depend on tracer flux studies using the rapid filtration technique for their experimental measurement have been limited to some extent by the absence of techniques that would allow for real-time data analysis. In this paper, we report on our successful design of a fast sampling, rapid filtration apparatus (FSRFA) which seems to fill up this technical gap since showing the following characteristics: (i) rapid injection (5 msec) and mixing (less than 100 msec) of small amounts of vesicles (10-40 microliters) with an incubation medium (0.2-1.0 ml); (ii) fast (20 to 80 msec depending on the sample volume) and multiple (up to 18 samples at a maximal rate of 4 sec) sampling of the uptake mixture followed by rapid quenching in the stop solution (approximately 5 msec) according to a predetermined time schedule (any time combination from 0.25 to 9999 sec); and (iii) fast, automated, and sampling-synchronized filtration and washings of the quenched uptake medium (only 15-20 sec are necessary for the first filtration followed by two washings and extra filtrations). As demonstrated using adult human jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles and Na(+)-D-glucose cotransport as models, the FSRFA accurately reproduces the manual aspects of the rapid filtration technique while allowing for very precise initial rate determinations. Moreover, the FSRFA has also been designed to provide as much versatility as possible and, in its present version, allows for a very precise control of the incubation temperature and also permits a few efflux protocols to be performed. Finally, its modular design, which separates the fast sampling unit from the rapid filtration device, should help in extending its use to fields other than transport measurement.

  19. Immunological Evidence for the Existence of a Carrier Protein for Sucrose Transport in Tonoplast Vesicles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Root Storage Tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Getz, H. P.; Grosclaude, J.; Kurkdjian, A.; Lelievre, F.; Maretzki, A.; Guern, J.

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised in mice against a highly purified tonoplast fraction from isolated red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) root vacuoles. Positive hybridoma clones and sub-clones were identified by prescreening using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by postscreening using a functional assay. This functional assay consisted of testing the impact of hybridoma supernatants and antibody-containing ascites fluids on basal and ATP-stimulated sugar uptake in vacuoles, isolated from protoplasts, as well as in tonoplast vesicles, prepared from tissue homogenates of red beet roots. Antibodies from four clones were particularly positive in ELISAs and they inhibited sucrose uptake significantly. These antibodies were specific inhibitors of sucrose transport, but they exhibited relatively low membrane and species specificity since uptake into red beet root protoplasts and sugarcane tonoplast vesicles was inhibited as well. Fast protein liquid chromatography assisted size exclusion chromatography on Superose 6 columns yielded two major peaks in the 55 to 65-kD regions and in the 110- to 130-kD regions of solubilized proteins from red beet root tonoplasts, which reacted positively in immunoglobulin-M(IgM)-specific ELISAs with anti-sugarcane tonoplast monoclonal IgM antibodies. Only reconstituted proteoliposomes containing polypeptides from the 55- to 65-kD band took up [14C]-sucrose with linear rates for 2 min, suggesting that this fraction contains the tonoplast sucrose carrier. PMID:12231863

  20. Ca2+ transport and heat production in vesicles derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae: regulation by K+.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Mariana; Arruda, Ana Paula; de Meis, Leopoldo

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we compared the effect of K+ on vesicles derived from the longitudinal (LSR) and terminal cisternae (HSR) of rabbit white muscle. In HSR, K+ was found to inhibit both the Ca2+ accumulation and the heat released during ATP hydrolysis by the Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). This was not observed in LSR. Valinomycin abolished the HSR Ca2+-uptake inhibition promoted by physiological K+ concentrations, but it did not modify the thermogenic activity of the Ca2+ pump. The results with HSR are difficult to interpret, assuming that a single K+ is binding to either the ryanodine channel or to the Ca2+-ATPase. It is suggested that an increase of K+ in the assay medium alters the interactions among the various proteins found in HSR, thus modifying the properties of both the ryanodine channel and SERCA1.

  1. Controlled enlargement of the glycoprotein vesicle surrounding a volvox embryo requires the InvB nucleotide-sugar transporter and is required for normal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Noriko; Nishii, Ichiro

    2009-04-01

    Here, we report our analysis of a mutant of Volvox carteri, InvB, whose embryos fail to execute inversion, the process in which each Volvox embryo normally turns itself inside-out at the end of embryogenesis, thereby achieving the adult configuration. The invB gene encodes a nucleotide-sugar transporter that exhibits GDP-mannose transport activity when expressed in yeast. In wild-type embryos, the invB transcript is maximally abundant before and during inversion. A mannoside probe (fluorescent concanavalin A) stains the glycoprotein-rich gonidial vesicle (GV) surrounding wild-type embryos much more strongly than it stains the GV surrounding InvB embryos. Direct measurements revealed that throughout embryogenesis the GV surrounding a wild-type embryo increases in size much more than the GV surrounding an InvB embryo does, and the fully cleaved InvB embryo is much more tightly packed within its GV than a wild-type embryo is. To test the hypothesis that the restraint imposed by a smaller than normal GV directly causes the inversion defect in the mutant, we released InvB embryos from their GVs microsurgically. The resulting embryos inverted normally, demonstrating that controlled enlargement of the GV, by a process in which requires the InvB nucleotide-sugar transporter, is essential to provide the embryo sufficient space to complete inversion.

  2. Nuclear transport of cancer extracellular vesicle-derived biomaterials through nuclear envelope invagination-associated late endosomes.

    PubMed

    Rappa, Germana; Santos, Mark F; Green, Toni M; Karbanová, Jana; Hassler, Justin; Bai, Yongsheng; Barsky, Sanford H; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2017-02-28

    Extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) function as vehicles of intercellular communication, but how the biomaterials they carry reach the target site in recipient cells is an open question. We report that subdomains of Rab7+ late endosomes and nuclear envelope invaginations come together to create a sub-nuclear compartment, where biomaterials associated with CD9+ EVs are delivered. EV-derived biomaterials were also found in the nuclei of host cells. The inhibition of nuclear import and export pathways abrogated the nuclear localization of EV-derived biomaterials or led to their accumulation therein, respectively, suggesting that their translocation is dependent on nuclear pores. Nuclear envelope invagination-associated late endosomes were observed in ex vivo biopsies in both breast carcinoma and associated stromal cells. The transcriptome of stromal cells exposed to cancer cell-derived CD9+ EVs revealed that the regulation of eleven genes, notably those involved in inflammation, relies on the nuclear translocation of EV-derived biomaterials. Our findings uncover a new cellular pathway used by EVs to reach nuclear compartment.

  3. Nuclear transport of cancer extracellular vesicle-derived biomaterials through nuclear envelope invagination-associated late endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Rappa, Germana; Santos, Mark F.; Green, Toni M.; Karbanová, Jana; Hassler, Justin; Bai, Yongsheng; Barsky, Sanford H.; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) function as vehicles of intercellular communication, but how the biomaterials they carry reach the target site in recipient cells is an open question. We report that subdomains of Rab7+ late endosomes and nuclear envelope invaginations come together to create a sub-nuclear compartment, where biomaterials associated with CD9+ EVs are delivered. EV-derived biomaterials were also found in the nuclei of host cells. The inhibition of nuclear import and export pathways abrogated the nuclear localization of EV-derived biomaterials or led to their accumulation therein, respectively, suggesting that their translocation is dependent on nuclear pores. Nuclear envelope invagination-associated late endosomes were observed in ex vivo biopsies in both breast carcinoma and associated stromal cells. The transcriptome of stromal cells exposed to cancer cell-derived CD9+ EVs revealed that the regulation of eleven genes, notably those involved in inflammation, relies on the nuclear translocation of EV-derived biomaterials. Our findings uncover a new cellular pathway used by EVs to reach nuclear compartment. PMID:28129640

  4. Leucine transport is affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins in brush border membrane vesicles from Ostrinia nubilalis Hb (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) midgut.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M Giovanna; Caccia, Silvia; González-Cabrera, Joel; Ferré, Juan; Giordana, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The pore-forming activity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Fa and Cry1Ca toxins and their interaction with leucine transport mediated by the K(+)/leucine cotransporter were studied in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) isolated from the midgut of Ostrinia nubilalis and Sesamia nonagrioides. In both species, as in other Lepidoptera, leucine uptake by BBMVs can take place in the absence of cations, but it can also be driven by a K(+) gradient. Experiments with the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide proved that Cry1Ab, a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin active in vivo, enhanced the membrane permeability to potassium in O. nubilalis BBMVs. This result is in agreement with similar effects observed in S. nonagrioides BBMV incubated with various Cry1 toxins active in vivo. The effect of the above toxins was tested on the initial rate of 0.1 mM: leucine influx. Instead of an increase in leucine influx, a reduction was observed with the Cry1 toxins active in vivo. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa, but not the inactive toxin Cry1Da, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner leucine uptake both in the absence and in the presence of a K(+) gradient, a clear indication that their effect is independent of the channel formed by the toxins and that this effect is exerted directly on the amino acid transport system.

  5. BLOC-1 Interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 Complex to Facilitate Protein Trafficking on Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietro, Santiago M.; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M.; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba R.G.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graça

    2006-01-01

    The adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex is a component of the cellular machinery that controls protein sorting from endosomes to lysosomes and specialized related organelles such as melanosomes. Mutations in an AP-3 subunit underlie a form of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a disorder characterized by abnormalities in lysosome-related organelles. HPS in humans can also be caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of three complexes of unclear function, named biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, -2, and -3. Here, we report that BLOC-1 interacts physically and functionally with AP-3 to facilitate the trafficking of a known AP-3 cargo, CD63, and of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), a melanosomal membrane protein previously thought to traffic only independently of AP-3. BLOC-1 also interacts with BLOC-2 to facilitate Tyrp1 trafficking by a mechanism apparently independent of AP-3 function. Both BLOC-1 and -2 localize mainly to early endosome-associated tubules as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. These findings support the idea that BLOC-1 and -2 represent hitherto unknown components of the endosomal protein trafficking machinery. PMID:16837549

  6. BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex to facilitate protein trafficking on endosomes.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Santiago M; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba R G; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2006-09-01

    The adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex is a component of the cellular machinery that controls protein sorting from endosomes to lysosomes and specialized related organelles such as melanosomes. Mutations in an AP-3 subunit underlie a form of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a disorder characterized by abnormalities in lysosome-related organelles. HPS in humans can also be caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of three complexes of unclear function, named biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, -2, and -3. Here, we report that BLOC-1 interacts physically and functionally with AP-3 to facilitate the trafficking of a known AP-3 cargo, CD63, and of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), a melanosomal membrane protein previously thought to traffic only independently of AP-3. BLOC-1 also interacts with BLOC-2 to facilitate Tyrp1 trafficking by a mechanism apparently independent of AP-3 function. Both BLOC-1 and -2 localize mainly to early endosome-associated tubules as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. These findings support the idea that BLOC-1 and -2 represent hitherto unknown components of the endosomal protein trafficking machinery.

  7. Improved Pharmacological and Structural Properties of HIV Fusion Inhibitor AP3 over Enfuvirtide: Highlighting Advantages of Artificial Peptide Strategy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Yun; Ye, Sheng; ...

    2015-08-19

    Enfuvirtide (T20), is the first HIV fusion inhibitor approved for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, its clinical application is limited because of short half-life, drug resistance and cross-reactivity with the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients. Using an artificial peptide strategy, we designed a peptide with non-native protein sequence, AP3, which exhibited potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains, including those resistant to T20, and had remarkably longer in vivo half-life than T20. While the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients significantly suppressed T20’s antiviral activity, these antibodies neither recognizedmore » AP3, nor attenuated its anti-HIV-1 activity. Structurally different from T20, AP3 could fold into single-helix and interact with gp41 NHR. The two residues, Met and Thr, at the N-terminus of AP3 form a hook-like structure to stabilize interaction between AP3 and NHR helices. Therefore, AP3 has potential for further development as a new HIV fusion inhibitor with improved antiviral efficacy, resistance profile and pharmacological properties over enfuvirtide. Meanwhile, this study highlighted the advantages of artificially designed peptides, and confirmed that this strategy could be used in developing artificial peptide-based viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses.« less

  8. Identification of a homozygous deletion in the AP3B1 gene causing Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, type 2.

    PubMed

    Jung, Johannes; Bohn, Georg; Allroth, Anna; Boztug, Kaan; Brandes, Gudrun; Sandrock, Inga; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Rathinam, Chozhavendan; Köllner, Inga; Beger, Carmela; Schilke, Reinhard; Welte, Karl; Grimbacher, Bodo; Klein, Christoph

    2006-07-01

    We report on the molecular etiology of an unusual clinical phenotype associating congenital neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, developmental delay, and hypopigmentation. Using genetic linkage analysis and targeted gene sequencing, we defined a homozygous genomic deletion in AP3B1, the gene encoding the beta chain of the adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex. The mutation leads to in-frame skipping of exon 15 and thus perturbs proper assembly of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. Consequently, trafficking of transmembrane lysosomal proteins is aberrant, as shown for CD63. In basal keratinocytes, the incorporated immature melanosomes were rapidly degraded in large phagolysosomes. Despite distinct ultramorphologic changes suggestive of aberrant vesicular maturation, no functional aberrations were detected in neutrophil granulocytes. However, a comprehensive immunologic assessment revealed that natural killer (NK) and NKT-cell numbers were reduced in AP-3-deficient patients. Our findings extend the clinical and molecular phenotype of human AP-3 deficiency (also known as Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, type 2) and provide further insights into the role of the AP-3 complex for the innate immune system.

  9. Poking Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas R.; Huber, Greg; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2000-03-01

    Lipid vesicles can exhibit a variety of interesting shapes when subject to point forcing, as has been demonstrated with laser-tweezed beads and with growing microtubules. Using numerical and analytic techniques, we study the force vs. extension in two regimes. At low forces, the resistance to deformation is primarily entropic, with a tension given by the fluctuating bending modes. At high forces, the thermal wrinkles are smoothed out, and there is bending and stretching which balance in a thin tether, which we treat using boundary-layer techniques. This work was supported in part by the Harvard MRSEC and Army Research Office Grant DAA655-97-1-014 (TRP) and NSF DMR9812526 (GH & REG).

  10. The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the IIIA lineage.

    PubMed

    Roszniowski, Bartosz; Latka, Agnieszka; Maciejewska, Barbara; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Olszak, Tomasz; Briers, Yves; Holt, Giles S; Valvano, Miguel A; Lavigne, Rob; Smith, Darren L; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-02-01

    Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 % homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus. The AP3 and KS5 lysis genes have conserved locations and high amino acid sequence similarity. The AP3 bacteriophage particles remain infective up to 5 h at pH 4-10 and are stable at 60 °C for 30 min, but are sensitive to chloroform, with no remaining infective particles after 24 h of treatment. AP3 lysogeny can occur by stable genomic integration and by pseudo-lysogeny. The lysogenic bacterial mutants did not exhibit any significant changes in virulence compared to wild-type host strain when tested in the Galleria mellonella moth wax model. Moreover, AP3 treatment of larvae infected with B. cenocepacia revealed a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in larvae survival in comparison to AP3-untreated infected larvae. AP3 showed robust lytic activity, as evidenced by its broad host range, the absence of increased virulence in lysogenic isolates, the lack of bacterial gene disruption conditioned by bacterial tRNA downstream integration site, and the absence of detected toxin sequences. These data suggest that the AP3 phage is a promising potent agent against bacteria belonging to the most common B. cenocepacia IIIA lineage strains.

