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Sample records for apache ii child-pugh

  1. A comparison of Child-Pugh, APACHE II and APACHE III scoring systems in predicting hospital mortality of patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chatzicostas, Constantinos; Roussomoustakaki, Maria; Notas, Georgios; Vlachonikolis, Ioannis G; Samonakis, Demetrios; Romanos, John; Vardas, Emmanouel; Kouroumalis, Elias A

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic accuracy of Child-Pugh and APACHE II and III scoring systems in predicting short-term, hospital mortality of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods 200 admissions of 147 cirrhotic patients (44% viral-associated liver cirrhosis, 33% alcoholic, 18.5% cryptogenic, 4.5% both viral and alcoholic) were studied prospectively. Clinical and laboratory data conforming to the Child-Pugh, APACHE II and III scores were recorded on day 1 for all patients. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under a ROC curve (AUC). Calibration was estimated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Results Overall mortality was 11.5%. The mean Child-Pugh, APACHE II and III scores for survivors were found to be significantly lower than those of nonsurvivors. Discrimination was excellent for Child-Pugh (ROC AUC: 0.859) and APACHE III (ROC AUC: 0.816) scores, and acceptable for APACHE II score (ROC AUC: 0.759). Although the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic revealed adequate goodness-of-fit for Child-Pugh score (P = 0.192), this was not the case for APACHE II and III scores (P = 0.004 and 0.003 respectively) Conclusion Our results indicate that, of the three models, Child-Pugh score had the least statistically significant discrepancy between predicted and observed mortality across the strata of increasing predicting mortality. This supports the hypothesis that APACHE scores do not work accurately outside ICU settings. PMID:12735793

  2. Safety and efficacy of sorafenib in patients with Child-Pugh B advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    DA Fonseca, Leonardo Gomes; Barroso-Sousa, Romualdo; Bento, Afonso DA Silva Alves; Blanco, Bruna Paccola; Valente, Gabriel Luis; Pfiffer, Tulio Eduardo Flesch; Hoff, Paulo Marcelo; Sabbaga, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Sorafenib demonstrated a survival benefit in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in phase III trials. However, almost all the patients included in those trials exhibited well-preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A). The aim of this study was to describe our experience with sorafenib in Child-Pugh B HCC patients. A database of patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib was retrospectively evaluated. The median overall survival of Child-Pugh B patients (n=20) was 2.53 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-5.92 months] and of Child-Pugh A patients (n=100) 9.71 months (95% CI: 6.22-13.04). Child-Pugh B patients had a significantly poorer survival compared to Child-Pugh A patients (P=0.002). The toxicities were similar between the two groups. Metastasis, vascular invasion and α-fetoprotein level >1,030 ng/ml were not associated with survival among Child-Pugh B patients (P=0.281, 0.189 and 0.996, respectively). Although the survival outcomes were worse in Child-Pugh B patients treated with sorafenib, the toxicity profile was manageable. Therefore, there remains the question of whether to treat this subgroup of patients and more data are required to define the role of sorafenib in the context of liver dysfunction.

  3. Evaluation of APACHE II for cost containment and quality assurance.

    PubMed Central

    Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J A; Nelson, L D

    1990-01-01

    APACHE II (an acronym formed from acute physiology score and chronic health evaluation) has been proposed to limit intensive care unit (ICU) admissions ('cost containment') and to judge outcome ('quality assurance') of surgical patients. To judge its performance, a 6-month study of 372 surgical ICU patients was performed. When patients were divided by mean duration of stay, mortality rates rose from 1% (short stay) to 19% (long stay) (p less than 0.001) for patients with APACHE II scores less than 10, but decreased from 94% (short stay) to 60% (long stay) (p less than 0.01) for patients with APACHE II scores more than 24. Exclusion of patients by high or low APACHE scores would 'save' 6% of ICU days but risk increasing morbidity, hospital costs, and deaths. Grouped APACHE II scores did not correlate with total hospital charges (r = 0.05, p = 0.89) or ICU days used (r = 0.42, p = 0.17). Grouping by APACHE II score and duration of ICU stay showed neither symmetry nor uniformity of mortality rates. Surgical patients would not be well served by APACHE II for quality assurance or cost containment. PMID:2396881

  4. Dose Reduction of Caspofungin in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Child Pugh B Will Result in Suboptimal Exposure.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Schouten, Jeroen A; van Leeuwen, Henk J; van Zanten, Arthur R; de Lange, Dylan W; Muilwijk, Eline W; Verweij, Paul E; Burger, David M; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Pickkers, Peter; Dorlo, Thomas P C

    2016-06-01

    Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent used as first-line therapy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. The maintenance dose is adapted to body weight (BW) or liver function (Child-Pugh score B or C). We aimed to study the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin and assess pharmacokinetic target attainment for various dosing strategies. Caspofungin pharmacokinetic data from 21 intensive care unit (ICU) patients was available. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed. Various dosing regimens (loading dose/maintenance dose) were simulated: licensed regimens (I) 70/50 mg (for BW <80 kg) or 70/70 mg (for BW >80 kg); and (II) 70/35 mg (for Child-Pugh score B); and adapted regimens (III) 100/50 mg (for Child-Pugh score B); (IV) 100/70 mg; and (V) 100/100 mg. Target attainment based on a preclinical pharmacokinetic target for Candida albicans was assessed for relevant minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). A two-compartment model best fitted the data. Clearance was 0.55 L/h and the apparent volumes of distribution in the central and peripheral compartments were 8.9 and 5.0 L, respectively. The median area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h on day 14 for regimens I-V were 105, 65, 93, 130, and 186 mg·h/L, respectively. Pharmacokinetic target attainment was 100 % (MIC 0.03 µg/mL) irrespective of dosing regimen but decreased to (I) 47 %, (II) 14 %, (III) 36 %, (IV) 69 %, and (V) 94 % for MIC 0.125 µg/mL. The caspofungin maintenance dose should not be reduced in non-cirrhotic ICU patients based on the Child-Pugh score if this classification is driven by hypoalbuminemia as it results in significantly lower exposure. A higher maintenance dose of 70 mg in ICU patients results in target attainment of >90 % of the ICU patients with species with an MIC of up to 0.125 µg/mL.

  5. Results of treatment of esophageal variceal hemorrhage with endoscopic injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joao Paulo; Matuguma, Sérgio Eiji; Cheng, Spencer; Herman, Paulo; Sakai, Paulo; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The results of endoscopic treatment with elastic band ligation for esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis remain poor. In comparison with treatment with elastic band ligation, we have found lower rates of rebleeding and mortality with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injections. Thus, the aim of the current study was to describe our unit’s 10 years of experience with injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate to control esophageal variceal ruptures in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis. Patients and methods: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted. Sixty-three patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis had been admitted to the center with an acute episode of esophageal variceal bleeding. All were treated with injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to their Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis scores: group I (score range, 10 through 13 points) and group II (score, 14 or 15 points). The 3 variables studied were rates of initial failure to control bleeding, failure to prevent rebleeding (secondary prophylaxis), and mortality. Patients in the 2 groups (group I, n = 50; group II, n = 13) had similar characteristics. Results: Bleeding was successfully controlled in almost 75 % of the patients during the first 5 days after treatment, with no significant differences observed between groups I and II. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to mortality rate for the first 5 days after treatment. Thirty-four patients (54 %) were free of bleeding at 6 weeks after treatment, with a significant difference noted between the groups: group I, 64 %, versus group II, 15.4 % (P < 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 44.4 %, with a significant difference noted between the groups: group I, 34 %, versus group II, 84.6 % (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Endoscopic injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a valid treatment

  6. Safety of the 2D/3D direct-acting antiviral regimen in HCV-induced Child-Pugh A cirrhosis - A pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Poordad, Fred; Nelson, David R; Feld, Jordan J; Fried, Michael W; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Larsen, Lois; Cohen, Daniel E; Cohen, Eric; Mobashery, Niloufar; Tatsch, Fernando; Foster, Graham R

    2017-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with cirrhosis are a high-priority population for treatment. To help inform the benefit-risk profile of the all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r±DSV) in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, we undertook a comprehensive review of AbbVie-sponsored clinical trials enrolling patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. Twelve phase II or III clinical trials of the 2-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r±ribavirin (RBV) or the 3-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r+DSV±RBV that included patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis were reviewed; patients who completed treatment by November 16, 2015 were included in a pooled, post hoc safety assessment. The number and percentage of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, and TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were reported. In 1,066 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, rates of serious TEAEs and TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation were 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1-6.8) and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2), respectively. Thirteen patients (1.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-2.1) had a TEAE that was consistent with hepatic decompensation. The most frequent TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were ascites (n=8), esophageal variceal hemorrhage (n=4), and hepatic encephalopathy (n=2). This pooled analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis confirms the safety of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this population. These results support the use of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this high-priority population. Lay summary: This pooled safety analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with compensated cirrhosis, receiving treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with or without dasabuvir, with or without ribavirin, shows that the rate of hepatic decompensation events was similar to previously reported rates in untreated patients. Copyright © 2017 European

  7. Comprehensive Modeling of the Apache with CAMRAD II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Kunz, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a report of a multi year study of the U.S. Army LONGBOW APACHE (AH-64D) aircraft. The goals of this study were to provide the Apache Project Managers Office (PMO) with a broad spectrum of calibrated comprehensive and CFD models of the AH-64D aircraft. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the comprehensive model which has been developed. The CAMRAD II computer code was chosen to complete this task. The paper first discusses issues that must be addressed when modeling the Apache using CAMRAD. The work required the acquisition of a data base for the aircraft and the development and application of a multidisciplinary computer model. Sample results from various parts of the model are presented. Conclusions with regard to the strengths and weaknesses of simulations based on this model are discussed.

  8. Comprehensive Modeling of the Apache With CAMRAD II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Kunz, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a report of a multi year study of the U.S. Army LONGBOW APACHE (AH-64D) aircraft. The goals of this study were to provide the Apache Project Managers Office (PMO) with a broad spectrum of calibrated comprehensive and CFD models of the AH-64D aircraft. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the comprehensive model which has been developed. The CAMRAD II computer code was chosen to complete this task. The paper first discusses issues that must be addressed when modeling the Apache using CAMRAD. The work required the acquisition of a data base for the aircraft and the development and application of a multidisciplinary computer model. Sample results from various parts of the model are presented. Conclusions with regard to the strengths and weaknesses of simulations based on this model are discussed.

  9. Comprehensive Modeling of the Apache with CAMRAD II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Kunz, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a report of a multi year study of the U.S. Army LONGBOW APACHE (AH-64D) aircraft. The goals of this study were to provide the Apache Project Managers Office (PMO) with a broad spectrum of calibrated comprehensive and CFD models of the AH-64D aircraft. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the comprehensive model which has been developed. The CAMRAD II computer code was chosen to complete this task. The paper first discusses issues that must be addressed when modeling the Apache using CAMRAD. The work required the acquisition of a data base for the aircraft and the development and application of a multidisciplinary computer model. Sample results from various parts of the model are presented. Conclusions with regard to the strengths and weaknesses of simulations based on this model are discussed.

  10. Comprehensive Modeling of the Apache With CAMRAD II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Kunz, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a report of a multi year study of the U.S. Army LONGBOW APACHE (AH-64D) aircraft. The goals of this study were to provide the Apache Project Managers Office (PMO) with a broad spectrum of calibrated comprehensive and CFD models of the AH-64D aircraft. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the comprehensive model which has been developed. The CAMRAD II computer code was chosen to complete this task. The paper first discusses issues that must be addressed when modeling the Apache using CAMRAD. The work required the acquisition of a data base for the aircraft and the development and application of a multidisciplinary computer model. Sample results from various parts of the model are presented. Conclusions with regard to the strengths and weaknesses of simulations based on this model are discussed.

  11. Chronic hepatitis B and D: prognosis according to Child-Pugh score.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcelo Siqueira de; Silva, Romeu Paulo Martins; Valle, Suiane da Costa Negreiros do; Figueiredo, Elisabeth Níglio de; Fram, Dayana

    2017-01-01

    compare chronic hepatitis B patients to those superinfected with hepatitis D virus, according to Child-Pugh score regarding disease severity. retrospective descriptive study, performed with 59 patients followed in the ambulatory, of which 22 (37.3%) were chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (Group HBV) and 37 (62.7%) superinfected with Delta virus (Group HBV+HDV); variables of sex, age and items of Child-Pugh score were collected by consulting medical records. out of the patients, 57.6% were male, with a mean age of 30.5 years. Score A, which indicates lesser severity, was found in 100% of group HBV and 78.4% of group HBV+HDV. Score B, which indicates greater severity, was found only in group HBV+HDV in 21.6% of the patients. by means of the Child-Pugh score, it was observed that patients with superinfection by HDV tended to present a worse prognosis. comparar os pacientes com hepatite B crônica com superinfectados pelo vírus D segundo escore de Child-Pugh quanto à gravidade da doença. estudo descritivo retrospectivo, realizado com 59 pacientes acompanhados em ambulatório, sendo 22 (37,3%) cronicamente infectados pelo vírus da hepatite B (Grupo VHB) e 37 (62,7%) com superinfecção por vírus Delta (Grupo VHB+VHD); foram coletadas variáveis quanto ao sexo, idade e referentes ao escore de Child-Pugh por meio de consulta a prontuários. entre os pacientes 57,6% era do sexo masculino, com idade média de 30,5 anos. O escore A, que indica menor gravidade, foi encontrado em 100% do grupo VHB e 78,4% do grupo VHB+VHD. O escore B, que indica maior gravidade, foi encontrado apenas no grupo VHB+VHD em 21,6% dos pacientes. por meio do escore de Child-Pugh, observou-se que os pacientes com superinfecção por VHD tendem a apresentar pior prognóstico.

  12. Hepatic decompensation with sofosbuvir plus simeprevir in a patient with Child-Pugh B compensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Vincent; Barreiro, Pablo; de Mendoza, Carmen; Peña, José M

    2016-01-01

    A 75-year-old male with compensated Child-Pugh B cirrhosis initiated sofosbuvir plus simeprevir, and developed hepatic decompensation and died a few days thereafter. High exposure to simeprevir leading to hepatotoxicity most likely explained this fatal outcome. This observation, along with similar cases recently reported in the literature, should raise awareness of the potential for decompensation in patients with advanced cirrhosis treated with simeprevir.

  13. Is hepatic resection absolutely contraindicated for hepatocellular carcinoma in Child-Pugh class C cirrhotic patients?

    PubMed

    Wu, C C; Ho, W L; Lin, M C; Tang, J S; Yeh, D C; Liu, T J; P'eng, F K

    1999-01-01

    Liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Child-Pugh class C cirrhotic patients is considered to be high risk and even contraindicated. This study examined our results of hepatectomy for HCC in such cirrhotic patients. A retrospective review of the clinicopathological features, as well as early and late resection results of Child-Pugh class A (n = 181) and class C patients (n = 13) were compared. The extent of hepatectomy was based on the pre-operative liver function test and indocyanine-green (ICG) clearance rate. The tumor size in class C patients was smaller than that in class A patients. There were no significant differences with regard to operative blood loss, amount of blood transfusion, operative morbidity or mortality. The surgical margins of class C patients were narrower (p = 0.003). The tumors of class C patients had higher incidences of well-formed capsules and absence of satellite nodules. The 5-year disease-free and actuarial survival rates of class A and C patients were 35.4% and 40.7% (p = 0.28), and 48% and 50% (p = 0.13), respectively. Not all HCCs in Child-Pugh class C cirrhotic patients are contraindicated for liver resection. In the absence of uncontrollable ascites, marked jaundice and encephalopathy, surgical resection is still justified in some selected cases, in spite of a narrow surgical margin.

  14. Better prognostic marker in ICU - APACHE II, SOFA or SAP II!

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Iftikhar Haider; Mahmood, Khalid; Ziaullaha, Syed; Kashif, Syed Mohammad; Sharif, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to determine the comparative efficacy of different scoring system in assessing the prognosis of critically ill patients. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in medical intensive care unit (MICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) Medical Unit III, Civil Hospital, from April 2012 to August 2012. All patients over age 16 years old who have fulfilled the criteria for MICU admission were included. Predictive mortality of APACHE II, SAP II and SOFA were calculated. Calibration and discrimination were used for validity of each scoring model. Results: A total of 96 patients with equal gender distribution were enrolled. The average APACHE II score in non-survivors (27.97+8.53) was higher than survivors (15.82+8.79) with statistically significant p value (<0.001). The average SOFA score in non-survivors (9.68+4.88) was higher than survivors (5.63+3.63) with statistically significant p value (<0.001). SAP II average score in non-survivors (53.71+19.05) was higher than survivors (30.18+16.24) with statistically significant p value (<0.001). Conclusion: All three tested scoring models (APACHE II, SAP II and SOFA) would be accurate enough for a general description of our ICU patients. APACHE II has showed better calibration and discrimination power than SAP II and SOFA. PMID:27882011

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Sorafenib in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Child-Pugh A versus B Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Amadori, Dino; Santoro, Armando; Figer, Arie; De Greve, Jacques; Lathia, Chetan; Voliotis, Dimitris; Anderson, Sibyl; Moscovici, Marius; Ricci, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a phase II study evaluating sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to assess differences in safety and efficacy based on Child-Pugh (CP) status (A/B). Patients received sorafenib 400 mg PO bid. We analyzed safety, pharmacokinetic (PK), and efficacy data in the two CP groups. Ninety-eight patients were CP A; 38 were CP B, with a median duration of therapy of 4 and 1.8 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events in the CP A and B groups, respectively, included hyperbilirubinemia (14% and 53%), ascites (3% and 5%), and encephalopathy (3% and 13%). Median overall survival (OS) in the CP A group was 9.5 months, compared with 3.2 months in the CP B population. Responses were limited in both groups. AUC and C(max) values were comparable between the two groups. Due to the lack of randomization against placebo or no therapy in this study, it is unclear if the more frequent worsening of liver cirrhosis and outcome of CP B patients are drug related or due to disease progression, or both. As expected, outcome was poorer in patients with CP B than in those with CP A cirrhosis. The hyperbilirubinemia seen in both groups may be at least partly related to inhibition of UGT1A1 by sorafenib. PK profiles were similar in the two groups. More data are needed to confirm and more fully understand the safety and efficacy of sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC and CP B cirrhosis.

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Sorafenib in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Child-Pugh A versus B Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Amadori, Dino; Santoro, Armando; Figer, Arie; De Greve, Jacques; Lathia, Chetan; Voliotis, Dimitris; Anderson, Sibyl; Moscovici, Marius; Ricci, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a phase II study evaluating sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to assess differences in safety and efficacy based on Child-Pugh (CP) status (A/B). Methods: Patients received sorafenib 400 mg PO bid. We analyzed safety, pharmacokinetic (PK), and efficacy data in the two CP groups. Results: Ninety-eight patients were CP A; 38 were CP B, with a median duration of therapy of 4 and 1.8 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events in the CP A and B groups, respectively, included hyperbilirubinemia (14% and 53%), ascites (3% and 5%), and encephalopathy (3% and 13%). Median overall survival (OS) in the CP A group was 9.5 months, compared with 3.2 months in the CP B population. Responses were limited in both groups. AUC and Cmax values were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions: Due to the lack of randomization against placebo or no therapy in this study, it is unclear if the more frequent worsening of liver cirrhosis and outcome of CP B patients are drug related or due to disease progression, or both. As expected, outcome was poorer in patients with CP B than in those with CP A cirrhosis. The hyperbilirubinemia seen in both groups may be at least partly related to inhibition of UGT1A1 by sorafenib. PK profiles were similar in the two groups. More data are needed to confirm and more fully understand the safety and efficacy of sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC and CP B cirrhosis. PMID:21673874

  17. Superselective transarterial chemoembolization vs hepatic resection for resectable early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Child-Pugh class a liver function.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chu, Chi-Hung; Chan, De-Chuan; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shih, Ming-Lang; Hsieh, Huan-Fa; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Yu, Chih-Yung; Hsieh, Chung-Bao

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to hepatic resection (HR) for resectable early-stage HCC, the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is controversial. This study is designed to compare the long-term outcome of TACE using superselective technique with hepatic resection for the treating resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function. In total, 185 consecutive patients with resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function were included: 73 patients received superselective TACE (group I) and 112 patients underwent HR (group II). We evaluated the therapy-related recurrence and long-term outcome and in both groups. The risk factors of recurrence and mortality were assessed by Cox's model. The mean survival time of group 1 patient was similar to that of group 2 patient (40.8±19.8 vs 46.7±24.6 months respectively, p=0.91). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after TACE (group I)and HR (group II) were 91%, 66%, and 52% and 93%, 71%, and 57%, respectively (p=0.239). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates in groups 1 and 2 were 68%, 28%, and 17% and 78%, 55%, and 35%, respectively (p<0.0001). Serum albumin, tumour size, tumour number and recurrence interval were independent risk factors for mortality. Serum albumin level, tumour size, tumour number, and treatment modality of TACE or HR could predict HCC recurrence. TACE is an efficient and safe treatment for resectable early-stage HCC with overall survival rates similar to that of HR. Thus, TACE is indicated in selected patients with resectable early-stage HCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of two simplified severity scores (SAPS and APACHE II) for patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Moreau, R; Soupison, T; Vauquelin, P; Derrida, S; Beaucour, H; Sicot, C

    1989-05-01

    The Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), the Acute Physiology Score (APS), and the Coronary Prognostic Index (CPI), calculated within the first 24 h of ICU admission, were compared in 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sixteen (21%) patients subsequently died in the ICU. The nonsurvivors had significantly higher SAPS, APACHE II, and CPI scores than the survivors. ROC curves drawn for each severity index were in a discriminating position. There were no significant differences either between the areas under the ROC curves drawn for SAPS, APACHE II, and CPI, or between the overall accuracies of these indices. APS provided less homogeneous information. We conclude that SAPS and APACHE II, two severity indices which are easy to use, assess accurately the short-term prognosis, i.e., the ICU outcome, of patients with AMI.

  19. Modified Child-Pugh score as a marker for postoperative bleeding from invasive dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Valerin, Manuel A; Napeñas, Joel J; Brennan, Michael T; Fox, Philip C; Lockhart, Peter B

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the modified Child-Pugh score (MCP) is associated with peri- and postoperative bleeding complications from invasive dental procedures in patients with advanced liver disease. Patients with advanced liver disease who underwent an invasive dental procedure were identified retrospectively. The following information was collected for each patient: demographics, the MCP values (albumin, bilirubin, prothrombin time [PT], ascites, and encephalopathy), platelet count, adjunctive postoperative procedures (APPs) (e.g., administration of replacement blood products) following invasive dental procedures, and peri- and postoperative bleeding complications. The primary outcome was the need for APP to manage postoperative bleeding. Fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen (25%) patients required one or more APP to control postoperative bleeding. The MCP score, bilirubin, and PT were higher, and the platelet count was lower in the APP group. Ascites was more common in the APP group. In addition to traditionally used parameters of bleeding in advanced liver disease, the MCP was found to be associated with postoperative bleeding complications in this patient population.

  20. [Blood lactic acid level and APACHE II score on prognosis of critically ill elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Li, Zhi-gang; Sun, Xiao-lin

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the relevance between blood lactic acid level and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score in order to provide guideline for clinical treatment. Retrospective analyses on 537 critically ill elderly patients who were hospitalized in the ICU with their blood lactic acid level tested and APACHE II scores calculated. The overall death rate was 35.75% (192/537) with the APACHE II score as (22.6±12.8), and blood lactic acid level as (6.84±2.01) mmol/L. The blood lactic acid level among deaths was obviously higher than in the control group, with significant differences (P<0.05). The level of blood lactic acid was positively related to APACHE II score (r=0.572, P<0.05) while the death rate was both positively related to APACHE II score (r=0.475, P<0.05) and the level of blood lactic acid (r=0.506, P<0.05). There seemed a positive correlation between blood lactic acid level and the APACHE II score. Both of them showed good relevance with the prognosis of the disease.

  1. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  2. Ramucirumab as Second-Line Treatment in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Analysis of REACH Trial Results by Child-Pugh Score.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andrew X; Baron, Ari David; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kudo, Masatoshi; Kawazoe, Seiji; Pezet, Denis; Weissinger, Florian; Brandi, Giovanni; Barone, Carlo A; Okusaka, Takuji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Park, Joon Oh; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Cho, Jae Yong; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Li, Chung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Jui; Lee, Kuan-Der; Chang, Shao-Chun; Yang, Ling; Abada, Paolo B; Chau, Ian

    2016-09-22

    REACH is the first phase 3 trial to provide information on hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in the second-line (postsorafenib) setting categorized by Child-Pugh score, a scoring system used to measure the severity of chronic liver disease. This exploratory analysis demonstrates the relationship between a potential ramucirumab survival benefit, severity of liver disease, and baseline α-fetoprotein (αFP). To assess treatment effects and tolerability of ramucirumab by Child-Pugh score in patients with HCC enrolled in the REACH trial. Randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial of ramucirumab and best supportive care vs placebo and best supportive care as second-line treatment in patients with HCC enrolled between November 4, 2010 and April 18, 2013, from 154 global sites. Overall, 643 patients were randomized and included in this analysis; 565 patients considered Child-Pugh class A (Child-Pugh scores 5 and 6) and 78 patients considered class B (Child-Pugh scores 7 and 8). Ramucirumab (8 mg/kg) or placebo intravenously plus best supportive care every 2 weeks. Overall survival (OS), defined as time from randomization to death from any cause. In the randomized population of 643 patients (mean [SD] age, 62.8 [11.1] years) in this analysis, a potential ramucirumab OS benefit was observed for patients with a Child-Pugh score of 5 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63-1.02; P = .06) but no apparent benefit for patients with Child-Pugh scores of 6 or 7 and 8. In patients with baseline αFP levels of 400 ng/mL (to convert ng/mL to μg/L, multiply by 1.0) or more, a ramucirumab OS benefit was significant for a score of Child-Pugh 5 (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.87; P = .01) and Child-Pugh 6 (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P = .04), but was not significant for Child-Pugh 7 and 8. The overall safety profile of ramucirumab, regardless of Child-Pugh score, was considered manageable. Regardless of treatment arm, patients with Child-Pugh scores of 7 and 8 experienced a higher

  3. Mortality after cardiac surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis classified by the Child-Pugh score.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Kirolos A; Hjortnaes, Jesper; Kranenburg, Guido; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda

    2015-04-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a known risk factor for postoperative mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Clinical assessment of liver cirrhosis using the widely accepted Child-Pugh (CP) score is thus vital for evaluation of surgical options and perioperative care. However, detailed mortality rates as a consequence of liver cirrhosis are unclear. This review aimed to stratify the risk of short-term (<30 days) and overall (up to 10 years) mortality after cardiac surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis, classified by the CP score. Thus, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically reviewed by two independent investigators for studies published up to February 2014, in which mortality in cirrhotic patients, classified by the CP classification, undergoing cardiac surgery was evaluated postoperatively. A total of 993 articles were identified. After critical appraisal of 21 articles, 19 were selected for final analysis. Weighted short-term mortality of cirrhotic patients undergoing cardiac surgery was 19.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.4-22.5%]. Across the different CP groups, short-term mortality appeared to be 9.0% (95% CI: 6.6-12.2%), 37.7% (95% CI: 30.8-44.3%) and 52.0% (95% CI: 33.5-70.0%) in Groups A, B and C, respectively. Weighted overall mortality within 1 year was 42.0% (95% CI: 36.0-48.3%) in all cirrhotic patients. Subdivided in groups, overall mortality within that 1 year was 27.2% (95% CI: 20.9-34.7%), 66.2% (95% CI: 54.3-76.3%) and 78.9% (95% CI: 56.1-92.1%) in Groups A, B and C, respectively. In conclusion, short-term mortality is considerably increased in patients with liver cirrhosis CP class B and C. Overall mortality is significantly high in all classes of liver cirrhosis.

  4. APACHE II scoring for the prediction of immediate surgical complications in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Chris A; Dempsey, Ged A; Lowe, Derek; Brown, James S; Vaughan, E David; Rogers, Simon N

    2007-05-01

    Aggressive surgical treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers may be compromised by significant surgical complications. Early identification of patients at risk for postoperative complications may assist in clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess the value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score in predicting early postoperative surgical complications. There were 510 cases of free tissue transfer surgery identified on the Liverpool Oncology Head and Neck Database for 1995 to 2002. APACHE II data were collected independently from critical care records and by case note retrieval. The authors' main a priori outcomes were total flap failure and any immediate complication requiring further surgery (including any from hemorrhage, hematoma, partial flap failure, airways, and anastomosis exploration). Overall total flap loss and immediate complication rates were 6.2 percent (30 of 485) and 13.6 percent (66 of 485), respectively. APACHE II data were known for 399 operations (82 percent) and, of these, 90 percent (360 of 399) were managed postoperatively in the critical care unit. There were clear correlations between APACHE II scores with total flap loss and with other immediate complications. The APACHE II score is associated with immediate postoperative surgical complications involving flap compromise and thus may be a useful tool in postoperative decision-making.

  5. Comparing the APACHE II score and IBM-10 score for predicting mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Naeini, Alireza Emami; Abbasi, Saeid; Haghighipour, Somayeh; Shirani, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    VAP is defined as pneumonia in patients who use ventilators. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) scoring system was originally developed for predicting mortality in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Due to the complexity, a simpler score called IBMP-10 was developed. We designed the study to confirm and further investigate these two methods. This cross-sectional and analysis-descriptive study was done at the moment of VAP diagnosis on 60 patients in intensive care units. APACHE II and the IBMP-10 scores were calculated. ROC curves were generated to compare the new prediction rule with the APACHE II score. Results were reported as adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were performed using SPSS, version 20 and P values of 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. APACHE II Score means (P < 0.001) and IBMP-10 score (P < 0.001) means had significant increase in Non-survivor patient than in patients who survived. APACHE II can be used as a good prediction measure for mortality rate. In IBMP-10 method, specificity and PPV were greater than APACHE II, but in mc-nemar test, there was no significant difference between the two methods (P = 0.55). Both prediction rules had high NPV. In our study, survivors' prediction value in APACHE II was 46.7%, and in IBMP-10, it was 46.7%. IBMP-10, compared to APACHE II, has greater sensitivity, specificity, and AUC to predict mortality. So the consequence of the use of IBMP-10 was better than APACHE II.

  6. Risk of Bacterial Infection in Patients With Cirrhosis and Acute Variceal Hemorrhage, Based on Child-Pugh Class, and Effects of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Puneeta; Abraldes, Juan G; Keough, Adam; Bastiampillai, Ravin; Jayakumar, Saumya; Carbonneau, Michelle; Wong, Eric; Kao, Dina; Bain, Vince G; Ma, Mang

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotics frequently are overused and are associated with serious adverse events in patients with cirrhosis. However, these drugs are recommended for all patients presenting with acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We investigated whether patients should be stratified for antibiotic prophylaxis based on Child-Pugh scores, to estimate risks of bacterial infection, rebleeding, and mortality, and whether antibiotics have equal effects on patients of all Child-Pugh classes. We performed a sensitivity analysis using model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data from 381 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH (70% men; mean age, 56 y), admitted from 2000 through 2009 to 2 tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. We excluded patients with bacterial infection on the day of AVH. The association between antibiotic prophylaxis and outcomes was adjusted by liver disease severity and by a propensity score. The patients included in the study had mean MELD scores of 16, and 54% received antibiotic prophylaxis. Overall, antibiotic therapy was associated with lower risks of infection (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.74) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.29). Among patients categorized as Child-Pugh class A given antibiotics, only 2% developed infections and the mortality rate was 0.4%. Among patients categorized as Child-Pugh class B given antibiotics, 6% developed infections, compared with 14% of patients who did not receive antibiotics; antibiotics did not affect mortality. Administration of antibiotics to patients categorized as Child-Pugh class C reduced infections and mortality by approximately 50%, compared with patients who did not receive antibiotics. MELD scores were not as useful as Child-Pugh class in identifying patients at risk for infection. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients with cirrhosis and AVH, those categorized as Child-Pugh

  7. Evaluation of O-POSSUM vs ASA and APACHE II scores in patients undergoing oesophageal surgery.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Raluca; Cioc, Adrian; Grigorescu, Bianca; Lăzescu, Bogdan; Copotoiu, Sanda Maria

    2015-04-01

    Risk and prognostic scores quantify the patient's risk of death or complication according to the severity of his illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive accuracy of O-POSSUM vs ASA and APACHE II models on patients undergoing oesophageal surgery. In this observational retrospective study 55 patients were enrolled who had undergone surgical interventions of excision and reconstruction of the oesophagus for neoplastic oesophageal stenosis, in the Surgical Clinics (I and II) of the Clinical County Emergency Hospital Mures, between January 2011 and January 2014. By using patients file records after extracting the data we calculated the predictive mortality, according to the prognostic scores O-POSSUM, ASA and APACHE II and we analyzed its correlations with the postoperative evolution. We evaluated the discriminatory power of the three scores using the ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curves. According to the cut-off value corresponding to each score, we compared the Kaplan Meier survival curves during the hospitalization period. ROC curves analysis revealed that O-POSSUM had a better discriminatory power for mortality compared to the other two scores: AUC = 0.73 for O-POSSUM, AUC = 0.57 for APACHE II and AUC = 0.64 for ASA (p < 0.001). The cut-off value was statistically significant only in case of O-POSSUM, as it derives from the statistical analysis of the survival curves (p = 0.035). O-POSSUM predicts mortality more accurately compared to ASA or APACHE II in patients undergoing oesophageal surgery.

  8. Semi-quantitative assessment of the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B related cirrhosis by using liver lobe-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Wang, L-Y; Zhang, X-M; Zeng, N-L; Chen, T-W; Li, R; Huang, Y-C; Tang, Y-L

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether liver lobe-based DCE-MRI can be used to detect the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis. Fifty-six cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B and 20 healthy participants underwent liver DCE-MRI, and the positive enhancement integral (PEI), time to peak (TTP), maximum slope of increase (MSI) and maximum slope of decrease (MSD) of the left lateral liver lobe (LLL), left medial liver lobe (LML), right liver lobe (RL), and caudate lobe (CL) were measured and analysed statistically to evaluate cirrhosis. TTP values of the LLL, LML, RL and CL were positively correlated with the Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis (r=0.452 to 0.55, all p<0.05). PEI values of the LLL, LML, RL and CL, as well as the MSI of the CL and the MSD of the RL, were inversely correlated with the Child-Pugh class (r=-0.349 to -0.72, all p<0.05). PEI values of the LLL and CL, or TTP values of the RL had the most area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.99 for identifying the presence of liver cirrhosis. The PEI of the RL had the largest AUC of 0.975 and 0.78 for distinguishing the Child-Pugh class A of cirrhosis from class B-C and class A-B of cirrhosis from class C, respectively. Liver lobe-based DCE-MRI parameters are associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does the RIFLE Classification Improve Prognostic Value of the APACHE II Score in Critically Ill Patients?

    PubMed

    Wahrhaftig, Kátia M; Correia, Luis C L; Matias, Denise; De Souza, Carlos A M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The RIFLE classification defines three severity criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI): risk, injury, and failure. It was associated with mortality according to the gradation of AKI severity. However, it is not known if the APACHE II score, associated with the RIFLE classification, results in greater discriminatory power in relation to mortality in critical patients. Objective. To analyze whether the RIFLE classification adds value to the performance of APACHE II in predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. An observational prospective cohort of 200 patients admitted to the ICU from July 2010 to July 2011. Results. The age of the sample was 66 (±16.7) years, 53.3% female. ICU mortality was 23.5%. The severity of AKI presented higher risk of death: class risk (RR = 1.89 CI:0.97-3.38, P = 0.001), grade injury (RR = 3.7 CI:1.71-8.08, P = 0.001), and class failure (RR = 4.79 CI:2.10-10.6, P = 0.001). The APACHE II had C-statistics of 0.75, 95% (CI:0.68-0.80, P = 0.001) and 0.80 (95% CI:0.74 to 0.86, P = 0.001) after being incorporated into the RIFLE classification in relation to prediction of death. In the comparison between AUROCs, P = 0.03. Conclusion. The severity of AKI, defined by the RIFLE classification, was a risk marker for mortality in critically ill patients, and improved the performance of APACHE II in predicting the mortality in this population.

  10. Does the RIFLE Classification Improve Prognostic Value of the APACHE II Score in Critically Ill Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Wahrhaftig, Kátia M.; Correia, Luis C. L.; De Souza, Carlos A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The RIFLE classification defines three severity criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI): risk, injury, and failure. It was associated with mortality according to the gradation of AKI severity. However, it is not known if the APACHE II score, associated with the RIFLE classification, results in greater discriminatory power in relation to mortality in critical patients. Objective. To analyze whether the RIFLE classification adds value to the performance of APACHE II in predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. An observational prospective cohort of 200 patients admitted to the ICU from July 2010 to July 2011. Results. The age of the sample was 66 (±16.7) years, 53.3% female. ICU mortality was 23.5%. The severity of AKI presented higher risk of death: class risk (RR = 1.89 CI:0.97–3.38, P = 0.001), grade injury (RR = 3.7 CI:1.71–8.08, P = 0.001), and class failure (RR = 4.79 CI:2.10–10.6, P = 0.001). The APACHE II had C-statistics of 0.75, 95% (CI:0.68–0.80, P = 0.001) and 0.80 (95% CI:0.74 to 0.86, P = 0.001) after being incorporated into the RIFLE classification in relation to prediction of death. In the comparison between AUROCs, P = 0.03. Conclusion. The severity of AKI, defined by the RIFLE classification, was a risk marker for mortality in critically ill patients, and improved the performance of APACHE II in predicting the mortality in this population. PMID:24024031

  11. MELD era: is this time to replace the original Child-Pugh score in patients with decompensated cirrhosis of liver.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Samiullah; Ghani, Hanif; Memon, Sadik; Baloch, Ghulam Hussain; Jaffery, Mukhtiar; Shaikh, Khalid

    2010-07-01

    To compare the predictive value of MELD (Model of end stage liver disease) and Child-Pugh (CP) scores in patients with decompensated cirrhosis of liver. Descriptive study. Medical Department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/ Hyderabad, from August 2006 to October 2007. This study included 110 consecutive patients with decompensated cirrhosis of liver diagnosed either clinically or radiologically were followed-up during hospital stay. Studied variables included demographic data, cirrhosis related complications and investigations. Patients were classified according to original CP classification into A, B and C. MELD score was estimated from serum bilirubin, serum creatinine and INR (International normalized ratio) of the patients. Duration of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality were made as the end points of the study. T-test and Chi-square test were done for continuous and categorical data. Original CP and MELD score were compared by the ROC curve. 0.05 was kept as the level of significance. There were 110 patients with decompensated cirrhosis of liver. Mean age was 46.76+12.93 years. There were 72 (65%) male and 38 (35%) females patients. Hepatitis C was the most prevalent cause of cirrhosis of liver present in 60/110 (60%) cases. Ascites was present in 93/110 (83%) patients. The mean MELD scores were 2.23+0.712 (95% CI 2.09 - 2.36) and for CTP 2.52+0.586 (95%; CI 2.41-2.63). The outcome of the patients were 12 deaths (11%); 54 (49%) remained hospitalized for up to 14 days and 44 (40%) for > 14 days. The majority of deaths and prolong hospitalization were found in patients with MELD score > 15 as well as with Child-Pugh grade C. The c-statistic was 0.726 (p=0.001) for CP score, and 0.642 for MELD score (p=0.021). The MELD score was not found to be superior to CTP score for short-term prognostication of patients with cirrhosis in this study.

  12. Does the APACHE II score predict performance of activities of daily living in patients discharged from a weaning center?

    PubMed Central

    Rojek-Jarmuła, Anna; Hombach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data regarding the functional status of patients after prolonged mechanical ventilation are scarce, and little is known about its clinical predictors. Aim To investigate whether the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission may predict performance in activities of daily living on discharge from a weaning center. Material and methods All consecutive patients admitted between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were enrolled (n = 130). During this period, 15 subjects died, and 115 were successfully discharged (34 women; 81 men). APACHE II was calculated based on the worst values taken during the first 24 hours after admission. On discharge, the Barthel Index (BI) and its extended version, the Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), were assessed. Results Median BI was 20 points (IQR 5; 40), and ERBI was 20 points (–50; 40). There was no correlation between APACHE II and either BI (R = –0.07; p = 0.47) or ERBI (R = –0.07; p = 0.44). APACHE II predicted the need for assistance with bathing (AUROC = 0.833; p < 0.001), grooming (AUROC = 0.823; p < 0.001), toilet use (AUROC = 0.887; p < 0.001), and urination (AUROC = 0.658; p = 0.04). APACHE II had no impact on any ERBI items associated with ventilator weaning, including the need of further mechanical ventilation (AUROC = 0.534; p = 0.65) or tracheostomy (AUROC = 0.544; p = 0.42). Conclusions Although APACHE II cannot predict the overall functional status in patients discharged from a weaning center, it helps identify subjects who will need support with bathing, grooming, and toilet use. The APACHE II score is inadequate to predict performance in activities associated with further respiratory support. PMID:28096834

  13. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  14. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) and Medicare reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Douglas P.; Draper, Elizabeth A.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the potential for the acute physiology score (APS) of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, to be used as a severity adjustment to diagnosis-related groups (DRG's) or other diagnostic classifications. The APS is defined by a relative value scale applied to 12 objective physiologic variables routinely measured on most hospitalized patients shortly after hospital admission. For intensive care patients, APS at admission is strongly related to subsequent resource costs of intensive care for 5,790 consecutive admissions to 13 large hospitals, across and within diagnoses. The APS could also be used to evaluate quality of care, medical technology, and the response to changing financial incentives. PMID:10311080

  15. D-dimer as marker for microcirculatory failure: correlation with LOD and APACHE II scores.

    PubMed

    Angstwurm, Matthias W A; Reininger, Armin J; Spannagl, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of plasma d-dimer levels as marker for morbidity and organ dysfunction in severely ill patients is largely unknown. In a prospective study we determined d-dimer plasma levels of 800 unselected patients at admission to our intensive care unit. In 91% of the patients' samples d-dimer levels were elevated, in some patients up to several hundredfold as compared to normal values. The highest mean d-dimer values were present in the patient group with thromboembolic diseases, and particularly in non-survivors of pulmonary embolism. In patients with circulatory impairment (r=0.794) and in patients with infections (r=0.487) a statistically significant correlation was present between d-dimer levels and the APACHE II score (P<0.001). The logistic organ dysfunction score (LOD, P<0.001) correlated with d-dimer levels only in patients with circulatory impairment (r=0.474). On the contrary, patients without circulatory impairment demonstrated no correlation of d-dimer levels to the APACHE II or LOD score. Taking all patients together, no correlations of d-dimer levels with single organ failure or with indicators of infection could be detected. In conclusion, d-dimer plasma levels strongly correlated with the severity of the disease and organ dysfunction in patients with circulatory impairment or infections suggesting that elevated d-dimer levels may reflect the extent of microcirculatory failure. Thus, a therapeutic strategy to improve the microcirculation in such patients may be monitored using d-dimer plasma levels.

  16. Accuracy and Predictability of PANC-3 Scoring System over APACHE II in Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, Vikram Hubbanageri; Muniyappa, Shridhar; Prasath, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute Pancreatitis (AP) is one of the common conditions encountered in the emergency room. The course of the disease ranges from mild form to severe acute form. Most of these episodes are mild and spontaneously subsiding within 3 to 5 days. In contrast, Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP) occurring in around 15-20% of all cases, mortality can range between 10 to 85% across various centres and countries. In such a situation we need an indicator which can predict the outcome of an attack, as severe or mild, as early as possible and such an indicator should be sensitive and specific enough to trust upon. PANC-3 scoring is such a scoring system in predicting the outcome of an attack of AP. Aim To assess the accuracy and predictability of PANC-3 scoring system over APACHE II in predicting severity in an attack of AP. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted on 82 patients admitted with the diagnosis of pancreatitis. Investigations to evaluate PANC-3 and APACHE II were done on all the patients and the PANC-3 and APACHE II score was calculated. Results PANC-3 score has a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 77.9%, the test had a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 0.59 and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 0.92. Sensitivity of APACHE II in predicting SAP was 91.3% and specificity was 96.6% with PPV of 0.91, NPV was 0.96. Conclusion Our study shows that PANC-3 can be used to predict the severity of pancreatitis as efficiently as APACHE II. The interpretation of PANC-3 does not need expertise and can be applied at the time of admission which is an advantage when compared to classical scoring systems.

