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Sample records for apella monkey scanning

  1. Visual list memory in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Wright, A A

    1999-03-01

    Memory of 3 capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella, was tested with lists of 4 travel-slide pictures and different retention intervals. They touched different areas of a video monitor to indicate whether a test picture was in a list. At short retention intervals (0 s, 1 s, 2 s), memory was good for the last list items (recency effect). At a 10-s retention interval, memory improved for 1st list items (primacy effect). At long retention intervals (20 s and 30 s), primacy effects were strong and recency effects had dissipated. The pattern of retention-interval changes was similar to rhesus monkeys, humans, and pigeons. The time course of recency dissipation was similar to rhesus monkeys. The capuchin's superior tool-use ability was discussed in relation to whether it reflects a superior general cognitive ability, such as memory. In terms of visual memory, capuchin monkeys were not shown to be superior to rhesus monkeys.

  2. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress.

  3. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences

  4. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  5. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-09-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had improved and that group housing combined with environmental enrichment can improve the welfare of old laboratory tufted capuchin monkeys that were previously housed individually.

  6. Cone photopigment variations in Cebus apella monkeys evidenced by electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Juliana G.M.; Fiorani, Mario; Araujo, Eduardo A.; Zana, Yossi; Bonci, Daniela M.O.; Neitz, Maureen; Ventura, Dora F.; Gattass, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the color vision pattern in male and female Cebus apella monkeys by means of electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis. Our objective was to establish a simple, fast and efficient protocol in order to determine the chromatic vision pattern in Cebus monkeys. We found five among ten possible different phenotypes, two trichromats and three dichromats. We also found that Cebus present a new allele with spectral peak near 552 nm, with the amino acid combination SFT at positions 180, 277 and 285 of the opsin gene, in addition to the previously described SYT, AFT and AFA alleles. PMID:19883678

  7. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

  8. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  9. Cone photopigment variations in Cebus apella monkeys evidenced by electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana G M; Fiorani, Mario; Araujo, Eduardo A; Zana, Yossi; Bonci, Daniela M O; Neitz, Maureen; Ventura, Dora F; Gattass, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the color vision pattern in Cebus apella monkeys by means of electroretinogram measurements (ERG) and genetic analysis. Based on ERG we could discriminate among three types of dichromatic males. Among females, this classification is more complex and requires additional genetic analysis. We found five among 10 possible different phenotypes, two trichromats and three dichromats. We also found that Cebus present a new allele with spectral peak near 552nm, with the amino acid combination SFT at positions 180, 277 and 285 of the opsin gene, in addition to the previously described SYT, AFT and AFA alleles.

  10. Food variety-seeking in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa

    2008-01-28

    Variety-seeking is a central issue to consumer behaviour research and a phenomenon of crucial relevance, both for human and animal nutrition. Variety-seeking increases the probability of nutrient adequacy in omnivores, and in humans it may also contribute to obesity epidemic by diversifying food selection and leading to excessive food intake. Although variety-seeking has been extensively investigated in humans, little is known about most of the factors shaping variety-seeking in other species. Capuchin monkeys, an omnivorous species like humans, were tested to investigate long-term food monotony and variety-seeking. Similarly to humans, capuchins sought variety both when repeatedly presented with a food snack (Experiment 1) and when offered a varied versus a monotonous test meal (Experiment 2). These findings, by allowing a better appreciation of the biological basis of variety-seeking, provide an evolutionary framework to understand how this phenomenon may become maladaptive in developed countries.

  11. Cytoarchitecture and musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus in Cebus apella monkey

    PubMed Central

    Horta-Júnior, J A C; Tamega, O J; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J

    2004-01-01

    The architecture and musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus in the Cebus apella monkey (a New World primate) were investigated using histological techniques and a multiple labelling strategy, in which horseradish peroxidase-conjugated neuroanatomical tracers (CTB-HRP and WGA-HRP) and fluorescent tracers were injected into individual facial muscles. The facial motor nucleus was formed by multipolar motoneurons and had an ovoid shape, with its rostrocaudal axis measuring on average 1875 μm. We divided the nucleus into four different subnuclei: medial, intermediate, dorsal and lateral. Retrograde labelling patterns revealed that individual muscles were innervated by longitudinal functional columns of motoneurons. The columns of the orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus, orbicularis oris, auricularis superior, buccinator and platysma muscles were located in the dorsal, intermediate, lateral, medial, lateral and intermediate subnuclei, respectively. However, the motoneuron columns of the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle and frontalis muscle could not be associated with a specific subnucleus. The present results confirm previous studies regarding the musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus. However, we observed some particularities in terms of the relative size of each column in C. apella, which might be related to the functional and behavioral importance of each muscle in the particular context of this primate. PMID:15032907

  12. Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rebecca; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Dufour, Valérie; MacDonald, Charlotte; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    There are potential advantages of housing primates in mixed species exhibits for both the visiting public and the primates themselves. If the primates naturally associate in the wild, it may be more educational and enjoyable for the public to view. Increases in social complexity and stimulation may be enriching for the primates. However, mixed species exhibits might also create welfare problems such as stress from interspecific aggression. We present data on the behavior of single and mixed species groups of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) housed at the Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre in the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland's Edinburgh Zoo. These species associate in the wild, gaining foraging benefits and decreased predation. But Cebus are also predators themselves with potential risks for the smaller Saimiri. To study their living together we took scan samples at > or =15 min intervals on single (n=109) and mixed species groups (n=152), and all occurrences of intraspecific aggression and interspecific interactions were recorded. We found no evidence of chronic stress and Saimiri actively chose to associate with Cebus. On 79% of scans, the two species simultaneously occupied the same part of their enclosure. No vertical displacement was observed. Interspecific interactions were common (>2.5/hr), and equally divided among mildly aggressive, neutral, and affiliative interactions such as play. Only one aggressive interaction involved physical contact and was non-injurious. Aggressive interactions were mostly (65%) displacements and vocal exchanges, initiated almost equally by Cebus and Saimiri. Modifications to the enclosure were successful in reducing these mildly aggressive interactions with affiliative interactions increasing in frequency and diversity. Our data suggest that in carefully designed, large enclosures, naturally associating monkeys are able to live harmoniously and are enriched by each other

  13. Socially learned preferences for differentially rewarded tokens in the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2004-06-01

    Social learning is assumed to underlie traditions, yet evidence indicating social learning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), which exhibit traditions, is sparse. The authors tested capuchins for their ability to learn the value of novel tokens using a previously familiar token-exchange economy. Capuchins change their preferences in favor of a token worth a high-value food reward after watching a conspecific model exchange 2 differentially rewarded tokens, yet they fail to develop a similar preference after watching tokens paired with foods in the absence of a conspecific model. They also fail to learn that the value of familiar tokens has changed. Information about token value is available in all situations, but capuchins seem to pay more attention in a social situation involving novel tokens. PMID:15250800

  14. Learning and limits of use of eye gaze by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in an object-choice task.

    PubMed

    Vick, S J; Anderson, J R

    2000-06-01

    The ability of 3 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to use experimenter-given cues to solve an object-choice task was assessed. The monkeys learned to use explicit gestural and postural cues and then progressed to using eye-gaze-only cues to solve the task, that is, to choose the baited 1 of 2 objects and thus obtain a food reward. Increasing cue-stimulus distance and introducing movement of the eyes impeded the establishment of effective eye-gaze reading. One monkey showed positive but imperfect transfer of use of eye gaze when a novel experimenter presented the cue. When head and eye orientation cues were presented simultaneously and in conflict, the monkeys showed greater responsiveness to head orientation cues. The results show that capuchin monkeys can learn to use eye gaze as a discriminative cue, but there was no-evidence for any underlying awareness of eye gaze as a cue to direction of attention.

  15. Seasonal variation in the testicular volume of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in captivity.

    PubMed

    de B Vaz Guimarães, Marcelo A; Alvarenga de Oliveira, Cláudio; Campanarut Barnabe, Renato

    2003-01-01

    The study of the reproductive strategy developed by different species in order to adapt to their environmental conditions and their meaning in an evolutionary perspective is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in the process of reproduction. Non-human primates are very interesting models for this purpose. Some species show a typical seasonal reproductive pattern, such as rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) [Sade, 1964; Conaway and Sade, 1965] and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) [Zuckerman, 1953], while others, such as gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [Puschmann, 1975], show relative independence of the environment. Neotropical primates display many different breeding strategies. Female capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), for instance, having reached puberty, have fertile cycles year-round [Hamlett, 1939; Nagle and Denari, 1983]. Interestingly, there are reports of a clear peak of births in free-living [Hamlett, 1939] and captive colonies [Welker et al., 1983] in the dry season, i.e. May-June in the southern hemisphere. Some authors suggest that a seasonal variation in spermatogenesis could explain the birth peak [Freese and Oppenheimer, 1981]. The aim of this study was to investigate this theory, measuring seasonal variation in total testicular volume in a captive group of male capuchin monkeys and assessing its temporal correlation with the birth season as an indirect indication of variation in male fertility. PMID:12606852

  16. Social diffusion of novel foraging methods in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Dindo, Marietta; Thierry, Bernard; Whiten, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that wild capuchin monkeys exhibit several group-specific behavioural traditions. By contrast, experiments have found little evidence for the social learning assumed necessary to support such traditions. The present study used a diffusion chain paradigm to investigate whether a novel foraging task could be observationally learned by capuchins (Cebus apella) and then transmitted along a chain of individuals. We used a two-action paradigm to control for independent learning. Either of two methods (lift or slide) could be used to open the door of a foraging apparatus to retrieve food. Two chains were tested (N1=4; N2=5), each beginning with an experimenter-trained model who demonstrated to a partner its group-specific method for opening the foraging apparatus. After the demonstration, if the observer was able to open the apparatus 20 times by either method, then it became the demonstrator for a new subject, thus simulating the spread of a foraging tradition among ‘generations’ of group members. Each method was transmitted along these respective chains with high fidelity, echoing similar results presently available only for chimpanzees and children. These results provide the first clear evidence for faithful diffusion of alternative foraging methods in monkeys, consistent with claims for capuchin traditions in the wild. PMID:17971322

  17. Visual responses of ganglion cells of a New-World primate, the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barry B; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Yamada, Elizabeth S; Hunt, David M; Kremers, Jan; Martin, Paul R; Troy, John B; da Silva-Filho, Manoel

    2000-01-01

    The genetic basis of colour vision in New-World primates differs from that in humans and other Old-World primates. Most New-World primate species show a polymorphism; all males are dichromats and most females trichromats. In the retina of Old-World primates such as the macaque, the physiological correlates of trichromacy are well established. Comparison of the retinae in New- and Old-World species may help constrain hypotheses as to the evolution of colour vision and the pathways associated with it. Ganglion cell behaviour was recorded from trichromatic and dichromatic members of a New-World species (the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella) and compared with macaque data. Despite some differences in quantitative detail (such as a temporal response extended to higher frequencies), results from trichromatic animals strongly resembled those from the macaque. In particular, cells of the parvocellular (PC) pathway showed characteristic frequency-dependent changes in responsivity to luminance and chromatic modulation, cells of the magnocellular (MC) pathway showed frequency-doubled responses to chromatic modulation, and the surround of MC cells received a chromatic input revealed on changing the phase of heterochromatically modulated lights. Ganglion cells of dichromats were colour-blind versions of those of trichromats. This strong physiological homology is consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in New- and Old-World monkeys; in the New-World primate the presence of two pigments in the middle-to-long wavelength range permits full expression of the retinal mechanisms of trichromatic vision. PMID:11432364

  18. Visual responses of ganglion cells of a New-World primate, the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Lee, B B; Silveira, L C; Yamada, E S; Hunt, D M; Kremers, J; Martin, P R; Troy, J B; da Silva-Filho, M

    2000-11-01

    1. The genetic basis of colour vision in New-World primates differs from that in humans and other Old-World primates. Most New-World primate species show a polymorphism; all males are dichromats and most females trichromats. 2. In the retina of Old-World primates such as the macaque, the physiological correlates of trichromacy are well established. Comparison of the retinae in New- and Old-World species may help constrain hypotheses as to the evolution of colour vision and the pathways associated with it. 3. Ganglion cell behaviour was recorded from trichromatic and dichromatic members of a New-World species (the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella) and compared with macaque data. Despite some differences in quantitative detail (such as a temporal response extended to higher frequencies), results from trichromatic animals strongly resembled those from the macaque. 4. In particular, cells of the parvocellular (PC) pathway showed characteristic frequency-dependent changes in responsivity to luminance and chromatic modulation, cells of the magnocellular (MC) pathway showed frequency-doubled responses to chromatic modulation, and the surround of MC cells received a chromatic input revealed on changing the phase of heterochromatically modulated lights. 5. Ganglion cells of dichromats were colour-blind versions of those of trichromats. 6. This strong physiological homology is consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in New- and Old-World monkeys; in the New-World primate the presence of two pigments in the middle-to-long wavelength range permits full expression of the retinal mechanisms of trichromatic vision. PMID:11432364

  19. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  20. Descriptive anatomic study of the great vessels of the heart in the capuchin monkey Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Rosa, L; Silva, Z; Pereira, M; Santos, L; Mitri, F; Carvalho-Barros, R; Silva, D

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of the great vessels of the heart in capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and to compare with those of other primates, including humans. The hearts were prepared through fixation in 10% formalin and subsequently dissected using standard techniques and instruments. The arterial and venous systems were perfused with colored latex solution via the femoral vessels. An ascending cylindrical branch with relatively great caliber was identified in the aorta artery, in addition to an aortic arch, from which three great arteries were originated, the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. After a course of variable extension, the pulmonary trunk divided into right and left pulmonary arteries. The caudal vena cava was morphologically similar to that of humans, except for its association with the cardiac lobe of the right lung, whereas the cranial vena cava was formed by the two braquiocephalic veins and received the azygos vein close to right atrium. The pulmonary veins, in number of six, ended at the posterior face of the left atrium, differently from both humans and other primates. In conclusion, the morphology of the great vessels of the heart in Cebus apella was similar to that of humans and other primates, although some differences are evidenced with regards to topography and number of anatomic structures, particularly the relationship of the caudal vena cava with the cardiac lobe of the right lung and the presence of six pulmonary veins in Cebus apella.

  1. Do You See What I See? A Comparative Investigation of the Delboeuf Illusion in Humans (Homo sapiens), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of two central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as ‘small’ or ‘large.’ We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all three species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. PMID:26322505

  2. Exposure to rabies virus in a population of free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gustavo Puglia; Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula; Uieda, Wilson; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Cruvinel, Tatiana Morosini de Andrade; Kataoka, Ana Paula; Martorelli, Luzia Fátima Alves; de Jong, David; Amaral, Jeanne Margareth Gimenes; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Megid, Jane

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of rabies antibodies in free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected, rural area of southeastern Brazil. Thirty-six free-ranging monkeys were tested by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test for detection of antibodies against rabies virus. Four individuals (11.11 %) had neutralizing antibody titers ≥ 0.25 IU/mL, demonstrating rabies virus exposure. PMID:22430558

  3. A natural asymptomatic herpes B virus infection in a colony of laboratory brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, C; Hack, R; Seidl, J; Chudy, M; Itter, G; Plesker, R

    2004-10-01

    Herpes B virus (BV) infection of macaques persists in the natural host, but is mainly asymptomatic. However, BV can cause fatal disease in humans and in several non-macaque species such as capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). The BV infection described here in a colony of capuchin monkeys was persistent but asymptomatic. Initially the infection was detected serologically in five out of seven animals. However, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) developed specifically for BV, we found the virus in all seven clinically healthy animals. It is probable that the infection was transferred from BV-infected macaques housed in different cages but in the same room for several years. We have no evidence to indicate that similar asymptomatic infections may occur in other New World species but the possibility should not be discounted. We recommend that the housing of capuchin monkeys in close proximity to macaques should be avoided and that greater caution should be used when handling capuchin monkeys and possibly other New World species that have been in contact with macaques. All may act as a source of BV infection in humans, hence routine, repeated testing of all primates is essential.

  4. Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella).

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Young, Jesse W

    2011-11-01

    Physical anthropologists have devoted considerable attention to the structure and function of the primate prehensile tail. Nevertheless, previous morphological studies have concentrated solely on adults, despite behavioral evidence that among many primate taxa, including capuchin monkeys, infants and juveniles use their prehensile tails during a greater number and greater variety of positional behaviors than do adults. In this study, we track caudal vertebral growth in a mixed longitudinal sample of white-fronted and brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella). We hypothesized that young capuchins would have relatively robust caudal vertebrae, affording them greater tail strength for more frequent tail-suspension behaviors. Our results supported this hypothesis. Caudal vertebral bending strength (measured as polar section modulus at midshaft) scaled to body mass with negative allometry, while craniocaudal length scaled to body mass with positive allometry, indicating that infant and juvenile capuchin monkeys are characterized by particularly strong caudal vertebrae for their body size. These findings complement previous results showing that long bone strength similarly scales with negative ontogenetic allometry in capuchin monkeys and add to a growing body of literature documenting the synergy between postcranial growth and the changing locomotor demands of maturing animals. Although expanded morphometric data on tail growth and behavioral data on locomotor development are required, the results of this study suggest that the adult capuchin prehensile-tail phenotype may be attributable, at least in part, to selection on juvenile performance, a possibility that deserves further attention.

  5. Taking personality selection bias seriously in animal cognition research: a case study in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M

    2013-07-01

    In most experimental work on animal cognition, researchers attempt to control for multiple interacting variables by training subjects prior to testing, allowing subjects to participate voluntarily, and providing subjects with food rewards. However, do such methods encourage selection bias from subjects' personalities? In this study, we trained eighteen zoo-housed capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) for two experiments, under conditions of positive reinforcement (i.e. food rewards) and free-choice participation. Using a combination of behavioral and rater-based methods, we identified and validated five personality dimensions in these capuchins (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness). Scores on Openness were positively related to individual differences in monkey task participation, reflecting previous work showing that such individuals are often more active, curious, and willing to engage in testing. We also found a negative relationship between scores on Assertiveness and performance on tasks, which may reflect the trade-offs between speed and accuracy in these animals' decision-making. Highly Assertive individuals (the most sociable within monkey groups) may also prioritize social interactions over engaging in research. Lastly, monkeys that consistently participated and performed well on both tasks showed significantly higher Openness and lower Assertiveness compared to others, mirroring relationships found between personality, participation, and performance among all participants. Participation and performance during training was clearly biased toward individuals with particular personalities (i.e. high Openness, low Assertiveness). Results are discussed in light of the need for careful interpretation of comparative data on animal cognition and the need for researchers to take personality selection bias more seriously.

  6. Taking personality selection bias seriously in animal cognition research: a case study in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M

    2013-07-01

    In most experimental work on animal cognition, researchers attempt to control for multiple interacting variables by training subjects prior to testing, allowing subjects to participate voluntarily, and providing subjects with food rewards. However, do such methods encourage selection bias from subjects' personalities? In this study, we trained eighteen zoo-housed capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) for two experiments, under conditions of positive reinforcement (i.e. food rewards) and free-choice participation. Using a combination of behavioral and rater-based methods, we identified and validated five personality dimensions in these capuchins (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness). Scores on Openness were positively related to individual differences in monkey task participation, reflecting previous work showing that such individuals are often more active, curious, and willing to engage in testing. We also found a negative relationship between scores on Assertiveness and performance on tasks, which may reflect the trade-offs between speed and accuracy in these animals' decision-making. Highly Assertive individuals (the most sociable within monkey groups) may also prioritize social interactions over engaging in research. Lastly, monkeys that consistently participated and performed well on both tasks showed significantly higher Openness and lower Assertiveness compared to others, mirroring relationships found between personality, participation, and performance among all participants. Participation and performance during training was clearly biased toward individuals with particular personalities (i.e. high Openness, low Assertiveness). Results are discussed in light of the need for careful interpretation of comparative data on animal cognition and the need for researchers to take personality selection bias more seriously. PMID:23370784

  7. Discrete regional distribution of biochemical markers for the dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, GABA and acetylcholine systems in the monkey brain (Cebus Apella). Effects of stress.

    PubMed

    Häggström, J E; Sjöquist, B; Eckernäs, S A; Ingvast, A; Gunne, L M

    1984-01-01

    Brains from Cebus Apella monkeys have been mapped biochemically using a cryo-section technique which enables exact micro-dissectioning of tissue. Two neurotransmitters; noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) were measured by gas chromatography-masspectrometry technique. In addition biochemical markers reflecting metabolic activity in the dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC), serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA), noradrenaline (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylglycol, HMPG), acetylcholine (choline acetyltransferase, CAT) and GABA (glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD) transmitter systems were assayed. The distribution of these transmitter markers roughly corresponded to earlier studies in other non-human primates, whereas similar studies on the human brain generally show lower concentrations and enzyme activities. One monkey exposed to severe stress immediately before death deviated from the normal animals with regard to HVA, 5-HIAA, GAD and GABA. For the study of neuroleptic drugs, and notably their neurological side-effects, Cebus Apella monkeys have turned out to be particularly useful. In our laboratory we have employed this species of monkey to develop a model for acute dystonia and tardive dyskinesia (Gunne and Barany 1976, 1979, Barany et al. 1979). As a first step in the topological mapping of brain neuro-chemistry in these animals we here present data from normal monkeys, not treated with neuroleptics. During the ongoing project there was an unplanned "stress experiment" in one monkey, which had a nightly fight with a cage partner and had to be sacrificed the morning after due to severe wounds. The present communication describes a method for obtaining well-defined samples from monkey brains and presents the data on homovanillic acid (HVA), 3.4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), noradrenaline (NA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl glycol (HMPG), choline acetyltransferase (Ch

  8. An assessment of memory awareness in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Robert R.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Murray, Elisabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans, apes, and rhesus monkeys demonstrate memory awareness by collecting information when ignorant and acting immediately when informed. In this study, five capuchin monkeys searched for food after either watching the experimenter bait one of four opaque tubes (seen trials), or not watching (unseen trials). Monkeys with memory awareness should look into the tubes before making a selection only on unseen trials because on seen trials they already know the location of the food. In Experiment 1, one of the five capuchins looked significantly more often on unseen trials. In Experiment 2, we ensured that the monkeys attended to the baiting by inter-leaving training and test sessions. Three of the five monkeys looked more often on unseen trials. Because monkeys looked more often than not on both trial types, potentially creating a ceiling effect, we increased the effort required to look in Experiment 3, and predicted a larger difference in the probability of looking between seen and unseen trials. None of the five monkeys looked more often on unseen trials. These findings provide equivocal evidence for memory awareness in capuchin monkeys using tests that have yielded clear evidence in humans, apes, and rhesus monkeys. PMID:18712532

  9. The effects of individual cubicle research on the social interactions and individual behavior of brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Ruby, Suzanne; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M

    2015-10-01

    Primates are increasingly being tested individually in purpose-built research centers within zoos. The voluntary nature of research testing indicates that participation is enriching for the primate subjects, but previous studies have generally focused only on stress-related behavior, indicating that the research does not have a negative effect. Few data are available on the effects that individual research may have on social behavior, yet given primates' complex social lives and their responses to how conspecifics are treated, it is important to determine whether individual testing impacts upon their social interactions. The current study compared the social and individual behavior of 11 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) between three conditions: (1) directly after undergoing individual testing, (2) a control, and (3) upon returning to the group having voluntarily left. The results indicate that individual and stress-related behaviors were affected very little by individual research testing and that social behaviors increased. However, although affiliative interactions were enhanced, aggressive interactions were also seen to increase in the condition following individual testing compared with the return to group condition. Suggestions for minimizing the negative interactions are given. Provided that these suggestions are taken into account by researchers, our results provide support for developing research centers within zoos given the important findings emerging on our closest living relatives, combined with the potentially positive effects the research has on their welfare. PMID:26173706

  10. In-Group Conformity Sustains Different Foraging Traditions in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Dindo, Marietta; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Decades of research have revealed rich cultural repertoires encompassing multiple traditions in wild great apes, a picture crucially complemented by experimental simulations with captive apes. Studies with wild capuchin monkeys, the most encephalized simian species, have indicated a New World convergence on these cultural phenomena, involving multiple traditions and tool use. However, experimental studies to date are in conflict with such findings in concluding that capuchins, like other monkeys, show minimal capacities for social learning. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a new experimental approach in which the alpha male of each of two groups of capuchins was trained to open an artificial foraging device in a quite different way, using either a slide or lift action, then reunited with his group. In each group a majority of monkeys, 8 of 11 and 13 of 14, subsequently mastered the task. Seventeen of the successful 21 monkeys discovered the alternative action to that seeded in the group, performing it a median of 4 times. Nevertheless, all 21 primarily adopted the technique seeded by their group's alpha male. Median proportions of slide versus lift were 0.96 for the group seeded with slide versus 0. 01 for the group seeded with lift. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest a striking effect of social conformity in learned behavioral techniques, consistent with field reports of capuchin traditions and convergent on the only other species in which such cultural phenomena have been reported, chimpanzees and humans. PMID:19924242

  11. A concept of value during experimental exchange in brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the response of brown capuchin monkeys to two differentially valued tokens in an experimental exchange situation akin to a simple barter. Monkeys were given a series of three tests to evaluate their ability to associate tokens with food, then their responses were examined in a barter situation in which tokens were either limited or unlimited. Capuchins did not perform barter in the typical sense, returning the tokens which were associated with the reward. However, females, but not males, showed a different response, preferring the higher-value token. This may indicate that they learned to prefer one token over the other rather than to associate the tokens with their specific rewards. This sex difference parallels previous findings of greater reciprocity in female brown capuchins than in males. PMID:15486443

  12. Sex differences in play behavior in juvenile tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    According to the motor training hypothesis, play behavior in juvenile primates improves motor skills that are required in later adult life. Sex differences in juvenile play behavior can therefore be expected when adult animals assume distinct sexually dimorphic roles. Tufted capuchin monkeys show sexually dimorphic levels of physical antagonism in both inter- and intragroup encounters. Accordingly, it can be predicted that juvenile capuchins also show sex differences in social play behavior. To test this hypothesis, the play behavior of nine juvenile and two infant capuchins was examined. As predicted, juvenile males showed significantly higher levels of social play (wrestle, chase) than juvenile females, but no differences were found in nonsocial play (arboreal, object). Levels of infant play behavior were comparable to that of juveniles. These results lend support to the motor training hypothesis and highlight the need for more detailed investigations of individual differences in play behavior. PMID:18668302

  13. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  14. Hand Preference for Tool-Use in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) is Associated with Asymmetry of the Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Thompson, Claudia R.

    2012-01-01

    Skilled motor actions are associated with handedness and neuroanatomical specializations in humans. Recent reports have documented similar neuroanatomical asymmetries and their relationship to hand preference in some nonhuman primate species, including chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys. We investigated whether capuchins displayed significant hand preferences for a tool use task and whether such preferences were associated with motor-processing regions of the brain. Handedness data on a dipping tool-use task and high-resolution 3T MRI scans were collected from 15 monkeys. Capuchins displayed a significant group-level left-hand preference for this type of tool use, and handedness was associated with asymmetry of the primary motor cortex. Left-hand preferent individuals displayed a deeper central sulcus in the right hemisphere. Our results suggest that capuchins show an underlying right-hemisphere bias for skilled movement. PMID:22987442

  15. Semen coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation and cryopreservation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) semen in coconut water solution (CWS) and TES-TRIS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karol G; Miranda, Stefania A; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test the effect of coconut water solution and TES-TRIS on the seminal coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation in fresh diluted semen, and on the cryopreservation of semen from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Semen was collected from six males by electro-ejaculation, diluted in TES-TRIS or coconut water solution (CWS), and incubated at 35°C until the coagulated fraction of the semen was completely liquefied. In the experiment I, after liquefaction, samples were diluted in TES-TRIS or CWS, plus 6 and 10mM/mL of caffeine. Sperm motility and vigor were evaluated during 5h. For experiment II, after liquefaction, semen samples were extended in TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol in the final solution) or CWS (2.5% glycerol in the final solution), cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week. The seminal coagulum was liquefied in (mean±SDM) 4.5±1.7 and 2.8±1.1h in TES-TRIS and CWS, respectively. Sperm were motile in TES-TRIS and CWS for 5.0±1.4 and 1.0±0.5h, respectively. The mean motility in this period was 38±22% (TES-TRIS) and 22.0±16.0 (CWS). Motility increased after caffeine addition only in samples diluted in CWS containing 6mM (22.5±16.0) or 10mM (28.0±19.0) caffeine. Post-thaw live sperm percentage was 26.2% in TES-TRIS and 13.2% in CWS. For cryopreservation of semen from C. apella TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol) was more appropriate than CWS (2.5% glycerol). CWS+caffeine potentially increase sperm motility and may be useful in artificial insemination of fresh diluted semen.

  16. Demonstration of a genotype-phenotype correlation in the polymorphic color vision of a non-callitrichine New World monkey, capuchin (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsuko; Kawamura, Shoji; Mikami, Akichika; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Koida, Kowa; Fujita, Kazuo; Kuroshima, Hika; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2005-12-01

    Color-vision polymorphism in New World monkeys occurs because of an allelic polymorphism of the single-copy red-green middle-to-long-wavelength-sensitive (M/LWS) opsin gene on the X chromosome. Because color-vision types can readily be estimated from allelic types of the M/LWS opsin gene, this polymorphic system offers researchers an excellent opportunity to study the association between vision and behavior. As a prerequisite for such studies, genetically determined color-vision types must be concordant with phenotypes determined directly by behavioral criteria (e.g., by a color discrimination test). However, such correlations between genotypes and phenotypes have been studied only for callitrichine species. Using genetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches, we evaluated the color vision of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a representative non-callitrichine model animal for physiology and behavior. Two allelic M/LWS opsins-P545 and P530-were identified in the studied captive population. Females had one or both of the alleles, and males had either one. The retinal sensitivity in P530 dichromats was short-wave shifted relative to that in P545 dichromats, whereas that in P530/P545 trichromats was between the two groups. In a discrimination task using Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic plates, P530/P545 trichromats were successful in discriminating stimuli that P530 and P545 dichromats were unable to discriminate. In a food-search task, P530/P545 trichromats were able to locate red targets among green distracters as quickly as among white distracters, whereas both types of dichromats took longer. These results demonstrate the mutual consistency between genotypes and phenotypes of color vision, and provide a solid genetic basis on which the ecology and evolution of color vision can be investigated.

  17. Ontogeny of Manipulative Behavior and Nut-Cracking in Young Tufted Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus Apella"): A Perception-Action Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…

  18. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) treat small and large numbers of items similarly during a relative quantity judgment task.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    A key issue in understanding the evolutionary and developmental emergence of numerical cognition is to learn what mechanism(s) support perception and representation of quantitative information. Two such systems have been proposed, one for dealing with approximate representation of sets of items across an extended numerical range and another for highly precise representation of only small numbers of items. Evidence for the first system is abundant across species and in many tests with human adults and children, whereas the second system is primarily evident in research with children and in some tests with non-human animals. A recent paper (Choo & Franconeri, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 93-99, 2014) with adult humans also reported "superprecise" representation of small sets of items in comparison to large sets of items, which would provide more support for the presence of a second system in human adults. We first presented capuchin monkeys with a test similar to that of Choo and Franconeri in which small or large sets with the same ratios had to be discriminated. We then presented the same monkeys with an expanded range of comparisons in the small number range (all comparisons of 1-9 items) and the large number range (all comparisons of 10-90 items in 10-item increments). Capuchin monkeys showed no increased precision for small over large sets in making these discriminations in either experiment. These data indicate a difference in the performance of monkeys to that of adult humans, and specifically that monkeys do not show improved discrimination performance for small sets relative to large sets when the relative numerical differences are held constant. PMID:26689808

  19. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  20. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  1. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  2. Working and waiting for better rewards: self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys' and rhesus monkeys' self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. PMID:24412729

  3. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates.

  4. Delaying gratification for food and tokens in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): when quantity is salient, symbolic stimuli do not improve performance.