  11. Preparation of Membrane Vesicles Enriched in ATP-Dependent Proton Transport from Suspension Cultures of Tomato Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Frances M.; Zabala, Maria De Gracia

    1985-01-01

    Membranes enriched in ATP-dependent proton transport were prepared from suspension cultures of tomato cells (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv VF36). Suspension cultures were a source of large quantities of membranes from rapidly growing, undifferentiated cells. Proton transport activity was assayed as quench of acridine orange fluorescence. The activity of the proton translocating ATPase and of several other membrane enzymes was measured as a function of the cell culture cycle. The relative distribution of the enzymes between the 3,000, 10,000, and 100,000g pellets remained the same throughout the cell culture cycle, but yield of total activity and activity per gram fresh weight with time had a unique profile for each enzyme tested. Maximal yield of the proton translocating ATPase activity was obtained from cells in the middle logarithmic phase of growth, and from 50 to 90% of the activity was found in the 10,000g pellet. The proton translocating ATPase activity was separable from NADPH cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase on a sucrose gradient. Proton transport activity had a broad pH optimum (7.0-8.0), was stimulated by KCl with a Km of 5 to 10 millimolar, stimulation being due to the anion, Cl−, and not the cation, K+, and was not inhibited by vanadate, but was inhibited by NO3−. The activity is tentatively identified as the tonoplast ATPase. PMID:16664030

  12. Mechanisms of COPI vesicle formation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Victor W.; Yang, Jia-Shu

    2009-01-01

    Coat Protein I (COPI) is one of the most intensely investigated coat complexes. Numerous studies have contributed to a general understanding of how coat proteins act to initiate intracellular vesicular transport. This review highlights key recent findings that have shaped our current understanding of how COPI vesicles are formed. PMID:19854177

  13. Functional studies of P-glycoprotein in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles derived from murine erythroleukemia cells overexpressing MDR 3. Properties and kinetics of the interaction of vinblastine with P-glycoprotein and evidence for its active mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, S R; Sirotnak, F M

    1994-12-09

    Active [3H]vinblastine (VBL) transport (efflux) was documented for inside-out plasma membrane vesicles from murine erythroleukemia cells (MEL/VCR-6) resistant to vinca alkaloids and overexpressing MDR 3 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) 80-fold. Uptake of [3H]VBL at 37 degrees C by these inside-out vesicles, but not rightside-out vesicles or inside-out vesicles from wild-type cells, was obtained in the form of a rapid, initial phase (0-1 min) and a slower, later phase (> 1 min). The rapidity of each phase correlated with relative P-gp content among different MEL/VCR cell lines. The initial MDR-specific phase was temperature- and pH-dependent (optimum at pH 7), osmotically insensitive, and did not require ATP. The second MDR-specific phase was temperature-dependent, osmotically sensitive, and strictly dependent upon the presence of ATP (Km = 0.37 +/- 0.04 mM). Although other triphosphate nucleotides were partially effective in replacing ATP, the nonhydrolyzable analogue ATP gamma S (adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate)) was ineffective. This time course appears to represent tandem binding of [3H]VBL by P-gp and its mediated transport, with the latter process representing the rate-limiting step. In support of this conclusion, both binding and transport were inhibited by verapamil, quinidine, and reserpine, all known to be inhibitors of photoaffinity labeling of P-gp, but only transport was inhibited by C219 anti-P-gp antibody or orthovanadate. Although the rate of transport of [3H]VBL was 7-7.5-fold lower than the rate of binding (Vmax = 104 +/- 15 pmol/min/mg protein, Kon = 1.5 - 2 x 10(5) mol-1 s-1) to P-gp, each phase exhibited saturation kinetics and values for apparent Km and KD for each process were approximately the same (215 +/- 35 and 195 +/- 30 nM). Intravesicular accumulation of [3H]VBL was almost completely eliminated by high concentrations of nonradioactive VBL, suggesting that simple diffusion does not contribute appreciably to total accumulation of [3H]VBL in this

  14. Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein 3 (VAMP3) Mediates Constitutive Trafficking of the Renal Co-transporter NKCC2 in Thick Ascending Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Paulo S.; Mendez, Mariela; Haque, Mohammed Z.; Ortiz, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Renal cells of the thick ascending limb (TAL) reabsorb NaCl via the apical Na+/K+/2Cl− co-transporter NKCC2. Trafficking of NKCC2 to the apical surface regulates NKCC2-mediated NaCl absorption and blood pressure. The molecular mechanisms by which NKCC2 reaches the apical surface and their role in renal function and maintenance of blood pressure are poorly characterized. Here we report that NKCC2 interacts with the vesicle fusion protein VAMP3, and they co-localize at the TAL apical surface. We observed that silencing VAMP3 in vivo blocks constitutive NKCC2 exocytic delivery, decreasing the amount of NKCC2 at the TAL apical surface. VAMP3 is not required for cAMP-stimulated NKCC2 exocytic delivery. Additionally, genetic deletion of VAMP3 in mice decreased total expression of NKCC2 in the TAL and lowered blood pressure. Consistent with these results, urinary excretion of water and electrolytes was higher in VAMP3 knock-out mice, which produced more diluted urine. We conclude that VAMP3 interacts with NKCC2 and mediates its constitutive exocytic delivery to the apical surface. Additionally, VAMP3 is required for normal NKCC2 expression, renal function, and blood pressure. PMID:27551042

  15. Involvement of vH+-ATPase in synaptic vesicle swelling

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Leah; Basi, Nirukti; Jeremic, Aleksandar; Lee, Jin-Sook; Cho, Won Jin; Chen, ZhiHui; Abu-Hamdah, Rania; Oupicky, David; Jena, Bhanu P

    2010-01-01

    Secretory vesicle swelling is central to cell secretion, however the underlying mechanism of vesicle swelling, particularly synaptic vesicles, is not completely understood. The Gαi3-PLA2-mediated involvement of water channel AQP-1 in the regulation of secretory vesicle swelling in exocrine pancreas, and the Gαo-mediated AQP-6 involvement in synaptic vesicle swelling in neurons, has previously been reported. Furthermore, the role of vH+-ATPase in neurotransmitter transport into synaptic vesicles, has also been shown. Using nanometer scale precision measurements of isolated synaptic vesicles, the present study reports for the first time, the involvement of vH+-ATPase in GTP-Gαo-mediated synaptic vesicle swelling. Results from this study, demonstrate that the GTP-Gαo-mediated vesicle swelling is vH+-ATPase–dependent, and pH sensitive. Zeta potential measurements of isolated synaptic vesicles further demonstrate, a bafilomycin-sensitive vesicle acidification, following the GTP-Gαo-induced swelling stimulus. Since water channels are bidirectional, and the vH+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin decreases both the volume of isolated synaptic vesicles and GTP-mastoparan stimulated swelling, suggests vH+-ATPase to be upstream of AQP-6, in the pathway leading from Gαo-stimulated swelling of synaptic vesicles. Vesicle acidification is therefore a prerequisite for AQP-6 mediated gating of water into synaptic vesicles. PMID:19610106

  16. The transmembrane pH gradient drives uphill folate transport in rabbit jejunum. Direct evidence for folate/hydroxyl exchange in brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Schron, C M; Washington, C; Blitzer, B L

    1985-01-01

    In rabbit jejunal, but not ileal brush border membrane vesicles, an outwardly directed OH- gradient (pH 7.7 inside, pH 5.5 outside) markedly stimulated the initial velocity of folate (0.1 microM) uptake compared with uptake in the absence of a pH gradient. Under pH gradient conditions, folate was transiently accumulated at a concentration four times that found at equilibrium (over-shoot), implying uphill transport of the vitamin. Equilibrium folate uptake was inversely proportional to medium osmolality, suggesting uptake into an osmotically sensitive space. pH gradient-stimulated folate uptake was markedly reduced by inhibitors of anion exchange (4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene; 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid; furosemide), and was saturable (folate Km = 0.19 +/- 0.02 microM; Vmax = 12.8 +/- 0.4 pmol X mg protein-1 X min-1). Imposition of an inside-positive electrical potential did not stimulate folate uptake, suggesting that stimulation by a pH gradient was not due to an induced electrical potential. In contrast, an inwardly directed Na+ or K+ gradient did not stimulate folate uptake. These findings provide evidence for a carrier on the jejunal brush border membrane that mediates folate/OH- exchange (or H+/folate co-transport), and are consonant with the known presence of an outwardly directed OH- gradient in vivo (brush border acid microclimate), an acidic pH optimum for intestinal folate uptake, and the primary role of the jejunum in folate absorption. PMID:4056063

  17. Functions of Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in Tyrosinase Sorting from Endosomes to MelanosomesD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Theos, Alexander C.; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A.; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Cutler, Daniel F.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graça

    2005-01-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies. PMID:16162817

  18. Fluconazole transport into Candida albicans secretory vesicles by the membrane proteins Cdr1p, Cdr2p, and Mdr1p.

    PubMed

    Basso, Luiz R; Gast, Charles E; Mao, Yuxin; Wong, Brian

    2010-06-01

    A major cause of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and/or MDR1, which encode plasma membrane efflux pumps. To analyze the catalytic properties of these pumps, we used ACT1- and GAL1-regulated expression plasmids to overexpress CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 in a C. albicans cdr1 cdr2 mdr1-null mutant. When the genes of interest were expressed, the resulting transformants were more resistant to multiple azole antifungals, and accumulated less [(3)H]fluconazole intracellularly, than empty-vector controls. Next, we used a GAL1-regulated dominant negative sec4 allele to cause cytoplasmic accumulation of post-Golgi secretory vesicles (PGVs), and we found that PGVs isolated from CDR1-, CDR2-, or MDR1-overexpressing cells accumulated much more [(3)H]fluconazole than did PGVs from empty-vector controls. The K(m)s (expressed in micromolar concentrations) and V(max)s (expressed in picomoles per milligram of protein per minute), respectively, for [(3)H]fluconazole transport were 0.8 and 0.91 for Cdr1p, 4.3 and 0.52 for Cdr2p, and 3.5 and 0.59 for Mdr1p. [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Cdr1p and Cdr2p required ATP and was unaffected by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Mdr1p did not require ATP and was inhibited by CCCP. [(3)H]fluconazole uptake by all 3 pumps was inhibited by all other azoles tested, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s; expressed as proportions of the [(3)H]fluconazole concentration) of 0.2 to 5.6 for Cdr1p, 0.3 to 3.1 for Cdr2p, and 0.3 to 3.1 for Mdr1p. The methods used in this study may also be useful for studying other plasma membrane transporters in C. albicans and other medically important fungi.

  19. Fluconazole Transport into Candida albicans Secretory Vesicles by the Membrane Proteins Cdr1p, Cdr2p, and Mdr1p ▿

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Luiz R.; Gast, Charles E.; Mao, Yuxin; Wong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major cause of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and/or MDR1, which encode plasma membrane efflux pumps. To analyze the catalytic properties of these pumps, we used ACT1- and GAL1-regulated expression plasmids to overexpress CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 in a C. albicans cdr1 cdr2 mdr1-null mutant. When the genes of interest were expressed, the resulting transformants were more resistant to multiple azole antifungals, and accumulated less [3H]fluconazole intracellularly, than empty-vector controls. Next, we used a GAL1-regulated dominant negative sec4 allele to cause cytoplasmic accumulation of post-Golgi secretory vesicles (PGVs), and we found that PGVs isolated from CDR1-, CDR2-, or MDR1-overexpressing cells accumulated much more [3H]fluconazole than did PGVs from empty-vector controls. The Kms (expressed in micromolar concentrations) and Vmaxs (expressed in picomoles per milligram of protein per minute), respectively, for [3H]fluconazole transport were 0.8 and 0.91 for Cdr1p, 4.3 and 0.52 for Cdr2p, and 3.5 and 0.59 for Mdr1p. [3H]fluconazole transport by Cdr1p and Cdr2p required ATP and was unaffected by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas [3H]fluconazole transport by Mdr1p did not require ATP and was inhibited by CCCP. [3H]fluconazole uptake by all 3 pumps was inhibited by all other azoles tested, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s; expressed as proportions of the [3H]fluconazole concentration) of 0.2 to 5.6 for Cdr1p, 0.3 to 3.1 for Cdr2p, and 0.3 to 3.1 for Mdr1p. The methods used in this study may also be useful for studying other plasma membrane transporters in C. albicans and other medically important fungi. PMID:20348384

  20. Role of calcium in phosphoinositide metabolism and inhibition of norepinephrine transport into synaptic vesicles by amphetamine analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Knepper, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Norepinephrine-(NE) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated phosphoinositide (PIn) metabolism in rat brain slices was studied under varying calcium conditions. Tissue was labelled with /sup 3/H-myo-inositol and /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates (IPn), products of PIn metabolism were measured. In the absence of media calcium the response to NE was decreased while that to A23187 was little affected A23187 can release calcium from intracellular stores. Basal and stimulated accumulation of /sup 3/H-IPn was reversibly antagonized with EGTA by addition of calcium. Using calcium buffers, approximately 10/sup -7/ M free calcium was required to support hydrolysis. Free intracellular calcium is maintained at approximately this level. Thus calcium is required for PIn hydrolysis but appears to play a permissive role, basal levels being sufficient to support metabolism. Conformationally-defined (rigid) and -restricted (semi-rigid) analogs of the most stable conformations of amphetamine, antiperiplanar (exo) and gauche (endo), were utilized to probe the conformational requirements of vesicular NE transport. Analogs tested were 2-aminotetralin (2AT), 3-methyltetrahydroisoquinoline, anti- and syn-9-aminobenzobicyclo(2.2.1)heptene, and endo and exo conformers of 2-aminobenzobicyclo(2.2.1)heptene and 2-aminobenzobicyclo(2.2.2)octene.