  17. [APACHE II and ATN-ISS in acute renal failure (ARF) in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Natáia Maria da Silva; Pinto, Patrícia dos Santos; Lacet, Thiago Bento de Paiva; Rodrigues, Dominique Fonseca; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Stella, Sérgio Reinaldo; Cendoroglo Neto, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) remains highly prevalent with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. of this study was to compare use of the APACHE II scoring prognosis with that of the ATN-ISS to determine whether the APACHE II could be used for patients with ARF outside the ICU. For this purpose, 205 patients with ARF were accompanied in a prospective cohort. Demographic data, preexisting conditions, organ failure and characteristics of ARF were analyzed. The prognostic scores were performed with the assessment of a nephrologist. The mean age was 52 +/- 18 years, 50% were male, 69% were white, 45% were treated in ICU and 55% in other units. Mortality in the ICU group was 85% and in the non-ICU group 18%. Factors that correlated with higher mortality were more prevalent in the ICU group: age, male, hospitalization with ARF, organ failure, sepsis, septic IRA, oliguria and need of dialysis. Overall, the prognostic markers were the same for both the ICU and non-ICU groups. The discrimination with the APACHE II was similar in both, ICU and non-ICU groups and calibration was better in the non-ICU group. The ATN-ISS achieved good discrimination in both the ICU and non-ICU groups, but, regarding calibration, there was a discreet over estimating of mortality in the non-ICU group. The ATN-ISS showed a greater capacity for discrimination than the APACHE II in both the ICU and non-ICU groups. It was concluded that the APACHE II and ATN-ISS scores could be used for stratification of risk in patients with ARF treated outside of the ICU in Brazil.

  18. Comparison of APACHE II, MEES and Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with nontraumatic coma for prediction of mortality

    PubMed Central

    Grmec, Štefek; Gašparovic, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: There are numerous prehosital descriptive scoring systems, and it is uncertain whether they are efficient in assessing of the severity of illness and whether they have a prognostic role in the estimation of the illness outcome (in comparison with that of the prognostic scoring system Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II). The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of the various scoring systems in predicting outcome in nontraumatic coma patients and to evaluate the importance of mental status measurement in relation to outcome. Patients and methods: In a prehospital setting, postintervention values of the Mainz Emergency Evaluation System (MEES) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were measured for each patient. The APACHE II score was recorded on the day of admission to the hospital. This study was undertaken over a 2-year period (from January 1996 to October 1998), and included 286 consecutive patients (168 men, 118 women) who were hospitalized for nontraumatic coma. Patients younger than 16 years were not included. Their age varied from 16 to 87 years, with mean ± standard deviation of 51.8 ± 16.9 years. Sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction of outcome were measured using the χ2 method, with four severity scores. The best cutoff point in each scoring system was determined using the Youden index. The difference in Youden index was calculated using the Z score. For each score, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained. The difference in ROC was calculated using the Z score. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For prediction of mortality, the best cutoff points were 19 for APACHE II, 18 for MEES and 5 for GCS. The best cutoffs for the Youden index were 0.63 for APACHE II, 0.61 for MEES and 0.65 for GCS. The correct prediction of outcome was achieved in 79.9% for APACHE II, 78.3% for MEES and 81.9% for GCS. The area under the ROC curve (mean ± standard error) was 0

  19. Validation of the LOD score compared with APACHE II score in prediction of the hospital outcome in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2008-01-01

    The Logistic Organ Dysfunction score (LOD) is an organ dysfunction score that can predict hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the LOD score compared with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in a mixed intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary referral university hospital in Thailand. The data were collected prospectively on consecutive ICU admissions over a 24 month period from July1, 2004 until June 30, 2006. Discrimination was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The calibration was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H statistic. The overall fit of the model was evaluated by the Brier's score. Overall, 1,429 patients were enrolled during the study period. The mortality in the ICU was 20.9% and in the hospital was 27.9%. The median ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 3 and 18 days, respectively, for all patients. Both models showed excellent discrimination. The AUROC for the LOD and APACHE II were 0.860 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.838-0.882] and 0.898 (95% Cl = 0.879-0.917), respectively. The LOD score had perfect calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 10 (p = 0.44). However, the APACHE II had poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 75.69 (p < 0.001). Brier's score showed the overall fit for both models were 0.123 (95%Cl = 0.107-0.141) and 0.114 (0.098-0.132) for the LOD and APACHE II, respectively. Thus, the LOD score was found to be accurate for predicting hospital mortality for general critically ill patients in Thailand.

  20. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for chronic liver disease: comparison with ultrasound-based scores of experienced radiologists, Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography provides better diagnostic performance for diagnosis of chronic liver disease and correlates better with Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests, compared with an ultrasound (US) scoring system based on visual assessment of conventional B-mode US images by experienced radiologists. Five hundred and twenty-one patients with clinically proven chronic liver disease (n = 293), fatty liver (n = 95) or normal liver (n = 133) were included in this study. B-mode liver US and ARFI elastography were performed in all patients. ARFI elastography was performed at least five times, with each measurement obtained at a different area of the right hepatic lobe; mean shear wave velocity (SWV) was calculated for each patient. The mean SWV was compared with US-based scores from two radiologists (based on liver surface nodularity, parenchyma echotexture and hepatic vein contour), Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests. The mean SWV of the normal liver group was 1.08 m/s ± 0.15; of the fatty liver group, 1.02 m/s ± 0.16; and of the chronic liver disease group, 1.66 m/s ± 0.60 (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of the mean SWV in ARFI elastography was significantly higher than that of the conventional B-mode US-based scores by two radiologists (0.89 vs. 0.74 and 0.77, p < 0.05), with a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 89.5% at the cut-off value of 1.22 m/s. The sensitivity of the mean SWV was significantly higher than the US-based scores (p < 0.001), although the specificity was not (p > 0.05). The mean SWV was better correlated with Child-Pugh scores and all liver function tests (except total protein) than the US-based scores from two radiologists. In conclusion, ARFI elastography showed better diagnostic performance than visual assessment of experienced radiologists for diagnosis of chronic liver disease, as well as for

  1. The risk of early mortality of polytrauma patients associated to ISS, NISS, APACHE II values and prothrombin time.

    PubMed

    Mica, Ladislav; Rufibach, Kaspar; Keel, Marius; Trentz, Otmar

    2013-01-01

    The early hemodynamic normalization of polytrauma patients may lead to better survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic quality of trauma and physiological scores from widely used scoring systems in polytrauma patients. In total, 770 patients with ISS > 16 who were admitted to a trauma center within the first 24 hours after injury were included in this retrospective study. The patients were subdivided into three groups: those who died on the day of admission, those who died within the first three days, and those who survived for longer than three days. ISS, NISS, APACHE II score, and prothrombin time were recorded at admission. The descriptive statistics for early death in polytrauma patients who died on the day of admission, 1-3 days after admission, and > 3 days after admission were: ISS of 41.0, 34.0, and 29.0, respectively; NISS of 50.0, 50.0, and 41.0, respectively; APACHE II score of 30.0, 25.0, and 15.0, respectively; and prothrombin time of 37.0%, 56.0%, and 84%, respectively. These data indicate that prothrombin time (AUC: 0.89) and APACHE II (AUC: 0.88) have the greatest prognostic utility for early death. The estimated densities of the scores may suggest a direction for resuscitative procedures in polytrauma patients. "Retrospektive Analysen in der Chirurgischen Intensivmedizin"StV01-2008.

  2. Liver cirrhosis grading Child-Pugh class B: a Goliath to challenge in laparoscopic liver resection?—prior experience and matched comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Yu, Tunan; Liang, Yuelong; Jing, Renan; Jiang, Wenbing; Li, Jianbo; Ying, Hanning

    2015-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) is highly difficult in the background of liver cirrhosis. In this case series, we aimed to summarize our prior experience of LH in liver cirrhosis grading Child-Pugh class B. Methods In the LH database of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Zhejiang, China, patients who were pathologically diagnosed with cirrhosis and graded as Child-Pugh class B or C were reviewed. Results Five patients grading Child B were included. There was no Child C case in our LH database. For included cases, median blood loss (BL) was 800 (range, 240-1,000) mL, median operative time was 135 (range, 80-170) minutes, and median length of hospital stay was 9 (range, 7-15) days. Forty percent (2/5) of patients was converted to open. The postoperative complication (PC) rate was 20.0% (1/5). When these Child B cases were compared with Child A cases undergoing LH, there was no statistical significance in BL, complication rate, operative time, open rate and hospital stay (HS) (P>0.05). This finding was confirmed by two ways of matched comparisons (a 1:2 comparison based on age and gender, and a 1:1 propensity score matching). Conclusions Although relevant literatures had suggested feasibility of LH in cirrhotic cases grading Child A, this study was the first one to discuss the value of LH in Child B cases. Our prior experience showed that in selected patients, LH in Child B patients had the potential to be as safe as in Child A cases. The efficacy of LH in Child C patients needs further exploration. PMID:26734623

  3. Rapid measurement of indocyanine green retention by pulse spectrophotometry: a validation study in 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tan To; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S H; Chan, Albert C Y; Yu, Wan Ching; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lo, Chung Mau; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-06-01

    The indocyanine green (ICG) retention test is the most popular liver function test for selecting patients for major hepatectomy. Traditionally, it is done using spectrophotometry with serial blood sampling. The newly-developed pulse spectrophotometry is a faster alternative, but its accuracy on Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been well documented. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the LiMON(®), one of the pulse spectrophotometry systems, in measuring preoperative ICG retention in these patients and to devise an easy formula for conversion of the results so that they can be compared with classical literature records where ICG retention was measured by the traditional method. We measured the liver function of 70 Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma from September 2008 to January 2009. ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by traditional spectrophotometry (ICGR15) was compared with ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by the LiMON (ICGR15(L)). The median ICGR15 was 14.7% (5.6%-32%) and the median ICGR15(L) was 10.4% (1.2%-28%). The mean difference between them was -4.3606. There was a strong correlation between ICGR15 and ICGR15(L) (correlation coefficient, 0.844; 95% confidence interval, 0.762-0.899). The following formula was devised: ICGR15=1.16XICGR15(L)+2.73. The LiMON provides a fast and repeatable way to measure ICG retention at 15 minutes, but with constant underestimation of the real value. Therefore, when comparing results obtained by traditional spectrophotometry and the LiMON, adjustment of results from the latter is necessary, and this can be done with a simple mathematical calculation using the above formula.

  4. Liver Lobe Based Multi-Echo Gradient Recalled Echo T2*-Weighted Imaging in Chronic Hepatitis B-Related Cirrhosis: Association with the Presence and Child-Pugh Class of Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Tian-wu; Zhang, Xiao-ming; Li, Jie; Zeng, Nan-lin; Li, Li; Tang, Yu-lian; Huang, Yu-cheng; Li, Rui; Chen, Fan; Chen, Yan-li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether liver lobe based T2* values measured on gradient recalled echo T2*-weighted imaging are associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis. Methods Fifty-six patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and 23 healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study and underwent upper abdominal T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. T2* values of the left lateral lobe (LLL), left medial lobe (LML), right lobe (RL) and caudate lobe (CL) were measured on T2*-weighted imaging. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between liver lobe based T2* values and the presence and Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis. Results The T2* values of the LLL, LML and RL decreased with the progression of cirrhosis from Child-Pugh class A to C (r = -0.231, -0.223, and -0.395, respectively; all P < 0.05), except that of the CL (r = -0.181, P > 0.05). To a certain extent, Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction for multigroup comparisons showed that the T2* values of the LLL, LML and RL could distinguish cirrhotic liver from healthy liver (all P < 0.05), whereas the T2* values of the CL could not (P > 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the T2* value of the RL could best distinguish cirrhosis from healthy liver, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.713 among T2* values of the liver lobes, and that only the T2* value of the RL could distinguish Child-Pugh class C from A-B, with an AUC of 0.697 (all P < 0.05). Conclusion The T2* value of the RL can be associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis. PMID:27171422

  5. Predictive ability of the ISS, NISS, and APACHE II score for SIRS and sepsis in polytrauma patients.

    PubMed

    Mica, L; Furrer, E; Keel, M; Trentz, O

    2012-12-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis as causes of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remain challenging to treat in polytrauma patients. In this study, the focus was set on widely used scoring systems to assess their diagnostic quality. A total of 512 patients (mean age: 39.2 ± 16.2, range: 16-88 years) who had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥17 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were subdivided into four groups: no SIRS, slight SIRS, severe SIRS, and sepsis. The ISS, New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, and prothrombin time were collected at admission. The Kruskal-Wallis test and χ(2)-test, multinomial regression analysis, and kernel density estimates were performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is reported as the area under the curve (AUC). Data were considered as significant if p < 0.05. All variables were significantly different in all groups (p < 0.001). The odds ratio increased with increasing SIRS severity for NISS (slight vs. no SIRS, 1.06, p = 0.07; severe vs. no SIRS, 1.07, p = 0.04; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, 1.11, p = 0.0028) and APACHE II score (slight vs. no SIRS, 0.97, p = 0.44; severe vs. no SIRS, 1.08, p = 0.02; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, 1.12, p = 0.0028). ROC analysis revealed that the NISS (slight vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.61; severe vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.67; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.77) and APACHE II score (slight vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.60; severe vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.74; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.82) had the best predictive ability for SIRS and sepsis. Quick assessment with the NISS or APACHE II score could preselect possible candidates for sepsis following polytrauma and provide guidance in trauma surgeons' decision-making.

  6. Manganese superoxide dismutase activity and incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Caterina; Elba, Silvana; Buongiorno, Gianpiero; Guerra, Vito; D'Attoma, Benedetta; Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate possible modifications in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity during neoplastic transformation of a cirrhotic liver and to find out whether its assessment may have predictive value to identify cirrhotic patients at a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-one consecutive subjects with Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis were recruited. At the time of enrolment, HCC was diagnosed in 20 cirrhotic patients. The 51 cirrhotic patients without HCC were followed up for the occurrence of tumour by 6-monthly screening for 7 years. During follow-up, 16 patients developed HCC. Seventy healthy subjects formed the control group. MnSOD activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Serum MnSOD activity was significantly lower in 70 healthy subjects compared with 51 cirrhotic patients and 20 cirrhotic patients with HCC. Cirrhotic patients who developed HCC during follow-up showed significantly higher values of MnSOD activity than HCC-free patients. The best cut-off of MnSOD activity was 0.40 U/ml. At this cut-off, chi2 analysis revealed that MnSOD activity was significantly different between the HCC-free cirrhotic patients and cirrhotic patients who developed HCC. The present findings suggest that during neoplastic transformation of cirrhotic liver, an increase in MnSOD activity may occur already during the precancerous phase, making this enzyme a probable malignancy-associated parameter.

  7. Comparison of BISAP, Ranson, MCTSI, and APACHE II in Predicting Severity and Prognoses of Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Xing, Yun; Du, Lichuan; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xin; Hao, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the developing of living standard, hyperlipidemia becomes the second major reason of acute pancreatitis. It is important to predict the severity and prognosis at early stage of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP). We compared the BISAP, Ranson, MCTSI, and APACHE II scoring system in predicting MSAP and SAP, local complications, and mortality of HLAP. A total of 326 diagnosed hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis patients from August 2006 to July 2015 were studied retrospectively. Our result showed that all four scoring systems can be used to predict the severity, local complications, and mortality of HLAP. Ranson did not have significant advantage in predicting severity and prognosis of HLAP compared to other three scoring systems. APACHE II was the best in predicting severity of HLAP, but it had shortcoming in predicting local complications. MCTSI had outstanding performance in predicting local complications, but it was poor in predicting severity and mortality. BISAP score had high accuracy in assessment of severity, local complications, and mortality of HLAP, but the accuracy still needs to be improved in the future. PMID:27882045

  8. Comparison of BISAP, Ranson, MCTSI, and APACHE II in Predicting Severity and Prognoses of Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis in Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixin; Liu, Jing; Xing, Yun; Du, Lichuan; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xin; Hao, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the developing of living standard, hyperlipidemia becomes the second major reason of acute pancreatitis. It is important to predict the severity and prognosis at early stage of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP). We compared the BISAP, Ranson, MCTSI, and APACHE II scoring system in predicting MSAP and SAP, local complications, and mortality of HLAP. A total of 326 diagnosed hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis patients from August 2006 to July 2015 were studied retrospectively. Our result showed that all four scoring systems can be used to predict the severity, local complications, and mortality of HLAP. Ranson did not have significant advantage in predicting severity and prognosis of HLAP compared to other three scoring systems. APACHE II was the best in predicting severity of HLAP, but it had shortcoming in predicting local complications. MCTSI had outstanding performance in predicting local complications, but it was poor in predicting severity and mortality. BISAP score had high accuracy in assessment of severity, local complications, and mortality of HLAP, but the accuracy still needs to be improved in the future.

  9. N-Terminal pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels are Linked with Modified Child-Pugh Classification in Patients with Nonalcoholic Cirrhosis [NT-ProBNP and Liver Cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Kumbasar, Abdulbaki; Navdar, Mehtap; Ataoglu, Esra; Uzunhasan, Isil; Ergen, Kadir; Poturoglu, Sule; Basinoglu, Filiz; Yilmaz, Fatih; Yenigun, Mustafa; Sar, Fuat; Tanriverdi, Ozgur

    2017-03-01

    Excess N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide secretion has been linked to cirrhosis in previously studies. The relationship of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and cardiac dysfunction determined by echocardiography were investigated in patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis and a control group of chronic hepatitis. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Thirty-two men and thirty-three women who gave informed consent who were followed-up for chronic liver failure were enrolled. All patients gave clinical history, physical examination was carried out and information about ongoing medication has been obtained. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was measured in all patients. The same cardiologist determined ejection fraction, end-diastolic left ventricular diameter, interventricular septum, and posterior wall on transthoracic echocardiography. Patients with extensive liver disease according to Child-Pugh classification from A to C had increasing N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in association (P < .001). According to the Child-Pugh classification there were no significant difference between groups for echocardiographic measurements (P > .05). N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide may be an important marker for cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic liver failure in accordance with Child-Pugh stage.

  10. Prognostic scales ISS-RTS-TRISS, PRISM, APACHE II and PTS in decision support of treatment children with severe mechanical trauma.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, I V; Shvirev, S L; Arseniev, S B; Zarubina, T V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess a possibility and validity of prognostic scales ISS-RTS-TRISS, PRISM, APACHE II and PTS to be used for the automated calculation in decision support when treating children with severe mechanical traumas. The mentioned scales are used in the Hospital Information System (HIS) MEDIALOG. The retrospective study was conducted using clinical and physiological data collected at the admission and during the first 24 hours of hospitalization in 166 patients. Scales PRISM, APACHE II, ISS-RTS-TRISS were used for calculating the severity of injury and for prognosis in death outcomes. Scale PTS was used for evaluating the severity index only. Our research has shown that ISS-RTS-TRISS has excellent discrimination ability, PRISM and APACHE II prognostic scales have acceptable discrimination ability; moreover, they all have significant calibration ability. PTS scale has acceptable discrimination ability. It has been showed that automated calculation scales ISS-RTS-TRISS, PRISM, APACHE II and PTS are useful for assessing outcomes in children with severe mechanical trauma.

  11. Hypotension in the first week of acute pancreatitis and APACHE II score predict development of infected pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Dutta, Usha; Appasani, Sreekanth; Singh, Kartar; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    Hypotension and intestinal mucosal ischemia lead to bacterial translocation from the gut lumen into systemic circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of association between different types of organ failure (OF): hypotension (cardiovascular system failure), renal failure, respiratory failure, CNS failure and coagulopathy in the first week of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the subsequent development of infected pancreatic necrosis (IN). Consecutive patients with AP were evaluated for OF and its severity in the first week of hospital admission. Modified multiple organ failure score (MOFS) was used to identify and grade severity of OF. MOFS of ≥2, lasting for more than 48 h was defined as OF. Occurrence of IN (isolation of bacteria in necrosectomy specimen or image guided fine needle aspiration of pancreatic necrosis) was compared between groups with and without OF. Of the 81 patients, mean age was 40.1 ± 14.4 years and 55 were males; 60 (74 %) patients had OF and 13 (16 %) patients had IN. Occurrence of IN was not significantly different between patients with OF (18.3 %) and without OF (14.3 %), p = 0.48. However IN occurred in 10 % of patients without and 33.7 % patients with hypotension, p = 0.01. The rest of the organ systems analyzed did not show any significant difference in occurrence of infected necrosis. On multivariate analysis independent predictors of occurrence of IN were hypotension (odds ratio, OR 2.5, p < 0.001) and APACHE II score at 24 h of hospital admission (OR 4.77, p < 0.001). Hypotension in the first week of AP and APACHE II score predict development of IN.

  12. [Respective analysis of dead patients with cirrhosis by Child-Pugh score and model of end-stage liver disease score].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Fanggen; Ouyang, Chunhui; Cheng, Zongyong; Wang, Xuehong; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-10-01

    To understand the value of Child-Pugh (CP) classification and model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score for patients with cirrhosis and their prognosis by retrospectively analyzing the two methods in hemorrhage death and non-hemorrhage death in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 72 patients who died of cirrhosis (the death group) were analyzed retrospectively, and the initial data in the hospital before death were collected. The initial information of the control group (88 patients) at the same time was also obtained. The death group was divided into two subgroups: esophagus varicosity burst massive hemorrhage death group and non-hemorrhage death group. MELD score and CP score of the death group (22.230±13.451, 10.264±2.028) were significantly higher than those of the control group (15.370±6.201, 9.318±1.644; P<0.05). The MELD score and CP score for the massive bleeding death group were close to those of the control group. There was significant difference between the non-hemorrhage death group and the control group. The ratio of patients with CP grade A and MELD scores<20 died for massive bleeding in the death group was more than 70%, and that of CP grade C and MELD scores ≥ 30 in the death group was higher. ROC surve analysis found the accuracy of short-term predication of survival by MELD score and CP classification was improved after eliminating the risk factors of hemorrage. MELD and CP play a role in evaluating the state and prognosis of patients with cirrhosis. MELD score and CP classification predict the short-term survival efficiently on the premise of excluding the risk factors of esophagus and/or stomach bottom varicosity burst massive bleeding. CP and MELD scores are deficiencies, especially for low MELD score (<20) and CP level A patients. The prognostic accuracy may be improved when combining esophageal gastric fundal varices.

  13. Geology and ore deposits of the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo counties, Arizona: Part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.; Thaden, R.E.

    1958-01-01

    In 1951 and 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a program of uranium investigations and geologic mapping in the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo Counties, Ariz. About 700 square miles were mapped on the Navajo Indian Reservation. A resource appraisal of the area was an inherent part of the program, and is detailed in this report. Production of vanadium and uranium is from two areas, the Monument No. 1 mine area in Navajo County, and the Monument No. 2 mine area in Apache County. In the period 1942-53 about 200,300 tons of ore was produced from these two areas. This ore yielded about 1,700,000 pounds of U3O8 and about 6,500,000 pounds of V2O5. The grade ranged from 0.15 percent U3O8 to 0.60 percent U3O8, and from 0.38 percent V2O5 to 3.02 percent V2O5. The vanadium-uranium ratio is about 4:1. The ore deposits are composed principally of the hydrous calcium-uranium vanadate tyuyamunite in basal channel sediments of the Shinarump member off the Chinle formation. Four types of ore bodies are present: (1) rods, (2) tabular ore bodies, (3) corvusite-type ore bodies, and (4) rolls. The reserves of uranium- and vanadium-bearing material are classed as measured, indicated, inferred, and potential. The reserves are further divided into three grade classes for material 1 foot or more thick: (1) 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5 and above; (2) 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.50 percent V2O5 and less than 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5; and (3) 0.01 percent U3O8 and 0.10 percent V2O5 and less than 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.05 percent V2O5. Measured reserves as of June 1953, in the Monument Valley area, Arizona, (all in the Monument No. 2 mine) total about 36,000 tons. Indicated reserves in the first grade class amount to about 62,000 tons. In this same grade class inferred reserves total about 3,000,000 tons. In the second grade class indicated and inferred reserves amount to about 2,000,000 tons. Inferred reserves in the third grade class total about 345

  14. Liver lobe-based magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging using multiple b values in patients with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis: association with the liver disease severity according to the Child-Pugh class

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Jun; Chen, Tian-Wu; Zeng, Nan-Lin; Wang, Dan; Li, Jie; Huang, Yu-Cheng; Tang, Yu-Lian; Hu, Jiani

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of liver lobe-based magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging findings using multiple b values with the presence and Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis B. METHODS: Seventy-four cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B and 25 healthy volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted imaging using b values of 0, 500, 800 and 1000 sec/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficients of individual liver lobes for b(0,500), b(0,800) and b(0,1000) were derived from the signal intensity averaged across images obtained using b values of 0 and 500 sec/mm2, 0 and 800 sec/mm2, or 0 and 1000 sec/mm2, respectively, and were statistically analyzed to evaluate cirrhosis. RESULTS: The apparent diffusion coefficients for b(0,500), b(0,800) and b(0,1000) inversely correlated with the Child-Pugh class in the left lateral liver lobe, the left medial liver lobe, the right liver lobe and the caudate lobe (r=–0.35 to –0.60, all p<0.05), except for the apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,1000) in the left medial liver lobe (r=–0.17, p>0.05). Among these parameters, the apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,500) in the left lateral liver lobe best differentiated normal from cirrhotic liver, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.989. The apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,800) in the right liver lobe best distinguished Child-Pugh class A from B–C and A–B from C, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.732 and 0.747, respectively. CONCLUSION: Liver lobe-based apparent diffusion coefficients for b(0,500) and b(0,800) appear to be associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of liver cirrhosis. PMID:26222818

  15. [Validation of APACHE II and SOFA scores in 2 cohorts of patients with suspected infection and sepsis, not admitted to critical care units].

    PubMed

    Cerro, L; Valencia, J; Calle, P; León, A; Jaimes, F

    2014-03-01

    To validate the APACHE II and SOFA scores in patients with suspected infection in clinical settings other than intensive care units. A secondary analysis was performed on 2,530 adult patients participating in 2 cohort studies, with suspected infection as admission diagnosis within the first 24 h of hospitalization. The performance of both scoring systems was studied in order to set calibration and discrimination, respectively, on the outcomes such as mortality, admission to Intensive Care Unit, development of septic shock, or multiple organ dysfunctions. The AUC-ROC values for mortality at discharge and on day 28 in the first cohort were around 0.50 for the SOFA and APACHE II scores; whereas for the second cohort the discrimination value was around 0.70. Calibration of both scoring systems for primary outcomes, according to Hosmer-Lemeshow test, showed p>.05 in the first cohort; while in the second cohort calibration it only showed a p>.05 in the case of the SOFA for mortality at hospital discharge. This validation study of SOFA and APACHE II scores in patients with suspected infection in-hospital units other than the Intensive Care Unit, showed no consistent performance for calibration and discrimination. Its application in emergency and in-hospital patients is limited. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and the Trauma-Injury Severity Score (TRISS) for outcome assessment in intensive care unit trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, D T; Barrow, P M; Gomez, M; McGuire, G P

    1996-10-01

    To assess the ability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) system and Trauma-Injury Severity Scoring (TRISS) system in predicting group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) trauma patients. Prospective study. A Canadian adult trauma tertiary referral hospital. Consecutive trauma patients admitted to the medical-surgical ICU or the neurosurgical ICU. None. For each patient, demographic data, mechanism of injury, and surgical status were collected. Revised Trauma Scores and Injury Severity Scores were calculated from emergency room and operative data. The APACHE II score was calculated based on the data from the first 24 hrs of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the APACHE II and TRISS equations. The ability to predict group mortality for APACHE II and TRISS was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, two by two decision matrices, and calibration curve analysis. Four hundred seventy trauma patients were admitted to the ICU. Sixty-three (13%) patients died and 407 (87%) survived. There were significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors in age, Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score, and APACHE II score. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the areas under the curves (+/- SEM) of APACHE II and TRISS were 0.92 +/- 0.02 and 0.89 +/- 0.02, respectively. Using two by two decision matrices with a decision criterion of 0.5, the sensitivities, specificities, and percentages correctly classified were 50.8%, 97.3%, and 91.1%, respectively, for APACHE II, and 50.8%, 97.1%, and 90.9%, respectively, for TRISS. From the calibration curves, the r2 value was .93 (p = .0001) for APACHE II and .67 (p = .004) for TRISS. Both APACHE II and TRISS scores were shown to accurately predict group mortality in ICU trauma patients. APACHE II and TRISS may be utilized for quality assurance in ICU trauma patients. However, neither APACHE II nor

  17. Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) Grade as Part of the Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline for HCC of the Japan Society of Hepatology: A Comparison with the Liver Damage and Child-Pugh Classifications.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Atsushi; Kumada, Takashi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hirooka, Masashi; Tsuji, Kunihiko; Itobayashi, Ei; Kariyama, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Toru; Tajiri, Kazuto; Ochi, Hironori; Tada, Toshifumi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Joko, Kouji; Kawasaki, Hideki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Michitaka, Kojiro

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of 3 classifications for assessing liver function, the liver damage and Child-Pugh classifications and the newly proposed albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, in order to examine the feasibility of evaluating hepatic function using ALBI grade with the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment algorithm used in Japan. We analyzed the medical records of 3,495 Japanese HCC patients admitted from 2000 to 2015, which were comprised of 1,580 patients hospitalized in the Ehime Prefecture area and used as a training cohort (Ehime group), and 1,915 others who were used for validation (validation group). ALBI score used for grading (≤-2.60 = grade 1, greater than -2.60 to ≤-1.39 = grade 2, greater than -1.39 = grade 3) as well as clinical features and prognosis (Japan Integrated Staging [JIS], modified JIS, ALBI-TNM [ALBI-T] score) were retrospectively investigated. For prediction of liver damage A, the values for sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ALBI-1 and Child-Pugh A were similar among the 2 groups. Akaike information criterion results showed that prognosis based on ALBI grade/ALBI-T score was better than that based on liver damage/modified JIS score and Child-Pugh/JIS score (22,291.8/21,989.4, 22,379.6/22,076.0, 22,392.1/22,075.1, respectively). The cutoff values for ALBI score for indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15) <10, <20, and <30% were -2.623 (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.798), -2.470 (AUC: 0.791), and -2.222 (AUC: 0.843), respectively. The distribution of ICG-R15 (<10%, 10 to <20%, 20 to <30%, and ≥30%) for ALBI grade 1 was similar to that for liver damage A. There were only small differences with regard to therapeutic selection with the Japanese HCC treatment algorithm between liver damage and ALBI grade. ALBI grade is a useful and easy classification system for assessment of hepatic function for

  18. Predictive values of urine paraquat concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in the prognosis of patients with acute paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Tao; Li, Lu-Lu; Qu, Bo; Liu, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the predictive values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score in the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. A total of 194 patients with acute PQ poisoning, hospitalized between April 2012 and January 2014 at the First Affiliated Hospital of P.R. China Medical University (Shenyang, China), were selected and divided into survival and mortality groups. Logistic regression analysis, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve were applied to evaluate the values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and (APACHE) II score for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Initial urine PQ concentration (C0), dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score of patients in the mortality group were significantly higher compared with the survival group (all P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that C0, dose of poison and arterial blood lactate correlated with mortality risk of acute PQ poisoning (all P<0.05). ROC curve analysis suggested that the areas under the curve (AUC) values of C0, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.921, 0.887, 0.808 and 0.648, respectively. The AUC of C0 for predicting early and delayed mortality were 0.890 and 0.764, respectively. The AUC values of urine paraquat concentration the day after poisoning (Csec) and the rebound rate of urine paraquat concentration in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.919 and 0.805, respectively. The 28-day survival rate of patients with C0 ≤32.2 µg/ml (42/71; 59.2%) was significantly higher when compared with patients with C0 >32.2 µg/ml (38/123; 30.9%). These results suggest that the initial urine PQ concentration may be the optimal index for predicting the

  19. The Value of Procalcitonin and the SAPS II and APACHE III Scores in the Differentiation of Infectious and Non-infectious Fever in the ICU: A Prospective, Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun Ju; Jung, Jae Woo; Choi, Jae Chol; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Ae Ja

    2010-01-01

    Early and accurate differentiation between infectious and non-infectious fever is vitally important in the intensive care unit (ICU). In the present study, patients admitted to the medical ICU were screened daily from August 2008 to February 2009. Within 24 hr after the development of fever (>38.3℃), serum was collected for the measurement of the procalcitonin (PCT) and high mobility group B 1 levels. Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores were also analyzed. Sixty-three patients developed fever among 448 consecutive patients (14.1%). Fever was caused by either infectious (84.1%) or non-infectious processes (15.9%). Patients with fever due to infectious causes showed higher values of serum PCT (7.8±10.2 vs 0.5±0.2 ng/mL, P=0.026), SAPS II (12.0±3.8 vs 7.6±2.7, P=0.006), and APACHE III (48±20 vs 28.7±13.3, P=0.039) than those with non-infectious fever. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve was 0.726 (95% CI; 0.587-0.865) for PCT, 0.759 (95% CI; 0.597-0.922) for SAPS II, and 0.715 (95% CI; 0.550-0.880) for APACHE III. Serum PCT, SAPS II, and APACHE III are useful in the differentiation between infectious and non-infectious fever in the ICU. PMID:21060753

  20. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT) and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED). A comparison with APACHE II score

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization. Methods This was an observational, multicentric study. We enrolled 128 patients referred to the ED with high fever and a suspicion of severe infection such as sepsis, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, soft tissue infections, central nervous system infections, or osteomyelitis. The APACHE II score was calculated for each patient. Results MR-proADM median values in controls were 0.5 nmol/l as compared with 0.85 nmol/l in patients (P < 0.0001), while PCT values in controls were 0.06 ng/ml versus 0.56 ng/ml in patients (P < 0.0001). In all patients there was a statistically significant stepwise increase in MR-proADM levels in accordance with PCT values (P < 0.0001). MR-proADM and PCT levels were significantly increased in accordance with the Apache II quartiles (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0012 respectively). In the respiratory infections, urinary infections, and sepsis-septic shock groups we found a correlation between the Apache II and MR-proADM respectively and MR-proADM and PCT respectively. We evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization in patients admitted to our emergency departments complaining of fever. MR-proADM alone had an AUC of 0.694, while PCT alone had an AUC of 0.763. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM instead showed an AUC of 0.79. Conclusions The present study highlights the way in which MR-proADM and PCT may be helpful to the febrile patient’s care in the ED. Our data support the prognostic role of MR-proADM and PCT in that setting, as demonstrated by the correlation with the APACHE II score. The combined use of the two biomarkers can predict a subsequent

  1. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Curriculum Program for the Apache Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteriver Public Schools, AZ.

    These curriculum materials from the Whiteriver (Arizona) Elementary School consist of--(1) an English-Apache word list of some of the most commonly used words in Apache, 29p.; (2) a list of enclitics with approximate or suggested meanings and illustrations of usage, 5 p.; (3) an illustrated chart of Apache vowels and consonants, various written…

  3. The Jicarilla Apaches. A Study in Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnerson, Dolores A.

    Focusing on the ultimate fate of the Cuartelejo and/or Paloma Apaches known in archaeological terms as the Dismal River people of the Central Plains, this book is divided into 2 parts. The early Apache (1525-1700) and the Jicarilla Apache (1700-1800) tribes are studied in terms of their: persistent cultural survival, social/political adaptability,…

  4. Curriculum Program for the Apache Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteriver Public Schools, AZ.

    These curriculum materials from the Whiteriver (Arizona) Elementary School consist of--(1) an English-Apache word list of some of the most commonly used words in Apache, 29p.; (2) a list of enclitics with approximate or suggested meanings and illustrations of usage, 5 p.; (3) an illustrated chart of Apache vowels and consonants, various written…

  5. Feasibility and efficacy of high-dose three-dimensional-conformal radiotherapy in cirrhotic patients with small-size hepatocellular carcinoma non-eligible for curative therapies-mature results of the French Phase II RTF-1 trial

    SciTech Connect

    Mornex, Francoise . E-mail: francoise.mornex@chu-lyon.fr; Girard, Nicolas; Beziat, Christophe; Kubas, Abdul; Khodri, Mustapha; Trepo, Christian; Merle, Philippe

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a poor prognosis tumor, and only 20% of patients will benefit from curative therapies (surgery, liver transplantation, percutaneous ablation). Although conventional radiotherapy has been traditionally regarded as inefficient and toxic for cirrhotic patients, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) has provided promising preliminary data for the treatment of HCC. Methods and Materials: Prospective phase II trial including Child-Pugh A/B cirrhotic patients with small-size HCC (1 nodule {<=}5 cm, or 2 nodules {<=}3 cm) nonsuitable for curative treatments, to assess tolerance and efficacy of high-dose (66 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction) 3DCRT. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Among the 25 assessable patients, tumor response was observed for 23 patients (92%), with complete response for 20 patients (80%), and partial response for 3 patients (12%). Stable disease was observed in 2 patients (8%). Grade 4 toxicities occurred in 2 of 11 (22%) Child-Pugh B patients only. Child-Pugh A patients tolerated treatment well, and 3/16 (19%) developed asymptomatic Grade 3 toxicities. Conclusion: High-dose 3DCRT is a noninvasive, well-tolerated modality that is highly suitable for the treatment of small HCCs in cirrhotic patients, with promising results. However, additional trials are needed to optimize this technique and formally compare it with the usual curative approaches.

  6. Escape from Albuquerque: An Apache Memorate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfeld, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Clarence Hawkins, a White Mountain Apache, escaped from the Albuquerque Indian School around 1920. His 300-mile trip home, made with two other boys, exemplifies the reaction of many Indian youths to the American government's plans for cultural assimilation. The tale is told in the form of traditional Apache narrative. (TD)

  7. [BISAP-O y APACHE-O: utility in predicting severity in acute pancreatitis in modified Atlanta classification].

    PubMed

    Pérez Campos, Agnetha; Bravo Paredes, Eduar; Prochazka Zarate, Ricardo; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Pinto Valdivia, José; Valenzuela Granados, Vannessa

    2015-01-01

    To assess the BISAP and APACHE II scores in predicting severity according to the 2012 Atlanta classification and whether the obesity factor added to these scores improves prediction. A prospective study between January 2013 and April 2014 including all patients with acute pancreatitis was performed according to the new Atlanta 2012 classification. ROC curves were fabricated for BISAP, BISAP-O, APACHE-II scores and Apache O and appropriate cutoffs were selected to the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, RPP and RPN. We studied 334 patients. 65.27% were overweighted or obese. The biliar etiology was 86.53%. Only 8.38% had severe pancreatitis and 1.5% died. Areas under the ROC curve and cut points selected were: BISAP: 0.8725, 2; BISAP-O: 0.8246, 3; APACHE-II: 0.8547, 5; APACHE-O: 0.8531, 6. Using these cutoffs the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, RPP and RPN were BISAP: 60.71%, 91.83%, 40.48%, 96.23 %, 7.43, 0.43; BISAP-O: 60.71%, 86.93%, 29.82%, 96.03%, 4.76, 0.45; APACHE-II: 85.71%, 76.14%, 24.74%, 98.31%, 3.6, 0.19; APACHE-O: 82.14%, 79.41%, 26.74%, 97.98%, 4, 0.22. BISAP, BISAP-O, APACHE-II and APACHE-O systems can be used to identify patients at low risk of severity because of its high NPV, however their use should be cautious considering that the RPP and RPN do not reach optimal levels indicating that their value in predicting severity is limited. On the other hand adding the obesity factor did not improve their predictive ability.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: clinical course and mortality prediction.

    PubMed

    Afessa, B; Kubilis, P S

    2000-02-01

    We conducted this study to describe the complications and validate the accuracy of previously reported prognostic indices in predicting the mortality of cirrhotic patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding. This prospective, observational study included 111 consecutive hospitalizations of 85 cirrhotic patients admitted for GI bleeding. Data obtained included intensive care unit (ICU) admission status, Child-Pugh score, the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), organ failure, and inhospital mortality. The performances of Garden's, Gatta's, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II prognostic systems in predicting mortality were assessed. Patients' mean age was 48.7 yr, and the median APACHE II and Child-Pugh scores were 17 and 9, respectively. Their ICU admission rate was 71%. Organ failure developed in 57%, and SIRS in 46% of the patients. Nine patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and three patients had hepatorenal syndrome. The inhospital mortality was 21%. The APACHE II, Garden's, and Gatta' s predicted mortality rates were 39%, 24%, and 20%, respectively, and their areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.78, 0.70, and 0.71, respectively. The AUC for Child-Pugh score was 0.76. SIRS and organ failure develop in many patients with hepatic cirrhosis hospitalized for upper GI bleeding, and are associated with increased mortality. Although the APACHE II prognostic system overestimated the mortality of these patients, the receiver operating characteristic curves did not show significant differences between the various prognostic systems.

  9. The Western Apache home: landscape management and failing ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Seth Pilsk; Jeanette C. Cassa

    2005-01-01

    The traditional Western Apache home lies largely within the Madrean Archipelago. The natural resources of the region make up the basis of the Apache home and culture. Profound landscape changes in the region have occurred over the past 150 years. A survey of traditional Western Apache place names documents many of these changes. An analysis of the history and Apache...

  10. The Apache OODT Project: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Hughes, J. S.; Ramirez, P.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Apache OODT is a science data system framework, borne over the past decade, with 100s of FTEs of investment, tens of sponsoring agencies (NASA, NIH/NCI, DoD, NSF, universities, etc.), and hundreds of projects and science missions that it powers everyday to their success. At its core, Apache OODT carries with it two fundamental classes of software services and components: those that deal with information integration from existing science data repositories and archives, that themselves have already-in-use business processes and models for populating those archives. Information integration allows search, retrieval, and dissemination across these heterogeneous systems, and ultimately rapid, interactive data access, and retrieval. The other suite of services and components within Apache OODT handle population and processing of those data repositories and archives. Workflows, resource management, crawling, remote data retrieval, curation and ingestion, along with science data algorithm integration all are part of these Apache OODT software elements. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the use of Apache OODT to unlock and populate information from science data repositories and archives. We'll cover the basics, along with some advanced use cases and success stories.

  11. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation. 52.150... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.150 Yavapai-Apache Reservation. (a... applicable to the Yavapai-Apache Reservation, pursuant to § 52.21(a). (b) In accordance with section 164 of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation. 52.150... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.150 Yavapai-Apache Reservation. (a... applicable to the Yavapai-Apache Reservation, pursuant to § 52.21(a). (b) In accordance with section 164 of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation. 52.150... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.150 Yavapai-Apache Reservation. (a... applicable to the Yavapai-Apache Reservation, pursuant to § 52.21(a). (b) In accordance with section 164 of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation. 52.150... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.150 Yavapai-Apache Reservation. (a... applicable to the Yavapai-Apache Reservation, pursuant to § 52.21(a). (b) In accordance with section 164 of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation. 52.150... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.150 Yavapai-Apache Reservation. (a... applicable to the Yavapai-Apache Reservation, pursuant to § 52.21(a). (b) In accordance with section 164 of...

  16. Conservation priorities in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Treesearch

    Dale Turner; Rob Marshall; Carolyn A. F. Enquist; Anne Gondor; David F. Gori; Eduardo Lopez; Gonzalo Luna; Rafaela Paredes Aguilar; Chris Watts; Sabra Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The Apache Highlands ecoregion incorporates the entire Madrean Archipelago/Sky Island region. We analyzed the current distribution of 223 target species and 26 terrestrial ecological systems there, and compared them with constraints on ecosystem integrity (e.g., road density) to determine the most efficient set of areas needed to maintain current biodiversity. The...

  17. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Mendez, David; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-12-01

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. We present how we migrated our continuous integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.

  18. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurachmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Mendez, David; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-12-23

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux.Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. Lastly, we present how we migrated our continuous integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.

  19. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language among the Western Apache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basso, Keith H.