    PubMed

    Evans, T A; Beran, M J; Paglieri, F; Addessi, E

    2012-07-01

    Capuchin monkeys have been tested for the capacity to delay gratification for accumulating rewards in recent studies and have exhibited variable results. Meanwhile, chimpanzees have consistently excelled at this task. However, neither species have ever been tested at accumulating symbolic tokens instead of food items, even though previous reports indicate that tokens sometimes facilitate performance in other self-control tasks. Thus, in the present study, we tested capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees for their capacity to delay gratification in a delay maintenance task, in which an experimenter presented items, one at a time, to within reach of an animal for as long as the animal refrained from taking them. In Experiment 1, we assessed how long capuchin monkeys could accumulate items in the delay maintenance task when items were food rewards or tokens exchangeable for food rewards. Monkeys accumulated more food rewards than they did tokens. In Experiment 2, we tested capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees in a similar accumulation test. Whereas capuchins again accumulated more food than tokens, all chimpanzees but one showed no difference in performance in the two conditions. These findings provide additional evidence that chimpanzees exhibit greater self-control capacity in this task than do capuchin monkeys and indicate that symbolic stimuli fail to facilitate delay maintenance when they do not abstract away from the quantitative dimension of the task. This is consistent with previous findings on the effects of symbols on self-control and illuminates what makes accumulation a particularly challenging task. PMID:22434403

  5. Electromyography of crural and pedal muscles in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): Implications for hallucal grasping behavior and first metatarsal morphology in euprimates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2015-04-01

    A hypertrophied peroneal process of the hallucal metatarsal, as seen in prosimians, has been linked to a powerful hallucal grasp via the contraction of the peroneus longus (PL) muscle causing adduction of the big toe. Electromyography (EMG) studies of lemurs and lorises, however, have concluded that PL is not substantially recruited during small branch locomotion when powerful hallucal grasping is needed most, and have suggested that there is no link between PL activity and peroneal process size. If this is correct, then we should also observe no change in PL activity when strong hallucal grasping is required in anthropoids because they have a relatively smaller peroneal process for PL to act on. This study addresses this hypothesis by evaluating EMG of crural and pedal muscles in capuchins (Sapajus apella) walking on substrates of different diameters. During locomotion on the narrow substrate (3.1 cm) that should elicit a strong hallucal grasp, we observed an intense increased recruitment of adductor hallucis, but only sustained, rather than markedly increased, PL activity. This indicates that PL is not involved in powerful hallucal grasping in capuchins, and confirms similar findings previously documented in prosimians. We continue to reject the hypothesis that a large peroneal process is an adaptation for powerful grasping and further argue that its morphology may not be related to PL's ability to adduct the hallux at all. In addition, the morphology of the peroneal process should not be used to assess hallucal grasping performance in fossils. PMID:25693754

  6. Extent and Limits of the Matching Concept in Cebus Apella: A Matter of Experimental Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Faria Galvao, Olavo; da Silva Barros, Romariz; Ricardo dos Santos, Jose; de Faria Brino, Ana Leda; Brandao, Sandra; Lavratti, Cintia Mara; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to exhibit generalized sameness-difference judgments is a hallmark of cognition that is regularly exhibited by humans. As yet, that capacity has not been well documented in New World monkeys such as the capuchin (Cebus apella). This article presents data obtained with 6 capuchin monkeys with a variety of procedures that might lead to…

  7. How tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella spp) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) align objects to surfaces: Insights into spatial reasoning and implications for tool use

    PubMed Central

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M.; Stone, Brian; Scott, Nicole M.; Menzel, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report addresses phylogenetic variation in a spatial skill that underlies tool use: aligning objects to a feature of a surface. Fragaszy and Cummins-Sebree’s [2005] model of relational spatial reasoning and Skill Development and Perception-Action theories guided the design of the study. We examined how capuchins and chimpanzees place stick objects of varying shapes into matching grooves on a flat surface. Although most individuals aligned the long axis of the object with the matching groove more often than expected by chance, all typically did so with poor precision. Some individuals managed to align a second feature, and only one (a capuchin monkey) achieved above-chance success at aligning three features with matching grooves. Our findings suggest that capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align objects along even one axis, and that neither species can reliably or easily master object placement tasks that require managing two or more spatial relations concurrently. Moreover, they did not systematically vary their behavior in a manner that would aid discovery of the affordances of the stick-surface combination beyond sliding the stick along the surface (which may have provided haptic information about the location of the groove). These limitations have profound consequences for the forms of tool use we can expect these individuals to master. PMID:21608008

  8. Birth seasonality of Cebus apella (Platyrrhini, Cebidae) in Brazilian zoos along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Bicca-Marques, Júlio César; Gomes, Daniela Fichtner

    2005-02-01

    Birth seasonality in wild neotropical primates has been suggested to increase with latitude as a response to a stronger divergence in high-quality food availability across the year, and a higher between-year predictability at higher latitudes related to temporal differences in photoperiod. In captivity, however, monkeys are fed foods of similar quality throughout the year, and this consistency of diet should have a releasing effect on the need for birth seasonality. In this paper, we test whether 1) brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) breed seasonally in captivity, and 2) given the consistency of diet in this setting, differences in latitude are reflected in the temporal pattern of birth distribution across the year. Data on the distribution of birth records of C. apella at Brazilian zoos located within three latitudinal zones (Equator perpendicular 8 degrees S, 16 degrees perpendicular 24 degrees S, and 24 degrees perpendicular 32 degrees S) are compared. Captive C. apella showed a birth peak from October to February, despite the consistent provision of food in this setting. In addition, there were no differences in the pattern of birth distribution among the latitudinal zones, which lends no support to the prediction that captive C. apella birth seasonality would increase with latitude. We suggest that if this species is not sensitive to subtle differences in photoperiod, other environmental cues may trigger the onset of reproduction at lower latitudes.

  9. Ocular fundus images with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in the dog, monkey and minipig.

    PubMed

    Rosolen, S G; Saint-MacAry, G; Gautier, V; Legargasson, J F

    2001-03-01

    Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) is a new technique that enables ocular fundus image recording and retinal dynamic angiography to be performed. The ocular fundus image is acquired sequentially, point by point, and is reconstructed on a video monitor at the rate of 25 images per second. The feasibility of performing both ocular fundus image recordings and retinal angiography image recordings were tested on two dogs, two monkeys and two minipigs using a 40 degrees field I + Tech CSLO. Fundus area of each dog, monkey and minipig were examined without any additional optical devices. The ocular fundus and angiography images were recorded, stabilized and analyzed under the same conditions. For each species, all images were easily recorded without any additional optical device in a lighted room and the morphology of the retinal images generated was similar to those obtained with a camera or angiography of higher resolution. Capillary phase or venous times are presented. Image recording at 25 frames/second enabled more retinal dynamics to be demonstrated than with use of regular angiography. This technique is noninvasive and easy to perform if the eye is fixed and eyelids maintained open. It also allows exploration of retinal microvascularization and could be utilized for clinical, pharmacologic and toxicologic investigations as well. PMID:11397318

  10. Dietary variability in Cebus apella in extreme habitats: evidence for adaptability.

    PubMed

    Brown, A D; Zunino, G E

    1990-01-01

    The dietary composition of Cebus apella in two subtropical forest environments of Argentina reflects the seasonal availability of potential food resources. In the marginal areas of the geographical distribution of this species, different resources are used during periods of scarcity. A greater tendency to use leaves in the diet is observed in the northwest (El Rey National Park), where there is greater seasonal variation of fruit availability. In El Rey, where there are few potential resources, the diet is dominated by a few resources, notably bromeliads. Where the resources are more abundant and the availability is more constant throughout the years (Baritú and Iguazú National Parks), the monkeys exhibit a feeding behavior similar to that seen in tropical areas. This ability of the genus Cebus to exploit resources not accessible to other primate species is one of the reasons for its wide geographical distribution and its widespread existence in ecosystems marginally used by primates.

  11. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  12. Monkeys reject unequal pay.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; De Waal, Frans B M

    2003-09-18

    During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.

  13. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  14. Endowment effect in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lakshminaryanan, Venkat; Chen, M Keith; Santos, Laurie R

    2008-12-12

    In humans, the capacity for economically rational choice is constrained by a variety of preference biases: humans evaluate gambles relative to arbitrary reference points; weigh losses heavier than equally sized gains; and demand a higher price for owned goods than for equally preferred goods that are not yet owned. To date, however, fewer studies have examined the origins of these biases. Here, we review previous work demonstrating that human economic biases such as loss aversion and reference dependence are shared with an ancestrally related New World primate, the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). We then examine whether capuchins display an endowment effect in a token-trading task. We identified pairs of treats (fruit discs versus cereal chunks) that were equally preferred by each monkey. When given a chance to trade away their owned fruit discs to obtain the equally valued cereal chunks (or vice versa), however, monkeys required a far greater compensation than the equally preferred treat. We show that these effects are not due to transaction costs or timing issues. These data suggest that biased preferences rely on cognitive systems that are more evolutionarily ancient than previously thought-and that common evolutionary ancestry shared by humans and capuchins may account for the occurrence of the endowment effect in both species. PMID:18840573

  15. Endowment effect in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lakshminaryanan, Venkat; Chen, M Keith; Santos, Laurie R

    2008-12-12

    In humans, the capacity for economically rational choice is constrained by a variety of preference biases: humans evaluate gambles relative to arbitrary reference points; weigh losses heavier than equally sized gains; and demand a higher price for owned goods than for equally preferred goods that are not yet owned. To date, however, fewer studies have examined the origins of these biases. Here, we review previous work demonstrating that human economic biases such as loss aversion and reference dependence are shared with an ancestrally related New World primate, the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). We then examine whether capuchins display an endowment effect in a token-trading task. We identified pairs of treats (fruit discs versus cereal chunks) that were equally preferred by each monkey. When given a chance to trade away their owned fruit discs to obtain the equally valued cereal chunks (or vice versa), however, monkeys required a far greater compensation than the equally preferred treat. We show that these effects are not due to transaction costs or timing issues. These data suggest that biased preferences rely on cognitive systems that are more evolutionarily ancient than previously thought-and that common evolutionary ancestry shared by humans and capuchins may account for the occurrence of the endowment effect in both species.

  16. Navigating two-dimensional mazes: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and capuchins (Cebus apella sp.) profit from experience differently

    PubMed Central

    Fragaszy, Dorothy; Kennedy, Erica; Murnane, Aeneas; Menzel, Charles; Brewer, Gene; Johnson-Pynn, Julie; Hopkins, William

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether navigation is impacted by experience in two species of nonhuman primates. Five chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and seven capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) navigated a cursor, using a joystick, through two-dimensional mazes presented on a computer monitor. Subjects completed 192 mazes, each one time. Each maze contained one to five choices, and in up to three of these choices, the correct path required moving the cursor away from the Euclidean direction toward the goal. Some subjects completed these mazes in a random order (Random group); others in a fixed order by ascending number of choices and ascending number of turns away from goal (Ordered group). Chimpanzees in both groups performed equivalently, demonstrated fewer errors and a higher rate of self-correcting errors with increasing experience at solving the mazes, and made significantly fewer errors than capuchin monkeys. Capuchins were more sensitive to the mode of presentation than chimpanzees: Monkeys in the Ordered group made fewer errors than monkeys in the Random group. However, capuchins’ performance across testing changed little, and they remained particularly susceptible to making errors when the correct path required moving away from the goal. Thus, these two species responded differently to the same spatial challenges and same learning contexts. The findings indicate that chimpanzees have a strong advantage in this task compared to capuchins, no matter how the task is presented. We suggest that differences between the species in the dynamic organization of attention and motor processes contribute to their differences in performance on this task, and predict similar differences in other tasks requiring, as this one does, sustained attention to a dynamic visual display and self-produced movements variably towards and away from a goal. PMID:19148688

  17. Searching in the middle-Capuchins' (Cebus apella) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) behavior during a spatial search task.

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia; Kanngiesser, Patricia; Saporiti, Martina; Amiconi, Alessandra; Bläsing, Bettina; Call, Josep

    2010-01-01

    In this study we show that bonobos and capuchin monkeys can learn to search in the middle of a landmark configuration in a small-scale space. Five bonobos (Pan paniscus) and 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested in a series of experiments with the expansion test paradigm. The primates were trained to search in the middle of a 4- or 2-landmark configuration, and were then tested with the same configuration expanded. Neither species searched in the middle of the expanded 4-landmark configuration. When presented with a 2-landmark configuration and a constant or variable inter-landmark training distance, the subjects sometimes searched preferentially in the middle of the expanded configuration. We discuss 2 alternative explanations of the results: extracting a middle rule or averaging between different goal-landmark vectors. In any case, compared to adult humans, primates appear highly constrained in their abilities to search in the middle of a configuration of detached landmarks. We discuss some of the factors that may influence the primates' behavior in this task.

  18. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  19. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  20. Giving is self-rewarding for monkeys

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B. M.; Leimgruber, Kristin; Greenberg, Amanda R.

    2008-01-01

    Helping and sharing among humans is often motivated by empathy and accompanied by a sense of satisfaction. To determine whether similar self-rewarding mechanisms may underpin assistance among nonhuman primates, eight female brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) underwent testing in a simple choice paradigm. Paired with a partner, subjects could select either a “selfish” option that rewarded only themselves, or a “prosocial” option that rewarded both of them. Subjects systematically favored the prosocial option provided their partner was a) familiar, b) visible, and c) receiving rewards of equal value. Prosocial tendencies increased with social closeness, being lowest toward strangers and highest toward kin. That the monkeys understood the options was suggested by greater orientation to the partner during prosocial than selfish choices. Prosocial preferences were reduced by inequity, when the partner received a superior reward. If the view between both monkeys was blocked, choices became strikingly selfish. Thus, under certain conditions, delivering benefits to others seems gratifying to nonhuman primates. PMID:18757730

  1. Group service in macaques (Macaca fuscata), capuchins (Cebus apella) and marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): a comparative approach to identifying proactive prosocial motivations.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith Maria; van Schaik, Carel

    2013-05-01

    Proactive, that is, spontaneous, prosociality reflects a psychological interest in the welfare of others and has been reported in callitrichid monkeys, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and humans, but not in chimpanzees. One explanation for the co-occurrence of proactive prosociality in these species is that it is linked to shared infant care (cooperative breeding); alternatively, it might merely reflect unusually high social tolerance or be mediated by advanced cognitive abilities. To date, distinguishing between these alternative explanations is difficult, partly because available evidence is restricted to only a handful of species and partly because methodological differences thwart comparisons across studies. Here, we present an experimental paradigm called group service, which allows estimation of both social tolerance and proactive prosociality in group settings. Its simplicity makes it intuitively plausible to subjects and allows testing a broad variety of species, including in zoos. We applied the test to independently breeding Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), and capuchin monkeys with an intermediate breeding system. Social tolerance was slightly higher in marmosets than capuchins and much higher in both compared to macaques, but only marmosets provided a service to other group members. Furthermore, we validated the group service paradigm in the common marmosets by comparing their performance to earlier data. Although our results are consistent with the cooperative breeding hypothesis, a comprehensive evaluation requires adding data from additional groups and species, which should be facilitated by the group service approach.

  2. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  3. SCAN+

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  4. Behavioral and ecological consequences of sex-based differences in gustatory anatomy in Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Docherty, Beth A; Alport, Laura J; Burrows, Anne M; Smith, Timothy D; Paesani, Sylvia M

    2011-12-01

    Fungiform papillae (FPs) are the only gustatory structures on the anterior tongue. Taste buds (TBs), which are located in FPs, house taste receptors. Each TB has a taste pore (TP) by which tastants are transmitted. In humans, FP and TB densities correlate with taste sensitivity and food preferences. Females have higher FP densities than males in Homo, Pan, and Cebus. Homo, Pan, and Cebus also have larger brains, slower ontogenetic development, and higher maternal investment in offspring compared to most primates. An increase in maternal investment places intense pressure on females to 1) obtain high-quality foods, and 2) detect potential toxins at low levels. This study examines sex differences in FPs and TPs (a TB surrogate) in 11 Cebus apella to test the hypothesis that higher FP density in females may be an adaptation specific to reproductive strategies of females. Tongues were imaged using an environmental scanning electron microscope; from these images FP surface area, FP density, TP count, and TP densities were calculated. We found that there were no significant differences between males and females in the number of TPs per FP. However, we did find that females do have larger FP surface areas and higher FP densities than males. The anatomical evidence indicates that females may have greater taste sensitivity than males because females have more FP than males. Future research on food preference and selection in Cebus is expected to show sex-specific behaviors similar to those observed in Homo and Pan.

  5. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella

    PubMed Central

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network. PMID:26966266

  6. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-04-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network.

  7. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  8. Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort

    PubMed Central

    van Wolkenten, Megan; Brosnan, Sarah F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Without joint benefits, joint actions could never have evolved. Cooperative animals need to monitor closely how large a share they receive relative to their investment toward collective goals. This work documents the sensitivity to reward division in brown, or tufted, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In addition to confirming previous results with a larger subject pool, this work rules out several alternative explanations and adds data on effort sensitivity. Thirteen adult monkeys exchanged tokens for rewards, showing negative reactions to receiving a less-favored reward than their partner. Because their negative reaction could not be attributed to the mere visibility of better rewards (greed hypothesis) nor to having received such rewards in the immediate past (frustration hypothesis), it must have been caused by seeing their partner obtain the better reward. Effort had a major effect in that by far the lowest level of performance in the entire study occurred in subjects required to expend a large effort while at the same time seeing their partner receive a better reward. It is unclear whether this effort–effect was based on comparisons with the partner, but it added significantly to the intensity of the inequity response. These effects are as expected if the inequity response evolved in the context of cooperative survival strategies. PMID:18000045

  9. The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B. M.; Dindo, Marietta; Freeman, Cassiopeia A.; Hall, Marisa J.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely assumed that monkeys see a stranger in the mirror, whereas apes and humans recognize themselves. In this study, we question the former assumption by using a detailed comparison of how monkeys respond to mirrors versus live individuals. Eight adult female and six adult male brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were exposed twice to three conditions: (i) a familiar same-sex partner, (ii) an unfamiliar same-sex partner, and (iii) a mirror. Females showed more eye contact and friendly behavior and fewer signs of anxiety in front of a mirror than they did when exposed to an unfamiliar partner. Males showed greater ambiguity, but they too reacted differently to mirrors and strangers. Discrimination between conditions was immediate, and blind coders were able to tell the difference between monkeys under the three conditions. Capuchins thus seem to recognize their reflection in the mirror as special, and they may not confuse it with an actual conspecific. Possibly, they reach a level of self–other distinction intermediate between seeing their mirror image as other and recognizing it as self. PMID:16055557

  10. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AN; Williams, LE; Brosnan, SF

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this

  11. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  12. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  13. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    PubMed Central

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  14. Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange?

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not non-human animals can plan for the future is a hotly debated issue. We investigate this question further and use a planning-to-exchange task to study future planning in the cooperative domain in two species of monkeys: the brown capuchin (Cebus apella) and the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). The rationale required subjects to plan for a future opportunity to exchange tokens for food by collecting tokens several minutes in advance. Subjects who successfully planned for the exchange task were expected to select suitable tokens during a collection period (5/10 min), save them for a fixed period of time (20/30 min), then take them into an adjacent compartment and exchange them for food with an experimenter. Monkeys mostly failed to transport tokens when entering the testing compartment; hence, they do not seem able to plan for a future exchange with a human partner. Three subjects did however manage to solve the task several times, albeit at very low rates. They brought the correct version of three possible token types, but rarely transported more than one suitable token at a time. Given that the frequency of token manipulation predicted transport, success might have occurred by chance. This was not the case, however, since in most cases subjects were not already holding the token in their hands before they entered the testing compartment. Instead, these results may reflect subjects' strengths and weaknesses in their time-related comprehension of the task. PMID:22532073

  15. Monkeys recognize the faces of group mates in photographs

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, Jennifer J.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonhuman primates posses a highly developed capacity for face recognition, which resembles the human capacity both cognitively and neurologically. Face recognition is typically tested by having subjects compare facial images, whereas there has been virtually no attention to how they connect these images to reality. Can nonhuman primates recognize familiar individuals in photographs? Such facial identification was examined in brown or tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a New World primate, by letting subjects categorize facial images of conspecifics as either belonging to the in-group or out-group. After training on an oddity task with four images on a touch screen, subjects correctly identified one in-group member as odd among three out-group members, and vice versa. They generalized this knowledge to both new images of the same individuals and images of juveniles never presented before, thus suggesting facial identification based on real-life experience with the depicted individuals. This ability was unexplained by potential color cues because the same results were obtained with grayscale images. These tests demonstrate that capuchin monkeys, like humans, recognize whom they see in a picture. PMID:19966230

  16. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  17. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  18. Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange?

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not non-human animals can plan for the future is a hotly debated issue. We investigate this question further and use a planning-to-exchange task to study future planning in the cooperative domain in two species of monkeys: the brown capuchin (Cebus apella) and the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). The rationale required subjects to plan for a future opportunity to exchange tokens for food by collecting tokens several minutes in advance. Subjects who successfully planned for the exchange task were expected to select suitable tokens during a collection period (5/10 min), save them for a fixed period of time (20/30 min), then take them into an adjacent compartment and exchange them for food with an experimenter. Monkeys mostly failed to transport tokens when entering the testing compartment; hence, they do not seem able to plan for a future exchange with a human partner. Three subjects did however manage to solve the task several times, albeit at very low rates. They brought the correct version of three possible token types, but rarely transported more than one suitable token at a time. Given that the frequency of token manipulation predicted transport, success might have occurred by chance. This was not the case, however, since in most cases subjects were not already holding the token in their hands before they entered the testing compartment. Instead, these results may reflect subjects' strengths and weaknesses in their time-related comprehension of the task.

  19. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  20. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  1. Animal cognition: monkey meteorology.

    PubMed

    Platt, Michael

    2006-06-20

    Mangabey monkeys have been shown to rely on memory of recent trends in temperature and solar radiation to decide whether to feed on a particular patch of fruit. These observations reveal a rich mental representation of the physical environment in monkeys and suggest foraging may have been an important selective pressure in primate cognitive evolution.

  2. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  3. Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

  4. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  5. Discrimination of functionally appropriate and inappropriate throwing tools by captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore Avery; Westergaard, Gregory Charles

    2004-10-01

    A tool-throwing task was used to test whether capuchin monkeys understand the difference between functionally appropriate and functionally inappropriate tools. A group of monkeys was trained to obtain a sticky treat from a container outside their enclosure using a projectile attached to one end of an anchored line. Subsequently, these monkeys were given choice tests between functional and nonfunctional versions of tools used in training. A different feature of the tool was varied between alternatives in each choice test. The monkeys chose to use functional tools significantly more often than nonfunctional tools in early exposures to each choice test. A second experiment tested whether these subjects, as well as a second group of minimally trained participants, could distinguish between functional and nonfunctional tools that appeared different from those used in training. A new set of design features was varied between tools in these choice tests. All participants continued to choose functional tools significantly more often than nonfunctional tools, regardless of their tool-throwing experience or the novel appearance of the tools. These results suggest that capuchin monkeys, like chimpanzees studied in similar experiments, are sensitive to a variety of functionally relevant tool features.

  6. Preliminary observations on habitat utilization and diet in eight Surinam Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, R A; van Roosmalen, M G

    1981-01-01

    The eight monkey species occurring in Surinam were studied in the Raleigh-vallen-Voltzberg Nature Reserve along the Coppename River. Special emphasis was placed on determining how these eight species divide up available habitat and food resources within a 300-ha study area. Cebus apella apella is probably the most adaptable of the Surinam monkeys. It was found mainly in the understory and lower to middle parts of the canopy of all five forest types (high rain forest, low rain forest, mountain savanna forest, liane forest, pina swamp forest) in the study area, and entered a variety of edge habitats. Saguinus midas midas, the only callitrichid in Surinam, also occurred mainly in the understory and lower to middle parts of the canopy of all five forest types, but was the only species to spend more time in edges than in non-edge habitats. Alouatta seniculus was most often seen in the middle to upper strata of high forest, but occasionally entered the four other forest types and a variety of edges. Cebus nigrivittatus is apparently less adaptable than its congener and was largely restricted to the understory and lower to middle strata of high forest. It occasionally entered two other forest types as well, but was rarely seen in edges. Chiropotes and Pithecia were both found almost exclusively in high forest and mountain savanna forest, but Chiropotes was mainly in the upper part of the canopy and in emergents, whereas Pithecia occupied the lower to middle parts of the canopy and the understory. Neither species made much use of edges. Ateles paniscus paniscus and Saimiri sciureus represent the extremes of primate adaptation in the Voltzberg area. Ateles was the most restricted species, and was found almost exclusively in high forest. It very rarely entered edges and was most often seen in the uppermost forest strata. In contrast, Saimiri was the only species that was not found most often in high forest, and it occurred consistently lower than any other monkey in the area

  7. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC) was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Results Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. Conclusions The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic maps of PfC in both genera

  8. Visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: location, visuotopic organization, and variability.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, M; Gattass, R; Rosa, M G; Sousa, A P

    1989-09-01

    The representation of the visual field in the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus (ST) was studied by multiunit recordings in eight Cebus apella, anesthetized with N2O and immobilized with pancuronium bromide, in repeated recording sessions. On the basis of visuotopic organization, myeloarchitecture, and receptive field size, area MT was distinguished from its neighboring areas. MT is an oval area of about 70 mm2 located mainly in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. It contains a visuotopically organized representation of at least the binocular visual field. The representation of the vertical meridian forms the dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral borders of MT and that of the horizontal meridian runs across the posterior bank of ST. The fovea is represented at the lateralmost portion of MT, while the retinal periphery is represented medially. The representation of the central visual field is magnified relative to that of the periphery in MT. The cortical magnification factor in MT decreases with increasing eccentricity following a negative power function. Receptive field size increases with increasing eccentricity. A method to evaluate the scatter of receptive field position in multiunit recordings based on the inverse of the magnification factor is described. In MT, multiunit receptive field scatter increases with increasing eccentricity. As shown by the Heidenhain-Woelcke method, MT is coextensive with two myeloarchitectonically distinct zones: one heavily myelinated, located in the posterior bank of ST, and another, less myelinated, located at the junction of the posterior bank with the anterior bank of ST. At least three additional visual zones surround MT: DZ, MST, and FST. The areas of the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus in the diurnal New World monkey Cebus are comparable to those described for the diurnal Old World monkey, Macaca. This observation suggests that these areas are ancestral characters of the simian

  9. Monkeys benefit from reciprocity without the cognitive burden

    PubMed Central

    Suchak, Malini; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The debate about the origins of human prosociality has focused on the presence or absence of similar tendencies in other species, and, recently, attention has turned to the underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether direct reciprocity could promote prosocial behavior in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Twelve capuchins tested in pairs could choose between two tokens, with one being “prosocial” in that it rewarded both individuals (i.e., 1/1), and the other being “selfish” in that it rewarded the chooser only (i.e., 1/0). Each monkey’s choices with a familiar partner from their own group was compared with choices when paired with a partner from a different group. Capuchins were spontaneously prosocial, selecting the prosocial option at the same rate regardless of whether they were paired with an in-group or out-group partner. This indicates that interaction outside of the experimental setting played no role. When the paradigm was changed, such that both partners alternated making choices, prosocial preference significantly increased, leading to mutualistic payoffs. As no contingency could be detected between an individual’s choice and their partner’s previous choice, and choices occurred in rapid succession, reciprocity seemed of a relatively vague nature akin to mutualism. Having the partner receive a better reward than the chooser (i.e., 1/2) during the alternating condition increased the payoffs of mutual prosociality, and prosocial choice increased accordingly. The outcome of several controls made it hard to explain these results on the basis of reward distribution or learned preferences, and rather suggested that joint action promotes prosociality, resulting in so-called attitudinal reciprocity. PMID:22949668

  10. Monkey see, monkey do: contagious itch in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Feneran, Ashley N; O'Donnell, Russell; Press, Ashley; Yosipovitch, Gil; Cline, Mark; Dugan, Greg; Papoiu, Alexandru D P; Nattkemper, Leigh A; Chan, Yiong Huak; Shively, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    "Contagious itch" has been anecdotally reported and recently confirmed in a controlled setting in humans. Here, we investigated in adult rhesus macaques whether 'contagious itch' occurs spontaneously in monkeys. In a first experiment, the latency to scratch following cage-mate scratching was observed in pair-housed adult rhesus macaques. Scratching increased within the first 60 s and subsequently declined. In a second experiment, scratching behavior was recorded for individually caged adult rhesus macaques which where shown videos of monkeys scratching, but also neutral stimuli. A greater frequency of scratching was observed when monkeys viewed a video sequence of another monkey scratching as well as during the neutral stimulus immediately following the monkey scratching segment. In conclusion, viewing other monkeys scratching significantly increased scratching behavior in adult rhesus macaques.

  11. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  12. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  13. Cortical afferents of visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: possible homologies between New and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosa, M G; Soares, J G; Fiorani, M; Gattass, R

    1993-01-01

    Cortical projections to the middle temporal (MT) visual area were studied by injecting the retrogradely transported fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into MT in adult New World monkeys (Cebus apella). Injection sites were selected based on electrophysiological recordings, and covered eccentricities from 2-70 deg, in both the upper and lower visual fields. The position and laminar distribution of labeled cell bodies were correlated with myeloarchitectonic boundaries and displayed in flat reconstructions of the neocortex. Topographically organized projections were found to arise mainly from the primary, second, third, and fourth visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4). Coarsely topographic patterns were observed in transitional V4 (V4t), in the parieto-occipital and parieto-occipital medial areas (PO and POm), and in the temporal ventral posterior area (TVP). In addition, widespread or nontopographic label was found in visual areas of the superior temporal sulcus (medial superior temporal, MST, and fundus of superior temporal, FST), annectent gyrus (dorsointermediate area, DI; and dorsomedial area, DM), intraparietal sulcus (lateral intraparietal, LIP; posterior intraparietal, PIP; and ventral intraparietal, VIP), and in the frontal eye field (FEF). Label in PO, POm, and PIP was found only after injections in the representation of the peripheral visual field (> 10 deg), and label in V4 and FST was more extensive after injections in the central representation. The projections from V1 and V2 originated predominantly from neurons in supragranular layers, whereas those from V3, V4t, DM, DI, POm, and FEF consisted of intermixed patches with either supragranular or infragranular predominance. All of the other projections were predominantly infragranular. Invasion of area MST by the injection site led to the labeling of further pathways, including substantial projections from the dorsal prelunate area (DP) and from an ensemble of areas located along the medial wall of the hemisphere

  14. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  15. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  16. Experimental evidence for route integration and strategic planning in wild capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Janson, Charles H

    2007-07-01

    Both in captivity and the wild, primates are found to travel mostly to the nearest available resource, but they may skip over the closest resource and travel to more distant resources, which are often found to be more productive. This study examines the tradeoff between distance and reward in the foraging choices of one group of wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) using feeding platforms in large-scale foraging experiments conducted over four years. Three feeding sites were arrayed in an oblique triangle, such that once the monkey group had chosen one site to feed, they had a choice between two remaining sites, a close one with less food and the other up to 2.3 times as far away but with more food. Sites were provisioned once per day. The capuchins generally chose the closer feeding site, even when the more distant site offered up to 12 times as much food. The distances to, rewards of, or various profitability measures applied to each alternative site individually did not explain the group's choices in ways consistent with foraging theory or principles of operant psychology. The group's site choices were predicted only by comparing efficiency measures of entire foraging pathways: (1) direct travel to the more rewarding distant site, versus (2) the longer 'detour' through the closer site on the way to the more distant one. The group chose the detour more often when the reward was larger and the added detour distance shorter. They appeared to be more sensitive to the absolute increase in detour distance than to the relative increase compared to the straight route. The qualitative and quantitative results agree with a simple rule: do not use the detour unless the energy gain from extra food outweighs the energy cost of extra travel. These results suggest that members of this group integrate information on spatial location, reward, and perhaps potential food competition in their choice of multi-site foraging routes, with important implications for social

  17. Astigmatism in Monkeys with Experimentally Induced Myopia or Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    KEE, CHEA-SU; HUNG, LI-FANG; QIAO-GRIDER, YING; RAMAMIRTHAM, RAMKUMAR; SMITH, EARL L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Astigmatism is the most common ametropia found in humans and is often associated with large spherical ametropias. However, little is known about the etiology of astigmatism or the reason(s) for the association between spherical and astigmatic refractive errors. This study examines the frequency and characteristics of astigmatism in infant monkeys that developed axial ametropias as a result of altered early visual experience. Methods Data were obtained from 112 rhesus monkeys that experienced a variety of lens-rearing regimens that were intended to alter the normal course of emmetropization. These visual manipulations included form deprivation (n = 13); optically imposed defocus (n = 48); and continuous ambient lighting with (n = 6) or without optically imposed defocus (n = 6). In addition, data from 19 control monkeys and 39 infants reared with an optically imposed astigmatism were used for comparison purposes. The lens-rearing period started at approximately 3 weeks of age and ended by 4 to 5 months of age. Refractive development for all monkeys was assessed periodically throughout the treatment and subsequent recovery periods by retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Results In contrast to control monkeys, the monkeys that had experimentally induced axial ametropias frequently developed significant amounts of astigmatism (mean refractive astigmatism = 0.37 ± 0.33 D [control] vs. 1.24 ± 0.81 D [treated]; two-sample t-test, p < 0.0001), especially when their eyes exhibited relative hyperopic shifts in refractive error. The astigmatism was corneal in origin (Pearson’s r; p < 0.001 for total astigmatism and the JO and J45 components), and the axes of the astigmatism were typically oblique and bilaterally mirror symmetric. Interestingly, the astigmatism was not permanent; the majority of the monkeys exhibited substantial reductions in the amount of astigmatism at or near the end of the lens-rearing procedures. Conclusions In infant monkeys

  18. How monkeys see others: Discrimination and recognition of monkeys' shape.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, W

    1994-12-01

    The two experiments described in this study address the question of the perceptual basis of species discrimination and body recognition in monkeys. Longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to discriminate line drawings of different monkey bodies. The procedure consisted of a simultaneous discrimination between four images under continuous reinforcement. Social communication between the test animal and other group members during test sessions was almost unrestricted. In the first experiment all monkeys learned, within at least 7 sessions, to discriminate one monkey from other monkeys. Discrimination was invariant against transformations of size and rotation of the stimuli. A preference test for particular features resulted in a graded estimation of particular body features. Generalisation to different views of facial stimuli was demonstrated. In the second experiment the monkeys had to relearn a new association which involved a differentiation of the previously shown stimuli. After reaching the learning criterion it was shown that the same features as in the previous experiment were evaluated differently. The experiments generally support the view that perceptual mechanisms of the signal receiver are crucial for individual recognition. Results are discussed in contrast to a 'theory of mind' approach in primate cognition.