  1. Loss of cortical actin filaments in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells impairs GLUT4 vesicle trafficking and glucose transport

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Alicia M.; Spisak, Kristen O.; Brozinick, Joseph T.; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Study has demonstrated an essential role of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) in insulin-regulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Here, we tested whether perturbations in F-actin contributed to impaired insulin responsiveness provoked by hyperinsulinemia. In L6 myo-tubes stably expressing GLUT4 that carries an exofacial myc-epitope tag, acute insulin stimulation (20 min, 100 nM) increased GLUT4myc translocation and glucose uptake by ~2-fold. In contrast, a hyperinsulinemic state, induced by inclusion of 5 nM insulin in the medium for 12 h decreased the ability of insulin to stimulate these processes. Defects in insulin signaling did not readily account for the observed disruption. In contrast, hyperinsulinemia reduced cortical F-actin. This occurred concomitant with a loss of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a lipid involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Restoration of plasma membrane PIP2 in hyperinsulinemic cells restored F-actin and insulin responsiveness. Consistent with these in vitro observations suggesting that the hyperinsulinemic state negatively affects cortical F-actin structure, epitrochlearis skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant hyperinsulinemic Zucker fatty rats displayed a similar loss of F-actin structure compared with that in muscle from lean insulin-sensitive littermates. We propose that a component of insulin-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle involves defects in PIP2/F-actin structure essential for insulin-regulated glucose transport. PMID:16774991

  2. Loss of cortical actin filaments in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells impairs GLUT4 vesicle trafficking and glucose transport.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Alicia M; Spisak, Kristen O; Brozinick, Joseph T; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2006-11-01

    Study has demonstrated an essential role of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) in insulin-regulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Here, we tested whether perturbations in F-actin contributed to impaired insulin responsiveness provoked by hyperinsulinemia. In L6 myotubes stably expressing GLUT4 that carries an exofacial myc-epitope tag, acute insulin stimulation (20 min, 100 nM) increased GLUT4myc translocation and glucose uptake by approximately 2-fold. In contrast, a hyperinsulinemic state, induced by inclusion of 5 nM insulin in the medium for 12 h decreased the ability of insulin to stimulate these processes. Defects in insulin signaling did not readily account for the observed disruption. In contrast, hyperinsulinemia reduced cortical F-actin. This occurred concomitant with a loss of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), a lipid involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Restoration of plasma membrane PIP(2) in hyperinsulinemic cells restored F-actin and insulin responsiveness. Consistent with these in vitro observations suggesting that the hyperinsulinemic state negatively affects cortical F-actin structure, epitrochlearis skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant hyperinsulinemic Zucker fatty rats displayed a similar loss of F-actin structure compared with that in muscle from lean insulin-sensitive littermates. We propose that a component of insulin-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle involves defects in PIP(2)/F-actin structure essential for insulin-regulated glucose transport.

  3. NF-κB signaling and vesicle transport are correlated with the reactivation of the memory trace of morphine dependence.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junyi; Yang, Zhaoyang; Li, Candong; Cai, Meimei; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhang, Qin; Wei, Yiming; Wang, Ting; Liu, Yun

    2014-07-10

    Morphine has been widely used as a clinical anesthetic and analgesic. However, abuse of morphine might result in psychological and physiological dependence. Previous studies have indicated that memory mechanisms play critical roles in morphine dependence. Morphine dependence was established in mice utilizing place preference conditioning (CPP). We observed changes in the methylome and transcriptome of the nucleus accumbens during the reactivation of the memory trace. We also monitored for changes in the methylome and transcriptome of mice that were acutely exposed to morphine. We detected 165 and 18 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 6 and 24 significant methyl-sensitive cut counting (MSCC) windows in the acute morphine treatment and the CPP model, respectively. The changes in the methylome and transcriptome during the acute treatment were mainly caused by a response to the morphine stimulus; most of the DEGs were correlated with hormone or transcription factor activity regulation. The expression levels of Lcn2 and Hspb1, which participate in the activation of NF-κB, were significantly decreased in the CPP morphine treatment model. Besides, the alternative splicing of the curtailed isoform of Caps1 was significantly increased in the CPP morphine-treated group, and the methylation levels of Arf4, Vapa, and Gga3 were decreased. These genes play critical roles in the regulation of the Golgi network. The current study indicates that NF-κB signaling and vesicular transport are correlated with the reactivation of the memory trace in morphine-dependent mice. The results obtained in our study agree with previous observations and identify additional candidate genes for further research. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1196707364133126.

  4. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko; Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G.; Zorec, Robert

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  5. A rare combination of type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) or multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS-3).

    PubMed

    Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Coco, Graziella; Burra, Patrizia

    2014-06-01

    Type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) is defined by the presence of an autoimmune thyroid disease and another autoimmune illness, excluding Addison's disease; this is a frequent combination. We report the case of a 55 years old female patient with APS-3, with seven clinical or latent autoimmune manifestations. At 49 years of age she was admitted at the General Hospital for leukopenia, weight loss, tremors, anxiety and diarrhea. The personal history revealed ulcerative colitis and, during the last year, episodes of fever with migrant arthralgia and cutaneous lesions. The patient was evaluated for thyroid function and imaging, mielobiopsy, glycaemic control, gastrointestinal and rheumatologic disorders with specific biochemical tests, imaging and endoscopic procedures. We concluded that the patient was affected by APS-3, characterized by the association of Graves' disease, autoimmune leukopenia, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA), autoimmune gastritis, ulcerative colitis, Sjögren's and anti-phospholipid syndromes. The patient started low doses of corticosteroid drugs for leukopenia, underwent (131)I therapy for hyperthyroidism and later started substitutive thyroid therapy with l-thyroxine, insulin therapy for LADA, mesalazine for ulcerative colitis and artificial tears for Sjögren's syndrome. In this article we report a complex case of APS-3, characterized by the association of seven different autoimmune diseases, which required a complex therapeutic strategy.

  6. Validation of membrane vesicle-based breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance protein 2 assays to assess drug transport and the potential for drug-drug interaction to support regulatory submissions.

    PubMed

    Elsby, Robert; Smith, Veronica; Fox, Lisa; Stresser, David; Butters, Caroline; Sharma, Pradeep; Surry, Dominic D

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) can play a role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, impacting on the potential for drug-drug interactions. This study has characterized insect cell- and mammalian cell-derived ABC-transporter-expressing membrane vesicle test systems and validated methodologies for evaluation of candidate drugs as substrates or inhibitors of BCRP or MRP2. Concentration-dependent uptake of BCRP ([³H]oestrone 3-sulfate, [³H]methotrexate, [³H]rosuvastatin) and MRP2 ([³H]oestradiol 17β-glucuronide, [³H]pravastatin, carboxydichlorofluorescein) substrates, and inhibitory potencies (IC₅₀) of BCRP (sulfasalazine, novobiocin, fumitremorgin C) and MRP2 (benzbromarone, MK-571, terfenadine) inhibitors were determined. The apparent K(m) for probes [³H]oestrone 3-sulfate and [³H]oestradiol 17β-glucuronide was determined in insect cell vesicles to be 7.4 ± 1.7 and 105 ± 8.3 µM, respectively. All other substrates exhibited significant uptake ratios. Positive control inhibitors sulfasalazine and benzbromarone gave IC₅₀ values of 0.74 ± 0.18 and 36 ± 6.1 µM, respectively. All other inhibitors exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition. There was no significant difference in parameters generated between test systems. On the basis of the validation results, acceptance criteria to identify substrates/inhibitors of BCRP and MRP2 were determined for insect cell vesicles. The approach builds on earlier validations to support drug registration and extends from those cell-based systems to encompass assay formats using membrane vesicles.

  7. Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi- derived COP-coated vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The cycle of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis by a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), helps to provide vectoriality to vesicle transport. Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF hydrolyzes GTP, allowing the uncoated vesicle to fuse. PMID:8253837

  8. Characterization of Alternaria infectoria extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Branca M.A.; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Espadas-Moreno, Javier; Wolf, Julie M.; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Gonçalves, Teresa; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Many fungi use membrane vesicles to transport complex molecules across their cell walls. Like mammalian exosomes, fungal vesicles contain lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides, many of which are associated with virulence. Here we identify and characterize extracellular vesicles (EVs) in Alternaria infectoria, a ubiquitous, environmental filamentous fungus that is also an opportunistic human pathogen. Examination of the A. infectoria EVs revealed a morphology similar to that of vesicles described in other fungal species. Of note, proteomic analysis detected a reduced number of vesicle-associated proteins. There were two prevalent categories among the 20 identified proteins, including the polysaccharide metabolism group, probably related to plant host invasion or biosynthesis/degradation of cell wall components, and the nuclear proteins, especially DNA repair enzymes. We also found enzymes related to pigment synthesis, adhesion to the host cell, and trafficking of vesicles/organelles/molecules. This is the first time EV secretions have been identified in a filamentous fungus. We believe that these vesicles might have a role in virulence. PMID:24576997

  9. The neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine are substrates for the organic cation transporter in renal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sokol, P P; Holohan, P D; Ross, C R

    1987-07-01

    We examined the effects of the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on the transport of the prototypic organic cation, N1-[3H]methylnicotinamide ([3H]NMN), in canine renal brush border membrane vesicles. A dose-response curve for MPTP and its oxidized metabolite, MPP+, revealed IC50 values of 160 and 16 microM, respectively. MPTP (5 mM) and MPP+ (5 mM), maximally inhibited H+-driven NMN (50 microM) uptake by 86.0 and 86.6%, respectively. Additionally, serotonin (0.5 mM) and harmaline (0.5 mM) inhibited NMN transport by 65.8 and 87.1%, respectively. Mepiperphenidol (Darstine) (0.5 mM), a classical organic cation competitor, inhibited NMN transport by 80.6%. However, dopamine (0.5 mM) was not as effective and resulted in only 24.9% inhibition. The cationic specificity was demonstrated by showing that MPP+ and MPTP had no effect on the transport of the organic anion, p-aminohippurate. Additionally, the effect of MPP+ on NMN was not due to either a voltage effect or vesicle disruption. In countertransport studies, MPTP acted as an elicitor of NMN counterflow and produced trans stimulation whereas MPP+ did not and resulted in trans inhibition. Inasmuch as transport involves both binding and translocation we speculate that MPTP binds and is translocated; in contrast MPP+ binds and is not translocated. These reagents may serve as a basis for elucidating the structure-activity requirements of the organic cation/H+ antiporter.

  10. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Granick, Steve

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  12. Na(+)-I- symport activity is present in membrane vesicles from thyrotropin-deprived non-I(-)-transporting cultured thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, S M; Levy, O; Salvador, C; Dai, G; Carrasco, N

    1994-01-01

    The active accumulation of I- in the thyroid gland is mediated by the Na(+)-I- symporter and driven by the Na+ gradient generated by the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Thyrotropin (TSH) stimulates thyroidal I- accumulation. Rat thyroid-derived FRTL-5 cells require TSH to accumulate I-. TSH withdrawal for over 7 days results in complete loss of Na(+)-I-symport activity in these cells [Weiss, S. J., Philp, N. J. and Grollman, E. F. (1984) Endocrinology 114, 1090-1098]. Surprisingly, membrane vesicles prepared from FRTL-5 cells maintained in TSH-free medium [TSH(-)cells]accumulate I-, suggesting that the absence of Na(+)-I- symport activity in TSH(-) cells cannot be due solely to a decrease in the biosynthesis of either the symporter or a putative activating factor. This finding indicates that the Na(+)-I- symporter is present, probably in an inactive state, in TSH(-) cells despite their lack of Na(+)-I- symport activity. Na(+)-I- symport activity in thyroid membrane vesicles is enhanced when conditions for vesicle preparation favor proteolysis. Subcellular fractionation studies in both TSH(+) and TSH(-) cells show that Na(+)-I- symport activity is mostly associated with fractions enriched in plasma membrane rather than in intracellular membranes, suggesting that the Na(+)-I- symporter may constitutively reside in the plasma membrane and may be activated by TSH. Images PMID:8170988

  13. Adhesion of Polymer Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, John J.; Bates, Frank S.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Silas, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The adhesion and bending modulus of polybutadiene-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer vesicles made from a bidisperse mixture of polymers is measured using micropipette aspiration. The adhesion energy between biotinylated vesicles and avidin beads is modeled by incorporating the extension of the adhesive ligands above the surface brush of the vesicle according to the blob model of bidisperse polymer mixtures of Komura and Safran assuming the polymer brush at the surface of the vesicle is compact. The same model accurately reproduces the scaling of the bending modulus with polymer composition.

  14. Yeast membrane vesicles: isolation and general characteristics.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M S; Cirillo, V P

    1972-06-01

    Yeast membrane vesicles are formed when packed yeast are ground manually in a porcelain mortar and pestle with glass beads (0.2 mm diameter). These vesicles can be separated from the other components of the grinding mixture by a combination of centrifugation steps and elution from a column of the same glass beads (0.2 mm diameter). Isolated vesicles are osmotically sensitive, contain cytoplasmic components, and have energy-independent transport function. They are unable to metabolize glucose, but have respiratory function which is thought to be associated with intravesicular mitochondria. Invertase and oligomycin-insensitive adenosine triphosphatase are present in lysed vesicle preparations, and the appropriateness of these enzyme activities as membrane markers is discussed.

  15. Transmembrane flux and receptor desensitization measured with membrane vesicles. Homogeneity of vesicles investigated by computer simulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cash, D J; Langer, R M; Subbarao, K; Bradbury, J R

    1988-01-01

    The use of membrane vesicles to make quantitative studies of transmembrane transport and exchange processes involves an assumption of homogeneity of the membrane vesicles. In studies of 86Rb+ exchange mediated by acetylcholine receptor from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus and of 36Cl- exchange mediated by GABA receptor from rat brain, measurements of ion exchange and receptor desensitization precisely followed first order kinetics in support of this assumption. In other measurements a biphasic decay of receptor activity was seen. To elucidate the molecular properties of receptors from such measurements it is important to appreciate what the requirements of vesicle monodispersity are for meaningful results and what the effect of vesicle heterogeneity would be. The experiments were simulated with single vesicle populations with variable defined size distributions as well as with mixtures of different populations of vesicles. The properties of the receptors and their density in the membrane could be varied. Different receptors could be present on the same or different membrane vesicles. The simulated measurements were not very sensitive to size dispersity. A very broad size distribution of a single vesicle population was necessary to give rise to detectable deviations from first order kinetics or errors in the determined kinetic constants. Errors could become significant with mixtures of different vesicle populations, where the dispersity in initial ion exchange rate constant, proportional to the receptor concentration per internal volume, became large. In this case the apparent rate of receptor desensitization would diverge in opposite directions from the input value when measured by two different methods, suggesting an experimental test for such kinetic heterogeneity. A biphasic decrease of receptor activity could not be attributed to vesicle heterogeneity and must be due to desensitization processes with different rates. Significant errors would not

  16. Permeability of human erythrocyte membrane vesicles to alkali cations.

    PubMed

    Sze, H; Solomon, A K

    1979-02-02

    The permeability of inside-out and right-side-out vesicles from erythrocyte membranes to inorganic cations was determined quantitatively. Using 86Rb as a K analog, we have measured the rate constant of 86Rb efflux from vesicles under equilibrium exchange conditions, using a dialysis procedure. The permeability coefficients of the vesicles to Rb are only about an order of magnitude greater than that of whole erythrocytes. Furthermore, we have measured many of the specialized transport systems known to exist in erythrocytes and have shown that glucose, sulfate, ATP-dependent Ca and ATP-dependent Na transport activities are retained by the vesicle membranes. These results suggest that inside-out and right-side-out vesicles can be used effectively to study transport properties of erythrocyte membranes.

  17. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  18. Membrane trafficking: decoding vesicle identity with contrasting chemistries.