    This book of essays draws on a cultural geography project in which an ethnographer and Apache consultants mapped the area around Cibecue, on the Fort Apache Reservation (Arizona). The essays focus on different Apache individuals and examine the ways that Apache constructions of place reach deeply into other cultural spheres. Many Apache place…

  20. Visual Survey of Apache Aviators (VISAA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    extensive flight time in both the UH-1 and the AH-I. About two-thirds had between 150- 750 flight hours in the Apache and almost 20 percent reported as many...buckle, 4 nape strap, etc.) -- Restricted field-of-view through combiner 3 -- Uncomfortable sensation from combiner touching eyelashes 2 As shown in...when the system is used extensively . (Sometimes) After a period of approximately 10-15 minutes of viewing the HMD video, upon seeing a light source with

  1. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    DOE PAGES

    Abdurachmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; ...

    2015-12-23

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux.Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora,more » and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. Lastly, we present how we migrated our continuous integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.« less

  2. Southwestern Athabaskan (Navajo and Apache) genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R P

    1999-01-01

    Four apparently unique disorders are known among the Southwestern Athabasan Amerindians, i.e., the Navajo and Apache; they are Athabaskan severe combined immunodeficiency, Navajo neuropathy, Navajo poikiloderma, and Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis. This study reviews background information on Athabaskan groups and clinical descriptions of these recessive disorders. The major clinical findings of these four disorders are reviewed. In addition, the findings of epidemiological surveys are included where available. Although the importance of genetic bottlenecks in increasing the frequency of rare, sometimes unique, autosomal recessive disorders is known for a number of populations, similar phenomena among Native Americans seem to be less well known. As many more Native Americans move off the Reservation, the awareness of susceptibility to particular genetic diseases needs to be more widely disseminated.

  3. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  4. 10. Tempe Canal, looking south from Apache Boulevard, showing new ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Tempe Canal, looking south from Apache Boulevard, showing new apartments and old farm silos. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. White Mountain Apache Tribe assesses fuel potential of forestry waste

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    This article describes a study of the potential of wood wastes for an energy supply for sawmill operations. The waste would provide fuel for a cogeneration plant at a lumber mill owned by the White Mountain Apache Tribe.

  6. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  7. Prediction of outcome in intensive care unit trauma patients: a multicenter study of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), and a 24-hour intensive care unit (ICU) point system.

    PubMed

    Vassar, M J; Lewis, F R; Chambers, J A; Mullins, R J; O'Brien, P E; Weigelt, J A; Hoang, M T; Holcroft, J W

    1999-08-01

    To conduct a multicenter study to validate the accuracy of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II system, APACHE III system, Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) methodology, and a 24-hour intensive care unit (ICU) point system for prediction of mortality in ICU trauma patient admissions. The study population consisted of retrospectively identified, consecutive ICU trauma admissions (n = 2,414) from six Level I trauma centers. Probabilities of death were calculated by using logistic regression analysis. The predictive power of each system was evaluated by using decision matrix analysis to compare observed and predicted outcomes with a decision criterion of 0.50 for risk of hospital death. The Youden Index (YI) was used to compare the proportion of patients correctly classified by each system. Measures of model calibration were based on goodness-of-fit testing (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic less than 15.5) and model discrimination were based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Overall, APACHE II (sensitivity, 38%; specificity, 99%; YI, 37%; H-L statistic, 92.6; AUC, 0.87) and TRISS (sensitivity, 52%; specificity, 94%; YI, 46%; H-L statistic, 228.1; AUC, 0.82) were poor predictors of aggregate mortality, because they did not meet the acceptable thresholds for both model calibration and discrimination. APACHE III (sensitivity, 60%; specificity, 98%; YI, 58%; H-L statistic, 7.0; AUC, 0.89) was comparable to the 24-hour ICU point system (sensitivity, 51%; specificity, 98%; YI, 50%; H-L statistic, 14.7; AUC, 0.89) with both systems showing strong agreement between the observed and predicted outcomes based on acceptable thresholds for both model calibration and discrimination. The APACHE III system significantly improved upon APACHE II for estimating risk of death in ICU trauma patients (p < 0.001). Compared with the overall performance, for the subset of patients with nonoperative head trauma, the percentage

  8. Evidence of sexually dimorphic introgression in Pinaleno Mountain Apache trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porath, M.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The high-elevation headwater streams of the Pinaleno Mountains support small populations of threatened Apache trout Oncorhynchus apache that were stocked following the chemical removal of nonnative salmonids in the 1960s. A fisheries survey to assess population composition, growth, and size structure confirmed angler reports of infrequent occurrences of Oncorhynchus spp. exhibiting the external morphological characteristics of both Apache trout and rainbow trout O. mykiss. Nonlethal tissue samples were collected from 50 individuals in the headwaters of each stream. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and amplification of nuclear microsatellite loci were used to determine the levels of genetic introgression by rainbow trout in Apache trout populations at these locations. Sexually dimorphic introgression from the spawning of male rainbow trout with female Apache trout was detected using mtDNA and microsatellites. Estimates of the degree of hybridization based on three microsatellite loci were 10-88%. The use of nonlethal DNA genetic analyses can supplement information obtained from standard survey methods and be useful in assessing the relative importance of small and sensitive populations with a history of nonnative introductions.

  9. APACHE score, Severity Index of Paraquat Poisoning, and serum lactic acid concentration in the prognosis of paraquat poisoning of Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuyun; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Zhen; Tang, Shiyuan; Zhou, Yuangao; Sheng, Jie; Chen, Jinggang; Cao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Many prognostic indictors have been studied to evaluate the prognosis of paraquat poisoning. However, the optimal indicator remains unclear. To determine the value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, the Severity Index of Paraquat Poisoning (SIPP), and serum lactate levels in the prognosis of paraquat poisoning, we performed a prospective study that enrolled 143 paraquat patients. Data were collected from patients (161) at West China Hospital in Chengdu, China, including details about the patients' general conditions, laboratory examinations, and treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting inpatient mortality based on APACHE II score, SIPP, and lactate levels were generated. To analyze the best cutoff values for lactate levels, APACHE II scores, and SIPP in predicting the prognosis of paraquat poisoning, the initial parameters on admission and 7-day survival curves of patients with lactate levels greater than or equal to 2.95 mmol/L, APACHE II score greater than or equal to 15.22, and SIPP greater than or equal to 5.50 h · mg/L at the time of arrival at West China Hospital were compared using the 1-way analysis of variance and the log-rank test. The APACHE II score (5.45 [3.67] vs 11.29 [4.31]), SIPP (2.78 [1.89] vs 7.63 [2.46] h · mg/L), and lactate level (2.78 [1.89] vs 7.63 [2.46] mmol/L) were significantly lower in survivors (77) after oral ingestion of paraquat, compared with nonsurvivors (66). The APACHE II score, SIPP, and lactate level had different areas under the curve (0.847, 0.789, and 0.916, respectively) and accuracy (0.64, 0.84, and 0.89, respectively). Respiratory rate, serum creatinine level, Paco2, and mortality rate at 7 days after admission in patients with lactate levels greater than or equal to 2.95 mmol/L were markedly different compared with those of other patients (P < 0.05). The predictive value of lactic acid was superior to that of APACHE II score and SIPP for acute oral

  10. Apache, Santa Fe energy units awarded two Myanmar blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that Myanmar's state oil company has awarded production sharing contracts (PSCs) on two blocks to units of Apache Corp. and Santa Fe Energy Resources Inc., both of Houston. That comes on the heels of a report by County NatWest Woodmac that notes Myanmar's oil production, currently meeting less than half the country's demand, is set to fall further this year. 150 line km of new seismic data could be acquired and one well drilled. During the initial 2 year exploration period on Block EP-3, Apache will conduct geological studies and conduct at least 200 line km of seismic data.

  11. Geologic influences on Apache trout habitat in the White Mountains of Arizona

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina

    2006-01-01

    Geologic variation has important influences on habitat quality for species of concern, but it can be difficult to evaluate due to subtle variations, complex terminology, and inadequate maps. To better understand habitat of the Apache trout (Onchorhynchus apache or O. gilae apache Miller), a threatened endemic species of the White...

  12. Issues in Language Textbook Development: The Case of Western Apache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Reuse, Willem J.

    Two experimental language-learning textbooks were developed in collaboration with Apache-speaking scholars from the San Carlos and White Mountain Reservations. One was written in the grammar-translation tradition and modeled after successful textbooks for Navajo and Papago. While the text's main purpose is to teach elementary conversational…

  13. The Mescalero Apaches. The Civilization of the American Indian Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnichsen, C. L.

    The history of the Eastern Apache tribe called the Mescaleros is one of hardship and oppression altering with wars of revenge. They were friendly to the Spaniard until victimized by them. They were also friendly to the white man until they were betrayed again. For three hundred years they fought the Spaniards and Mexicans. For forty more they…

  14. The Mescalero Apaches. The Civilization of the American Indian Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnichsen, C. L.

    The history of the Eastern Apache tribe called the Mescaleros is one of hardship and oppression altering with wars of revenge. They were friendly to the Spaniard until victimized by them. They were also friendly to the white man until they were betrayed again. For three hundred years they fought the Spaniards and Mexicans. For forty more they…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Apache Middle School Students' Computer Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary; Buckpitt, Marcia

    The paper describes a participant observation study of a 3 week summer art program for Apache middle school students on the White Mountain Reservation. Computer art skills, specifically animation using a menu-driven computer paint program, were the focus of the investigation. Because it was in the context of a summer program, instruction was…

  16. Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr.: Apache-plume

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Fallugia contains a single species - Apache-plume, F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr. - found throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs mostly on coarse soils on benches and especially along washes and canyons in both warm and cool desert shrub communities and up into the pinyon-juniper vegetation type. It is a sprawling, much-...

  17. AH-64E Apache Remanufacture (AH-64E Remanufacture)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-202 AH-64E Apache Remanufacture (AH-64E Remanufacture) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost

  18. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Bashu Dev; Shrestha, Gentle S.; Pradhan, Bishwas; Amatya, Roshana

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005). Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005). Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study. PMID:25722550

  19. The White Mountain Apache Child Protection Service Training Curriculum. Nohwii Chaghashe Baa da gontzaa (Protect Our Apache Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Santin, Edwin, Comp.

    This curriculum manual provides 8 days of training for child protective services (CPS) personnel (social workers and administrators) working in the White Mountain Apache tribal community. Each of the first seven units in the manual contains a brief description of contents, course objectives, time required, key concepts, possible discussion topics,…

  20. AH-64E Apache Remanufacture (AH-64E Remanufacture)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    BY - Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense...2009 NOV 2009 MAY 2010 NOV 2009 Milestone C JUL 2010 JUL 2010 JAN 2011 SEP 2010 IOT &E MAR 2012 MAR 2012 SEP 2012 MAR 2012 FRP JUL 2012 JUL 2012 JAN...AB3A - Apache Block 3A EMD - Engineering Manufacturing and Development FRP - Full Rate Production IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation

  1. Solar Feasibility Study May 2013 - San Carlos Apache Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Jim; Duncan, Ken; Albert, Steve

    2013-05-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.

  2. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. V.; Werpy, J.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Land Science Research and Development (LSRD) project has devised a method to fulfill its processing needs for Essential Climate Variable (ECV) production from the Landsat archive using Apache Hadoop. Apache Hadoop is the distributed processing technology at the heart of many large-scale, processing solutions implemented at well-known companies such as Yahoo, Amazon, and Facebook. It is a proven framework and can be used to process petabytes of data on thousands of processors concurrently. It is a natural fit for producing satellite imagery and requires only a few simple modifications to serve the needs of science data processing. This presentation provides an invaluable learning opportunity and should be heard by anyone doing large scale image processing today. The session will cover a description of the problem space, evaluation of alternatives, feature set overview, configuration of Hadoop for satellite image processing, real-world performance results, tuning recommendations and finally challenges and ongoing activities. It will also present how the LSRD project built a 102 core processing cluster with no financial hardware investment and achieved ten times the initial daily throughput requirements with a full time staff of only one engineer. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop is presented by David V. Hill, Principal Software Architect for USGS LSRD.

  3. Mechanical characterization of densely welded Apache Leap tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-06-01

    An empirical criterion is formulated to describe the compressive strength of the densely welded Apache Leap tuff. The criterion incorporates the effects of size, L/D ratio, loading rate and density variations. The criterion improves the correlation between the test results and the failure envelope. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, Brazilian tensile strength and elastic properties of the densely welded brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff have been determined using the ASTM standard test methods. All tuff samples are tested dry at room temperature (22 {plus_minus} 2{degrees}C), and have the core axis normal to the flow layers. The uniaxial compressive strength is 73.2 {plus_minus} 16.5 MPa. The Brazilian tensile strength is 5.12 {plus_minus} 1.2 MPa. The Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio are 22.6 {plus_minus} 5.7 GPa and 0.20 {plus_minus} 0.03. Smoothness and perpendicularity do not fully meet the ASTM requirements for all samples, due to the presence of voids and inclusions on the sample surfaces and the sample preparation methods. The investigations of loading rate, L/D radio and cyclic loading effects on the compressive strength and of the size effect on the tensile strength are not conclusive. The Coulomb strength criterion adequately represents the failure envelope of the tuff under confining pressures from 0 to 62 MPa. Cohesion and internal friction angle are 16 MPa and 43 degrees. The brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff is highly heterogeneous as suggested by large variations of the test results. The high intrinsic variability of the tuff is probably caused by the presence of flow layers and by nonuniform distributions of inclusions, voids and degree of welding. Similar variability of the properties has been found in publications on the Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain. 57 refs., 32 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Vegetative response to water availability on the San Carlos Apache Reservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrakis, Roy; Wu, Zhuoting; McVay, Jason; Middleton, Barry R.; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.

    2016-01-01

    On the San Carlos Apache Reservation in east-central Arizona, U.S.A., vegetation types such as ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-juniper woodlands, and grasslands have significant ecological, cultural, and economic value for the Tribe. This value extends beyond the tribal lands and across the Western United States. Vegetation across the Southwestern United States is susceptible to drought conditions and fluctuating water availability. Remotely sensed vegetation indices can be used to measure and monitor spatial and temporal vegetative response to fluctuating water availability conditions. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index II (MSAVI2) to measure the condition of three dominant vegetation types (ponderosa pine forest, woodland, and grassland) in response to two fluctuating environmental variables: precipitation and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study period covered 2002 through 2014 and focused on a region within the San Carlos Apache Reservation. We determined that grassland and woodland had a similar moderate to strong, year-round, positive relationship with precipitation as well as with summer SPEI. This suggests that these vegetation types respond negatively to drought conditions and are more susceptible to initial precipitation deficits. Ponderosa pine forest had a comparatively weaker relationship with monthly precipitation and summer SPEI, indicating that it is more buffered against short-term drought conditions. This research highlights the response of multiple, dominant vegetation types to seasonal and inter-annual water availability. This research demonstrates that multi-temporal remote sensing imagery can be an effective tool for the large scale detection of vegetation response to adverse impacts from climate change and support potential management practices such as increased monitoring and management of drought-affected areas. Different

  5. Evaluation of Apache Hadoop for parallel data analysis with ROOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrack, S.; Duckeck, G.; Ebke, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Apache Hadoop software is a Java based framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers, using the Hadoop file system (HDFS) for data storage and backup and MapReduce as a processing platform. Hadoop is primarily designed for processing large textual data sets which can be processed in arbitrary chunks, and must be adapted to the use case of processing binary data files which cannot be split automatically. However, Hadoop offers attractive features in terms of fault tolerance, task supervision and control, multi-user functionality and job management. For this reason, we evaluated Apache Hadoop as an alternative approach to PROOF for ROOT data analysis. Two alternatives in distributing analysis data were discussed: either the data was stored in HDFS and processed with MapReduce, or the data was accessed via a standard Grid storage system (dCache Tier-2) and MapReduce was used only as execution back-end. The focus in the measurements were on the one hand to safely store analysis data on HDFS with reasonable data rates and on the other hand to process data fast and reliably with MapReduce. In the evaluation of the HDFS, read/write data rates from local Hadoop cluster have been measured and compared to standard data rates from the local NFS installation. In the evaluation of MapReduce, realistic ROOT analyses have been used and event rates have been compared to PROOF.

  6. A Photographic Essay of Apache Chiefs and Warriors, Volume 2-Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, Gerald; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay describing forts, Indian agents, and Apache chiefs, warriors, and scouts of the 19th century. Accompanying each picture is a brief historical-biographical narrative. Focus is on Apache resistance to the reservation.…

  7. A Photographic Essay of Apache Children in Early Times, Volume 2-Part C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on life of the Apache child from 1880 to the early 20th century. Each of the 12 photographs is accompanied by an historical narrative which describes one or more cultural aspects of Apache childhood.…

  8. A Photographic Essay of Apache Children in Early Times, Volume 2-Part C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on life of the Apache child from 1880 to the early 20th century. Each of the 12 photographs is accompanied by an historical narrative which describes one or more cultural aspects of Apache childhood.…

  9. Biology and distribution of Lutzomyia apache as it relates to VSV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses(VSV)due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and outbreaks of VSV. I report on newly discovered populations of L. apache in Wyoming from Albany and ...

  10. A Needs Assessment Study at Apache Junction for Long Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dale R.

    As part of an effort to assess the postsecondary educational needs of the community of Apache Junction, surveys were administered to: (1) students in grades 9-12 at Apache Junction High School (N=420) with regard to their educational plans, the postsecondary institutions they anticipated attending, course and program interests of those planning to…

  11. A Needs Assessment Study at Apache Junction for Long Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dale R.

    As part of an effort to assess the postsecondary educational needs of the community of Apache Junction, surveys were administered to: (1) students in grades 9-12 at Apache Junction High School (N=420) with regard to their educational plans, the postsecondary institutions they anticipated attending, course and program interests of those planning to…

  12. 77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... life and property on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Myrtle Beach, SC... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier...

  13. Cohort vision study of Apache AH Mk1 pilots: protocol and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Braithwaite, Malcolm G.; Crowley, John S.; Rash, Clarence E.; van de Pol, Corina; Ranchino, Daniel J.; Statz, William K.; Eke, Allison J.

    2002-08-01

    A collaborative occupational health study has been undertaken by Headquarters Director Army Aviation, Middle Wallop, UK, and the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama, to determine if the use of the monocular helmet-mounted display in the Apache AH Mk 1 attack helicopter has any long-term (10-year) effect on visual performance. This paper describes the protocol, methodology, development and initial execution phase of this study. The test methodology consists primarily of a battery of vision tests selected to capture changes in visual performance (with an emphasis on binocular visual functions) of Apache aviators over their flight career. It is anticipated that the number of Apache aviators will level out to approximately 70 by the end of the first three years of the study. Non-Apache aviators will serve as a control group.

  14. Analyzing large data sets from XGC1 magnetic fusion simulations using apache spark

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, R. Michael

    2016-11-21

    Apache Spark is explored as a tool for analyzing large data sets from the magnetic fusion simulation code XGCI. Implementation details of Apache Spark on the NERSC Edison supercomputer are discussed, including binary file reading, and parameter setup. Here, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, k-means clustering, is applied to XGCI particle distribution function data, showing that highly turbulent spatial regions do not have common coherent structures, but rather broad, ring-like structures in velocity space.

  15. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    I describe a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory). One of three core programs in the 6-year SDSS-IV project† that began on July 1st, 2014, MaNGA will deploy 17 fiber-bundle IFUs across the Sloan 2.5m Telescope's 3 degree field-of-view, targeting a mass-selected sample with a median redshift of 0.03, typical spatial resolution of 1-2 kpc, and a per-fiber signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 in the outskirts of target galaxies. For each galaxy in the sample, MaNGA will provide maps and measured gradients of the composition and dynamics of both stars and gas. I discuss early results that highlight MaNGA's potential to shed light on the ionization and chemical enrichment of gas in galaxies, spatial patterns in their star formation histories, and the internal makeup of stellar populations. MaNGA's unprecedented data set will not only provide powerful new insight on galaxy formation and evolution but will serve as a valuable benchmark for future high-z observations from large telescopes and space-based facilities.

  16. The Early History of the Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallerstein, G.

    2004-12-01

    In this oral paper I will describe the efforts I made to fund and organize a major optical telescope. The story starts with my visit to a potential contributor in November 1964 within a month after I had accepted the appointment as chairman of the Astronomy Departemnt of the University of Washington. A number of unsuccessfull efforts to find private money or to find partners will be described as well as the unexpected testimentary contribution by Mr Alex Kane of Ashland Oregon in 1975. With a significant sum in hand it became possible to search for partners so as to maximize the telescope size and to find a site with favorable weather. After a number of unsuccessfull efforts to find partners and additional funds a series of very lucky events led to the formation of the Astrophysical Research Consortium consisting of the universities of Washington, Washington State, New Mexico State, Princeton and Chicago. With the organization in place by 1984 design and construction of the Apache Point Observatory very close to the National Solar Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico, commenced with the 3.5-m telescope as its primary instrument. The observatory was dedicated during an annular eclipse on 10 May, 1994, 30 years after the program was initiated.

  17. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    I present the design and execution of a new survey to obtain resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 nearby galaxies called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory). One of three core programs in the 6-year SDSS-IV project that began on July 1st, 2014, MaNGA will deploy 17 fiber-bundle IFUs across the Sloan 2.5m Telescope's 3 degree field-of-view, targeting a mass-selected sample with a median redshift of 0.03, typical spatial resolution of 1-2 kpc, and a per-fiber signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 in the outskirts of target galaxies. For each galaxy in the sample, MaNGA will provide maps and measured gradients of the composition and dynamics of both stars and gas. Early results highlight MaNGA's potential to shed light on the ionization and chemical enrichment of gas in galaxies, spatial patterns in their star formation histories, and the internal makeup of stellar populations. MaNGA's unprecedented data set will not only provide powerful new insight on galaxy formation and evolution but will serve as a valuable benchmark for future high-z observations from large telescopes as well as space-based facilities.

  18. Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, F.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R.; Eisenstein, D.; Gunn, J.; Gillespie, B.; Weinberg, D.; Blank, B.; Henderson, C.; Smee, S.; Barkhouser, R.; Harding, A.; Hope, S.; Fitzgerald, G.; Stolberg, T.; Arns, J.; Nelson, M.; Brunner, S.; Burton, A.; Walker, E.; Lam, C.; Maseman, P.; Barr, J.; Leger, F.; Carey, L.; MacDonald, N.; Ebelke, G.; Beland, S.; Horne, T.; Young, E.; Rieke, G.; Rieke, M.; O'Brien, T.; Crane, J.; Carr, M.; Harrison, C.; Stoll, R.; Vernieri, M.; Holtzman, J.; Nidever, D.; Shetrone, M.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Johnson, J.; Frinchaboy, P.; Zasowski, G.; Garcia Perez, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Zhao, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) will observe approximately 100,000 giant stars in the Milky Way with a dedicated fiber-fed (300 fibers from the Sloan 2.5-m telescope) near-infrared (1.5-1.7 micron) high resolution (R 22,500) spectrograph as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). By observing in the near-infrared, APOGEE can uniformly sample all Milky Way stellar populations (bulge, thin/thick disks and halo) in the same survey to dramatically improve our understanding of the kinematical and chemical enrichment history of our galaxy. The instrument design includes several innovations: a novel fiber gang connector that allows simultaneous optical connection of 300 fibers from the instrument into swappable plug plate cartridges, the first deployed mosaic volume phase holographic (VPH) grating, and a very large ( 0.4-m) aperture six-element refractive camera incorporating crystalline silicon elements to image 300 spectra onto three HAWAII-IIRG detectors simultaneously.

  19. Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score and its Correlation with Three Surgical Strategies for Management of Ileal Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Mittal, Sushil; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, Jyoti; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ileal perforation peritonitis is a common surgical emergency in the Indian subcontinent and in tropical countries. It is reported to constitute the fifth common cause of abdominal emergencies due to high incidence of enteric fever and tuberculosis in these management based on Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Methods: The following study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Patiala. A total of 57 patients were studied and divided in to Group I, II, and III. APACHE II score accessed and score between 10 and 19 were blindly randomized into three procedures primary closure, resection-anastomosis, and ileostomy. The outcome was compared. Results: Ileal perforations were most commonly observed in the third and fourth decade of life with male dominance. APACHE II score was accessed and out of total 57 patients, 6 patients had APACHE II score of 0–9, 48 patients had APACHE II score of 10–19, and 3 patients had APACHE II score of ≥20. In APACHE II score 10–19, 15 patients underwent primary closure, 16 patients underwent resection-anastomosis, and 17 patients underwent ileostomy. Discussion and Conclusion: Primary closure of perforation is advocated in patients with single, small perforation (<1 cm) with APACHE II score 10–19 irrespective of duration of perforation. Ileostomy is advocated in APACHE II score 10–19, where the terminal ileum is grossly inflamed with multiple perforations, large perforations (>1 cm), fecal peritonitis, matted bowel loops, intraoperative evidence of caseating lymph nodes, strictures, and an unhealthy gut due to edema. PMID:27512550

  20. Emergency TIPS in a Child-Pugh B patient: When does the window of opportunity open and close?

    PubMed

    Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-02-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to treat complications of cirrhosis such as variceal bleeding and refractory ascites, but it also bears the risk of liver failure, overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and cardiac decompensation. Variceal bleeding may be controlled using endoscopic and medical treatment in patients with compensated cirrhosis; in decompensated patients, however, TIPS improves survival. Therefore, an early TIPS (within 72h or if later, still early after bleeding) might improve the survival of patients by preventing an inflammatory response and bacterial translocation. Both these processes mediate an impaired immunological and hemodynamic response, thereby facilitating the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and/or death. Similarly, in patients with refractory ascites, TIPS should be used early in treatment to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) after precipitating events induced by complications of portal hypertension. Whether TIPS and/or embolization should be used to treat portal vein thrombosis and spontaneous shunts is still a matter of debate and should be further investigated. In summary, the careful selection of patients for TIPS is crucial. New biomarkers, especially those evaluating systemic inflammation and bacterial translocation, might improve the predictive value of established clinical parameters such as bilirubin and overt HE. However, a significant amount of further research must be carried out. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing Child-Pugh, MELD and FIB-4 to Predict Clinical Outcomes in HCV-Infected Persons: Results from ERCHIVES.

    PubMed

    Butt, Adeel A; Ren, Yanjie; Lo Re, Vincent; Taddei, Tamar; Kaplan, David

    2017-03-22

    Identifying HCV+ persons at high risk of early complications can help prioritize treatment decisions. We conducted this study to compare Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CP), MELD and FIB-4 scores for predicting clinical outcomes and to identify those at low risk of complications. Within Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV-Infected Veterans, we identified HCV+ persons and excluded those with HIV+, HBsAg+, prevalent hepatic decompensation (HD), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and those treated for HCV. We calculated incidence rates for HD, HCC and all-cause mortality at 1, 3 and 5 years after HCV diagnosis. Using ROC curves, we determined the optimal cut-off values for each score for these outcomes. Among 21,116 persons evaluated, 89.7% were CP Class-A, 79.9% had MELD<9 and 43.4% had FIB-4<1.45. AUROC for HD at 1, 3 and 5 years was higher for FIB-4 (0.84-0.86) compared with MELD (0.70-0.76) (P<0.001). AUROC for HCC at 1, 3 and 5 years was 0.81-0.82 for FIB-4, but 0.61-0.68 for CP and MELD scores. (P<0.001) AUROC for all-cause mortality at 3 and 5 years was 0.65-0.68. The optimal cut-off scores to identify persons at low risk of complications were as follows: CP <5; MELD <8; FIB-4 <3 for HD and HCC and <2 for all-cause mortality, below which <1.5% developed HD and HCC and <2.5% died at 3 years. FIB-4 score is a better predictor of HD and HCC in HCV+ persons. A score of <3 is associated with a low risk of HD and HCC 1 and 3 years after HCV diagnosis.

  2. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Barkhouser, Robert; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blank, Basil; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Carrera, Ricardo; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Cunha, Kátia; Epstein, Courtney; Fitzgerald, Greg; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Henderson, Chuck; Holtzman, Jon A.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Lam, Charles R.; Lawler, James E.; Maseman, Paul; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nelson, Matthew; Nguyen, Duy Coung; Nidever, David L.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Shetrone, Matthew; Smee, Stephen; Smith, Verne V.; Stolberg, Todd; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Walker, Eric; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Anders, Friedrich; Basu, Sarbani; Beland, Stephane; Blanton, Michael R.; Bovy, Jo; Brownstein, Joel R.; Carlberg, Joleen; Chaplin, William; Chiappini, Cristina; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Feuillet, Diane; Fleming, Scott W.; Galbraith-Frew, Jessica; García, Rafael A.; García-Hernández, D. Aníbal; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; Gunn, James E.; Hasselquist, Sten; Hayden, Michael R.; Hekker, Saskia; Ivans, Inese; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mathur, Savita; Mosser, Benoît; Muna, Demitri; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Parejko, John K.; Robin, A. C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio; Schultheis, Matthias; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Shane, Neville; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Thompson, Benjamin; Troup, Nicholas W.; Weinberg, David H.; Zamora, Olga

    2017-09-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three-year observing campaign on the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope, APOGEE has collected a half million high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100), infrared (1.51-1.70 μm) spectra for 146,000 stars, with time series information via repeat visits to most of these stars. This paper describes the motivations for the survey and its overall design—hardware, field placement, target selection, operations—and gives an overview of these aspects as well as the data reduction, analysis, and products. An index is also given to the complement of technical papers that describe various critical survey components in detail. Finally, we discuss the achieved survey performance and illustrate the variety of potential uses of the data products by way of a number of science demonstrations, which span from time series analysis of stellar spectral variations and radial velocity variations from stellar companions, to spatial maps of kinematics, metallicity, and abundance patterns across the Galaxy and as a function of age, to new views of the interstellar medium, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species. As part of SDSS-III Data Release 12 and later releases, all of the APOGEE data products are publicly available.

  3. The 3.5 Meter at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Donald G.

    1995-05-01

    As of November 1, 1994, the 3.5 meter telescope at Apache Point is in regular science operation. About 15% of the time is still used for engineering. The performance is still being improved. At present, we achieve 4 arc second rms absolute pointing from 20 to 89 degrees above the horizon. Image sizes are one arc second on a regular basis. The best open loop tracking achieved is 0.1 arc sec. errors over 10 minutes, though it can be worse. Closed loop tracking is better than 0.1 arc seconds. No aberrations from the mirror supports have been detected. The honeycomb primary mirror is kept at ambient temperature during the night time. Temperature non-uniformities in the back and front plates are controlled to be the same to 0.1 degrees centigrade. The telescope is regularly used with an infrared imager, a medium resolution spectrograph, and a large format, drift scan CCD camera. An echelle spectrograph, a high angular resolution camera, and an adaptive optics system are being integrated into the system. Instrument changes can be made in less than 20 minutes, at night. All instruments are operational and can be mounted by one person at any time. The observatory is operated by a full time staff of 6.6 individuals. Remote operations are possible from all ARC campuses. Over 70% of the observing is carried out this way, with site visits by astronomers only for mounting visitor instruments or for training purposes. Observing functions, including complete telescope control, instrument control, and data retrieval are carried out by the remote observer. The telescope is scheduled on an hourly basis, two months in advance of the actual runs. The individual university members of the project control their own time allocations and intra-institutional trades of time. The project partners are the University of Chicago, New Mexico State University, Princeton University, the University of Washington, and Washington State University.

  4. A Western apache writing system: the symbols of silas john.

    PubMed

    Basso, K H; Anderson, N

    1973-06-08

    At the outset of this article, it was observed that the adequacy of an etic typology of written symbols could be judged by its ability to describe all the emic distinctions in all the writing systems of the world. In conclusion, we should like to return to this point and briefly examine the extent to which currently available etic concepts can be used to describe the distinctions made by Western Apaches in relation to the writing system of Silas John. Every symbol in the Silas John script may be classified as a phonetic-semantic sign. Symbols of this type denote linguistic expressions that consist of one or more words and contrast as a class with phonetic-nonsemantic signs, which denote phonemes (or phoneme clusters), syllables (or syllable clusters), and various prosodic phenomena (2, pp. 2, 248). Phonetic semantic signs are commonly partitioned into two subclasses: alogographs (which denote single words) and phraseographs (which denote on or more words). Although every symbol in the Silas John script can be assigned to one or the other of these categories, such an exercise is without justification (21). We have no evidence to suggest that Western Apaches classify symbols according to the length or complexity of their linguistic referents, and therefore the imposition of distinctions based on these criteria would be inappropriate and misleading. A far more useful contrast, and one we have already employed, is presented in most etic typologies as an opposition between compound (composite) and noncompound (noncomposite) symbols. Used to break down the category of phonetic-semantic signs, these two concepts enable us to describe more or less exactly the distinction Apaches draw between "symbol elements put together" (ke?escin ledidilgoh) and "symbol elements standing alone" (ke?- escin doledidildaahi). The former may now be defined as consisting of compound phonetic-semantic signs, while the latter is composed of noncompound phonetic-semantic signs. Up to this point

  5. Echelle spectra of SN2014J from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, UT January 27 and January 30, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Adam M.; Welty, Daniel E.; Dahlstrom, Julie A.; York, Donald G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical spectra of SN2014J were recorded with the ARC echelle spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, at approximately UT Jan. 27.2 (7 spectra, 8400 s) and UT Jan. 30.4, (6 spectra, 7200s), through thin clouds in seeing averaging 1.0 arcsec. The resolving power is 31,500. Useful interstellar spectra were obtained from 3850A to 9000A; estimated S/N values (photon counts only) near 6563A are 500 on Jan 27 and 400 on Jan 30, and about 1/3 those values at Ca II 3933A.

  6. A Tour of Big Data, Open Source Data Management Technologies from the Apache Software Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Apache Software Foundation, a non-profit foundation charged with dissemination of open source software for the public good, provides a suite of data management technologies for distributed archiving, data ingestion, data dissemination, processing, triage and a host of other functionalities that are becoming critical in the Big Data regime. Apache is the world's largest open source software organization, boasting over 3000 developers from around the world all contributing to some of the most pervasive technologies in use today, from the HTTPD web server that powers a majority of Internet web sites to the Hadoop technology that is now projected at over a $1B dollar industry. Apache data management technologies are emerging as de facto off-the-shelf components for searching, distributing, processing and archiving key science data sets both geophysical, space and planetary based, all the way to biomedicine. In this talk, I will give a virtual tour of the Apache Software Foundation, its meritocracy and governance structure, and also its key big data technologies that organizations can take advantage of today and use to save cost, schedule, and resources in implementing their Big Data needs. I'll illustrate the Apache technologies in the context of several national priority projects, including the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), and in the International Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project that are stretching the boundaries of volume, velocity, complexity, and other key Big Data dimensions.

  7. Helmet-mounted displays and facial injury in US Army AH-64A Apache accidents.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J S

    1998-10-01

    There is concern that the helmet display unit (HDU) used by AH-64 Apache helicopter pilots might contribute to facial injury in a crash. The US Army accident database was searched for HDU-related injuries in survivable Apache accidents 1985-1995. Four aviators in three crashes sustained HDU-related injury. These involved three periorbital contusions and two minor eye injuries. There were no sequelae. This equates to an incidence of 0.57 injured individuals per 100,000 flying hours or 8.0 injured aviators per 100 survivable Class A-C accidents in which the HDU was worn. Applying these data to the projected UK Army Apache flying hour programme suggests that one HDU-related injury might be encountered approximately every 10.1 years. This estimate should be interpreted with caution. Serious injury remains a possibility due to the proximity of the HDU to the eye and face.

  8. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-06-28

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

  9. Growth and survival of Apache Trout under static and fluctuating temperature regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Recsetar, Matthew S.; Bonar, Scott A.; Feuerbacher, Olin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing stream temperatures have important implications for arid-region fishes. Little is known about effects of high water temperatures that fluctuate over extended periods on Apache Trout Oncorhynchus gilae apache, a federally threatened species of southwestern USA streams. We compared survival and growth of juvenile Apache Trout held for 30 d in static temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, and 28°C) and fluctuating diel temperatures (±3°C from 16, 19, 22 and 25°C midpoints and ±6°C from 19°C and 22°C midpoints). Lethal temperature for 50% (LT50) of the Apache Trout under static temperatures (mean [SD] = 22.8 [0.6]°C) was similar to that of ±3°C diel temperature fluctuations (23.1 [0.1]°C). Mean LT50 for the midpoint of the ±6°C fluctuations could not be calculated because survival in the two treatments (19 ± 6°C and 22 ± 6°C) was not below 50%; however, it probably was also between 22°C and 25°C because the upper limb of a ±6°C fluctuation on a 25°C midpoint is above critical thermal maximum for Apache Trout (28.5–30.4°C). Growth decreased as temperatures approached the LT50. Apache Trout can survive short-term exposure to water temperatures with daily maxima that remain below 25°C and midpoint diel temperatures below 22°C. However, median summer stream temperatures must remain below 19°C for best growth and even lower if daily fluctuations are high (≥12°C).

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Apache Hopefulness: Relationships with Hopelessness and with Collective as well as Personal Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Vanessa Lea; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Cothran, D. Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Hopelessness is central to prominent mental health problems within American Indian (AI) communities. Apaches living on a reservation in Arizona responded to diverse expressions of hope along with Hopelessness, Personal Self-Esteem, and Collective Self-Esteem scales. An Apache Hopefulness Scale expressed five themes of hope and correlated…

  11. A Photographic Essay of the San Carlos Apache Indians, Volume 2-Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Ed; And Others

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on the San Carlos Apache Reservation founded in the late 1800's and located in Arizona's Gila County. An historical narrative and discussion questions accompany each of the 12 photographs. Photographic…

  12. White Mountain Apache Language: Issues in Language Shift, Textbook Development, and Native Speaker-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adley-SantaMaria, Bernadette

    This paper is an overview of topics covered at two sessions of the Fourth Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium, from the perspective of a native speaker of an indigenous language and member of a university academic community. The first section describes a Master's thesis on White Mountain Apache (WMA) language shift. Interviews with…

  13. Survival of Apache Trout eggs and alevins under static and fluctuating temperature regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Recsetar, Matthew S.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased stream temperatures due to global climate change, livestock grazing, removal of riparian cover, reduction of stream flow, and urbanization will have important implications for fishes worldwide. Information exists that describes the effects of elevated water temperatures on fish eggs, but less information is available on the effects of fluctuating water temperatures on egg survival, especially those of threatened and endangered species. We tested the posthatch survival of eyed eggs and alevins of Apache Trout Oncorhynchus gilae apache, a threatened salmonid, in static temperatures of 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27°C, and also in treatments with diel fluctuations of ±3°C around those temperatures. The LT50 for posthatch survival of Apache Trout eyed eggs and alevins was 17.1°C for static temperatures treatments and 17.9°C for the midpoints of ±3°C fluctuating temperature treatments. There was no significant difference in survival between static temperatures and fluctuating temperatures that shared the same mean temperature, yet there was a slight difference in LT50s. Upper thermal tolerance of Apache Trout eyed eggs and alevins is much lower than that of fry to adult life stages (22–23°C). Information on thermal tolerance of early life stages (eyed egg and alevin) will be valuable to those restoring streams or investigating thermal tolerances of imperiled fishes.

  14. A Photographic Essay of Apache Clothing, War Charms, and Weapons, Volume 2-Part D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on Apache clothing, war charms, and weaponry. A brief historical introduction is followed by 21 question suggestions for classroom use. Each of the 12 photographic topics is accompanied by a descriptive…

  15. Restoration of Soldier Spring: an isolated habitat for native Apache trout

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; B. Mae Burnette; Alvin L. Medina; Joshua L. Parker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of streams is a threat to the recovery of the Apache trout, an endemic fish of the White Mountains of Arizona. Historic efforts to improve trout habitat in the Southwest relied heavily on placement of in-stream log structures. However, the effects of structural interventions on trout habitat and populations have not been adequately evaluated. We treated an...

  16. A Photographic Essay of Apache Clothing, War Charms, and Weapons, Volume 2-Part D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on Apache clothing, war charms, and weaponry. A brief historical introduction is followed by 21 question suggestions for classroom use. Each of the 12 photographic topics is accompanied by a descriptive…

  17. Pathogens and bionomics of Lutzomyia apache (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Wyoming, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache, a North American sand fly, was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and recent outbreaks of VSV. We report on the discovery of two population...

  18. "The Story of Custer in Everything but Name?": Colonel Thursday and "Fort Apache."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes similarities and differences between Henry Fonda's character Colonel Thursday in John Ford's "Fort Apache" and the historical figure of General George Armstrong Custer. States that historical parallels between Thursday's military defeat and Custer's are, for the most part, fairly obvious. (PA)

  19. An assessment of the spatial extent and condition of grasslands in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Treesearch

    Carolyn A. F. Enquist; David F. Gori

    2005-01-01

    Grasslands in the Apache Highlands ecoregion have experienced dramatic changes. To assess and identify remaining native grasslands for conservation planning and management, we used a combination of expert consultation and field verification. Over two-thirds of native grasslands have experienced shrub encroachment. More than 30% of these may be restorable with...

  20. Language Use by Yavapai-Apache Students with Recommendations for Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    1980-01-01

    Bilingual Yavapai-Apache youth have some Yavapai linguistic competence and limited performance skills, yet Yavapai is important to them. A bicultural-bilingual curriculum emphasizing culture and history minicourses taught by community members can help revitalize the fading Yavapai culture and provide cross-cultural education for non-Indians as…

  1. EPA Awards Mescalero Apache $112,000 to Manage Environmental Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (March 18, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently awarded $112,000 to the Mescalero Apache Tribe of N.M. as part of the General Assistance Program (GAP). The tribe will use the funds to administer its environmental pr

  2. Forest resources of the Forest resources of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest

    Treesearch

    Paul Rogers

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest...

  3. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp....

  4. Effectiveness of High School Curricula for the Transition of Apache Special and General Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramasamy, Rangasamy

    1995-01-01

    Special education (n=52) and general education (n=54) students who attended an Apache Indian reservation high school were interviewed 0 to 4 years after graduating or leaving school. Both groups reported that they found mathematics and English most helpful and that they wished for more computer, business, and office skills training. (DB)

  5. Use of saltcedar vegetation by landbirds migrating through the Bosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    We compared diversity, abundance and energetic condition of migrant landbirds captured in four different vegetation types in the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We found lower species diversity among migrants caught in exotic saltcedar vegetation than in native willow or cottonwood. In general, Migrants were most abundant in agricultural edge and least...

  6. Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) Apache Young and Perkins (Diptera: Psychodidae) feeds on reptiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. In the western USA a sand fly, Lutzomyia apache Young and Perkins, was initially associated with epizootics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), because sand flies were trapped at sites of an outbreak. Additional studies indica...

  7. An External Independent Validation of APACHE IV in a Malaysian Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rowena S Y; Ismail, Noor Azina; Tan, Cheng Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) prognostic models are predominantly used in more developed nations such as the United States, Europe and Australia. These are not that popular in Southeast Asian countries due to costs and technology considerations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV model in a single centre Malaysian ICU. A prospective study was conducted at the single centre ICU in Hospital Sultanah Aminah (HSA) Malaysia. External validation of APACHE IV involved a cohort of 916 patients who were admitted in 2009. Model performance was assessed through its calibration and discrimination abilities. A first-level customisation using logistic regression approach was also applied to improve model calibration. APACHE IV exhibited good discrimination, with an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.78. However, the model's overall fit was observed to be poor, as indicated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (Ĉ = 113, P <0.001). Predicted in-ICU mortality rate (28.1%) was significantly higher than the actual in-ICU mortality rate (18.8%). Model calibration was improved after applying first-level customisation (Ĉ = 6.39, P = 0.78) although discrimination was not affected. APACHE IV is not suitable for application in HSA ICU, without further customisation. The model's lack of fit in the Malaysian study is attributed to differences in the baseline characteristics between HSA ICU and APACHE IV datasets. Other possible factors could be due to differences in clinical practice, quality and services of health care systems between Malaysia and the United States.