  19. Analysis of the short wavelength-sensitive ("blue") cone mosaic in the primate retina: comparison of New World and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martin, P R; Grünert, U

    1999-03-29

    The distribution of short wavelength-sensitive (SWS or "blue") cone photoreceptors was compared in primates with dichromatic ("red-green colour blind") and trichromatic colour vision. We compared a New World species, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), with an Old World species, the macaque monkey (Macaca nemestrina). The SWS cones were identified by their immunoreactivity to an antiserum against the human SWS cone opsin. A single retina from a male capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) also was studied. The SWS cones make up less than 10% of all cone photoreceptors throughout the retina of all animals studied. In marmoset, the peak spatial density of SWS cones is close to 10,000/mm2 at the foveola. In macaque, the peak spatial density of SWS cones, close to 6,000/mm2, is at the fovea, but SWS cones are absent within 50 microm of the centre of the foveola. In both species, the density of SWS cones is higher on the nasal retinal axis than at corresponding eccentricities on the other retinal axes. The SWS cones in macaque are arranged in a semiregular array, but they are distributed randomly in marmoset. There is no difference in the spatial density or local arrangement of SWS cones between dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets. The results suggest that the SWS cone photoreceptor system is subject to different developmental and evolutionary constraints than those that have led to the formation of the red-green photoreceptor systems in primate vision. PMID:10100889

  20. Monkey Able Being Ready for preflight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Able, is being ready for placement into a capsule for a preflight test of Jupiter, AM-18 mission. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959 and also carried a rhesus monkey, Baker, into suborbit.

  1. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. PMID:27388917

  2. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  3. Precocious quantitative cognition in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-02-01

    Basic quantitative abilities are thought to have an innate basis in humans partly because the ability to discriminate quantities emerges early in child development. If humans and nonhuman primates share this developmentally primitive foundation of quantitative reasoning, then this ability should be present early in development across species and should emerge earlier in monkeys than in humans because monkeys mature faster than humans. We report that monkeys spontaneously make accurate quantity choices by 1 year of age in a task that human children begin to perform only at 2.5 to 3 years of age. Additionally, we report that the quantitative sensitivity of infant monkeys is equal to that of the adult animals in their group and that rates of learning do not differ between infant and adult animals. This novel evidence of precocious quantitative reasoning in infant monkeys suggests that human quantitative reasoning shares its early developing foundation with other primates. The data further suggest that early developing components of primate quantitative reasoning are constrained by maturational factors related to genetic development as opposed to learning experience alone. PMID:26187058

  4. Precocious quantitative cognition in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-02-01

    Basic quantitative abilities are thought to have an innate basis in humans partly because the ability to discriminate quantities emerges early in child development. If humans and nonhuman primates share this developmentally primitive foundation of quantitative reasoning, then this ability should be present early in development across species and should emerge earlier in monkeys than in humans because monkeys mature faster than humans. We report that monkeys spontaneously make accurate quantity choices by 1 year of age in a task that human children begin to perform only at 2.5 to 3 years of age. Additionally, we report that the quantitative sensitivity of infant monkeys is equal to that of the adult animals in their group and that rates of learning do not differ between infant and adult animals. This novel evidence of precocious quantitative reasoning in infant monkeys suggests that human quantitative reasoning shares its early developing foundation with other primates. The data further suggest that early developing components of primate quantitative reasoning are constrained by maturational factors related to genetic development as opposed to learning experience alone.

  5. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  6. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  7. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  8. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  9. Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in the milk of six species of New and Old world monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kohta; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Kimura, Kazumasa; Glander, Kenneth E.; Hinde, Katie; Dittus, Wolfgang; Milligan, Lauren A.; Power, Michael L.; Oftedal, Olav T.

    2010-01-01

    Human and great ape milks contain a diverse array of milk oligosaccharides, but little is known about the milk oligosaccharides of other primates, and how they differ among taxa. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk of three species of Old World or catarrhine monkeys (Cercopithecidae: rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), toque macaque (Macaca sinica) and Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas)) and three of New World or platyrrhine monkeys (Cebidae: tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) and Bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis); Atelidae: mantled howler (Alouatta palliata)). The milks of these species contained 6–8% total sugar, most of which was lactose: the estimated ratio of oligosaccharides to lactose in Old World monkeys (1:4 to 1:6) was greater than in New World monkeys (1:12 to 1:23). The chemical structures of the oligosaccharides were determined mainly by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc) were found in the milk of the rhesus macaque, toque macaque, Hamadryas baboon and tufted capuchin, but oligosaccharides containing the type I unit (Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc), which have been found in human and many great ape milks, were absent from the milk of all species studied. Oligosaccharides containing Lewis x (Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc) and 3-fucosyl lactose (3-FL, Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc) were found in the milk of the three cercopithecid monkey species, while 2-fucosyl lactose (5'-FL, Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was absent from all species studied. All of these milks contained acidic oligosaccharides that had N-acetylneuraminic acid as part of their structures, but did not contain oligosaccharides that had N-glycolylneuraminic acid, in contrast to the milk or colostrum of great apes which contain both types of acidic oligosaccharides. Two GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides, lactose 3′-O-sulfate and lacto-N-novopentaose I (Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc) were found only in the

  10. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  11. Systems biology of the vervet monkey.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, Anna J; Schmitt, Christopher A; Service, Susan K; Cantor, Rita M; Dewar, Ken; Jentsch, James D; Kaplan, Jay R; Turner, Trudy R; Warren, Wesley C; Weinstock, George M; Woods, Roger P; Freimer, Nelson B

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an international collaboration to develop the vervet monkey as the most comprehensively phenotypically and genomically characterized NHP, a process that will enable the scientific community to employ this model for systems biology investigations.

  12. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  13. POLIOMYELITIS IN THE CYNOMOLGUS MONKEY

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Harold K.; Silverberg, Rosalie J.; Dong, Luther

    1944-01-01

    1. Poliomyelitis virus suspensions were atomized so as to produce dry droplet nuclei which, suspended in air, were introduced into a special infecting chamber and inhaled by test animals, both rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. 2. Without olfactory blockade, 5 of 7 rhesus and 6 of 7 cynomolgus monkeys developed poliomyelitis of the CNS with entry through the olfactory nerves. 3. With olfactory blockade, 2 of 35 rhesus and 4 of 10 cynomolgus monkeys developed this form of the disease by routes proved by serial sections of the olfactory bulbs not to have been olfactory. 4. The neural pathways of infection from the mucous surfaces to the CNS in the 4 cynomolgus monkeys with blockade were shown in 2 instances to have been the afferent fibers of the trigeminal nerve into the Gasserian ganglion and thence to its central connections in the pons-medulla; in another case this was the probable route. In one instance the pathway consisted of the sympathetic fibers of the nose or nasopharynx into the cervical sympathetic ganglia and thence into the uppermost levels of the thoracic cord. The routes in the 2 rhesus monkeys with non-olfactory takes were not accurately determined but in one there was suggestive evidence of entry through the trigeminal nerve. 5. Study of the peripheral ganglia in a number of exposed cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys, including several with no demonstrated involvement of the CNS, revealed lesions most constantly in the Gasserian ganglia; less so in the cervical sympathetics and still less so in the celiac. In 2 rhesus monkeys dying of other causes a few days after exposure, lesions were limited to the Gasserian ganglia. No evidence was found in any case of passage of infection from the celiac ganglia into the CNS. 6. The importance of the peripheral ganglia as intermediate stations in the centripetal passage of infection from the body surface is again emphasized. 7. Comparison of the present with a previous study suggests that infection by inhalation of

  14. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

  15. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad.

  16. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad. PMID:18186458

  17. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  18. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  19. Stereotypy in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Ridley, R M; Baker, H F

    1982-02-01

    Stereotyped movements are described in monkeys and humans and are classified as arising from constraint, sensory deprivation in infancy, amphetamine treatment or psychotic states. It is argued that, with the exception of cage stereotypies, stereotyped behaviour is evidence of abnormality in the nervous system consequent upon distorted maturational processes, organic defect or biochemical disturbance. Stereotypy is associated with a state of cognitive inflexibility and social and sensory isolation in humans and monkeys. It is suggested that, while no simple biochemical disturbance in the brain can describe these various occurrences of stereotypy, the cross-species occurrence of a syndrome of isolation, cognitive inflexibility and stereotypy implies a related mechanism mediating these divergent effects. If stereotypy is regarded as a consequence of failure to use sensory input to direct behaviour, therapeutic regimes designed to stimulate responsive behaviours and social interactions are more likely to be effective in the long run than direct attempts to suppress stereotypy.

  20. Animal behaviour: fair refusal by capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Clive D L

    2004-03-11

    Brosnan and de Waal report that capuchin monkeys show evidence of a sense of fairness or 'inequity aversion' because they rejected a less preferred reward when they saw a partner monkey receive a preferred reward for the same task. However, this does not show that monkeys are averse to inequity, only that they reject a lesser reward when better rewards are available. There are risks inherent in seeking anthropomorphic explanations for non-human behaviour.

  1. Real-time dopamine measurement in awake monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Erik W; Mitz, Andrew R; Cheer, Joseph F; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc). We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation. PMID:24921937

  2. Real-Time Dopamine Measurement in Awake Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Erik W.; Mitz, Andrew R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc). We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation. PMID:24921937

  3. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  4. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. PMID:25266590

  5. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  6. Periodic eye tracking in the monkey

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, A. F.

    1967-01-01

    1. Eye movements were measured in monkeys trained for visual tracking. 2. In response to periodic square wave target movements, monkeys do not show a significant reduction in the latency of saccadic movements. 3. Under similar conditions, human beings subconsciously reduce their latency and after several cycles are in step with the target. 4. In response to sinusoidal targets, monkeys show a latency or phase lag which increases monotonically with frequency starting at 0·3 c/s. Human beings can remain in phase with the target at frequencies up to 1·0 c/s. 5. Hence, monkeys do not exhibit the human predictive tracking response. PMID:16992282

  7. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  8. The "vegetarian brain": chatting with monkeys and pigs?

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Meani, Alessandro; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A

    2013-09-01

    An array of brain regions in the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes cooperates to process observation and execution of actions performed by other individuals. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans might show brain responses to mouth actions performed by humans, monkeys, and pigs different from omnivores. We scanned 20 omnivores, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans while watching a series of silent videos, which presented a single mouth action performed by a human, a monkey, and a pig. Compared to omnivores, vegetarians and vegans have increased functional connectivity between regions of the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes versus the cerebellum during observation of mouth actions performed by humans and, to the same degree, animals. Vegans also had increased connectivity with the supplementary motor area. During human mouth actions, increased amygdala activity in vegetarians and vegans was found. More critically, vegetarians recruited the right middle frontal gyrus and insula, which are involved in social mirroring, whereas vegans activated the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, which are part of the mirror neuron system. Monkey mouth actions triggered language network activity in both groups, which might be due to the attempt to decode monkey mouth gesture, with an additional recruitment of associative temporo-occipital areas in vegans, whereas pig mouth actions activated empathy-related regions, including the anterior cingulum. These results support the role of the action observation-execution matching system in social cognition, which enables us to interact not only with our conspecifics but also with species in phylogenetic proximity to humans.

  9. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates.

  10. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  11. Test monkeys anesthetized by routine procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test monkeys are safely anesthetized for five minutes by confining them for less than six minutes in enclosures containing a controlled volume of ether. Thus the monkeys can be properly and safely positioned on test couches and fitted with electrodes or other devices prior to physiological tests.

  12. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  13. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  14. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  15. Androgen Resistance in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Katherine L; Westberry, Jenne M; Hubler, Tina R; Sadosky, Patti W; Singh, Ravinder J; Taylor, Robert L; Scammell, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the basis for high androgen levels in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). Mass spectrometry was used to analyze serum testosterone, androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone of male squirrel monkeys during the nonbreeding (n = 7) and breeding (n = 10) seasons. All hormone levels were elevated compared with those of humans, even during the nonbreeding season; the highest levels occurred during the breeding season. The ratio of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in squirrel monkeys is high during the breeding season compared to man. Squirrel monkeys may have high testosterone to compensate for inefficient metabolism to dihydrotestosterone. We also investigated whether squirrel monkeys have high androgens to compensate for low-activity androgen receptors (AR). The response to dihydrotestosterone in squirrel monkey cells transfected with AR and AR-responsive reporter plasmids was 4-fold, compared with 28-fold in human cells. This result was not due to overexpression of cellular FKBP51, which causes glucocorticoid and progestin resistance in squirrel monkeys, because overexpression of FKBP51 had no effect on dihydrotestosterone-stimulated reporter activity in a human fibroblast cell line. To test whether the inherently low levels of FKBP52 in squirrel monkeys contribute to androgen insensitivity, squirrel monkey cells were transfected with an AR expression plasmid, an AR-responsive reporter plasmid, and a plasmid expressing FKBP52. Expression of FKBP52 decreased the EC50 or increased the maximal response to dihydrotestosterone. Therefore, the high androgen levels in squirrel monkeys likely compensate for their relatively low 5α-reductase activity during the breeding season and AR insensitivity resulting from low cellular levels of FKBP52. PMID:18724781

  16. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  17. Endovascular ischemic stroke models of adult rhesus monkeys: a comparison of two endovascular methods

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Chen, Jian; Wang, Bincheng; Zhang, Mo; Shi, Jingfei; Ma, Yanhui; Zhu, Zixin; Yan, Feng; He, Xiaoduo; Li, Shengli; Dornbos III, David; Ding, Yuchuan; Ji, Xunming

    2016-01-01

    To further investigate and improve upon current stroke models in nonhuman primates, infarct size, neurologic function and survival were evaluated in two endovascular ischemic models in sixteen rhesus monkeys. The first method utilized a micro-catheter or an inflatable balloon to occlude the M1 segment in six monkeys. In the second model, an autologous clot was injected via a micro-catheter into the M1 segment in ten monkeys. MRI scanning was performed on all monkeys both at baseline and 3 hours after the onset of ischemia. Spetzler neurologic functions were assessed post-operatively, and selective perfusion deficits were confirmed by DSA and MRI in all monkeys. Animals undergoing micro-catheter or balloon occlusion demonstrated more profound hemiparesis, larger infarct sizes, lower Spetzler neurologic scores and increased mortality compared to the thrombus occlusion group. In animals injected with the clot, there was no evidence of dissolution, and the thrombus was either near the injection site (M1) or flushed into the superior division of the MCA (M2). All animals survived the M2 occlusion. M1 occlusion with thrombus generated 50% mortality. This study highlighted clinically important differences in these two models, providing a platform for further study of a translational thromboembolic model of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27534985

  18. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  19. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago

    2016-07-11

    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution. PMID:27404235

  20. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago

    2016-07-11

    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution.

  1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    PubMed

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  2. Electroporation of cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Masataka; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Mizutani, Ken-Ichi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2003-12-01

    Efficient genetic modification of primate embryonic stem (ES) cells is essential for the application for both basic and preclinical research. The transfection efficiency of primate ES cells is reportedly lower than that of mouse ES cells. Cynomolgus monkey ES cells provide a powerful model for understanding human development and disease. We evaluated electroporation as a method to introduce foreign genes into cynomolgus monkey ES cells. Our examination has allowed us to establish a protocol producing about 100 stably transfected clones from 10(7) cynomolgus monkey ES cells. Differences in efficiency, however, were observed for other ES cell lines. We compared the transcriptional activities of the PGK-1, CMV, and SV40 promoters in cynomolgus monkey ES cells generating efficient G418 selection. Although the PGK-1 and SV40 promoters efficiently drove neo gene expression, the CMV promoter was significantly less transcriptionally active in cynomolgus monkey ES cells. Using this electroporation method, we established fluorescent cynomolgus monkey ES cell lines. These cells may be useful tools for tracing grafted cells in transplantation studies using a variety of functional cells derived from cynomolgus monkey ES cells.

  3. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  4. The Effects of Simultaneous Dual Focus Lenses on Refractive Development in Infant Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Baskar; Hung, Li-Fang; To, Chi-ho; Holden, Brien; Smith, Earl L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated the effects of two simultaneously imposed, competing focal planes on refractive development in monkeys. Methods. Starting at 3 weeks of age and continuing until 150 ± 4 days of age, rhesus monkeys were reared with binocular dual-focus spectacle lenses. The treatment lenses had central 2-mm zones of zero power and concentric annular zones with alternating powers of +3.0 diopter [D] and plano (pL or 0 D) (n = 7; +3D/pL) or −3.0 D and plano (n = 7; −3D/pL). Retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography were performed every 2 weeks throughout the treatment period. For comparison purposes data were obtained from monkeys reared with full field (FF) +3.0 (n = 4) or −3.0 D (n = 5) lenses over both eyes and 33 control animals reared with unrestricted vision. Results. The +3 D/pL lenses slowed eye growth resulting in hyperopic refractive errors that were similar to those produced by FF+3 D lenses (+3 D/pL = +5.25 D, FF +3 D = +4.63 D; P = 0.32), but significantly more hyperopic than those observed in control monkeys (+2.50 D, P = 0.0001). One −3 D/pL monkey developed compensating axial myopia; however, in the other −3 D/pL monkeys refractive development was dominated by the zero-powered portions of the treatment lenses. The refractive errors for the −3 D/pL monkeys were more hyperopic than those in the FF −3 D monkeys (−3 D/pL = +3.13 D, FF −3D = −1.69 D; P = 0.01), but similar to those in control animals (P = 0.15). Conclusions. In the monkeys treated with dual-focus lenses, refractive development was dominated by the more anterior (i.e., relatively myopic) image plane. The results indicate that imposing relative myopic defocus over a large proportion of the retina is an effective means for slowing ocular growth. PMID:25324283

  5. Vitreal syneresis in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stuck, B E; Talsma, D M; Beatrice, E S

    1977-11-01

    The eyes of 15 rhesus monkeys were evaluated. Various degrees of vitreal syneresis were observed in 28 of the 30 eyes. The observed vitreal structures varied from fine strands randomly spaced throughout the vitreous to thick, intertwining, fibrous networks with some clumping of the collagenous condensate at the fiber junctions. Qualitatively, the degree of syneresis was slightly more extensive in the eight older mature males than in the seven younger animals. In all animals a clear view of the fundus could be obtained with the ophthalmoscope. The vitreous structures may be one cause of variability in ocular dose-response relationships for exposure to laser radiation. The effect on retinal exposure experiments of the finer vitreal structure is considered minimal.

  6. Generation of Chimeric Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2011-01-01

    Summary Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the 4-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible. PMID:22225614

  7. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    SciTech Connect

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin.

  8. Chromosome evolution in new world monkeys (Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, E H C; Neusser, M; Müller, S

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, New World monkey (NWM, Platyrrhini, Anthropoideae) comparative cytogenetics has shed light on many fundamental aspects of genome organisation and evolution in this fascinating, but also highly endangered group of neotropical primates. In this review, we first provide an overview about the evolutionary origin of the inferred ancestral NWM karyotype of 2n = 54 chromosomes and about the lineage-specific chromosome rearrangements resulting in the highly divergent karyotypes of extant NWM species, ranging from 2n = 16 in a titi monkey to 2n = 62 in a woolly monkey. Next, we discuss the available data on the chromosome phylogeny of NWM in the context of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In the last part, we highlight some recent research on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the large-scale evolutionary genomic changes in platyrrhine monkeys.

  9. Simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalingam, Ravi Traina-Dorge, Vicki Wellish, Mary Lorino, Rebecca Sanford, Robert Ribka, Erin P. Alleman, Scott J. Brazeau, Elizabeth Gilden, Donald H.

    2007-11-10

    SVV infection of primates closely resembles VZV infection of humans. Like VZV, SVV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. We used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. Cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with SVV were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. Of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of subclinical reactivation. Another non-immunosuppressed latently infected monkey that was subjected to the same stress of travel and isolation showed features of subclinical reactivation. Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.

  10. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  11. The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Meryl L.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness was investigated using test conditions that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness in squirrel monkeys. Ten male rhesus monkeys and ten male Bolivian squirrel monkeys were rotated in the vertical axis at 150 deg/s for a maximum duration of 45 min. Each animal was tested in two conditions, continuous rotation and intermittent rotation. None of the rhesus monkeys vomited during the motion tests but all of the squirrel monkeys did. Differences were observed between the species in the amount of activity that occurred during motion test, with the squirrel monkeys being significantly more active than the rhesus monkeys. These results, while substantiating anecdotal reports of the resistance of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness, should be interpreted with caution because of the documented differences that exist between various species with regard to stimuli that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness.

  12. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  13. Sequential planning in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Danly, Erin; Morgan, Gin; Colombo, Michael; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the planning abilities of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by training them on a five-item list composed of coloured photographs and then testing them on switch and mask trials. In contrast to previous studies where monkeys made responses using a joystick, in the current study, monkeys made responses directly to a touch screen. On switch trials, after a response to the first list item, the on-screen positions of two list items were exchanged. Performance on trials in which the second and third list items were exchanged was poorer compared to normal (non-switch) trials for all subjects. When the third and fourth items were exchanged, however, only one subject continued to show performance deficits. On mask trials, following a response to the first item, the remaining items were covered by opaque white squares. When two items were masked, all four subjects responded to each masked item at a level significantly above chance. When three items were masked, however, only one subjected was able to respond to all three masked items at a level significantly above chance. The results of the present study indicate that three of our four monkeys planned one response ahead while a single monkey planned two responses ahead. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to previous studies on planning in chimpanzees and monkeys. PMID:21184125

  14. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  15. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, David F.; Krauss, Achim H.-P.; Nilsson, Siv F. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96 ± 0.19 μL min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37 ± 0.27 μL min−1 (n = 6; P < .05) in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42 ± 0.05 μL min−1 at baseline and 0.42 ± 0.04 μL min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow. PMID:20508775

  16. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  17. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte scan ... will be taken from one of your veins. White blood cells are separated from the rest of the blood ... 111. These cells are considered tagged. The tagged white blood cells are injected back into your body through a ...

  18. SLO angiography: arterio-venous filling times in monkey and minipig.

    PubMed

    Rosolen, Serge G; Saint-Macary, Gérard; Gautier, Vincent; Le Gargasson, Jean-François

    2002-03-01

    Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) is a new technique which enables ocular fundus image recording and dynamic retinal angiography to be performed. The ocular fundus image is acquired sequentially, point by point, and is reconstructed on a video monitor at the rate of 25 images per second. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring retinal arterio-venous filling times (AVFT) with a I + Tech cSLO. Three young adult cynomolgus monkeys and three young adult Göttingen minipigs were used as experimental models. All animals were anesthetized using a zolazepam + tiletamine mixture injected intramuscularly; heart rate and rectal temperature were monitored and corneal irrigation was regularly performed. For all subjects, prior to examination, hematocrit and globe axial length were measured. The images were recorded, stabilized and analyzed. The retinal examination consisted of retinal images with 40 degrees field cSLO, retinal fluorescein angiography and arterio-venous 50% filling time measurements. For each subject all images were easily recorded while keeping the animals in a normally lighted room without having to use any additional optical device. AVFT using an I + Tech cSLO is easily performed in monkeys and minipigs. AVFT measurements in minipigs and monkeys are similar. These results suggest that minipigs can replace monkeys as an experimental species for AVFT investigations. PMID:11940243

  19. Circadian phase relationships in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Wekstein, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two adult male pigtail monkeys were placed in an isolated, soundproofed chamber (entered for cleaning only) for a period of six months, during which time their deep body temperatures T sub DB, telemetered from transmitters implanted in the abdominal cavity), fluid intake, urinary output (UV), urinary sodium and potassium were continuously monitored. During the first 3 1/2 months, lights (L) were turned on at 0000 hours, off at 1200 hours. Photoperiod phase was then delayed (light span prolonged) 6 hours to a new schedule: L on at 0600 hours, off at 1800 hours. Six weeks later, photoperiod phase was advanced 6 hours to return to the original schedule. Prior to shift, T sub DB typically began a steep rise 0-5 hours prior to L on, a steep fall 3-4 hours prior to L off, relative plateaus in between. Urinary Na typically peaks 2 hours prior to L off, has a minimum 2-4 hours prior to L on; K tends both to peak and show a minimum 2-8 hours earlier than Na; in contrast, UV peaks at L on, has a minimum 2-6 hours after L off. Upon delaying photoperiod phase, T sub DB shift was completed in 8 days. UV shifted more rapidly but tended to overshoot the new phase. Within 5 days, UV and K completed their shifts, although Na did not fully resynchronize within the 6 week period monitored.

  20. DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161106.html DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study ... THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental DNA-based vaccine protected monkeys from infection with the ...

  1. Evaluation of the immunological cellular response of Cebus apella exposed to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and treated with CANOVA®.

    PubMed

    Feio, Danielle Cristinne Azevedo; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; De Brito Junior, Lacy Cardoso; De Lima, Patrícia Danielle Lima

    2014-01-01

    The immune response modifier Canova® is a homeopathic remedy indicated for patients with depressed immune system, since this drug appears to increase adaptive immunity and induce an immune response against multiple and severe pathological conditions, including cancer. We evaluated the pattern of immune cellular response in non-human primates of the species Cebus apella exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with and without Canova®. Twelve animals were divided into four groups, with three animals each: negative control and three experimental groups, MNU-alone (35 days); MNU (35 days)-plus-Canova® (3 days) and Canova®-alone (3 days). The animals received MNU orally and Canova® by three intravenous injections. Evaluation of the cellular immune response was performed by immunophenotyping of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+)), B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Analysis was also performed of the cell cycle. Our results suggest an increase of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+)CD3(+)) only in the Canova® group, while in the MNU-plus-Canova® group only B-lymphocytes increased. PMID:25189897

  2. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  3. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    PubMed

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-01

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  4. Evaluation of the Differences of Myocardial Fibers between Acute and Chronic Myocardial Infarction: Application of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Rhesus Monkey Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqing; Cai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Xia, Rui; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand microstructural changes after myocardial infarction (MI), we evaluated myocardial fibers of rhesus monkeys during acute or chronic MI, and identified the differences of myocardial fibers between acute and chronic MI. Materials and Methods Six fixed hearts of rhesus monkeys with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 1 hour or 84 days were scanned by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and helix angle (HA). Results Comparing with acute MI monkeys (FA: 0.59 ± 0.02; ADC: 5.0 ± 0.6 × 10-4 mm2/s; HA: 94.5 ± 4.4°), chronic MI monkeys showed remarkably decreased FA value (0.26 ± 0.03), increased ADC value (7.8 ± 0.8 × 10-4mm2/s), decreased HA transmural range (49.5 ± 4.6°) and serious defects on endocardium in infarcted regions. The HA in infarcted regions shifted to more components of negative left-handed helix in chronic MI monkeys (-38.3 ± 5.0°–11.2 ± 4.3°) than in acute MI monkeys (-41.4 ± 5.1°–53.1 ± 3.7°), but the HA in remote regions shifted to more components of positive right-handed helix in chronic MI monkeys (-43.8 ± 2.7°–66.5 ± 4.9°) than in acute MI monkeys (-59.5 ± 3.4°–64.9 ± 4.3°). Conclusion Diffusion tensor MRI method helps to quantify differences of mechanical microstructure and water diffusion of myocardial fibers between acute and chronic MI monkey's models. PMID:27587961

  5. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  6. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  7. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  8. Perineal scanning.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; d'Alton, M; Romero, R; Hobbins, J C

    1986-10-01

    Although various techniques have been described to aid in the ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa and incompetent cervix, these maneuvers depend on the precise identification of the internal cervical os, a feat which is notoriously difficult to accomplish consistently. In an attempt to get a closer view of the cervix we tried another approach. This simple technique of perineal scanning has the potential to help considerably with these problems. PMID:3530265

  9. The surface topography of the colonic crypt in rabbit and monkey.

    PubMed

    Specian, R D; Neutra, M R

    1981-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the epithelial topography of the surface and crypt in rabbit and monkey colon. Crypt openings in monkey colon are arranged in a hexagonal pattern, in sharp contrast to rabbit colon where they are randomly arrayed and frequently hidden by epithelial folds. Crypt lumens were exposed by freezing ethanol-dehydrated tissue in liquid nitrogen and fracturing the tissue with a razor blade. The resulting overview of crypt-cell luminal surfaces showed that as columnar cells mature and migrate up the crypt and onto the colonic surface, their microvilli become progressively more abundant. Goblet cells were readily identified in the cross-fractured crypt epithelium; their luminal surfaces are characterized by short, sparse microvilli. The changing appearance of the luminal surface of goblet cells was visualized by SEM during the exocytosis of single mucous granules from unstimulated crypt goblet cells, and during the compound exocytosis of multiple granules in response to acetylcholine. PMID:7282569

  10. Aging: Lessons for Elderly People from Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Crockford, Catherine

    2016-07-11

    As life expectancy increases, health in the elderly is a growing issue. Health is linked to remaining socially active, but the elderly typically narrow their social networks. The social life of aging monkeys shows interesting parallels, indicating social patterns may be rooted in evolution. PMID:27404240

  11. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  12. Rosalie: the Brazilian female monkey of Charcot.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Arruda, Walter O; Werneck, Lineu C

    2005-09-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.

  13. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  14. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Sulzman, F M; Fuller, C A; Moore-Ede, M C

    1977-11-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation was examined on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys. In the absence of other time cues, 24-h cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 h with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined. PMID:412829

  15. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-01

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys. PMID:27610562

  16. Nitric oxide regulation of monkey myometrial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Kuenzli, Karri A; Buxton, Iain L O; Bradley, Michael E

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the nitric oxide (NO) donor CysNO (S-nitroso-L-cysteine) and endogenous NO upon spontaneous contractility in non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We also assessed the role of intracellular guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate ([cyclic GMP]i) as a second messenger for NO in monkey uterine smooth muscle.CysNO reduced spontaneous contractility by 84% (P<0.05) at maximal concentrations, and significantly elevated [cyclic GMP]i (P<0.05). However, increases in [cyclic GMP]i were not required for CysNO-induced relaxations; CysNO inhibited contractile activity despite the complete inhibition of guanylyl cyclase by methylene blue or LY83,583.Analogues of cyclic GMP had no significant effect upon spontaneous contractile activity. L-arginine produced a 62% reduction in spontaneous activity (P<0.05) while D-arginine had no effect. The competitive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) not only blocked L-arginine-induced relaxations, but also significantly increased spontaneous contractile activity when added alone (P<0.05); the inactive D-enantiomer of NOARG had no such effect.While both endogenous NO and the NO donor CysNO relax monkey myometrium, this effect is not causally related to CysNO-induced elevations in [cyclic GMP]i. The failure of cyclic GMP analogues to alter monkey uterine smooth muscle tension also argues against a role for [cyclic GMP]i in the regulation of uterine contractility. Not only do these findings argue for the existence of a functionally-relevant NOS in the monkey uterus, but increases in contractile activity seen in the presence of NOS inhibitors suggest a role for NO in the moment-to-moment regulation of contractile activity in this organ. PMID:9630344

  17. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  18. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  19. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Underwood, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas' larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys' basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas. PMID:24187623

  20. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  1. Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Dimitrov, Dragan; Carmena, Jose M.; Crist, Roy; Lehew, Gary; Kralik, Jerald D.; Wise, Steven P.

    2003-09-01

    A paradigm is described for recording the activity of single cortical neurons from awake, behaving macaque monkeys. Its unique features include high-density microwire arrays and multichannel instrumentation. Three adult rhesus monkeys received microwire array implants, totaling 96-704 microwires per subject, in up to five cortical areas, sometimes bilaterally. Recordings 3-4 weeks after implantation yielded 421 single neurons with a mean peak-to-peak voltage of 115 ± 3 μV and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 5:1. As many as 247 cortical neurons were recorded in one session, and at least 58 neurons were isolated from one subject 18 months after implantation. This method should benefit neurophysiological investigation of learning, perception, and sensorimotor integration in primates and the development of neuroprosthetic devices.

  2. The pathology of innactivation in monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarz De Bourne, M. N.; Mcclure, H.; Keeling, M.

    1973-01-01

    Progress report on a long-term experiment using rhesus monkeys and designed to study the effects of isolation up to one year, as well as the effects of bed rest simulated by immobilization in a plaster cast for six months. The investigation includes histopathological and histochemical studies of these effects on various internal organs and tissues, and some of the preliminary results of these studies are presented and discussed.

  3. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  4. A triaxial accelerometer monkey algorithm for optimal sensor placement in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jingqing; Feng, Shuo; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Optimal sensor placement (OSP) technique is a vital part of the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Triaxial accelerometers have been widely used in the SHM of large-scale structures in recent years. Triaxial accelerometers must be placed in such a way that all of the important dynamic information is obtained. At the same time, the sensor configuration must be optimal, so that the test resources are conserved. The recommended practice is to select proper degrees of freedom (DOF) based upon several criteria and the triaxial accelerometers are placed at the nodes corresponding to these DOFs. This results in non-optimal placement of many accelerometers. A ‘triaxial accelerometer monkey algorithm’ (TAMA) is presented in this paper to solve OSP problems of triaxial accelerometers. The EFI3 measurement theory is modified and involved in the objective function to make it more adaptable in the OSP technique of triaxial accelerometers. A method of calculating the threshold value based on probability theory is proposed to improve the healthy rate of monkeys in a troop generation process. Meanwhile, the processes of harmony ladder climb and scanning watch jump are proposed and given in detail. Finally, Xinghai NO.1 Bridge in Dalian is implemented to demonstrate the effectiveness of TAMA. The final results obtained by TAMA are compared with those of the original monkey algorithm and EFI3 measurement, which show that TAMA can improve computational efficiency and get a better sensor configuration.