    PubMed

    Frost, Adam

    2011-10-11

    Proteins involved in membrane traffic must distinguish between different classes of vesicles. New work now shows that α-synuclein and ALPS motifs represent two extreme types of amphipathic helix that are tuned to detect both the curvature of transport vesicles as well as their bulk lipid content.

  19. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    PubMed Central

    Foret, Lionel; Sens, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often relies on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behavior, also triggered by factors, such as the presence of cargo and variation of the membrane mechanical tension, allows for efficient regulation of vesicle secretion. We propose a model, supported by different experimental observations, in which vesiculation of secretory membranes is impaired by the energy-consuming desorption of coat proteins, until the presence of cargo or other factors triggers a dynamical switch into a vesicle producing state. PMID:18824695

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Justine E.; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L.

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release. PMID:27392064

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Alford, Justine E; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L; Anderson, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release.

  2. Large vesicles record pathways of degassing at basalic volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Polacci, M.; Baker, D.R.; Bai, L.; Mancini, L.

    2008-10-08

    Volcanic degassing is directly linked to magma dynamics and controls the style of eruptive activity. To better understand how gas is transported within basaltic magma we perform a 3D investigation of vesicles preserved in scoria from the 2005 activity at Stromboli volcano (Italy). We find that clasts are characterized by the ubiquitous occurrence of one to a few large vesicles, exhibiting mostly irregular, tortuous, channel-like textures, orders of magnitude greater in volume than all the other vesicles in the sample. We compare observations on natural samples with results from numerical simulations and experimental investigations of vesicle size distributions and demonstrate that this type of vesicle invariably forms in magmas with vesicularities > 0.30 (and possibly > 0.10). We suggest that large vesicles represent pathways used by gas to flow non-explosively to the surface and that they indicate the development of an efficient system that sustains persistent degassing in basaltic systems.

  3. Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

    2014-01-01

    The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the μ adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining μ subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

  4. Microfluidic Fabrication of Bio-compatible Vesicles by Self-assembly in Double Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung Shum, Ho; Kim, Jinwoong; Lee, Daeyeon; Weitz, David

    2008-03-01

    Vesicles are compartments surrounded by bilayered membranes of amphiphilic molecules such as diblock copolymers and phospholipids. To minimize the exposure of their hydrophobic part to water, amphiphilic molecules self-assemble into aggregates of different structures. When the hydrophobic to hydrophilic ratio is close to unity, amphiphiles self assemble into bilayers, which tend to fold themselves into vesicles. These vesicles are useful for encapsulating and transporting actives such as drugs, flavor, and fragrance. To solve the problems of low encapsulation efficiency and large vesicle size distributions afforded by traditional techniques to create vesicles, we engineer a novel route to generate vesicles using monodisperse double emulsions prepared in microfluidics as templates. The double emulsion-to-vesicle transition exhibits different behaviors depending on the properties of the amphiphilic molecules such as the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic ratio. Using this technique, we have fabricated both bio-compatible diblock copolymer vesicles, also known as polymersomes, and also lipid vesicles with high encapsulation efficiency.

  5. Vesicle extrusion in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joóos, B. Éla; Bertrand, Martin; Ouellet, S. Ébastien

    2010-03-01

    Monodisperse vesicles of nearly circular shape or liposomes are used as drug delivery systems. Their fabrication involves repeated passage of large vesicles through small pores. At each passage the vesicle ruptures and the fragments reform into smaller vesicles. We report on the last stages of the process where small liposomes are pushed by pressure differences into nano-sized pores, and we study the stress distribution along the lipid bilayer to determine the rupture lines. This is done by performing coarse grained Molecular Dynamics simulations. We have developed a technique to measure the stress in the membrane based on a tessellation of the surface which allows us to monitor the local area per lipid fluctuations. The results show subtle and complex flow phenomena. We can predict the final size distribution after many passages. Comparisons will be made with existing experimental data.

  6. Pulling on adhered vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ana-Suncana; Goennenwein, Stefanie; Lorz, Barbara; Seifert, Udo; Sackmann, Erich

    2004-03-01

    A theoretical model describing pulling of vesicles adhered in a contact potential has been developed. Two different regimes have been recognized. For weak to middle-strength adhesive potentials, locally stable shapes are found in a range of applied forces, separated from the free shape by an energy barrier. The phase diagram contains regions with either a unique bound shape or an additional meta-stable shape. Upon pulling, these shapes unbind discontinuously since the vesicle disengage from the surface while still possessing a finite adhesion area (Smith 2003a). In a strong adhesion regime, a competition between adhesion and tether formation is observed. A critical onset force is identified where a tether spontaneously appears as a part of a second order shape transition. Further growth of a tether is followed by a detachment process which terminates at a finite force when a vesicle continuously unbinds from the substrate (Smith 2003b). Both critical forces, as well as all shape parameters, are calculated as a function of the reduced volume and the strength of adhesive potential. Analogous experimental study has been performed where a vertical magnetic tweezers are used in combination with micro-interferometric and confocal techniques to reproduce the same symmetry as in the theoretical investigation. Giant vesicles are bound to the substrate by numerous specific bonds formed between ligands and receptors incorporated into the vesicle and the substrate, respectively. Application of a constant force is inducing a new thermodynamic equilibrium of the system where the vesicle is partially unbound from the substrate (Goennenwein 2003). The shapes of vesicles are compared prior and during application of the force. Very good agreement is obtained, particularly in the middle-strength adhesion regime (Smith 2003c). References: 1. A.-S. Smith, E. Sackmann, U. Seifert: Effects of a pulling force on the shape of a bound vesicle, Europhys. Lett., 64, 2 (2003). 2. A.-S. Smith

  7. Membrane damage-induced vesicle–vesicle fusion of dysferlin-containing vesicles in muscle cells requires microtubules and kinesin

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Joel R.; Michele, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the dysferlin gene resulting in dysferlin-deficiency lead to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Myoshi myopathy in humans. Dysferlin has been proposed as a critical regulator of vesicle-mediated membrane resealing in muscle fibers, and localizes to muscle fiber wounds following sarcolemma damage. Studies in fibroblasts and urchin eggs suggest that trafficking and fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane during resealing requires the intracellular cytoskeleton. However, the contribution of dysferlin-containing vesicles to resealing in muscle and the role of the cytoskeleton in regulating dysferlin-containing vesicle biology is unclear. Here, we use live-cell imaging to examine the behavior of dysferlin-containing vesicles following cellular wounding in muscle cells and examine the role of microtubules and kinesin in dysferlin-containing vesicle behavior following wounding. Our data indicate that dysferlin-containing vesicles move along microtubules via the kinesin motor KIF5B in muscle cells. Membrane wounding induces dysferlin-containing vesicle–vesicle fusion and the formation of extremely large cytoplasmic vesicles, and this response depends on both microtubules and functional KIF5B. In non-muscle cell types, lysosomes are critical mediators of membrane resealing, and our data indicate that dysferlin-containing vesicles are capable of fusing with lysosomes following wounding which may contribute to formation of large wound sealing vesicles in muscle cells. Overall, our data provide mechanistic evidence that microtubule-based transport of dysferlin-containing vesicles may be critical for resealing, and highlight a critical role for dysferlin-containing vesicle–vesicle and vesicle–organelle fusion in response to wounding in muscle cells. PMID:24203699

  8. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions--which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes-to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated in

  9. How neurosecretory vesicles release their cargo.

    PubMed

    Scalettar, Bethe A

    2006-04-01

    Neurons and related cell types often contain two major classes of neurosecretory vesicles, synaptic vesicles (SVs) and dense-core granules (DCGs), which store and release distinct cargo. SVs store and release classic neurotransmitters, which facilitate propagation of action potentials across the synaptic cleft, whereas DCGs transport, store, and release hormones, proteins, and neuropeptides, which facilitate neuronal survival, synaptic transmission, and learning. Over the past few years, there has been a major surge in our understanding of many of the key molecular mechanisms underlying cargo release from SVs and DCGs. This surge has been driven largely by the use of fluorescence microscopy (especially total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy) to visualize SVs or DCGs in living cells. This review highlights some of the recent insights into cargo release from neurosecretory vesicles provided by fluorescence microscopy, with emphasis on DCGs.

  10. Association of Endophilin B1 with Cytoplasmic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Barylko, Barbara; Eichorst, John P; Mueller, Joachim D; Albanesi, Joseph P; Chen, Yan

    2016-08-09

    Endophilins are SH3- and BAR domain-containing proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and vesicle formation. Endophilins A1 and A2 promote the budding of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, whereas endophilin B1 has been implicated in vesicle budding from intracellular organelles, including the trans-Golgi network and late endosomes. We previously reported that endophilins A1 and A2 exist almost exclusively as soluble dimers in the cytosol. Here, we present results of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy analyses indicating that, in contrast, the majority of endophilin B1 is present in multiple copies on small, highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles. Formation of these vesicles was enhanced by overexpression of wild-type dynamin 2, but suppressed by expression of a catalytically inactive dynamin 2 mutant. Using dual-color heterospecies partition analysis, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor on endophilin B1 vesicles. Moreover, a proportion of endophilin B1 vesicles also contained caveolin, whereas clathrin was almost undetectable on those vesicles. These results raise the possibility that endophilin B1 participates in dynamin 2-dependent formation of a population of transport vesicles distinct from those generated by A-type endophilins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Brefeldin A sensitive mechanisms contribute to endocytotic membrane retrieval and vesicle recycling in cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Rampérez, Alberto; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Torres, Magdalena

    2017-03-11

    The recycling of synaptic vesicle (SV) proteins and transmitter release both occur at multiple sites along the axon. These processes are sensitive to inhibition of the small GTP binding protein ARF1, which regulates the AP-1/AP-3 complex. As the axon matures, SV recycling becomes restricted to the presynaptic bouton, and its machinery undergoes a complex process of maturation. We used the styryl dye FM1-43 to highlight differences in the efficiency of membrane recycling at different sites in cerebellar granule cells cultured for 7 days in vitro. We used Brefeldin A (BFA) to inhibit AP-1/AP-3-mediated recycling and to test the contribution of this pathway to the heterogeneity of the responses when these cells are strongly stimulated. Combining imaging techniques and ultrastructural analyses, we found a significant decrease in the density of functional boutons and an increase in the presence of endosome-like structures within the boutons of cells incubated with BFA prior to FM1-43 loading. Such effects were not observed when BFA was added 5 minutes after the end of the loading step, when endocytosis was almost fully completed. In this situation, vesicles were found closer to the active zone (AZ) in boutons exposed to BFA. Together, these data suggest that the AP-1/AP-3 pathway contributes to SV recycling, affecting different steps in all boutons but not equally, and thus being partly responsible for the heterogeneity of the different recycling efficiencies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Overexpression of PwTUA1, a pollen-specific tubulin gene, increases pollen tube elongation by altering the distribution of α-tubulin and promoting vesicle transport

    PubMed Central

    Yu, YanLi; Li, YanZe; Li, LingLi; Lin, JinXing; Zheng, Chengchao; Zhang, LingYun

    2009-01-01

    Tubulin genes are intimately associated with cell division and cell elongation, which are central to plant secondary cell wall development. However, their roles in pollen tube polar growth remain elusive. Here, a TUA1 gene from Picea wilsonii, which is specifically expressed in pollen, was isolated. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the amount of PwTUA1 transcript varied at each stage of growth of the pollen tube and was induced by calcium ions and boron. Transient expression analysis in P. wilsonii pollen indicated that PwTUA1 improved pollen germination and pollen tube growth. The pollen of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PwTUA1 also showed a higher percentage of germination and faster growth than wild-type plants not only in optimal germination medium, but also in medium supplemented with elevated levels of exogenous calcium ions or boron. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed α-tubulin to be enriched and more vesicles accumulated in the apex region in germinating transgenic Arabidopsis pollen compared with wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that PwTUA1 up-regulated by calcium ions and boron contributes to pollen tube elongation by altering the distribution of α-tubulin and regulating the deposition of pollen cell wall components during the process of tube growth. The possible role of PwTUA1 in microtubule dynamics and organization was discussed. PMID:19454597

  13. Regulation of synaptic activity by snapin-mediated endolysosomal transport and sorting

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovanni, Jerome; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Recycling synaptic vesicles (SVs) transit through early endosomal sorting stations, which raises a fundamental question: are SVs sorted toward endolysosomal pathways? Here, we used snapin mutants as tools to assess how endolysosomal sorting and trafficking impact presynaptic activity in wild-type and snapin−/− neurons. Snapin acts as a dynein adaptor that mediates the retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs) and interacts with dysbindin, a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex BLOC-1. Expressing dynein-binding defective snapin mutants induced SV accumulation at presynaptic terminals, mimicking the snapin−/− phenotype. Conversely, over-expressing snapin reduced SV pool size by enhancing SV trafficking to the endolysosomal pathway. Using a SV-targeted Ca2+ sensor, we demonstrate that snapin–dysbindin interaction regulates SV positional priming through BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting. Our study reveals a bipartite regulation of presynaptic activity by endolysosomal trafficking and sorting: LE transport regulates SV pool size, and BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting fine-tunes the Ca2+ sensitivity of SV release. Therefore, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance and regulation of SV pool size and synchronized SV fusion through snapin-mediated LE trafficking and endosomal sorting. PMID:26108535

  14. Regulation of synaptic activity by snapin-mediated endolysosomal transport and sorting.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Jerome; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2015-08-04

    Recycling synaptic vesicles (SVs) transit through early endosomal sorting stations, which raises a fundamental question: are SVs sorted toward endolysosomal pathways? Here, we used snapin mutants as tools to assess how endolysosomal sorting and trafficking impact presynaptic activity in wild-type and snapin(-/-) neurons. Snapin acts as a dynein adaptor that mediates the retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs) and interacts with dysbindin, a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex BLOC-1. Expressing dynein-binding defective snapin mutants induced SV accumulation at presynaptic terminals, mimicking the snapin(-/-) phenotype. Conversely, over-expressing snapin reduced SV pool size by enhancing SV trafficking to the endolysosomal pathway. Using a SV-targeted Ca(2+) sensor, we demonstrate that snapin-dysbindin interaction regulates SV positional priming through BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting. Our study reveals a bipartite regulation of presynaptic activity by endolysosomal trafficking and sorting: LE transport regulates SV pool size, and BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting fine-tunes the Ca(2+) sensitivity of SV release. Therefore, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance and regulation of SV pool size and synchronized SV fusion through snapin-mediated LE trafficking and endosomal sorting. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Rho-GTPase-regulated vesicle trafficking in plant cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Friml, Jiří

    2014-02-01

    ROPs (Rho of plants) belong to a large family of plant-specific Rho-like small GTPases that function as essential molecular switches to control diverse cellular processes including cytoskeleton organization, cell polarization, cytokinesis, cell differentiation and vesicle trafficking. Although the machineries of vesicle trafficking and cell polarity in plants have been individually well addressed, how ROPs co-ordinate those processes is still largely unclear. Recent progress has been made towards an understanding of the co-ordination of ROP signalling and trafficking of PIN (PINFORMED) transporters for the plant hormone auxin in both root and leaf pavement cells. PIN transporters constantly shuttle between the endosomal compartments and the polar plasma membrane domains, therefore the modulation of PIN-dependent auxin transport between cells is a main developmental output of ROP-regulated vesicle trafficking. The present review focuses on these cellular mechanisms, especially the integration of ROP-based vesicle trafficking and plant cell polarity.