  8. Prediction of outcome from intensive care: a prospective cohort study comparing Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and III prognostic systems in a United Kingdom intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Beck, D H; Taylor, B L; Millar, B; Smith, G B

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of two prognostic systems to predict hospital mortality in adult intensive care patients. Prospective cohort study. A mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in the United Kingdom. A total of 1,144 patients consecutively admitted to the study. None. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and III prognostic systems were applied to assess probabilities of hospital mortality, which were compared with the actual outcome. The overall goodness-of-fit of both models was assessed. Hospital death rates were higher than those predicted by each system. Risk estimates showed a strong positive correlation between both systems (nonsurvivors r2 = 0.756, p < .0001; survivors r2 = 0.787, p < .0001). Calibration of APACHE II (chi 2 = 98.6, Lemeshow-Hosmer) was superior to that of APACHE III (chi 2 = 129.8, Lemeshow-Hosmer). The total correct classification rate of APACHE III was greater for all decision criteria applied; the best overall total correct classification rate was 80.6% for APACHE III and 77.9% for APACHE II (both for a decision criterion of 40%). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.806 and 0.847 for APACHE II and III, respectively, confirming the better discrimination of APACHE III. When patients were classified by diagnostic categories, risk predictions did not fit uniformly across the spectrum of disease groups. For both models, mortality ratios were highest for trauma patients and lowest for the group with respiratory disease. APACHE II predictions for patients with gastrointestinal disease were significantly better. Risk estimates for surgical admissions were superior with APACHE II (MR = 1.27) compared with APACHE III (MR = 1.56), but were similar for medical patients (1.22 vs. 1.28 for APACHE II and III, respectively). Bias induced by factors reflecting the clinical practice in an individual ICU (e.g., admission criteria, treatment before admission) may have considerable impact

  9. Large-scale virtual screening on public cloud resources with Apache Spark.

    PubMed

    Capuccini, Marco; Ahmed, Laeeq; Schaal, Wesley; Laure, Erwin; Spjuth, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Structure-based virtual screening is an in-silico method to screen a target receptor against a virtual molecular library. Applying docking-based screening to large molecular libraries can be computationally expensive, however it constitutes a trivially parallelizable task. Most of the available parallel implementations are based on message passing interface, relying on low failure rate hardware and fast network connection. Google's MapReduce revolutionized large-scale analysis, enabling the processing of massive datasets on commodity hardware and cloud resources, providing transparent scalability and fault tolerance at the software level. Open source implementations of MapReduce include Apache Hadoop and the more recent Apache Spark. We developed a method to run existing docking-based screening software on distributed cloud resources, utilizing the MapReduce approach. We benchmarked our method, which is implemented in Apache Spark, docking a publicly available target receptor against [Formula: see text]2.2 M compounds. The performance experiments show a good parallel efficiency (87%) when running in a public cloud environment. Our method enables parallel Structure-based virtual screening on public cloud resources or commodity computer clusters. The degree of scalability that we achieve allows for trying out our method on relatively small libraries first and then to scale to larger libraries. Our implementation is named Spark-VS and it is freely available as open source from GitHub (https://github.com/mcapuccini/spark-vs).Graphical abstract.

  10. Involuntary eye responses as measures of fatigue in US Army Apache aviators.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, Patricia A; Greig, Joanna L; Dumond, Shannen L

    2005-07-01

    AH-64 Apache helicopter pilots fly the aircraft using a monocular helmet-mounted display that provides imagery from two separate forward-looking infrared sensors mounted on the nose of the aircraft. Studies have documented complaints of fatigue, headaches, and visual problems associated with the use of this sighting system. The goals of this study were: 1) to quantify possible flight-induced fatigue in Apache aviators; and 2) to evaluate minimally intrusive neurophysiologic measures of fatigue for potential use in operational environments. Using a pre/post design, we assessed self-reported levels of alertness, physical, cognitive, and visual fatigue, and ocular indices of fatigue obtained using an instrument specifically designed to capture various eye responses. Data were contributed to this study by 53 aviators. Significant differences in all pre- and postflight ocular responses were observed. Pupil size and constriction latency increased while constriction amplitude and saccadic velocity decreased. Significant pre- and postflight differences were also seen on all self-report measures. Pilots reported being less alert and more fatigued following flight. We found that flight in an AH-64 Apache was a significant factor in producing changes in ocular and self-report measures similar to those produced by sleep loss.

  11. Single-Center Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of the Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Azilsartan Medoxomil in Mild to Moderate Hepatic Impairment.

    PubMed

    Dudkowski, Caroline; Karim, Aziz; Zhao, Zhen; Alonso, Alberto B; Garg, Dyal; Preston, Richard A

    2017-07-27

    Azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M) is a potent angiotensin II receptor blocker that decreases blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. It is a prodrug that is not detected in blood after its oral administration because of its rapid hydrolysis to the active moiety, azilsartan (AZL). AZL undergoes further metabolism to the major metabolite, M-II, and minor metabolites. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mild to moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of AZL and its major metabolite. This was a single-center, open-label, phase 1 parallel-group study that examined the single-dose (day 1) and multiple-dose (days 4-8) - 40 mg - pharmacokinetics of AZL and M-II in 16 subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment by Child-Pugh classification (n = 8 per group) and subjects (n = 16) matched based on age, sex, race, weight, and smoking status. Mild or moderate hepatic impairment did not cause clinically meaningful increases in exposure to AZL and M-II. Mild or moderate hepatic impairment had no clinically meaningful effect on the plasma protein binding of AZL and M-II. Single and multiple doses of AZL-M 40 mg were well tolerated in all subject groups. Based on the pharmacokinetic and tolerability findings, no dose adjustment of AZL-M is required for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Mortality Probability Model III and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Kuzniewicz, Michael W.; Cason, Brian A.; Lane, Rondall K.; Dean, Mitzi L.; Clay, Ted; Rennie, Deborah J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dudley, R. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Background: To develop and compare ICU length-of-stay (LOS) risk-adjustment models using three commonly used mortality or LOS prediction models. Methods: Between 2001 and 2004, we performed a retrospective, observational study of 11,295 ICU patients from 35 hospitals in the California Intensive Care Outcomes Project. We compared the accuracy of the following three LOS models: a recalibrated acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV-LOS model; and models developed using risk factors in the mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0) and the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II mortality prediction model. We evaluated models by calculating the following: (1) grouped coefficients of determination; (2) differences between observed and predicted LOS across subgroups; and (3) intraclass correlations of observed/expected LOS ratios between models. Results: The grouped coefficients of determination were APACHE IV with coefficients recalibrated to the LOS values of the study cohort (APACHE IVrecal) [R2 = 0.422], mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0 III) [R2 = 0.279], and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) [R2 = 0.008]. For each decile of predicted ICU LOS, the mean predicted LOS vs the observed LOS was significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) for three, two, and six deciles using APACHE IVrecal, MPM0 III, and SAPS II, respectively. Plots of the predicted vs the observed LOS ratios of the hospitals revealed a threefold variation in LOS among hospitals with high model correlations. Conclusions: APACHE IV and MPM0 III were more accurate than SAPS II for the prediction of ICU LOS. APACHE IV is the most accurate and best calibrated model. Although it is less accurate, MPM0 III may be a reasonable option if the data collection burden or the treatment effect bias is a consideration. PMID:19363210

  13. APACHE III Outcome Prediction in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with Sepsis Associated Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score has been widely used for prediction of clinical outcomes in mixed critically ill patients. However, it has not been validated in patients with sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of the study was to explore the calibration and predictive value of APACHE III in patients with sepsis-associated ALI. Method The study was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of rosuvastatin in sepsis-associated ALI (Statins for Acutely Injured Lungs from Sepsis, SAILS). The study population was sepsis-related ALI patients. The primary outcome of the current study was the same as in the original trial, 60-day in-hospital mortality, defined as death before hospital discharge, censored 60 days after enrollment. Discrimination of APACHE III was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) with its 95% CI. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was used to assess the calibration of APACHE III. The Brier score was reported to represent the overall performance of APACHE III in predicting outcome. Main results A total of 745 patients were included in the study, including 540 survivors and 205 non-survivors. Non-survivors were significantly older than survivors (59.71±16.17 vs 52.00±15.92 years, p<0.001). The primary causes of ALI were also different between survivors and non-survivors (p = 0.017). Survivors were more likely to have the cause of sepsis than non-survivors (21.2% vs. 15.1%). APACHE III score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (106.72±27.30 vs. 88.42±26.86; p<0.001). Discrimination of APACHE III to predict mortality in ALI patients was moderate with an AUC of 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.64–0.73). Conclusion this study for the first time validated the discrimination of APACHE III in sepsis associated ALI patients. The result shows that APACHE III

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in Navajo and White Mountain Apache children.

    PubMed

    Bockova, Jana; O'Brien, Katherine L; Oski, Jane; Croll, Janne'; Reid, Raymond; Weatherholtz, Robert C; Santosham, Mathuram; Karron, Ruth A

    2002-08-01

    The hospitalization rate for bronchiolitis of any cause among US children younger than 1 year is estimated at 31.2 per 1000. No data exist on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific hospitalization rates among high-risk Native Americans other than Alaska Natives, for whom the incidence of RSV hospitalization was estimated at 150 per 1000 among infants younger than 1 year. We aimed to estimate RSV hospitalization rates among Navajo and White Mountain Apache children younger than 2 years. We conducted prospective population-level hospital-based surveillance to determine RSV hospitalization rates among Navajo and White Mountain Apache children younger than 2 years. From 1997 to 2000, all children who were admitted for acute lower respiratory tract infection between October 1 and March 31 had a nasopharyngeal aspirate obtained and tested for RSV by commercial enzyme immunoassay kits. We reviewed charts of children who tested positive for RSV antigen to determine disease severity. During 3 RSV seasons (1997-2000), 51.3% of 1837 admissions for acute lower respiratory tract infection among children younger than 2 years were attributed to RSV infection. The overall seasonal RSV hospitalization rate among children younger than 2 years was 63.6 per 1000 and 91.3 per 1000 among children younger than 1 year. In a univariate analysis, predictors of severity included age <6 months (relative risk: 6.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.1-17.0). Navajo and White Mountain Apache children are at high risk for RSV disease requiring hospitalization. A lower threshold for hospitalization or underlying chronic conditions that predispose to severe RSV disease do not seem to explain high RSV hospitalization rates in this population.

  15. Numerical Simulations of an Unsteady Rocket Launch from the AH-64D Apache Longbow Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kevin; Dugue, Earl P. N.; Ahmad, Jasim; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Rocket and missile firings from attack helicopters can cause main engine compressor stall. Studies of this phenomenon suggest that the main engine ingests either the plume from the rockets or the rocket blast waves. This creates surges at the inlet face, causing a loss of power in the main engine. The objective of this project is to set-up a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the AH-64D Apache Longbow helicopter during a rocket launch, in order to qualitatively study the fluid dynamics of the problem. This project presents a progression of three unsteady Navier-Stokes solutions. The first unsteady solution involves only a rocket launch from its launch canister. The second solution is a launch from a canister mounted on the Apache's wing-pylon assembly. The last solution includes the Apache main engine and fuselage. The computations use a series of structured, overset grid systems, which allow for a rocket moving in a prescribed path. The method implements a Roe upwind scheme with LU-SGS (lower-upper factored symmetric Gauss-Seidel). A rotor pressure disk model approximates the helicopter rotor, while the rocket engine exit properties are applied as a prescribed boundary condition. Although the project is only at the half-way point, the first and second CFD simulations suggest the possibility of pressure wave interference. Sudden surges in pressure occur from two sources: at rocket start-up, and as the rocket leaves the canister. Wave patterns set-up by these sources appear to propagate to the location of the engine inlet. However the simplified geometry simulation with the main engine needs to be performed before coming to a conclusion.

  16. AH-64E Apache New Build (AH-64E New Build)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-437 AH-64E Apache New Build (AH-64E New Build) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 18, 2016 13:31:41 UNCLASSIFIED AH-64E New Build December 2015 SAR March 18, 2016 13:31:41...Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost AH-64E New Build

  17. Advanced Phase Array Chemical Energy (APACHE) Laser Program; Final Report, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    January 1980. 16. Lieto, C. J., "Analytical Evaluation of Material Window Feasibility for APACHE SBS Cell, APX- 2124 , W. J. Schäfer Associates, October...conventional SBL, saving -13 Kg / m* Figure 5.3-2. Summary of Cost and Weight Results 01-171-89 5.3-3 foam, aluminum mirrors (as opposed to ULE), and...expensive alternatives (e.g., aluminum ) may ultimately prove feasible as well as advantageous for phase-conjugated systems. 5.3.3 Production Costs of

  18. Apache Trail uranium prospect, White Signal district, Grant County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Apache Trail uranium prospect in the White Signal district, Grant County. N. Mex., was mapped by the Geological Survey in May 1950. Pre-Cambrian granite is cut by a diabase dike and a parallel quartz-hematite vein, both of which strike easterly and dip 60 to 65 degrees north. Small quantities of copper carbonates and bismuth-gold ore have been mined. The quartz-hematite vein is moderately radioactive and, although no uranium minerals were seen, two samples contained about 0.01 percent uranium. The diabase dike locally contains torbernite. Two samples of diabase contained about 0.04 percent uranium.

  19. Stromatolites of the Mescal Limestone (Apache Group, middle Proterozoic, central Arizona): taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and paleoenvironments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand-Sarfati, J.; Awramik, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The 25- to 30-m-thick Algal Member of the Mescal Limestone (middle Proterozoic Apache Group) contains two distinct stromatolitic units: at the base, a 2- to 3-m-thick unit composed of columnar stromatolites and above, a thicker unit of stratiform and pseudocolumnar stromatolites. Columnar forms from the first unit belong to the Group Tungussia, and two new Forms are described: T. mescalita and T. chrysotila. Among the pseudocolumnar stromatolites of the thicker unit, one distinctive new taxon, Apachina henryi, is described. Because of the low stromatolite diversity, the biostratigraphic value of this assemblage is limited. The presence of Tungussia is consistent with the generally accepted isotopic age for the Apache Group of 1200 to 1100 Ma. The Mescal stromatolites do not closely resemble any other known Proterozoic stromatolites in the southwestern United States or northwestern Mexico. Analyses of sedimentary features and stromatolite growth forms suggest deposition on a stable, flat, shallow, subtidal protected platform during phases of Tungussia growth. Current action probably influenced the development of columns, pseudocolumns, and elongate stromatolitic ridges; these conditions alternated with phases of relatively quiet water characterized by nonoriented stromatolitic domes and stratiform stromatolites. Stable conditions favorable for development of the Mescal stromatolites were short-lived and did not permit the development of thick, stromatolite-bearing units such as those characteristic of many Proterozoic sequences elsewhere.

  20. Apache Point Observatory's All-Sky Camera: Observing Clouds in the Thermal Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. S. J.; Brinkmann, J.; Carr, M.; Woods, D.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Gunn, J. E.; Loomis, C. L.; Schlegel, D.; Snedden, S.

    2002-12-01

    Cloud cover at Apache Point Observatory is monitored by an all-sky camera system which images clouds in the thermal infrared. Even thin clouds, illuminated by thermal emission from the ground, can be detected. These same clouds are almost invisible at visual wavelengths, especially on moonless nights at this dark-sky observatory site. Our camera system uses an aluminum hyperboloidal mirror to provide a wide-angle view covering most of the sky; it is sensitive to radiation in the 8 to 12 micron wavelength interval. A cloud free atmosphere is fairly transparent in this window; clouds appear as bright structures against the darker sky background. Images are recorded at video rates, then summed and averaged in software to increase system sensitivity. Current all-sky images are available to on-site observers or through the Apache Point Observatory web pages. Cloud information is used to plan observing, make real-time observing decisions, and can provide useful estimates of atmospheric extinction and sky brightness at other wavelengths.

  1. Stromatolites of the Mescal Limestone (Apache Group, middle Proterozoic, central Arizona): taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and paleoenvironments.

    PubMed

    Bertrand-Sarfati, J; Awramik, S M

    1992-09-01

    The 25- to 30-m-thick Algal Member of the Mescal Limestone (middle Proterozoic Apache Group) contains two distinct stromatolitic units: at the base, a 2- to 3-m-thick unit composed of columnar stromatolites and above, a thicker unit of stratiform and pseudocolumnar stromatolites. Columnar forms from the first unit belong to the Group Tungussia, and two new Forms are described: T. mescalita and T. chrysotila. Among the pseudocolumnar stromatolites of the thicker unit, one distinctive new taxon, Apachina henryi, is described. Because of the low stromatolite diversity, the biostratigraphic value of this assemblage is limited. The presence of Tungussia is consistent with the generally accepted isotopic age for the Apache Group of 1200 to 1100 Ma. The Mescal stromatolites do not closely resemble any other known Proterozoic stromatolites in the southwestern United States or northwestern Mexico. Analyses of sedimentary features and stromatolite growth forms suggest deposition on a stable, flat, shallow, subtidal protected platform during phases of Tungussia growth. Current action probably influenced the development of columns, pseudocolumns, and elongate stromatolitic ridges; these conditions alternated with phases of relatively quiet water characterized by nonoriented stromatolitic domes and stratiform stromatolites. Stable conditions favorable for development of the Mescal stromatolites were short-lived and did not permit the development of thick, stromatolite-bearing units such as those characteristic of many Proterozoic sequences elsewhere.

  2. Stromatolites of the Mescal Limestone (Apache Group, middle Proterozoic, central Arizona): taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and paleoenvironments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand-Sarfati, J.; Awramik, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The 25- to 30-m-thick Algal Member of the Mescal Limestone (middle Proterozoic Apache Group) contains two distinct stromatolitic units: at the base, a 2- to 3-m-thick unit composed of columnar stromatolites and above, a thicker unit of stratiform and pseudocolumnar stromatolites. Columnar forms from the first unit belong to the Group Tungussia, and two new Forms are described: T. mescalita and T. chrysotila. Among the pseudocolumnar stromatolites of the thicker unit, one distinctive new taxon, Apachina henryi, is described. Because of the low stromatolite diversity, the biostratigraphic value of this assemblage is limited. The presence of Tungussia is consistent with the generally accepted isotopic age for the Apache Group of 1200 to 1100 Ma. The Mescal stromatolites do not closely resemble any other known Proterozoic stromatolites in the southwestern United States or northwestern Mexico. Analyses of sedimentary features and stromatolite growth forms suggest deposition on a stable, flat, shallow, subtidal protected platform during phases of Tungussia growth. Current action probably influenced the development of columns, pseudocolumns, and elongate stromatolitic ridges; these conditions alternated with phases of relatively quiet water characterized by nonoriented stromatolitic domes and stratiform stromatolites. Stable conditions favorable for development of the Mescal stromatolites were short-lived and did not permit the development of thick, stromatolite-bearing units such as those characteristic of many Proterozoic sequences elsewhere.

  3. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  4. Geronimo's Kids: A Teacher's Lessons on the Apache Reservation. Elma Dill Russell Spencer Series in the West and Southwest, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ove, Robert S.; Stockel, H. Henrietta

    In 1948, a young and naive Robert Ove arrived at Whitetail, on the Mescalero Apache Reservation, to teach at the Bureau of Indian Affairs day school. Living there were the Chiricahua Apaches--descendants of Geronimo and the survivors of nearly 30 years of incarceration by the U.S. government. With help from Indian historian H. Henrietta Stockel,…

  5. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  6. Geronimo's Kids: A Teacher's Lessons on the Apache Reservation. Elma Dill Russell Spencer Series in the West and Southwest, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ove, Robert S.; Stockel, H. Henrietta

    In 1948, a young and naive Robert Ove arrived at Whitetail, on the Mescalero Apache Reservation, to teach at the Bureau of Indian Affairs day school. Living there were the Chiricahua Apaches--descendants of Geronimo and the survivors of nearly 30 years of incarceration by the U.S. government. With help from Indian historian H. Henrietta Stockel,…

  7. Ground-water exploration in the Bosque del Apache Grant, Socorro County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, James B.

    1968-01-01

    Test drilling along the Rio Grande in the Bosque del Apache Grant in Socorro County, New Mexico has shown that the area is hydrologically complex and that the quality of the ground water varies from saline to fresh within short distances both laterally and vertically. Nearly all of the riverside land in the Grant is occupied by the migratory waterfowl refuge of the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Potable and near-potable water is obtained from 12 wells in this area that tap sand and gravel, and the wells are capable of yielding 1,000 gallons per minute or more. Stallion Range Center, a military installation on the White Sands Missile Range, about 15 miles east of =he waterfowl refuge, needs about 100,000 gallons per day of potable water. Potable water in large quantities is not known to be available at a location closer to the Center than the refuge area. The Fish and Wildlife Service, which operates the waterfowl refuge, gave permission to White Sands Missile Range to test drill and to develop a supply well in certain areas along the Rio Grande outside the managed lands of the refuge. The U.S. Geological Survey was then asked by White Sands Missile Range to choose locations for test drilling and to monitor drilling and testing of the wells. Between 1963 and 1967 test wells were drilled and a suitable location for a supply well as found. The well would be about 250 feet deep and would tap a body of potable water that is about 100 feet in thickness and is thought to underlie an area of at least 5 square miles. This report contains diagrammatic sections that show the lateral and vertical relation of waters of different quality along the Rio Grande in a part of the Bosque del Apache Grant. Basic data are given in tables; they include records of 7 test wells and 12 high-yield supply wells, and 52 chemical analyses of ground water from the wells.

  8. Constructing Flexible, Configurable, ETL Pipelines for the Analysis of "Big Data" with Apache OODT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, A. F.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Verma, R.; Zimdars, P. A.; Park, S.; Estrada, A.; Sumarlidason, A.; Gil, Y.; Ratnakar, V.; Krum, D.; Phan, T.; Meena, A.

    2013-12-01

    A plethora of open source technologies for manipulating, transforming, querying, and visualizing 'big data' have blossomed and matured in the last few years, driven in large part by recognition of the tremendous value that can be derived by leveraging data mining and visualization techniques on large data sets. One facet of many of these tools is that input data must often be prepared into a particular format (e.g.: JSON, CSV), or loaded into a particular storage technology (e.g.: HDFS) before analysis can take place. This process, commonly known as Extract-Transform-Load, or ETL, often involves multiple well-defined steps that must be executed in a particular order, and the approach taken for a particular data set is generally sensitive to the quantity and quality of the input data, as well as the structure and complexity of the desired output. When working with very large, heterogeneous, unstructured or semi-structured data sets, automating the ETL process and monitoring its progress becomes increasingly important. Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) provides a suite of complementary data management components called the Process Control System (PCS) that can be connected together to form flexible ETL pipelines as well as browser-based user interfaces for monitoring and control of ongoing operations. The lightweight, metadata driven middleware layer can be wrapped around custom ETL workflow steps, which themselves can be implemented in any language. Once configured, it facilitates communication between workflow steps and supports execution of ETL pipelines across a distributed cluster of compute resources. As participants in a DARPA-funded effort to develop open source tools for large-scale data analysis, we utilized Apache OODT to rapidly construct custom ETL pipelines for a variety of very large data sets to prepare them for analysis and visualization applications. We feel that OODT, which is free and open source software available through the Apache

  9. TACE plus sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: results of the multicenter, phase II SOCRATES trial.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Andreas; Kolligs, Frank; Dollinger, Matthias; Schott, Eckart; Wege, Hennig; Bitzer, Michael; Gog, Christiane; Lammert, Frank; Schuchmann, Markus; Walter, Clemens; Blondin, Dirk; Ohmann, Christian; Häussinger, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    The present multicenter phase II trial investigated the combination of TACE and sorafenib for the treatment of HCC. Eligibility criteria included histologically confirmed, unresectable HCC beyond Milan criteria, no extrahepatic spread, Child-Pugh score ≤ 8 and ECOG PS 0-2. Patients had received no prior therapy for HCC. Sorafenib was given at a dose of 400 mg/bid (interrupted only around TACE). TACE with lipiodol, 50 mg doxorubicin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles was repeated q6w as long as there was no overall disease progression. Tumor assessment by MRI was performed q6w according to EASL criteria. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP). Patients (n = 43) received a mean of 2.6 ± 2.2 TACE interventions (range 0-10). Median TTP was 16.4 months (95 % CI 10.7-∞). Median overall survival (OS) was 20.1 months (95 % CI 17.6-28.2). Disease control rate according to EASL criteria was 74.4 % (7 % complete responses [CRs] + 41.8 % partial responses [PRs] + 25.6 % stable diseases [SDs]). Four patients (9 %) became amenable to either radiofrequency ablation or liver transplantation; 5 (12 %) patients died during the trial. Overall, there were 360 AEs, including 56 grade 3/4 AEs and 39 SAEs. Combination treatment of TACE and sorafenib in the present trial was tolerable and associated with an interesting response rate, TTP and OS. Combination therapies will probably close gaps in the present mono therapy driven treatment guidelines for locally advanced HCC.

  10. Durable resistance to stripe rust is due to three specific resistance genes in French bread wheat cultivar Apache.

    PubMed

    Paillard, S; Trotoux-Verplancke, G; Perretant, M-R; Mohamadi, F; Leconte, M; Coëdel, S; de Vallavieille-Pope, C; Dedryver, F

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative resistance is postulated to be more durable than qualitative (R-gene mediated) resistance, which is usually quickly overcome by the pathogen population. Despite its wide use for nearly 10 years in France, the French bread wheat cultivar Apache remains resistant to stripe rust. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of cv. Apache resistance to examine whether its durability could be explained by quantitative characteristics. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) by composite interval mapping of disease progress data recorded throughout 4 years of field assays. These assays included inoculation with three different pathotypes on a segregating population originating from a cross between cv. Apache and cv. Taldor, a French cultivar susceptible to stripe rust. Three QTLs derived from Apache, QYr.inra-2AS, QYr.inra-2BL and QYr.inra-4B, were detected. Each of these QTLs contributed between approximately 15 and 69 % of the phenotypic variance and corresponds to a race-specific resistance gene. We showed that QYr.inra-2AS and QYr.inra-2BS map to the positions of Yr17 and Yr7, respectively, whereas QYr.inra-4B corresponds to an adult plant resistance gene. Our results demonstrate that a combination of two or more race-specific resistance genes can confer durable resistance provided that it is properly managed at a continental level. Race-specific resistance genes should not be removed from breeding programs provided that they are properly managed.

  11. 76 FR 47441 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Display, Atlantic Ocean, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during a Labor Day weekend fireworks display on... fireworks display is scheduled to take place in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The fireworks will be launched...

  12. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  13. Geologic map and digital database of the Apache Canyon 7.5' quadrangle, Ventura and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Cossette, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Apache Canyon 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in southwestern California about 55 km northeast of Santa Barbara and 65 km southwest of Bakersfield. This report presents the results of a geologic mapping investigation of the Apache Canyon quadrangle that was carried out in 1997-1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project. This quadrangle was chosen for study because it is in an area of complex, incompletely understood Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of potential importance for regional tectonic interpretations, particularly those involving the San Andreas fault located just northwest of the quadrangle and the Big Pine fault about 10 km to the south. In addition, the quadrangle is notable for its well-exposed sequences of folded Neogene nonmarine strata including the Caliente Formation of Miocene age from which previous workers have collected and described several biostratigraphically significant land-mammal fossil assemblages. During the present study, these strata were mapped in detail throughout the quadrangle to provide an improved framework for possible future paleontologic investigations. The Apache Canyon quadrangle is in the eastern part of the Cuyama 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle and is largely part of an erosionally dissected terrain known as the Cuyama badlands at the east end of Cuyama Valley. Most of the Apache Canyon quadrangle consists of public lands in the Los Padres National Forest.

  14. 78 FR 11677 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and the Field Museum of Natural...

  15. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  16. Outcrop Analysis of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group: Jicarilla Apache Reservation, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, Jennie; Dunbar, Robin Wright

    2001-04-24

    Field work for this project was conducted during July and April 1998, at which time fourteen measured sections were described and correlated on or adjacent to Jicarilla Apache Reservation lands. A fifteenth section, described east of the main field area, is included in this report, although its distant location precluded use in the correlations and cross sections presented herein. Ground-based photo mosaics were shot for much of the exposed Mesaverde outcrop belt and were used to assist in correlation. Outcrop gamma-ray surveys at six of the fifteen measured sections using a GAD-6 scintillometer was conducted. The raw gamma-ray data are included in this report, however, analysis of those data is part of the ongoing Phase Two of this project.

  17. Unsaturated fractured rock characterization methods and data sets at the Apache Leap Tuff Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.; Sheets, P.J.; Blanford, J.H.

    1990-08-01

    Performance assessment of high-level nuclear waste containment feasibility requires representative values of parameters as input, including parameter moments, distributional characteristics, and covariance structures between parameters. To meet this need, characterization methods and data sets for interstitial, hydraulic, pneumatic and thermal parameters for a slightly welded fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Tuff Site situated in central Arizona are reported in this document. The data sets include the influence of matric suction on measured parameters. Spatial variability is investigated by sampling along nine boreholes at regular distances. Laboratory parameter estimates for 105 core segments are provided, as well as field estimates centered on the intervals where the core segments were collected. Measurement uncertainty is estimated by repetitively testing control samples. 31 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor's Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects.

    PubMed

    Chełkowski, Tadeusz; Gloor, Peter; Jemielniak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution.

  19. Next Generation Astronomical Data Processing using Big Data Technologies from the Apache Software Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, Chris

    2014-04-01

    In this era of exascale instruments for astronomy we must naturally develop next generation capabilities for the unprecedented data volume and velocity that will arrive due to the veracity of these ground-based sensor and observatories. Integrating scientific algorithms stewarded by scientific groups unobtrusively and rapidly; intelligently selecting data movement technologies; making use of cloud computing for storage and processing; and automatically extracting text and metadata and science from any type of file are all needed capabilities in this exciting time. Our group at NASA JPL has promoted the use of open source data management technologies available from the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) in pursuit of constructing next generation data management and processing systems for astronomical instruments including the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) in Socorro, NM and the Atacama Large Milimetre/Sub Milimetre Array (ALMA); as well as for the KAT-7 project led by SKA South Africa as a precursor to the full MeerKAT telescope. In addition we are funded currently by the National Science Foundation in the US to work with MIT Haystack Observatory and the University of Cambridge in the UK to construct a Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Devices (RAPID) that will undoubtedly draw from the rich technology advances underway. NASA JPL is investing in a strategic initiative for Big Data that is pulling in these capabilities and technologies for astronomical instruments and also for Earth science remote sensing. In this talk I will describe the above collaborative efforts underway and point to solutions in open source from the Apache Software Foundation that can be deployed and used today and that are already bringing our teams and projects benefits. I will describe how others can take advantage of our experience and point towards future application and contribution of these tools.

  20. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, M; Asghar, A; Shamim, F; Khan, F H

    2016-01-01

    To assess the predictive performance of Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) software available on the hospital intranet and analyze interrater reliability of calculating the APACHE II score by the gold standard manual method or automatically using the software. An expert scorer not involved in the data collection had calculated APACHE II score of 213 patients admitted to surgical Intensive Care Unit using the gold standard manual method for a previous study performed in the department. The same data were entered into the computer software available on the hospital intranet (http://intranet/apacheii) to recalculate the APACHE II score automatically along with the predicted mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistical test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed. The 213 patients had an average APACHE II score of 17.20 ± 8.24, the overall mortality rate was 32.8% and standardized mortality ratio was 1.00. The area under the ROC curve of 0.827 was significantly >0.5 (P < 0.01) and had confidence interval of 0.77-0.88. The goodness-of-fit test showed a good calibration (H = 5.46, P = 0.71). Interrater reliability using Pearson's product moment correlations demonstrated a strong positive relationship between the computer and the manual expert scorer (r = 0.98, P = 0.0005). APACHE II software available on the hospital's intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method.

  1. Thymostimulin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Dollinger, Matthias M; Behrens, Christa M; Lesske, Joachim; Behl, Susanne; Behrmann, Curd; Fleig, Wolfgang E

    2008-01-01

    Background Thymostimulin is a thymic peptide fraction with immune-mediated cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro. In a phase II trial, we investigated safety and efficacy including selection criteria for best response in advanced or metastasised hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods 44 patients (84 % male, median age 69 years) not suitable or refractory to conventional therapy received thymostimulin 75 mg subcutaneously five times per week for a median of 8.2 months until progression or complete response. 3/44 patients were secondarily accessible to local ablation or chemoembolisation. Primary endpoint was overall survival, secondary endpoint tumor response or progression-free survival. A multivariate Cox's regression model was used to identify variables affecting survival. Results Median survival was 11.5 months (95% CI 7.9–15.0) with a 1-, 2- and 3-year survival of 50%, 23% and 9%. In the univariate analysis, a low Child-Pugh-score (p = 0.01), a low score in the Okuda- and CLIP-classification (p < 0.001) or a low AFP-level (p < 0.001) were associated with better survival, but not therapy modalities other than thymostimulin (p = 0.1) or signs of an invasive HCC phenotype such as vascular invasion (p = 0.3) and metastases (p = 0.1). The only variables independently related to survival in the Cox's regression model were Okuda stage and presence of liver cirrhosis (p < 0.01) as well as response to thymostimulin (p < 0.05). Of 39/44 patients evaluable for response, two obtained complete responses (one after concomitant radiofrequency ablation), five partial responses (objective response 18%), twenty-four stable disease (tumor control rate 79%) and eight progressed. Median progression-free survival was 6.4 months (95% CI 0.8–12). Grade 1 local reactions following injection were the only side effects. Conclusion Outcome in our study rather depended on liver function and intrahepatic tumor growth (presence of liver cirrhosis and Okuda stage) in addition

  2. Prognostic value of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and organ system failure in patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Kuan; Wang, Shan-Tair; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chen, Te-Chuan; Lee, Chih-Hsiung; Chuang, Feng-Rong

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in modern technology of dialysis, prognosis of patients with acute renal failure (ARF) remains poor. To give the clinicians the most useful information, a model that accurately predicts outcome early in the course of ARF is required. However, because ARF is a heterogeneous syndrome and occurs in patients with diverse etiologies and some coexisting diseases, predicting outcome early is hard. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and organ system failure (OSF) models, evaluated prior to dialysis, in predicting hospital mortality. From June 2002 to March 2004, ARF patients requiring dialysis at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, were prospectively recruited for this study. The worst clinical and laboratory data in the 24 hours before initiation of dialysis were prospectively evaluated, and the patients' APACHE II score and OSF number were assessed. A total of 61 patients (40 male and 21 female) were enrolled, of whom 38 (62.3%) died before discharge. By multivariate logistic regression, the APACHE II score (odds ratio 1.3 per increase in one score; P<0.001), or OSF number (odds ratio 1.9 per increase in one OSF; P<0.01) and oliguria (odds ratio 4.2; P=0.04), were found to be statistically significant prognostic factors for hospital mortality. Mortality increased progressively and significantly as OSF number (chi-square for trend; P=0.001) or the APACHE II score (chi-square for trend; P < 0.001) increased. By using Youden's index, the best cut-off value for APACHE II was 24, with 63% sensitivity and 96% specificity. The best cut-off value for OSF number was 2, with a sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 60.9%. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for APACHE II and OSF number were 0.847 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.752-0.942; P<0.01) and 0.769 (95% CI=0.646-892; P<0.001), respectively, indicating good model discrimination. This study concludes

  3. Precise Gravity Measurements for Lunar Laser Ranging at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, D. J.; Murphy, T.; Boy, J.; De Linage, C.; Wheeler, R. D.; Krauterbluth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) at Apache Point Observatory began in 2006 under the APOLLO project using a 3.5 m telescope on a 2780 m summit in New Mexico. Recent improvements in the technical operations are producing uncertainties at the few-mm level in the 1.5 x 10^13 cm separation of the solar orbits of the Earth and Moon. This level of sensitivity permits a number of important aspects of gravitational theory to be tested. Among these is the Equivalence Principle that determines the universality of free fall, tests of the time variation of the Gravitational Constant G, deviations from the inverse square law, and preferred frame effects. In 2009 APOLLO installed a superconducting gravimeter (SG) on the concrete pier under the main telescope to further constrain the deformation of the site as part of an initiative to improve all aspects of the modeling process. We have analyzed more than 3 years of high quality SG data that provides unmatched accuracy in determining the local tidal gravimetric factors for the solid Earth and ocean tide loading. With on-site gravity we have direct measurements of signals such as polar motion, and can compute global atmospheric and hydrological loading for the site using GLDAS and local hydrology models that are compared with the SG observations. We also compare the SG residuals with satellite estimates of seasonal ground gravity variations from the GRACE mission. Apache Point is visited regularly by a team from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency to provide absolute gravity values for the calibration of the SG and to determine secular gravity changes. Nearby GPS location P027 provides continuous position information from the Plate Boundary Observatory of Earthscope that is used to correlate gravity/height variations at the site. Unusual aspects of the data processing include corrections for the telescope azimuth that appear as small offsets at the 1 μGal level and can be removed by correlating the azimuth data with the SG

  4. Update on Astrometric Follow-Up at Apache Point Observatory by Adler Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nault, Kristie A.; Brucker, Melissa; Hammergren, Mark

    2016-10-01

    We began our NEO astrometric follow-up and characterization program in 2014 Q4 using about 500 hours of observing time per year with the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our observing is split into 2 hour blocks approximately every other night for astrometry (this poster) and several half-nights per month for spectroscopy (see poster by M. Hammergren et al.) and light curve studies.For astrometry, we use the ARC Telescope Imaging Camera (ARCTIC) with an SDSS r filter, in 2 hour observing blocks centered around midnight. ARCTIC has a magnitude limit of V~23 in 60s, and we target 20 NEOs per session. ARCTIC has a FOV 1.57 times larger and a readout time half as long as the previous imager, SPIcam, which we used from 2014 Q4 through 2015 Q3. Targets are selected primarily from the Minor Planet Center's (MPC) NEO Confirmation Page (NEOCP), and NEA Observation Planning Aid; we also refer to JPL's What's Observable page, the Spaceguard Priority List and Faint NEOs List, and requests from other observers. To quickly adapt to changing weather and seeing conditions, we create faint, midrange, and bright target lists. Detected NEOs are measured with Astrometrica and internal software, and the astrometry is reported to the MPC.As of June 19, 2016, we have targeted 2264 NEOs, 1955 with provisional designations, 1582 of which were detected. We began observing NEOCP asteroids on January 30, 2016, and have targeted 309, 207 of which were detected. In addition, we serendipitously observed 281 moving objects, 201 of which were identified as previously known objects.This work is based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014.

  5. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra and Taxonomies of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are interesting to scientists and the general public for diverse reasons: their impacts pose a threat to life and property; they present important albeit biased records of the formation and evolution of the Solar System; and their materials may provide in situ resources for future space exploration and habitation.In January 2015 we began a program of NEO astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our 500 hours of annual observing time are split into frequent, short astrometric runs (see poster by K. A. Nault et. al), and half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (see poster by M. J. Brucker et. al for preliminary rotational lightcurve results). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 μm reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) instrument. As of August 25, 2015, including testing runs during fourth quarter 2014, we have obtained reflectance spectra of 68 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5m to 8km.In addition to investigating the compositions of individual NEOs to inform impact hazard and space resource evaluations, we may examine the distribution of taxonomic types and potential trends with other physical and orbital properties. For example, the Yarkovsky effect, which is dependent on asteroid shape, mass, rotation, and thermal characteristics, is believed to dominate other dynamical effects in driving the delivery of small NEOs from the main asteroid belt. Studies of the taxonomic distribution of a large sample of NEOs of a wide range of sizes will test this hypothesis.We present a preliminary analysis of the reflectance spectra obtained in our survey to date, including taxonomic classifications and potential trends with size.Acknowledgements: Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which

  6. Building a Snow Data System on the Apache OODT Open Technology Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodale, C. E.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Zimdars, P.; Bryant, A. C.; Snow Data System Team

    2011-12-01

    Snow cover and its melt dominate regional climate and hydrology in many of the world's mountainous regions. One-sixth of Earth's population depends on snow- or glacier-melt for water resources. Operationally, seasonal forecasts of snowmelt-generated streamflow are leveraged through empirical relations based on past snowmelt periods. These historical data show that climate is changing, but the changes reduce the reliability of the empirical relations. Therefore optimal future management of snowmelt derived water resources will require explicit physical models driven by remotely sensed snow property data. Toward this goal, the Snow Optics Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has initiated a near real-time processing pipeline to generate and publish post-processed snow data products within a few hours of satellite acquisition. To solve this challenge, a Scientific Data Management and Processing System was required and the JPL Team leveraged an open-source project called Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT). OODT was developed within NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory across the last 10 years. OODT has supported various scientific data management and processing projects, providing solutions in the Earth, Planetary, and Medical science fields. It became apparent that the project needed to be opened to a larger audience to foster and promote growth and adoption. OODT was open-sourced at the Apache Software Foundation in November 2010 and has a growing community of users and committers that are constantly improving the software. Leveraging OODT, the JPL Snow Data System (SnowDS) Team was able to install and configure a core Data Management System (DMS) that would download MODIS raw data files and archive the products in a local repository for post processing. The team has since built an online data portal, and an algorithm-processing pipeline using the Apache OODT software as the foundation. We will present the working SnowDS system with its core remote sensing

  7. An Investigation of Multiple Unmanned Aircraft Systems Control from the Cockpit of an AH-64 Apache Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Human Research and Engineering Directorate assesses crewstation design for new and upgraded US Army Aviation aircraft during simulations and...HRED) evaluates cockpit design for new and upgraded Army aircraft during simulations and operational testing. These cockpit evaluations are used to...One of the significant design changes evaluated by ARL/HRED is the integration of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) control into the Apache

  8. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    endpoint entities susceptible to the Apache-Hellfire test at Yuma. Proving Ground Entity" populations of raptors populations of ungulate mammals...specifically. Barren-ground caribou at river crossings were most reactive to overflights, followed by traveling and feeding animals, and followed by...were resting, standing, or feeding (Harrington and Veitch 1991). Similarly, responses of muskoxen were dependent on the previous activity of the

  9. Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: Evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellingson, A.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the, Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m. 2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected. 3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture. 4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies.

  10. Efficient Streaming Mass Spatio-Temporal Vehicle Data Access in Urban Sensor Networks Based on Apache Storm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lianjie; Chen, Nengcheng; Chen, Zeqiang

    2017-04-10

    The efficient data access of streaming vehicle data is the foundation of analyzing, using and mining vehicle data in smart cities, which is an approach to understand traffic environments. However, the number of vehicles in urban cities has grown rapidly, reaching hundreds of thousands in number. Accessing the mass streaming data of vehicles is hard and takes a long time due to limited computation capability and backward modes. We propose an efficient streaming spatio-temporal data access based on Apache Storm (ESDAS) to achieve real-time streaming data access and data cleaning. As a popular streaming data processing tool, Apache Storm can be applied to streaming mass data access and real time data cleaning. By designing the Spout/bolt workflow of topology in ESDAS and by developing the speeding bolt and other bolts, Apache Storm can achieve the prospective aim. In our experiments, Taiyuan BeiDou bus location data is selected as the mass spatio-temporal data source. In the experiments, the data access results with different bolts are shown in map form, and the filtered buses' aggregation forms are different. In terms of performance evaluation, the consumption time in ESDAS for ten thousand records per second for a speeding bolt is approximately 300 milliseconds, and that for MongoDB is approximately 1300 milliseconds. The efficiency of ESDAS is approximately three times higher than that of MongoDB.

  11. Efficient Streaming Mass Spatio-Temporal Vehicle Data Access in Urban Sensor Networks Based on Apache Storm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lianjie; Chen, Nengcheng; Chen, Zeqiang

    2017-01-01

    The efficient data access of streaming vehicle data is the foundation of analyzing, using and mining vehicle data in smart cities, which is an approach to understand traffic environments. However, the number of vehicles in urban cities has grown rapidly, reaching hundreds of thousands in number. Accessing the mass streaming data of vehicles is hard and takes a long time due to limited computation capability and backward modes. We propose an efficient streaming spatio-temporal data access based on Apache Storm (ESDAS) to achieve real-time streaming data access and data cleaning. As a popular streaming data processing tool, Apache Storm can be applied to streaming mass data access and real time data cleaning. By designing the Spout/bolt workflow of topology in ESDAS and by developing the speeding bolt and other bolts, Apache Storm can achieve the prospective aim. In our experiments, Taiyuan BeiDou bus location data is selected as the mass spatio-temporal data source. In the experiments, the data access results with different bolts are shown in map form, and the filtered buses’ aggregation forms are different. In terms of performance evaluation, the consumption time in ESDAS for ten thousand records per second for a speeding bolt is approximately 300 milliseconds, and that for MongoDB is approximately 1300 milliseconds. The efficiency of ESDAS is approximately three times higher than that of MongoDB. PMID:28394287

  12. Decreases in Suicide Deaths and Attempts Linked to the White Mountain Apache Suicide Surveillance and Prevention System, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary F; Tingey, Lauren; Maschino, Alexandra; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Walkup, John; Barlow, Allison

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the impact of a comprehensive, multitiered youth suicide prevention program among the White Mountain Apache of Arizona since its implementation in 2006. Using data from the tribally mandated Celebrating Life surveillance system, we compared the rates, numbers, and characteristics of suicide deaths and attempts from 2007 to 2012 with those from 2001 to 2006. The overall Apache suicide death rates dropped from 40.0 to 24.7 per 100 000 (38.3% decrease), and the rate among those aged 15 to 24 years dropped from 128.5 to 99.0 per 100 000 (23.0% decrease). The annual number of attempts also dropped from 75 (in 2007) to 35 individuals (in 2012). National rates remained relatively stable during this time, at 10 to 13 per 100 000. Although national rates remained stable or increased slightly, the overall Apache suicide death rates dropped following the suicide prevention program. The community surveillance system served a critical role in providing a foundation for prevention programming and evaluation.