  5. Microwaves modify thermoregulatory behavior in squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Adair, E R; Adams, B W

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) trained to regulate environmental temperature (Ta) behaviorally were exposed in the far field of a horn antenna to ten-minute periods of 2,450 MHz CW microwaves. Incident power density ranged from 1 to 22 mW/cm2. The corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR), derived from temperature increments in saline-filled styrofoam models, ranged from 0.15 to 3.25 W/kg. Controls included exposure to infrared radiation equivalent incident energy and no radiation exposure. Normal thermo-regulatory behavior produces tight control over environmental and body temperatures; most monkeys select a Ta of 34-36 degrees C. Ten-minute exposures to 2,450 MHz CW microwaves at an incident power density of 6-8 mW/cm2 stimulated all animals to select a lower Ta. This threshold energy represents a whole-body SAR of 1.1 W/kg, about 20% of the resting metabolic rate of the monkey. Thermoregulatory behavior was highly efficient, and skin and rectal temperatures remained stable, even at 22 mW/cm2 where the preferred Ta was lowered by as much as 4 degrees C. No comparable reduction in selected Ta below control levels occurred during exposure to infrared radiation of equal incident power density.

  6. Microwaves modify thermoregulatory behavior in squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) trained to regulate environmental temperature (Ta) behaviorally were exposed in the far field of a horn antenna to ten-minute periods of 2,450 MHz CW microwaves. Incident power density ranged from 1 to 22 mW/cm2. The corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR), derived from temperature increments in saline-filled styrofoam models, ranged from 0.15 to 3.25 W/kg. Controls included exposure to infrared radiation equivalent incident energy and no radiation exposure. Normal thermo-regulatory behavior produces tight control over environmental and body temperatures; most monkeys select a Ta of 34-36 degrees C. Ten-minute exposures to 2,450 MHz CW microwaves at an incident power density of 6-8 mW/cm2 stimulated all animals to select a lower Ta. This threshold energy represents a whole-body SAR of 1.1 W/kg, about 20% of the resting metabolic rate of the monkey. Thermoregulatory behavior was highly efficient, and skin and rectal temperatures remained stable, even at 22 mW/cm2 where the preferred Ta was lowered by as much as 4 degrees C. No comparable reduction in selected Ta below control levels occurred during exposure to infrared radiation of equal incident power density.

  7. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  8. Hot-hand bias in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Tommy C; Wilke, Andreas; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2014-07-01

    Human decision-makers often exhibit the hot-hand phenomenon, a tendency to perceive positive serial autocorrelations in independent sequential events. The term is named after the observation that basketball fans and players tend to perceive streaks of high accuracy shooting when they are demonstrably absent. That is, both observing fans and participating players tend to hold the belief that a player's chance of hitting a shot are greater following a hit than following a miss. We hypothesize that this bias reflects a strong and stable tendency among primates (including humans) to perceive positive autocorrelations in temporal sequences, that this bias is an adaptation to clumpy foraging environments, and that it may even be ecologically rational. Several studies support this idea in humans, but a stronger test would be to determine whether nonhuman primates also exhibit a hot-hand bias. Here we report behavior of 3 monkeys performing a novel gambling task in which correlation between sequential gambles (i.e., temporal clumpiness) is systematically manipulated. We find that monkeys have better performance (meaning, more optimal behavior) for clumped (positively correlated) than for dispersed (negatively correlated) distributions. These results identify and quantify a new bias in monkeys' risky decisions, support accounts that specifically incorporate cognitive biases into risky choice, and support the suggestion that the hot-hand phenomenon is an evolutionary ancient bias.

  9. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  10. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies. PMID:26989299

  11. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CEBUS CAPUCINA (THE SOUTH AMERICAN RINGTAIL MONKEY) AND CERCOPITHECUS CEPHUS (THE AFRICAN MUSTACHE MONKEY) TO POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Paul, John R.

    1943-01-01

    1. The South American ringtail monkey, Cebus capucina, has been infected with the virus of poliomyelitis as found in ultracentrifuged concentrates from poliomyelitic human stools. 2. This species was also found susceptible to poliomyelitis virus found in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cords, representing early generations of virus derived from two different human sources and from flies trapped in an epidemic area. 3. The Hartford strain of poliomyelitis has been successfully established in different generations in Cebus capucina monkeys. 4. The African mustache monkey, Cerocopithecus cephus, has been infected with poliomyelitis virus by the intra- and subcutaneous routes as readily as the green African monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, and the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. PMID:19871327

  12. Kittens as therapists: social behavior sequences in isolated squirrel monkeys after exposure to young nonconspecifics.

    PubMed

    Huebner, D K; King, J E

    1984-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys that had been exposed to repeated separations from cloth surrogates were given continuous access to domestic kittens. Information-theoretic measures showed that these monkeys exerted greater constraint on behaviors of adult feral squirrel monkeys than did monkeys who had not received previous kitten exposure. The latter monkeys displayed a behavioral encapsulation characterized by increased susceptibility to the constraint imposed by their own preceding behaviors and a decreased susceptibility to constraint from other monkeys' behaviors. In addition, kitten-reared monkeys displayed a high level of positive social behaviors, particularly following noncohesive or divisive behaviors by another monkey. PMID:6724141

  13. Cerebrovascular amyloidosis in squirrel monkeys and rhesus monkeys: apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Morelli, L; Wei, L; Amorim, A; McDermid, J; Abee, C R; Frangione, B; Walker, L C; Levy, E

    1996-01-29

    Some neuropathological changes characteristic of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans are present also in senescent non-human primates. The human apoE4 allele is associated with an increased risk of developing late-onset familial and sporadic AD. We found that rhesus monkeys and three subspecies of squirrel monkeys are homozygous for apoE phenotype with arginine at positions 112 and 158 as in human apoE4. However, in both species threonine replaces arginine at position 61 of human apoE. It was previously shown that arginine 61 was critical in determining apoE4 lipoprotein distribution in humans.

  14. Intestinal manifestations of experimental SIV-infection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, E M; Mätz-Rensing, K; Stahl-Hennig, C; Makoschey, B; Hunsmann, G; Kaup, F J

    1997-10-01

    Intestinal lesions were studied in 32 rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with different strains of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac (251/32H, 251/32H-SPL and 251/MPBL) by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A spectrum of primary and secondary manifestations of SIV-infection were detected. Primary changes included 'SIV-enteropathy' in 12 monkeys and virus-induced syncytial giant cell formation (GCF) of the intestine in two animals. A primary virus-induced enteropathy occurred both as only histologically visible 'SIV-enteropathy' and as 'AIDS-enteropathy' accompanied by clinical signs of enteritis. Secondary opportunistic infections (Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium, Trichuris, Trichomonas, Spironucleus, Mycobacteria and Cytomegalovirus) were identified in 27 animals and three monkeys developed malignant lymphomas involving the intestinal tract. Compared to intestinal lesions in HIV-infected patients, differences were found concerning the incidence of GCF and the range of opportunistic infections, with cryptosporidium, cytomegalovirus and mycobacteria occurring in both SIV-infected macaques and AIDS patients. The present observations revealed that SIV-infected rhesus monkeys provide an excellent model both for studies on the pathogenesis of HIV-enteropathy and opportunistic infections and for the development of therapies against cryptosporidial, cytomegalovirus and mycobacteria infection. Comparison of three SIV-strains revealed differences in primary and secondary lesions observed: SIVmac251/MPBL was correlated with severe primary SIV-induced pathologic changes and SIVmac251-SPL-infected animals showed a higher incidence of malignant lymphomas. PMID:9394615

  15. Photopigments and colour vision in New World monkeys from the family Atelidae.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G H; Deegan, J F

    2001-04-01

    Most New World monkeys have an X-chromosome opsin gene polymorphism that produces a variety of different colour vision phenotypes. Howler monkeys (Alouatta), one of the four genera in the family Atelidae lack this polymorphism. Instead, they have acquired uniform trichromatic colour vision similar to that of Old World monkeys, apes and people through opsin gene duplication. In order to determine whether closely related monkeys share this arrangement, spectral sensitivity functions that allow inferences about cone pigments were measured for 56 monkeys from two other Atelid genera, spider monkeys (Ateles) and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix). Unlike howler monkeys, both spider and woolly monkeys are polymorphic for their middle- and long-wavelength cone photopigments. However, they also differ from other polymorphic New World monkeys in having two rather than three possible types of middle- and long-wavelength cone pigments. This feature directly influences the relative numbers of dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys. PMID:11321057

  16. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... creates detailed pictures of the body, including the pelvis and areas near the pelvis. The test may ...

  17. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by adding the slices together. ...

  18. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  19. Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and titi monkeys (Callicebus) in travel tasks.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D M

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel and titi monkeys were observed in a series of experiments in which the subjects' task was to move to a distant goal along above-ground pathways. The pathways were entirely visible to the subjects in all experiments. However, visual cues along the pathways (in Experiment I) and physical and spatial properties of the pathways (in Experiments II and III) were varied systematically in order to determine what effect features had upon selection of travel paths for monkeys of each species. Marked performance differences between the species were evident in these experiments, including differences in latency to move past the choice point, proportion of trials in which the shortest route was chosen first, and changes over test sessions in frequency of initial choice of the shortest route. In particular, titis tended to move past the choice point more slowly than squirrel monkeys; to pay more attention to distant properties of the pathways prior to making a decision, especially after experience in the test setting; and to prefer habitual pathways when these were available, whereas squirrel monkeys preferred novel routes when these were available. The relative "optimality" of decision making in these tasks in relation to species-typical modes of traveling and foraging in natural habitats is discussed. An alternative view of decision making, in which optimality is not assumed to be the only decision-making strategy, is suggested as an appropriate vehicle for further investigation into the sources of short-term variability in choice behavior. PMID:7223106

  20. Do monkeys think in metaphors? Representations of space and time in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Dustin J; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of space asymmetrically. Previous findings in humans have supported metaphor theory. Here, we investigate the relationship between time and space in a nonverbal species, by testing whether non-human primates show space-time interactions consistent with metaphor theory or with ATOM. We tested two rhesus monkeys and 16 adult humans in a nonverbal task that assessed the influence of an irrelevant dimension (time or space) on a relevant dimension (space or time). In humans, spatial extent had a large effect on time judgments whereas time had a small effect on spatial judgments. In monkeys, both spatial and temporal manipulations showed large bi-directional effects on judgments. In contrast to humans, spatial manipulations in monkeys did not produce a larger effect on temporal judgments than the reverse. Thus, consistent with previous findings, human adults showed asymmetrical space-time interactions that were predicted by metaphor theory. In contrast, monkeys showed patterns that were more consistent with ATOM.

  1. Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and titi monkeys (Callicebus) in travel tasks.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D M

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel and titi monkeys were observed in a series of experiments in which the subjects' task was to move to a distant goal along above-ground pathways. The pathways were entirely visible to the subjects in all experiments. However, visual cues along the pathways (in Experiment I) and physical and spatial properties of the pathways (in Experiments II and III) were varied systematically in order to determine what effect features had upon selection of travel paths for monkeys of each species. Marked performance differences between the species were evident in these experiments, including differences in latency to move past the choice point, proportion of trials in which the shortest route was chosen first, and changes over test sessions in frequency of initial choice of the shortest route. In particular, titis tended to move past the choice point more slowly than squirrel monkeys; to pay more attention to distant properties of the pathways prior to making a decision, especially after experience in the test setting; and to prefer habitual pathways when these were available, whereas squirrel monkeys preferred novel routes when these were available. The relative "optimality" of decision making in these tasks in relation to species-typical modes of traveling and foraging in natural habitats is discussed. An alternative view of decision making, in which optimality is not assumed to be the only decision-making strategy, is suggested as an appropriate vehicle for further investigation into the sources of short-term variability in choice behavior.

  2. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  3. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  4. Effects of Permanent Separation from Mother on Infant Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomi, Stephen; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A study designed to investigate the effects of permanent maternal separation in infant rhesus monkeys, 60, 90, and 120 days of age, and housed individually or in Paris. Monkeys separated at 90 days and housed individually showed the highest levels of disturbance. (DP)

  5. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  6. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  7. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  8. Social separation increases alcohol consumption in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, G W; McKinney, W T

    1985-01-01

    This study used 16 socially reared juvenile rhesus monkeys as subjects to test the hypothesis that social separation promotes alcohol consumption in this species. In the first part of the study, 12 monkeys were intermittently separated from their social groups, while 4 were separated before the beginning of the study and remained continuously separated. Refrigerated water or aspartame-sweetened water (vehicle) containing 6% alcohol (w/v) were presented after 4.5 h of fluid deprivation. Intermittently separated monkeys drank more alcohol during separation than when they were socially housed, and more than the continuously separated monkeys. Stable individual differences in consumption rate developed over repeated separations. These differences were not correlated with consumption of refrigerated water or vehicle, or with differential behavioral (locomotor) responses to social separation. This suggested that some monkeys were predisposed to drink more alcohol than others. The second part of the study determined whether established alcohol/vehicle consumption rates for all 16 monkeys were altered when the monkeys were not water deprived, and then when water and the vehicle were available at the same time as alcohol/vehicle. Among monkeys that drank the most (mean of 2.4 g/kg/h) and the least (mean of 0.8 g/kg/h), alcohol consumption was not affected. These results, combined with previous reports, suggest a neurobiological linkage between genetically based social attachment mechanisms, social stressors, and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and addiction in primates.

  9. Evidence that the extraocular motor nuclei innervate monkey palisade endings.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lars; May, Paul J; Pastor, Angel M; Streicher, Johannes; Blumer, Roland

    2011-02-01

    Palisade endings are found in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of almost every mammalian species, including primates. These nerve specializations surrounding the muscle fiber insertion have been postulated to be the proprioceptors of the EOMs. However, it was recently demonstrated that palisade endings have a cholinergic nature, which reopened the question of whether palisade endings are motor or sensory structures. In this work, we examined whether the cell bodies of palisade endings lie in EOM motor nuclei by injecting an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine, into the abducens nucleus of a macaque monkey. Tracer visualization in the lateral rectus muscle was combined with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and α-bungarotoxin staining. Analysis of the samples was performed by conventional light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. About 30% of the nerve fibers innervating the muscle were tracer positive. These were ChAT positive as well. Tracer positive nerve fibers established motor contacts on singly and multiply innervated muscle fibers, which were confirmed by α-bungarotoxin staining. At the transition between muscle and distal tendon, we found palisade endings that contained tracer. Palisade endings exhibited the classic morphology: axons arising from the muscle extend onto the tendon, then turn back 180° and terminate in a cuff of terminals around an individual muscle fiber tip. This finding suggests that the cell bodies of palisade endings lie in the EOM motor nuclei, which complements prior studies demonstrating a cholinergic, and possibly motor, phenotype for palisade endings.

  10. Realignment strategies for awake-monkey fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Stoewer, Steffen; Goense, Jozien; Keliris, Georgios A; Bartels, Andreas; Logothetis, Nikos K; Duncan, John; Sigala, Natasha

    2011-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments with awake nonhuman primates (NHPs) have recently seen a surge of applications. However, the standard fMRI analysis tools designed for human experiments are not optimal for NHP data collected at high fields. One major difference is the experimental setup. Although real head movement is impossible for NHPs, MRI image series often contain visible motion artifacts. Animal body movement results in image position changes and geometric distortions. Since conventional realignment methods are not appropriate to address such differences, algorithms tailored specifically for animal scanning become essential. We have implemented a series of high-field NHP specific methods in a software toolbox, fMRI Sandbox (http://kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/~stoewer/), which allows us to use different realignment strategies. Here we demonstrate the effect of different realignment strategies on the analysis of awake-monkey fMRI data acquired at high field (7 T). We show that the advantage of using a nonstandard realignment algorithm depends on the amount of distortion in the dataset. While the benefits for less distorted datasets are minor, the improvement of statistical maps for heavily distorted datasets is significant.

  11. Motion Sickness-Induced Food Aversions in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, M. Aaron; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned aversions to colored, flavored water were established in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by following consumption with 90 min of simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation. The experimental group (N= 13) drank significantly less of the green, almond-flavored test solution than did the control group (N=14) during three post-treatment preference testing days. Individual differences were noted in that two experimental monkeys readily drank the test solution after rotational stimulation. Only two of the experimental monkeys showed emesis during rotation, yet 10 monkeys in this group developed an aversion. These results suggest that: (1) motion sickness can be readily induced in Squirrel monkeys with simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation, and (2) that conditioned food aversions are achieved in the absence of emesis in this species.

  12. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  13. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E. ); Stephens, L.C.; Price, R.E.; Ang, K.K.; Peters, L.J. )

    1994-04-30

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D[sub 50] = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  15. The misbehaviour of a metacognitive monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Ken; Evans, Theodore A.; Menzel, Emilie; Smith, J. David; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Metacognition, the monitoring of one’s own mental states, is a fundamental aspect of human intellect. Despite tests in nonhuman animals suggestive of uncertainty monitoring, some authors interpret these results solely in terms of primitive psychological mechanisms and reinforcement regimes, where “reinforcement” is invariably considered to be the delivery and consumption of earned food rewards. Surprisingly, few studies have detailed the trial-by-trial behaviour of animals engaged in such tasks. Here we report ethology-based observations on a rhesus monkey completing sparse-dense discrimination problems, and given the option of escaping trials (i.e., responding “uncertain”) at its own choosing. Uncertainty responses were generally made on trials of high objective difficulty, and were characterized by long latencies before beginning visible trials, long times taken for response, and, even after controlling for difficulty, high degrees of wavering during response. Incorrect responses were also common in trials of high objective difficulty, but were characterized by low degrees of wavering. This speaks to the likely adaptive nature of “hesitation,” and is inconsistent with models which argue or predict implicit, inflexible information-seeking or “alternative option” behaviours whenever challenging problems present themselves, Confounding models which suggest that nonhuman behaviour in metacognition tasks is driven solely by food delivery/consumption, the monkey was also observed allowing pellets to accumulate and consuming them during and after trials of all response/outcome categories (i.e., whether correct, incorrect, or escaped). This study thus bolsters previous findings that rhesus monkey behaviour in metacognition tasks is in some respects disassociated from mere food delivery/consumption, or even the avoidance of punishment. These and other observations fit well with the evolutionary status and natural proclivities of rhesus monkeys

  16. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    PubMed

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience. PMID:17604913

  17. Which senses play a role in nonhuman primate food selection? A comparison between squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Freist, Pamela; Krause, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other senses may play in food selection. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess which senses are involved in the evaluation of food by two species of New World primates: the squirrel monkey and the spider monkey. To this end, six animals per species were repeatedly presented with both familiar and novel food items, and their behavior was videotaped and analyzed. To obtain a further indication of the relative importance of visual and chemosensory cues, the animals were also presented with familiar food items that were experimentally modified in color, odor, or both color and odor. The results demonstrate that squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys use olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues in addition to visual information to evaluate novel food, whereas they mainly inspect familiar food items visually prior to consumption. Our findings also show that in both species the use of nonvisual cues decreased rapidly with repeated presentations of novel food, suggesting a fast multimodal learning process. Further, the two species clearly differ in their relative use of nonvisual cues when evaluating novel or modified food, with spider monkeys relying more on olfactory cues than squirrel monkeys, and squirrel monkeys relying more on tactile cues compared to spider monkeys. PMID:17146790

  18. Mapping prefrontal circuits in vivo with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Janine M; Saad, Ziad S; Lizak, Martin J; Ortiz, Michael; Koretsky, Alan P; Richmond, Barry J

    2008-07-23

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) provides a powerful tool to study multisynaptic circuits in vivo and thereby to link information about neural structure and function within individual subjects. Making the best use of MEMRI in monkeys requires minimizing manganese-associated neurotoxicity, maintaining sensitivity to manganese-dependent signal changes and mapping transport throughout the brain without a priori anatomical hypotheses. Here, we performed intracortical injections of isotonic MnCl(2), comparisons of preinjection and postinjection scans, and voxelwise statistical mapping. Isotonic MnCl(2) did not cause cell death at the injection site, damage to downstream targets of manganese transport, behavioral deficits, or changes in neuronal responsiveness. We detected and mapped manganese transport throughout cortical-subcortical circuits by using voxelwise statistical comparisons of at least 10 preinjection and two postinjection scans. We were able to differentiate between focal and diffuse projection fields and to distinguish between the topography of striatal projections from orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in a single animal. This MEMRI approach provides a basis for combining circuit-based anatomical analyses with simultaneous single-unit recordings and/or functional magnetic resonance imaging in individual monkeys. Such studies will enhance our interpretations of functional data and our understanding of how neuronal activity is transformed as it propagates through a circuit. PMID:18650340

  19. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    PubMed Central

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  20. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys crack nuts dexterously.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Madhur; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2015-05-18

    Dexterous tool use has been crucial in the evolution of hominid percussive technology. According to Newell, "dexterity" is the ability of an organism to make goal-directed corrections in movements to optimize effort. Dexterous movements are smooth and effective and accomplish the same goal with less energy than less dexterous movements. Dexterity develops during the later phases of refining a motor skill as the actor becomes sensitive to the outcome of the preceding movement, or to its modulation. In the present study, we examined how wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus, at Fazenda Boa Vista in Piauí, Brazil, that routinely crack palm nuts using stones by placing them on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils) modulate the kinematic parameters of the strikes while processing a single tucum, Astrocaryum campestre nut. The monkeys cracked the nuts by repeatedly striking them with moderate force (i.e., not exceeding a threshold), rather than by striking them more forcefully once, and modulated the kinematic parameters of the current strike on the basis of the condition of the nut following the preceding strike (i.e., the development of any fracture or crack). Repeatedly striking the nuts with moderate force is energetically more efficient than forcefully striking them once and reduces the likelihood of smashing the kernel. Determining the changing energetic constraints of the task and dynamically optimizing movements using those as criteria are dexterous accomplishments. We discuss the implications of the present findings. PMID:25936553

  1. Opiate antagonists stimulate affiliative behaviour in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fabre-Nys, C; Meller, R E; Keverne, E B

    1982-04-01

    The effects of treating captive talapoin monkeys acutely (twice daily for 7 days) with naltrexone hydrochloride (0.25 mg 0.5 mg and 1 mg/kg intramuscular injections twice daily), naloxone hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg IM twice daily) and sulpiride (1.5 mg/kg IM twice daily) was studied in social pairs and singly caged animals. The behaviour of social pairs and endocrine changes in all treated monkeys were monitored before, during and after withdrawal of the course of drug treatment. Naltrexone and naloxone, but not sulpiride, significant increased grooming and grooming invitations while aggressive behaviour, self grooming, scratching and general locomotor activity were unaffected. There was an overall increase in LH, testosterone and cortisol in plasma samples taken 60 mins after opiate receptor blockade. Prolactin was unchanged but increased dramatically in animals treated with sulpiride. No significant endocrine changes were observed to precede the increased grooming behaviour which opiate receptor blockade induced. The behavioural changes reported for this primate support the view that positive affect arising from social bonds may be mediated by cerebral endorphin containing systems. PMID:6280208

  2. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kevin B; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Woolverton, William L

    2009-10-01

    The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays. Indifference points were calculated and discounting functions were established. Discounting functions for saccharin were well described by a hyperbolic function. Moreover, the discounting rates for saccharin in all six monkeys were comparable to those of other non-human animals responding for non-drug reinforcers. Also consistent with other studies of non-human animals, changing the amount of a saccharin reinforcer available after a 10-s delay did not affect its relative subjective value. Discounting functions for saccharin were steeper than we found in a previous study with cocaine, raising the possibility that drugs such as cocaine may be discounted less steeply than non-drug reinforcers. PMID:19540317

  3. Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Woolverton, William L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    The present, subjective value of a reinforcer typically decreases as a function of the delay to its receipt, a phenomenon termed delay discounting. Delay discounting, which is assumed to reflect impulsivity, is hypothesized to play an important role in drug abuse. The present study examined delay discounting of cocaine injections by rhesus monkeys. Subjects were studied on a discrete-trials task in which they chose between 2 doses of cocaine: a smaller, immediate dose and a larger, delayed dose. The immediate dose varied between 0.012 and 0.4 mg/kg/injection, whereas the delayed dose was always 0.2 mg/kg/injection and was delivered after a delay that varied between 0 and 300 s in different conditions. At each delay, the point at which a monkey chose the immediate and delayed doses equally often (i.e., the ED50) provided a measure of the present, subjective value of the delayed dose. Dose-response functions for the immediate dose shifted to the left as delay increased. The amount of the immediate dose predicted to be equal in subjective value to the delayed dose decreased as a function of the delay, and hyperbolic discounting functions provided good fits to the data (median R(2)=.86). The current approach may provide the basis for an animal model of the effect of delay on the subjective value of drugs of abuse. PMID:17563210

  4. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys crack nuts dexterously.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Madhur; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2015-05-18

    Dexterous tool use has been crucial in the evolution of hominid percussive technology. According to Newell, "dexterity" is the ability of an organism to make goal-directed corrections in movements to optimize effort. Dexterous movements are smooth and effective and accomplish the same goal with less energy than less dexterous movements. Dexterity develops during the later phases of refining a motor skill as the actor becomes sensitive to the outcome of the preceding movement, or to its modulation. In the present study, we examined how wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus, at Fazenda Boa Vista in Piauí, Brazil, that routinely crack palm nuts using stones by placing them on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils) modulate the kinematic parameters of the strikes while processing a single tucum, Astrocaryum campestre nut. The monkeys cracked the nuts by repeatedly striking them with moderate force (i.e., not exceeding a threshold), rather than by striking them more forcefully once, and modulated the kinematic parameters of the current strike on the basis of the condition of the nut following the preceding strike (i.e., the development of any fracture or crack). Repeatedly striking the nuts with moderate force is energetically more efficient than forcefully striking them once and reduces the likelihood of smashing the kernel. Determining the changing energetic constraints of the task and dynamically optimizing movements using those as criteria are dexterous accomplishments. We discuss the implications of the present findings.

  5. Vestibuloocular reflex of rhesus monkeys after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard; Kozlovskaia, Inessa; Raphan, Theodore; Solomon, David; Helwig, Denice; Cohen, Nathaniel; Sirota, Mikhail; Iakushin, Sergei

    1992-01-01

    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of two rhesus monkeys was recorded before and after 14 days of spaceflight. The gain (eye velocity/head velocity) of the horizontal VOR, tested 15 and 18 h after landing, was approximately equal to preflight values. The dominant time constant of the animal tested 15 h after landing was equivalent to that before flight. During nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), the latency, rising time constant, steady-state eye velocity, and phase of modulation in eye velocity and eye position with respect to head position were similar in both monkeys before and after flight. There were changes in the amplitude of modulation of horizontal eye velocity during steady-state OVAR and in the ability to discharge stored activity rapidly by tilting during postrotatory nystagmus (tilt dumping) after flight: OVAR modulations were larger, and tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested on the day of landing and for several days thereafter. If the gain and time constant of the horizontal VOR exchange in microgravity, they must revert to normal soon after landing. The changes that were observed suggest that adaptation to microgravity had caused alterations in way that the central nervous system processes otolith input.

  6. Squirrel Monkey Requirements for Chronic Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined: (1) the ability of a small non-human primate to tolerate chronic centrifugation on a centrifuge with a radius of 0.9 m, and (2) the influence of centrifuge radius on the response of primates to hyperdynamic fields. Eight adult male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 1.5 g via centrifugation at two different radii (0.9 m and 3.0 m). Body temperature, activity, feeding and drinking were monitored. These primates did tolerate and adapt to 1.5G via centrifugation on either radius centrifuge. The results show, however, that centrifuge radius does have an effect on the responses of the primate to the hyperdynamic environment. Adaptation to the hyperdynamic environment occurred more quickly on the larger centrifuge. This study demonstrates that a small, non-human primate model, such as the squirrel monkey, could be used on a 0.9 m radius centrifuge such as is being considered by the NASA Space Station Program.

  7. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  8. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Ferraro, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.; Klimovitsky, V.; Magedov, V.; Alpatov, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer.

  9. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kevin B; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Woolverton, William L

    2009-10-01

    The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays. Indifference points were calculated and discounting functions were established. Discounting functions for saccharin were well described by a hyperbolic function. Moreover, the discounting rates for saccharin in all six monkeys were comparable to those of other non-human animals responding for non-drug reinforcers. Also consistent with other studies of non-human animals, changing the amount of a saccharin reinforcer available after a 10-s delay did not affect its relative subjective value. Discounting functions for saccharin were steeper than we found in a previous study with cocaine, raising the possibility that drugs such as cocaine may be discounted less steeply than non-drug reinforcers.

  10. Experimental pulmonary inflammatory injury in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Revak, S D; Rice, C L; Schraufstätter, I U; Halsey, W A; Bohl, B P; Clancy, R M; Cochrane, C G

    1985-09-01

    Inflammatory pulmonary injury was induced in Macaca mulatta rhesus monkeys by the intrabronchial instillation of the formylated peptide norleu-leu-phe (FNLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Indicators of pulmonary injury included an increase in mean protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 0.51 mg/ml in untreated animals to 3.74 mg/ml and 6.64 mg/ml in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals, respectively, the appearance of a diffuse pulmonary infiltrate in chest roentgenograms, and histologic evidence of a predominantly neutrophilic leukocytic infiltration. Concomitant with the appearance of pulmonary injury was the generation of proteases and oxidants in the BAL fluids. Neutrophil elastase, bound to alpha 1-protease inhibitor (alpha 1-PI), was found to increase from 0.47 micrograms/ml in untreated monkeys to 0.99 micrograms/ml in FNLP-treated animals and 1.23 micrograms/ml in monkeys receiving PMA. Radioiodinated human prekallikrein, instilled for 2 min into the inflammatory site and retrieved by lavaging, was found to have undergone proteolytic cleavage; this cleavage was not consistently inhibitable with the inclusion of antibody to elastase. BAL fluids were shown to contain an amidolytic activity when tested on the synthetic substrate H-D-pro-phe-arg-pNA. This activity was partially inhibitable with known inhibitors of active Hageman factor and kallikrein. beta-Glucuronidase levels in the BAL fluids increased from 0.85 U/ml to 4.36 U/ml and 8.25 U/ml in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels also increased from 1.37 OD U/ml X min to 16.59 and 30.47 OD U/ml X min in the same groups of animals. Oxidant generation was also assessed in several different ways. The specific activity of the oxidant-sensitive inhibitor alpha 1-PI recovered in the BAL fluid decreased from 0.80 in control samples to 0.57 and 0.65 in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals. That this inactivation was due to oxidant injury of the molecule was confirmed

  11. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  12. Germline transmission in transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Sean; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S.; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Jean, Sherrie; Gould, Kenneth; Chan, Anthony W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic nonhuman primate models are increasingly popular model for neurological and neurodegenerative disease because their brain functions and neural anatomies closely resemble those of humans [1–6]. Transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys (HD monkeys) developed clinical features similar to those seen in HD patients, making the monkeys suitable for preclinical study of HD [6–12]. However, until HD monkey colonies can be readily expanded, their use in preclinical studies will be limited [1, 13, 14]. In the present study, we confirmed germline transmission of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) transgene in both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated from three male HD monkey founders (F0), as well as in second-generation offspring (F1) produced via artificial insemination by using intrauterine insemination (IUI) technique. A total of five offspring were produced from fifteen females that were inseminated by IUI using semen collected from the three HD founders (5/15; 33%). Thus far, sperm collected from HD founder (rHD8) has led to two F1 transgenic HD moenkys with germline transmission rate at 100% (2/2). mHTT expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using skin fibroblasts from the F1 HD monkeys, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) established from one of the F1 HD monkeys (rHD8-2). Here we report the stable germline transmission and expression of the mHTT transgene in HD monkeys, which suggest possible expansion of HD monkey colonies for preclinical and biomedical researches. PMID:25917881

  13. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  14. A perspective on color vision in platyrrhine monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G H

    1998-11-01

    Studies carried out over the past two decades show that many platyrrhine (New World) monkeys have polymorphic color vision. This condition results from the sorting of allelic versions of X-chromosome cone opsin genes at a single gene site, yielding a mixture of dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes in the population. Two genera of platyrrhine monkey are known to deviate significantly from this pattern. Examination of color vision, photopigments, and photopigment genes of all of these monkeys have stimulated a renewed interest in understanding the evolution of primate color vision. PMID:9893842

  15. Transmission of Naturally Occurring Lymphoma in Macaque Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Ronald D.; Blake, Beverly J.; Chalifoux, Laura V.; Sehgal, Prabhat K.; King, Norval W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1983-08-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys.

  16. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... small amount of morphine. This can help the radionuclide get into the gallbladder. The morphine may cause ...