  16. Hyperviscous diblock copolymer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova, R.; Seifert, U.; Pouligny, B.; Förster, S.; Döbereiner, H.-G.

    2002-03-01

    Giant vesicles prepared from the diblock copolymer polybutadien-b-polyethyleneoxide (PB-PEO) exhibit a shear surface viscosity, which is about 500 times higher than those found in common phospholipid bilayers. Our result constitutes the first direct measurement of the shear surface viscosity of such polymersomes. At the same time, we measure bending and stretching elastic constants, which fall in the range of values typical for lipid membranes. Pulling out a tether from an immobilized polymersome and following its relaxation back to the vesicle body provides an estimate of the viscous coupling between the two monolayers composing the polymer membrane. The detected intermonolayer friction is about an order of magnitude higher than the characteristic one for phospholipid membranes. Polymersomes are tough vesicles with a high lysis tension. This, together with their robust rheological properties, makes them interesting candidates for a number of technological applications.

  17. Vesicles in Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Danker, Gerrit; Vlahovska, Petia M; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2009-04-10

    Blood microcirculation critically depends on the migration of red cells towards the flow centerline. We identify theoretically the ratio of the inner over the outer fluid viscosities lambda as a key parameter. At low lambda, the vesicle deforms into a tank-treading ellipsoid shape far away from the flow centerline. The migration is always towards the flow centerline, unlike drops. Above a critical lambda, the vesicle tumbles or breaths and migration is suppressed. A surprising coexistence of two types of shapes at the centerline, a bulletlike and a parachutelike shape, is predicted.

  18. Dielectrophoresis of Functional Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froude, Victoria; Zhu, Yingxi Elaine

    2008-03-01

    Recently, there has been an emerging interest in using AC-dielectrophoresis (DEP) to transport and assemble phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) and nanoparticles to form functional bio-assemblies where the underlying charge polarization mechanism of colloids in AC fields strongly depends on nano-scaled surface charge. In this work, we study liposomes segregation and aggregation in the presence of nanocolloids and salts in which the biological functionality of liposomes is augmented by the physical functionality of inorganic coating and particles. Liposomes, synthesized by sonication with 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphate (DOPA), are manipulated at varied AC-field frequencies across fabricated micro-electrodes in a quadrapole configuration on glass. We observe the co-assembly of liposome and opposite-charged nanocolloids by confocal microscopy and SEM, where the smaller nanocolloids are captured in between liposome junctions to form stabilized composite vesicles at several distinct frequencies. We observe a strong dependence of the liposome DEP mobility on the number of nanoparticles present in suspension and propose a new mechanism based on charge segregation and charged nanocolloid entrainment in the double layer.

  19. Vesicle coats: structure, function, and general principles of assembly.

    PubMed

    Faini, Marco; Beck, Rainer; Wieland, Felix T; Briggs, John A G

    2013-06-01

    The transport of proteins and lipids between distinct cellular compartments is conducted by coated vesicles. These vesicles are formed by the self-assembly of coat proteins on a membrane, leading to collection of the vesicle cargo and membrane bending to form a bud. Scission at the bud neck releases the vesicle. X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy (EM) have recently generated models of isolated coat components and assembled coats. Here, we review these data to present a structural overview of the three main coats: clathrin, COPII, and COPI. The three coats have similar function, common ancestry, and structural similarities, but exhibit fundamental differences in structure and assembly. We describe the implications of structural similarities and differences for understanding the function, assembly principles, and evolution of vesicle coats.

  20. Interaction between silicon dioxide and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, Hur Munawar Kabir; Ahmad, Ainee Fatimah; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rosli, Nur Ratasha Alia Md; Ayob, Muhammad Taqiyuddin Mawardi; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2014-09-03

    Many of the cellular process depend on the ability of the membrane to separate areas while allowing exchange and tightly regulated transport of material within and across the membrane to occur, which is the driving principle behind cell communication. The complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development of a wide variety of simpler model systems whose size, geometry and composition can be tailored with precision. This study was conducted to investigate the interactions between silica nanoparticles and Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles. The size range of DPPC vesicles formed was from 50 to 150 nm. Concentration of silica added to the vesicles was varied from 0.25 to 1.5 mg/ml. The change in vesicle size distribution, localization and positioning of silica nanoparticles in vesicles was studied via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  1. Direct Imaging of RAB27B-Enriched Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis in Lacrimal Acinar Cells Reveals Origins on a Nascent Vesicle Budding Site

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lilian; Karvar, Serhan; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses YFP-tagged Rab27b expression in rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells, which are polarized secretory epithelial cells, to characterize early stages of secretory vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate the utility of YFP-Rab27b to delineate new perspectives on the mechanisms of early vesicle biogenesis in lacrimal gland acinar cells, where information is significantly limited. Protocols were developed to deplete the mature YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle pool in the subapical region of the cell, and confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to track vesicle replenishment. This analysis revealed a basally-localized organelle, which we termed the “nascent vesicle site,” from which nascent vesicles appeared to emerge. Subapical vesicular YFP-Rab27b was co-localized with p150Glued, a component of the dynactin cofactor of cytoplasmic dynein. Treatment with the microtubule-targeted agent, nocodazole, did not affect release of mature secretory vesicles, although during vesicle repletion it significantly altered nascent YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle localization. Instead of moving to the subapical region, these vesicles were trapped at the nascent vesicle site which was adjacent to, if not a sub-compartment of, the trans-Golgi network. Finally, YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles which reached the subapical cytoplasm appeared to acquire the actin-based motor protein, Myosin 5C. Our findings show that Rab27b enrichment occurs early in secretory vesicle formation, that secretory vesicles bud from a visually discernable nascent vesicle site, and that transport from the nascent vesicle site to the subapical region requires intact microtubules. PMID:22363735

  2. Cellular COPII Proteins Are Involved in Production of the Vesicles That Form the Poliovirus Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Rust, René C.; Landmann, Lukas; Gosert, Rainer; Tang, Bor Luen; Hong, Wanjin; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Egger, Denise; Bienz, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) replicates its genome in association with membranous vesicles in the cytoplasm of infected cells. To elucidate the origin and mode of formation of PV vesicles, immunofluorescence labeling with antibodies against the viral vesicle marker proteins 2B and 2BC, as well as cellular markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), anterograde transport vesicles, and the Golgi complex, was performed in BT7-H cells. Optical sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy were subjected to a deconvolution process to enhance resolution and signal-to-noise ratio and to allow for a three-dimensional representation of labeled membrane structures. The mode of formation of the PV vesicles was, on morphological grounds, similar to the formation of anterograde membrane traffic vesicles in uninfected cells. ER-resident membrane markers were excluded from both types of vesicles, and the COPII components Sec13 and Sec31 were both found to be colocalized on the vesicular surface, indicating the presence of a functional COPII coat. PV vesicle formation during early time points of infection did not involve the Golgi complex. The expression of PV protein 2BC or the entire P2 and P3 genomic region led to the production of vesicles carrying a COPII coat and showing the same mode of formation as vesicles produced after PV infection. These results indicate that PV vesicles are formed at the ER by the cellular COPII budding mechanism and thus are homologous to the vesicles of the anterograde membrane transport pathway. PMID:11559814

  3. Determination of floral organ identity by Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1997-01-01

    The MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1 (AP1), APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) combinatorially specify the identity of Arabidopsis floral organs. AP1/AP1, AG/AG, and AP3/PI dimers bind to similar CArG box sequences; thus, differences in DNA-binding specificity among these proteins do not seem to be the origin of their distinct organ identity properties. To assess the overall contribution that specific DNA binding could make to their biological specificity, we have generated chimeric genes in which the amino-terminal half of the MADS domain of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG was substituted by the corresponding sequences of human SRF and MEF2A proteins. In vitro DNA-binding assays reveal that the chimeric proteins acquired the respective, and distinct, DNA-binding specificity of SRF or MEF2A. However, ectopic expression of the chimeric genes reproduces the dominant gain-of-function phenotypes exhibited by plants ectopically expressing the corresponding Arabidopsis wild-type genes. In addition, both the SRF and MEF2 chimeric genes can complement the pertinent ap1-1, ap3-3, pi-1, or ag-3 mutations to a degree similar to that of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG when expressed under the control of the same promoter. These results indicate that determination of floral organ identity by the MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity. In addition, the DNA-binding experiments show that either one of the two MADS domains of a dimer can be sufficient to confer a particular DNA-binding specificity to the complex and that sequences outside the amino-terminal basic region of the MADS domain can, in some cases, contribute to the DNA-binding specificity of the proteins. Images PMID:9243505

  4. Molecular chaperone Hsp110 rescues a vesicle transport defect produced by an ALS-associated mutant SOD1 protein in squid axoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuyu; Nagy, Maria; Ni, Weiming; Tyagi, Navneet K.; Fenton, Wayne A.; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Overton, John D.; Horwich, Arthur L.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is associated with motor neuron toxicity and death in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig disease). One aspect of toxicity in motor neurons involves diminished fast axonal transport, observed both in transgenic mice and, more recently, in axoplasm isolated from squid giant axons. The latter effect appears to be directly mediated by misfolded SOD1, whose addition activates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and phosphorylation of kinesin. Here, we observe that several different oligomeric states of a fusion protein, comprising ALS-associated human G85R SOD1 joined with yellow fluorescent protein (G85R SOD1YFP), which produces ALS in transgenic mice, inhibited anterograde transport when added to squid axoplasm. Inhibition was blocked both by an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1; MAPKKK) inhibitor and by a p38 inhibitor, indicating the transport defect is mediated through the MAPK cascade. In further incubations, we observed that addition of the mammalian molecular chaperone Hsc70, abundantly associated with G85R SOD1YFP in spinal cord of transgenic mice, exerted partial correction of the transport defect, associated with diminished phosphorylation of p38. Most striking, the addition of the molecular chaperone Hsp110, in a concentration substoichiometric to the mutant SOD1 protein, completely rescued both the transport defect and the phosphorylation of p38. Hsp110 has been demonstrated to act as a nucleotide exchange factor for Hsc70 and, more recently, to be able to cooperate with it to mediate protein disaggregation. We speculate that it can cooperate with endogenous squid Hsp(c)70 to mediate binding and/or disaggregation of mutant SOD1 protein, abrogating toxicity. PMID:23509252

  5. Molecular chaperone Hsp110 rescues a vesicle transport defect produced by an ALS-associated mutant SOD1 protein in squid axoplasm.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuyu; Nagy, Maria; Ni, Weiming; Tyagi, Navneet K; Fenton, Wayne A; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Overton, John D; Horwich, Arthur L; Brady, Scott T

    2013-04-02

    Mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is associated with motor neuron toxicity and death in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig disease). One aspect of toxicity in motor neurons involves diminished fast axonal transport, observed both in transgenic mice and, more recently, in axoplasm isolated from squid giant axons. The latter effect appears to be directly mediated by misfolded SOD1, whose addition activates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and phosphorylation of kinesin. Here, we observe that several different oligomeric states of a fusion protein, comprising ALS-associated human G85R SOD1 joined with yellow fluorescent protein (G85R SOD1YFP), which produces ALS in transgenic mice, inhibited anterograde transport when added to squid axoplasm. Inhibition was blocked both by an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1; MAPKKK) inhibitor and by a p38 inhibitor, indicating the transport defect is mediated through the MAPK cascade. In further incubations, we observed that addition of the mammalian molecular chaperone Hsc70, abundantly associated with G85R SOD1YFP in spinal cord of transgenic mice, exerted partial correction of the transport defect, associated with diminished phosphorylation of p38. Most striking, the addition of the molecular chaperone Hsp110, in a concentration substoichiometric to the mutant SOD1 protein, completely rescued both the transport defect and the phosphorylation of p38. Hsp110 has been demonstrated to act as a nucleotide exchange factor for Hsc70 and, more recently, to be able to cooperate with it to mediate protein disaggregation. We speculate that it can cooperate with endogenous squid Hsp(c)70 to mediate binding and/or disaggregation of mutant SOD1 protein, abrogating toxicity.

  6. Complexity of vesicle microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaoui, B.; Tahiri, N.; Biben, T.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Biros, G.; Misbah, C.

    2011-10-01

    This study focuses numerically on dynamics in two dimensions of vesicles in microcirculation. The method used is based on boundary integral formulation. This study is inspired by the behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvasculature. Red RBCs carry oxygen from the lungs and deliver it through the microvasculature. The shape adopted by RBCs can affect blood flow and influence oxygen delivery. Our simulation using vesicles (a simple model for RBC) reveals unexpected complexity as compared to the case where a purely unbounded Poiseuille flow is considered [Kaoui, Biros, and Misbah, Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.188101 103, 188101 (2009)]. In sufficiently large channels (in the range of 100μm; the vesicle size and its reduced volume are taken in the range of those of a human RBC), such as arterioles, a slipperlike (asymmetric) shape prevails. A parachutelike (symmetric) shape is adopted in smaller channels (in the range of 20μm, as in venules), but this shape loses stability and again changes to a pronounced slipperlike morphology in channels having a size typical of capillaries (5-10 μm). Stiff membranes, mimicking malaria infection, for example, adopt a centered or off-centered snakelike locomotion instead (the denomination snaking is used for this regime). A general scenario of how and why vesicles adopt their morphologies and dynamics among several distinct possibilities is provided. This finding potentially points to nontrivial RBCs dynamics in the microvasculature.

  7. Metal Sorbing Vesicles: Light Scattering Characterization and Metal Sorbtion Behavior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zanten, John Hollis

    1992-01-01

    hundred to more than a thousand fold in the vesicle interior in a few minutes time. Synthetic ionophores were found to preferentially transport Pb^{2+} over Cd^{2+}, thus suggesting that engineered vesicle dispersions can be used as selective separations media. The effect of ionophore concentration, solution pH, solution ionic strength, initial metal ion concentration and vesicle concentration have been investigated.

  8. Transfection of mammalian cells using block copolypeptide vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Victor Z; Choe, Uh-Joo; Rodriguez, April R; Dai, Howard; Deming, Timothy J; Kamei, Daniel T

    2013-05-01

    An arginine-leucine block copolypeptide (R60 L20 ) is synthesized, which is capable of forming vesicles with controllable sizes, able to transport hydrophilic cargo across the cell membrane, and exhibit relatively low cytotoxicity. The R60 L20 vesicles also possess the ability to deliver DNA into mammalian cells for transfection. Although the transfection efficiency is lower than that of the commercially available transfection agent Lipofectamine 2000, the R60 L20 vesicles are able to achieve transfection with significantly lower cytotoxicity and immunogenicity. This behavior is potentially due to its stronger interaction with DNA which subsequently provides better protection against anionic heparin.