  13. Changes in hearing thresholds as measured by decibels of hearing loss in British Army Air Corps lynx and apache pilots.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gregory T; Harrigan, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Helicopter pilots are exposed to noise at work and are at risk of developing hearing loss in excess of that which naturally results from aging. We investigated whether Lynx pilots demonstrated changes to hearing thresholds that differed from Apache pilots. Survey responses were combined with audiometric data from a retrospective cohort of 59 Lynx and 87 Apache pilots. Subjects' audiograms were analyzed for air conduction thresholds with age correction performed in accordance with ISO 7029. Annual changes in low frequencies (0.5-2 kHz) and high frequencies (3-6 kHz) were calculated. Subjects were categorized for time in service and flying hours. Hearing was better than predicted at nearly all frequencies in both ears for Lynx and Apache pilots. There were no differences in hearing between groups of pilots. Significant differences in hearing threshold changes existed for pilots with 20 or more years of service compared to those in other categories. The results suggest that the circumaural earmuffs currently incorporated into the flying helmet mitigate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in these pilots.

  14. THE DATA REDUCTION PIPELINE FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Bender, Chad; Desphande, Rohit; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Burton, Adam; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Wilson, John C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Shetrone, Matthew

    2015-12-15

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, explores the stellar populations of the Milky Way using the Sloan 2.5-m telescope linked to a high resolution (R ∼ 22,500), near-infrared (1.51–1.70 μm) spectrograph with 300 optical fibers. For over 150,000 predominantly red giant branch stars that APOGEE targeted across the Galactic bulge, disks and halo, the collected high signal-to-noise ratio (>100 per half-resolution element) spectra provide accurate (∼0.1 km s{sup −1}) RVs, stellar atmospheric parameters, and precise (≲0.1 dex) chemical abundances for about 15 chemical species. Here we describe the basic APOGEE data reduction software that reduces multiple 3D raw data cubes into calibrated, well-sampled, combined 1D spectra, as implemented for the SDSS-III/APOGEE data releases (DR10, DR11 and DR12). The processing of the near-IR spectral data of APOGEE presents some challenges for reduction, including automated sky subtraction and telluric correction over a 3°-diameter field and the combination of spectrally dithered spectra. We also discuss areas for future improvement.

  15. Integrating the Apache Big Data Stack with HPC for Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, G. C.; Qiu, J.; Jha, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is perhaps a broad consensus as to important issues in practical parallel computing as applied to large scale simulations; this is reflected in supercomputer architectures, algorithms, libraries, languages, compilers and best practice for application development. However, the same is not so true for data intensive computing, even though commercially clouds devote much more resources to data analytics than supercomputers devote to simulations. We look at a sample of over 50 big data applications to identify characteristics of data intensive applications and to deduce needed runtime and architectures. We suggest a big data version of the famous Berkeley dwarfs and NAS parallel benchmarks and use these to identify a few key classes of hardware/software architectures. Our analysis builds on combining HPC and ABDS the Apache big data software stack that is well used in modern cloud computing. Initial results on clouds and HPC systems are encouraging. We propose the development of SPIDAL - Scalable Parallel Interoperable Data Analytics Library -- built on system aand data abstractions suggested by the HPC-ABDS architecture. We discuss how it can be used in several application areas including Polar Science.

  16. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  17. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory: Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza

    2016-10-01

    In January 2015 we began a program of near-Earth object (NEO) astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our roughly 500 hours of annual observing time are split into 2 hour runs usually in the middle of every other night (see poster by K. Nault et al.), and frequent half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (this poster). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 μm reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph instrument. As of June 22, 2016 we have obtained reflectance spectra of 129 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5 m to 6 km.Highlights of this work presented here include 106 spectra of (357439) 2004 BL86 spanning 3 hours 4.5 minutes, more than a full rotation, and spectra of 18 objects with diameters comparable to historical Earth impactors (e.g., Tunguska, Chelyabinsk and smaller bolides).This work is based on observations obtained with the APO 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by ARC. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G, and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014.

  18. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and its successor, APOGEE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, S. R.; APOGEE Team; APOGEE-2 Team

    2016-09-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) has produced a large catalog of high resolution ({R = 22 500}), high quality (S/N > 100), infrared (H-band) spectra for stars throughout all stellar populations of the Milky Way, including in regions veiled by significant dust opacity. APOGEE's half million spectra collected on > 163 000 unique stars, with time series information via repeat visits to each star, are being applied to numerous problems in stellar populations, Galactic astronomy, and stellar astrophysics. From among the early results of the APOGEE project - which span from measurements of Galactic dynamics, to multi-element chemical maps of the disk and bulge, new views of the interstellar medium, explorations of stellar companions, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species - I highlight a few results that demonstrate APOGEE's unique ability to sample and characterize the Galactic disk and bulge. Plans are now under way for an even more ambitious successor to APOGEE: the six-year, dual-hemisphere APOGEE-2 project. Both phases of APOGEE feature a strong focus on targets having asteroseismological measurements from either Kepler or {CoRoT}, from which it is possible to derive relatively precise stellar ages. The combined APOGEE and APOGEE-2 databases of stellar chemistry, dynamics and ages constitute an unusually comprehensive, systematic and homogeneous resource for constraining models of Galactic evolution.

  19. TARGET SELECTION FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Zasowski, G.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Andrews, B.; Epstein, C.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Jackson, K.; Majewski, S. R.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beaton, R. L.; Nidever, D. L.; Pinto, H. J. Rocha; Girardi, L.; Cudworth, K. M.; Munn, J.; Blake, C. H.; Covey, K.; Deshpande, R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fabbian, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea s and others

    2013-10-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of {approx}10{sup 5} red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.

  20. Visual issues associated with the use of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in the Apache helicopter: three decades in review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    In the late 1970s the U.S. Army developed the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS), which is a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for use in the AH-64 Apache helicopter. The helicopter and the system were designed with the Cold War in mind such that the Apache would be able to stand off far from the frontlines and attack deep target-primarily tanks-before they could engage our ground forces. The design used a right-sided monocular display optical system that was intended to reduce head-supported weight. This novel monocular design introduced a number of issues that had the potential of causing visual perception problems for pilots. Since the initial fielding of the Apache in the early 1980s, numerous reports have appeared in the literature that evaluated realized visual complaints voiced by Apache aircrew. In this review, the authors provide a summary of seminal reports, surveys, and experiments conducted over the past three decades. The extant literature described investigated these visual issues as the Apache's mission has evolved from the stand-off engagement tactics of the Cold War to the new Apache missions of close air support, deep attack, and raids currently occurring in the Global War on Terrorism.

  1. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS). Phase 1 feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation`s nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe`s comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  2. Characterization of vibration transfer paths in nose gearboxes of an AH-64 Apache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, A. K. M. Anwarul; Dempsey, Paula J.; Feldman, Jason; Larsen, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Health monitoring of rotorcraft components, which is currently being performed by Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) through analyzing vibration signatures of dynamic mechanical components, is very important for their safe and economic operation. Vibration diagnostic algorithms in HUMS analyze vibration signatures associated with faults and quantify them as condition indicators (CI) to predict component behavior. Vibration transfer paths (VTP) play important roles in CI response and are characterized by frequency response functions (FRF) derived from vibration signatures of dynamic mechanical components of a helicopter. With an objective to investigate the difference in VTP of a component in a helicopter and test stand, and to relate that to the CI response, VTP measurements were recorded from 0-50 kHz under similar conditions in the left and right nose gearboxes (NGBs) of an AH-64 Apache and an isolated left NGB in a test stand at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test fixture enabled the application of measured torques - common during an actual operation. Commercial and lab piezo shakers, and an impact hammer were used in both systems to collect the vibration response using two types of commercially available accelerometers under various test conditions. The FRFs of both systems were found to be consistent, and certain real-world installation and maintenance issues, such as sensor alignments, locations and installation torques, had minimal effect on the VTP. However, gear vibration transfer path dynamics appeared to be somewhat dependent on presence of oil, and the lightly-damped ring gear produced sharp and closer transfer path resonances.

  3. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C.

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  4. Geology and ground water in the central part of Apache County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1965-01-01

    The central part of Apache County, Ariz., includes an area of about 3,300 square miles between the Navajo Indian Reservation to the north and U.S. Highway 60 to the south. Sedimentary rocks in the area range from Pennsylvanian to Quaternary in age and from 2,000 to more than 6,000 feet in thickness. The strata were tilted to the northeast, and part of the Upper Triassic and all the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rocks were eroded away before strata of Late Cretaceous age were deposited. Basaltic lava flows and cinder cones, representing four general periods of eruption in late Miocene to Quaternary time, are widespread in the southern part of the area. Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks overlie basement rocks of granite and diorite and include the Supai Formation, the Coconino Sandstone, and the Kaibab Limestone. The Supai Formation is 1,000 to 2,000 feet thick and consists of interbedded red and brown mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and evaporites. It contains water of very poor quality outside Apache County. The Coconino Sandstone is 200 to 250 feet thick and consists of light-gray fine- to medium-grained sandstone. It contains water suitable for domestic use in the south and water unsuitable for most purposes in the north. The Coconino Sandstone underlies all Central Apache County in the subsurface. The yellowish-gray to dark-gray Kaibab Limestone is present in the southern two-thirds of the area and is 0 to 350 feet thick. It contains water where it is fractured and combines with the Coconino Sandstone to form a single hydrologic unit that yields from 6 to 74 gpm (gallons per minute) of water per foot of drawdown. An unconformity Heparates the Permian rocks from the overlying Triassic rocks, which comprise the Moenkopi and Chinle Formations and the Wingate Sandstone. The Moenkopi Formation is 35 to 250 feet thick and consists of intercalated brownish-red siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate. It contains salty water in some areas but is dry in most. The

  5. AH-64D Apache Longbow/Video from UAS for Interoperability Teaming Level II (VUIT-2) Aircrew Workload Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    11 3.2 Overhead Cockpit Cameras ...6 Figure 8. Eye tracker, pupil/ camera monitors, and control panel interface. .................................12...during the simulation. Video cameras were used in the front seat and back seat of the RACRS during the trials to record pilot actions. All voice

  6. Development and validation of a blade-element mathematical model for the AH-64A Apache helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein

    1995-01-01

    A high-fidelity blade-element mathematical model for the AH-64A Apache Advanced Attack Helicopter has been developed by the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate of the U.S. Army's Aviation and Troop Command (ATCOM) at Ames Research Center. The model is based on the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems' (MDHS) Fly Real Time (FLYRT) model of the AH-64A (acquired under contract) which was modified in-house and augmented with a blade-element-type main-rotor module. This report describes, in detail, the development of the rotor module, and presents some results of an extensive validation effort.

  7. Validation of a flight simulation model of the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter against flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, J. W.; Bass, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The FLYRT simulation model of the U.S. Army/McDonnell Douglas AH-64 Apache attack helicopter is validated against flight test data. The approach used for validation involves matching static trim attitudes and control positions and driving the model with measured control time histories to compare dynamic responses such as angular rates and normal acceleration. Flight test data is processed to determine kinematic consistency in the angular degrees of freedom. Modeling problems associated with aerodynamic interaction of the main rotor wake on the horizontal stabilator and engine response timing are identified. Appropriate model updates are made which result in good overall model correlation throughout the flight regime investigated.

  8. Geologic and aeromagnetic map of a part of the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation, Otero County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.L.; Foord, E.E.; Meyer, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This map covers approximately 600 square miles of the 750 square miles of the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation in south-central New Mexico. Rocks exposed in the map area are chiefly gently dipping and gently folded Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata that are displaced by high-angle tensional faults into grabens, horsts, and tilted fault blocks. The Paleozoic strata were deposited unconformably on an eroded mountainous terrain of Precambrian syenite, melasyenite, quartz syenite, alkali granite, and alkali-granite pegmatite; the alkalic igneous rocks are dated at 1,150 /plus minus/ 40 m.y. by K/Ar methods.

  9. Airborne radioactivity of portions of the Defiance Uplift and Carrizo Mountains, Apache county, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.W.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 940 square miles in Apache county, Arizona. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 8 to October 3, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  10. Distribution of albumin variants Naskapi amd Mexico among Aleuts, Frobisher Bay Eskimos, and Micmac, Naskapi, Mohawk, Omaha, and Apache Indians.

    PubMed

    Schell, L M; Agarwal, S S; Blumberg, B S; Levy, H; Bennett, P H; Laughlin, W S; Martin, J P

    1978-07-01

    In order to help define the boundaries of the distribution of the albumin variants Naskapi and Mexico which are polymorphic among several American Indian groups, we examined sera from Micmac, Mohawk, Northwest River Naskapi, Omaha and Apache Indians, and from Aleuts and Eskimos. Sera from a total of 1,524 individuals were examined. Using a cellulose acetate membrane electrophoretic system with Tris-Citric acid at pH 5.4 we were able to distinguish normal albumin and both variants in the same run. Naskapi and Mexico variants were absent from Aleut, Eskimo, Micmac, Mohawk and Omaha samples. The albumin Naskapi variant was present in an allele frequency of 0.03 in the Naskapi Indian sample. Albumin variants Naskapi and Mexico were found in the Apache sample at frequencies of 0.016 and 0.037, respectively. This report supersedes that previously published by Schell and Agarwal ('76). Generally, within an area there is a correspondence between changes in the frequency of albumin variants and changes in the ethnic background and history of the area's populations. At the same time, when viewing widely separated areas, relationships between distant groups based on linguistic and cultural similarities are paralleled on a biologic level by the distribution of normal albumin and variant albumins.

  11. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Helicopter Overflight

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    A multi-stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper focuses on the wildlife risk assessment for the helicopter overflight. The primary stressors were sound and the view of the aircraft. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using Air Force sound contour programs NOISEMAP and MR_NMAP, which gave very different results. Slant distance from helicopters to deer was also used as a measure of exposure that integrated risk from sound and view of the aircraft. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of behavioral thresholds in sound exposure level or maximum sound level units or slant distance. Available sound thresholds were limited for desert mule deer, but a distribution of slant-distance thresholds was available for ungulates. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the Apache overflight is uncertain, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  12. Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia (Heleocyrtomyia) apache (Diptera: Psychodidae), in the southwestern United States: a geographic information system analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M V; Yarnell, W E; Schmidtmann, E T

    2004-12-01

    Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia apache, Young and Perkins, in the southwestern U.S. were investigated by light/suction trap sampling and the development of a GIS-generated distribution map. In the mid-Rio Grande River valley, N.M., female and male L. apache were captured in updraft light/suction traps set in desert shrubland, irrigation levee, and bosque vegetation communities. Small numbers of flies were captured, but the presence of males and females in spatially separate and diverse plant communities at two locations suggest that L. apache are dispersed among available vegetation types. These data, along with 22 previously published collection site records, were used with a suite of physiographic features to characterize the biogeographic conditions suitable for L. apache. Suitable conditions encompass three life zones: the Rocky Mountain steppe province, the Colorado semi-plateau province, and the American semi-desert province, all within the dry domain region of the western U.S. The potential range of L. apache was then estimated based on elevation, mean and max - min temperature, precipitation, wet days, and relative humidity. The estimated range includes large contiguous areas in north-central Colorado, east-central New Mexico and west Texas, the lower mid-Rio Grande River valley, and southern Arizona, along with smaller, patchy, areas in northern Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, and central Idaho. The spatial relationship between the estimated distribution of L. apache and the location of livestock exposed to vesicular stomatitis virus at the onset of recent outbreaks is presented.

  13. Genetic analysis of resistance to septoria tritici blotch in the French winter wheat cultivars Balance and Apache.

    PubMed

    Ghaffary, Seyed Mahmod Tabib; Robert, Olivier; Laurent, Valerie; Lonnet, Philippe; Margalé, Eric; van der Lee, Theo A J; Visser, Richard G F; Kema, Gert H J

    2011-09-01

    The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most destructive foliar diseases of bread and durum wheat globally, particularly in temperate humid areas. A screening of the French bread wheat cultivars Apache and Balance with 30 M. graminicola isolates revealed a pattern of resistant responses that suggested the presence of new genes for STB resistance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of a doubled haploid (DH) population with five M. graminicola isolates in the seedling stage identified four QTLs on chromosomes 3AS, 1BS, 6DS and 7DS, and occasionally on 7DL. The QTL on chromosome 6DS flanked by SSR markers Xgpw5176 and Xgpw3087 is a novel QTL that now can be designated as Stb18. The QTLs on chromosomes 3AS and 1BS most likely represent Stb6 and Stb11, respectively, and the QTLs on chromosome 7DS are most probably identical with Stb4 and Stb5. However, the QTL identified on chromosome 7DL is expected to be a new Stb gene that still needs further characterization. Multiple isolates were used and show that not all isolates identify all QTLs, which clearly demonstrates the specificity in the M. graminicola-wheat pathosystem. QTL analyses were performed with various disease parameters. The development of asexual fructifications (pycnidia) in the characteristic necrotic blotches of STB, designated as parameter P, identified the maximum number of QTLs. All other parameters identified fewer but not different QTLs. The segregation of multiple QTLs in the Apache/Balance DH population enabled the identification of DH lines with single QTLs and multiple QTL combinations. Analyses of the marker data of these DH lines clearly demonstrated the positive effect of pyramiding QTLs to broaden resistance spectra as well as epistatic and additive interactions between these QTLs. Phenotyping of the Apache/Balance DH population in the field confirmed the presence of the QTLs that were identified in the seedling stage, but

  14. Apache Aviator Evaluation of Dual-Technology Night Vision Systems in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Urban Combat (Master’s Thesis)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Psychology , 1, pp. 307- 312. Hiar. K. L., Rash, C. E., Harris, E. S., and McGilberry, W. H. 2004. Apache Aviator Visual Experiences with the IHADSS...MNo 10 5 (2.6%) 1 80 U.S AmyAeromedical Researh Laboratory Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362-0 577

  15. Statement of Hubert Velarde, Jicarilla Apache Tribe to United States Commission on Civil Rights at Albuquerque Convention Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velarde, Hubert

    The statement by the President of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe emphasizes reservation problems that need to be examined. Presented at a 1972 Civil Rights Commission hearing on Indian Concerns, Velarde's statement listed employment, education, the administration of justice, water rights, and medical services as areas for investigation. (KM)

  16. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  17. Infrared Spectroscopic Data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), SDSS-III Data Release 10

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10 is the first spectroscopic release from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), including spectra and derived stellar parameters for more than 50,000 stars. APOGEE is an ongoing survey of ~100,000 stars accessing all parts of the Milky Way. By operating in the infrared (H-band) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, APOGEE is better able to detect light from stars lying in dusty regions of the Milky Way than surveys conducted in the optical, making this survey particularly well-suited for exploring the Galactic disk and bulge. APOGEE's high resolution spectra provide detailed information about the stellar atmospheres; DR10 provides derived effective temperatures, surface gravities, overall metallicities, and information on the abundances of several chemical elements. [copied from http://www.sdss3.org/dr10/irspec/

  18. Model Stellar Spectral Libraries for Analysis of the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Koesterke, L.; Shetrone, M. D.; Zamora, O.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Smith, V. V.; Cunha, K. M.; Lawler, J. E.; Pickering, J. C.; Nave, G.; Garcia Perez, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Edvardsson, B.; Gustafsson, B.; Plez, B.; Castelli, F.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R. P.; Meszaros, Sz.; de Vicente, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is obtaining high resolution ( 22,500), high signal-to-noise (> 100) spectra in the 1510-1690 nm spectral region for 100,000 cool, predominantly post-main sequence stars. To ascertain the stellar atmospheric parameters and measure chemical abundances for the numerous chemical elements with line transitions in this wavelength region, the APOGEE Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) relies on an optimization algorithm that identifies the best-fitting model for each of the observed APOGEE spectra. The fitting algorithm speeds up the model evaluation by interpolation in pre-computed grids of synthetic spectra that have been compressed using Principal Component Analysis. Here we describe the main model grids used in ASPCAP for the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR10), how they were calculated. We also provide a description of ongoing and planned upgrades.

  19. Web-based survey of visual symptoms reported by Apache aviators using the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Suggs, Christie L.

    2002-08-01

    A web-based study was conducted to determine the continuing presence and frequency of visual complaints reported by pilots using the monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) of the AH-64 Apache helicopter. A total of 216 pilots responded to the survey, which addressed areas of visual symptoms experienced during and/or after flight, helmet fit, and acoustics. Ninety-two percent of the pilots responding to the survey reported at least one visual symptom. The most frequently reported symptom for both during and after flight was visual discomfort. One out of four respondents reported having some difficulty in purposefully alternating between visual inputs to the two eyes. Approximately two-thirds of the pilots responding expressed reasonable satisfaction with their current helmet fit.

  20. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor’s Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution. PMID:27096157

  1. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  2. The effect of a monocular helmet-mounted display on aircrew health: a 10-year prospective cohort study of Apache AH MK 1 pilots: study midpoint update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Watters, Raymond W.; Adams, Mark S.

    2009-05-01

    A collaborative occupational health study has been undertaken by Headquarters Army Aviation, Middle Wallop, UK, and the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama, to determine if the use of the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) in the Apache AH Mk 1 attack helicopter has any long-term (10-year) effect on visual performance. The test methodology consists primarily of a detailed questionnaire and an annual battery of vision tests selected to capture changes in visual performance of Apache aviators over their flight career (with an emphasis on binocular visual function). Pilots using binocular night vision goggles serve as controls and undergo the same methodology. Currently, at the midpoint of the study, with the exception of a possible colour discrimination effect, there are no data indicating that the long-term use of the IHADSS monocular HMD results in negative effects on vision.

  3. Preliminary Geochemical and Petrologic Assessment of the Fanney Rhyolite and the Bloodgood Canyon and Apache Springs tuffs, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salings, E. E.; Rentz, S. P.; Michelfelder, G.; Sikes, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental arc volcanoes represent a dramatic expression of a significant and fundamental phenomena in global tectonics: the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a more buoyant continental plate. The subduction of an oceanic plate results in recycling of crustal material into the convecting mantle, partial melting, and primary basalt production. Moreover, during passage through thick continental crust, subduction zone magmas may substantially differentiate and melt crustal rocks giving rise to the great diversity of igneous lithologies characteristic of earth. These are important processes that must be understood in detail in order to interpret the long-term evolution of the earth and continental crust. Here we present variations in the isotopic and trace element composition of volcanic rocks from Bloodgood Canyon and Apache Springs tuffs, and the Fanney Rhyolite located in the western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field (MDVF). The project will address several questions. First, are the Bloodgood and Apache Springs tuffs and Fanney Rhyolite petrogenically related, and are these rhyolites expressions of a continental arc ignimbrite flare-up? Second, what petrogenic processes affected differentiation and where is the magma sourced? Finally, to what extent do these units represent a manifestation of the MDVF and the transition from arc magmatism to rifting? The Bloodgood Canyon is a crystal-rich rhyolite tuff containing quartz>k-feldspar>plagioclase>biotite, and pumice and lithic fragments. Rb ranges from 230-330ppm, Sr from 14-83ppm, and 87Sr/86Srm from 0.71619-0.72477.The Apache Springs Tuff is a rhyolite tuff containing quartz>k-feldspar>plagioclase>biotite, and lithics. Rb (228-233ppm) and 87Sr/86Srm (0.71025-0.71056) are restricted, while Sr (105-399ppm) is more variable in composition. The Fanney Creek is a massive rhyolite lava with flow banding and contains quartz phenocryst clusters and k-feldspars. Currently, no data exists for the Apache Springs Tuff.

  4. Applying a Probabilistic, Real-Time Reactive Planner for Avoiding Hostile Fire to Both the Apache and a Fixed Wing UAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    the Apache and a Fixed Wing UAV Richard Stottler1 and Cory Barton2 Stottler Henke Associates, Inc., San Mateo, CA,94402 and US Army Aviation Applied...presented, including the surprisingly low level of effort required to adapt the PRM PP from a rotary wing manned platform to a fixed wing unmanned one. The...Vehicle I. Motivation n the course of unmanned and manned aviation operations, emergency situations arise that call for extreme aircraft

  5. Nonsuicidal self-injury in an American Indian reservation community: results from the White Mountain Apache surveillance system, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary F; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T

    2011-09-01

    To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Apache case managers collected data through a tribally mandated surveillance system. Data from 2007 and 2008 (N = 182) were examined for rates, methods, precipitants, functions, past history of self-injury and service use, by age and gender. The rate of NSSI among all ages was 600 in 100,000, with individuals 10 to 14 years old disproportionately affected at a rate of 3,000 in 100,000. More females (65%) reported NSSI, and cutting was the preferred method (98%) for both genders combined. Most frequently reported precipitants were peer pressure/copying, conflict with boy/girlfriend and "depression." A substantial proportion (22%) was intoxicated/high at the time. More reported the function of NSSI was to "effect internal state" (45%) than "effect circumstances" (15%). More than one-third (39%) received ED treatment and referrals for aftercare (36%). Of those referred, only 30% followed up with services. Most (79%) reported past NSSI; 30% reported past suicidal ideation and 25% attempts. NSSI is a significant, largely unaddressed mental health problem among the White Mountain Apache Tribe and likely other reservation communities, especially as NSSI could serve as a precursor to suicide in this population. Interestingly, another self-destructive behavior, severe substance use, was reported to the surveillance system by Apaches and described in terms similar to NSSI, an important preliminary finding worth further exploration. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT: FIRST DETECTION OF HIGH-VELOCITY MILKY WAY BAR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bird, Jonathan; Schoenrich, Ralph; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Sellgren, Kris; Robin, Annie C.; Schultheis, Mathias; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin; Shetrone, Matthew; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Weiner, Benjamin; Schneider, Donald P.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; and others

    2012-08-20

    Commissioning observations with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, have produced radial velocities (RVs) for {approx}4700 K/M-giant stars in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. These high-resolution (R {approx} 22, 500), high-S/N (>100 per resolution element), near-infrared (NIR; 1.51-1.70 {mu}m) spectra provide accurate RVs ({epsilon}{sub V} {approx} 0.2 km s{sup -1}) for the sample of stars in 18 Galactic bulge fields spanning -1 Degree-Sign -32 Degree-Sign . This represents the largest NIR high-resolution spectroscopic sample of giant stars ever assembled in this region of the Galaxy. A cold ({sigma}{sub V} {approx} 30 km s{sup -1}), high-velocity peak (V{sub GSR} Almost-Equal-To +200 km s{sup -1}) is found to comprise a significant fraction ({approx}10%) of stars in many of these fields. These high RVs have not been detected in previous MW surveys and are not expected for a simple, circularly rotating disk. Preliminary distance estimates rule out an origin from the background Sagittarius tidal stream or a new stream in the MW disk. Comparison to various Galactic models suggests that these high RVs are best explained by stars in orbits of the Galactic bar potential, although some observational features remain unexplained.

  7. Developing Online Communities with LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - the IMIA OSNI and CHIRAD Experiences.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J; Oyri, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Many health informatics organisations do not seem to use, on a practical basis, for the benefit of their activities and interaction with their members, the very technologies that they often promote for use within healthcare environments. In particular, many organisations seem to be slow to take up the benefits of interactive web technologies. This paper presents an introduction to some of the many free/libre and open source (FLOSS) applications currently available and using the LAMP - Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP architecture - as a way of cheaply deploying reliable, scalable, and secure web applications. The experience of moving to applications using LAMP architecture, in particular that of the Open Source Nursing Informatics (OSNI) Working Group of the Special Interest Group in Nursing Informatics of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA-NI), in using PostNuke, a FLOSS Content Management System (CMS) illustrates many of the benefits of such applications. The experiences of the authors in installing and maintaining a large number of websites using FLOSS CMS to develop dynamic, interactive websites that facilitate real engagement with the members of IMIA-NI OSNI, the IMIA Open Source Working Group, and the Centre for Health Informatics Research and Development (CHIRAD), as well as other organisations, is used as the basis for discussing the potential benefits that could be realised by others within the health informatics community.

  8. Data collection and field experiments at the Apache Leap research site. Annual report, May 1995--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Chen, G.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the research performed during the period May 1995-May 1996 for a project of the U.S. Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-051) by the University of Arizona. The project manager for this research in Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this research were to examine hypotheses and test alternative conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. Each chapter in this report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. Topics include: crosshole pneumatic and gaseous tracer field and modeling experiments designed to help validate the applicability of contiuum geostatistical and stochastic concepts, theories, models, and scaling relations relevant to unsaturated flow and transport in fractured porous tuffs; use of geochemistry and aquifer testing to evaluate fracture flow and perching mechanisms; investigations of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U fractionation to evaluate leaching selectivity; and transport and modeling of both conservative and non-conservative tracers.

  9. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Missile Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Daniel Steven; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn; Pater, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60- A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human "disturbance" and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  10. Development and Comparison of Open Source based Web GIS Frameworks on WAMP and Apache Tomcat Web Servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is a tool used for capture, storage, manipulation, query and presentation of spatial data that have applicability in diverse fields. Web GIS has put GIS on Web, that made it available to common public which was earlier used by few elite users. In the present paper, development of Web GIS frameworks has been explained that provide the requisite knowledge for creating Web based GIS applications. Open Source Software (OSS) have been used to develop two Web GIS frameworks. In first Web GIS framework, WAMP server, ALOV, Quantum GIS and MySQL have been used while in second Web GIS framework, Apache Tomcat server, GeoServer, Quantum GIS, PostgreSQL and PostGIS have been used. These two Web GIS frameworks have been critically compared to bring out the suitability of each for a particular application as well as their performance. This will assist users in selecting the most suitable one for a particular Web GIS application.

  11. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) high-resolution near-infrared multi-object fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, Fred; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Majewski, Steven; Schiavon, Ricardo; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Blank, Basil; Henderson, Chuck; Smee, Stephen; Barkhouser, Robert; Harding, Al; Fitzgerald, Greg; Stolberg, Todd; Arns, Jim; Nelson, Matt; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Walker, Eric; Lam, Charles; Maseman, Paul; Barr, Jim; Leger, French; Carey, Larry; MacDonald, Nick; Horne, Todd; Young, Erick; Rieke, George; Rieke, Marcia; O'Brien, Tom; Hope, Steve; Krakula, John; Crane, Jeff; Zhao, Bo; Carr, Mike; Harrison, Craig; Stoll, Robert; Vernieri, Mary A.; Holtzman, Jon; Shetrone, Matt; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Johnson, Jennifer; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Gillespie, Bruce; Weinberg, David

    2010-07-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) will use a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band (1.5-1.7 micron), high resolution (R~30,000), near-infrared spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across the Milky Way. This survey, conducted as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic stellar populations. The instrument, currently in fabrication, will be housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5 m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous technological challenges and innovations including a gang connector that allows simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky, numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation must be minimized, a large (290 mm x 475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area) mosaic-VPH, an f/1.4 sixelement refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat with dimensions 1.4 m x 2.3 m x 1.3 m.

  12. Randomized phase II study of axitinib versus placebo plus best supportive care in second-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y-K; Yau, T; Park, J-W; Lim, H Y; Lee, T-Y; Obi, S; Chan, S L; Qin, Sk; Kim, R D; Casey, M; Chen, C; Bhattacharyya, H; Williams, J A; Valota, O; Chakrabarti, D; Kudo, M

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of axitinib, a potent and selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3 inhibitor, combined with best supportive care (BSC) was evaluated in a global, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial in patients with locally advanced or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC and Child-Pugh Class A who progressed on or were intolerant to one prior antiangiogenic therapy were stratified by tumour invasion (presence/absence of extrahepatic spread and/or vascular invasion) and region (Asian/non-Asian) and randomized (2:1) to axitinib/BSC (starting dose 5 mg twice-daily) or placebo/BSC. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). The estimated hazard ratio for OS was 0.907 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.646-1.274; one-sided stratified P = 0.287] for axitinib/BSC (n = 134) versus placebo/BSC (n = 68), with the median (95% CI) of 12.7 (10.2-14.9) versus 9.7 (5.9-11.8) months, respectively. Results of prespecified subgroup analyses in Asian versus non-Asian patients or presence versus absence of tumour invasion were consistent with the overall population. Improvements favouring axitinib/BSC (P < 0.01) were observed in secondary efficacy end point analyses [progression-free survival (PFS), time to tumour progression (TTP), and clinical benefit rate (CBR)], and were retained among Asian patients in the prespecified subgroup analyses. Overall response rate did not differ significantly between treatments and patient-reported outcomes favoured placebo/BSC. Most common all-causality adverse events with axitinib/BSC were diarrhoea (54%), hypertension (54%), and decreased appetite (47%). Baseline serum analyses identified potential new prognostic (interleukin-6, E-selectin, interleukin-8, angiopoietin-2, migration inhibitory factor, and c-MET) or predictive (E-selectin and stromal-derived factor-1) factors for survival. Axitinib/BSC did not improve OS over placebo/BSC in the overall population or in stratification

  13. Prospective cohort study comparing sequential organ failure assessment and acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation III scoring systems for hospital mortality prediction in critically ill cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Tian, Y-C; Liu, N-J; Ho, Y-P; Yang, C; Chu, Y-Y; Chen, P-C; Fang, J-T; Hsu, C-W; Yang, C-W; Tsai, M-H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation III (APACHE III) scoring systems obtained on the first day of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in predicting hospital mortality in critically ill cirrhotic patients. The study enrolled 102 cirrhotic patients consecutively admitted to ICU during a 1-year period. Twenty-five demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were analysed as predicators of survival. Information considered necessary to calculate the Child-Pugh, SOFA and APACHE III scores on the first day of ICU admission was also gathered. Overall hospital mortality was 68.6%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mean arterial pressure, SOFA and APACHE III scores were significantly related to prognosis. Goodness-of-fit was good for the SOFA and APACHE III models. Both predictive models displayed a similar degree of the best Youden index (0.68) and overall correctness (84%) of prediction. The SOFA and APACHE III models displayed good areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (0.917 +/- 0.028 and 0.912 +/- 0.029, respectively). Finally, a strong and significant positive correlation exists between SOFA and APACHE III scores for individual patients (r(2) = 0.628, p < 0.001). This investigation confirms the grave prognosis for cirrhotic patients admitted to ICU. Both SOFA and APACHE III scores are excellent tools to predict the hospital mortality in critically ill cirrhotic patients. The overall predictive accuracy of SOFA and APACHE III is superior to that of Child-Pugh system. The role of these scoring systems in describing the dynamic aspects of clinical courses and allocating ICU resources needs to be clarified.

  14. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  15. Falsely Elevated Serum Vitamin B12 Levels Were Associated with the Severity and Prognosis of Chronic Viral Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Takaaki; Koda, Masahiko; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Matono, Tomomitsu; Oyama, Kenji; Hosho, Keiko; Okano, Jun-Ichi; Isomoto, Hajime; Murawaki, Yoshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is stored primarily in the liver, and highly elevated serum vitamin B12 levels occur in acute hepatitis and severe alcoholic liver disease. We evaluated the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and liver disease severity and long term prognosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. We enrolled 90 patients (57 men, 33 women) with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis who admitted to our hospital as a prospective cohort study. Overall, 37 patients had chronic hepatitis and 53 had cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A 33, B 13, and C 7); 57 patients had primary liver cancer. Serum vitamin B12 concentration and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) II (active form of vitamin B12) were determined and followed prospectively for at least 5 years. Mean total serum vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher in Child-Pugh C (1308 ± 599 pg/mL) compared to those with chronic hepatitis (655 ± 551 pg/mL), Child-Pugh A (784 ± 559 pg/mL), and Child-Pugh B (660 ± 464 pg/mL) (P = 0.036) Presence of primary liver cancer also influenced serum vitamin B12 levels [657 (167-2956) vs. 432 (189-2956); P = 0.015]. Patients were divided into quartiles by vitamin B12 level. Patients without primary liver cancer in quartile 4 (≥ 880 pg/mL) demonstrated significantly poorer prognosis than those in quartiles 1-3 (< 880 pg/mL) (P = 0.023). The percentage of holohaptocorrin (holoHC) [(total vitamin B12 - holoTC II) × 100] was significantly higher in Child-Pugh B and C 86 (80-87)% than chronic hepatitis and Child-Pugh A 77 (31-89)% (P = 0.006) Multivariate analysis indicated serum vitamin B12 levels (HR = 1.001, P = 0.029) as a prognostic factor. Falsely elevated serum vitamin B12 levels mainly composed of increased holoHC were associated with severity (Child-Pugh C and primary liver cancer) and prognosis in chronic viral liver disease.

  16. Falsely Elevated Serum Vitamin B12 Levels Were Associated with the Severity and Prognosis of Chronic Viral Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Takaaki; Koda, Masahiko; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Matono, Tomomitsu; Oyama, Kenji; Hosho, Keiko; Okano, Jun-ichi; Isomoto, Hajime; Murawaki, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 is stored primarily in the liver, and highly elevated serum vitamin B12 levels occur in acute hepatitis and severe alcoholic liver disease. We evaluated the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and liver disease severity and long term prognosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. Methods We enrolled 90 patients (57 men, 33 women) with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis who admitted to our hospital as a prospective cohort study. Overall, 37 patients had chronic hepatitis and 53 had cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A 33, B 13, and C 7); 57 patients had primary liver cancer. Serum vitamin B12 concentration and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) II (active form of vitamin B12) were determined and followed prospectively for at least 5 years. Results Mean total serum vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher in Child-Pugh C (1308 ± 599 pg/mL) compared to those with chronic hepatitis (655 ± 551 pg/mL), Child-Pugh A (784 ± 559 pg/mL), and Child-Pugh B (660 ± 464 pg/mL) (P = 0.036) Presence of primary liver cancer also influenced serum vitamin B12 levels [657 (167–2956) vs. 432 (189–2956); P = 0.015]. Patients were divided into quartiles by vitamin B12 level. Patients without primary liver cancer in quartile 4 (≥ 880 pg/mL) demonstrated significantly poorer prognosis than those in quartiles 1–3 (< 880 pg/mL) (P = 0.023). The percentage of holohaptocorrin (holoHC) [(total vitamin B12 – holoTC II) × 100] was significantly higher in Child-Pugh B and C 86 (80–87)% than chronic hepatitis and Child-Pugh A 77 (31–89)% (P = 0.006) Multivariate analysis indicated serum vitamin B12 levels (HR = 1.001, P = 0.029) as a prognostic factor. Conclusion Falsely elevated serum vitamin B12 levels mainly composed of increased holoHC were associated with severity (Child-Pugh C and primary liver cancer) and prognosis in chronic viral liver disease. PMID:28331419

  17. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ∼ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å{sup –1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup –2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr.

  18. High precision gravity analysis and hydrological modeling from the Lunar Laser Ranging Observatory at Apache Point, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiahao

    The NASA-supported Lunar Laser Ranging project (LLR) is located at Apache Point, New Mexico, which strives to precisely measure the orbital distance between the Earth and the Moon in an accuracy of a few millimeters. To archive this objective, LLR project requires precise data on local ground deformation, which is difficult to measure directly. However, the high precision gravity data is the reflection of vertical ground deformation of the Earth, therefore the gravity data is able to contribute to the LLR project. Gravity time series is affected by Earth tides, atmospheric pressure, polar motion, and the most critical effect, local hydrology. In order to isolate pure geodetic variation, these effects must be removed from the data. Thus, the goal of this research is to create models of above effects, especially local hydrology model, in order to isolate the vertical deformation signal. The Earth tides, atmospheric pressure and polar motion effects have been modeled and subtracted from gravity data (2009~2012). The local hydrological model has been created based on the in-situ data, which are rainfall, snowfall and temperature. The correlation coefficient and RMS misfit between the hydrological model and gravity residual (2010~2012) is 0.92 and 1.26 microGal. The instrument drift corrections in 2009 have been reanalyzed after comparing with some global hydrological models. The gravity residual from new corrections showed a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and RMS misfit of 1.25 microGal. The isolated deformation signal was obtained after we subtracted the hydrological effects, and the results can be used for further modeling.

  19. Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope Imaging Camera (ARCTIC) facility optical imager for the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Ketzeback, William; Bradley, Alaina; Dembicky, Jack; Doughty, Caitlin; Hawley, Suzanne; Johnson, Courtney; Klaene, Mark; Leon, Ed; McMillan, Russet; Owen, Russell; Sayres, Conor; Sheen, Tyler; Shugart, Alysha

    2016-08-01

    The Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope Imaging Camera, ARCTIC, is a new optical imaging camera now in use at the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). As a facility instrument, the design criteria broadly encompassed many current and future science opportunities, and the components were built for quick repair or replacement, to minimize down-time. Examples include a quick change shutter, filter drive components accessible from the exterior and redundant amplifiers on the detector. The detector is a Semiconductor Technology Associates (STA) device with several key properties (e.g. high quantum efficiency, low read-noise, quick readout, minimal fringing, operational bandpass 350-950nm). Focal reducing optics (f/10.3 to f/8.0) were built to control aberrations over a 7.8'x7.8' field, with a plate scale of 0.11" per 0.15 micron pixel. The instrument body and dewar were designed to be simple and robust with only two components to the structure forward of the dewar, which in turn has minimal feedthroughs and permeation areas and holds a vacuum <10-8 Torr. A custom shutter was also designed, using pneumatics as the driving force. This device provides exceptional performance and reduces heat near the optical path. Measured performance is repeatable at the 2ms level and offers field uniformity to the same level of precision. The ARCTIC facility imager will provide excellent science capability with robust operation and minimal maintenance for the next decade or more at APO.

  20. Enabling Automated Graph-based Search for the Identification and Characterization of Mesoscale Convective Complexes in Satellite Datasets through Integration with the Apache Open Climate Workbench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Goodale, C. E.; Joyce, M.; Ramirez, P.; Zimdars, P.

    2014-12-01

    We detail how Apache Open Climate Workbench (OCW) (recently open sourced by NASA JPL) was adapted to facilitate an ongoing study of Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) in West Africa and their contributions within the weather-climate continuum as it relates to climate variability. More than 400 MCCs occur annually over various locations on the globe. In West Africa, approximately one-fifth of that total occur during the summer months (June-November) alone and are estimated to contribute more than 50% of the seasonal rainfall amounts. Furthermore, in general the non-discriminatory socio-economic geospatial distribution of these features correlates with currently and projected densely populated locations. As such, the convective nature of MCCs raises questions regarding their seasonal variability and frequency in current and future climates, amongst others. However, in spite of the formal observation criteria of these features in 1980, these questions have remained comprehensively unanswered because of the untimely and subjective methods for identifying and characterizing MCCs due to limitations data-handling limitations. The main outcome of this work therefore documents how a graph-based search algorithm was implemented on top of the OCW stack with the ultimate goal of improving fully automated end-to-end identification and characterization of MCCs in high resolution observational datasets. Apache OCW as an open source project was demonstrated from inception and we display how it was again utilized to advance understanding and knowledge within the above domain. The project was born out of refactored code donated by NASA JPL from the Earth science community's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES), a joint project between the Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering (JIFRESSE), and a scientific collaboration between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and NASA JPL. The Apache OCW project was then integrated back

  1. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This "neuroscience Big data" represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability-the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability-the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming-the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that the toolkit

  2. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Lhatoo, Samden D.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This “neuroscience Big data” represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability—the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability—the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming—the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Sublingual Buprenorphine and Naloxone in Subjects with Mild to Severe Hepatic Impairment (Child-Pugh Classes A, B, and C), in Hepatitis C Virus-Seropositive Subjects, and in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Azmi F; Heidbreder, Christian; Liu, Yongzhen; Fudala, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Suboxone(®) is a sublingual tablet of buprenorphine/naloxone, approved for the treatment of opioid dependence. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of hepatic impairment or hepatitis C virus infection on the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine or naloxone and their major metabolites. Forty-three subjects received a single dose of a Suboxone 2.0/0.5-mg tablet. Blood samples were collected up to 168 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from 33 subjects. Compared with healthy subjects, for patients with severe hepatic impairment, total and peak exposures increased to 281.4 % [90 % confidence interval 187.1-423.3] and 171.8 % [117.9-250.2] for buprenorphine, 1401.9 % [707.6-2777.5] and 1129.8 % [577.2-2211.4] for naloxone. For moderate hepatic impaired subjects, naloxone total and peak exposure increased to 317.6 % [164.9-611.5] and 270.0  % [141.9-513.9]. For buprenorphine, only total exposure increased to 163.9 % [110.8-242.3]. Changes in maximum observed plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time of the last quantifiable concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity of buprenorphine or naloxone in subjects with mild hepatic impairment or with hepatitis C virus infection were within twofold of those of healthy subjects. Serious adverse events were not observed. Severe and moderate hepatic impairment significantly increased exposure of naloxone and to a lesser extent of buprenorphine. Therefore, buprenorphine/naloxone combination products should generally be avoided in patients with severe hepatic impairment and may not be appropriate for patients with moderate hepatic impairment. However, buprenorphine/naloxone products may be used with caution for maintenance treatment in patients with moderate hepatic impairment who have initiated treatment on a buprenorphine product without naloxone [Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01846455].