  17. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  18. Performance Monitoring in Monkey Frontal Eye Field

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dian; Ferrera, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    The frontal eye fields (FEF) are thought to mediate response selection during oculomotor decision tasks. In addition, many FEF neurons have robust postsaccadic responses, but their role in postchoice evaluative processes (online performance monitoring) is only beginning to become apparent. Here we report error-related neural activity in FEF while monkeys performed a biased speed-categorization task that enticed the animals to make impulsive errors. Twenty-three percent of cells in macaque FEF coded an internally generated error-related signal, and many of the same cells also coded task difficulty. The observed responses are primarily consistent with three related concepts that have been associated with performance monitoring: (1) response conflict; (2) uncertainty; and (3) reward prediction. Overall, our findings suggest a novel role for the FEF as part of the neural network that evaluates the preceding choice to optimize behavior in the future. PMID:24478349

  19. Neurobehavioral Development of Common Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Braun, Katarina M.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2016-01-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys are a resource for biomedical research and their use is predicted to increase due to the suitability of this species for transgenic approaches. Identification of abnormal neurodevelopment due to genetic modification relies upon the comparison with validated patterns of normal behavior defined by unbiased methods. As scientists unfamiliar with nonhuman primate development are interested to apply genomic editing techniques in marmosets, it would be beneficial to the field that the investigators use validated methods of postnatal evaluation that are age and species appropriate. This review aims to analyze current available data on marmoset physical and behavioral postnatal development, describe the methods used and discuss next steps to better understand and evaluate marmoset normal and abnormal postnatal neurodevelopment PMID:26502294

  20. Automatic brain segmentation in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Joshi, Sarang; Coe, Christopher; Short, Sarah J.; Gilmore, John

    2007-03-01

    Many neuroimaging studies are applied to primates as pathologies and environmental exposures can be studied in well-controlled settings and environment. In this work, we present a framework for both the semi-automatic creation of a rhesus monkey atlas and a fully automatic segmentation of brain tissue and lobar parcellation. We determine the atlas from training images by iterative, joint deformable registration into an unbiased average image. On this atlas, probabilistic tissue maps and a lobar parcellation. The atlas is then applied via affine, followed by deformable registration. The affinely transformed atlas is employed for a joint T1/T2 based tissue classification. The deformed atlas parcellation masks the tissue segmentations to define the parcellation. Other regional definitions on the atlas can also straightforwardly be used as segmentation. We successfully built average atlas images for the T1 and T2 datasets using a developmental training datasets of 18 cases aged 16-34 months. The atlas clearly exhibits an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio compared to the original images. The results further show that the cortical folding variability in our data is highly limited. Our segmentation and parcellation procedure was successfully re-applied to all training images, as well as applied to over 100 additional images. The deformable registration was able to identify corresponding cortical sulcal borders accurately. Even though the individual methods used in this segmentation framework have been applied before on human data, their combination is novel, as is their adaptation and application to rhesus monkey MRI data. The reduced variability present in the primate data results in a segmentation pipeline that exhibits high stability and anatomical accuracy.

  1. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  2. Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wright, A A; Rivera, J J; Hulse, S H; Shyan, M; Neiworth, J J

    2000-09-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were tested for octave generalization in 8 experiments by transposing 6- and 7-note musical passages by an octave and requiring same or different judgments. The monkeys showed no octave generalization to random-synthetic melodies, atonal melodies, or individual notes. They did show complete octave generalization to childhood songs (e.g., "Happy Birthday") and tonal melodies (from a tonality algorithm). Octave generalization was equally strong for 2-octave transpositions but not for 0.5- or 1.5-octave transpositions of childhood songs. These results combine to show that tonal melodies form musical gestalts for monkeys, as they do for humans, and retain their identity when transposed with whole octaves so that chroma (key) is preserved. This conclusion implicates similar transduction, storage, processing, and relational memory of musical passages in monkeys and humans and has implications for nature-nurture origins of music perception. PMID:11006902

  3. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  4. Color vision in the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Antônio C; Didonet, Julia J; Araújo, Carolina S; Saletti, Patrícia G; Borges, Tânia R J; Pessoa, Valdir F

    2008-01-01

    Electrophysiological and molecular genetic studies have shown that howler monkeys (Alouatta) are unique among all studied platyrrhines: they have the potential to display trichromatic color vision among males and females. This study examined the color discrimination abilities of four howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) through a series of tasks involving a behavioral paradigm of discrimination learning. The animals were maintained and housed as a group in the Zoological Gardens of Brasília and were tested in their own home cages. Stimuli consisting of pairs of Munsell color chips were presented in random brightness values to assure that discriminations were based on color rather than brightness cues. All the animals (three males, one female) successfully discriminated all the stimulus pairs, including those that would be expected to be difficult for a dichromatic monkey. These results are consistent with the earlier predictions suggesting that howler monkeys are routinely trichromatic. PMID:18598395

  5. Monkeys as a source of viral diseases in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pille, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Under institutional scientific-research conditions, during contact with monkeys or their tissues, there is a danger of infection of the associates by simian viruses which are pathogenic to man. Presented in this paper is information on these stimulants.

  6. Extinction Deficits in Socially Isolated Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, John P.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1976-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were reared in total isolation, in partial isolation, or under normal conditions with access to mothers and peers. Each group was compared on the rate of acquisition of a simple operant response. (GO)

  7. 49. Historic American Buildings Survey CARVING IN MONKEY LOGGIA PHOTOCOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Historic American Buildings Survey CARVING IN MONKEY LOGGIA PHOTOCOPY OF PLATE FROM IRVIN L. SCOOT, 'MARALAGO', THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT (JUNE 20, 1928), P. 809 - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  8. Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile River Playground comfort station, looking northwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  9. Polymorphism of photopigments in the squirrel monkey: a sixth phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, J K; Jacobs, G H; Mollon, J D

    1987-08-21

    We describe here a trichromatic type of squirrel monkey that resembles Old World monkeys in having two well-separated photopigments in the red-green part of the spectrum; the cones of this phenotype have peak sensitivities close to 430, 536 and 564 nm. The existence of such animals is predicted by a genetic model that postulates three alleles for a single locus on the X-chromosome of the squirrel monkey. The three alleles correspond to three different photopigments in the red-green spectral range. A male monkey, or a homozygous female, will be dichromatic, combining short-wave cones with just one of the cone types in the red-green range. But a female monkey, if heterozygous at the locus, draws any two of the three alleles from the set. X-chromosome inactivation ensures that the two alleles are expressed in different subpopulations of retinal cone, giving the monkey the basis for trichromatic colour vision. This model requires three trichromatic types of female squirrel monkey. The photopigment complements of two types have previously been reported and microspectrophotometric data are now given for the third type. Behaviourally, this third type of trichromat gives precise Rayleigh matches that are intermediate between those of the other two types of trichromat. The polymorphism of photopigments in the squirrel monkey may be maintained by the heterozygous advantage enjoyed by the trichromatic females. This would be an instructive instance of heterozygous advantage because it is a case where X-chromosome inactivation plays a crucial role in segregating the two different gene-products into different cells. PMID:2888125

  10. Spacelab flight simulated by two monkeys at CERMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langereux, P.

    1980-01-01

    A semiautomatic module for two monkeys was designed. The module shelters two Rhesus monkeys seated side by side in a compartment, reducing the emotional stresses caused by isolation. Food pellets, water, and air are supplied and body wastes are automatically removed. Physiological and environmental parameters are continually monitored, making possible the performance of experiments concerning the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disorders of weightlessness. A ten day flight of the module in Spacelab was simulated.

  11. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident. PMID:26758818

  12. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  13. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  14. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  15. Stereological Analysis of the Rat and Monkey Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Chareyron, Loïc J.; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G.; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala is part of a neural network that contributes to the regulation of emotional behaviors. Rodents, especially rats, are used extensively as model organisms to decipher the functions of specific amygdala nuclei, in particular in relation to fear and emotional learning. Analysis of the role of the nonhuman primate amygdala in these functions has lagged work in the rodent but provides evidence for conservation of basic functions across species. Here we provide quantitative information regarding the morphological characteristics of the main amygdala nuclei in rats and monkeys, including neuron and glial cell numbers, neuronal soma size, and individual nuclei volumes. The volumes of the lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei were, respectively, 32, 39, and 39 times larger in monkeys than in rats. In contrast, the central and medial nuclei were only 8 and 4 times larger in monkeys than in rats. The numbers of neurons in the lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei were 14, 11, and 16 times greater in monkeys than in rats, whereas the numbers of neurons in the central and medial nuclei were only 2.3 and 1.5 times greater in monkeys than in rats. Neuron density was between 2.4 and 3.7 times lower in monkeys than in rats, whereas glial density was only between 1.1 and 1.7 times lower in monkeys than in rats. We compare our data in rats and monkeys with those previously published in humans and discuss the theoretical and functional implications that derive from our quantitative structural findings. PMID:21618234

  16. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains. PMID:3914842

  17. Further Characterization of Quinpirole-Elicited Yawning as a Model of Dopamine D3 Receptor Activation in Male and Female Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Martelle, Susan E.; Nader, Susan H.; Czoty, Paul W.; John, William S.; Duke, Angela N.; Garg, Pradeep K.; Garg, Sudha; Newman, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has been associated with impulsivity, pathologic gambling, and drug addiction, making it a potential target for pharmacotherapy development. Positron emission tomography studies using the D3R-preferring radioligand [11C]PHNO ([11C](+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin) have shown higher binding potentials in drug abusers compared with control subjects. Preclinical studies have examined D3R receptor activation using the DA agonist quinpirole and the unconditioned behavior of yawning. However, the relationship between quinpirole-elicited yawning and D3R receptor availability has not been determined. In Experiment 1, eight drug-naive male rhesus monkeys were scanned with [11C]PHNO, and the ability of quinpirole (0.01–0.3 mg/kg i.m.) to elicit yawning was examined. Significant positive (globus pallidus) and negative (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral pallidum, and hippocampus) relationships between D3R receptor availability and quinpirole-induced yawns were noted. Experiment 2 replicated earlier findings that a history of cocaine self-administration (n = 11) did not affect quinpirole-induced yawning and extended this to examine monkeys (n = 3) with a history of methamphetamine (MA) self-administration and found that monkeys with experience self-administering MA showed greater potency and significantly higher quinpirole-elicited yawning compared with controls. Finally, quinpirole-elicited yawning was studied in drug-naive female monkeys (n = 6) and compared with drug-naive male monkeys (n = 8). Sex differences were noted, with quinpirole being more potent and eliciting significantly more yawns in males compared with females. Taken together these findings support the use of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a behavioral tool for examining D3R activation in monkeys and that both drug history and sex may influence individual sensitivity to the behavioral effects of D3R compounds. PMID:24876234

  18. Further characterization of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a model of dopamine D3 receptor activation in male and female monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martelle, Susan E; Nader, Susan H; Czoty, Paul W; John, William S; Duke, Angela N; Garg, Pradeep K; Garg, Sudha; Newman, Amy H; Nader, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has been associated with impulsivity, pathologic gambling, and drug addiction, making it a potential target for pharmacotherapy development. Positron emission tomography studies using the D3R-preferring radioligand [(11)C]PHNO ([(11)C](+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin) have shown higher binding potentials in drug abusers compared with control subjects. Preclinical studies have examined D3R receptor activation using the DA agonist quinpirole and the unconditioned behavior of yawning. However, the relationship between quinpirole-elicited yawning and D3R receptor availability has not been determined. In Experiment 1, eight drug-naive male rhesus monkeys were scanned with [(11)C]PHNO, and the ability of quinpirole (0.01-0.3 mg/kg i.m.) to elicit yawning was examined. Significant positive (globus pallidus) and negative (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral pallidum, and hippocampus) relationships between D3R receptor availability and quinpirole-induced yawns were noted. Experiment 2 replicated earlier findings that a history of cocaine self-administration (n = 11) did not affect quinpirole-induced yawning and extended this to examine monkeys (n = 3) with a history of methamphetamine (MA) self-administration and found that monkeys with experience self-administering MA showed greater potency and significantly higher quinpirole-elicited yawning compared with controls. Finally, quinpirole-elicited yawning was studied in drug-naive female monkeys (n = 6) and compared with drug-naive male monkeys (n = 8). Sex differences were noted, with quinpirole being more potent and eliciting significantly more yawns in males compared with females. Taken together these findings support the use of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a behavioral tool for examining D3R activation in monkeys and that both drug history and sex may influence individual sensitivity to the behavioral effects of D3R compounds.

  19. Further characterization of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a model of dopamine D3 receptor activation in male and female monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martelle, Susan E; Nader, Susan H; Czoty, Paul W; John, William S; Duke, Angela N; Garg, Pradeep K; Garg, Sudha; Newman, Amy H; Nader, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has been associated with impulsivity, pathologic gambling, and drug addiction, making it a potential target for pharmacotherapy development. Positron emission tomography studies using the D3R-preferring radioligand [(11)C]PHNO ([(11)C](+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin) have shown higher binding potentials in drug abusers compared with control subjects. Preclinical studies have examined D3R receptor activation using the DA agonist quinpirole and the unconditioned behavior of yawning. However, the relationship between quinpirole-elicited yawning and D3R receptor availability has not been determined. In Experiment 1, eight drug-naive male rhesus monkeys were scanned with [(11)C]PHNO, and the ability of quinpirole (0.01-0.3 mg/kg i.m.) to elicit yawning was examined. Significant positive (globus pallidus) and negative (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral pallidum, and hippocampus) relationships between D3R receptor availability and quinpirole-induced yawns were noted. Experiment 2 replicated earlier findings that a history of cocaine self-administration (n = 11) did not affect quinpirole-induced yawning and extended this to examine monkeys (n = 3) with a history of methamphetamine (MA) self-administration and found that monkeys with experience self-administering MA showed greater potency and significantly higher quinpirole-elicited yawning compared with controls. Finally, quinpirole-elicited yawning was studied in drug-naive female monkeys (n = 6) and compared with drug-naive male monkeys (n = 8). Sex differences were noted, with quinpirole being more potent and eliciting significantly more yawns in males compared with females. Taken together these findings support the use of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a behavioral tool for examining D3R activation in monkeys and that both drug history and sex may influence individual sensitivity to the behavioral effects of D3R compounds. PMID:24876234

  20. Frustrative nonreward and pituitary-adrenal activity in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Fong, K D; Schrieken, N; Levine, S

    2000-12-01

    Little is known about frustration-induced changes in stress physiology in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we assess in two experiments with squirrel monkeys plasma levels of pituitary-adrenal stress hormones in conditions designed to provoke frustrative nonreward. In the first experiment 18 prepubertal monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested without food at any of the sites. These monkeys responded with significant increases in cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the second experiment 18 adult monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested after food was moved to a different foraging site. Nine monkeys found food at the relocated site, discontinued foraging at the previously baited site, and responded with decreases in cortisol. The other nine monkeys failed to find the relocated site, initially increased their visits to the previously baited site, and responded with elevations in cortisol and ACTH. In keeping with comparable findings in rats, our observations indicate that frustrative nonreward elicits ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol in primates. PMID:11239675

  1. Tissue-specific expression of squirrel monkey chorionic gonadotropin

    PubMed Central

    Vasauskas, Audrey A.; Hubler, Tina R.; Boston, Lori; Scammell, Jonathan G.

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins LH and FSH play central roles in reproductive function. In Old World primates, LH stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone production in males. Recent studies have found that squirrel monkeys and other New World primates lack expression of LH in the pituitary. Instead, chorionic gonadotropin (CG), which is normally only expressed in the placenta of Old World primates, is the active luteotropic pituitary hormone in these animals. The goal of this study was to investigate the tissue-specific regulation of squirrel monkey CG. We isolated the squirrel monkey CGβ gene and promoter from genomic DNA from squirrel monkey B-lymphoblasts and compared the promoter sequence to that of the common marmoset, another New World primate, and human CGβ and LHβ. Using reporter gene assays, we found that a squirrel monkey CGβ promoter fragment (−1898/+9) is active in both mouse pituitary LβT2 and human placenta JEG3 cells, but not in rat adrenal PC12 cells. Furthermore, within this construct separate cis-elements are responsible for pituitary- and placenta-specific expression. Pituitary-specific expression is governed by Egr-1 binding sites in the proximal 250 bp of the promoter, whereas placenta-specific expression is controlled by AP-2 sites further upstream. Thus, selective expression of the squirrel monkey CGβ promoter in pituitary and placental cells is governed by distinct cis-elements that exhibit homology with human LHβ and marmoset CGβ promoters, respectively. PMID:21130091

  2. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  3. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  4. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  5. Mandibular adaptations following total maxillary osteotomy in adolescent monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nanda, R; Sugawara, J

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and remodeling changes of the mandible following superior anterior surgical repositioning (Le Fort I) of the maxilla in adolescent Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Eight adolescent monkeys served as controls, and seven monkeys underwent surgical procedures. All monkeys received tantalum implants on both sides of certain facial bones for stereometric and conventional cephalometry. The animals were followed up to 24 months postoperatively. Analysis of cephalometric head films taken at monthly intervals shows that both the maxillas and the mandibles of the experimental monkeys grew harmoniously, although the amount and direction of growth showed significant changes compared to the controls. The mandibles of experimental monkeys that underwent autorotation immediately following the surgical procedures showed 36 to 60 percent less growth as measured from condylion to menton, condylion to gonion, and gonion to menton. Similarly, the anterior dental-alveolar-symphyseal height showed 75 percent less increase as compared to the controls. The results show that, although the surgical procedure was performed on the maxilla, the mandibular growth showed significant modulation to adapt to the surgically changed maxillary environment. The role of occlusion and function is discussed in the context of the present findings.

  6. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  7. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Schroeder, Gabriel R.; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals “succeed” in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory. PMID:25365530

  8. Auditory Artificial Grammar Learning in Macaque and Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Smith, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level. PMID:24285889

  9. Facial expression recognition in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Heintz, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    The ability to recognize and accurately interpret facial expressions is critically important for nonhuman primates that rely on these nonverbal signals for social communication. Despite this, little is known about how nonhuman primates, particularly monkeys, discriminate between facial expressions. In the present study, seven rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate four categories of conspecific facial expressions using a matching-to-sample task. In experiment 1, the matching pair showed identical photographs of facial expressions, paired with every other expression type as the nonmatch. The identity of the nonmatching stimulus monkey differed from the one in the sample. Subjects performed above chance on session 1, with no difference in performance across the four expression types. In experiment 2, the identity of all three monkeys differed in each trial, and a neutral portrait was also included as the nonmatching stimulus. Monkeys discriminated expressions across individual identity when the non-match was a neutral stimulus, but they had difficulty when the nonmatch was another expression type. We analysed the degree to which specific feature redundancy could account for these error patterns using a multidimensional scaling analysis which plotted the perceived dissimilarity between expression dyads along a two-dimensional axis. One axis appeared to represent mouth shape, stretched open versus funnelled, while the other appeared to represent a combination of lip retraction and mouth opening. These features alone, however, could not account for overall performance and suggest that monkeys do not rely solely on distinctive features to discriminate among different expressions. PMID:20228886

  10. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Basile, Benjamin M; Schroeder, Gabriel R; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals "succeed" in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory.

  11. Scrub Typhus antibody in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heisey, G B; Gan, E; Shirai, A; Groves, M G

    1981-06-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, sera from 113 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), trapped in Peninsular Malaysia, were screened for the presence of antibody to six prototype strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi combined into three polyvalent groupings: I--Karp, TA716, and TA763; II--Gilliam; and III--TA678 and TH1817. Fifteen percent (17/113) of the monkeys had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:50 to one or more of the antigenic groups. Although a titer greater than or equal to 1:150 is generally considered indicative or prior Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection, we selected a less than 1:25 titer as a conservative standard to insure non-infected animals. Using this criterion, 62 (55%) of the 113 monkeys were accepted for use in scrub typhus studies. The high prevalence of antibody to scrub typhus in the semi-arboreal cynomolgus monkey is in marked contrast to the low prevalence reported in the strictly arboreal silvered leaf monkeys (Presbytis cristatus). The results of this study indicate that cynomolgus monkeys should be rigorously screened for evidence of prior infection before they are included in experimental scrub typhus studies.

  12. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism. PMID:25027164

  13. Control of working memory in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, whereas discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the 2 cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of 2 consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25546104

  14. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction. PMID:20523055

  15. Genomic analysis of snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus) identifies genes and processes related to high-altitude adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Wang, Guo-Dong; Ruan, Jue; Chen, Yong-Bin; Yang, Cui-Ping; Cao, Xue; Wu, Hong; Liu, Yan-Hu; Du, Zheng-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Shao-Chen; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Jing-Yang; Fang, Lu; Bai, Bing; Wang, Kai-Le; Yuan, Na; Wu, Shi-Fang; Li, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Jin-Guo; Yang, Ye-Qin; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Long, Yong-Cheng; Li, Hai-Shu; Yang, Jing-Yuan; Irwin, David M; Ryder, Oliver A; Li, Ying; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The snub-nosed monkey genus Rhinopithecus includes five closely related species distributed across altitudinal gradients from 800 to 4,500 m. Rhinopithecus bieti, Rhinopithecus roxellana, and Rhinopithecus strykeri inhabit high-altitude habitats, whereas Rhinopithecus brelichi and Rhinopithecus avunculus inhabit lowland regions. We report the de novo whole-genome sequence of R. bieti and genomic sequences for the four other species. Eight shared substitutions were found in six genes related to lung function, DNA repair, and angiogenesis in the high-altitude snub-nosed monkeys. Functional assays showed that the high-altitude variant of CDT1 (Ala537Val) renders cells more resistant to UV irradiation, and the high-altitude variants of RNASE4 (Asn89Lys and Thr128Ile) confer enhanced ability to induce endothelial tube formation in vitro. Genomic scans in the R. bieti and R. roxellana populations identified signatures of selection between and within populations at genes involved in functions relevant to high-altitude adaptation. These results provide valuable insights into the adaptation to high altitude in the snub-nosed monkeys. PMID:27399969

  16. Loss of D2 receptor binding with age in rhesus monkeys: importance of correction for differences in striatal size.

    PubMed

    Morris, E D; Chefer, S I; Lane, M A; Muzic, R F; Wong, D F; Dannals, R F; Matochik, J A; Bonab, A A; Villemagne, V L; Grant, S J; Ingram, D K; Roth, G S; London, E D

    1999-02-01

    The relation between striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and aging was investigated in rhesus monkeys with PET. Monkeys (n = 18, 39 to 360 months of age) were scanned with 11C-raclopride; binding potential in the striatum was estimated graphically. Because our magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed a concomitant relation between size of striatum and age, the dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data were corrected for possible partial volume (PV) artifacts before parameter estimation. The age-related decline in binding potential was 1% per year and was smaller than the apparent effect if the age-related change in size was ignored. This is the first in vivo demonstration of a decline in dopamine receptor binding in nonhuman primates. The rate of decline in binding potential is consistent with in vitro findings in monkeys but smaller than what has been measured previously in humans using PET. Previous PET studies in humans, however, have not corrected for PV error, although a decline in striatal size with age has been demonstrated. The results of this study suggest that PV correction must be applied to PET data to accurately detect small changes in receptor binding that may occur in parallel with structural changes in the brain.

  17. Genomic analysis of snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus) identifies genes and processes related to high-altitude adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Wang, Guo-Dong; Ruan, Jue; Chen, Yong-Bin; Yang, Cui-Ping; Cao, Xue; Wu, Hong; Liu, Yan-Hu; Du, Zheng-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Shao-Chen; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Jing-Yang; Fang, Lu; Bai, Bing; Wang, Kai-Le; Yuan, Na; Wu, Shi-Fang; Li, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Jin-Guo; Yang, Ye-Qin; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Long, Yong-Cheng; Li, Hai-Shu; Yang, Jing-Yuan; Irwin, David M; Ryder, Oliver A; Li, Ying; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The snub-nosed monkey genus Rhinopithecus includes five closely related species distributed across altitudinal gradients from 800 to 4,500 m. Rhinopithecus bieti, Rhinopithecus roxellana, and Rhinopithecus strykeri inhabit high-altitude habitats, whereas Rhinopithecus brelichi and Rhinopithecus avunculus inhabit lowland regions. We report the de novo whole-genome sequence of R. bieti and genomic sequences for the four other species. Eight shared substitutions were found in six genes related to lung function, DNA repair, and angiogenesis in the high-altitude snub-nosed monkeys. Functional assays showed that the high-altitude variant of CDT1 (Ala537Val) renders cells more resistant to UV irradiation, and the high-altitude variants of RNASE4 (Asn89Lys and Thr128Ile) confer enhanced ability to induce endothelial tube formation in vitro. Genomic scans in the R. bieti and R. roxellana populations identified signatures of selection between and within populations at genes involved in functions relevant to high-altitude adaptation. These results provide valuable insights into the adaptation to high altitude in the snub-nosed monkeys.

  18. Reward-Induced Phasic Dopamine Release in the Monkey Ventral Striatum and Putamen

    PubMed Central

    Weitemier, Adam; Inoue, Masato

    2015-01-01

    In-vivo voltammetry has successfully been used to detect dopamine release in rodent brains, but its application to monkeys has been limited. We have previously detected dopamine release in the caudate of behaving Japanese monkeys using diamond microelectrodes (Yoshimi 2011); however it is not known whether the release pattern is the same in various areas of the forebrain. Recent studies have suggested variations in the dopaminergic projections to forebrain areas. In the present study, we attempted simultaneous recording at two locations in the striatum, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) on carbon fibers, which has been widely used in rodents. Responses to unpredicted food and liquid rewards were detected repeatedly. The response to the liquid reward after conditioned stimuli was enhanced after switching the prediction cue. These characteristics were generally similar between the ventral striatum and the putamen. Overall, the technical application of FSCV recording in multiple locations was successful in behaving primates, and further voltammetric recordings in multiple locations will expand our knowledge of dopamine reward responses. PMID:26110516

  19. Reward-Induced Phasic Dopamine Release in the Monkey Ventral Striatum and Putamen.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Kenji; Kumada, Shiori; Weitemier, Adam; Jo, Takayuki; Inoue, Masato

    2015-01-01

    In-vivo voltammetry has successfully been used to detect dopamine release in rodent brains, but its application to monkeys has been limited. We have previously detected dopamine release in the caudate of behaving Japanese monkeys using diamond microelectrodes (Yoshimi 2011); however it is not known whether the release pattern is the same in various areas of the forebrain. Recent studies have suggested variations in the dopaminergic projections to forebrain areas. In the present study, we attempted simultaneous recording at two locations in the striatum, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) on carbon fibers, which has been widely used in rodents. Responses to unpredicted food and liquid rewards were detected repeatedly. The response to the liquid reward after conditioned stimuli was enhanced after switching the prediction cue. These characteristics were generally similar between the ventral striatum and the putamen. Overall, the technical application of FSCV recording in multiple locations was successful in behaving primates, and further voltammetric recordings in multiple locations will expand our knowledge of dopamine reward responses.

  20. Morphology and Accommodative Function of the Vitreous Zonule in Human and Monkey Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.; Wasielewski, Rainer; Ting-Li, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the attachments of the posterior zonule and vitreous in relation to accommodation and presbyopia in monkeys and humans. Methods. Novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) techniques were used to visualize the anterior, intermediate, and posterior vitreous zonule and their connections to the ciliary body, vitreous membrane, lens capsule, and ora serrata, and to characterize their age-related changes and correlate them with loss of accommodative forward movement of the ciliary body. α-Chymotrypsin was used focally to lyse the vitreous zonule and determine the effect on movement of the accommodative apparatus in monkeys. Results. The vitreous attached to the peripheral lens capsule and the ora serrata directly. The pars plana zonule and the posterior tines of the anterior zonule were separated from the vitreous membrane except for strategically placed attachments, collectively termed the vitreous zonule, that may modulate and smooth the forward and backward movements of the entire system. Age-dependent changes in these relationships correlated significantly with loss of accommodative amplitude. Lysis of the intermediate vitreous zonule partially restored accommodative movement. Conclusions. The vitreous zonule system may help to smoothly translate to the lens the driving forces of accommodation and disaccommodation generated by the ciliary muscle, while maintaining visual focus and protecting the lens capsule and ora serrata from acute tractional forces. Stiffening of the vitreous zonular system may contribute to age-related loss of accommodation and offer a therapeutic target for presbyopia. PMID:19815737

  1. Initial investigation of three selective and potent small molecule oxytocin receptor PET ligands in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron L; Freeman, Sara M; Barnhart, Todd E; Abbott, David H; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Kukis, David L; Bales, Karen L; Goodman, Mark M; Young, Larry J

    2016-07-15

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is part of a neuroendocrine system that has physiological effects ranging from ensuring uterine myometrial contractions at parturition and post-partum mammary gland milk ejection to the modulation of neural control of social relationships. This initial study was performed to investigate the potential use of positron emission tomography (PET) for localizing oxytocin receptors in two New World primates. Three biomarkers for PET (1-3) that are known to have high affinity and selectivity for the human oxytocin receptor were investigated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) via PET imaging. Brain penetration, and uptake in the salivary gland area were both observed with biomarkers 2 and 3. No brain penetration was observed with 1, but uptake was observed more specifically in several peripheral endocrine glands compared to 2 or 3. Biomarker 2, which displayed the best brain penetration of the three biomarkers in the marmoset, was then investigated in the monogamous coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) in a brain scan and a limited full body scan. No significant brain penetration of 2 was observed in the titi monkey, but significant uptake was observed in various locations throughout the periphery. Metabolism of 2 was suspected to have been significant based upon HPLC analysis of blood draws, but parent compound was still present near the end of the scan. Follow-up investigations will focus on next generation biomarkers bearing improved binding characteristics and brain penetrability as well as investigating tissue in regions where biomarker uptake was observed.

  2. Initial investigation of three selective and potent small molecule oxytocin receptor PET ligands in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron L; Freeman, Sara M; Barnhart, Todd E; Abbott, David H; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Kukis, David L; Bales, Karen L; Goodman, Mark M; Young, Larry J

    2016-07-15

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is part of a neuroendocrine system that has physiological effects ranging from ensuring uterine myometrial contractions at parturition and post-partum mammary gland milk ejection to the modulation of neural control of social relationships. This initial study was performed to investigate the potential use of positron emission tomography (PET) for localizing oxytocin receptors in two New World primates. Three biomarkers for PET (1-3) that are known to have high affinity and selectivity for the human oxytocin receptor were investigated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) via PET imaging. Brain penetration, and uptake in the salivary gland area were both observed with biomarkers 2 and 3. No brain penetration was observed with 1, but uptake was observed more specifically in several peripheral endocrine glands compared to 2 or 3. Biomarker 2, which displayed the best brain penetration of the three biomarkers in the marmoset, was then investigated in the monogamous coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) in a brain scan and a limited full body scan. No significant brain penetration of 2 was observed in the titi monkey, but significant uptake was observed in various locations throughout the periphery. Metabolism of 2 was suspected to have been significant based upon HPLC analysis of blood draws, but parent compound was still present near the end of the scan. Follow-up investigations will focus on next generation biomarkers bearing improved binding characteristics and brain penetrability as well as investigating tissue in regions where biomarker uptake was observed. PMID:27209233

  3. Retinohypothalamic connections in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chijuka, John C.

    Previous studies of retinohypothalamic projections in macaques were performed with anterograde degeneration or autoradiographic techniques that were not sufficiently sensitive to fully define these projections. Results of studies in non-primates using sensitive tracers have revealed more extensive retinohypothalamic projection than previously seen. We hypothesize that there are more extensive retinohypothalamic projections in the higher primate, macaque monkey. Thus, the primary goal of this investigation was to characterize the retinohypothalamic projections in the macaque monkey using the more sensitive tract tracer, cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) unilaterally injected intravitreally. Secondary goals were to determine: (1) whether there is a retinal projection to the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus; (2) whether there are direct retinal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus; and (3) whether any retinally-projecting hypothalamic neurons can be retrogradely labeled by intravitreal CTB injections. Our results confirmed our hypothesis that there are more extensive projections to the central targets. We found that, in addition to the well-described retinal projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a number of other hypothalamic areas were labeled. We observed projections to the medial and lateral preoptic areas, including the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area. A number of retinal fibers terminated immediately dorsal to the supraoptic nucleus (SO), with a few fibers penetrating and terminating within the nucleus. A few fibers continued laterally beyond the SO into the substantia innominata immediately ventral to the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, a dense plexus of CTB-labeled, retinal fibers were present in the subventricular nucleus and adjacent subventricular area. Some of these fibers coursed dorsally from this region to penetrate the ependyma lining the third ventricle and apparently

  4. Intrapericardial denervation: Responses to water immersion in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings. water immersion; natriuresis; vasopressin; eardiae denervation; monkey

  5. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus.

  6. Metabolism of glutamine and glutamate in monkey lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, H.M. Jr.; Zigler, J.S. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    In rat lenses, glutamine (GLN), not glutamate (GLU), from the surrounding fluids is the primary source of GLU utilized by several metabolic pathways. To study lenticular amino acid metabolism in a primate, fresh lenses from young (2-3 yr) rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 3, 6, or 24 hr in balanced salt medium containing 5 mM of amino-labeled /sup 15/N-GLN or /sup 15/N-GLU. The % enrichment of /sup 15/N in several free amino acids was determined by GCMS. GLN entered the monkey lenses more rapidly than GLU, but, in contrast to rat lenses, /sup 15/N-GLN did not more rapidly label other amino acids. The % of /sup 15/N in the (GLN + GLU) pool of the monkey lenses in /sup 15/N-GLN reached 20, 35, and 60% at 3, 6, and 24 hr respectively, compared with 10, 20, and 40% in the lenses in /sup 15/N-GLU. However, in monkey lenses incubated 24 hr with /sup 15/N-GLN, the /sup 15/N in alanine, serine, proline, and (aspartate + asparagine) was only 35, 6, 7, and 30% respectively, compared with 50, 10, 7, and 50% in monkey lenses with /sup 15/N-GLU. Compared with rat lenses, monkey lenses showed slower transport, deamidation, and metabolism of GLN, and less serine, proline, and glycine synthesis. Also, part of the GLU in monkey lenses appeared to be in a slowly transaminating pool. Species differences should be considered when rats are used as a model to study changes in human lenses during aging and cataractogenesis.