  9. Novel potassium channel blocker, 4-AP-3-MeOH, inhibits fast potassium channels and restores axonal conduction in injured guinea pig spinal cord white matter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Smith, Daniel; Fu, Yan; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Bryn, Steven; Borgens, Richard; Shi, Riyi

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated that 4-aminopyridine-3-methanol (4-AP-3-MeOH), a 4-aminopyridine derivative, significantly restores axonal conduction in stretched spinal cord white-matter strips and shows no preference in restoring large and small axons. This compound is 10 times more potent when compared with 4-AP and other derivatives in restoring axonal conduction. Unlike 4-AP, 4-AP-3-MeOH can restore axonal conduction without changing axonal electrophysiological properties. In addition, we also have confirmed that 4-AP-3-MeOH is indeed an effective blocker of I(A) based on patch-clamp studies using guinea pig dorsal root ganglia cells. Furthermore, we have also provided the critical evidence to confirm the unmasking of potassium channels following mechanical injury. Taken together, our data further supports and implicates the role of potassium channels in conduction loss and its therapeutic value as an effective target for intervention to restore function in spinal cord trauma. Furthermore, due to its high potency and possible low side effect of impacting electrophysiological properties, 4-AP-3-MeOH is perhaps the optimal choice in reversing conduction block in spinal cord injury compared with other derivatives previously reported from this group.

  10. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A.; Dell’Angelica, Esteban C.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions–which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes–to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated

  11. Disruption of AP3B1 by a chromosome 5 inversion: a new disease mechanism in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew L; Murden, Sherina L; Brooks, Claire; Maloney, Viv; Manning, Richard A; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Bharadwaj, Vandana; de la Fuente, Josu; Chakravorty, Subarna; Mumford, Andrew D

    2013-04-04

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2 (HPS2; OMIM #608233) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by loss-of-function genetic variations affecting AP3B1, which encodes the β3A subunit of the adaptor-related protein complex 3 (AP3). Phenotypic characteristics include reduced pigmentation, absent platelet dense granule secretion, neutropenia and reduced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cell function. To date HPS2 has been associated with non-synonymous, stop-gain or deletion-insertion nucleotide variations within the coding region of AP3B1. We describe a consanguineous female infant with reduced pigmentation, neutropenia and recurrent infections. Platelets displayed reduced aggregation and absent ATP secretion in response to collagen and ADP, indicating a platelet dense granule defect. There was increased basal surface expression of CD107a (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1(LAMP-1)) on NK cells and CTLs from the study subject and a smaller increase in the percentage of CD107a positive cells after stimulation compared to most healthy controls. Immunoblotting of protein extracts from EBV-transformed lymphoblasts from the index case showed absent expression of full-length AP-3 β3A subunit protein, confirming a phenotypic diagnosis of HPS2.The index case displayed a homozygous pericentric inv(5)(p15.1q14.1), which was also detected as a heterozygous defect in both parents of the index case. No loss of genetic material was demonstrated by microarray comparative genome hybridisation at 60kb resolution. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation using the 189.6kb probe RP11-422I12, which maps to 5q14.1, demonstrated dual hybridisation to both 5q14.1 and 5p15.1 regions of the inverted Chr5. The RP11-422I12 probe maps from intron 1 to intron 16 of AP3B1, thus localising the 5q inversion breakpoint to within AP3B1. The probe RP11-211K15, which corresponds to an intergenic region on 5p also showed dual hybridisation, enabling localisation of the 5p inversion

  12. Asymmetric osmotic water permeation through a vesicle membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiaye; Zhao, Yunzhen; Fang, Chang; Shi, Yue

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the water permeation through a cell membrane is of primary importance for biological activities and a key step to capture its shape transformation in salt solution. In this work, we reveal the dynamical behaviors of osmotically driven transport of water molecules across a vesicle membrane by molecular dynamics simulations. Of particular interest is that the water transport in and out of vesicles is highly distinguishable given the osmotic force are the same, suggesting an asymmetric osmotic transportation. This asymmetric phenomenon exists in a broad range of parameter space such as the salt concentration, temperature, and vesicle size and can be ascribed to the similar asymmetric potential energy of lipid-ion, lipid-water, lipid-solution, lipid-lipid, and the lipid-lipid energy fluctuation. Specifically, the water flux has a linear increase with the salt concentration, similar to the prediction by Nernst-Planck equation or Fick's first law. Furthermore, due to the Arrhenius relation between the membrane permeability and temperature, the water flux also exhibits excellent Arrhenius dependence on the temperature. Meanwhile, the water flux shows a linear increase with the vesicle surface area since the flux amount across a unit membrane area should be a constant. Finally, we also present the anonymous diffusion behaviors for the vesicle itself, where transitions from normal diffusion at short times to subdiffusion at long times are identified. Our results provide significant new physical insights for the osmotic water permeation through a vesicle membrane and are helpful for future experimental studies.

  13. Limited intermixing of synaptic vesicle components upon vesicle recycling.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Felipe; Punge, Annedore; Bückers, Johanna; Hoopmann, Peer; Kastrup, Lars; Hell, Stefan W; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2010-06-01

    Synaptic vesicles recycle repeatedly in order to maintain synaptic transmission. We have previously proposed that upon exocytosis the vesicle components persist as clusters, which would be endocytosed as whole units. It has also been proposed that the vesicle components diffuse into the plasma membrane and are then randomly gathered into new vesicles. We found here that while strong stimulation (releasing the entire recycling pool) causes the diffusion of the vesicle marker synaptotagmin out of synaptic boutons, moderate stimulation (releasing approximately 19% of all vesicles) is followed by no measurable diffusion. In agreement with this observation, synaptotagmin molecules labeled with different fluorescently tagged antibodies did not appear to mix upon vesicle recycling, when investigated by subdiffraction resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Finally, as protein diffusion from vesicles has been mainly observed using molecules tagged with pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (pHluorin), we have also investigated the membrane patterning of several native and pHluorin-tagged proteins. While the native proteins had a clustered distribution, the GFP-tagged ones were diffused in the plasma membrane. We conclude that synaptic vesicle components intermix little, at least under moderate stimulation, possibly because of the formation of clusters in the plasma membrane. We suggest that several pHluorin-tagged vesicle proteins are less well integrated in clusters.

  14. Rapid Degeneration of Noncoding DNA Regions Surrounding SlAP3X/Y After Recombination Suppression in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Nishiyama, Rie; Shibata, Fukashi; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes. Previous studies of sex chromosome–linked genes have suggested a gradual divergence between the X-linked and the Y-linked genes in proportion to the distance from the pseudoautosomal region. However, such a comparison has yet to be made for the noncoding regions. To better characterize the nonrecombining region of the X and Y chromosomes, we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing the sex chromosome–linked paralogs SlAP3X and SlAP3Y, including 115 kb and 73 kb of sequences, respectively, flanking these genes. The synonymous nucleotide divergence between SlAP3X and SlAP3Y indicated that recombination stopped approximately 3.4 million years ago. Sequence homology analysis revealed the presence of six long terminal repeat retrotransposon-like elements. Using the nucleotide divergence calculated between left and right long terminal repeat sequences, insertion dates were estimated to be 0.083–1.6 million years ago, implying that all elements detected were inserted after recombination stopped. A reciprocal sequence homology search facilitated the identification of four homologous noncoding DNA regions between the X and Y chromosomes, spanning 6.7% and 10.6% of the X chromosome–derived and Y chromosome–derived sequences, respectively, investigated. Genomic Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the noncoding DNA flanking SlAP3X/Y has homology to many regions throughout the genome, regardless of whether they were homologous between the X and Y chromosomes. This finding suggests that most noncoding DNA regions rapidly lose their counterparts because of the introduction of transposable elements and indels (insertion–deletions) after recombination has stopped. PMID:24122056

  15. Equilibrium of nematic vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, Gaetano; Vergori, Luigi

    2010-11-01

    A variational scheme is proposed which allows the derivation of a concise and elegant formulation of the equilibrium equations for closed fluid membranes, endowed with a nematic microstructure. The nematic order is described by an in-plane nematic director and a degree of orientation, as customary in the theory of uniaxial nematics. The only constitutive ingredient in this scheme is a free-energy density which depends on the vesicle geometry and order parameters. The stress and the couple stress tensors related to this free-energy density are provided. As an application of the proposed scheme, a certain number of special theories are deduced: soap bubbles, lipid vesicles, chiral and achiral nematic membranes, and nematics on curved substrates.

  16. Astrocytic vesicles and gliotransmitters: Slowness of vesicular release and synaptobrevin2-laden vesicle nanoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Zorec, R; Verkhratsky, A; Rodríguez, J J; Parpura, V

    2016-05-26

    Neurotransmitters released at synapses activate neighboring astrocytes, which in turn, modulate neuronal activity by the release of diverse neuroactive substances that include classical neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA or ATP. Neuroactive substances are released from astrocytes through several distinct molecular mechanisms, for example, by diffusion through membrane channels, by translocation via plasmalemmal transporters or by vesicular exocytosis. Vesicular release regulated by a stimulus-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium involves soluble N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-dependent merger of the vesicle membrane with the plasmalemma. Up to 25 molecules of synaptobrevin 2 (Sb2), a SNARE complex protein, reside at a single astroglial vesicle; an individual neuronal, i.e. synaptic, vesicle contains ∼70 Sb2 molecules. It is proposed that this paucity of Sb2 molecules in astrocytic vesicles may determine the slow secretion. In the present essay we shall overview multiple aspects of vesicular architecture and types of vesicles based on their cargo and dynamics in astroglial cells. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of matrix vesicle-induced mineralization in a gelatin gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Boyan, B. D.; Doty, S. B.; Feliciano, A.; Greer, K.; Weiland, D.; Swain, L. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix vesicles isolated from fourth-passage cultures of chondrocytes were tested for their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel in order to gain insight into the function of matrix vesicles in in situ mineralization. These matrix vesicles did not appear to be hydroxyapatite nucleators per se since the extent of mineral accumulation in the gel diffusion system was not altered by the presence of matrix vesicles alone, and in the vesicle containing gels, mineral crystals were formed whether associated with vesicles or not. In gels with these matrix vesicles and beta-glycerophosphate, despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, there was no increase in mineral deposition. This suggested that in the gel system these culture-derived vesicles did not increase local phosphate concentrations. However, when known inhibitors of mineral crystal formation and growth (proteoglycan aggregates [4 mg/ml], or ATP [1 mM], or both proteoglycan and ATP) were included in the gel, more mineral was deposited in gels with the vesicles than in comparable gels without vesicles, indicating that enzymes within these vesicles were functioning to remove the inhibition. These data support the suggestion that one function of the extracellular matrix vesicles is to transport enzymes for matrix modification.

  18. Studies of matrix vesicle-induced mineralization in a gelatin gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Boyan, B. D.; Doty, S. B.; Feliciano, A.; Greer, K.; Weiland, D.; Swain, L. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix vesicles isolated from fourth-passage cultures of chondrocytes were tested for their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel in order to gain insight into the function of matrix vesicles in in situ mineralization. These matrix vesicles did not appear to be hydroxyapatite nucleators per se since the extent of mineral accumulation in the gel diffusion system was not altered by the presence of matrix vesicles alone, and in the vesicle containing gels, mineral crystals were formed whether associated with vesicles or not. In gels with these matrix vesicles and beta-glycerophosphate, despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, there was no increase in mineral deposition. This suggested that in the gel system these culture-derived vesicles did not increase local phosphate concentrations. However, when known inhibitors of mineral crystal formation and growth (proteoglycan aggregates [4 mg/ml], or ATP [1 mM], or both proteoglycan and ATP) were included in the gel, more mineral was deposited in gels with the vesicles than in comparable gels without vesicles, indicating that enzymes within these vesicles were functioning to remove the inhibition. These data support the suggestion that one function of the extracellular matrix vesicles is to transport enzymes for matrix modification.

  19. Poking vesicles in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Ben; Bertrand, Martin; Joos, Bela

    2014-03-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is used to poke cells and study their mechanical properties. Using Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics simulations, we study the deformation and relaxation of lipid bilayer vesicles, when poked with a constant force. The relaxation time, equilibrium area expansion, and surface tension of the vesicle membrane are studied over a range of applied forces. The relaxation time exhibits a strong force-dependence. Our force-compression curves show a strong similarity with results from a recent experiment by Schafer et al. (Langmuir, 2013). They used an AFM to ``poke'' adherent giant liposomes with constant nanonewton forces and observed the resulting deformation with a Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope. Results of such experiments, whether on vesicles or cells, are often interpreted in terms of dashpots and springs. This simple approach used to describe the response of a whole cell --complete with cytoskeleton, organelles etc.-- can be problematic when trying to measure the contribution of a single cell component. Our modeling is a first step in a ``bottom-up'' approach where we investigate the viscoelastic properties of an in silico cell prototype with constituents added step by step. Supported by NSERC (Canada).

  20. Studying calcium triggered vesicle fusion in a single vesicle-vesicle content/lipid mixing system

    PubMed Central

    Kyoung, Minjoung; Zhang, Yunxiang; Diao, Jiajie; Chu, Steven; Brunger, Axel T.

    2013-01-01

    This Protocol describes a single vesicle-vesicle microscopy system to study Ca2+-triggered vesicle fusion. Donor vesicles contain reconstituted synaptobrevin and synaptotagmin-1. Acceptor vesicles contain reconstituted syntaxin and SNAP-25, and are tethered to a PEG-coated glass surface. Donor vesicles are mixed with the tethered acceptor vesicles and incubated for several minutes at zero Ca2+-concentration, resulting in a collection of single interacting vesicle pairs. The donor vesicles also contain two spectrally distinct fluorophores that allow simultaneous monitoring of temporal changes of the content and membrane. Upon Ca2+-injection into the sample chamber, our system therefore differentiates between hemifusion and complete fusion of interacting vesicle pairs and determines the temporal sequence of these events on a sub-hundred millisecond timescale. Other factors, such as complexin, can be easily added. Our system is unique by monitoring both content and lipid mixing, and by starting from a metastable state of interacting vesicle pairs prior to Ca2+-injection. PMID:23222454

  1. Effects of deuterium oxide on cell growth and vesicle speed in RBL-2H3 cells

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time we show the effects of deuterium oxide on cell growth and vesicle transport in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. RBL-2H3 cells cultured with 15 moles/L deuterium showed decreased cell growth which was attributed to cells not doubling their DNA content. Experimental observations also showed an increase in vesicle speed for cells cultured in deuterium oxide. This increase in vesicle speed was not observed in deuterium oxide cultures treated with a microtubule-destabilizing drug, suggesting that deuterium oxide affects microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. PMID:25237603

  2. Alpha 1-antitrypsin activates lung cancer cell survival by acting on cap-dependent protein translation, vesicle-mediated transport, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Hong, Seong-Ho; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ah Young; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Somin; Kang, Jeong Won; Chae, Chanhee; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-07-19

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although elevated expression levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) have been reported in lung cancer patients, the precise role of AAT in lung cancer progression and prevention has not yet been fully elucidated. We have explored the mechanisms by which AAT stimulates in lung cancer progression. Here, we used proteomic analyses to compare protein levels following AAT overexpression in normal lung L132 cells containing fundamentally low level of AAT. Overexpression of AAT increased levels of proteins involved in transcription and translation, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha 2 (EEF1A2). Furthermore, dual luciferase activity for cap-dependent protein translation increased a 53% at 24 h and 45% at 48 h in AAT-overexpressing cells compared with control. Overexpression of AAT also increased levels of the vesicular transport protein, GOPC, which inhibited the expression of the autophagy protein, BECN1, thereby possibly increasing cell survival. In addition, overexpression of AAT promoted angiogenesis and cell adhesion through increasing expression of the metastatic protein, thrombospondin 1 (THBS1). In contrast, down-regulation of AAT by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) suppressed cell proliferation, metastasis, and adhesion in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and in the lung tissue of K-rasLA1 lung cancer model mice. These findings strongly suggest that AAT regulation shows promise as an alternative avenue for lung cancer treatment and prevention.