  4. Apache SMART Briefing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Relative States ● Fuzing Range ● Bodying Bending Parameters ● Pressures ● Body Accel. ● Total Impulse ● Detector Material ● Optical Diameter MSC NASTRAN ...Design (IMD) System Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems) • Rotary Wing Structures Technology Demonstration Program (RWSTDP) • DMAPS  A Suite...Lines Nitrogen Inerting Unit SUBSYSTEMS IN CENTER FUSELAGE Flow Chart Of DMAPS Process Conceptual Layouts Assembly Layouts CLO ALO BTP Objectives 33

  5. The Apache Rescue Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denali, David Line

    Experiments in using outdoor education to affect juvenile development and deter crime abound. Most of these outdoor adventure programs use a setting of developed challenges and perceived risk situations in order to create a life-changing experience. However, these "adventures" remain contrived events and require significant interpretive…

  6. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome. PMID:27688627

  7. Plasma proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores and survival in patients in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Friedland, J S; Porter, J C; Daryanani, S; Bland, J M; Screaton, N J; Vesely, M J; Griffin, G E; Bennett, E D; Remick, D G

    1996-11-01

    To more clearly define the relationships between plasma proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, physiologic disturbance, and survival in severely ill patients. Prospective, longitudinal, cohort analytic study. Teaching hospital intensive care unit (ICU). Two hundred fifty-one consecutive nonselected patients admitted to the ICU. None. Daily Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores were calculated from clinical and laboratory data. In concurrent blood samples, plasma concentrations were measured of four proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-[TNF] alpha, interleukin [IL]-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8), all of which are believed to be of central importance in host proinflammatory and immune responses. Plasma TNF concentrations were increased in 42 patients, plasma IL-1 beta in 15 patients, IL-6 in 194 patients, and IL-8 in 52 patients at presentation. Although admission plasma IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were higher in patients who died in the ICU compared with survivors (n = 33; p < .02, p < .01, p < .02, respectively), only admission plasma IL-8 concentrations were higher in patients with a fatal outcome if all in-hospital deaths were considered (n = 53; p = .05). APACHE III score was the best predictor of mortality (odds ratio 11.41; p = .003). Detection, but not the absolute level, of TNF bioactivity in plasma was a weak independent predictor of death (odds ratio 3.17; p = .02). There was no relationship between bacteremia or presence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and plasma cytokine concentrations. Nineteen patients were in the ICU for > or = 10 days, and of these 19 patients, 16 patients had prolonged increases of plasma cytokines. Two patients with persistently increased plasma TNF concentrations died. Otherwise, persistently increased plasma cytokine concentrations had a variable relation to daily APACHE scores and to mortality. Plasma cytokine concentrations fluctuate in serious illness and have a

  8. Native American embodiment of the chronicities of modernity: reservation food, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome among the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache.

    PubMed

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2012-12-01

    As a physical embodiment of modernity, the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Native Americans reflects their body's biological response to social and cultural structures that routinize daily behaviors and contain their physical body. This article explains why Native Americans were one of the earliest populations manifesting this epidemic. Ethnohistorical methods identify the conjuncture of chronic behaviors among Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache of Oklahoma that promote inactivity, overnutrition, and psychosocial stresses. Correspondence and primary documents of Federal Indian Agents who managed the reservation food rations and annuity systems beginning in the 1860s, details a culture history of nutrition and food technologies that standardized and established the unhealthy modern diet that continues among Native Americans today. By identifying structural chronicities affecting specific populations and life situations, policies and interventions can be more effective in promoting positive changes for reducing the global pandemic of diabetes and MetS. © 2012 by the American Anthropological Association.

  9. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation: Testing General Relativity with Millimeter-precision Measurements of the Earth-Moon Separation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, James B.; Murphy, T. W.; Adelberger, E. G.; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, R. J.; Michelsen, E.; Nordtvedt, K.; Orin, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2006-12-01

    Based on the discovery of the accelerating universe and dark energy, along with our inability to unite quantum mechanics and General Relativity, there is a clear need to probe deeper into gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a natural, fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) bounces laser light off of man-made retro-reflectors on the lunar surface to measure the Earth-Moon separation with a precision of one millimeter. Such precise measurements of the lunar orbit allow us to improve constraints on gravitational phenomena such as the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Strong Equivalence Principle, de Sitter precession and dG/dt by an order of magnitude or better. I will describe the APOLLO project and its current status, as well as prospects for constraining PPN parameters and the universality of free-fall. This work was carried out under the financial support of NASA and NSF.

  10. Seroepidemiology of heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Norwalk virus infections in Panamanians, Canal Zone residents, Apache Indians, and United States Peace Corps volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ryder, R W; Greenberg, H; Singh, N; Oro, G; de Guardia, A; Sack, R B; Kapikian, A Z

    1982-09-01

    Serum antibody titrations against the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli were carried out on Panamanians, U.S. citizens resident in the Panama Canal Zone, Apache Indians living on the reservation in Whiteriver, Arizona, and Peace Corps volunteers before they traveled overseas. Antibody titers to Norwalk virus were also carried out on serum from Panamanian and Canal Zone residents. A high prevalence of low-titer LT antibodies was found in infants and adults from Panama, the Canal Zone, and Whiteriver. Panamanian children aged 1 to 5 years had the highest LT antibody titers. Peace Corps volunteers had a low prevalence and titer of LT antibodies. Prevalence and titer of antibodies to Norwalk virus were generally higher in Panamanians compared with Canal Zone residents of the same age. In the populations we studied, various modes of transmission and mechanisms of immunity likely explain the differences which we observed in antibody prevalence and titer to these two enteric pathogens.

  11. Comparison of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction who require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Eran, Oren; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Zahger, Doron

    2011-02-01

    The ability to provide an accurate prognosis in an intensive care unit is of major importance. Numerous risk scores have been developed to predict hospital mortality based on demographic, physiologic, and clinical data. These scores were universally developed in general medical or surgical intensive care units. Patients admitted to a cardiac care unit differ in many aspects from those admitted to general medical intensive care units. Few patients require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care. Performance of risk scores developed for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in this subgroup is unknown. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who were admitted to a cardiac care unit from September 2006 to March 2008 for AMI and received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores were calculated for each patient. Mortality rates were extrapolated based on these 3 risk scores. Twenty-two of 51 patients (43%) died in hospital. Age, mean arterial pressure, urea, albumin, hemoglobin, need for vasopressors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were predictive of mortality. APACHE II and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores were higher in nonsurvivors but Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score was not predictive of mortality. APACHE II score had the highest value for area under receiver operator characteristics curve for mortality prediction. In conclusion, patients with AMI requiring mechanical ventilation have a high mortality rate. This risk is predicted by co-morbidities better than by direct cardiac parameters. Consequently, conventional AMI risk scores do not perform well in this very sick population and the APACHE II score better predicts their short-term outcome.

  12. Age influences the predictive value of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre scoring models in patients admitted to Intensive Care Units after in-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, D N S; Veenith, T

    2015-03-01

    Outcomes following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) are generally poor though different patient populations may benefit to different degrees from admission to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Risk stratification algorithms may be useful in identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from ICU admission and so may aid allocation of this scarce resource. We aimed to compare the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) scoring systems in predicting outcome following ICU admission after IHCA in younger (≤69 years) and older (≥70 years) patients. We performed a retrospective observational study in two adult ICUs from January 2006 to February 2010 inclusive. Patients were divided into younger (≤69 years) and older (≥70 years) patients. The primary outcome measures were acute hospital mortality and area under the curve (AUC) calculation for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Two hundred and sixty-one adult consecutive adult patients admitted following IHCA. Hospital mortality was 58.6%. ROC analysis demonstrated that ICNARC was more accurate than APACHE II in predicting acute hospital outcomes in the adult population (AUC 0.734 vs. 0.706). Both scoring systems performed weaker when predicting outcomes in younger patients compared to older patients (ICNARC AUC 0.655 vs. 0.810; APACHE II AUC 0.660 vs. 0.759). Both APACHE II and ICNARC predict outcome well in older patients. In younger patients, their value is less clear, and so they must be used with caution.

  13. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  14. THE TENTH DATA RELEASE OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC DATA FROM THE SDSS-III APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Anderton, Timothy; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Andrews, Brett H.; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bird, Jonathan C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Chad F.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the Tenth Public Data Release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R ∼ 22,500 300 fiber spectrograph covering 1.514-1.696 μm. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included. DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the Ninth Data Release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra, 182,009 quasar spectra, and 159,327 stellar spectra selected over 6373.2 deg{sup 2}.

  15. The Tenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Bautista, Julian E.; Beers, Timothy C.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Borde, Arnaud; Bovy, Jo; Shelden Bradley, Alaina; Brandt, W. N.; Brauer, Dorothée; Brinkmann, J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Busca, Nicolás G.; Carithers, William; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carnero, Aurelio R.; Carr, Michael A.; Chiappini, Cristina; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Crepp, Justin R.; Cristiani, Stefano; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Cunha, Katia; da Costa, Luiz N.; Dawson, Kyle S.; De Lee, Nathan; Dean, Janice D. R.; Delubac, Timothée; Deshpande, Rohit; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Epstein, Courtney R.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fabbian, D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Favole, Ginevra; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Feuillet, Diane; Filiz Ak, Nurten; Finley, Hayley; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Galbraith-Frew, J. G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Ge, Jian; Génova-Santos, R.; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Halverson, Samuel; Harding, Paul; Harris, David W.; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hayden, Michael; Hearty, Frederick R.; Herrero Davó, Artemio; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Ivans, Inese I.; Jackson, Kelly M.; Jiang, Peng; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kirkby, David; Klaene, Mark A.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koesterke, Lars; Lan, Ting-Wen; Lang, Dustin; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lee, Young Sun; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Mack, Claude E., III; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, A.; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Martell, Sarah L.; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ménard, Brice; Mészáros, Sz.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Miyatake, Hironao; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Montesano, Francesco; More, Surhud; Morrison, Heather L.; Muna, Demitri; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Myers, Adam D.; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; O'Connell, Julia E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; O'Connell, Ross; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Owen, Russell; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Parihar, Prachi; Pâris, Isabelle; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Dotto Perottoni, Hélio; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Rahman, Mubdi; Rebolo, Rafael; Reid, Beth A.; Richards, Jonathan C.; Riffel, Rogério; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Roy, Arpita; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basílio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Sellgren, Kris; Seo, Hee-Jong; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Simmons, Audrey E.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Sobreira, Flavia; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Strauss, Michael A.; Streblyanska, Alina; Suzuki, Nao; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Troup, Nicholas W.; Vandenberg, Jan; Vargas Magaña, Mariana; Viel, Matteo; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; White, Martin; White, Simon D. M.; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhu, Guangtun

    2014-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the Tenth Public Data Release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R ~ 22,500 300 fiber spectrograph covering 1.514-1.696 μm. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included. DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the Ninth Data Release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra, 182,009 quasar spectra, and 159,327 stellar spectra selected over 6373.2 deg2.

  16. Subsurface Analysis of the Mesaverde Group on and near the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico-its implication on Sites of Oil and Gas Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, Jennie

    2001-08-21

    The purpose of the phase 2 Mesaverde study part of the Department of Energy funded project ''Analysis of oil-bearing Cretaceous Sandstone Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico'' was to define the facies of the oil-producing units within the subsurface units of the Mesaverde Group and integrate these results with outcrop studies that defined the depositional environments of these facies within a sequence stratigraphic context. The focus of this report will center on (1) integration of subsurface correlations with outcrop correlations of components of the Mesaverde, (2) application of the sequence stratigraphic model determined in the phase one study to these correlations, (3) determination of the facies distribution of the Mesaverde Group and their relationship to sites of oil and gas accumulation, (4) evaluation of the thermal maturity and potential source rocks for oil and gas in the Mesaverde Group, and (5) evaluation of the structural features on the Reservation as they may control sites of oil accumulation.

  17. The role of the pilot's night vision system (PNVS) and the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in AH-64 Apache accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelle, Jessica A.; Reynolds, Barbara S.; Rash, Clarence E.; Peterson, R. David; Leduc, Patricia A.

    2003-09-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), while not new, are a unique method of providing pilotage and targeting imagery to aviators. Although there are a number of HMDs in various phases of design, the AH-64s Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) is currently the Army's only fielded integrated HMD. A number of studies have investigated the visual and perceptual issues associated with the monocular optical design of the IHADSS in combination with the AH-64s forward looking infrared (FLIR) thermal sensor (Pilots Night Vision System - PNVS). While these systems have greatly enhanced the operational effectiveness of the AH-64, they have resulted in reports of physiological complaints, degraded visual cues, and both static and dynamic illusions. This study investigated the possible role the IHADSS HMD and PNVS may have played in AH-64 Apache accidents. A total of 217 AH-64 accidents (FY85-02) were analyzed and assigned causal factors associated with the use of the IHADSS and PNVS. The resulting analysis failed to identify any significant role between these systems and flight-related accidents.

  18. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Introduction and Problem Formulation for a Multiple Stressor Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Peterson, Mark J; Jones, Daniel Steven; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF). The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. The problem formulation for the assessment included conceptual models for three component activities of the test, helicopter overflight, missile firing, and tracked vehicle movement, and two ecological endpoint entities, woody desert wash communities and desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) populations. An activity-specific risk assessment framework was available to provide guidance for assessing risks associated with aircraft overflights. Key environmental features of the study area include barren desert pavement and tree-lined desert washes. The primary stressors associated with helicopter overflights were sound and the view of the aircraft. The primary stressor associated with Hellfire missile firing was sound. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased ponding, infiltrationand/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. A plan for estimating integrated risks from the three military activities was included in the problem formulation.

  19. Mesospheric Temperatures over Apache Point Observatory (32°N, 105°W) Derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gawon; Kim, Yong Ha; Lee, Young Sun

    2017-06-01

    We retrieved rotational temperatures from emission lines of the OH airglow (8-3) band in the sky spectra of the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) for the period 2000-2014, as part of the astronomical observation project conducted at the Apache Point observatory (32°N, 105°W). The SDSS temperatures show a typical seasonal variation of mesospheric temperature: low in summer and high in winter. We find that the temperatures respond to solar activity by as much as 1.2 K ±0.8 K per 100 solar flux units, which is consistent with other studies in mid-latitude regions. After the seasonal variation and solar response were subtracted, the SDSS temperature is fairly constant over the 15 year period, unlike cooling trends suggested by some studies. This temperature analysis using SDSS spectra is a unique contribution to the global monitoring of climate change because the SDSS project was established for astronomical purposes and is independent from climate studies. The SDSS temperatures are also compared with mesospheric temperatures measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS) instrument on board the Aura satellite and the differences are discussed.

  20. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  1. Location, Reprocessing, and Analysis of Two Dimensional Seismic Reflection Data on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico, Final Report, September 1, 1997-February 1, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, Jennie; Taylor, David J.; Huffman, Jr., A. Curtis

    2000-06-08

    Multichannel surface seismic reflection data recording is a standard industry tool used to examine various aspects of geology, especially the stratigraphic characteristics and structural style of sedimentary formations in the subsurface. With the help of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe and the Bureau of Indian Affairs we were able to locate over 800 kilometers (500 miles) of multichannel seismic reflection data located on the Jicarilla Apache Indian reservation. Most of the data was received in hardcopy form, but there were data sets where either the demultiplexed digital field data or the processed data accompanied the hardcopy sections. The seismic data was acquired from the mid 1960's to the early 1990's. The most extensive seismic coverage is in the southern part of the reservation, although there are two good surveys located on the northeastern and northwestern parts of the reservation. Most of the data show that subsurface formations are generally flat-lying in the southern and western portion of the reservation. There is, however, a significant amount of structure imaged on seismic data located over the San Juan Basin margin along the east-central and northern part of the reservation. Several west to east trending lines in these areas show a highly faulted monoclinal structure from the deep basin in the west up onto the basin margin to the east. Hydrocarbon exploration in flat lying formations is mostly stratigraphic in nature. Where there is structure in the subsurface and indications are that rocks have been folded, faulted, and fractured, exploration has concentrated on structural traps and porosity/permeability "sweet spots" caused by fracturing. Therefore, an understanding of the tectonics influencing the entire section is critical in understanding mechanisms for generating faults and fractures in the Cretaceous. It is apparent that much of the hydrocarbon production on the reservation is from fracture porosity in either source or reservoir sequences

  2. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45{degree} to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence.

  3. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert Pavement

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances.

  4. Bedrock and surficial geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles is the result of a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This map provides geologic information useful for range management, plant and animal studies, flood control, water resource investigations, and natural hazards associated with sand-dune mobility. The map provides connectivity to the regional geologic framework of the Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 314 km2 (123 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°37'30" to 35°30' N., long 109°45' to 110° W. The quadrangles lie within the southern Colorado Plateau geologic province and within the northeastern portion of the Hopi Buttes (Tsézhin Bií). Large ephemeral drainages, Pueblo Colorado Wash and Steamboat Wash, originate north of the map area on the Defiance Plateau and Balakai Mesa respectively. Elevations range from 1,930 m (6,330 ft) at the top of Satan Butte to about 1,787 m (5,860 ft) at Pueblo Colorado Wash where it exits the southwest corner of the Greasewood quadrangle. The only settlement within the map area is Greasewood, Arizona, on the north side of Pueblo Colorado Wash. Navajo Highway 15 crosses both quadrangles and joins State Highway 264 northwest of Ganado. Unimproved dirt roads provide access to remote parts of the Navajo Reservation.

  5. Preliminary bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle was completed in a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This report provides baseline geologic information that will be useful in future studies of groundwater and surface water resources, geologic hazards, and the distribution of soils and plants. The west half of the Sanders quadrangle encompasses approximately 2,509 km2 (980 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°30' to 35° N., long 109°30' to 110° W. The majority of the land within the map area lies within the Navajo Nation. South of the Navajo Nation, private and State lands form a checkerboard pattern east and west of Petrified Forest National Park. In the west half of the Sanders quadrangle, Mesozoic bedrock is nearly flat lying except near folds. A shallow Cenozoic erosional basin that developed about 20 Ma in the western part of the map area cut across late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that were subsequently filled with flat-lying Miocene and Pliocene mudstone and argillaceous sandstone and fluvial sediments of the Bidahochi Formation and associated volcanic rocks of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field. The Bidahochi rocks are capped by Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene fluvial sediments and Quaternary eolian and alluvial deposits. Erosion along northeast-southwest-oriented drainages have exposed elongated ridges of Bidahochi Formation and basin-fill deposits that are exposed through shallow eolian cover of similarly oriented longitudinal dunes. Stokes (1964) concluded that the accumulation of longitudinal sand bodies and the development of confined parallel drainages are simultaneous processes resulting in parallel sets of drainages and ridges oriented along the prevailing southwest wind direction on the southern Colorado Plateau.

  6. Performance of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) high-resolution near-infrared multi-object fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, F.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R.; Eisenstein, D.; Gunn, J.; Holtzman, J.; Nidever, D.; Gillespie, B.; Weinberg, D.; Blank, B.; Henderson, C.; Smee, S.; Barkhouser, R.; Harding, A.; Hope, S.; Fitzgerald, G.; Stolberg, T.; Arns, J.; Nelson, M.; Brunner, S.; Burton, A.; Walker, E.; Lam, C.; Maseman, P.; Barr, J.; Leger, F.; Carey, L.; MacDonald, N.; Ebelke, G.; Beland, S.; Horne, T.; Young, E.; Rieke, G.; Rieke, M.; O'Brien, T.; Crane, J.; Carr, M.; Harrison, C.; Stoll, R.; Vernieri, M.; Shetrone, M.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Johnson, J.; Frinchaboy, P.; Zasowski, G.; Garcia Perez, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Cunha, K.; Smith, V. V.; Meszaros, Sz.; Zhao, B.; Hayden, M.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Andrews, B.; Loomis, C.; Owen, R.; Klaene, M.; Brinkmann, J.; Stauffer, F.; Long, D.; Jordan, W.; Holder, D.; Cope, F.; Naugle, T.; Pfaffenberger, B.; Schlegel, D.; Blanton, M.; Muna, D.; Weaver, B.; Snedden, S.; Pan, K.; Brewington, H.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Simmons, A.; Oravetz, D.; Mahadevan, S.; Halverson, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) uses a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band near-infrared (1.51-1.7 μm), high resolution (R~22,500) spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across the Milky Way. This three-year survey, in operation since late-summer 2011 as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of the kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic stellar populations. We present the performance of the instrument from its first year in operation. The instrument is housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5-m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous innovations including a gang connector that allows simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky, numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation had to be minimized, a large mosaic-VPH (290 mm x 475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area), an f/1.4 six-element refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-infrared detectors mounted in a 1 x 3 mosaic with sub-pixel translation capability, and all of these components housed within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat with dimensions 1.4-m x 2.3-m x 1.3-m.

  7. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  8. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Transarterial Chemoembolization in Treating Patients With Liver Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Child-Pugh Class A; Child-Pugh Class B; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  10. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  11. Delta II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  12. Apache Wars: A Constabulary Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Government. Power was quickly usurped after the revolt by Agustin de Iturbide , who declared equality for all Mexican citizens, and then proclaimed...himself Emperor in 1822. Iturbide was short lived however, as he was exiled and then executed in 1823, thereby creating the conditions for a new

  13. Big Data Approaches for the Analysis of Large-Scale fMRI Data Using Apache Spark and GPU Processing: A Demonstration on Resting-State fMRI Data from the Human Connectome Project.

    PubMed

    Boubela, Roland N; Kalcher, Klaudius; Huf, Wolfgang; Našel, Christian; Moser, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    Technologies for scalable analysis of very large datasets have emerged in the domain of internet computing, but are still rarely used in neuroimaging despite the existence of data and research questions in need of efficient computation tools especially in fMRI. In this work, we present software tools for the application of Apache Spark and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to neuroimaging datasets, in particular providing distributed file input for 4D NIfTI fMRI datasets in Scala for use in an Apache Spark environment. Examples for using this Big Data platform in graph analysis of fMRI datasets are shown to illustrate how processing pipelines employing it can be developed. With more tools for the convenient integration of neuroimaging file formats and typical processing steps, big data technologies could find wider endorsement in the community, leading to a range of potentially useful applications especially in view of the current collaborative creation of a wealth of large data repositories including thousands of individual fMRI datasets.

  14. Big Data Approaches for the Analysis of Large-Scale fMRI Data Using Apache Spark and GPU Processing: A Demonstration on Resting-State fMRI Data from the Human Connectome Project

    PubMed Central

    Boubela, Roland N.; Kalcher, Klaudius; Huf, Wolfgang; Našel, Christian; Moser, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    Technologies for scalable analysis of very large datasets have emerged in the domain of internet computing, but are still rarely used in neuroimaging despite the existence of data and research questions in need of efficient computation tools especially in fMRI. In this work, we present software tools for the application of Apache Spark and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to neuroimaging datasets, in particular providing distributed file input for 4D NIfTI fMRI datasets in Scala for use in an Apache Spark environment. Examples for using this Big Data platform in graph analysis of fMRI datasets are shown to illustrate how processing pipelines employing it can be developed. With more tools for the convenient integration of neuroimaging file formats and typical processing steps, big data technologies could find wider endorsement in the community, leading to a range of potentially useful applications especially in view of the current collaborative creation of a wealth of large data repositories including thousands of individual fMRI datasets. PMID:26778951

  15. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  16. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  17. OPeNDAP servers like Hyrax and TDS can easily support common single-sign-on authentication protocols using the Apache httpd and related software; adding support for these protocols to clients can be more challenging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. H. R.; Potter, N.; Evans, B. J. K.

    2016-12-01

    OPeNDAP, in conjunction with the Australian National University, documented the installation process needed to add authentication to OPeNDAP-enabled data servers (Hyrax, TDS, etc.) and examined 13 OPeNDAP clients to determine how best to add authentication using LDAP, Shibboleth and OAuth2 (we used NASA's URS). We settled on a server configuration (architecture) that uses the Apache web server and a collection of open-source modules to perform the authentication and authorization actions. This is not the only way to accomplish those goals, but using Apache represents a good balance between functionality, leveraging existing work that has been well vetted and includes support for a wide variety of web services, include those that depend on a servlet engine such as tomcat (which both Hyrax and TDS do). Or work shows how LDAP, OAuth2 and Shibboleth can all be accommodated using this readily available software stack. Also important is that the Apache software is very widely used and is fairly robust - extremely important for security software components. In order to make use of a server requiring authentication, clients must support the authentication process. Because HTTP has included authentication for well over a decade, and because HTTP/HTTPS can be used by simply linking programs with a library, both the LDAP and OAuth2/URS authentication schemes have almost universal support within the OPeNDAP client base. The clients, i.e. the HTTP client libraries they employ, understand how to submit the credentials to the correct server when confronted by an HTTP/S Unauthorized (401) response. Interestingly OAuth2 can achieve it's SSO objectives while relying entirely on normative HTTP transport. All 13 of the clients examined worked.The situation with Shibboleth is different. While Shibboleth does use HTTP, it also requires the client to either scrape a web page or support the SAML2.0 ECP profile, which, for programmatic clients, means using SOAP messages. Since working with

  18. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  19. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  20. Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis and Facies Architecture of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale on and Near the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico-their relation to Sites of Oil Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, Jennie

    2001-08-21

    The purpose of phase 1 and phase 2 of the Department of Energy funded project Analysis of oil- bearing Cretaceous Sandstone Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico was to define the facies of the oil producing units within the Mancos Shale and interpret the depositional environments of these facies within a sequence stratigraphic context. The focus of this report will center on (1) redefinition of the area and vertical extent of the ''Gallup sandstone'' or El Vado Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, (2) determination of the facies distribution within the ''Gallup sandstone'' and other oil-producing sandstones within the lower Mancos, placing these facies within the overall depositional history of the San Juan Basin, (3) application of the principals of sequence stratigraphy to the depositional units that comprise the Mancos Shale, and (4) evaluation of the structural features on the Reservation as they may control sites of oil accumulation.

  1. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  2. Fungal Peritonitis: Underestimated Disease in Critically Ill Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Spontaneous Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Lahmer, Tobias; Brandl, Andreas; Rasch, Sebastian; Schmid, Roland M; Huber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous peritonitis, especially spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP), is an important and potentially fatal complication in patients with endstage liver disaese. We evaluated potential risk factors, microbiological findings, and outcome of patients with SFP compared to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in critically ill patients. Retrospective analyses of critically ill patients with suspected spontaneous peritonitis. Out of 205 patients, 20 (10%) had SFP, 28 (14%) had SBP, 48 (24%) had peritonitis without microbiological findings (SP) and 109 (52%) had no-peritonitis (NP). APACHE II and SOFA score were significantly higher in patients with SFP (26; 22-28; p<0.004 and 16; 14-18; p<0.002), SBP (26; 22-28; p<0.004 and 16; 14-18; p<0.002) and SP (24; 18-30; p<0.045 and 14; 10-18; p<0.044) as compared to NP (22; 16-24 and 12; 10-14). CHILD Pugh classification was mainly CHILD C and MELD Score was in patients with SFP (34; 18-40; p<0.001), SBP (32;12-40 p<0.002) and SP (29; 14-40 p<0.003) significantly higher as compared to NP (25;8-40). Nosocomial peritonitis could be significantly more often found in patients with SFP (65%; p<0.023) and SBP (62%, p<0.030) as compared to SP (51 p = 0.243) and NP (45%). Antibiotic pretreatment last 3 month prior peritonitis was significantly more often in patients with SFP (85%; p<0.002), SBP (71%, p<0.033), and SP (56; p<0.040) as compared to NP (33%). Candida albicans (60%; 12/20) was the most common isolated fungus, followed by Candida glabrata (13%) and Candida krusei (13%). Mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with SFP (90%, p<0.001), followed by SBP (75%; p<0.001) and SP (69%; p<0.001) as compared to NP (45%). SFP is not a rare complication in end stage liver disease which is associated with increased mortality. Physicians should be aware of SFP in patients with CHILD C liver cirrhosis, elevated MELD score, antibiotic pretreatment and nosocomial peritonitis.

  3. The SDSS-II/SEGUE Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young S.; Beers, T. C.; Sivarani, T.; Wilhelm, R.; Allende Prieto, C.; Norris, J. E.; Fiorentin, P. R.; Bailer-Jones, C. A.; SEGUE Calibration Team

    2006-12-01

    The Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) is one of three key projects in SDSS-II. SEGUE is in the process of obtaining ugriz imaging of some 3500 square degrees of sky outside of the SDSS-I footprint, with special attention being given to scans of lower galactic latitudes in order to better probe the disk/halo interface in the Galaxy. Over one-third of the imaging has already been completed. SEGUE is also obtaining R = 2000 sectroscopy over the wavelenth range 380 900 nm for 250,000 stars in 200 selected areas over the sky available from Apache Point, New Mexico. The spectroscopic candidates are selected on the basis of ugriz photometry to populate some 16 target categories of stars chosen to explore the nature of the stellar populations in the Galaxy as a function of distance from the Sun (from 0.5 kpc to over 100 kpc). The SEGUE data clearly require automated analysis tools in order to extract the maximum amount of useful information. In this contribution we describe the development and execution of the SEGUE spectroscopic analysis pipeline, which makes use of multiple approaches (including spectral matching, neural network analysis, line index calculations, etc.) in order to estimate the fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and [Fe/H]). These approaches are in the process of being extended to include determinations of other elemental abundances (e.g., C, Na, Mg) that the SDSS spectra probe. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS Web Site is http://www.sdss.org/.

  4. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  5. BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-02

    Image taken on card 8 during BASS-II flame test session with reduced O2 partial pressure. Session conducted on GMT 213. The Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) investigation examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The BASS-II experiment will guide strategies for materials flammability screening for use in spacecraft as well as provide valuable data on solid fuel burning behavior in microgravity. BASS-II results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  6. The Apache Campaigns. Values in Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    fought during the period--e.g. the Civil War or the Mexican Wa r . . Besides facing unconventional fighting tactics, the Army met a formidable foe in the...Training for survival from hostile actions of other Indian tribes, Mexican or American soldiers included the arts of stealth and deception as well...and close to home. We had to watch all the springs on our way, as there were likely to be some Mexicans living near them. This way sometimes we only

  7. Mescalero Apache Tribe Leasing Authorization Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2011-01-25

    Senate - 09/19/2012 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 522. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis after transarterial chemoembolization: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Zheng, Jia-sheng; Sun, Bin; Lu, Ningning

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively assess the use of microwave ablation (MWA) to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and to evaluate factors that significantly affect treatment outcomes. Sixty patients with HCC [55 male, 5 female; mean age, 54.1 ± 10.2 (range 36-77) years] + PVTT were enrolled. Patients were treated with MWA after TACE. Results were compared with those of 54 patients treated by TACE alone in another retrospective study. Data analyzed included patient demographics, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, liver cirrhosis, liver volume, Child-Pugh class, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, and imaging findings. Survival time (from occurrence of PVTT to last follow-up) and predictive factors and their correlation with survival were statistically evaluated. The median 3-year overall survival (OS) duration was 13.5 months, and the 1- and 3-year OS rates were 48 and 23 %, respectively. Cox hazards regression analysis revealed that change in the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, CLIP score, and treatment efficacy were the only independent predictive factors for outcome (p = 0.035, 0.024, and 0.000, respectively). Combination therapy with MWA after TACE may provide a substantial benefit for patients with HCC + PVTT type I, II, or partial III and Child-Pugh class A or B by reducing the tumor burden. Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-ONC-12002689.

  9. Photosensitization of HNS II

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoton, N.O.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of photosensitization of HNS II was evaluated using an electrically driven flyer in vacuum, air and xenon. Preliminary experiments, without HNS II acceptors, indicated increased ultraviolet light generation by the flyer in argon, krypton and xenon atmospheres relative to air while no ultraviolet light was detectable in vacuum. HNS II initiation threshold tests in vacuum, air and xenon showed only a slight difference in threshold level between air and vacuum, and a higher threshold level in xenon. Thus no relationship was evident from these tests between ultraviolet energy level and the initiation sensitivity of HNS II.

  10. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  12. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  13. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND FACIES ARCHITECTURE OF THE CRETACEOUS MANCOS SHALE ON AND NEAR THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO-THEIR RELATION TO SITES OF OIL ACCUMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-03-31

    Oil distribution in the lower part of the Mancos Shale seems to be mainly controlled by fractures and by sandier facies that are dolomite-cemented. Structure in the area of the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation consists of the broad northwest- to southeast-trending Chaco slope, the deep central basin, and the monocline that forms the eastern boundary of the San Juan Basin. Superimposed on the regional structure are broad low-amplitude folds. Fractures seem best developed in the areas of these folds. Using sequence stratigraphic principals, the lower part of the Mancos Shale has been subdivided into four main regressive and transgressive components. These include facies that are the basinal time equivalents to the Gallup Sandstone, an overlying interbedded sandstone and shale sequence time equivalent to the transgressive Mulatto Tongue of the Mancos Shale, the El Vado Sandstone Member which is time equivalent to part of the Dalton Sandstone, and an unnamed interbedded sandstone and shale succession time equivalent to the regressive Dalton Sandstone and transgressive Hosta Tongue of the Mesaverde Group. Facies time equivalent to the Gallup Sandstone underlie an unconformity of regional extent. These facies are gradually truncated from south to north across the Reservation. The best potential for additional oil resources in these facies is in the southern part of the Reservation where the top sandier part of these facies is preserved. The overlying unnamed wedge of transgressive rocks produces some oil but is underexplored, except for sandstones equivalent to the Tocito Sandstone. This wedge of rocks is divided into from two to five units. The highest sand content in this wedge occurs where each of the four subdivisions above the Tocito terminates to the south and is overstepped by the next youngest unit. These terminal areas should offer the best targets for future oil exploration. The El Vado Sandstone Member overlies the transgressive wedge. It produces most of

  14. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  15. FIRE II Cirrus Info

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-03-18

    ... Page:  FIRE II Main Grouping:  Cirrus Description:  First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Data Products:  Cirrus ...

  16. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects include: Dizziness Elevated blood potassium level (hyperkalemia) Localized swelling of tissues (angioedema) There have been ... 31, 2016. Townsend RR. Major side effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. http://www.uptodate. ...

  17. Tracers of Chromospheric Structure. I. Observations of Ca II K and Hα in M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2009-02-01

    We report on our observing program4This paper is based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. to capture simultaneous spectra of Ca II and Balmer lines in a sample of nearby M3 dwarfs. Our goal is to investigate the chromospheric temperature structure required to produce these lines at the observed levels. We find a strong positive correlation between instantaneous measurements of Ca II K and the Balmer lines in active stars, although these lines may not be positively correlated in time-resolved measurements. The relationship between Hα and Ca II K remains ambiguous for weak and intermediate activity stars, with Hα absorption corresponding to a range of Ca II K emission. A similar relationship is also observed between Ca II K and the higher-order Balmer lines. As our sample consists of a single spectral type, correlations between these important chromospheric tracers cannot be ascribed to continuum effects, as suggested by other authors. These data confirm prior nonsimultaneous observations of the Hα line behavior with increasing activity, showing an initial increase in the Hα absorption with increasing Ca II K emission, prior to Hα filling in and eventually becoming a pure emission line in the most active stars. We also compare our optical measurements with archival UV and X-ray measurements, finding a positive correlation between the chromospheric and coronal emission for both high and intermediate activity stars. We compare our results with previous determinations of the active fraction of low-mass stars

  18. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  19. START II and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1996-10-01

    The second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), signed by President George Bush and Russian President Boris yeltsin in January 1993, was ratified by the US Senate in January 1996 by and overwhelming vote of 87-4. The treaty, which will slash the strategic arsenals of the United States and Russia to 3,000-3,500 warheads each, is now before the two houses of the Russian Parliament (the Duma and the Federation Council) awaiting ratification amidst confusion and criticism. The Yeltsin administration supports START II and spoke in favor of Russian ratification after the Senate acted on the treaty. The Russian foreign minister and the Russian military believed that START II should be ratified as soon as possible. During the recent presidential campaign and his subsequent illness, President Yeltsin has been virtually silent on the subject of START II and nuclear force reductions. Without a push from the Yeltsin administration, the tone among Duma members, has been sharply critical of START II. Voices across the Russian political spectrum have questioned the treaty and linked it to constraints on highly capable theater missile defense (TMD) systems and the continued viability of the ABM Treaty. And urged that START II ratification be held hostage until NATO abandons its plans to expand eastward. Although the START I and START II accords have generated the momentum, opportunity and expectation-both domestic and international-for additional nuclear arms reductions, the current impasse over ratification in the Duma has cast a shadow over the future of START II and raised questions about the chances for any follow-on (START III) agreement.

  20. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  1. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  2. Hα Imaging of Early-Type Sa-Sab Spiral Galaxies. II. Global Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Salman; Devereux, Nick

    2005-06-01

    New results, based on one of the most comprehensive Hα imaging surveys of nearby Sa-Sab spirals completed to date, reveals early-type spirals to be a diverse group of galaxies that span a wide range in massive star formation rates. While the majority of Sa-Sab galaxies in our sample are forming stars at a modest rate, a significant fraction (~29%) exhibit star formation rates greater than 1 Msolar yr-1, rivaling the most prolifically star-forming late-type spirals. A similar diversity is apparent in the star formation history of Sa-Sab spirals as measured by their Hα equivalent widths. Consistent with our preliminary results presented in the first paper in this series, we find giant H II regions [L(Hα)>=1039 ergs s-1] in the disks of ~37% of early-type spirals. We suspect that recent minor mergers or past interactions are responsible for the elevated levels of Hα emission and, perhaps, for the presence of giant H II regions in these galaxies. Our results, however, are not in total agreement with the Hα study of Kennicutt & Kent, who did not find any early-type spirals with Hα equivalent widths >14 Å. A close examination of the morphological classification of galaxies, however, suggests that systematic differences between the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog and the Second Reference Catalogue may be responsible for the contrasting results. Based on observations obtained with the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO) and the 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). The APO 3.5 m telescope is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  3. Keck II status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald M.

    1997-03-01

    The second of two 10-meter telescopes comprising the W. M. Keck Observatory is nearing completion. Functionally, the Keck II telescope is a twin of Keck I, but in detail, many improvements have been made. Observatory and scientific instrument budgets are presented for the two telescopes. A new software system was developed for Keck II using EPICS-based architecture. Computer architecture for Keck II was also completely changed from the Keck I design using VMS and VAX computers to UNIX and SUN computers. The new telescope is completely assembled on the site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Design, construction, and testing of the Keck II telescope has taken significantly less time due to the experience and tools developed for the first telescope. An adaptive optics system is currently being developed for Keck II. Preliminary design of this system is complete and the system is expected to be commissioned in 1998. Configuration of the twin 10-meter telescopes was designed to allow combining of the optical beams from the two telescopes and to add smaller satellite telescopes for interferometry. Plans for this phase are being developed in detail.

  4. Topoisomerase II and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, MaryJean; Lindsey, R. Hunter; Felix, Carolyn A.; Grimwade, David; Osheroff, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that modulate DNA under- and overwinding, knotting, and tangling. Beyond their critical physiological functions, these enzymes are the targets for some of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs (topoisomerase II poisons) in clinical use. Topoisomerase II poisons kill cells by increasing levels of covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complexes that are normal reaction intermediates. Drugs such as etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone are frontline therapies for a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, their use is also associated with the development of specific leukemias. Regimens that include etoposide or doxorubicin are linked to the occurrence of acute myeloid leukemias that feature rearrangements at chromosomal band 11q23. Similar rearrangements are seen in infant leukemias and are associated with gestational diets that are high in naturally occurring topoisomerase II–active compounds. Finally, regimens that include mitoxantrone and epirubicin are linked to acute promyelocytic leukemias that feature t(15;17) rearrangements. The first part of this article will focus on type II topoisomerases and describe the mechanism of enzyme and drug action. The second part will discuss how topoisomerase II poisons trigger chromosomal breaks that lead to leukemia and potential approaches for dissociating the actions of drugs from their leukemogenic potential. PMID:24495080

  5. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  6. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  7. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  8. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  9. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  10. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  11. Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu ZhiYong; Liang Shixiong; Zhu Ji; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhao Jiandong; Lu Haijie; Yang Yunli; Chen Long; Wang Anyu; Fu Xiaolong; Jiang Guoliang . E-mail: jianggl@21cn.com

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD{sub 5} (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD{sub 5}) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended.

  12. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  13. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  14. Reflections on Excellence II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the book "Excellence II," the new version of "Excellence in Art Education: Ideas and Initiatives," by summarizing each of the nine chapters. Identifies the new features and/or discussions; in particular, the additions of two chapters, one on multiculturalism and cultural pluralism and another on modernism and postmodernism. (CMK)

  15. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  16. A la Mode II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Richard A.

    This paper describes two modes of educational decision-making: Mode I, in which the instructor makes such decisions as what to teach, to whom, when, in what order, at what pace, and at what complexity level; and Mode II, in which the learner makes the decisions. While Mode I comprises most of what is regarded as formal education, the learner in…

  17. Class II Microcins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  18. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  19. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  20. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  1. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  2. Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardi, Silvio; de Nardo, Guglielmo; Russo, Guido; Belle II computing Group

    2016-04-01

    The existence of large matter-antimatter asymmetry (CP violation) in the b-quark system as predicted in the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory was established by the B-Factory experiments, Belle and BaBar. However, this cannot explain the magnitude of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe we live in today. This indicates undiscovered new physics exists. The Belle II experiment, the next generation of the B-Factory, is expected to reveal the new physics by accumulating 50 times more data (˜ 50ab-1) than Belle by 2023. The Belle II computing system has to handle an amount of beam data eventually corresponding to several tens of PetaByte per year under an operation of the SuperKEKB accelerator with a designed instantaneous luminosity. Under this situation, it cannot be expected that one site, KEK, will be able to provide all computing resources for the whole Belle II collaboration including the resources not only for the raw data processing but also for the MC production and physics analysis done by users. In order to solve this problem, Belle II employed the distributed computing system based on DIRAC, which provides us the interoperability of heterogeneous computing systems such as grids with different middleware, clouds and the local computing clusters. Since the last year, we performed the MC mass production campaigns to confirm the feasibility and find out the possible bottleneck of our computing system. In parallel, we also started the data transfer challenge through the transpacific and transatlantic networks. This presentation describes the highlights of the Belle II computing and the current status. We will also present the experience of the latest MC production campaign in 2014.

  3. Inhibitory role of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) on cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying-Hao; Kim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2005-08-29

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in all oxygen-utilizing organisms. Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) as one of antioxidant enzymes may play a protective role against the oxidative damage caused by ROS. In order to define the role of Prx II in organismal aging, we evaluated cellular senescence in Prx II(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). As compared to wild type MEF, cellular senescence was accelerated in Prx II(-/-) MEF. Senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal)-positive cell formation was about 30% higher in Prx II(-/-) MEF. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment attenuated SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation. Prx II(-/-) MEF exhibited the higher G2/M (41%) and lower S (1.6%) phase cells as compared to 24% and 7.3% [corrected] in wild type MEF, respectively. A high increase in the p16 and a slight increase in the p21 and p53 levels were detected in PrxII(-/-) MEF cells. The cellular senescence of Prx II(-/-) MEF was correlated with the organismal aging of Prx II(-/-) mouse skin. While extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) MEF, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) skin. These results suggest that Prx II may function as an enzymatic antioxidant to prevent cellular senescence and skin aging.