  7. A Comparative Assessment of Hand Preference in Captive Red Howler Monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and Yellow-Breasted Capuchin Monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos

    PubMed Central

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa

    2014-01-01

    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates–the ‘task complexity’ theory and the ‘postural origins’ theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the ‘niche structure’ hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container). In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging). Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence the

  8. Interference processes in monkey auditory list memory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Roediger, Henry L

    2003-09-01

    A rhesus monkey's memory was tested for single items and four-item lists of natural and environmental sounds. Memory items were presented from a center speaker, followed by a retention delay and then a choice response to a test sound presented simultaneously from two side speakers. Recognition of the last item of four-item lists was much poorer than that of single items at 0-, 1-, and 2-sec delays, despite there being the same temporal relations between study and test. This result showed that the first three items proactively interfered with memory of the last list item. Proactive interference dissipated after 2 sec, revealing a recency effect that eventually equaled single-item performance. Recognition of the first item of four-item lists was much poorer than single items at 20- and 30-sec delays, showing that the last three items retroactively interfered with memory of the first list item. The results point to the critical nature of interference processes in the understanding of serial position functions.

  9. Serotonin shapes risky decision making in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Platt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in part due to the lack of a good animal model. We used dietary rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) to acutely lower brain serotonin in three macaques performing a simple gambling task for fluid rewards. To confirm the efficacy of RTD experiments, we measured total plasma tryptophan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Reducing brain serotonin synthesis decreased preference for the safe option in a gambling task. Moreover, lowering brain serotonin function significantly decreased the premium required for monkeys to switch their preference to the risky option, suggesting that diminished serotonin signaling enhances the relative subjective value of the risky option. These results implicate serotonin in risk-sensitive decision making and, further, suggest pharmacological therapies for treating pathological risk preferences in disorders such as problem gambling and addiction. PMID:19553236

  10. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  11. The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees ), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).

  12. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  13. Diet of a free-ranging group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lima, Eldianne M; Ferrari, Stephen F

    2003-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of free-ranging Saimiri sciureus was monitored over a 6-month period in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Behavioural data were collected in scan samples (7-9 days per month), and fruit and arthropod availability were recorded monthly. A total of 3,546 feeding records were collected, divided between reproductive plant parts (55.1%) and arthropods (44.9%). The majority of identified prey were orthopterans and lepidopterans, and 10 of the 23 plant species exploited were Leguminosae and Sapotaceae. The diet varied progressively between August (20.0% plant, 80.0% animal) and January (79.7% plant, 20.3% animal). This shift accompanied an increase in the number of fruiting trees and evidence of declining arthropod availability. This included a marked reduction in foraging success and increasing consumption of immature prey. Overall, the data indicate that Amazonian squirrel monkeys may be relatively frugivorous during periods when prey is scarce. PMID:12826734

  14. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  15. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  16. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  17. Selective hippocampal lesions yield nonspatial memory impairments in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Doré, F Y; Thornton, J A; White, N M; Murray, E A

    1998-01-01

    Monkeys with removals of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures are widely recognized as valid models of human global anterograde amnesia, a syndrome that arises consequent to damage to a finite set of brain structures situated in the medial temporal lobe and/or medial diencephalon. However, a comparison of memory deficits in human and nonhuman primates with MTL damage has presented a long-standing puzzle. Whereas amnesic patients are impaired in learning object discrimination problems, monkeys with MTL damage are typically not. One possible explanation for this difference is that object discrimination tasks for humans and monkeys differ in that the former but not the latter requires the use of contextual information. If this analysis is correct, monkeys with MTL damage might be disadvantaged in learning to discriminate similar objects presented in different contexts. To test this possibility, we evaluated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of one of the MTL structures, the hippocampus, on the rate of learning of discrimination problems embedded within unique contexts. Monkeys with hippocampal lesions were impaired relative to controls in learning object discrimination problems of this type. These findings strongly support the idea that the difference in the effect on object memory of MTL damage in human and nonhuman primates is due to a difference in the opportunity to employ contextual cues rather than to a difference in the organization of memory.

  18. Generation of Transgenic Monkeys with Human Inherited Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Anthony W.S; Yang, Shang-Hsun

    2009-01-01

    Modeling human diseases using nonhuman primates including chimpanzee, rhesus, cynomolgus, marmoset and squirrel monkeys has been reported in the past decades. Due to the high similarity between nonhuman primates and humans, including genome constitution, cognitive behavioral functions, anatomical structure, metabolic, reproductive, and brain functions; nonhuman primates have played an important role in understanding physiological functions of the human body, clarifying the underlying mechanism of human diseases, and the development of novel treatments for human diseases. However, nonhuman primate research has been restricted to cognitive, behavioral, biochemical and pharmacological approaches of human diseases due to the limitation of gene transfer technology in nonhuman primates. The recent advancement in transgenic technology that has led to the generation of the first transgenic monkey in 2001 and a transgenic monkey model of Huntington's disease (HD) in 2008 has changed that focus. The creation of transgenic HD monkeys that replicate key pathological features of human HD patients further suggests the crucial role of nonhuman primates in the future development of biomedicine. These successes have opened the door to genetic manipulation in nonhuman primates and a new era in modeling human inherited genetic disorders. We focused on the procedures in creating transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys, but our work can be applied to transgenesis in other nonhuman primate species. PMID:19467335

  19. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  20. I acknowledge your help: capuchin monkeys' sensitivity to others' labor.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Ayaka; Fujita, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Our society is sustained by wide-ranging cooperation. If individuals are sensitive to others' gains and losses as well as the amount of labor, they can ensure future beneficial cooperative interaction. However, it is still an open question whether nonhuman primates are sensitive to others' labor. We asked this question in tufted capuchin monkeys in an experimental food-sharing situation by comparing conditions with labor by two participants equalized (Equal labor condition) or unequalized (Unequal labor condition). The operator monkey pulled the drawer of one of the two food containers placed between two monkeys, each containing a food for him/herself and another for the recipient monkey. The recipient received either high- or low-value food depending on the operator's choice, whereas the operator obtained the same food regardless of his/her choice. In Unequal labor condition, the operator first had to pull the handle of the board to which the containers were glued and then pull the drawer of one of the containers, while the recipient received food with no labor. In Equal labor condition, the recipient had to pull the handle of the board so that the operator could operate a container. Results showed that operators chose the high-value food container for recipients more often than when the recipient was absent only in Equal labor condition. This suggests that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to others' labor and actively give food to a partner who has helped them to complete a task. PMID:21519900

  1. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing.

  2. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY.

    PubMed

    Langston, W C; Darby, W J; Shukers, C F; Day, P L

    1938-10-31

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey.

  3. Economic Choices Reveal Probability Distortion in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. PMID:25698750

  4. Genetic differentiation in proboscis monkeys--A reanalysis.

    PubMed

    Nijman, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Ogata and Seino [Zoo Biol, 2015, 34:76-79] sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop of five proboscis monkeys Nasalis larvatus from Yokahama Zoo, Japan, that were imported from Surabaya Zoo, Indonesia. They compared their sequences with those of 16 proboscis monkeys from Sabah, Malaysia, and on the basis of a haplotype network analysis of 256 base pairs concluded that the northern Malaysian and southern Indonesian populations of proboscis monkeys are genetically differentiated. I provide information on the origin of the Indonesian proboscis monkeys, showing that they were the first-generation offspring of wild-caught individuals from the Pulau Kaget Strict Nature Reserve in the province of South Kalimantan. Using a phylogenetic approach and adding additional sequences from Indonesia and Malaysia, I reanalyzed their data, and found no support for a north-south divide. Instead the resulting tree based on 433 base pairs sequences show two strongly supported clades, both containing individuals from Indonesia and Malaysia. Work on captive individuals, as reported by Ogata and Seino, can aid in developing appropriate markers and techniques, but to obtain a more complete understanding of the genetic diversity and differentiation of wild proboscis monkeys, more detailed geographic sampling from all over Borneo is needed. PMID:26661798

  5. [Monkey-pox, a model of emergent then reemergent disease].

    PubMed

    Georges, A J; Matton, T; Courbot-Georges, M C

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of monkey pox in the United States of America highlights the problem (known for other infectious agents) of dissemination of pathogens outside their endemic area, and of subsequent global threats of variable gravity according to agents. It is a real emergency since monkey pox had been confined to Africa for several decades, where small epidemics occurred from time to time, monkey pox is a "miniature smallpox" which, in Africa, evolves on an endemic (zoonotic) mode with, as reservoirs, several species of wild rodents (mainly squirrels) and some monkey species. It can be accidentally transmitted to man then develops as epidemics, sometimes leading to death. The virus was imported in 2003 in the United States of America, via Gambia rats and wild squirrels (all African species), and infected prairie dogs (which are now in fashion as pets), then crossed the species barrier to man. In the United States of America, screening campaigns, epidemiological investigations, and subsequent treatments led to a rapid control of the epidemic, which is a model of emergent disease for this country. Therapeutic and preventive measures directly applicable to monkey pox are discussed. They can also be applied against other pox virus infections (including smallpox). The risk of criminal introduction of pox viruses is discussed since it is, more than ever, a real worldwide threat.

  6. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  7. Functional effects of bilateral form deprivation in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Paul, A D; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1991-07-01

    Psychophysical methods were used to study the effects of binocular form deprivation, initiated at 1 month of age, on the visual sensitivities of young monkeys. All the monkeys reared with bilateral form deprivation for 7 weeks or longer had reduced spatial contrast sensitivity for both eyes. Although the contrast sensitivity deficits of the bilaterally form-deprived monkeys generally were larger for one eye than the other, the magnitudes of the deficits were small compared with those produced by similar periods of unilateral form deprivation. For other monocular vision functions investigated, temporal contrast sensitivity and increment-threshold spectral sensitivity, the data for the bilaterally form-deprived animals showed only minor variations from those of the control monkeys. However, none of the bilaterally form-deprived monkeys had binocular vision on either measures of binocular summation or stereodetection, even if the animal had normal monocular vision functions. Therefore, these results show that monocular sensory deficits caused by abnormal early visual experience as a result of bilateral form deprivation are much less severe than those caused by unilateral form deprivation. The differences in the severity of visual deficits may be attributed to the consequences of anomalous binocular competition associated with unilateral form deprivation that was minimized during bilateral form deprivation. Thus, these results illustrate that anomalous binocular competition is more detrimental to the developing visual system of infants than direct deprivation per se. PMID:2071342

  8. Monkeys show recognition without priming in a classification task

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans show visual perceptual priming by identifying degraded images faster and more accurately if they have seen the original images, while simultaneously failing to recognize the same images. Such priming is commonly thought, with little evidence, to be widely distributed phylogenetically. Following Brodbeck (1997), we trained rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to categorize photographs according to content (e.g., birds, fish, flowers, people). In probe trials, we tested whether monkeys were faster or more accurate at categorizing degraded versions of previously seen images (primed) than degraded versions of novel images (unprimed). Monkeys categorized reliably, but showed no benefit from having previously seen the images. This finding was robust across manipulations of image quality (color, grayscale, line drawings), type of image degradation (occlusion, blurring), levels of processing, and number of repetitions of the prime. By contrast, in probe matching-to-sample trials, monkeys recognized the primes, demonstrating that they remembered the primes and could discriminate them from other images in the same category under the conditions used to test for priming. Two experiments that replicated Brodbeck’s (1997) procedures also produced no evidence of priming. This inability to find priming in monkeys under perceptual conditions sufficient for recognition presents a puzzle. PMID:22975587

  9. Behavioral effects in monkeys of racemates of two biologically active marijuana constituents.

    PubMed

    Scheckel, C L; Boff, E; Dahlen, P; Smart, T

    1968-06-28

    Both dl-Delta(8)- and dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol produced marked alterations of behavior in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Squirrel monkeys appeared to have visual hallucinations. Continuous avoidance behavior of squirrel monkeys was stimulated by both drugs, but high doses of dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol also caused depression after the stimulant phase. Complex behavior involving memory and visual discrimination in rhesus monkeys was markedly disrupted by both drugs.

  10. Adaptation and adaptation transfer characteristics of five different saccade types in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshiko; Fuchs, Albert F; Soetedjo, Robijanto

    2015-07-01

    Shifts in the direction of gaze are accomplished by different kinds of saccades, which are elicited under different circumstances. Saccade types include targeting saccades to simple jumping targets, delayed saccades to visible targets after a waiting period, memory-guided (MG) saccades to remembered target locations, scanning saccades to stationary target arrays, and express saccades after very short latencies. Studies of human cases and neurophysiological experiments in monkeys suggest that separate pathways, which converge on a common locus that provides the motor command, generate these different types of saccade. When behavioral manipulations in humans cause targeting saccades to have persistent dysmetrias as might occur naturally from growth, aging, and injury, they gradually adapt to reduce the dysmetria. Although results differ slightly between laboratories, this adaptation generalizes or transfers to all the other saccade types mentioned above. Also, when one of the other types of saccade undergoes adaptation, it often transfers to another saccade type. Similar adaptation and transfer experiments, which allow inferences to be drawn about the site(s) of adaptation for different saccade types, have yet to be done in monkeys. Here we show that simian targeting and MG saccades adapt more than express, scanning, and delayed saccades. Adaptation of targeting saccades transfers to all the other saccade types. However, the adaptation of MG saccades transfers only to delayed saccades. These data suggest that adaptation of simian targeting saccades occurs on the pathway common to all saccade types. In contrast, only the delayed saccade command passes through the adaptation site of the MG saccade. PMID:25855693

  11. Modulatory Effects of the Ipsi and Contralateral Ventral Premotor Cortex (PMv) on the Primary Motor Cortex (M1) Outputs to Intrinsic Hand and Forearm Muscles in Cebus apella

    PubMed Central

    Quessy, Stephan; Côté, Sandrine L.; Hamadjida, Adjia; Deffeyes, Joan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    The ventral premotor cortex (PMv) is a key node in the neural network involved in grasping. One way PMv can carry out this function is by modulating the outputs of the primary motor cortex (M1) to intrinsic hand and forearm muscles. As many PMv neurons discharge when grasping with either arm, both PMv within the same hemisphere (ipsilateral; iPMv) and in the opposite hemisphere (contralateral; cPMv) could modulate M1 outputs. Our objective was to compare modulatory effects of iPMv and cPMv on M1 outputs to intrinsic hand and forearm muscles. We used paired-pulse protocols with intracortical microstimulations in capuchin monkeys. A conditioning stimulus was applied in either iPMv or cPMv simultaneously or prior to a test stimulus in M1 and the effects quantified in electromyographic signals. Modulatory effects from iPMv were predominantly facilitatory, and facilitation was much more common and powerful on intrinsic hand than forearm muscles. In contrast, while the conditioning of cPMv could elicit facilitatory effects, in particular to intrinsic hand muscles, it was much more likely to inhibit M1 outputs. These data show that iPMv and cPMv have very different modulatory effects on the outputs of M1 to intrinsic hand and forearm muscles. PMID:27473318

  12. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  13. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  14. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health care ...

  15. Social Recovery of Monkeys Isolated for the First Year of Life: 1. Rehabilitation and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, M. A.; Harlow, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    This experiment demonstrated that 12-month-old monkeys reared in social isolation developed appropriate species-typical behavior through the use of adaptation, self pacing of visual input and exposure to younger "therapist" monkeys. A critical period of socialization is not indicated in the rhesus monkey. (GO)

  16. Osteoblastic differentiation of monkey embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Narita, Junko; Yamamoto, Gaku; Torii, Ryuzo

    2005-01-01

    Monkey embryonic stem (ES) cell is a useful tool for preclinical studies of regenerative medicine. In this paper, we investigated whether monkey ES cells can be differentiated into osteoblasts in vitro using factors known to promote osteogenesis. We prepared embryoid bodies (EB) in the presence of retinoic acid (RA) and subsequently differentiated in the medium containing either dexamethasone (DEX) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in addition to osteogenic supplements (OS), specifically ascorbic acid and beta-glycerophosphate. RA treatment during EB formation induced osteoblastic marker genes, such as collagen type 1, osteopontin, and Cbfa1. For the expression of osteocalcin, however, cultivation with medium containing either DEX or BMP-2 in addition to OS was required. These results showed that osteoblasts could be derived from monkey ES cells in vitro and BMP-2 + OS was effective to induce calcification. PMID:16390259

  17. Blood groups of the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata).

    PubMed

    Froehlich, J W; Socha, W W; Wiener, A S; Moor-Jankowski, J; Thorington, R W

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-two howler monkeys were tested for their human-type A-B-O blood groups. All were group B, as shown by the presence of B and H in their saliva, and anti-A in serum. The B-like agglutinogen of their red cells is common to all New World monkey species tested, and is of different origin and significance than their true A-B-O blood group. Differences among the B-like agglutinogens of the red cells of howler monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and humans group B were demonstrated, and limited tests have also been performed to study the biochemical basis of the anti-B reactions. PMID:412971

  18. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    DOE PAGES

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; et al

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  19. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  20. Molecular cladistic markers in New World monkey phylogeny (Platyrrhini, Primates).

    PubMed

    Singer, Silke S; Schmitz, Jürgen; Schwiegk, Claudia; Zischler, Hans

    2003-03-01

    Transpositions of primate-specific Alu elements were applied as molecular cladistic markers in a phylogenetic analysis of South American primates. Seventy-four human and platyrrhine loci containing intronic Alu elements were PCR screened in various New World monkeys and the human outgroup to detect the presence of orthologous retrotransposons informative of New World monkey phylogeny. Six loci revealed size polymorphism in the amplification pattern, indicating a shared derived character state due to the presence of orthologous Alu elements confirmed by subsequent sequencing. Three markers corroborate (1) New World monkey monophyly and one marker supports each of the following callitrichine relationships: (2) Callithrix and Cebuella are more closely related to each other than to any other callitrichine, (3) the callitrichines form a monophyletic clade including Callimico, and (4) the next living relatives to the callitrichines are Cebus, Saimiri, and Aotus.

  1. Operant discrimination of an interoceptive stimulus in rhesus monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Slucki, Henry; Adam, Gyorgi; Porter, Robert W.

    1965-01-01

    Five rhesus macaques monkeys surgically prepared with Thiry small intestinal (jejunum) loops and implanted brain electrodes were restrained in primate chairs and kept on 23-hr deprivation-feeding cycle. After being trained to press a lever for sugar pills on an FR 25 schedule of reinforcement, a discrimination training procedure was established. Lever presses were reinforced during the SD—a non-aversive mechanical stimulus applied to the internal walls of the Thiry loop by rhythmic inflation-deflation of a small latex balloon by air at the rate of one cycle per sec at 100 mm Hg pressure. The SΔ was the absence of the visceral stimulation. The monkeys successfully discriminated between presence and absence of the internal stimulus. A discrimination reversal was attempted and completed on one monkey. The results clearly show operant discrimination based on an interoceptive stimulus. Cortical and subcortical EEG records reflected the onset but not termination of the visceral stimulation. PMID:4954822

  2. Predation of wild spider monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Izawa, Kosei

    2008-01-01

    The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size.

  3. Acute physiological responses of squirrel monkeys exposed to hyperdynamic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to a hyperdynamic environment were examined in four adult male squirrel monkeys. After baseline monitoring at 1 G, monkeys were exposed to one of three conditions: (1) +2 Gz for 60 minutes, (2) +2.9 Gz max for 8 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle launch), or (3) +1.7 Gz max for 19 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle reentry). During all experimental conditions, heart rate rose, and colonic temperature began to decline within the first ten minutes of centrifugation and decreased by as much as 2 C in some instances. Behaviorally, during centrifugation, the monkeys seemed to exhibit drowsiness and fall asleep, an observation not made during the control period. It is concluded that primates are susceptible to acute hyperdynamic field exposure.

  4. An outbreak of severe leptospirosis in capuchin (Cebus) monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Szonyi, Barbara; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Ramírez, Marcela; Moreno, Natali; Ko, Albert I.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally acquired acute leptospirosis in monkeys is uncommon. This study reports an outbreak of severe leptospirosis among 52 capuchin (Cebus) monkeys that had been rescued from homes and housed in a wildlife rehabilitation center in Colombia in 2007. Case confirmation consisted of Leptospira isolation followed by a polymerase chain reaction targeting the LipL32 gene. The attack and mortality rates were 71% and 27%, respectively. Sixteen cases were confirmed. Necropsy revealed diffuse jaundice and pulmonary hemorrhage. Multi-locus sequence typing identified the agent to be Leptospira interrogans sequence type 17, indicating rats as the source of infection. An environmental survey confirmed rodent infestation as the cause of the outbreak. The extent of Leptospira transmission between humans and monkeys is unknown. Improper husbandry of non-human primates could create new reservoirs and transmission routes for Leptospira threatening conservation efforts and public health. PMID:20554228

  5. PET measured evoked cerebral blood flow responses in an awake monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Lich, L.L.; Margenau, W.; Buchholz, S. )

    1991-03-01

    We have developed a method to measure task-related regional cerebral blood flow (BF) responses in an awake, trained monkey using positron emission tomography (PET) and H215O. We trained an animal with operant conditioning using only positive reinforcement to climb unassisted into a modified primate chair that was then positioned in the PET scanner. A special headholder and acrylic skull cap permitted precise placement and accurate repositioning. We measured BF qualitatively with bolus injection of H215O and 40-s scan. Each session included scans at rest interposed with scans during vibration of a forepaw. Regional responses were identified using subtraction image analysis. After global normalization, a resting image was subtracted on a pixel-by-pixel basis from a comparable image collected during vibration. The region of peak response occurred in contralateral sensorimotor cortex with a mean magnitude of 11.6% (+/- 3.2%) of the global mean value for 10 separate experiments, significantly greater than the mean qualitative BF change (0.4 +/- 3.6%; p less than 0.00001) in the same region for seven rest-rest pairs. This newly developed technique forms the basis for a wide variety of experiments.

  6. PET measured evoked cerebral blood flow responses in an awake monkey.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, J S; Lich, L L; Margenau, W; Buchholz, S

    1991-03-01

    We have developed a method to measure task-related regional cerebral blood flow (BF) responses in an awake, trained monkey using positron emission tomography (PET) and H215O. We trained an animal with operant conditioning using only positive reinforcement to climb unassisted into a modified primate chair that was then positioned in the PET scanner. A special headholder and acrylic skull cap permitted precise placement and accurate repositioning. We measured BF qualitatively with bolus injection of H215O and 40-s scan. Each session included scans at rest interposed with scans during vibration of a forepaw. Regional responses were identified using subtraction image analysis. After global normalization, a resting image was subtracted on a pixel-by-pixel basis from a comparable image collected during vibration. The region of peak response occurred in contralateral sensorimotor cortex with a mean magnitude of 11.6% (+/- 3.2%) of the global mean value for 10 separate experiments, significantly greater than the mean qualitative BF change (0.4 +/- 3.6%; p less than 0.00001) in the same region for seven rest-rest pairs. This newly developed technique forms the basis for a wide variety of experiments.

  7. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  8. The feeding ecology and activity budget of proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Higashi, Seigo

    2009-06-01

    A group of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) consisting of an alpha-male, six adult females, and several immatures was observed from May 2005-2006. We collected over 1,968 hr of focal data on the adult male and 1,539 hr of focal data on the six females in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. Availability and seasonal changes in plant species consumed by the focal monkeys were determined by vegetation surveys carried out across an area of 2.15 ha along 200-500 m trails in riverine forest. A total of 188 plant species were consumed by the focal monkeys. The activity budget of members of our study group was 76.5% resting, 19.5% feeding, and 3.5% moving. Young leaves (65.9%) and fruits (25.9%) accounted for the majority of feeding time. Over 90% of fruit feeding involved the consumption of unripe fruits and in the majority of case both the fruit flesh and seeds were eaten. Although fruit eating was rare in some months, during other times of the year time fruit feeding exceeded the time devoted to young leaves. We found that monthly fruit availability was positively related to monthly fruit eating and feeding activity, and seasonal fluctuations in dietary diversity were significantly affected by fruit eating. These results suggest that fruit availability and fruit-eating behaviors are key factors that influence the activity budget of proboscis monkeys. Earlier assumptions that colobine monkeys are obligate folivores do not apply well to proboscis monkeys and certain other colobines. Our findings may help contribute to a better understanding of the dietary adaptations and feeding ecology of Asian colobines. PMID:19288553

  9. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  10. Positive Reinforcement Training in Squirrel Monkeys Using Clicker Training

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Timothy E.; Janes, Amy C.; Kaufman, Marc J.

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N=14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on 4 tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2±2.6 days (range: 50–70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 minutes per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within two months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful for reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys

  11. Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A.; Netsu, S.; Matsuo, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Okabayashi, S.; Yasmin, L.; Yuzawa, K.; Kondoh, O.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, M.; Konno, R.; Sankai, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because of, sickness consequent on endometriosis. Specimens were evaluated histopathologically with haematoxylin and eosin staining, iron staining and immunohistochemistry (CD10, CD31, α-SMA and PGP9.5), and by observing them under a microscope. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endometriotic and stromal cells (CD10-positive) with haemorrhage and inflammation were observed. Smooth muscle metaplasia and nerve fibres were also noted in the endometriotic lesions. Endometriotic lesions in lymph nodes were incidentally found. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Since laparoscopic analysis for monitoring the disease state was not set as a parameter of the current study, time course changes (progression) of the disease were not assessed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further investigation of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys may contribute to better understanding of the disease pathobiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No external funds were used for this study. A.N.K., S.M., S.H., T.I., O.K., A.K. and M.S. are full-time employees of Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. R.K. received lecture fees from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., unrelated to the submitted work. S.N., S. O., L.Y., K.Y. and T.S. have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:27591226

  12. Further evaluation of [11C]MP-10 as a radiotracer for phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A): PET imaging study in rhesus monkeys and brain tissue metabolite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-fei; Labaree, David; Chen, Ming-Kai; Holden, Daniel; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Kapinos, Michael; Teng, Jo-Ku; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Plisson, Christophe; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Gunn, Roger N.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    [11C]MP-10 is a potent and specific PET tracer previously shown to be suitable for imaging the PDE10A in baboons with reversible kinetics and high specific binding. However, another report indicated that [11C]MP-10 displayed seemingly irreversible kinetics in rhesus monkeys, potentially due to the presence of a radiolabeled metabolite capable of penetrating the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into the brain. This study was designed to address the discrepancies between the species by re-evaluating [11C]MP-10 in vivo in rhesus monkey with baseline scans to assess tissue uptake kinetics and self-blocking scans with unlabeled MP-10 to determine binding specificity. Ex vivo studies with one rhesus monkey and 4 Sprague-Dawley rats were also performed to investigate the presence of radiolabeled metabolites in the brain. Our results indicated that [11C]MP-10 displayed reversible uptake kinetics in rhesus monkeys, albeit slower than in baboons. Administration of unlabeled MP-10 reduced the binding of [11C]MP-10 in a dose-dependent manner in all brain regions including the cerebellum. Consequently, the cerebellum appeared not to be a suitable reference tissue in rhesus monkeys. Regional volume of distribution (VT) was mostly reliably derived with the multilinear analysis (MA1) method. In ex vivo studies in the monkey and rats only negligible (< 2.7%) amount of radiometabolites was seen in the brain of either species. In summary, results from the present study strongly support the suitability of [11C]MP-10 as a radiotracer for PET imaging and quantification of PDE10A in non-human primates. PMID:25450608

  13. A hybrid monkey search algorithm for clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  14. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize “pooled human” object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to

  15. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus. PMID:27138290

  16. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  17. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  18. Adaptation of the Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum to Panamanian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Baerg, D C

    1987-09-01

    The Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum, acquired at the second passage level in splenectomized Colombian owl monkeys, was adapted to owl monkeys of Panamanian origin. Patent infections were induced in 22 of 27 unaltered and 20 of 21 splenectomized recipients during 19 serial passages. The infections were significantly more virulent in splenectomized than normal Panamanian owl monkeys, however recrudescences in seven normal monkeys achieved peak parasitemias 48 times greater than in the primary attack. These results describe the first reproducible infections of indigenous falciparum malaria in Panamanian owl monkeys. PMID:3310680

  19. Monkey bars are for monkeys: a study on playground equipment related extremity fractures in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mahadev, A; Soon, M Y H; Lam, K S

    2004-01-01

    Studies in Caucasian populations have shown that a significant percentage of childhood extremity fractures occur at the playground. There are no comparable studies in Asian populations. Thus this study sets out to determine the pattern of playground related extremity fractures in Asian populations and to suggest modifications to prevent or reduce these injuries. This study involved a retrospective review of 390 patients with these fractures who visited our Department from May 1997 to December 1998. This accounted for 19.5% of all fractures seen in the same period. The largest age group affected were the five through 12-year-old patients with a male to female ratio of 2:1. Monkey bars or upper body devices were the most common cause (66%). The most common fracture was supracondylar fractures (43%). Further studies to determine the actual dimensions of playground equipment will be carried to ascertain with greater certainty the safety of these equipment in our playgrounds. PMID:14976576

  20. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya’an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis. PMID:26509708

  1. Cynomolgus monkey induced pluripotent stem cells established by using exogenous genes derived from the same monkey species.

    PubMed

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Ono, Ryoichi; Shimada, Manami; Shibata, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Inada, Hiroyasu; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells established by introduction of the transgenes POU5F1 (also known as Oct3/4), SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC have competence similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. iPS cells generated from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes taken from the same species would be a particularly important resource, since various biomedical investigations, including studies on the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical technology development, and research resource development, have been performed using cynomolgus monkeys. In addition, the use of xenogeneic genes would cause complicating matters such as immune responses when they are expressed. In this study, therefore, we established iPS cells by infecting cells from the fetal liver and newborn skin with amphotropic retroviral vectors containing cDNAs for the cynomolgus monkey genes of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to those in other primate ES cell lines, appeared and were stably maintained. These cell lines had normal chromosome numbers, expressed pluripotency markers and formed teratomas. We thus generated cynomolgus monkey iPS cell lines without the introduction of ecotropic retroviral receptors or other additional transgenes by using the four allogeneic transgenes. This may enable detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the reprogramming. In conclusion, we showed that iPS cells could be derived from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iPS cell lines established from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes from the same species.

  2. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  3. Outbreak of larval Echinococcus multilocularis infection in Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) in a zoo, Hokkaido: western blotting patterns in the infected monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chiaki; Kawase, Shiro; Yano, Shoki; Nagano, Hideki; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Miyahara, Kazuro; Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Motoyoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2005-01-01

    A high prevalence of larval Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) infection was found in zoo primates in Hokkaido, Japan. In October 1997, a Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) died and histopathologically diagnosed as alveolar hydatidosis. Serum samples were collected from the remaining Japanese monkeys and examined for antibodies against Em by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Serological tests showed 12 more animals of the remaining 57 monkeys were possibly infected. Ultrasonography revealed that nine of these 12 animals had a cystic lesion in the liver. The band patterns of western blotting in the monkeys were very similar to those in human.

  4. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    PubMed

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  5. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

  6. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, G.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide.