  3. Freeze-thaw and high-voltage discharge allow macromolecule uptake into ileal brush-border vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Donowitz, M.; Emmer, E.; McCullen, J.; Reinlib, L.; Cohen, M.E.; Rood, R.P.; Madara, J.; Sharp, G.W.G.; Murer, H.; Malmstrom, K.

    1987-06-01

    High-voltage discharge or one cycle of freeze-thawing are shown to transiently permeabilize rabbit ileal brush-border membrane vesicles to macromolecules. Uptake of the radiolabeled macromolecule dextran, mol wt 70,000, used as a marker for vesicle permeability, was determined by a rapid filtration technique, with uptake defined as substrate associated with the vesicle and releasable after incubation of vesicles with 0.1% saponin. Dextran added immediately after electric shock (2000 V) or at the beginning of one cycle of freeze-thawing was taken up approximately eightfold compared with control. ATP also was taken up into freeze-thawed vesicles, whereas there was no significant uptake into control vesicles. The increase in vesicle permeability was reversible, based on Na-dependent D-glucose uptake being decreased when studied 5 but not 15 min after electric shock, and was not significantly decreased after completion of one cycle of freeze-thawing. In addition, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and Ca/sup 2 +/-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity were similar in control vesicles and vesicles exposed to high-voltage discharge or freeze-thawing. Also, vesicles freeze-thawed with (/sup 32/P)ATP demonstrated increased phosphorylation compared with nonfrozen vesicles, while freeze-thawing did not alter vesicle protein as judged by Coomassie blue staining. These techniques should allow intestinal membrane vesicles to be used for studies of intracellular control of transport processes, for instance, studies of protein kinase regulation of transport.

  4. Imaging Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis-Endocytosis with pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Proteins.

    PubMed

    Afuwape, Olusoji A T; Kavalali, Ege T

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of pHluorin, a pH-sensitive GFP, by Miesenbock and colleagues provided a versatile tool to studies of vesicle trafficking, in particular synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis. By tagging pHluorin to the luminal region of the synaptic vesicular protein synaptobrevin (also called VAMP, vesicle-associated membrane protein) or other synaptic vesicle-specific proteins such as the vesicular glutamate transporter-1, we are able to directly track synaptic vesicle endocytosis in response to stimuli in a molecularly specific manner. Here, we describe the process of imaging synaptic vesicle endocytosis in response to extracellular stimulation in dissociated neuronal cultures of hippocampal neurons obtained from rats-also applicable to mice-using pHluorin-tagged vesicular glutamate transporter-1 as a reporter.

  5. Mapping Organelle Motion Reveals a Vesicular Conveyor Belt Spatially Replenishing Secretory Vesicles in Stimulated Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A.

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this “conveyor belt” towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:24489879

  6. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation.

  7. Vesicle Size Regulates Nanotube Formation in the Cell.

    PubMed

    Su, Qian Peter; Du, Wanqing; Ji, Qinghua; Xue, Boxin; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Yueyao; Lou, Jizhong; Yu, Li; Sun, Yujie

    2016-04-07

    Intracellular membrane nanotube formation and its dynamics play important roles for cargo transportation and organelle biogenesis. Regarding the regulation mechanisms, while much attention has been paid on the lipid composition and its associated protein molecules, effects of the vesicle size has not been studied in the cell. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are often used for in vitro membrane deformation studies, but they are much larger than most intracellular vesicles and the in vitro studies also lack physiological relevance. Here, we use lysosomes and autolysosomes, whose sizes range between 100 nm and 1 μm, as model systems to study the size effects on nanotube formation both in vivo and in vitro. Single molecule observations indicate that driven by kinesin motors, small vesicles (100-200 nm) are mainly transported along the tracks while a remarkable portion of large vesicles (500-1000 nm) form nanotubes. This size effect is further confirmed by in vitro reconstitution assays on liposomes and purified lysosomes and autolysosomes. We also apply Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to measure the initiation force for nanotube formation. These results suggest that the size-dependence may be one of the mechanisms for cells to regulate cellular processes involving membrane-deformation, such as the timing of tubulation-mediated vesicle recycling.

  8. Shapes of Mixed Phospholipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Maldonado, Amir

    2006-01-01

    We studied the shape of phospholipid vesicles prepared by hydration of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine (SOPC) and phosphatidylserine (SOPS) in different proportions. The aim of the work is to obtain some insight into the influence of the chemical composition of a biomembrane on its shape. The optical microscopy results show that the shape of the vesicles depend on the SOPC:SOPS composition. For low SOPS contents, coiled cylindrical vesicles are observed. The results suggest that specific compositions of the SOPC:SOPS vesicles produce some spontaneous curvature on the membrane and then a coiling instability. PMID:19669461

  9. Yeast Membrane Vesicles: Isolation and General Characteristics1

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Michael S.; Cirillo, Vincent P.

    1972-01-01

    Yeast membrane vesicles are formed when packed yeast are ground manually in a porcelain mortar and pestle with glass beads (0.2 mm diameter). These vesicles can be separated from the other components of the grinding mixture by a combination of centrifugation steps and elution from a column of the same glass beads (0.2 mm diameter). Isolated vesicles are osmotically sensitive, contain cytoplasmic components, and have energy-independent transport function. They are unable to metabolize glucose, but have respiratory function which is thought to be associated with intravesicular mitochondria. Invertase and oligomycin-insensitive adenosine triphosphatase are present in lysed vesicle preparations, and the appropriateness of these enzyme activities as membrane markers is discussed. Images PMID:4337848

  10. Osmophoresis—a possible mechanism for vesicle trafficking in tip-growing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipchinsky, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    A mechanism for polarized transport of vesicles by means of osmotic propulsions is proposed and substantiated for tip-growing cells. An analysis is presented which shows that in pollen tubes the gradient of cytosolic water potential can drive vesicle movement either in the anterograde or retrograde direction, depending on the vesicle position, its radius and the phase of growth oscillation. The importance of transcellular water flow for cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility is highlighted.

  11. The native structure of cytoplasmic dynein at work translocating vesicles in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masaki; Aihara, Marilynn S; Allen, Richard D; Fok, Agnes K

    2011-01-01

    In Paramecium multimicronucleatum, the discoidal vesicles, the acidosomes and the 100-nm carrier vesicles are involved in phagosome formation, phagosome acidification and endosomal processing, respectively. Numerous cross bridges link these vesicles to the kinetic side of the microtubules of a cytopharyngeal microtubular ribbon. Vesicles are translocated along these ribbons in a minus-end direction towards the cytopharynx. A monoclonal antibody specific for the light vanadate-photocleaved fragment of the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein was used to show that this dynein is located between the discoidal vesicles and the ribbons as well as on the cytosolic surface of the acidosomes and the 100-nm carrier vesicles. This antibody inhibited the docking of the vesicles to the microtubular ribbons so that the transport of discoidal vesicles and acidosomes were reduced by 60% and 70%, respectively. It had little effect on the dynein's velocity of translocation. These results show that cytoplasmic dynein is the motor for vesicle translocation and its location, between the vesicles and the ribbons, indicates that the cross bridges seen at this location in thin sections and in quick-frozen, deep-etched replicas are apparently the working dyneins. Such a working dynein cross bridge, as preserved by ultra-rapid freezing, is 54 nm long and has two legs arising from a globular head that appears to be firmly bound to its cargo vesicle and each leg consists of ≥3 beaded subunits with the last subunit making contact with the microtubular ribbon.

  12. Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mobility of vesicles capturing anti-VGLUT1 antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stenovec, Matjaz Kreft, Marko Grilc, Sonja Potokar, Maja Kreft, Mateja Erdani Pangrsic, Tina Zorec, Robert

    2007-11-01

    Several aspects of secretory vesicle cycle have been studied in the past, but vesicle trafficking in relation to the fusion site is less well understood. In particular, the mobility of recaptured vesicles that traffic back toward the central cytoplasm is still poorly defined. We exposed astrocytes to antibodies against the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), a marker of glutamatergic vesicles, to fluorescently label vesicles undergoing Ca{sup 2+}-dependent exocytosis and examined their number, fluorescence intensity, and mobility by confocal microscopy. In nonstimulated cells, immunolabeling revealed discrete fluorescent puncta, indicating that VGLUT1 vesicles, which are approximately 50 nm in diameter, cycle slowly between the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. When the cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} level was raised with ionomycin, the number and fluorescence intensity of the puncta increased, likely because the VGLUT1 epitopes were more accessible to the extracellularly applied antibodies following Ca{sup 2+}-triggered exocytosis. In nonstimulated cells, the mobility of labeled vesicles was limited. In stimulated cells, many vesicles exhibited directional mobility that was abolished by cytoskeleton-disrupting agents, indicating dependence on intact cytoskeleton. Our findings show that postfusion vesicle mobility is regulated and may likely play a role in synaptic vesicle cycle, and also more generally in the genesis and removal of endocytic vesicles.

  13. Variation in PTCHD2, CRISP3, NAP1L4, FSCB, and AP3B2 associated with spherical equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Duggal, Priya; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Truitt, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Iyengar, Sudha K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ocular refraction is measured in spherical equivalent as the power of the external lens required to focus images on the retina. Myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness) are the most common refractive errors, and the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in the world. The goal of this study is to identify rare and low-frequency variants that influence spherical equivalent. Methods We conducted variant-level and gene-level quantitative trait association analyses for mean spherical equivalent, using data from 1,560 individuals in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Genotyping was conducted using the Illumina exome array. We analyzed 34,976 single nucleotide variants and 11,571 autosomal genes across the genome, using single-variant tests as well as gene-based tests. Results Spherical equivalent was significantly associated with five genes in gene-based analysis: PTCHD2 at 1p36.22 (p = 3.6 × 10−7), CRISP3 at 6p12.3 (p = 4.3 × 10−6), NAP1L4 at 11p15.5 (p = 3.6 × 10−6), FSCB at 14q21.2 (p = 1.5 × 10−7), and AP3B2 at 15q25.2 (p = 1.6 × 10−7). The variant-based tests identified evidence suggestive of association with two novel variants in linkage disequilibrium (pairwise r2 = 0.80) in the TCTE1 gene region at 6p21.1 (rs2297336, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 14.1%, β = –0.62 p = 3.7 × 10−6; rs324146, MAF = 16.9%, β = –0.55, p = 1.4 × 10−5). In addition to these novel findings, we successfully replicated a previously reported association with rs634990 near GJD2 at 15q14 (MAF = 47%, β = –0.29, p=1.8 × 10−3). We also found evidence of association with spherical equivalent on 2q37.1 in PRSS56 at rs1550094 (MAF = 31%, β = –0.33, p = 1.7 × 10−3), a region previously associated with myopia. Conclusions We identified several novel candidate genes that may play a role in the control of spherical equivalent. However, further studies are needed to replicate these findings. In addition, our results contribute to the

  14. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Diadenosine polyphosphates Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Reusch, Hans Peter

    2008-05-15

    Depending on the number of phosphate groups, diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A) differ in properties such as proliferation, apoptosis, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Possible signaling pathways leading to effects such as proliferation are still unknown. This study examined the proliferative effects of diadenosine polyphosphates on VSMCs and their intracellular pathways. Proliferation of VSMCs was measured by the cell count and [(3)H] thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was determined by Western blotting. Single-cell [Ca(2+)](i) measurements were done to determine the influence of [Ca(2+)](i) on intracellular signaling. Stress fiber formation was assessed by fluorescence microscopy to detect an influence of G alpha(12). Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, were shown to increase proliferation of VSMCs by activating P2Y receptors, which leads to stimulation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 cascade. Ap3A- and Ap4A-induced activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was dependent on a signaling pathway that included the EGF receptor, PKC, PLCbeta and the increase of [Ca(2+)](i). In conclusion, Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of VSMCs by a signaling pathway that begins with activation of P2Y receptors and leads to stimulation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2.

  16. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for Alcohol Preference, Withdrawal, and Ap3m2 Expression Using Integrative Functional Genomics and Precision Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jason A.; Jay, Jeremy J.; Baker, Christopher L.; Bergeson, Susan E.; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C.; Chesler, Elissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. PMID:24923803

  17. The COPII cage: unifying principles of vesicle coat assembly.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Cemal; Stagg, Scott M; Lapointe, Paul; Balch, William E

    2006-10-01

    Communication between compartments of the exocytic and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells involves transport carriers - vesicles and tubules - that mediate the vectorial movement of cargo. Recent studies of transport-carrier formation in the early secretory pathway have provided new insights into the mechanisms of cargo selection by coat protein complex-II (COPII) adaptor proteins, the construction of cage-protein scaffolds and fission. These studies are beginning to produce a unifying molecular and structural model of coat function in the formation and fission of vesicles and tubules in endomembrane traffic.

  18. Sugar uptake by intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; van Os, C H; Mircheff, A K

    1980-03-27

    A high yield of membrane vesicles was prepared from the basolateral surface of rat intestinal cells using an N2 cavitation bomb and density gradient centrifugation. The membranes were enriched 10-fold and were free of significatn contamination by brush border membranes and mitochondria. The rate of D-E114C]glucose and L-E13H]glucose uptake into the vesicle was measured using a rapid filtration technique. D-Glucose equilibrated within the vesicles with a half-time 1/25th that for L-glucose. The stereospecific uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 44 mM and a V of approx. 110 nmol . mg-1 min-1 at 10 degrees C. The activation energy for the process was 14 kcal . mol-1 below 15 degrees C and it approached 3 kcal . mol-1 above 22 degrees C. Carrier-mediated uptake was eliminated in the presence of 1 mM HgCl2 and 0.5 mM phloretin. The rate of transport was unaffected by the absence or presence of sodium concentration gradients. Competition studies demonstrated that all sugars with the D-glucose pyranose ring chair conformation shared the transport system, and that, with the possible exception of the -OH group at carbon No. 1, there were no specific requirements for an equatorial -OH group at any position in the pyranose ring. In the case of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside its inability to share the D-glucose transport system may be due to steric hindrance posed by the -OCH3 group rather than by a specific requirement for a free hydroxyl group at the position in the ring. It is concluded that sugars are transported across the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium by a facilitated diffusion system reminiscent of that in human red blood cells.