  4. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce ii Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce ii lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce ii lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce ii lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce ii lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce ii lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  5. Near-infrared spectra and intrinsic luminosities of candidate type II quasars at 2 < z < 3.4

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Alexandroff, Rachael; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Liu, Guilin; Lang, Dustin; Hamann, Frederick; Ross, Nicholas P.; Myers, Adam D.; Brandt, W. Niel; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald

    2014-06-10

    We present JHK near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 25 candidate Type II quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), using Triplespec on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette at the Magellan/Baade 6.5 m telescope, and the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph on Gemini. At redshifts of 2 < z < 3.4, our NIR spectra probe the rest-frame optical region of these targets, which were initially selected to have strong lines of C IV and Ly α, with FWHM < 2000 km s{sup –1} from the SDSS pipeline. We use the [O III] λ5007 line shape as a model for the narrow-line region emission and find that Hα consistently requires a broad component with FWHMs ranging from 1000 to 7500 km s{sup –1}. Interestingly, the C IV lines also require broad bases, but with considerably narrower widths of 1000-4500 km s{sup –1}. Estimating the extinction using the Balmer decrement and also the relationship in lower-z quasars between rest equivalent width and luminosity in the [O III] line, we find typical A{sub V} values of 0-2 mag, which naturally explains the attenuated C IV lines relative to Hα. We propose that our targets are moderately obscured quasars. We also describe one unusual object with three distinct velocity peaks in its [O III] spectrum.

  6. European Telecommunications Satellite II (EUTELSAT II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laemmel, G.; Brittinger, P.

    1991-01-01

    EUTELSAT II is a regional public telecommunications system for Europe. The services which will be provided are telephone and television. The satellites will be placed at a geostationary orbit within the arcs of 6 degrees east to 19 degrees east or 26 degrees to 36 degrees east. The designed lifetime is 7 years. After separation of the satellites from the launch vehicles, telemetry, telecommand, and ranging will be performed within the S-band frequencies. After positioning of the satellite at its final geostationary orbit, the Ku-band telecommunication equipment will be activated. From this time on, all satellite control operations will be performed in Ku-band. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas at Goldstone and Canberra as prime support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of a 7-day period, plus 14 days of contingency support. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  7. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  8. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  9. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  10. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  11. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II Cirrus was conducted in southeastern Kansas. It was designed to improve the ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE ...

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... is most often with a tumor called a pheochromocytoma . Involvement of the thyroid gland is most often ...

  13. Marine Resiliency Study II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-06

    the Army Study of Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS) program, by evaluating the physical , family, social, cognitive and mental health status of...MRS II) is to identify the individual, social. and deployment factors that predict trajectories of mental health response, particularly posttraumatic...with an overarching ob ject ive co develop a platform to provide an early analysis of predictors of mental health outcomes , such as Post Traumatic

  14. Operation Everest II.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a V(O)(2)max of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) of approximately 28 and approximately 10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation-perfusion inequality and O(2) diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake-expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain mechanism or significance. OE II was unique in the diversity and complexity of studies carried out on a single, courageous cohort of subjects. These studies could never have been carried out in the field, and thus complement studies such as the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest (AMREE) that, although more limited in scope, serve as benchmarks and reality checks for chamber studies like OE II.

  15. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wagner, Peter D. Operation Everest II. High Alt. Med. Biol. 11:111–119, 2010.—In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland,xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document} \\begin{align*} \\dot{\\rm V}{\\sc O}_2{\\rm max} \\end{align*} \\end{document} of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial Po2 and Pco2 of ∼28 and ∼10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation–perfusion inequality and O2 diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake–expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain

  16. AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Schotz, S.; Calkins, J.; Gockel, B.; Ortiz, C.; Peter, R.

    2012-12-01

    AWIPS II Technology Infusion is a multiphase program. The first phase is the migration of the Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and River Forecast Centers (RFCs) AWIPS I capabilities into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), referred to as AWIPS II. AWIPS II is currently being deployed to Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) and other select deployment sites. The subsequent phases of AWIPS Technology Infusion, known as AWIPS II Extended, include several projects that will improve technological capabilities of AWIPS II in order to enhance the NWS enterprise and improve services to partners. This paper summarizes AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery project and reports on its status. Data Delivery enables AWIPS II users to discover, subscribe and access web-enabled data provider systems including the capability to subset datasets by space, time and parameter.

  17. Phase II Study of First-Line Trebananib Plus Sorafenib in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Blanc, Jean-Frederic; Miles, Steven; Ganten, Tom; Trojan, Jörg; Cebon, Jonathan; Liem, Andre K; Lipton, Lara; Gupta, Charu; Wu, Benjamin; Bass, Michael; Hollywood, Ellen; Ma, Jennifer; Bradley, Margaret; Litten, Jason; Saltz, Leonard B

    2017-07-01

    Trebananib leveraging anti-angiogenic mechanism that is distinct from the classic sorafenib anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition did not demonstrate improved progression-free survival at 4 months in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).In support of previously reported high Ang-2 levels' association with poor outcome in HCC for patients, trebananib treatment with lower baseline Ang-2 at study entry was associated with improved overall survival to 22 months and may suggest future studies to be performed within the context of low baseline Ang-2. Ang-1 and Ang-2 are angiopoietins thought to promote neovascularization via activation of the Tie-2 angiopoietin receptor. Trebananib sequesters Ang-1 and Ang-2, preventing interaction with the Tie-2 receptor. Trebananib plus sorafenib combination has acceptable toxicity. Elevated Ang-2 levels are associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≤2, and Childs-Pugh A received IV trebananib at 10 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg weekly plus sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily. The study was planned for ≥78% progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 4 months relative to 62% for sorafenib historical control (power = 80% α = 0.20). Secondary endpoints included safety, tolerability, overall survival (OS), and multiple biomarkers, including serum Ang-2. Thirty patients were enrolled sequentially in each of the two nonrandomized cohorts. Demographics were comparable between the two arms and the historical controls. PFS rates at 4 months were 57% and 54% on the 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg trebananib cohorts, respectively. Median OS was 17 and 11 months, respectively. Grade 3 and above events noted in ≥10% of patients included fatigue, hypertension, diarrhea, liver failure, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, dyspnea, and hypophosphatemia. One death was due to hepatic failure. Serum Ang-2 dichotomized at the median was associated with

  18. ARICH for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusa, Y.

    2014-10-01

    We report development and current status of Aerogel Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter (ARICH) which is a particle identification detector in the next generation B-factory experiment, the Belle II. The main components of the ARICH are aerogel radiator and photon sensor. When a charged particle goes through the radiator, it emits Cherenkov light photons to the direction which depends on the particle velocity. Combining observables in the Belle II detector, such as a momentum measured with tracker installed inside of the ARICH, and directions of the Cherenkov light photons with the ARICH, we obtain the charged particle mass information. A new photon sensor named Hybrid Avalanche Photon Detector (HAPD) is used to collect a small number of the Cherenkov light photons distributed in the large area effectively. We set up a small part of the ARICH detector and perform the measurement using electron and hadron beam lines at KEK, CERN and DESY. From the obtained results, we expect that it is possible to separate K- and π-mesons by more than 5σ significance level with the ARICH design. The HAPD and its readout electronics production has been started and several kinds of the quality testing for them are ongoing. We also simulate the whole ARICH detector with a GEANT4-based program and expected performance of the particle identification is sufficient for charged tracks in a wide momentum range. After finishing the production of the all components, the construction of the ARICH detector will start in this year and installation to the Belle II detector will be completed in 2015.

  19. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  20. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  1. The Belle II Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  2. [Angiotensin-receptor- and neprilysin-inhibition: a new option against heart failure].

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The molecular combination of sacubitril and valsartan (Entresto) is a new drug for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) and reduced ejection fraction. It is usually administered in conjunction with other heart failure therapies, instead of an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB). In studies, sacubitril/ valsartan was superior to enalapril in reducing the risks of death and hospitalization for heart failure. Possible side effects of sacubitril/valsartan are hypotension, angioedema, impaired renal function and elevation in serum potassium levels. The drug should not be used in times of pregnancy and breast feeding, in patients with servere hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) and in combination with aliskiren in patients with diabetes.

  3. [Influence of cryoglobulinemic syndrome and insulin resistance on the progression of liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Kondratiuk, L O; Bezrodna, O V; Kuliesh, O V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of the frequency of detection of cryoglobulinemic syndrome (CGS) and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with HCV-associated liver cirrhosis (LC) depending on its stage. There were also evaluated clinical and laboratory features of the disease. The study involved 72 patients with chronic hepatitis C who were divided into 3 main groups according to the presence of LC. The I group included 32 patients with chronic hepatitis C without LC. The II group consisted of 19 patients with compensated HCV-associated LC and III group included 21 patients with decompensated LC. It was shown that terminal stages of the LC (class B-C by Child-Pugh) are characterized by more frequent presence of IR and CGS with more severe clinical picture, which may be caused not only by the influence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), but also by the progression of LC.

  4. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  5. II Zwicky 23 and Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, E. H.; Gallagher, J. S.; Rudie, G. C.; Cigan, P. J.

    II Zwicky 23 (UGC 3179) is a luminous (MB ~ -21) nearby compact narrow emission line st arburst galaxy with blue optical colors and strong emission lines. We present a photometric and morphological study of II Zw 23 and its interacting companions using data obtained with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona. II Zwicky 23 has a highly disturbed outer structure with long trails of debris that may be feeding tidal dwarfs.

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma in extremely elderly patients: An analysis of clinical characteristics, prognosis and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Tsukioka, Gengo; Kakizaki, Satoru; Sohara, Naondo; Sato, Ken; Takagi, Hitoshi; Arai, Hirotaka; Abe, Takehiko; Toyoda, Mitsuo; Katakai, Kenji; Kojima, Akira; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Otsuka, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Yutaka; Makita, Fujio; Kanda, Daisuke; Horiuchi, Katsuhiko; Hamada, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Mieko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mori, Masatomo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify the clinical and prognostic features of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) aged 80 years or more. METHODS: A total of 1310 patients with HCC were included in this study. Ninety-one patients aged 80 years or more at the time of diagnosis of HCC were defined as the extremely elderly group. Two hundred and thirty-four patients aged ≥ 50 years but less than 60 years were regarded as the non-elderly group. RESULTS: The sex ratio (male to female) was significantly lower in the extremely elderly group (0.90:1) than in the non-elderly group (3.9:1, P < 0.001). The positive rate for HBsAg was significantly lower in the extremely elderly group and the proportion of patients negative for HBsAg and HCVAb obviously increased in the extremely elderly group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the following parameters: diameter and number of tumors, Child-Pugh grading, tumor staging, presence of portal thrombosis or ascites, and positive rate for HCVAb. Extremely elderly patients did not often receive surgical treatment (P < 0.001) and they were more likely to receive conservative treatment (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in survival curves based on the Kaplan-Meier methods in comparison with the overall patients between the two groups. However, the survival curves were significantly worse in the extremely elderly patients with stage I/II, stage I/II and Child-Pugh grade A cirrhosis in comparison with the non-elderly group. The causes of death did not differ among the patients, and most cases died of liver-related diseases even in the extremely elderly patients. CONCLUSION: In the patients with good liver functions and good performance status, aggressive treatment for HCC might improve the survival rate, even in extremely elderly patients. PMID:16440416

  7. Belle II Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, T.; Ritter, M.; Belle Software Group, II

    2016-10-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development.

  8. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  9. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  10. Mode II fatigue crack propagation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.

  11. He II-Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    A small fraction of star-forming galaxies at redshift, 3, show He II at 1640 A as a narrow emission line (Cassata et al. 2012), but the source of this emission is not understood. Does the He II emission arise in the stars or in the surrounding nebula? To answer this question, we use I Zw 18, a well studied blue compact dwarf galaxy showing narrow He II line emission as a test case. We consider if/how He II narrow emission lines could originate in the nearby nebulosity, or in the winds of hot, massive stars, both those on the main sequence and post-MS evolutionary phases.

  12. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  13. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  14. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046391 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  15. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046381 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  16. Hopkins during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046393 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  17. Hopkins during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046394 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  18. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046387 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  19. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  2. SAM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-06

    SAM II Data and Information Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, which flew on board the Nimbus-7 satellite, are used to ... Guide Readme Files:  Data Set (Text file) Read Software Files :  C Code ...

  3. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here.

  4. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Donald B.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Webb, David F.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Kosovichev, Alexander; von Steiger, Rudolf

    Division II of the IAU provides a forum for astronomers and astrophysicists studying a wide range of phenomena related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system. Division II encompasses three Commissions, 10, 12 and 49, and four Working Groups.

  5. Technology II: Implementation Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are facing a number of challenges, including the explosive use of the Internet, the digital divide, the need for integrating technology into teaching and learning, the impact of Tidal Wave II, and the need to ensure that technology is accessible to persons with disabilities. The CCCs' Technology II Strategic…

  6. Nonequilibrium Positive Column II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingold, John H.

    1998-10-01

    Previous work has shown that the first principles nonlocal kinetic method [1] is closely approximated by the nonlocal moment method [2] in positive column analysis. In the present paper, the nonlocal moment method is compared with two of the most often used local moment methods: (i) local moment method with Maxwell EEDF; (ii) local moment method with 0D EEDF. The form of the Boltzmann equation for electrons in a positive column discharge suggests that each gas has a characteristic curve of positive column E/N versus NR (E is axial electric field, N is gas density, and R is tube radius). This characteristic curve affords a systematic way of comparing various methods because its course depends on the form of the EEDF used to calculate transport coefficients and inelastic collision rates, on whether or not it is assumed that the electrons are in equilibrium with the axial field, on whether or not ion inertia is taken into account, etc. Using an argon-like gas for illustration, it is shown that the characteristic curve based on equilibrium with 0D EEDF is a poor approximation to that based on nonequilibrium for NR less than 1× 10^17 cm-2 (PR<3 Torr-cm), while that based on equilibrium with Maxwell EEDF is an extremely poor approximation at any value of NR. [1]D. Uhrlandt and R. Winkler, J. Phys. D 29, 115 (1996). [2]J. H. Ingold, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5932 (1997).

  7. Photoinhibition of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-01-01

    Photoinhibition of Photosystem II (PSII) is the light-induced loss of PSII electron-transfer activity. Although photoinhibition has been studied for a long time, there is no consensus about its mechanism. On one hand, production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) by PSII has promoted models in which this reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to act as the agent of photoinhibitory damage. These chemistry-based models have often not taken into account the photophysical features of photoinhibition-like light response and action spectrum. On the other hand, models that reproduce these basic photophysical features of the reaction have not considered the importance of data about ROS. In this chapter, it is shown that the evidence behind the chemistry-based models and the photophysically oriented models can be brought together to build a mechanism that confirms with all types of experimental data. A working hypothesis is proposed, starting with inhibition of the manganese complex by light. Inability of the manganese complex to reduce the primary donor promotes recombination between the oxidized primary donor and Q(A), the first stable quinone acceptor of PSII. (1)O(2) production due to this recombination may inhibit protein synthesis or spread the photoinhibitory damage to another PSII center. The production of (1)O(2) is transient because loss of activity of the oxygen-evolving complex induces an increase in the redox potential of Q(A), which lowers (1)O(2) production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycotoxins revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-02-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition, however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, whereas foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I reviewed the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and presented an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II is focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  9. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  10. Rhizobium etli asparaginase II

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed; Moreno-Enriquez, Angélica; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial l-asparaginase has been a universal component of therapies for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia since the 1970s. Two principal enzymes derived from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi are the only options clinically approved to date. We recently reported a study of recombinant l-asparaginase (AnsA) from Rhizobium etli and described an increasing type of AnsA family members. Sequence analysis revealed four conserved motifs with notable differences with respect to the conserved regions of amino acid sequences of type I and type II l-asparaginases, particularly in comparison with therapeutic enzymes from E. coli and E. chrysanthemi. These differences suggested a distinct immunological specificity. Here, we report an in silico analysis that revealed immunogenic determinants of AnsA. Also, we used an extensive approach to compare the crystal structures of E. coli and E. chrysantemi asparaginases with a computational model of AnsA and identified immunogenic epitopes. A three-dimensional model of AsnA revealed, as expected based on sequence dissimilarities, completely different folding and different immunogenic epitopes. This approach could be very useful in transcending the problem of immunogenicity in two major ways: by chemical modifications of epitopes to reduce drug immunogenicity, and by site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues to diminish immunogenicity without reduction of enzymatic activity. PMID:22895060

  11. Airborne Laser Hydrography II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpot, W.; Wozencraft, J.

    2016-02-01

    In 1985, Dr. Gary Guenther assembled the text, "Airborne Laser Hydrography" which quickly became a heavily used manual and guide for any and all scientists and engineers involved with airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB). It was a remarkable book that captured a snapshot of the state of the art of ALB and included historical developments, theoretical and modeling efforts as well as design characteristics and constraints, ending with accuracy assessment and a discussion of design tradeoffs. Known familiarly as the "Blue Book" it served the community remarkably well for many years. At 30 years of age, it is still a valued reference, but unavoidably dated in a field that has developed rapidly and nonstop over the intervening years. It is time for an update. The new text is attempt by the ALB community to update and expand upon Guenther's text. Like the original, Blue Book II reviews the historical developments in ALB, extending them into the 21st century, considers basic environmental water optical properties, theoretical developments, data processing and performance evaluation. All have progressed dramatically in the past 30 years. This paper presents an outline of the new book, a description of the contents, with emphasis on the theoretical models of the lidar waveform and its propagation through, and interaction with the water.

  12. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  13. MIME: Microprogrammable Minicomputer Emulator. Phase II. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    unlimited. — ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ —- , — - - _I _ ~~ ~~ j”— -~j~~$,’ 4~4 AFIT/GCS/EE/79_11 MIME MICROPROGRAMMAB LE MINICOMPUTER EMULATOR PHASE II VOLUME... II THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University (ATC) in Partial Fulfillment...L— ~—~-__— -- _ _ _ _ -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ onterit~- Volume II Appendix A

  14. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  15. Safety and efficacy of sorafenib in Japanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in clinical practice: a subgroup analysis of GIDEON.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Masafumi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Numata, Kazushi; Izumi, Namiki; Furuse, Junji; Okusaka, Takuji; Kadoya, Masumi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ito, Yuichiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-12-01

    GIDEON was a prospective, global, non-interventional study evaluating the safety of sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in real-world practice. The aim of this subgroup analysis was to assess the safety and efficacy of sorafenib as used by Japanese patients. In Japan, 508 patients were valid for safety analysis. Efficacy and safety were evaluated by the Child-Pugh score. The number of patients with Child-Pugh A and B was 432 (85.0 %) and 58 (11.4 %), respectively. The median overall survival time and time to progression in patients with Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B were 17.4 and 4.9 months, 3.7 and 2.3 months, respectively. The most common drug-related adverse events (AEs) included hand-foot skin reaction (47.8 %), diarrhea (35.8 %) and hypertension (24.2 %). The incidences of all or drug-related AEs were similar between patients with Child-Pugh A and B. However, all or drug-related serious AEs, AEs resulting in permanent discontinuation of sorafenib and deaths were observed more frequently in patients with Child-Pugh B compared with Child-Pugh A. Duration of treatment tended to be shorter as the Child-Pugh score worsened. Sorafenib was well tolerated by Japanese HCC patients in clinical settings. Patients with Child-Pugh B had shorter duration of treatment and higher incidence of SAEs. It is important to carefully evaluate patients' conditions and assess the benefit and risk before making a decision to treat patients with sorafenib.

  16. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  17. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  18. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2009-09-05

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  19. BASS-II Hardware Repair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-27

    ISS039-E-005726 (27 March 2014) --- Expedition 39 Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio performs inflight maintenance on an experiment called Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS)-II. The investigation examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The BASS-II experiment will guide strategies for materials flammability screening for use in spacecraft as well as provide valuable data on solid fuel burning behavior in microgravity. BASS-II results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  20. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  1. Environmental Baseline Survey, Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado. Volume II - Appendices A-G.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    DENVER 01\\28\\94 80207 " APACHE OIL CORP JET FUELS: JP-1 (KEROSENE) 30 GAL DENV 943S9073 STAPLETON AIRPORT - HANGER #5 DENVER 09\\23\\91 80207 ASPEN AIR JET...yourself: Maloceous "Chicky" Cordova (worked for DPW) What substances are or were historically stored in this area: Outside was clay ground. Forklift

  2. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  3. Decreased organ failure in patients with severe SIRS and septic shock treated with the platelet-activating factor antagonist TCV-309: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase II trial. TCV-309 Septic Shock Study Group.

    PubMed

    Poeze, M; Froon, A H; Ramsay, G; Buurman, W A; Greve, J W

    2000-10-01

    Sepsis and organ failure remain the main cause of death on the ICU. Sepsis is characterized by a severe inflammatory response, in which platelet-activating factor (PAF) is considered to play an important role. This study investigated whether treatment with the PAF-antagonist TCV-309 reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with septic shock. The study was conducted as a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled multicenter study. The included patients had to fulfill the SIRS criteria with a clinical suspicion of infection, an admission APACHE II score greater than 15, and shock, defined as a mean arterial pressure <70 mmHg and/or a decrease > or =40 mmHg despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Patients received 1.0 mg/kg TCV-309 or placebo, twice daily, intravenously during 14 days. The prospectively set goals were MOF score, recovery from shock, mortality, and assessment of the safety of the medication. A total of 98 patients were included of which 97 were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. The overall survival at day 56 of TCV-309 treated patients was similar compared to placebo treated patients (51.0% vs. 41.7%, P = 0.47). In contrast, the mean percentage of failed organs per patient present after 14 days in the TCV-309 treated patients was significantly lower compared to the placebo treated patients (11.9% vs. 25.1%, P = 0.04), leading to a reduced need for vasopressors, dialysis, and ventilatory support. Furthermore, the mean APACHE-II score during treatment with TCV-309 was significantly lower and the number of patients recovered from shock after day 14 was significantly higher in the TCV-309 treated patient group (2/32 vs. 9/29, P = 0.01). The number of adverse events was not significantly different between the TCV-309 and placebo treated patients. TCV-309 did not change overall mortality of septic shock, however a substantial reduction in organ dysfunction and morbidity, frequently associated with septic shock was achieved, without significant

  4. Tier II Forms and Instructions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Facilities must comply with the new requirements on the Tier II emergency and hazardous chemical inventory form starting reporting year 2013, which is due by March 1, 2014. Some states may have specific requirements for reporting and submission.

  5. Antibacterial Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes of Thiadiazoles Schiff Bases

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Maimoon F.; Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2001-01-01

    Schiff bases were obtained by condensation of 2-amino-l,3,4-thiadiazole with 5-substituted-salicylaldehydes which were further used to obtain complexes of the type [M(L)2]Cl2, where M=Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) or Zn(II). The new compounds described here have been characterized by physical, spectral and analytical data, and have been screened for antibacterial activity against several bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial potency of these Schiff bases increased upon chelation/complexation, against the tested bacterial species, opening new aproaches in the fight against antibiotic resistant strains. PMID:18475981

  6. The Monomeric Pentacyanocobaltate (II) Anion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosha, Donnati M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of experimental results are provided for the preparation of Thallium (I) Pentacyanocobaltate (II). The preparation of this pale green salt is carried out in an aqueous medium. (Author/JN)

  7. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.; Melrose, Donald B.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bogdan, Thomas J.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin

    2007-12-01

    Division II provides a forum for astronomers studying a wide range of problems related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system.

  8. Optical Waveguide Scattering Reduction. II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    FAD-AOAR 815 BATTELLEWCOLUMBUS LABS ON F/S 20/6 OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTER ING REDUC TION. II.(U) 7 DEC 80 0 W VAHEY, N F HARTMAN, R C SHERMAN F3361... OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTERING REDUCTION II M BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABORATORIES 505 KING AVENUE COLUMBUS, OHIO 43201 DTIC ELECTEf MAY 12 198111 December...reviewed and is approved for publication. DOUGLAS AWIWILLE, Project Engineer KENNETH R. HUTCHINSON, Chief Electro- Optics Techniques and Electro- Optics

  9. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046385 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, uses a computer while setting up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  10. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) complexes of new cyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaby, Carmen M.

    2005-11-01

    Novel hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine, H 4L, l,3-[ N'-amidino-sulfanilamide]-2,2,2,4,4,4-hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane was prepared and its coordination behaviour towards the transition metal ions Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) was studied. The structures of the isolated products are proposed based on elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, mass spectra, reflectance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hyperfine interactions in the isolated complex compounds were studied using 14.4 keV γ-ray from radioactive 57Co (Mössbauer spectroscopy). The data show that the ligand are coordinated to the metal ions via the sulfonamide O and deprotonated NH atoms in an octahedral manner. The H 4L ligand forms complexes of the general formulae [(MX z) 2(H 2L)H 2O) n] and [(FeSO 4) 2 (H 4L) (H 2O) 4], where X = NO 3 in case of UO 2(II) and Cl in case of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). The molar conductance data show that the complexes are non-electrolytes. The thermal behaviour of the complexes was studied and different thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern method. Most of the prepared complexes showed high bactericidal activity and some of the complexes show more activity compared with the ligand and standards.

  11. [Predictive value of combining of anatomy scoring system and physiological scoring system for the diagnosis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in patients with severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xiao, Ya; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Dongpo; Zhou, Jian; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of a combination of anatomy scoring system and physiological scoring system for the diagnosis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in patients with severe trauma. The clinical data of 539 patients with severe trauma hospitalized in ICUs of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Daping Hospital of the Third Military Medical University, and the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from January 2010 to December 2014, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into MODS group (n=361) and non-MODS group (n=178) according to the diagnostic criteria of MODS. The data of Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, ISS+ APACHE II score, and NISS+ APACHE II score of patients on the first day of ICU admission were calculated and compared between the two groups. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the various scoring systems in 539 patients with severe trauma were plotted, and DeLong-DeLong non parametric test was used to evaluate the predictive ability for MODS of the various scoring systems. The scores of ISS, NISS, APACHE II, ISS+ APACHE II, and NISS+ APACHE II of patients in MODS group were respectively (26±8), (36±12), (21±7), (47±10), and (56±14) points, and they were significantly higher than those of patients in non-MODS group [respectively (24±6), (28±7), (16±5), (39±8), and (44±9) points, with t values from 4.970 to 12.120, P values below 0.01]. The total areas under ROC curves (95% confidence interval) of ISS, NISS, APACHE II score, ISS+ APACHE II score, and NISS+ APACHE II score in MODS prediction of patients with severe trauma were respectively 0.611 (0.569-0.653), 0.693 (0.652-0.731), 0.719 (0.679-0.756), 0.727 (0.687-0.764), and 0.764 (0.726-0.799). The total areas under ROC curves of

  12. Randomized phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Phase II trials have been conducted as single-arm trials to compare the response probabilities between an experimental therapy and a historical control. Historical control data, however, often have a small sample size, are collected from a different patient population, or use a different response assessment method, so that a direct comparison between a historical control and an experimental therapy may be severely biased. Randomized Phase II trials entering patients prospectively to both experimental and control arms have been proposed to avoid any bias in such cases. The small sample sizes for typical Phase II clinical trials imply that the use of exact statistical methods for their design and analysis is appropriate. In this article, we propose two-stage randomized Phase II trials based on Fisher's exact test, which does not require specification of the response probability of the control arm for testing. Through numerical studies, we observe that the proposed method controls the type I error accurately and maintains a high power. If we specify the response probabilities of the two arms under the alternative hypothesis, we can identify good randomized Phase II trial designs by adopting the Simon's minimax and optimal design concepts that were developed for single-arm Phase II trials.

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of novel Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes with saccharin and nicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Bulut, İ.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Çakır, O.

    2001-01-01

    Four novel mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with saccharin and nicotinamide were synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopic study, UV-Vis spectrometric and magnetic susceptibility data. The structure of the Cu (II) complex is completely different from those of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes. From the frequencies of the saccharinato CO and SO2 modes, it has been proven that the saccharinato ligands in the structure of the Cu complex are coordinated to the metal ion ([Cu(NA)2(Sac)2(H2O)], where NA - nicotinamide, Sac - saccharinato ligand or ion), whilst in the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are uncoordinated and exist as ions ([M(NA)2(H2O)4](Sac)2).

  14. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Fe(II)Fe(II) ratio in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1989-07-26

    The procedure was designed for the simple, rapid determination of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in glass samples. The procedure consists of the following steps: dissolution of the pulverized glass sample in a sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid mixture, containing ammonium vanadate, which preserves the Fe(II) content; addition of boric acid to destroy iron-fluoride complexes, making the iron available for color formation with Ferrozine; addition of pH 5 buffer and Ferrozine reagent to form the magenta-colored ferrous-Ferrozine complex, with measurement of the absorbance for the determination of Fe(II) content; and, addition of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), with a second absorbance measurement that determines total Fe. Directions for the preparation of glass from non-radioactive sludge samples are provided. The analysis of this prepared glass for the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio is an indication of the ratio that would be in a plant batch of glass if made from this sludge.

  16. Adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) on modified jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S R; Pai, Roshan S

    2005-09-01

    The potential of a lignocellulosic fibre, jute, was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions like Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from their aqueous solutions. The fibre was also used as adsorbent after chemically modifying it by two different techniques viz, loading of a dye with specific structure, C.I. Reactive Orange 13, and oxidising with hydrogen peroxide. Both the modified jute fibres gave higher metal ion adsorption. Thus, the dye loaded jute fibres showed metal ion uptake values of 8.4, 5.26 and 5.95 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), respectively, while the corresponding values for oxidised jute fibres were 7.73, 5.57 and 8.02 mg/g, as against 4.23, 3.37 and 3.55 mg/g for unmodified jute fibres. Adsorption isotherm models indicated best fit for Langmuir model for the modified jute fibres. The adsorption values decreased with lowering of pH. The desorption efficiency, regenerative and reuse capacity of these adsorbents were also assessed for three successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorptive capacity was retained only when the caustic soda regeneration is carried out as an intermediate step after desorption. Possible mechanism has been given.

  17. The CDF SVX II upgrade for the Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoletto, Daniela

    1997-04-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of CDF to be installed in 1999 for Run II of the Tevatron. Three barrels of five layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors will cover the interaction region. A description of the project status will be presented. Emphasis will be given to the R&D program for silicon sensors which includes capacitance minimization, the study of coupling capacitor integrity, the operation of the detectors in conjunction with the SVXH and SVX2 readout chips in two beam tests and the determination of the detectors performance deterioration due to radiation damage.

  18. BEATRIX-II, phase II: Data summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    The BEATRIX-II experimental program was an International Energy Agency sponsored collaborative effort between Japan, Canada, and the United States to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast-neutron environment at high burnup levels. This report addresses the Phase II activities, which included two in situ tritium-recovery canisters: temperature-change and temperature-gradient. The temperature-change canister contained a Li{sub 2}O ring specimen that had a nearly uniform temperature profile and was capable of temperature changes between 530 and 640{degrees}C. The temperature-gradient canister contained a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} pebble bed operating under a thermal gradient of 440 to 1100{degrees}C. Postirradiation examination was carried out to characterize the Phase II in situ specimens and a series of nonvented capsules designed to address the compatibility of beryllium with lithium-ceramic solid-breeder materials. The results of the BEATRIX-II, Phase II, irradiation experiment provided an extensive data base on the in situ tritium-release characteristics of Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} for lithium burnups near 5%. The composition of the sweep gas was found to be a critical parameter in the recovery of tritium from both Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Tritium inventories measured confirmed that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} exhibited very low tritium retention during the Phase II irradiation. Tritium inventories in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} after Phase II tended to be larger than those found for Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in other in situ experiments, but the larger values may reflect the larger generation rates in BEATRIX-II. A series of 20 capsules was irradiated to determine the compatibility of lithium ceramics and beryllium under conditions similar to a fusion blanket. It is concluded that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} should remain leading candidates for use in a solid-breeder fusion-blanket application.

  19. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  20. Titan II secondary payload capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Aubrey J.; Nance, Milo; Odle, Roger C.

    Small satellite programs are often faced with the prospect of flying as a secondary payload because of size or funding considerations. This paper discusses a concept for flying such payloads on flights already scheduled on the Titan II SLV program over the next decade. The Titan II has the capability of inserting over 4200 lbs into LEO and larger payloads on ballistic trajectories from which higher orbits can be achieved when kick motors are used. Orbit changes are possible depending on the specific altitudes and payloads involved. Of the existing 13 remaining missions currently scheduled to fly on the Titan II SLV, excess performance is available on several missions that could be used to insert secondary payloads of up to 3000 lbs into their final orbit. This paper outlines an approach that would implement a secondary payload mission and allow small satellites to schedule a launch at a predetermined date through the year 2000.

  1. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  2. The Belle II Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the asymmetric e+e- SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the Belle experiment, which ran at the KEKB collider at the KEK laboratory in Japan. The design luminosity of SuperKEKB is 8 ×1035 cm-2 s-1, which is about 40 times higher than that of KEKB. The expected integrated luminosity of Belle II is 50 ab-1 in five years of running. The experiment will focus on searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model via high precision measurements of heavy flavor decays, and searches for rare signals. To reach these goals, the accelerator, detector, electronics, software, and computing systems are all being substantially upgraded. In this talk we discuss the physics program and the expected sensitivity to new physics of the Belle II data set.

  3. Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Caria, G.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; De Pietro, G.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kambara, N.; Kang, K. H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kumar, R.; Kun, W.; Kvasnička, P.; La Licata, C.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Libby, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Resmi, P. K.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.; Zani, L.

    2017-02-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric energy e+e‑ collider in KEK, Japan will operate at an instantaneous luminosity 40 times larger than that of its predecessor, Belle. It is built with an aim of collecting a huge amount of data (50 ab‑1 by 2025) for precise CP violation measurements and new physics search. Thus, we need an accurate vertex determination and reconstruction of low momentum tracks which will be achieved with the help of vertex detector (VXD). The Belle II VXD consists of two layers of DEPFET pixels (`Pixel Detector') and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors (`Silicon Vertex Detector'), assembled over carbon fibre ribs. In this paper, we discuss about the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, especially its design and key features; we also present its module (`ladder') assembly and testing procedures.

  4. Administrative Plans. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Personnel policies, job responsibilities, and accounting procedures are summarized for the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). This report first cites references to the established personnel and affirmative action procedures governing the program and then presents an organizational chart for the…

  5. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key…

  6. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-07-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sub {minus}18}{sup +21} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  7. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  8. Belle II Early Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, Zachary; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the KEK `` B factory'' facility in Tsukuba, Japan. First beams are planned for early 2017 and first physics data will be recorded in the middle of 2018 during Phase 2 commissioning, while the Belle II detector is still missing its vertex detector system. In this talk we describe the physics program for this early data. The program will focus on bottomonium spectroscopy at different center-of-mass energies, in particular at the ϒ(3 S) and ϒ(6 S) resonances, amongst other energy points.

  9. Distributed Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Vikas; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-03-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e- collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a RUN I high-pT LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of high speed networking and of the Computing Grids in North America, Asia and Europe. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 5 ab-1 equivalent luminosity will be described.

  10. The PEP-II design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II) is a design for a high-luminosity, asymmetric energy, electron-positron colliding beam accelerator that will operate at the center-of-mass energy of the {Upsilon}4S (10.58 GeV). The goal of the design is to achieve a large enough integrated luminosity with a moving center-of-mass reference frame to he able to observe the predicted rare decay modes of the {Upsilon}4S that do not conserve charge parity (CP).

  11. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.; Melrose, Donald B.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bogdan, Thomas J.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Martinez Pillet, Valentin

    2007-03-01

    Division II of the IAU provides a forum for astronomers studying a wide range of phenomena related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system. Division II encompasses three Commissions, 10, 12 and 49, and four working groups. During the last triennia the activities of the division involved some reorganization of the division and its working groups, developing new procedures for election of division and commission officers, promoting annual meetings from within the division and evaluating all the proposed meetings, evaluating the division's representatives for the IAU to international scientific organizations, and participating in general IAU business.

  12. A new chelating resin for preconcentration and determination of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, Mohan A; Subramanian, Mandakolathur S

    2003-01-01

    A new polychelatogen, AXAD-16-1,2-diphenylethanolamine, was developed by chemically modifying Amberlite XAD-16 with 1,2-diphenylethanolamine to produce an effective metal-chelating functionality for the preconcentration of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Various physiochemical parameters that influence the quantitative preconcentration and recovery of metal were optimized by both static and dynamic techniques. The resin showed superior extraction efficiency with high-metal loading capacity values of 0.73, 0.80, 0.77, 0.87, 0.74, and 0.81 mmol/g for Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The system also showed rapid metal-ion extraction and stripping, with complete saturation in the sorbent phase within 15 min for all the metal ions. The optimum condition for effective metal-ion extraction was found to be a neutral pH, which is a great advantage in the preconcentration of trace metal ions from natural water samples without any chemical pretreatment of the sample. The resin also demonstrated exclusive ion selectivity toward targeted metal ions by showing greater resistivity to various complexing species and more common metal ions during analyte concentration, which ultimately led to high preconcentration factors of 700 for Cu(II); 600 for Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II); and 500 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), arising from a larger sample breakthrough volume. The lower limits of metal-ion detection were 7 ng/mL for Mn(II) and Ni(II); 5 ng/mL for Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), and 10 ng/mL for Pb(II). The developed resin was successful in preconcentrating metal ions from synthetic and real water samples, multivitamin-multimineral tablets, and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) with relative standard deviations of < or = 3.0% for all analytical measurements, which demonstrated its practical utility.

  13. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table II-1...

  14. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table II-1...

  15. Competitive effect of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the biosorption of lead(II) by Myriophyllum spicatum.

    PubMed

    Yan, Changzhou; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Peiying; Wei, Qunshan; Li, Qingzhao

    2010-07-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to assess the effects of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the biosorption of Pb(II) ions by fresh tissues of Myriophyllum spicatum. The biosorption of Pb(II) was examined for single, binary and ternary solutions at different initial concentrations and different pH values. The experimental results showed that the biosorption capacity increased with increasing pH from 2.0 to 6.0. Both Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions were found to have an adverse effect on the biosorption of Pb(II). The biosorption equilibrium data for single-metal solution were fitted to three isotherm models: Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips, and the Sips isotherm model gave the best fit for the experimental data. The maximum biosorption of Pb(II) in Pb-Cu binary system decreased with increasing concentration of copper ions, and the biosorption equilibrium data for the binary metal solution fitted the Langmuir competitive model well. Comparison between biosorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) by M. spicatum in the binary solution could lead to the conclusion that the biosorbent (M. spicatum) has no preference of Pb(II) over Cu(II). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the interaction between M. spicatum and Pb(II) ions. The results revealed that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups are the main binding sites for Pb(II). 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and characterization of multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel for removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Ming-yu; Feng, Chang-gen; Zeng, Qing-xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel was prepared by surface grafting method and applied for the removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and elemental analysis, and it proved that the organic functional group, carboxyl group, was grafted successfully onto the silica gel surface. The effect of solution pH on removal efficiencies of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was investigated and it was found that with the exception of Zn (II), the removal efficiencies of the rest of metal ions increased with the increasing of pH in the solution, the maximum removal efficiency occurred at pH 6.0, whereas the maximum removal efficiency for Zn (II) was found to be at pH 7.0. Adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to Langmuir than Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was 47.07, 41.48, 30.80 and 39.96 mg/g, respectively. Competitive adsorption experiments demonstrated that the adsorbent material had excellent adsorption amount and high affinity for the Cu (II) in the binary systems. In addition, the column experiments were used to investigate stability and reusability of the adsorbent, the dynamic adsorption performance, and desorption of metal ions absorbed from the adsorbent. The results confirmed that the adsorbent presents good dynamic adsorption performance for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) and these metal ions adsorbed were easy to be desorbed from the adsorbent. The adsorption capacities of metal ions did not present an obvious decrease after five cycles of adsorption-desorption.

  17. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  18. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-04-25

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  19. Application Programming in AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Matt; McGrath, Kevin; Burks, Jason; Carcione, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception almost 8 years ago, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has integrated NASA data into the National Weather Service's decision support system (DSS) the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SPoRT has, in some instances, had to shape and transform data sets into various formats and manipulate configurations to visualize them in AWIPS. With the advent of the next generation of DSS, AWIPS II, developers will be able to develop their own plugins to handle any type of data. Raytheon is developing AWIPS II to be a more extensible package written mainly in Java, and built around a Service Oriented Architecture. A plugin architecture will allow users to install their own code modules, and (if all the rules have been properly followed) they will work hand-in-hand with AWIPS II as if it were originally built in. Users can bring in new datasets with existing plugins, tweak plugins to handle a nuance or desired new functionality, or create an entirely new visualization layout for a new dataset. SPoRT is developing plugins to ensure its existing NASA data will be ready for AWIPS II when it is delivered, and to prepare for the future of new instruments on upcoming satellites.

  20. 40 K Fastrac II Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A 40 K Fastrac II duration test performed at Marshall Test Stand 116. The purpose of this test was to gauge the length of time between contact of TEA (Triethylenealuminum) and LOX (liquid oxygen) as an ignitor for the Fastrac engine.

  1. Psychiatric Aide II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimericks, Belinda K.

    This instructor's guide is for a Psychiatric Aide II course intended to provide Psychiatric Aids Is who have demonstrated expertise in giving basic nursing care to the mentally ill with more advanced nursing interventions and techniques. (It is assumed that all nursing care the aides provide is under the direction of a Registered Nurse.)…

  2. RARE II: The Administration's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, M. Rupert

    1977-01-01

    RARE II is a new Roadless Area Review and Evaluation of the National Forest system. Administrators are attempting to inventory existing wilderness areas and to determine criteria for setting aside additional ones. This information will be used for the required 1980 update of the national assessment of forests and rangelands. (MA)

  3. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  4. The Bender-Gestalt II.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, Gary G; Decker, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the Bender-Gestalt II was published. In the present article, the revision process is described, and major changes to the test are discussed. These changes include additional designs, a memory (recall) phase, Motor and Perception supplementary tests, a detailed observation form, a global scoring system, and a large, nationally representative normative base. Directions for future research are also provided.

  5. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-07-12

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  7. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  8. Solar Ca II K Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev

    2016-07-01

    Some of the most important archives of past and current long-term solar synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K are described here. These observations are very important for understanding the state of the solar magnetism on time scales up to several decades. The first observations of this kind began in 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory (India), followed by similar programs at different other locations. Regular full-disk Ca II K monitoring programs started in 1915 at the Mount Wilson Observatory (USA) and in 1917 at the National Solar Observatory of Japan. Beginning in 1919 and in 1926 regular observations were taken also at the Paris-Meudon Observatory (France) and at the "Donati solar tower telescope of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Italy, respectively. In 1926 the the Astronomical Observatory of the Coimbra University in Portugal started its own program of Ca II K observations. Although some of these programs have been terminated over the years, their data archives constitute a unique resource for studies of solar variability. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca II K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility.

  9. Electromagnetic calorimeter for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle-ECL; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Garmash, Yu; Goh, Y. M.; Kim, S. H.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Lee, I. S.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Nakamura, I.; Shebalin, V.; Shwartz, B.; Unno, Y.; Usov, Yu; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobjev, V.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2015-02-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the BELLE II detector for experiments at Super B-factory SuperKEKB is briefly described. The project of the calorimeter upgrade to meet severe background conditions expected at the upgraded KEK B factory is presented.

  10. ACRIM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-08-23

    ACRIM II Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... Version:  V2 Level:  L2 Platform:  Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) ... NATIVE Tools:  Earthdata Search: Order Data HTML Order Tool:   Order Data Parameters:  ...