  7. Healing after root reimplantation in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Houston, F; Sarhed, G; Nyman, S; Lindhe, J; Karring, T

    1985-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the regenerative potential of the periodontal tissues following tooth reimplantation using a model which excluded the dentogingival epithelium from the process of healing. Maxillary and mandibular incisors, premolars and molars of 5 monkeys were used. Following root filling of all experimental teeth, the teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups. In 1 group, the teeth were extracted following the elevation of full thickness flaps. The crowns were separated from the roots at the level of the buccal cemento-enamel junction and the roots immediately reimplanted into their sockets. The flaps were replaced and sutured to accomplish complete coverage of the roots. In a 2nd group, the teeth were subjected to the same experimental procedure, but in addition, the buccal alveolar bone was removed to about half its original height prior to root reimplantation. The teeth of the 3rd group were subjected to identical experimental procedures as for group II with the addition that the buccal root surfaces were planed to the level of the surgically created bone crest. The animals were sacrificed after 6 months of healing. The jaws were removed and histological specimens prepared for microscopic examination. The results showed that a complete fibrous re-attachment formed onto roots on which the original periodontal ligament tissue was preserved. This occurred irrespective of whether the roots were reimplanted into sockets with normal (group I) or reduced (group II) bone height. When the original periodontal ligament tissue was removed by root planing before reimplantation (group III), healing resulted in a significant amount of new connective tissue attachment. However, coronal to the newly formed fibrous attachment, the root surface frequently showed signs of resorption and particularly so in those roots which remained covered by the soft tissue during the entire course of healing. In the majority of the roots which

  8. Cortical representation of ipsilateral arm movements in monkey and man

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Karunesh; Secundo, Lavi; Ranade, Gireeja; Orsborn, Amy; Chang, Edward F.; Dimitrov, Dragan F.; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Knight, Robert T.; Carmena, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental organizational principle of the primate motor system is cortical control of contralateral limb movements. Motor areas also appear to play a role in the control of ipsilateral limb movements. Several studies in monkeys have shown that individual neurons in primary motor cortex (M1) may represent, on average, the direction of movements of the ipsilateral arm. Given the increasing body of evidence demonstrating that neural ensembles can reliably represent information with a high temporal resolution, here we characterize the distributed neural representation of ipsilateral upper limb kinematics in both monkey and man. In two macaque monkeys trained to perform center-out reaching movements, we found that the ensemble spiking activity in M1 could continuously represent ipsilateral limb position. Interestingly, this representation was more correlated with joint angles than hand position. Using bilateral EMG recordings, we excluded the possibility that postural or mirror movements could exclusively account for these findings. In addition, linear methods could decode limb position from cortical field potentials in both monkeys. We also found that M1 spiking activity could control a biomimetic brain-machine interface reflecting ipsilateral kinematics. Finally, we recorded cortical field potentials from three human subjects and also consistently found evidence of a neural representation for ipsilateral movement parameters. Together, our results demonstrate the presence of a high-fidelity neural representation for ipsilateral movement and illustrates that it can be successfully incorporated into a brain-machine interface. PMID:19828809

  9. A primacy effect in monkeys when list position is relevant.

    PubMed

    Buffalo, B; Gaffan, D; Murray, E A

    1994-11-01

    In Experiment 1 (1a and 1b), Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned lists of two-choice visual discriminations in which list position was relevant to discrimination performance. For example, Stimulus A was the rewarded stimulus if it was presented at List Position 1, but was not rewarded if it was presented at any other position in the list; similarly, Stimulus B was rewarded only at List Position 2, and so on. In learning these lists, all animals showed a marked primacy effect. In Experiment 2 (2a and 2b), Rhesus monkeys and Cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) learned lists of visual discriminations in which each visual stimulus occupied a fixed position in a list, but list position was not relevant to discrimination performance. For example, Stimulus E was always rewarded, and was always presented at List Position 1. To increase the salience of list beginning as a distinctive event, successive presentations of the list were separated by 24-hr intervals. In Experiment 2 there was no primacy effect, however. These results show for the first time that a primacy effect can be obtained in visual discrimination learning by monkeys. Furthermore, they suggest that it is obtained only when list position is relevant to the discrimination learning task.

  10. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  11. [The principles of the therapy of glanders in monkeys].

    PubMed

    Khomiakov, Iu N; Manzeniuk, I N; Naumov, D V; Svetoch, E A

    1998-01-01

    The effect of pathogenetic therapy in the normalization of homeostasis disturbances in monkeys has been shown under experimental conditions. Data on the possibility of using hemosorption in the treatment of severe forms of glanders are presented. The conclusion on the necessity of using complex treatment for the effective therapy of glanders in humans has been made.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL VIABLE VACCINE AGAINST PULMONARY COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MONKEYS1

    PubMed Central

    Converse, John L.; Castleberry, Merida W.; Snyder, Ernest M.

    1963-01-01

    Converse, John L. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Merida W. Castleberry, and Ernest M. Snyder. Experimental viable vaccine against pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in monkeys. J. Bacteriol. 86:1041–1051. 1963.—Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) vaccinated by subcutaneous injection in the forearm with from 10 to 108 viable Coccidioides immitis arthrospores were protected against respiratory challenge with approximately 7000 viable arthrospores administered 6 months after vaccination. Protection was evident from: the healthy appearance throughout 4 months after respiratory challenge; negative chest X rays at 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; and only very minor histopathological pulmonary changes on autopsy at 120 days, with negative lung cultures in 80% of the animals. This was in striking contrast to the outward clinical appearance of control monkeys that were unvaccinated or had received nonviable arthrospore vaccines. These monkeys showed severe disease (loss of weight, accelerated respiration, severe coughing, general debilitation), positive X rays, massive pulmonary destruction, positive lung cultures, and death of five of nine animals. The appearance of spherules (very few in number, accompanied by very minor pathological changes) in the lungs of some of the “dissemination controls” (subcutaneous viable vaccination without respiratory challenge) indicated possible dissemination from the primary cutaneous infection, although oral transmission from the cutaneous lesions could not be ruled out. Images PMID:14080770

  13. Mononeuropathy multiplex in rhesus monkeys with chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E D; Philipp, M T

    1997-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a recognized but poorly understood manifestation of Lyme disease. We performed serial electrophysiological studies on 8 rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the JD1 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi and compared the results with those of similar studies on 10 uninfected control monkeys. Four infected and 2 uninfected animals underwent sural nerve biopsy. Five of the infected and 1 of the uninfected animals also had postmortem neuropathological examinations. Altogether, 5 of the infected monkeys demonstrated primarily axonal-loss-variety multifocal neuropathies. Only one nerve lesion exhibited findings compatible with demyelination. Pathologically, peripheral nerve specimens showed multifocal axonal degeneration and regeneration and occasional perivascular inflammatory cellular infiltrates without vessel wall necrosis. Free spirochetal structures were not seen, but several macrophages exhibited positive immunostaining with a highly specific anti-B. burgdorferi, 7.5-kd lipoprotein monoclonal antibody. In the infected animals, serial analysis of serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi showed increasing numbers of IgG specificities and new IgM specificities, suggesting persistent infection. Thus, peripheral neuropathy in the form of a mononeuropathy multiplex develops frequently in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. The pathogenesis of these nerve lesions is not yet known, but our studies suggest an immune-mediated process perhaps driven by persistent infection with B. burgdorferi.

  14. Chemical recognition of fruit ripeness in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Omer; Orts Garri, Rosa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Schulz, Stefan; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Ayasse, Manfred; Laska, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacities that can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection. Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) display high olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe and unripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spider monkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits that become increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spider monkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound that mark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripe fruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise. PMID:26440380

  15. Social Isolation Rearing: Species Differences in Behavior of Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Gene P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Social and nonsocial behaviors of infant rhesus (macaca mulatta) and pigtail (M. nemestrina) monkeys reared in total social isolation were compared with those of socialized controls. Results question the generality of rhesus total isolate behavior as a model for some human problems. (Author/SB)

  16. Mandibular growth following Le Fort I osteotomy in adolescent monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nanda, R; Bouayad, O; Topazian, R G

    1987-06-01

    Le Fort I osteotomy with anterior and superior repositioning of the maxilla was performed on adolescent Macaca fascicularis monkeys to study its effect on the subsequent growth and remodeling changes of the mandible. Six adolescent Macaca fascicularis monkeys were randomly divided into two surgical groups and eight others served as controls. Group I animals underwent a Le Fort I advancement and Group II animals experienced a Le Fort I advancement and impaction. All monkeys received tantalum implants in the anterior part of the cranial base, on opposite sides of craniofacial sutures and in multiple sites of the maxilla and mandible. The immediate postsurgical occlusion of all experimental animals was a Class II molar relationship. The animals were followed for up to 12 months postoperatively. Analysis of cephalometric head films taken at monthly intervals showed that both the maxilla and the mandible of all experimental monkeys grew in a coordinated fashion, although the amount, rate, and direction of growth varied between control and experimental animals as well as between Group I and Group II animals. The largest increments and rates of growth were observed in the control animals, Group I animals, and Group II animals, respectively. This study indicates that the growth changes in both maxilla and mandible are related to the extent of injury caused by maxillary surgery. The results also showed that although the surgical procedures were performed in the maxilla, mandibular growth was significantly modulated by the surgically changed maxillary environment.

  17. Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: insights into human warfare?

    PubMed

    Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathryn; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Raids into neighboring territories may occur for different reasons, including the increase of foraging and mating opportunities directly or indirectly through the killing of neighboring rivals. Lethal raids have been mainly observed in humans and chimpanzees, with raiding males being reported to search purposefully for neighbors. Here we report on the first cases ever witnessed of raiding parties of male spider monkeys, a species expected to show such a behavioral tendency, given its similarity with humans and chimpanzees in critical socio-ecological characteristics, such as fission-fusion social dynamics and male-male bonding. Despite the high degree of arboreality of spider monkeys, all seven witnessed raids involved the males progressing single file on the ground in unusual silence. This is remarkably similar to the behavior of chimpanzees. The circumstances around the raids suggest that factors such as reduced mating opportunities, number of males relative to that in the neighboring community, and the strength of bonds among males could play a role in the timing of such actions. The raids did not appear to be aimed at finding food, whereas there is some indication that they may directly or indirectly increase reproductive opportunities. Although no killing was observed, we cannot exclude the possibility that spider monkey raids may be aimed at harming rivals if a vulnerable individual were encountered. The similarity of spider monkey raids with those of chimpanzees and humans supports the notion that lethal raiding is a convergent response to similar socio-ecological conditions. PMID:16685723

  18. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  19. Risky business: rhesus monkeys exhibit persistent preferences for risky options.

    PubMed

    Xu, Eric R; Kralik, Jerald D

    2014-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys have been shown to prefer risky over safe options in experiential decision-making tasks. These findings might be due, however, to specific contextual factors, such as small amounts of fluid reward and minimal costs for risk-taking. To better understand the factors affecting decision-making under risk in rhesus monkeys, we tested multiple factors designed to increase the stakes including larger reward amounts, distinct food items rather than fluid reward, a smaller number of trials per session, and risky options with greater variation that also included non-rewarded outcomes. We found a consistent preference for risky options, except when the expected value of the safe option was greater than the risky option. Thus, with equivalent mean utilities between the safe and risky options, rhesus monkeys appear to have a robust preference for the risky options in a broad range of circumstances, akin to the preferences found in human children and some adults in similar tasks. One account for this result is that monkeys make their choices based on the salience of the largest payoff, without integrating likelihood and value across trials. A related idea is that they fail to override an impulsive tendency to select the option with the potential to obtain the highest possible outcome. Our results rule out strict versions of both accounts and contribute to an understanding of the diversity of risky decision-making among primates. PMID:24795661

  20. Contralesional neglect in monkeys with small unilateral parietal cortical ablations.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J W B; Baker, H F; Ridley, R M

    2002-10-17

    Transient contralesional spatial neglect, in addition to motor impairment in the contralesional arm, is sometimes seen in patients following cerebral infarction in the right hemisphere and is seen following experimental occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in primates. To test whether contralesional visuospatial neglect arises from a disruption of the forward flow of information from the striate cortex through the dorsal territory of the middle cerebral artery, we made a small strip suction ablation in the right parietal cortex from the medial edge of the dorsal cortical surface to the posterior ventral edge of the superior temporal gyrus in marmoset monkeys. These monkeys did not exhibit a motor impairment, or misreaching, with the contralesional arm. When they were unrestrained and free to use either arm, they were impaired at finding rewards in their contralesional space and in choosing the nearer of two rewards hidden in ipsilesional space (i.e. they had an ultra-ipsilesional bias in ipsilesional space). Comparison of performance under four conditions in a task in which the monkeys were constrained to reach into each hemispace with each arm separately indicated that they were impaired at reaching into contralesional, but not ipsilesional, space with either arm but they did not exhibit any impairment confined to the contralesional arm. These impairments in contralesional space were transient suggesting that the monkeys were able to re-align their egocentric spatial coordinates to obviate these deficits.

  1. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  2. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  3. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-09-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  4. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  5. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  6. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  7. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  8. Astronaut William Thornton observes monkey in the RAHF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut William E. Thornton, 51-B/Spacelab 3 mission specialist, observes one of two squirel monkeys (cage #1) in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger.

  9. Pathology of chronic Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Mcleod, C. G.; Stookey, J. L.; Eddy, G. A.; Scott, K.

    1976-01-01

    Gross and microscopic lesions of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF) are described in 10 rhesus monkeys that survived from 30 to 78 days after subcutaneous inoculation with a dose of 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) of Machupo virus, a dose which produces a severe and generally fatal disease. Six of the monkeys had been given low doses of homologous immune globulin when initial signs of infection appeared. Monkeys exhibited clinical signs in two phases. The initial signs of acute infection which began to appear about 1 week following inoculation included: diarrhea, depression, anorexia, dehydration, and skin rash. The survivors of this early phase of the illness usually showed improvement before relapsing into the second (or chronic) phase, which was characterized clinically by central nervous system disturbances including incoordination, tremors, convulsions, paresis, and muscle atrophy. Microscopic lesions were similar in both immune globulin-treated and untreated animals. These included widespread lymphoreticular infiltrates in the walls and adventitia of blood vessels of the brain, spinal cord, pancreas, intestine, liver kidney, adrenal, parathyroid, heart, and skeletal muscle. Diffuse lymphocytic infiltrates not confined to the vascular or perivascular tissues were present to a variable degree in many of these and other organs. Several monkeys exhibited lymphocytic inflammation of the choroid, meninges, peripheral nerves, and ganglia. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:181994

  10. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  11. Effects of spaceflight on bone mineralization in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Zerath, E; Novikov, V; Leblanc, A; Bakulin, A; Oganov, V; Grynpas, M

    1996-07-01

    We combined dual-photon absorptiometry, iliac crest histomorphometry, and backscattered electrons analysis to characterize bone mineralization effects of a spaceflight on young monkeys. Two 4- to 5-kg male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were flown during a 11.5-day spaceflight that took place onboard Cosmos 2229 biosatellite (Bion 10). Vivarium (n = 4) and Earth-based chair (n = 4) control situations were studied for comparison. Flight monkeys exhibited lower values of iliac cancellous bone volume, associated with nonsignificantly thinner trabeculae. Bone mineralization rate and the proportion of trabecular bone surface involved in mineralization processes were found markedly reduced after spaceflight. Analysis of embedded sections by backscattered electrons imaging showed a nonsignificant shift to lower mineralization in the flight biopsies vs. postflight mock-up biopsies. These results were in accordance with dual-photon absorptiometry evaluations showing a tendency for decreased bone mineral content during flight and recovery thereafter. The ground simulation experiment performed on the same monkeys more than 1 mo after landing suggests that the observed effects were specifically related to spaceflight and that the animals had only partially recovered. Additional animals on future flights will be required to confirm these findings.

  12. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Willard, Stephanie L; Shively, Carol A

    2012-06-01

    Depressive disorders are prevalent, costly, and poorly understood. Male rodents in stress paradigms are most commonly used as animal models, despite the two-fold increased prevalence of depression in women and sex differences in response to stress. Although these models have provided valuable insights, new models are needed to move the field forward. Social stress-associated behavioral depression in adult female cynomolgus macaques closely resembles human depression in physiological, neurobiological, and behavioral characteristics, including reduced body mass, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations, autonomic dysfunction, increased cardiovascular disease risk, reduced hippocampal volume, altered serotonergic function, decreased activity levels, and increased mortality. In addition, behaviorally depressed monkeys also have low ovarian steroid concentrations, even though they continue to have menstrual cycles. Although this type of ovarian dysfunction has not been reported in depressed women and is difficult to identify, it may be the key to understanding the high prevalence of depression in women. Depressive behavior in female cynomolgus monkeys is naturally occurring and not induced by experimental manipulation. Different social environmental challenges, including isolation vs. subordination, may elicit the depression-like response in some animals and not others. Similarly, social subordination is stressful and depressive behavior is more common in socially subordinate monkeys. Yet, not all subordinates exhibit behavioral depression, suggesting individual differences in sensitivity to specific environmental stressors and enhanced risk of behavioral depression in some individuals. The behavior and neurobiology of subordinates is distinctly different than that of behaviorally depressed monkeys, which affords the opportunity to differentiate between stressed and depressed states. Thus, behaviorally depressed monkeys exhibit numerous physiological

  13. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  14. Optical Scanning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hans

    The successful use of optical scanning at the University of the Pacific (UOP) indicates that such techniques can simplify a number of administrative data processing tasks. Optical scanning is regularly used at UOP to assist with data processing in the areas of admissions, registration and grade reporting and also has applications for other tasks…

  15. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  16. Species differences in intestinal metabolic activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms between cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Sato, Kimihiko; Mizuki, Yasuyuki; Yabuki, Masashi; Komuro, Setsuko

    2011-06-01

    The oral bioavailability of some drugs is markedly lower in cynomolgus monkeys than in humans. One of the reasons for the low bioavailability in cynomolgus monkeys may be the higher metabolic activity of intestinal CYP3A; however, the species differences in intestinal metabolic activities of other CYP isoforms between cynomolgus monkeys and humans are not well known. In the present study, we investigated the intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) values in pooled intestinal microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and humans using 25 substrates of human CYP1A2, CYP2J2, CYP2C, and CYP2D6. As in humans, intestinal CL(int) values of human CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrates in cynomolgus monkeys were low. On the other hand, intestinal CL(int) values of human CYP2J2 and CYP2C substrates in cynomolgus monkeys were greatly higher than those in humans. Using immunoinhibitory antibodies and chemical inhibitors, we showed that the higher intestinal CL(int) values of the human CYP2J2 and CYP2C substrates in cynomolgus monkeys might be caused by monkey CYP4F and CYP2C subfamily members, respectively. In conclusion, there is a possibility that the greatly higher metabolic activity of CYP2C and CYP4F in cynomolgus monkey intestine is one of the causes of the species difference of intestinal first-pass metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:21383522

  17. Pancreatic islet transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys. Initial studies and evidence that cyclosporine impairs glucose tolerance in normal monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stegall, M D; Chabot, J; Weber, C; Reemtsma, K; Hardy, M A

    1989-12-01

    Using a model of streptozotocin-induced, ketosis-prone, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in the cynomolgus monkey, we performed 11 intraportal transplants of collagenase-digested, Ficoll-purified pancreatic islets (9 ABO-compatible allografts and 2 concordant baboon xenografts). Islets were pretreated with ultraviolet-B irradiation and recipients received cyclosporine A immunosuppression. Two grafts never functioned, five grafts showed evidence of partial function, and four grafts (three allografts and one xenograft) showed evidence of good function, with the animals independent of exogenous insulin with morning fasting blood glucose levels less than 200 mg/dl. Because two grafts functioned only after CsA was either tapered or discontinued, we performed a related study that showed that therapeutic doses of CsA (morning trough serum level 150-250 ng/ml) impaired intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) of normal monkeys and may contributed to graft dysfunction in our islet transplantation model. The results show that there is a decrease in release of serum insulin during an IVGTT leading to impairment of glucose utilization, while serum glucagon remains unaffected. After cessation of CsA, the IVGTT did not return to normal for 28 days. Oral glucose tolerance tests were unaffected in CsA-treated monkeys. These initial studies show that the streptozotocin-diabetic monkey is a valuable model to study IDDM and islet transplantation in nonhuman primates. We also confirm studies in rodents, dogs, and sheep by showing that CsA partially inhibits beta cell function in normal monkeys.

  18. Origins and antiquity of X-linked triallelic color vision systems in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Boissinot, S; Tan, Y; Shyue, S K; Schneider, H; Sampaio, I; Neiswanger, K; Hewett-Emmett, D; Li, W H

    1998-11-10

    It is known that the squirrel monkey, marmoset, and other related New World (NW) monkeys possess three high-frequency alleles at the single X-linked photopigment locus, and that the spectral sensitivity peaks of these alleles are within those delimited by the human red and green pigment genes. The three alleles in the squirrel monkey and marmoset have been sequenced previously. In this study, the three alleles were found and sequenced in the saki monkey, capuchin, and tamarin. Although the capuchin and tamarin belong to the same family as the squirrel monkey and marmoset, the saki monkey belongs to a different family and is one of the species that is most divergent from the squirrel monkey and marmoset, suggesting the presence of the triallelic system in many NW monkeys. The nucleotide sequences of these alleles from the five species studied indicate that gene conversion occurs frequently and has partially or completely homogenized intronic and exonic regions of the alleles in each species, making it appear that a triallelic system arose independently in each of the five species studied. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis suggests that the triallelic system arose only once in the NW monkey lineage, from a middle wavelength (green) opsin gene, and that the amino acid differences at functionally critical sites among alleles have been maintained by natural selection in NW monkeys for >20 million years. Moreover, the two X-linked opsin genes of howler monkeys (a NW monkey genus) were evidently derived from the incorporation of a middle (green) and a long wavelength (red) allele into one chromosome; these two genes together with the (autosomal) blue opsin gene would immediately enable even a male monkey to have trichromatic vision. PMID:9811872

  19. Virtual slit scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiolka, Reto; Stemmer, Andreas; Belyaev, Yury

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel slit scanning confocal microscope with a CCD camera image sensor and a virtual slit aperture for descanning that can be adjusted during post-processing. A very efficient data structure and mathematical criteria for aligning the virtual aperture guarantee the ease of use. We further introduce a method to reduce the anisotropic lateral resolution of slit scanning microscopes. System performance is evaluated against a spinning disk confocal microscope on identical specimens. The virtual slit scanning microscope works as the spinning disk type and outperforms on thick specimens. PMID:17891411

  20. PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter availability during acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W; Gage, H Donald; Nader, Susan H; Reboussin, Beth A; Bounds, Michael; Nader, Michael A

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine use alters availability of brain dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) and transporters (DAT). The present study examined the effects of low doses of cocaine on this neuroadaptation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), D2R and DAT availability in the caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (AMY) were assessed before and after monkeys acquired cocaine self-administration. Twelve rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.03 mg/kg per injection) under conditions that resulted in low drug intakes. PET scans using radiotracers targeting D2R ([F]fluoroclebopride, FCP) or DAT ([F]-(+)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2β-propanoyl-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane, FCT) were performed when monkeys were cocaine naive and after 9 weeks of self-administration. Before self-administration, D2R availability was significantly higher only in left vs. right Cd, whereas DAT availability was higher in left vs. right Cd, Pt, and ACC. Nonetheless, after cocaine exposure, left-right differences in D2R were apparent in 3 of 4 regions, but only in the ACC for DAT availability. Self-administration of this dose of cocaine did not significantly affect DAT availability in any region and only decreased D2R availability in the ACC. These results demonstrate lateralization of D2R and DAT availability in brain areas that mediate cocaine self-administration, even under conditions in which cocaine does not affect overall receptor availability. PMID:21768930

  1. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P < 0.0026) and animal-specific EG eye change most frequent, for five phenomena (number of EG eyes and range of animal-specific change): posterior laminar deformation (21, −29 to −437 μm), laminar thickening (11, 20–73 μm) and thinning (3, −23 to −31 μm), scleral canal expansion (17, 20–139 μm), outward anterior (16, −16 to −124 μm) and posterior (17, −22 to −279 μm) laminar insertion migration, and peripapillary scleral bowing (11, 21–77 μm). Experimental glaucoma versus control eye laminar thickness differences were bimodal in behavior, being thickened in most EG eyes demonstrating the least deformation and less thickened or thinned in most EG eyes demonstrating the greatest deformation. Conclusions Our postmortem studies retrospectively identify five connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  2. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  3. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  4. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  5. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  6. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  7. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal the structure of the ... a PET/CT. Alternative Names ... PT, Rijntjes M, Weiller C. Neuroimaging: Functional neuroimaging. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic ...

  8. The conical scan radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosch, T.; Hennings, D.

    1982-07-01

    A satellite-borne conical scan radiometer (CSR) is proposed, offering multiangular and multispectral measurements of Earth radiation fields, including the total radiances, which are not available from conventional radiometers. Advantages of the CSR for meteorological studies are discussed. In comparison to conventional cross track scanning instruments, the CSR is unique with respect to the selected picture element size which is kept constant by means of a specially shaped detector matrix at all scan angles. The conical scan mode offers the chance to improve angular sampling. Angular sampling gaps of previous satellite-borne radiometers can be interpolated and complemented by CSR data. Radiances are measured through 10 radiometric channels which are selected to study cloudiness, water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, ground and mean stratospheric temperature, and aerosols.

  9. Kinetic brain analysis and whole-body imaging in monkey of [11C]MNPA: a dopamine agonist radioligand.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Nicholas; Skinbjerg, Mette; Zoghbi, Sami S; Liow, Jeih-San; Gladding, Robert L; Hong, Jinsoo; Kannan, Pavitra; Tuan, Edward; Sibley, David R; Halldin, Christer; Pike, Victor W; Innis, Robert B

    2008-09-01

    With a view to future extension of the use of the agonist radioligand [(11)C]MNPA ([O-methyl-(11)C]2-methoxy-N-propylnorapomorphine) from animals to humans, we performed two positron emission tomography (PET) studies in monkeys. First, we assessed the ability to quantify the brain uptake of [(11)C]MNPA with compartmental modeling. Second, we estimated the radiation exposure of [(11)C]MNPA to human subjects based on whole-body imaging in monkeys. Brain PET scans were acquired for 90 min and included concurrent measurements of the plasma concentration of unchanged radioligand. Time-activity data from striatum and cerebellum were quantified with two methods, a reference tissue model and distribution volume. Whole-body PET scans were acquired for 120 min using four bed positions from head to mid thigh. Regions of interest were drawn on compressed planar whole-body images to identify organs with the highest radiation exposures. After injection of [(11)C]MNPA, the highest concentration of radioactivity in brain was in striatum, with lowest levels in cerebellum. Distribution volume was well identified with a two-tissue compartmental model and was quite stable from 60 to 90 min. Whole-body PET scans showed the organ with the highest radiation burden (muSv/MBq) was the urinary bladder wall (26.0), followed by lungs (22.5), gallbladder wall (21.9), and heart wall (16.1). With a 2.4-h voiding interval, the effective dose was 6.4 muSv/MBq (23.5 mrem/mCi). In conclusion, brain uptake of [(11)C]MNPA reflected the density of D(2/3) receptors, quantified relative to serial arterial measurements, and caused moderate to low radiation exposure.

  10. Scanning Mueller polarimetric microscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Gratiet, Aymeric; Dubreuil, Matthieu; Rivet, Sylvain; Le Grand, Yann

    2016-09-15

    A full Mueller polarimeter was implemented on a commercial laser-scanning microscope. The new polarimetric microscope is based on high-speed polarization modulation by spectral coding using a wavelength-swept laser as a source. Calibration as well as estimation of the measurement errors of the device are reported. The acquisition of Mueller images at the speed of a scanning microscope is demonstrated for the first time. Mueller images of mineral and biological samples illustrate this new polarimetric microscopy. PMID:27628391

  11. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  12. Identification of 32 major histocompatibility complex class I alleles in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Li, A; Li, L; Yan, X; Fa, Y; Zeng, L; Fan, J; Liu, B; Sun, Z

    2014-09-01

    The African green monkey may be an ideal replacement for the rhesus monkey in biomedical research, but relatively little is known about the genetic background of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In analysis of 12 African green monkeys, 13 Chae-A and 19 Chae-B alleles were identified. Among these alleles, 12 Chae-A and 9 Chae-B were new lineages. The full amino acid length deduced for Chae-A genes is 365 amino acids, but for Chae-B genes, the lengths are 365, 362, 361, and 359 amino acids, respectively. There were 1-3 Chae-A alleles and 2-5 Chae-B alleles in each animal. In African green monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and cynomolgus monkeys, the MHC-A and MHC-B alleles display trans-species polymorphism, rather than being clustered in a species-specific fashion.

  13. Molecular demonstration of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Sashida, Hinako; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Rokuhara, Sou; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild monkeys is largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of hemoplasmas in blood specimens collected from wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) tentatively captured for ecological survey in Mie prefecture, Japan. We examined 9 monkeys using hemoplasma-specific real-time PCR and found all of them positive for a hemoplasma infection. The 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of the hemoplasma detected in wild monkeys were amplified using end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were further determined and compared to those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations revealed a wide prevalence of a hemoplasma strain in Japanese monkeys, which was similar to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque' reported in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Pathogenic traits of this hemoplasma strain remain unexplored.

  14. Generation of a monkey with MECP2 mutations by TALEN-based gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Xue; Zhu, Ying; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Nie, Yan-Hong; Sang, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Sun, Qiang; Qiu, Zilong

    2014-06-01

    Gene editing in model organisms has provided critical insights into brain development and diseases. Here, we report the generation of a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) carrying MECP2 mutations using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated gene targeting. After injecting TALENs mRNA into monkey zygotes achieved by in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation into surrogate monkeys, we obtained one male newborn monkey with an MECP2 deletion caused by frameshifting mutation in various tissues. The monkey carrying the MECP2 mutation failed to survive after birth, due to either the toxicity of TALENs or the critical requirement of MECP2 for neural development. The level of MeCP2 protein was essentially depleted in the monkey's brain. This study demonstrates the feasibility of introducing genetic mutations in non-human primates by site-specific gene-editing methods.

  15. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    PubMed

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication.

  16. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  17. [The interrelationships of motivation and reinforcement in the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by the monkey].

    PubMed

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskiĭ, V V

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of instrumental reflex of rhesus monkey was studied in automatic experiment. Three monkeys performed a movement of the lever in response to the light stimulus. It was shown, that the realization of the instrumental reflex by monkeys represented blocks of continuous or interrupted realizations and pauses between them. The dependence was studied of intensity of performance upon the time from the beginning of the experiment, and a comparison was drawn of intensities for three monkeys. The average intensity in block is constant and individual for each monkey. Also the influence of food deprivation and complementary reinforcement on the monkey's performance was studied.

  18. Diffusion dynamics of socially learned foraging techniques in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Claidière, Nicolas; Messer, Emily J E; Hoppitt, William; Whiten, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Social network analyses and experimental studies of social learning have each become important domains of animal behavior research in recent years yet have remained largely separate. Here we bring them together, providing the first demonstration of how social networks may shape the diffusion of socially learned foraging techniques. One technique for opening an artificial fruit was seeded in the dominant male of a group of squirrel monkeys and an alternative technique in the dominant male of a second group. We show that the two techniques spread preferentially in the groups in which they were initially seeded and that this process was influenced by monkeys' association patterns. Eigenvector centrality predicted both the speed with which an individual would first succeed in opening the artificial fruit and the probability that they would acquire the cultural variant seeded in their group. These findings demonstrate a positive role of social networks in determining how a new foraging technique diffuses through a population. PMID:23810529

  19. Spontaneous Cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mia T.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasu; Fox, James G.

    2016-01-01

    A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract. Gallbladder tissue, bile, and gallstones cultured positive for Escherichia coli and Proteus spp., suggesting a brown-pigment gallstone type secondary to a bacterial nidus. Histopathology revealed severe chronic–active diffuse cholecystitis and severe chronic-active hepatic degeneration and necrosis with severe cholestasis. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous choleilthiasis in a squirrel monkey. PMID:26884412

  20. Call combinations in monkeys: compositional or idiomatic expressions?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call series consisting of two call types in response to different events. They can also be combined into short sequences that convey a different message from those conveyed by either call type alone. Here, we investigate whether 'pyow-hack' sequences are compositional in that the individual calls contribute to their overall meaning. However, the monkeys behaved as if they perceived the sequence as an idiomatic expression rather than decoding the sequence. Nonetheless, while this communication system lacks the generative power of syntax it enables callers to increase the number of messages that can be conveyed by a small and innate call repertoire.