  19. Two-stage comprehensive evaluation of genetic susceptibility of common variants in FBXO38, AP3B2 and WHAMM to severe chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Shang, Dong; Dong, Li; Zeng, Lingfang; Yang, Rui; Xu, Jing; Wu, Yue; Xu, Ran; Tao, Hong; Zhang, Nan

    2015-12-08

    Chronic periodontitis is an oral disorder characterized with gingival inflammation and bone destruction. As the sixth-most prevalent condition affecting more than 743 million people around the world, it is classified as one of the seven destructive oral disorders. Early genetic epidemiological evidence indicated a major role for genetics in periodontal disease development. In this study, we conducted a two-stage comprehensive evaluation of the genetic susceptibility of FBXO38, AP3B2 and WHAMM with the diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. A total of 5,065 study subjects from the Han Chinese population consisting of 1,264 cases and 3,801 healthy controls were recruited, and 65 single nucleotide markers related to the three candidate genes were genotyped to investigate the susceptibility of patients with these polymorphisms to severe chronic periodontitis. To increase the coverage of genetic markers, we implemented imputation techniques to extend the number of tested makers to 416. Single marker and haplotype-based analyses were performed, and significant results were obtained for FBXO38 (rs10043775, P = 0.0009) and AP3B2 (rs11631963-rs11637433, CA, P = 9.98 × 10(-5); rs1864699-rs2099259-rs2278355, ATC, P = 3.84 × 10(-8)). Our findings provide direct evidence for the association of FBXO38 and AP3B2 with severe chronic periodontitis in the Han Chinese population.

  20. Vesicles with a double bilayer.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zygmunt H

    2004-01-01

    A modified reverse phase evaporation method was used to prepare intermediate unilamellar vesicles coated with an additional membrane, or large vesicles in which several vesicles were coated with a common membrane. In both kinds of vesicle, the outer and inner membranes are usually of different phospholipid composition. The preparation involves the formation of a double emulsion: vesicles in a buffer are emerged in a low-boiling point organic solution of phospholipids. Then the organic solvent is evaporated during the heating and mixing process. As result large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), about 100 nm in diameter, were coated with an additional membrane from egg lecithin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. The highest yield of the coating was about 50%. When DPPC was used for coating above the phase transition temperature Tm, the data suggested the formation of vesicles that were slightly larger than the starting LUVs. It might be concluded that many of these had a double bilayer. If the coating was done below Tm, the micrographs suggested the formation of structures resembling multi-vesicular vesicles. They looked like LUV clusters coated with a common membrane.

  1. Hydrodynamic interactions between two vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, Pierre-Yves; Dyfcom Team

    2011-11-01

    A giant vesicle is a closed elastic membrane containing a liquid, inside another liquid. Its size is around 10 microns. If a suspension of such objects is sheared, they sometimes come close and interact hydrodynamically. We studied how these interactions affect the trajectories of the vesicles. For this, we model the properties of the membrane, assuming that the area of a surface element is constant in the course of time, and that it resists bending. We also assume that the inside and outside fluids are Newtonian, and are in the creeping regime. To solve the partial differential equations arising from this model, we used two methods : an asymptotic expansion around spherical shapes for vesicles far away from each other (3d case), and a boudary integral method (2d case). We find that vesicles repel, and that this repulsion decreases with initial transverse distance. We compare our results with experimental results performed with vesicles flowing in microfluidic devices.

  2. Molecular recognition of bilayer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Voskuhl, Jens; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2009-02-01

    Vesicles have been a versatile topic of research in chemistry ever since the discovery that, besides phospholipids, synthetic amphiphiles can also form molecular bilayers enclosing a small aqueous compartment. Non-covalent interactions of receptors and ligands or hosts and guests at vesicle surfaces resemble recognition processes at biological membranes, including cell recognition, adhesion and fusion. Molecular recognition at membranes is often mediated by a multivalent instead of a monovalent interaction. This tutorial review describes the basics as well as the latest developments in biomimetic supramolecular chemistry of bilayer vesicles. We describe how molecular recognition can mediate the interaction between vesicles, and how the biomimetic supramolecular chemistry of vesicles furthers our understanding of biological membranes.

  3. Transport of Ca2+ across Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    ws close to one with an error limit of about 10%. Therefore, in contradiction ith previous findings ( Kafka and Dolz, 1976) our results Indicate a...lariat Pether series. L •9 tETERENCES , yono, A. , Hendriks. T., Daement, F.J.H. and Bonting, S.L. 11975) Biochim. Biophys. Act& M 34-46. Kafka , M.S

  4. Matching kinetics of synaptic vesicle recycling and enhanced neurotransmitter influx by Ca2+ in brain plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kovács, I; Szárics, E; Nyitrai, G; Blandl, T; Kardos, J

    1998-11-01

    Using native plasma membrane vesicle suspensions from the rat cerebral cortex under conditions designed to alter intravesicular [Ca2+], we found that Ca2+ induced 47 +/- 5% more influx of [3H]GABA, [3H]D-aspartate and [3H]glycine at 37 degrees C with half-times 1.7 +/- 0.5, 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 1.3 +/- 0.4 min, respectively. We labelled GABA transporter sites with the uptake inhibitor, [3H]-(R,S)-N-[4,4-bis(3-methyl-2-thienyl)but-3-en-1-yl]nipecotic acid and found that Ca2+ induced a partial dissociation of the bound inhibitor from GABA transporter sites with a similar half-time. By means of rapid kinetic techniques applied to native plasma membrane vesicle suspensions, containing synaptic vesicles stained with the amphipathic fluorescent styryl membrane probe N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-[4-(dibutylamino)styryl]pyrid inium dibromide, we have measured the progress of the release and reuptake of synaptic vesicles in response to Ca2+ and high-[K+] depolarization in the 0.0004-100 s range of time. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis, strongly influenced by external [Ca2+], appeared with the kinetics accelerated by depolarization. These results are consistent with the potential involvement of Ca2+ in taking low-affinity transporters to the plasma membrane surface via exocytosis.

  5. Proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, X.

    1985-01-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles were prepared from bovine brain catalyze ATP-driven proton translocation and a /sup 32/Pi-ATP exchange reaction. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) at 1 mM and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) at 0.5 mM inhibit the pump completely, whereas neither vanadate, efrapeptin, NaN/sub 3/, nor mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor has an effect. The coated vesicle proton pump is characterized by ATP specificity. dATP, but no other nucleotide, can replace ATP as a substrate. The pump is electrogenic and the electrogenicity is neutralized by chloride or bromide serving as co-ions. ATP-driven proton translocation can be observed in the absence of chloride, provided that the membrane potential is collapsed by K/sup +/ moving out in the presence of valinomycin. Chloride transport can be observed independent of proton movements in the absence of ATP, provided that an inside positive membrane potential is generated by K/sup +/ influx in the presence of valinomycin. The proton-translocating ATPase of coated vesicles was solubilized with a nonionic detergent polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether, and purified about 700 fold to near homogeneity. During purification the enzymatic activity was lost. A purified brain phospholipid fraction restored the activity and was subsequently identified as phosphatidylserine.

  6. Modulating motility of intracellular vesicles in cortical neurons with nanomagnetic forces on-chip.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Anja; Murray, Coleman Tylor; Godzich, Chanya; Lin, Jonathan; Owsley, Keegan; Tay, Andy; Di Carlo, Dino

    2017-02-28

    Vesicle transport is a major underlying mechanism of cell communication. Inhibiting vesicle transport in brain cells results in blockage of neuronal signals, even in intact neuronal networks. Modulating intracellular vesicle transport can have a huge impact on the development of new neurotherapeutic concepts, but only if we can specifically interfere with intracellular transport patterns. Here, we propose to modulate motion of intracellular lipid vesicles in rat cortical neurons based on exogenously bioconjugated and cell internalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) within microengineered magnetic gradients on-chip. Upon application of 6-126 pN on intracellular vesicles in neuronal cells, we explored how the magnetic force stimulus impacts the motion pattern of vesicles at various intracellular locations without modulating the entire cell morphology. Altering vesicle dynamics was quantified using, mean square displacement, a caging diameter and the total traveled distance. We observed a de-acceleration of intercellular vesicle motility, while applying nanomagnetic forces to cultured neurons with SPIONs, which can be explained by a decrease in motility due to opposing magnetic force direction. Ultimately, using nanomagnetic forces inside neurons may permit us to stop the mis-sorting of intracellular organelles, proteins and cell signals, which have been associated with cellular dysfunction. Furthermore, nanomagnetic force applications will allow us to wirelessly guide axons and dendrites by exogenously using permanent magnetic field gradients.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Calcifying Matrix Vesicles from Epiphyseal Cartilage*

    PubMed Central

    Ali, S. Y.; Sajdera, S. W.; Anderson, H. C.

    1970-01-01

    Matrix vesicles, associated with initial calcification in cartilage, have been isolated from bovine fetal epiphyseal cartilage. Cartilage was digested with collagenase, then partitioned into seven fractions by differential centrifugation. The cellular fractions contained over 80% of the DNA in the digest. The extracellular fraction that contained matrix vesicles, in which apatite crystals were often seen on electron microscopy, also displayed the highest specific activity for alkaline phosphatase, pyrophosphatase, ATPase, and 5′-AMPase (EC 3.1.3.1., 3.6.1.1, 3.6.1.3, and 3.1.3.5, respectively). Most of the acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) activity, on the other hand, was found in the cellular fractions, indicating that matrix vesicles are quite distinct from lysosomes. This appears to be the first instance of isolation of membrane-bounded extracellular particles from any normal tissue. The matrix vesicles possess enzymes that can increase the local concentration of orthophosphate and thus could lead to the formation of hydroxyapatite. The membrane-bounded matrix vesicles may also provide a mechanism for ATP-dependent transport of calcium or phosphate into the lumen of the vesicles with resultant mineralization. Images PMID:5274475

  8. Intracellular fates of cell-penetrating block copolypeptide vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Victor Z; Li, Zhibo; Deming, Timothy J; Kamei, Daniel T

    2011-01-10

    The block copolypeptide poly(l-homoarginine)(60)-b-poly(l-leucine)(20) (R(60)L(20)) was previously found to self-assemble into versatile vesicles with controllable size and encapsulate hydrophilic cargo. These R(60)L(20) vesicles also demonstrated the ability to cross the cell membrane and transport encapsulated cargo into different cell lines. To assess the potential for using the R(60)L(20) vesicles as drug delivery vehicles further, we have investigated their endocytosis and intracellular trafficking behavior. Using drugs that inhibit different endocytosis pathways, we identified macropinocytosis to be a major process by which the R(60)L(20) vesicles enter HeLa cells. Subsequent immunostaining experiments demonstrated that the vesicles entered the early endosomes but not the lysosomes, suggesting that they recycle back to the cell surface. Overall, our studies indicate that the R(60)L(20) vesicles are able to enter cells intact with their cargos, and although some manage to escape from early endosomes, most are trapped within these intracellular compartments.

  9. Na sup + uptake into colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, R.J.; Garty, H.; Benos, D.J.; Rummel, W. Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham )

    1988-04-01

    Na{sup +} uptake was studied in colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles prepared from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats. Vesicles from rats treated with dexamethasone demonstrated a fivefold greater {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake compared with vesicles from normal rats. Most of the tracer uptake in membranes derived from treated rats occurred through a conductive, amiloride-blockable pathway located in vesicles with low native K{sup +} permeability and high Cl{sup {minus}} permeability. Kinetic analysis of the amiloride inhibition curve revealed the presence of two amiloride-blockable pathways, one with a high affinity accounting for 85% of the uptake, and one with a low affinity accounting for only 12% of the uptake. Only the low-affinity pathway was detected with vesicles from normal rats. The high sensitivity to amiloride, the dependence on dexamethasone pretreatment, and the relative permeabilities to K{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} indicate that most of the {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake in membranes derived from treated rats is through a Na{sup +}-specific channel located in apical membrane vesicles. Preincubation of the isolated cells from dexamethasone-treated rats at 37{degree}C in Ca{sup 2+}-free solutions before homogenization and membrane vesicle purification caused a 5- to 10-fold increase in amiloride-blockable {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake compared with vesicles derived from cells maintained at 0{degree}C. The addition of Ca{sup 2+}, but not of Mg{sup 2+}, to the incubation solution markedly reduced this temperature-dependent enhancement in {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake. These results suggest that Na{sup +} transport in colonic enterocytes from dexamethasone-treated rats is regulated by a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, temperature-sensitive process which causes a sustained change in the apical membrane.

  10. Mass spectrometry of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Stanly, Christopher; Vilasi, Annalisa; Fiume, Immacolata; Capasso, Giovambattista; Turiák, Lilla; Buzas, Edit I; Vékey, Károly

    2016-01-01

    The review briefly summaries main features of extracellular vesicles, a joint terminology for exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic vesicles. These vesicles are in the center of interest in biology and medical sciences, and form a very active field of research. Mass spectrometry (MS), with its specificity and sensitivity, has the potential to identify and characterize molecular composition of these vesicles; but as yet there are only a limited, but fast-growing, number of publications that use MS workflows in this field. MS is the major tool to assess protein composition of extracellular vesicles: qualitative and quantitative proteomics approaches are both reviewed. Beside proteins, lipid and metabolite composition of vesicles might also be best assessed by MS techniques; however there are few applications as yet in this respect. The role of alternative analytical approaches, like gel-based proteomics and antibody-based immunoassays, are also mentioned. The objective of the review is to give an overview of this fast-growing field to help orient MS-based research on extracellular vesicles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effective Mechanism for Synthesis of Neurotransmitter Glutamate and its Loading into Synaptic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kouji; Ueda, Tetsufumi

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate accumulation into synaptic vesicles is a pivotal step in glutamate transmission. This process is achieved by a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) coupled to v-type proton ATPase. Normal synaptic transmission, in particular during intensive neuronal firing, would demand rapid transmitter re-filling of emptied synaptic vesicles. We have previously shown that isolated synaptic vesicles are capable of synthesizing glutamate from α-ketoglutarate (not from glutamine) by vesicle-bound aspartate aminotransferase for immediate uptake, in addition to ATP required for uptake by vesicle-bound glycolytic enzymes. This suggests that local synthesis of these substances, essential for glutamate transmission, could occur at the synaptic vesicle. Here we provide evidence that synaptosomes (pinched-off nerve terminals) also accumulate α-ketoglutarate-derived glutamate into synaptic vesicles within, at the expense of ATP generated through glycolysis. Glutamine-derived glutamate is also accumulated into synaptic vesicles in synaptosomes. The underlying mechanism is discussed. It is suggested that local synthesis of both glutamate and ATP at the presynaptic synaptic vesicle would represent an efficient mechanism for swift glutamate loading into synaptic vesicles, supporting maintenance of normal synaptic transmission.

  12. A role for