  11. The Impact of IMPACT II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale

    IMPACT II is a teacher-to-teacher networking program designed to improve teaching in New York City schools. Teachers who have been working on new ideas that need more refinement are eligible for $300 grants offered to program developers. Teachers who would like to adopt ideas previously developed by the program may receive $200 as replicator…

  12. Information Security Considerations for Applications Using Apache Accumulo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    HRapp logic manages user access to each Table. HRapp IDapp Accumulo User Tokens Peter SalesDiv Joanna EngDiv Anne SalesDiv Milton EngDiv Bill SalesDiv...User Table access Peter EmployeeInfo Joanna EmployeeInfo Anne EmployeeInfo,EmployeeSalary Milton EmployeeInfo,EmployeeSalary Bill EmployeeInfo...SalesDiv] 31 [SalesDiv] anne@corp.net [SalesDiv] 4 Bill [Execs] 48 [Execs] bill@corp.net [Execs] 5 Milton [EngDiv] 33 [EngDiv] milton @corp.net [EngDiv

  13. The Indians of New Mexico: Apache, Navaho, Pueblo, Ute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Robert G., Ed.

    Brief descriptions of American Indians inhabiting New Mexico give current and historical information on geographical location, population, language, cultural background, and income sources. Eighteen pueblo communities and four Federal Indian reservations are discussed. (JH)

  14. Apaches in Three Dimensions: Anthropology, History and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Leo E.

    As many disciplines as possible should be used in the teaching of Indian Studies. In particular, creative literature adds another dimension to the understanding of Indian culture and the history of Indian-white relations when it is used in conjunction with historical and anthropological material. The serious student should read historical novels…

  15. White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Kirkpatrick, Ann [D-AZ-1

    2009-02-13

    Senate - 03/26/2010 Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 340. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kyl, Jon [R-AZ

    2009-01-26

    Senate - 01/21/2010 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 260. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Apache Leap Tuff INTRAVAL experiments - results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Rhodes, S.C.; Guzman, A.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Data from laboratory and field experiments in unsaturated fractured rock are summarized and interpreted for the purpose of evaluating conceptual and numerical models of fluid, heat and solute transport. The experiments were conducted at four scales, in small cores (2.5-cm long by 6-cm across), a large core (12-cm long by 10-cm across), a small block containing a single fracture (20 x 21 x 93 cm), and at field scales in boreholes (30-m long by 10-cm across) at three scales (1/2-, 1- and 3-meters). The smallest scale in the laboratory provided isothermal hydraulic and thermal properties of unfractured rock. Nonisothermal heat, fluid and solute transport experiments were conducted using the large core. Isothermal gas and liquid flow experiments were conducted in the fractured block. Field-scale experiments using air were used to obtain in situ permeability estimates as a function of the measurement scale. Interpretation of experimental results provides guidance for resolving uncertainties related to radionuclide migration from high level waste repositories in unsaturated fractured rock.

  18. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  19. Uncomfortable Experience: Lessons Lost in the Apache War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Cochise, the Chihenne (Ojo Caliente/Hot Springs) led by Victorio, the Bedonkohe led by Mangas Coloradas, and the Nednhi led by Juh are generally...Chokonen shared common blood lines. Cochise married the daughter of Mangas Coloradas, making their sons Taza and Naiche half Chokonen and half...but technically Mangus (the son of Mangas Coloradas) continued raiding with his group for another month. 9 Thrapp, Dan. L. The Conquest of

  20. The Indians of New Mexico: Apache, Navaho, Pueblo, Ute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Robert G., Ed.

    Brief descriptions of American Indians inhabiting New Mexico give current and historical information on geographical location, population, language, cultural background, and income sources. Eighteen pueblo communities and four Federal Indian reservations are discussed. (JH)

  1. Failure Analysis of the Apache Mixer Pivot Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    chemistry, and microstructure of the electroslag remelted ( ESR ) 4340 steel used to fabricate the component conformed to required specifications and no...5 C orrosion Pitting .......................... ... ..... .......... ...... 6 Materials Characterization ESR 4340 Steel ...rcinelted ( ESR ) 4340 steel bar stock according to the requirements contained in HMS-6-1121. Atomic absorp- tion (AA) and inductively coupled argon plasma

  2. White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kyl, Jon [R-AZ

    2009-01-26

    01/21/2010 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 260. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Kirkpatrick, Ann [D-AZ-1

    2009-02-13

    03/26/2010 Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 340. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Kirkpatrick, Ann [D-AZ-1

    2009-02-13

    03/26/2010 Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 340. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kyl, Jon [R-AZ

    2009-01-26

    01/21/2010 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 260. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Sorafenib Tosylate and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Liver Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-15

    Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Child-Pugh Class A; Stage III Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IV Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of new Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes with naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halli, Madappa B.; Sumathi, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized with newly synthesized Schiff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and cinnamaldehyde. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to the stoichiometry of the type MLCl2 [M = Co(II) and Cu(II)], ML2Cl2 [M = Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)] respectively, where L is Schiff base ligand. Structures have been proposed from elemental analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral data, magnetic, and thermal studies. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. Spectroscopic studies suggest coordination occurs through azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand with the metal ions. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis method was studied for all the complexes.

  8. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  9. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  10. Binding Selectivity of Methanobactin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b for Copper(I), Silver(I), Zinc(II), Nickel(II), Cobalt(II), Manganese(II), Lead(II), and Iron(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Jacob W.; Vangala, Rajpal; Angel, Laurence A.

    2017-08-01

    Methanobactin (Mb) from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b is a member of a class of metal binding peptides identified in methanotrophic bacteria. Mb will selectively bind and reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I), and is thought to mediate the acquisition of the copper cofactor for the enzyme methane monooxygenase. These copper chelating properties of Mb make it potentially useful as a chelating agent for treatment of diseases where copper plays a role including Wilson's disease, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases. Utilizing traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIMS), the competition for the Mb copper binding site from Ag(I), Pb(II), Co(II), Fe(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) has been determined by a series of metal ion titrations, pH titrations, and metal ion displacement titrations. The TWIMS analyses allowed for the explicit identification and quantification of all the individual Mb species present during the titrations and measured their collision cross-sections and collision-induced dissociation patterns. The results showed Ag(I) and Ni(II) could irreversibly bind to Mb and not be effectively displaced by Cu(I), whereas Ag(I) could also partially displace Cu(I) from the Mb complex. At pH ≈ 6.5, the Mb binding selectivity follows the order Ag(I)≈Cu(I)>Ni(II)≈Zn(II)>Co(II)>>Mn(II)≈Pb(II)>Fe(II), and at pH 7.5 to 10.4 the order is Ag(I)>Cu(I)>Ni(II)>Co(II)>Zn(II)>Mn(II)≈Pb(II)>Fe(II). Breakdown curves of the disulfide reduced Cu(I) and Ag(I) complexes showed a correlation existed between their relative stability and their compact folded structure indicated by their CCS. Fluorescence spectroscopy, which allowed the determination of the binding constant, compared well with the TWIMS analyses, with the exception of the Ni(II) complex. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Research Summary No. 36-6, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  12. Research Summary No. 36-5, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  13. Cytotoxic copper(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), and nickel(II) coordination compounds of clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Gómez-Ruiz, Celedonio; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia R; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Barba-Behrens, Noráh

    2012-09-01

    Sixteen novel mononuclear Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) complexes of the biologically active ligand clotrimazole (clotri) of the forms [M(clotri)(2)Cl(2)]·nH(2)O (1-4), [M(clotri)(2)Br(2)]·nH(2)O (5-7), [M(clotri)(3)Br(2)] (8), [M(clotri)(3)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (9, 11), [M(clotri)(3)(NO(3))(2)]·nH(2)O (10), and [M(clotri)(3)(OH(2))(2)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (12) were synthesized and fully characterized. Dinuclear [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Cl(4)]·2H(2)O (1a) and [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Br(2)]·2H(2)O (5b) as well as tetranuclear [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) complexes were also isolated. Complexes 1-7, 9, and 11 present a tetrahedral geometry; complex 8 exhibits a pentacoordinated structure; complexes 1a, 10 and 12 an octahedral geometry. X-ray crystal structures of [Cu(clotri)(2)Cl(2)](1), [Cu(clotri)(2)(EtOH)Cl(2)](1·EtOH), [Zn(clotri)(2)Cl(2)] (3), [Zn(clotri)(2)Br(2)] (7), and [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) were obtained. Complexes 1-12 were tested for cytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines HeLa (cervix-uterine), PC3 (prostate), and HCT-15 (colon) displaying IC(50) values <30 μM. Confocal microscopy and nuclear dying (DAPI) for complex 1 showed condensation of cromatin and nuclear membrane fragmentation. Immunocytochemical detection/expression of biomarkers suggests that complexes 1 and 9 induce cell death via apoptosis. TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells, resulting from apoptotic signaling cascades induced by Cu(II) complexes 1 and 9. (1)H NMR studies of the Zn(II) complexes showed that they can bind to nucleotides.

  14. Cytosolic Ni(II) Sensor in Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Patterson, Carl J.; Pernil, Rafael; Hess, Corinna R.; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Efflux of surplus Ni(II) across the outer and inner membranes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is mediated by the Nrs system under the control of a sensor of periplasmic Ni(II), NrsS. Here, we show that the product of ORF sll0176, which encodes a CsoR/RcnR-like protein now designated InrS (for internal nickel-responsive sensor), represses nrsD (NrsD is deduced to efflux Ni(II) across the inner membrane) from a cryptic promoter between the final two ORFs in the nrs operon. Transcripts initiated from the newly identified nrsD promoter accumulate in response to nickel or cobalt but not copper, and recombinant InrS forms specific, Ni(II)-inhibited complexes with the nrsD promoter region. Metal-dependent difference spectra of Ni(II)- and Cu(I)-InrS are similar to Cu(I)-sensing CsoR and dissimilar to Ni(II)/Co(II)-sensing RcnR, consistent with factors beyond the primary coordination sphere switching metal selectivity. Competition with chelators mag-fura-2, nitrilotriacetic acid, EDTA, and EGTA estimate KD Ni(II) for the tightest site of InrS as 2.05 (±1.5) × 10−14 m, and weaker KD Ni(II) for the cells' metal sensors of other types: Zn(II) co-repressor Zur, Co(II) activator CoaR, and Zn(II) derepressor ZiaR. Ni(II) transfer to InrS occurs upon addition to Ni(II) forms of each other sensor. InrS binds Ni(II) sufficiently tightly to derepress Ni(II) export at concentrations below KD Ni(II) of the other sensors. PMID:22356910

  15. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV, a New Scoring System for Predicting Mortality and Complications of Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mok, Shaffer R S; Mohan, Sachin; Elfant, Adam B; Judge, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity/mortality; thus, the ability to predict hospital course is imperative. An updated version of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE), APACHE IV, has recently been validated. Unlike other versions, APACHE IV uses hepatobiliary parameters and accounts for multiple comorbid conditions and sedation. The intention of this study was to examine APACHE IV for predicting mortality and secondary outcomes for pancreatitis in a prospective cohort. In addition, we compared APACHE IV to APACHE II, Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis, and Ranson criterion. We prospectively collected physiologic parameters for each scoring system in 266 patients with severe acute pancreatitis from August 2011 to April 2014. Prognostic value of each score was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Among 266 patients, 59% were men, 52% were white, and 36.5% had alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Mortality occurred in 15 (5.6%), and an APACHE IV of 44 or greater predicted mortality in 100% of cases. The receiver operating characteristic curve for APACHE IV was 0.93 (confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.97); APACHE II, 0.87 (CI, 0.80-0.94); Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis, 0.86 (CI, 0.78-0.94); and Ranson criterion, 0.90 (CI, 0.94-0.96). The APACHE IV is a valid means for predicting mortality and disease-related complications in acute pancreatitis.

  16. . II.

    PubMed Central

    Orlans, Eva

    1962-01-01

    Specific precipitates formed in 0.9 per cent and 8 per cent NaCl and the precipitates formed by raising the salt concentration of `0.9 per cent' supernatants to 8 per cent were measured quantitatively. With antisera to haemoglobin and myoglobin the antigen in the precipitates was also measured. Except for some very high antibody/antigen ratios found in some cases in antibody excess, these ratios were the same as those found with rabbit antibody, and did not depend on salt concentration. Non-precipitating antibody, prepared by serial absorption of antiserum with small portions of antigen, did not precipitate with antigen even in 8 per cent NaCl; it co-precipitated with homologous rabbit antiserum and delayed its flocculation, but produced no permanent inhibition. Rabbit antiserum to washed specific precipitates made from fowl antisera was used to confirm the presence of two globulins, one a macroglobulin, in the precipitates, and to study their different properties when free in whole serum and when combined with antigen. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 8FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14 PMID:14482256

  17. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Enami, K.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  18. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  19. [Mucolipidoses type II. Case report].

    PubMed

    Aracena, Mariana; Mabe, Paulina; Mena, María; Andreani, Silvia; Daza, Claudio

    2003-03-01

    We report a female newborn with type II mucolipidoses. This condition is characterized clinically by Hurler like features, progressive psychomotor retardation and death during the first or second year of life. Most cases present during the first year of life, with poor weight gain and coarse facies features. The cause of this rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease is the deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, required for the synthesis of mannose-6-phosphate, the ligand that allows the transport of acid hydrolases into lysosomes. The patient had clinical features commonly found in mucolipidosis II, including disproportionate dwarfism, retarded psychomotor development, coarse facies features, gibbous and restricted joint mobility. The diagnosis was proved by an extremely elevated activity of lysosomal enzymes in the serum, secondary to non-regulated secretion and subsequent intracellular depletion of these proteins. The child suffered recurrent pneumonia and died at 22 months of age.

  20. Spectral, IR and magnetic studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO indicates that the complexes are non-electrolyte except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 complexes which are 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 which are of tetrahedral geometry. A tetragonal geometry may be suggested for Cu(II) complexes.

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Type II Endoleaks

    PubMed Central

    Kuziez, Mohamed S; Sanchez, Luis A; Zayed, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks occur commonly following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Although they remain enigmatic, multiples studies have evaluated preoperative risk factors and strategies for prevention of type II endoleaks. Prophylactic treatment of type II endoleaks can include embolization of accessory arteries, as well as complete aneurysmal sac occlusion. Regular post-operative surveillance and screening for type II endoleaks with triple-phase CTA is the standard of care. Aneurysm size and growth rate are factors that predict whether a persistence type II endoleak is hemodynamically significant, and whether it requires treatment with percutaneous trans-lumbar or trans-arterial embolization techniques. Less commonly, type II endoleaks can be repaired using laparoscopic or open surgical ligation of feeder arterial branches. Emerging methods using endovascular aneurysm sac sealing technology may continue to alter the incidence and long-term management strategies of type II endoleaks. Here we review the latest strategies in the treatment of Type II endoleaks following EVAR. PMID:27857945

  2. Preliminary Results from ARCADE II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Wollack, E.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Lubin, P.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.

    2006-12-01

    The ARCADE II instrument was designed to compare the cosmic microwave background spectrum to a blackbody spectrum at long (cm) wavelengths where the first stars are predicted to distort the ideal spectrum of the big bang. Reionization generates larger relative distortions at low frequencies. ARCADE II observed at 5 frequencies (3, 8, 10, 30 & 90 GHz). Each radiometer has a corrugated feed horn, a Dicke switch, internal calibrator, and amplifier mounted in an open liquid helium Dewar. The Dewar is 1.5 m in diameter and 1.8 m deep. The ARCADE II employs a double difference scheme to control systematic errors, similar to the design of the COBE FIRAS instrument. The input to each radiometer is switched at 75 Hz between its internal calibrator and its horn antenna. The horn can observe either the sky or an external calibrator which is temperature controled to match the temperature of the CMB. Detailed thermal charactorization of the external calibrator is enabled by 35 RuO thermometers embedded in the calibrator. The external calibrator has demonstrated 2.725 K operation even in the residual atmosphere at balloon altitudes. The ARCADE II was launched on a balloon from Palestine TX on 2006 July 28. Approximately 3 hours of data were obtained, at 115000 feet, that allow calibration of the instrument and precise measurements of the spectrum of the CMB down to 3 GHz. The 12 degree beams of the radiometers were swept across the sky to show the Galaxy as well as the CMB. Pictures taken in flight show that cryogenic surfaces open to the sky can remain relatively frost free for hours with proper helium gas flow.

  3. Particle Identification at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandilya, S.; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-11-01

    We report on the charged particle identification (PID) systems for the upcoming Belle II experiment. The time of propagation counter in the central region and the proximity focusing ring imaging Cherenkov counters with aerogel radiator in the forward region will be used as the PID devices. They are expected to provide a kaon identification efficiency of more than 94% at a low pion misidentification probability of 4%. The motivation for the upgrade, method and status of both systems are discussed.

  4. PEP-II Operations Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2000-11-01

    PEP-II is a two-ring asymmetric B factory operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. It was constructed by a SLAC-LBNL-LLNL collaboration. The collider comprises two rings, a High-Energy Ring (HER) storing 9 GeV electrons, and a Low-Energy Ring (LER) storing 3.1 GeV positrons. Commissioning of the HER began in mid-1997 and commissioning of the LER began in mid-1998. First evidence for collisions was obtained on July 23, 1998. The BaBar detector was installed in early 1999, and commissioning with the detector commenced in May 1999. By September 1999, PEP-II had reached a peak luminosity of 1.35 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. In the present run, which began in October 1999, the peak luminosity has reached 3.1 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} and the integrated luminosity delivered is 25 fb{sup {minus}1}. At present, PEP-II is the world's highest luminosity collider. In this paper we describe the startup experience and summarize the operational experience during fiscal year 2000 (from October 1999 through September 2000). Plan s for luminosity upgrades are briefly described.

  5. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  6. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  7. Testing the Gossamer Albatross II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Gossamer Albatross II is seen here during a test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The original Gossamer Albatross is best known for completing the first completely human powered flight across the English Channel on June 12, 1979. The Albatross II was the backup craft for the Channel flight. It was fitted with a small battery-powered electric motor and flight instruments for the NASA research program in low-speed flight. NASA completed its flight testing of the Gossamer Albatross II and began analysis of the results in April, 1980. During the six week program, 17 actual data gathering flights and 10 other flights were flown here as part of the joint NASA Langley/Dryden flight research program. The lightweight craft, carrying a miniaturized instrumentation system, was flown in three configurations; using human power, with a small electric motor, and towed with the propeller removed. Results from the program contributed to data on the unusual aerodynamic, performance, stability, and control characteristics of large, lightweight aircraft that fly at slow speeds for application to future high altitude aircraft. The Albatross' design and research data contributed to numerous later high altitude projects, including the Pathfinder.

  8. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  9. Spectroscopic studies on Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with a N4-macrocylic ligands.

    PubMed

    Swamy, S J; Pola, Someshwar

    2008-09-01

    Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with a new tetraaza macrocyclic ligand have been synthesized and characterized by microanalyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, mass, thermogravimetric (TGA), IR, 1H and 13C NMR, electronic and ESR spectral studies. All the complexes are found to have the formula [MLX2]x nH2O and are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry.

  10. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated augmentation of renal interstitial fluid angiotensin II in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akira; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension is associated with augmented intrarenal concentrations of Ang II; however, the distribution of the increased intrarenal Ang II has not been fully established. To determine the changes in renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations in Ang II-induced hypertension and the consequences of treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. Rats were selected to receive vehicle (5% acetic acid subcutaneously; n = 6), Ang II (80 ng/min subcutaneously, via osmotic minipump; n = 7) or Ang II plus an AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg per day, in drinking water; n = 6) for 13-14 days, at which time, experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the renal cortex and were perfused at 2 microl/min. The effluent dialysate concentrations of Ang I and Ang II were measured by radioimmunoassay and reported values were corrected for the equilibrium rates at this perfusion rate. Ang II-infused rats developed greater mean arterial pressures (155 +/- 7 mmHg) than vehicle-infused rats (108 +/- 3 mmHg). Ang II-infused rats showed greater plasma (181 +/- 30 fmol/ml) and kidney (330 +/- 38 fmol/g) Ang II concentrations than vehicle-infused rats (98 +/- 14 fmol/ml and 157 +/- 22 fmol/g, respectively). Renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations were much greater than plasma concentrations, averaging 5.74 +/- 0.26 pmol/ml in Ang II-infused rats - significantly greater than those in vehicle-infused rats (2.86 +/- 0.23 pmol/ml). Candesartan treatment prevented the hypertension (87 +/- 3 mmHg) and led to increased plasma Ang II concentrations (441 +/- 27 fmol/ml), but prevented increases in kidney (120 +/- 15 fmol/g) and renal interstitial fluid (2.15 +/- 0.12 pmol/ml) Ang II concentrations. These data indicate that Ang II-infused rats develop increased renal interstitial fluid concentrations of Ang II, which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance and

  11. Masfile--II Pilot Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Five Associated Univ. Libraries, Syracuse, NY.

    The report prepared for the Five Associated University Libraries (FAUL) by the Technical Information Dissemination Bureau (TIDB) at Suny-Buffalo is divided into nine sections: (1) a summary of procedures used to accomplish the specified MASFILE-II tasks; (2) a graphic comparison of the MARC-II and the MASFILE-II formats; (3) recommend…

  12. Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions by cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosans with epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Arh-Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosan microparticles were prepared from chitosan, using four metals (Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II)) as templates, and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linker. The microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. They were used for comparative biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the sorption capacities of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) on the templated microparticles increased from 25 to 74%, 13 to 46%, 41 to 57%, and 12 to 43%, respectively, as compared to the microparticles without metal ion templates. The dynamic study showed that the sorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Three sorption models, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich, were applied to the equilibrium isotherm data. The result showed that the Langmuir isotherm equation best fitted for monolayer sorption processes. Furthermore, the microparticles can be regenerated and reused for the metal removal.

  13. Neurofibromatosis type II: a rare neurocutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu; Khan, Ashfa Ameer; Malik, Muhammad Akbar; Nadeem, Malik Muhammad; Rahman, Mahfooz-Ur-; Khan, Malik Muhammad Nazir

    2007-06-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are heterogeneous group of disorders with abnormalities of central as well as peripheral nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type II (NF-II) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome rarely diagnosed in pediatric population. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and radioimaging. We present a 14 years old boy with headache and decreased hearing, who turned to be a case of neurofibromatosis type II.

  14. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    PubMed

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions.

  15. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  16. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2011-04-18

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  17. Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II by casein kinase II: modulation of eukaryotic topoisomerase II activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, P; Glover, C V; Osheroff, N

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of Drosophila melanogaster DNA topoisomerase II by purified casein kinase II was characterized in vitro. Under the conditions used, the kinase incorporated a maximum of 2-3 molecules of phosphate per homodimer of topoisomerase II. No autophosphorylation of the topoisomerase was observed. The only amino acid residue modified by casein kinase II was serine. Apparent Km and Vmax values for the phosphorylation reaction were 0.4 microM topoisomerase II and 3.3 mumol of phosphate incorporated per min per mg of kinase, respectively. Phosphorylation stimulated the DNA relaxation activity of topoisomerase II by 3-fold over that of the dephosphorylated enzyme, and the effects of modification could be reversed by treatment with alkaline phosphatase. Therefore, this study demonstrates that post-translational enzymatic modifications can be used to modulate the interaction between topoisomerase II and DNA. Images PMID:2987912

  18. Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) removal through untreated rice husk; thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Guiso, Maria Giovanna; Alberti, Giancarla; Emma, Giovanni; Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2012-01-01

    The sorption properties of rice husk towards Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) were studied. The sorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir equation, and Pb(II) shows a higher affinity for rice husk compared to Cu(II) and Cd(II) under the same conditions. The kinetics of sorption obeys to a pseudo second-order equation for all metals. The sorption profiles as a function of the pH were used to characterize the stoichiometry of the sorption reaction. The competition for metal complexation by any ligand in solution is also accounted for. Upon increasing the ionic strength, the sorption curves of Pb(II) move to basic pH; this shift can be explained by considering the effect of nitrate complexes on the free metal ion concentration, since KNO(3) is used as the ionic medium. An attempt to employ rice husk in a dynamic system is presented.

  19. Spectroscopic and mycological studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4-aminoantipyrine derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2011-10-01

    Complexes of the type [M(L)X 2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), have been synthesized with novel NO-donor Schiff's base ligand, 1,4-diformylpiperazine bis(4-imino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one) which is obtained by the acid catalyzed condensation of 1,4-diformylpiperazine with 4-aminoantipyrine. The elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV, NMR, mass and EPR studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as tetradentate chelate. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and tetragonal geometry for Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the several opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu(II) complexes were found to have most fungicidal behavior.

  20. The Practice SSAT-II. [and] Test Administration Manual for the Practice SSAT-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Student Assessment Section.

    The Florida Statewide Assessment Program provides "The Practice SSAT-II," for students who will be taking the State Student Assessment Test, Part II (SSAT-II). This practice test may be administered to tenth grade students taking the test for the first time and to eleventh and twelfth graders if they have previously failed the SSAT-II.…

  1. The Practice SSAT-II. [and] Test Administration Manual for the Practice SSAT-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Student Assessment Section.

    The Florida Statewide Assessment Program provides "The Practice SSAT-II," for students who will be taking the State Student Assessment Test, Part II (SSAT-II). This practice test may be administered to tenth grade students taking the test for the first time and to eleventh and twelfth graders if they have previously failed the SSAT-II.…

  2. Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of multihistidine peptide fragments of human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Jószai, Viktória; Turi, Ildikó; Kállay, Csilla; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Sóvágó, Imre

    2012-07-01

    Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of four peptide fragments of human prion protein have been studied by potentiometric, UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. One peptide contained three histidyl residues: HuPrP(84-114) with H85 inside and H96, H111 outside the octarepeat domain. The other three peptides contained two histidyl residues; H96 and H111 for HuPrP(91-115) and HuPrP(84-114)H85A while HuPrP(84-114)H96A contained the histidyl residues at positions 85 and 111. It was found that both histidines of the latter peptides can simultaneously bind copper(II) and nickel(II) ions and dinuclear mixed metal complexes can exist in slightly alkaline solution. One molecule of the peptide with three histidyl residues can bind two copper(II) and one nickel(II) ions. H85 and H111 were identified as the major copper(II) and H96 as the preferred nickel(II) binding sites in mixed metal species. The studies on the zinc(II)-PrP peptide binary systems revealed that zinc(II) ions can coordinate to the 31-mer PrP peptide fragments in the form of macrochelates with two or three coordinated imidazol-nitrogens but the low stability of these complexes cannot prevent the hydrolysis of the metal ion in slightly alkaline solution. These data provide further support for the outstanding affinity of copper(II) ions towards the peptide fragments of prion protein but the binding of nickel(II) can significantly modify the distribution of copper(II) among the available metal binding sites.

  3. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone ending by pyrazole and pyridyl rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with chelating ligand (Z)-(2-((1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl)(pyridin-2-ylamino)methanethiol. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra of complexes showed that the ligand behaves as NN neutral bidentate, NSN mononegative tridentate and NSNN mononegative tetradentate. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements suggested the octahedral geometry for all complexes as well as the EPR confirmed the tetragonal distorted octahedral for Cu(II) complex. Cd(II) complex showed the highest inhibitory antioxidant activity either using ABTS method. The SOD-like activity exhibited those Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes have strong antioxidative properties. We tested the synthesized compounds for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells definitely.

  4. Topoisomerase II from Human Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Kumar, Shiva; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, type II topoisomerases have yielded clinically useful drugs for the treatment of bacterial infections and cancer, but the corresponding enzymes from malaria parasites remain understudied. This is due to the general challenges of producing malaria proteins in functional forms in heterologous expression systems. Here, we express full-length Plasmodium falciparum topoisomerase II (PfTopoII) in a wheat germ cell-free transcription-translation system. Functional activity of soluble PfTopoII from the translation lysates was confirmed through both a plasmid relaxation and a DNA decatenation activity that was dependent on magnesium and ATP. To facilitate future drug discovery, a convenient and sensitive fluorescence assay was established to follow DNA decatenation, and a stable, truncated PfTopoII was engineered for high level enzyme production. PfTopoII was purified using a DNA affinity column. Existing TopoII inhibitors previously developed for other non-malaria indications inhibited PfTopoII, as well as malaria parasites in culture at submicromolar concentrations. Even before optimization, inhibitors of bacterial gyrase, GSK299423, ciprofloxacin, and etoposide exhibited 15-, 57-, and 3-fold selectivity for the malarial enzyme over human TopoII. Finally, it was possible to use the purified PfTopoII to dissect the different modes by which these varying classes of TopoII inhibitors could trap partially processed DNA. The present biochemical advancements will allow high throughput chemical screening of compound libraries and lead optimization to develop new lines of antimalarials. PMID:26055707

  5. Sorafenib with or without everolimus in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): a randomized multicenter, multinational phase II trial (SAKK 77/08 and SASL 29).

    PubMed

    Koeberle, D; Dufour, J-F; Demeter, G; Li, Q; Ribi, K; Samaras, P; Saletti, P; Roth, A D; Horber, D; Buehlmann, M; Wagner, A D; Montemurro, M; Lakatos, G; Feilchenfeldt, J; Peck-Radosavljevic, M; Rauch, D; Tschanz, B; Bodoky, G

    2016-05-01

    Sorafenib (S), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the standard of care for first-line systemic treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Everolimus (E) is a potent inhibitor of mTOR, a pathway frequently activated in HCC. Preclinical data suggest that the combination S + E has additive effects compared with single-agent S. Patients with unresectable or metastatic HCC and Child-Pugh ≤7 liver dysfunction were randomized to receive daily S 800 mg alone or with E 5 mg until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was progression-free survival at 12 weeks (PFS12). The secondary end points included response rate, PFS, time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), duration of disease stabilization (DDS), safety, and quality-of-life (QoL) assessments. A total of 106 patients were randomized: 46 patients received S and 60 patients received S + E. Ninety-three patients were assessable for the primary end point and 105 patients for the safety analysis. The PFS12 rate was 70% [95% confidence interval (CI) 54-83] and 68% (95% CI 53-81) in patients randomized to S and S + E, respectively. The RECIST (mRECIST) response rate was 0% (23%) in the S arm and 10% (35%) in the S + E arm. Median PFS (6.6 versus 5.7 months), TTP (7.6 versus 6.3 months), DDS (6.7 versus 6.7 months), and OS (10 versus 12 months) were similar in the S and S + E arms, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 72% and 86% of patients in arm S and arm S + E, respectively. Patients had similar QoL scores over time, except for a greater worsening in physical well-being and mood in the arm S + E. No evidence was found that S + E improves the efficacy compared with S alone. Combining 5 mg E with full-dose S is feasible, but more toxic than S alone. Further testing of this drug combination in molecularly unselected HCCs appears unwarranted. NCT01005199. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  6. PEP-II Hardware Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. W.

    2005-04-28

    Hardware reliability takes on special importance in large accelerator facilities intended to work as factories; i.e., when they are expected to deliver design performance for extended periods of time. The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC is such a facility. In this paper, we summarize PEP-II reliability statistics from the first four years of production running. The four running periods extended from January 12 through October 31, 2000, from February 4, 2001 through June 30, 2002, from November 15, 2002 through June 30, 2003, and from September 9, 2003 through July 31, 2004. These four periods are designated Runs 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the discussion and tables presented in the paper. The first four runs encompassed 30,359 hours. During this time, PEP-II was delivering luminosity to the BaBar detector 57.9 percent of the time. In addition, 5.3 percent of the time was used for scheduled dedicated machine development work, and 4.5 percent was scheduled off for maintenance, installations, or safety checks. Injection and tuning accounted for 19.9 percent. The remaining 12.4 percent was lost due to malfunctions. During this time period, a total of 9701 malfunctions were reported, but most did not interrupt the running program. The unscheduled down time, a total of 3883 hours, was attributed to 1724 of these malfunctions. Mean Time to Fail (MTTF) and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) are presented for each of the major subsystems, and long-term availability trends are discussed.

  7. Zeeman effect of As II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Andrew, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Spectrograms of As electrodeless-discharge tubes operated in a field of 24,025 G have given Zeeman patterns for 232 As II spectral lines from 2361 to 10,556 A and yielded 80 Lande g factors, of which more than half are new. There is agreement between these and the g values calculated by least-squares fitting for single configurations or for multiconfigurations, where configuration interaction is noticeable. All of the measured g values as well as the energy levels are used in the fitting process.

  8. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  9. PEP-II status report

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfan, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    The main design features of the PEP-II asymmetric two-ring electron-positron B Factory collider, built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, are described. This facility will complete construction in June 1998. The high energy ring, completed in May 1997, has had 3 months of commissioning and successfully stored 0.75 A of electrons. The success of the high energy ring testing validates not only its ring components, but also the injection system, the RF system and the control system all of which are common to the two rings.

  10. Dinuclear Zn(II) and mixed Cu(II)-Zn(II) complexes of artificial patellamides as phosphatase models.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Eisenschmidt, Annika; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mehrkens, Nina; Westphal, Michael

    2016-12-21

    The patellamides (cyclic pseudo-octapeptides) are produced by Prochloron, a symbiont of the ascidians, marine invertebrate filter feeders. These pseudo-octapeptides are present in the cytoplasm and a possible natural function of putative metal complexes of these compounds is hydrolase activity, however the true biological role is still unknown. The dinuclear Cu(II) complexes of synthetic patellamide derivatives have been shown in in vitro experiments to be efficient hydrolase model catalysts. Many hydrolase enzymes, specifically phosphatases and carboanhydrases, are Zn(II)-based enzymes and therefore, we have studied the Zn(II) and mixed Zn(II)/Cu(II) solution chemistry of a series of synthetic patellamide derivatives, including solution structural and computational work, with the special focus on model phosphatase chemistry with bis-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)phosphate (BDNPP) as the substrate. The Zn(II) complexes of a series of ligands are shown to form complexes of similar structure and stability compared to the well-studied Cu(II) analogues and the phosphatase reactivities are also similar. Since the complex stabilities and phosphatase activities are generally a little lower compared to those of Cu(II) and since the concentration of Zn(II) in Prochloron cells is slightly smaller, we conclude that the Cu(II) complexes of the patellamides are more likely to be of biological importance.

  11. 2-line ferrihydrite: synthesis, characterization and its adsorption behaviour for removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Rout, K; Mohapatra, M; Anand, S

    2012-03-21

    Nano-structured 2-line ferrihydrite was synthesized by a pH-controlled precipitation technique at 90 °C. Chemical, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman analyses confirmed the sample to be 2-line ferrihydrite. The nano nature of the prepared sample was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface area obtained by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method was 175.8 m(2) g(-1). The nanopowder so obtained was used to study its behaviour for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The relative importance of experimental parameters such as solution pH, contact time and concentration of adsorbate on the uptake of various cations was evaluated. By increasing the pH from 2.0 to 5.5, adsorption of the four cations increased. The kinetics parameters were compared by fitting the contact time data to both linear as well as non-linear forms of pseudo-second-order models. Linear forms of both Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted the equilibrium data of all the cations except for Pb(II) which was also fitted to the non-linear forms of both the models as it gave a low R(2) value of 0.85 for the Langmuir model. High Langmuir monolayer capacities of 366, 250, 62.5 and 500 mg g(-1) were obtained for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Presence of chloride or sulfate had an adverse effect on cation adsorption. The interactive effects on adsorption from solutions containing two, three or four cations were studied. Surprisingly no Cd(II) adsorption was observed in Pb(II)-Cd(II), Pb(II)-Cd(II)-Zn(II) and Pb(II)-Cd(II)-Cu(II)-Zn(II) systems under the studied concentration range. The overall loading capacity of the adsorbent decreased in mixed cation systems. Metal ion loaded adsorbents were characterized by XRD, FTIR and Raman techniques. The high adsorption capability of the 2-lines ferrihydrite makes it a potentially attractive adsorbent for the removal of cations from aqueous solutions.

  12. Characterization of functional urotensin II receptors in human skeletal muscle myoblasts: comparison with angiotensin II receptors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian-shen; Minor, Lisa K; Smith, Charles; Hu, Bing; Yang, Jing; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Damiano, Bruce

    2005-04-01

    The properties of urotensin II (U-II) receptor (UT receptor) and angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor (AT receptor) in primary human skeletal myoblasts (HSMM) and differentiated skeletal myotubes (HSMMT) were characterized. Radiolabeled U-II and ANG II bound specifically to HSMM with Kd's of 0.31 nM (2311 receptors/cell) and 0.61 nM (18,257 receptors/cell), respectively. The cyclic segment of U-II peptide, CFWKYC, was the minimal sequence required for binding, with the WKY residues essential. Inhibitor studies suggested AT1 is the predominant ANG II receptor. After radioligand binding, under conditions designed to minimize receptor internalization, half the bound U-II was resistant to acid washing suggesting that U-II binds tightly to its receptor in a quasi-irreversible fashion. The AT1 receptor-bound radioligand was completely removed under the same conditions. RT-PCR detected the expression of mRNAs for UT and AT1 receptors. Western blotting showed that U-II and ANG II signaled via ERK1/2 kinase. UT receptor was not lost upon differentiation into myotubes since both mRNA for UT receptor and U-II binding were still present. ANG II receptors were also present as shown by ANG II-induced calcium mobilization.

  13. MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) adducts with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelase, S. R.; Bariyanga, J.

    2002-05-01

    We have prepared and isolated complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000 in a pH 7 buffer at 40 °C in order to study the interaction of this polymer carrier with the ions likely to be found in the human body. Their characterization was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. The mass spectra allowed us to determine not only the molecular weights but also the nature of the complexes and the findings were in agreement with the elementary analysis data. The calcium ion was found not directly linked to polyethylene glycol but through water molecules. The overall results indicated strong bonding for Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes and weak interactions for Mg(II), Ca(II) and Pt(II).

  14. Construction of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Bare Metal Stent/Stent-graft Combination versus Single Stent-graft, a Prospective Randomized Controlled Study with Long-term Patency and Clinical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang-Ming; Li, Xuan; Fu, Jun; Luan, Jing-Yuan; Li, Tian-Run; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Guo-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Balanced adjustment of the portal vein shunt volume during a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is critical for maintaining liver perfusion and decreasing the incidence of liver insufficiency. A stent-graft is proved to be superior to a bare metal stent (BMS) for the construction of a TIPS. However, the clinical results of the combination application of stents and stent-grafts have not been determined. This study aimed to compare the technique of using a combination of stents and stent-grafts with using a single stent-graft to construct a TIPS. Methods: From April 2011 to November 2014, a total of fifty patients were randomly assigned to a stents-combination group (Group I, n = 28) or a stent-graft group (Group II, n = 22). Primary patency rates were calculated. Clinical data, including the technical success rate, bleeding control results, incidence of encephalopathy, liver function preservation, and survival rate, were assessed. Results: Technically, the success rate was 100% for both groups. The primary patency rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for Group I were 96%, 84%, and 77%, respectively; for Group II, they were 90%, 90%, and 78%, respectively. The survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for Group I were 79%, 74%, and 68%, respectively; for Group II, they were 82%, 82%, and 74%, respectively. The incidence of hepatic encephalopathy was 14.3% for Group I and 13.6% for Group II. The Child-Pugh score in Group I was stable at the end of the follow-up but had significantly increased in Group II (t = −2.474, P = 0.022). Conclusions: The construction of a TIPS with either the single stent-graft or BMS/stent-graft combination is effective for controlling variceal bleeding. The BMS/stent-graft combination technique is superior to the stent-graft technique in terms of hepatic function preservation indicated by the Child-Pugh score. However, considering the clinical results of the TIPS, the two techniques are comparable in their primary shunt

  15. Ii Chain Controls the Transport of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules to and from Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Valérie; Raposo, Graça; Amigorena, Sebastian; Mellman, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules are synthesized as a nonameric complex consisting of three αβ dimers associated with a trimer of invariant (Ii) chains. After exiting the TGN, a targeting signal in the Ii chain cytoplasmic domain directs the complex to endosomes where Ii chain is proteolytically processed and removed, allowing class II molecules to bind antigenic peptides before reaching the cell surface. Ii chain dissociation and peptide binding are thought to occur in one or more postendosomal sites related either to endosomes (designated CIIV) or to lysosomes (designated MIIC). We now find that in addition to initially targeting αβ dimers to endosomes, Ii chain regulates the subsequent transport of class II molecules. Under normal conditions, murine A20 B cells transport all of their newly synthesized class II I-Ab αβ dimers to the plasma membrane with little if any reaching lysosomal compartments. Inhibition of Ii processing by the cysteine/serine protease inhibitor leupeptin, however, blocked transport to the cell surface and caused a dramatic but selective accumulation of I-Ab class II molecules in lysosomes. In leupeptin, I-Ab dimers formed stable complexes with a 10-kD NH2-terminal Ii chain fragment (Ii-p10), normally a transient intermediate in Ii chain processing. Upon removal of leupeptin, Ii-p10 was degraded and released, I-Ab dimers bound antigenic peptides, and the peptide-loaded dimers were transported slowly from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that alterations in the rate or efficiency of Ii chain processing can alter the postendosomal sorting of class II molecules, resulting in the increased accumulation of αβ dimers in lysosome-like MIIC. Thus, simple differences in Ii chain processing may account for the highly variable amounts of class II found in lysosomal compartments of different cell types or at different developmental stages. PMID:9105036

  16. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    SciTech Connect

    Fedurin, M.; Jing, Y.; Stratakis, D.; Swinson, C.

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  17. [S-II symptom questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, J W

    2000-01-01

    "S-II" Symptom Check-list which allows for a fast diagnosis of neurotic disorders. A result of 165 points suggests the incidence of such disorders with the probability of 90%. The methodology of the construction of the check-list intends for the application of questions most common in those ill due to neurotic disorders (owing to the change in frequency) and the most possibly equal amount of questions on the symptoms common to women and men. Thanks to this the norm for women and men is identical. SCL S-II Symptom Check-list is a shortened and actualised version of the "O" Symptom Check-list, developed in 1975. It is similar to the SCL-90 and highly correlated with it, but it does not contain the variables concerning the psychotic symptoms. Thanks to this, its' accuracy (specificity) in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders is high. 4 pairs of questions allow for the judgement of answer reliability. 10 scales were singled out in the questionnaire. They are only of a helpful value and do not allow for a one-sided diagnosis of the type of the disorder, listed in the ICD-10. The scale results can, however make the correct diagnosis easier.

  18. The Spectrum of Fe II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian; Johansson, Sveneric

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 Å to 5.5 μm. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10-4 cm-1 for strong lines around 4 μm to 0.05 cm-1 for weaker lines around 1500 Å. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 Å. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 ± 0.4) cm-1 was estimated from the 3d6(5D)5g and 3d6(5D)6h levels.

  19. The SRC-II process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B. K.; Jackson, D. M.

    1981-03-01

    The Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) process which produces low-sulfur distillate fuel oil from coal is discussed. The process dissolves coal in a process-derived solvent at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen, separates the undissolved mineral residue, then recovers the original solvent by vacuum distillation. The distillate fuel oil produced is for use largely as a nonpolluting fuel for generating electrical power and steam and is expected to be competitive with petroleum fuels during the 1980s. During this period, the SRC-II fuel oil is expected to be attractive compared with combustion of coal with flue gas desulfurization in U.S. East Coast oil-burning power plants, as well as in small and medium-sized industrial boilers. The substantial quantities of methane, light hydrocarbons and naphtha produced by the process have value as feedstocks for preparation of pipeline gas, ethylene and high-octane unleaded gasoline, and can replace petroleum fractions in many applications. The liquid and gas products from a future large-scale plant, such as the 6000 t/day plant planned for Morgantown, West Virginia, are expected to have an overall selling price of $4.25 to $4.75/GJ.

  20. TOPAZ II Temperature Coefficient Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, David; Haskin, F. Eric; Marshall, Albert C.

    1994-07-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Topaz II reactor core suitable for neutronic analyses of temperature coefficients of reactivity is presented. The model is based on a 30° r-theta segment of the core. Results of TWODANT calculations are used to estimate temperature coefficients associated with fuel, electrodes, moderator, reflector, and tube plates over the range of temperatures anticipated during startup and operation. Results are presented to assess the reactivity effects associated with Doppler broadening, spectral effects and thermal expansion. Comparisons are made between the TWODANT results and empirical Russian curves used for simulating Topaz II system transients. TWODANT results indicate that the prompt temperature coefficients associated with temperature changes in fuel and emitters are negative. This is primarily because of Doppler broadening of the absorption resonances of uranium and molybdenum. The delayed effect of tube plate heating is also negative because fuel is moved radially outward in the core where it is less important. Temperature coefficients associated with delayed heating of the zirconium hydride moderator and the Beryllium reflector are positive, as the change in the neutron spectrum with moderator or reflector temperature decreases the rate of absorption in these components. The TWODANT results agree with the results obtained from the empirical Russian correlations.