  1. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  2. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  3. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, D Y; Fenley, A R; Teramoto, Y; Narayanan, D Z; Borjon, J I; Holmes, P; Ghazanfar, A A

    2015-08-14

    Human vocal development occurs through two parallel interactive processes that transform infant cries into more mature vocalizations, such as cooing sounds and babbling. First, natural categories of sounds change as the vocal apparatus matures. Second, parental vocal feedback sensitizes infants to certain features of those sounds, and the sounds are modified accordingly. Paradoxically, our closest living ancestors, nonhuman primates, are thought to undergo few or no production-related acoustic changes during development, and any such changes are thought to be impervious to social feedback. Using early and dense sampling, quantitative tracking of acoustic changes, and biomechanical modeling, we showed that vocalizations in infant marmoset monkeys undergo dramatic changes that cannot be solely attributed to simple consequences of growth. Using parental interaction experiments, we found that contingent parental feedback influences the rate of vocal development. These findings overturn decades-old ideas about primate vocalizations and show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early vocal development in humans. PMID:26273055

  4. Granulomatous Nephritis Consistent with Malakoplakia in a Cynomolgus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Inomata, Akira; Sonoda, Jiro; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Ohta, Etsuko; Seki, Yuki; Goto, Aya; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare form of chronic granulomatous inflammation in mammals, and usually affects the urinary tract in humans. In this report, we present a case of granulomatous nephritis consistent with malakoplakia in a 4-year-old male cynomolgus monkey. Gross examination showed that the kidney was markedly enlarged and adhered to the surrounding organs. Histology showed that there was diffuse interstitial infiltration of histiocytes with abundant foamy eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling von Hansemann cells, PAS-positive granular cytoplasm and occasional PAS- and iron-positive intracellular small inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy showed that these histiocytes contained abundant lysosomes and phagolysosomes but no obvious Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of granulomatous nephritis consistent with early malakoplakia was made. This is the first report in a monkey of a renal lesion consistent with malakoplakia. PMID:24526815

  5. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  6. Non-random walks in monkeys and humans

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Denis; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Walsh, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Principles of self-organization play an increasingly central role in models of human activity. Notably, individual human displacements exhibit strongly recurrent patterns that are characterized by scaling laws and can be mechanistically modelled as self-attracting walks. Recurrence is not, however, unique to human displacements. Here we report that the mobility patterns of wild capuchin monkeys are not random walks, and they exhibit recurrence properties similar to those of cell phone users, suggesting spatial cognition mechanisms shared with humans. We also show that the highly uneven visitation patterns within monkey home ranges are not entirely self-generated but are forced by spatio-temporal habitat heterogeneities. If models of human mobility are to become useful tools for predictive purposes, they will need to consider the interaction between memory and environmental heterogeneities. PMID:22031731

  7. Influence of Target Parameters on Fixation Stability in Normal and Strabismic Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Pirdankar, Onkar H.; Das, Vallabh E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of fixation target parameters on fixation instability in strabismic monkeys. Methods One normal and three exotropic monkeys were presented with four differently shaped fixation targets, with three diameters, during monocular or binocular viewing. Fixation targets were white on a black background or vice versa. Binocular eye movements were recorded using the magnetic search coil technique and fixation stability quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA). Results Fixation instability was greater in all the strabismic monkeys compared with the normal monkey. During monocular viewing, strabismic monkeys showed significantly greater instability in the covered eye compared to the fixating eye. Multifactorial ANOVA suggested statistically significant target parameter influences, although effect sizes were small. Thus, a disk-shaped target resulted in greater instability than other target shapes in the viewing eyes of the normal monkey and two of three strabismic monkeys. A similar target-shape effect was also observed in the covered eye. Least instability was elicited with a 0.5° target in the normal monkey and a 1.0° target in the strabismic monkeys, both in the viewing and the covered eye. Target/background polarity effects were idiosyncratic. In strabismic monkeys, stability of the fixating eye during binocular viewing was not different from the stability of the same eye during monocular viewing. Conclusions Abnormal drifts and nystagmus contribute to increased fixation instability in strabismic monkeys. Target parameters (shape and size) that influence fixation stability in a normal animal also affected fixation stability in our sample of strabismic monkeys. PMID:26968739

  8. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  9. Comparison of percutaneous absorption of fragrances by humans and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bronaugh, R L; Stewart, R F; Wester, R C; Bucks, D; Mailbach, H I; Anderson, J

    1985-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of two cosmetic fragrance materials, safrole and cinnamyl anthranilate, as well as of cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic acid, has been measured at occluded and non-occluded application sites. Absorption values were determined in the rhesus monkey in vivo. Absorption through human skin was measured by using excised skin in diffusion cells. Because of the insolubility in water of safrole and cinnamyl anthranilate, a nonionic surfactant solution (6% oleth 20) was used in the receptor chamber of the diffusion cell in order to facilitate the partitioning of the compounds from the skin into the receptor fluid. The relative volatility of the compounds was determined in order to aid in the interpretation of the absorption results. The greatest difference between in vivo and in vitro absorption values occurred with safrole, which was the least well absorbed and the most volatile compound. Cinnamic acid absorption through non-occluded human skin (17.8 +/- 4.9%, mean +/- SEM) was significantly lower than through monkey skin (38.6 +/- 8.3%). The values for absorption through human and monkey skin did not differ significantly for cinnamyl anthranilate (24.0 +/- 5.1% v. 26.1 +/- 2.3%) or cinnamic alcohol (33.9 +/- 7.3% v. 25.4 +/- 4.4%). Occlusion of the skin resulted in greater permeation of all of the compounds; a significant difference in permeability between the two types of skin occurred only with safrole. The fragrances were absorbed well, but their volatility must be considered in a toxicity evaluation. There was reasonable agreement between the values obtained from the studies of the human skin in vitro and the monkey skin in vivo.

  10. Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2008-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

  11. Oxytocin enhances attention to the eye region in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dal Monte, Olga; Noble, Pamela L.; Costa, Vincent D.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Human and non-human primates rely on the ability to perceive and interpret facial expressions to guide effective social interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been shown to have a critical role in the perception of social cues, and in humans to increase the number of saccades to the eye region. To develop a useful primate model for the effects of OT on information processing, we investigated the influence of OT on gaze behavior during face processing in rhesus macaques. Forty-five minutes after a single intranasal dose of either 24IU OT or saline, monkeys completed a free-viewing task during which they viewed pictures of conspecifics displaying one of three facial expressions (neutral, open-mouth threat or bared-teeth) for 5 s. The monkey was free to explore the face on the screen while the pattern of eye movements was recorded. OT did not increase overall fixations to the face compared to saline. Rather, when monkeys freely viewed conspecific faces, OT increased fixations to the eye region relative to the mouth region. This effect of OT was particularly pronounced when face position on the screen was manipulated so that the eye region was not the first facial feature seen by the monkeys. Together these findings are consistent with prior evidence in humans that intranasal administration of OT specifically enhances visual attention to the eye region compared to other informative facial features, thus validating the use of non-human primates to mechanistically explore how OT modulates social information processing and behavior. PMID:24624055

  12. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion?

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Gori, Simone; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences of visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception and, to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1 subjects initially were trained to discriminate static vs. dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that the order of the luminance sequence was changed in a way that no apparent motion is perceived by humans. The overall performance of monkeys indicated that they spontaneously classified RSI as a dynamic array. Subsequently, we tested adult humans in the same task with the aim of directly comparing the performance of human and non-human primates (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 we found that monkeys can be successfully trained to discriminate between the RSI and a control stimulus. Experiment 4 showed that a simple change in luminance sequence in the two arrays could not explain the performance reported in Exp. 3. These results suggest that some rhesus monkeys display a human-like perception of this motion illusion, raising the possibility that the neurocognitive systems underlying motion perception may be similar between human and non-human primates. PMID:25812828

  13. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 {mu}g/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  14. Biological Rhythms and Temperature Regulation in Rhesus Monkeys During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This program examined the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in Rhesus monkeys. Animals flown on the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2229 were exposed to 11 2/3 days of microgravity. The circadian patterns temperature regulation, heart rate and activity were monitored constantly. This experiment has extended previous observations from COSMOS 1514 and 2044, as well as provided insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.

  15. Habitat quality of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    PubMed

    da Silva Júnior, Wilson Marcelo; Alves Meira-Neto, João Augusto; da Silva Carmo, Flávia Maria; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Santana Moreira, Leandro; Ferreira Barbosa, Elaine; Dias, Luiz Gustavo; da Silva Peres, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how habitat structure affects the home range use of a group of Brachyteles hypoxanthus in the Brigadeiro State Park, Brazil. It has been reported that most of the annual feeding time of woolly spider monkeys is spent eating leaves, but they prefer fruits when available. We hypothesise that the protein-to-fibre ratio (PF; best descriptor of habitat quality for folivorous primates) is a better descriptor of habitat quality and abundance for these primates than the structural attributes of forests (basal area is the best descriptor of habitat quality for frugivorous primates of Africa and Asia). We evaluated plant community structure, successional status, and PF of leaf samples from the dominant tree populations, both within the core and from a non-core area of the home range of our study group. Forest structure was a combination of stem density and basal area of dominant tree populations. The core area had larger trees, a higher forest basal area, and higher stem density than the non-core area. Mean PF did not differ significantly between these sites, although PF was influenced by differences in tree regeneration guilds. Large-bodied monkeys could be favoured by later successional stages of forests because larger trees and denser stems prevent the need for a higher expenditure of energy for locomotion as a consequence of vertical travel when the crowns of trees are disconnected in early successional forests. Forest structure variables (such as basal area of trees) driven by succession influence woolly spider monkey abundance in a fashion similar to frugivorous monkeys of Asia and Africa, and could explain marked differences in ranging behaviour and home range use by B. hypoxanthus.

  16. Thermoregulatory plasticity in free-ranging vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus pygerythrus.

    PubMed

    Lubbe, Alwyn; Hetem, Robyn S; McFarland, Richard; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter S; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    We used implanted miniature data loggers to obtain the first measurements of body temperature from a free-ranging anthropoid primate. Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) living in a highly seasonal, semi-arid environment maintained a lower mean 24-h body temperature in winter (34.6 ± 0.5 °C) than in summer (36.2 ± 0.1 °C), and demonstrated increased heterothermy (as indexed by the 24-h amplitude of their body temperature rhythm) in response to proximal environmental stressors. The mean 24-h amplitude of the body temperature rhythm in summer (2.5 ± 0.1 °C) was lower than that in winter (3.2 ± 0.4 °C), with the highest amplitude for an individual monkey (5.6 °C) recorded in winter. The higher amplitude of the body temperature rhythm in winter was a consequence primarily of lower 24-h minimum body temperatures during the nocturnal phase, when monkeys were inactive. These low minimum body temperatures were associated with low black globe temperature (GLMM, β = 0.046, P < 0.001), short photoperiod (β = 0.010, P < 0.001) and low rainfall over the previous 2 months, which we used as a proxy for food availability (β = 0.001, P < 0.001). Despite the lower average winter minimum body temperatures, there was no change in the lower modal body temperature between winter and summer. Therefore, unlike the regulated physiological adjustments proposed for torpor or hibernation, these minimum winter body temperatures did not appear to reflect a regulated reduction in body temperature. The thermoregulatory plasticity nevertheless may have fitness benefits for vervet monkeys. PMID:24938639

  17. Radiation response of the monkey kidney following contralateral nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Stephens, L.C.; Gray, K.N.

    1994-09-30

    The long-term functional and morphologic responses of the hypertrophied monkey kidney after unilateral nephrectomy to fractionated irradiation were assessed. The right kidney of 13 adult female rhesus monkeys was removed. Twelve weeks after unilateral nephrectomy (UN) the remaining kidney received fractionated doses of {gamma}-rays ranging from 35.2 Gy/16 fractions (F) up to 44 Gy/20 F. Glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and hematocrit values were measured up to 107 weeks postirradiation (PI). The monkeys were killed and the remaining kidneys were removed 107 weeks PI or earlier when end-stage renal failure was exhibited. Glomeruli were scored for the presence/absence of several pathologic features including increased intercapillary eosinophilic material (ICE), ecstatic capillaries, and thrombi. The relative proportion of renal cortex occupied by glomeruli, interstitium, normal tubules or abnormal tubules was determined using a Chalkley point grid. These quantal dose response data were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Irradiation of the remaining kidney in UN monkeys resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in renal function and anemia. Glomerular dysfunction preceded tubular dysfunction. Animals receiving 44 Gy all manifested progressive clinical renal failure. Conversely, those receiving {le} 39.6 Gy showed stable, albeit impaired, renal function for the duration of the observation period of 107 weeks. Morphologically, the incidence of ICE, ecstatic glomerular capillaries, thrombi, and periglomerular fibrosis was significantly dose-related (p < 0.005). A significant (p < 0.001) dose-related increase in the relative proportion of renal cortex occupied by abnormal tubules was indicative of tubular injury. A highly significant (p < 0.001) dose-dependent increase in the proportion of abnormal to normal tubules was also seen. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Vitamin D Status in Monkey Candidates for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Wronski, T. J.; Koslovskeya, I.; Dotsenko, R.; Navidi, M.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In preparation for the Cosmos 2229 Biosatellite space flight experiments in Rhesus monkeys, we evaluated the status of vitamin D in animals of different origins: candidates for space flight raised in Moscow (IMBP) and animals housed at Ames Research Ctr. (ARC) for pilot studies. Diets at IMBP were natural foods found by analysis to contain 1.4% Ca, 2.8% P and<240 IU D3/kg and at ARC standard monkey chow with 0.9% Ca, 0.5% P and 6600 IU D3/kg. We measured body weights (BW), serum calcium (TCa), total protein (TP), phosphorus (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (AP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) in 16 IMBP and 15 ARC male animals and indices of bone formation in cancellous bone obtained from iliac crest biopsy of 6 IMBP and 13 ARC animals. BW were the same in juveniles at IMBP as ARC although ARC monkeys were born a year later. Mean(1SD) TCa and TP were higher and 25D lower (1819 vs. 93+18 ng/ml,p<.001) in IMBP than ARC animals. 1,25D (174156 vs. 212+77 pg/ml), Pi and AP were similar. In bone, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces averaged 38114% and 33+15% in all, with %vol. of osteoid higher in IMBP than ARC monkeys of the same BW (p<.05) Indices of bone formation were inversely related to 25D, not 1,25D. Of interest are similar 1,25D levels associated with a wide range of substrate and extensive osteoid in bone of D replete animals.

  19. A restraining system for rhesus monkeys used in space research.

    PubMed

    Florence, G; Riondet, L; Malecki, H; Blanquie, J P; Martin, F; Viso, M; Milhaud, C L

    1995-02-01

    A new chronic restraining system has been designed specifically for male rhesus monkeys (8-13 kg) housed in weightlessness for scientific purposes. The restraining system consists of a coat (jacket and skirt) and a chair. The system separates the thorax from the lower part of the body, and allows large movements of the upper part of the body. The macaque can feed and groom itself, and can also sleep in close-to-normal position. PMID:8613974

  20. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  1. Standard electrocardiographic data of young Japanese monkeys (Macaca fusucata).

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Arao; Koie, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Taira, Masato

    2013-07-01

    The electrocardiogram of nonhuman primates is similar to that of humans because of similar intrathoracic heart position and structure. Despite the frequent use of nonhuman primates in biologic studies, few electrocardiographic studies of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fusucata) have been reported, and no reference data are available for this species. We obtained limb-lead electrocardiograms from indoor-bred and housed ketamine-sedated Japanese macaques (48 male; 56 female; mean age, 44.3 mo; mean body weight, 4.84 kg) in the dorsal recumbency. The following quantitative data was obtained: heart rate, P wave amplitude and width, R wave amplitude, QRS duration, PR interval, QT interval, T wave height, and mean electrical axis. Corrected QT intervals were calculated by using the Bazett and Fridericia formulae. Measurements were evaluated according to sex and age. The duration of the QRS complex showed moderate correlation with age in male monkeys. All parameters, except heart rate, were similar to previous reports from Japanese, cynomolgus, and other macaques. P waves, R waves and mean electrical axis did not differ significantly between humans and Japanese macaques, but the wave amplitude in macaques was half that in humans. Our electrocardiographic measurements can serve as normal reference data for sedated, young Japanese monkeys.

  2. Monkey lipsmacking develops like the human speech rhythm.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Ryan J; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2012-07-01

    Across all languages studied to date, audiovisual speech exhibits a consistent rhythmic structure. This rhythm is critical to speech perception. Some have suggested that the speech rhythm evolved de novo in humans. An alternative account--the one we explored here--is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of rhythmic facial expressions. We tested this idea by investigating the structure and development of macaque monkey lipsmacks and found that their developmental trajectory is strikingly similar to the one that leads from human infant babbling to adult speech. Specifically, we show that: (1) younger monkeys produce slower, more variable mouth movements and as they get older, these movements become faster and less variable; and (2) this developmental pattern does not occur for another cyclical mouth movement--chewing. These patterns parallel human developmental patterns for speech and chewing. They suggest that, in both species, the two types of rhythmic mouth movements use different underlying neural circuits that develop in different ways. Ultimately, both lipsmacking and speech converge on a ~5 Hz rhythm that represents the frequency that characterizes the speech rhythm of human adults. We conclude that monkey lipsmacking and human speech share a homologous developmental mechanism, lending strong empirical support to the idea that the human speech rhythm evolved from the rhythmic facial expressions of our primate ancestors.

  3. L and M cone proportions in polymorphic New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Williams, Gary A

    2006-01-01

    Platyrrhine monkeys typically have only a single X-chromosome opsin gene. Alleles of this gene code for multiple versions of middle- to long-wavelength cone photopigments. X-chromosome inactivation provides heterozygous females with a retinal mosaic of cones containing either of two types of M and L pigment, thus establishing the photopigment basis for trichromatic color vision. This study examined the proportions of L and M cones created by this process. For that purpose, electroretinogram flicker photometry was used to obtain complete spectral sensitivity functions from 60 heterozygous female monkeys drawn from seven genera of platyrrhine monkeys. To obtain estimates of cone proportions, these functions were subsequently fit with linear combinations of L and M cone fundamentals that were derived from similar recordings made on conspecific animals having only one type of M/L pigment. Consistent with a random X-chromosome inactivation process, the average L:M cone weighting across the sample was close to unity. At the same time, there were significant individual variations in L:M cone proportions. The genesis of this variation and its implications for seeing are discussed. PMID:16961968

  4. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques. PMID:24187056

  5. Vocal acoustics in the endangered proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus).

    PubMed

    Röper, K M; Scheumann, M; Wiechert, A B; Nathan, S; Goossens, B; Owren, M J; Zimmermann, E

    2014-02-01

    The endangered proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is a sexually highly dimorphic Old World primate endemic to the island of Borneo. Previous studies focused mainly on its ecology and behavior, but knowledge of its vocalizations is limited. The present study provides quantified information on vocal rate and on the vocal acoustics of the prominent calls of this species. We audio-recorded vocal behavior of 10 groups over two 4-month periods at the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary in Sabah, Borneo. We observed monkeys and recorded calls in evening and morning sessions at sleeping trees along riverbanks. We found no differences in the vocal rate between evening and morning observation sessions. Based on multiparametric analysis, we identified acoustic features of the four common call-types "shrieks," "honks," "roars," and "brays." "Chorus" events were also noted in which multiple callers produced a mix of vocalizations. The four call-types were distinguishable based on a combination of fundamental frequency variation, call duration, and degree of voicing. Three of the call-types can be considered as "loud calls" and are therefore deemed promising candidates for non-invasive, vocalization-based monitoring of proboscis monkeys for conservation purposes. PMID:24123122

  6. Temperature and adrenocortical responses in rhesus monkeys exposed to microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Podgorski, R.P.

    1982-12-01

    To determine if the endocrine response to microwave exposure was similar in a primate to that reported for other animals, rectal temperature and plasma levels of cortisol, thyroxine (T4), and growth hormone (GH) were measured in rhesus monkeys exposed to 1.29-GHz microwave radiation. Exposures were carried out under far-field conditions with the monkey restrained in a chair. Incident power densities of 0, 20, 28, and 38 mW/sq cm were used, with corresponding specific absorption rates of 0, 2.1, 3.0, and 4.1 W/kg. Blood samples were taken hourly via an indwelling jugular venous catheter over a 24-h period before, during, and after an 8-h exposure. Rectal temperature increased an average of 0.5, 0.7, and 1.7 C for the three intensities used. No changes in T4 or GH were observed. Cortisol levels were increased during exposure to 38 mW/sq cm. It was concluded that the temperature and adrenocortical responses to microwave exposure of the rhesus monkey are similar to the corresponding responses of other animals.

  7. Hair pulling and eating in captive rhesus monkey troops.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, V; Reinhardt, A; Houser, D

    1986-01-01

    Hair pulling and eating has not yet received attention in the nonhuman primate literature. Hair pulling and eating was recorded 388 times in two heterogeneous troops of healthy rhesus monkeys that were kept according to modern management practices. The behavior in question consists of the following sequence: pulling with the fingers (1/3 of cases) or with the teeth (2/3 of cases) tufts of hair from one's own or from a partner's coat; chewing the hair and finally swallowing it; the undigested material is excreted in the feces. Hair pulling was almost exclusively (378/388) partner-directed. It was observed 364 times between animals whose dominance relationships were known; it was performed in 96% (349/364) of observations by a dominant but only in 4% (15/364) of observations by a subordinate monkey. The recipient of hair pulling showed typical fear and/or avoidance reactions. In both troops young animals (2-8 years of age) engaged in hair pulling and eating significantly more often than old animals (10-26 years of age). There was no evidence that nutritional, toxicological or climatic factors were responsible for the manifestation of this behavior. It was concluded that, similar to trichotillomania in man, wool pulling and eating in sheep and muskox, and feather picking in poultry, hair pulling and eating is an aggressive behavioral disorder in rhesus monkeys reflecting adjustment problems to a stressful environment. PMID:3583152

  8. Eye-head coordination during optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, T.; Igarashi, M.; Jensen, D. W.; Homick, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Head and eye movements in the yaw plane were recorded during and after optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys. 1) Phasic or tonic head deviations to the side of the ocular quick phase occurred in 94% of total recordings (n = 50) during the perstimulus period, and in 75% of recordings (n = 49) during the poststimulus period. Magnitude of mean head deviation was significantly different between perstimulus and poststimulus periods. 2) Head nystagmus associated with eye nystagmus was consistently observed in seven of nine squirrel monkeys during optokinetic stimulation. Squirrel monkeys are thereby less prone to display head nystagmus than either guinea pigs, pigeons or chickens. 3) Slow phase speeds of coupled head and eye nystagmus were subjected to statistical analysis. A highly significant negative correlation was found between slow phase head and eye speeds. The correlation coefficient was - 0.81 at 60 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 119) and -0.72 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 131). The gaze speed, calculated by summing the head and eye speeds, was 59.1 plus or minus 6.8 / sec at 60 degrees / sec and 92.2 plus or minus 11.4 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus. There was no significant difference between the gaze speed in a free head condition and the eye speed when the head was fixed.

  9. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  10. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  11. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J H; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1990-01-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled pork insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report we describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. We demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in our immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. Squirrel monkey glucagon is identical with the usual glucagon found in Old World mammals, which predicts that the glucagons of other New World monkeys would not differ from the usual Old World mammalian glucagon. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species. PMID:2263627

  12. Effect of new training technique on affinity of cynomolgus monkeys for animal care personnel.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Ai; Tachibana, Yuki; Takaura, Kaoru; Ochi, Takehiro; Koyama, Hironari

    2015-01-01

    To confirm our hypothesis that the sex and age of cynomolgus monkeys influences the effect of training, we employed a new training technique designed to increase the animal's affinity for animal care personnel. During 151 days of training, monkeys aged 2 to 10 years accepted each 3 raisins/3 times/day, and communicated with animal care personnel (5 times/day). Behavior was scored using integers between -1 and 5. Before training, 35 of the 61 monkeys refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (Score -1, 0 and 1). After training, 28 of these 35 monkeys (80%) accepted raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (>Score 2). The mean score of monkeys increased from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.2. The minimum training period required for monkeys to reach Score 2 was longer for females than for males. After 151 days, 6 of the 31 females and 1 of the 30 males still refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel. Beneficial effects of training were obtained in both young and adult monkeys. These results indicate that our new training technique markedly improves the affinity of monkeys for animal care personnel, and that these effects tend to vary by sex but not age. In addition, abnormal behavior and symptoms of monkeys were improved by this training.

  13. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-11-01

    From May 2005-2006, selections of river crossing locations and sleeping sites used by a one-male group (BE-Group) of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) were investigated along the Menanggul River, tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. The frequency of river crossings for focal monkeys in the BE-Group was significantly higher at locations with narrow branch-to-bank distances. Branch-to-bank distances were defined as the distances between the longest tree branches extending over the river and the bank of river on each side. This was measured in areas crossed by the monkeys. The focal monkeys used locations with a higher probability of successful river crossings that did not require jumping into the water and swimming across than those that did. The frequency of sleeping site usage by the BE-Group was positively correlated with the frequency of using river crossing locations by the focal monkeys. Previous reports on predation of proboscis monkeys indicate that clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and crocodilians (Tomistoma schlegeli and Crocodylus porosus) may be the major terrestrial and aquatic predators of these monkeys. The selection of river crossing locations by proboscis monkeys may be influenced both by the threat of these predators and the location of suitable and protected sleeping sites. Finally, sleeping sites locations that offer arboreal escape routes may protect proboscis monkeys from leopard attack.

  14. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-11-01

    From May 2005-2006, selections of river crossing locations and sleeping sites used by a one-male group (BE-Group) of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) were investigated along the Menanggul River, tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. The frequency of river crossings for focal monkeys in the BE-Group was significantly higher at locations with narrow branch-to-bank distances. Branch-to-bank distances were defined as the distances between the longest tree branches extending over the river and the bank of river on each side. This was measured in areas crossed by the monkeys. The focal monkeys used locations with a higher probability of successful river crossings that did not require jumping into the water and swimming across than those that did. The frequency of sleeping site usage by the BE-Group was positively correlated with the frequency of using river crossing locations by the focal monkeys. Previous reports on predation of proboscis monkeys indicate that clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and crocodilians (Tomistoma schlegeli and Crocodylus porosus) may be the major terrestrial and aquatic predators of these monkeys. The selection of river crossing locations by proboscis monkeys may be influenced both by the threat of these predators and the location of suitable and protected sleeping sites. Finally, sleeping sites locations that offer arboreal escape routes may protect proboscis monkeys from leopard attack. PMID:18651612

  15. A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M D; Greenspan, L L; Glander, K E; Clarke, M R

    1990-10-01

    Fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata palliata) examined at Centro Ecologico La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. A sampling of nine howling monkeys from Santa Rosa National Park. Costa Rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). Only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) also from Santa Rosa were infected. Controrchis biliophilus, Trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and Isospora sp. oocysts were found. Three monkeys from La Pacifica died and were examined for adult helminths. They were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, C. biliophilus and T. minutus.

  16. [Laser scanning in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Jean, B; Frohn, A; Thiel, H J

    1990-01-01

    The current state of the art for the major laser scanning methods, laser scanning ophthalmoscopy (LSO) and laser tomographic scanning (LTS) is discussed and the function principles are described. Experience with a prototype of each instrument from Rodenstock (LSO) and Heidelberg Instruments (LTS) is reported. LSO imaging of the cornea, vitreous, retina, and optic disc, as well as on-line processing is demonstrated with examples (nerve fibre colour coding and histograms). Measurement of the cornea, optic disc and retinal topography with LTS is also demonstrated with examples. An example of polarization optical imaging of the cornea's assumed interferometric "tension patterns" is shown. The current status and future possibilities of laser scanning, its expanded diagnostic potential with microperimetry, IR scanning angiography and polarization optic imaging and measurement (eg. nerve fibre thickness) is discussed extensively. The safety aspects of laser light exposure of the macula are also mentioned. Laser scanners as imaging and measuring sensors of unknown accuracy open a new area of possibly revolutionary diagnostic possibilities.

  17. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  18. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  19. Vector generator scan converter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes high printing speeds for graphics data that are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  20. 3D Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Scleral Position and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; Downs, J. Crawford; Girkin, Christopher; Sakata, Lisandro; Bellezza, Anthony; Thompson, Hilary; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To three-dimensionally delineate the anterior and posterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange and peripapillary sclera so as to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). Methods The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three early glaucoma (EG) monkeys (one eye Normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were serial-sectioned at 3-μm thickness, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Images were aligned and stacked to create 3D reconstructions, within which Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera were delineated in 40 serial, radial (4.5° interval), digital, sagittal sections. For each eye, a BMO zero reference plane was fit to the 80 BMO points, which served as the reference from which all position measurements were made. Regional laminar, scleral flange, and peripapillary scleral position and thickness were compared between the Normal and EG eyes of each monkey and between treatment groups by analysis of variance. Results Laminar thickness varies substantially within the Normal eyes and is profoundly thicker within the three EG eyes. Laminar position is permanently posteriorly deformed in all three EG eyes, with substantial differences in the magnitude and extent of deformation among them. Scleral flange and peripapillary scleral thickness vary regionally within each Normal ONH with the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera thinnest nasally. Overall, the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera immediately surrounding the ONH are posteriorly displaced relative to the more peripheral sclera. Conclusion Profound fixed posterior deformation and thickening of the lamina is accompanied by mild posterior deformation and thinning of the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera at the onset of confocal scanning laser

  1. Subgingival microbiota in squirrel monkeys with naturally occurring periodontal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Beem, J E; Hurley, C G; Magnusson, I; McArthur, W P; Clark, W B

    1991-01-01

    The squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) has been proposed as an in vivo model for the study of subgingival colonization by suspected periodontopathogens, such as black-pigmented porphyromonads and prevotellas (BP/P). However, the indigenous microbiota of the squirrel monkey has not been well described. Therefore, in order to more fully characterize the oral microbiota of these animals, we studied two groups of squirrel monkeys from widely different sources. Group I consisted of 50 breeding colony monkeys ranging in age from 9 months to over 6 years which had been raised in captivity; group II consisted of 16 young sexually mature monkeys recently captured in the wild in Guyana. Group I animals in captivity had developed moderate to severe gingivitis, with a mean gingival index (GI) of 2.6; 52% of the sites bled, 26% had detectable calculus, and 83% had detectable BP/P. A group I subset (six animals), for which predominant cultivable microbiota was described, had a mean GI of 2.4. Colony morphology enumeration revealed that five of the six subset animals were detectably colonized with BP/P (range, 0 to 16.9%) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (range, 0 to 3.9%); all subset animals were colonized with Fusobacterium species (range, 0.8 to 3.6%), Actinomyces species (range, 2.3 to 11%), and gram-positive cocci (range, 1.4 to 21.4%). Predominant cultivable microbiota results revealed the presence of many bacterial species commonly found in the human gingival sulcus. At baseline, group II animals were clinically healthy and had a mean GI of 1.4; 67% of the sites bled and 2.1% had calculus, and none of the animals had detectable BP/P. Neisseriae were very common in noninflamed sites. Subsequently, when inflamed sites were compared with noninflamed sites in group II animals after they had been maintained in captivity for 6 months, inflamed sites exhibited a more complex microbiota and increased proportions of gram-negative rods and asaccharolytic bacteria. PMID

  2. Old World monkeys are more similar to humans than New World monkeys when playing a coordination game.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Wilson, Bart J; Beran, Michael J

    2012-04-22

    There is much debate about how humans' decision-making compares with that of other primates. One way to explore this is to compare species' performance using identical methodologies in games with strategical interactions. We presented a computerized Assurance Game, which was either functionally simultaneous or sequential, to investigate how humans, rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys used information in decision-making. All species coordinated via sequential play on the payoff-dominant Nash equilibrium, indicating that information about the partner's choice improved decisions. Furthermore, some humans and rhesus monkeys found the payoff-dominant Nash equilibrium in the simultaneous game, even when it was the first condition presented. Thus, Old World primates solved the task without any external cues to their partner's choice. Finally, when not explicitly prohibited, humans spontaneously used language to coordinate on the payoff-dominant Nash equilibrium, indicating an alternative mechanism for converting a simultaneous move game into a sequential move game. This phylogenetic distribution implies that no single mechanism drives coordination decisions across the primates, while humans' ability to spontaneously use language to change the structure of the game emphasizes that multiple mechanisms may be used even within the same species. These results provide insight into the evolution of decision-making strategies across the primates.

  3. Transplantation of Adult Monkey Neural Stem Cells into A Contusion Spinal Cord Injury Model in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hajinasrollah, Mostafa; Zare Mehrjerdi, Nargess; Azizi, Hossein; Hemmesi, Katayoun; Moghiminasr, Reza; Azhdari, Zahra; Talebi, Ardeshir; Mohitmafi, Soroush; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Sharifi, Giuve; Baharvand, Hossein; Rezaee, Omidvar; Kiani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. Results Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based on Tarlov’s scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys. Conclusion Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation. PMID:24567941

  4. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  5. Tomographic scanning imager.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Harald

    2009-07-01

    In tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imaging, light from a scene is focused onto a reticle mask using conical scan optics, and collected on a single element detector. Alternatively, one or several detectors replace the reticle. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signal to reproduce a two-dimensional image. The TOSCA technique is presented in detail, including its mathematical foundations and some of its limitations. It is shown how TOSCA imaging can be used in a multispectral configuration, and compares well with more conventional alternatives both in simplicity and performance. Examples of image reconstruction using TOSCA techniques are shown. PMID:19582052

  6. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  7. Adrenergic responsiveness is reduced, while baseline cardiac function is preserved in old adult conscious monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Shen, Y. T.; Vatner, S. F.; Vatner, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the physiological deficit to adrenergic stimulation with aging, five younger adult (3 +/- 1 yr old) and nine older adult (17 +/- 1 yr old) healthy monkeys were studied after instrumentation with a left ventricular (LV) pressure gauge, aortic and left atrial catheters, and aortic flow probes to measure cardiac output directly. There were no significant changes in baseline hemodynamics in conscious older monkeys. For example, an index of contractility, the first derivative of LV pressure (LV dP/dt) was similar (3,191 +/- 240, young vs. 3,225 +/- 71 mmHg/s, old) as well as in isovolumic relaxation, tau (24.3 +/- 1.7 ms, young vs. 23.0 +/- 1.0 ms, old) was similar. However, inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (Iso; 0.1 micrograms/kg), norepinephrine (NE; 0.4 micrograms/kg), and forskolin (For; 75 nmol/kg) were significantly (P < 0.05) depressed in older monkeys. For example. Iso increased LV dP/dt by by 146 +/- 14% in younger monkeys and by only 70 +/- 5% in older monkeys. Iso also reduced tau more in younger monkeys (-28 +/- 7%) compared with older monkeys (-13 +/- 3%). Furthermore, peripheral vascular responsiveness to Iso, NE, For, and phenylephrine (PE; 5 micrograms/kg) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in older monkeys. For example, phenylephrine (5 micrograms/kg) increased total peripheral resistence by 69 +/- 4% in younger monkeys and by only 45 +/- 3% in older monkeys. Thus in older monkeys without associated cardiovascular disease, baseline hemodynamics are preserved, but adrenergic receptor responsiveness is reduced systemically, not just in the heart.

  8. Activity budget, diet, and habitat use in the critically endangered Ka'apor capuchin monkey (Cebus kaapori) in Pará State, Brazil: a preliminary comparison to other capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, S G; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Veiga, Liza M

    2014-10-01

    The Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori, is perhaps the most endangered primate of the Brazilian Amazon. Endemic to a region with extreme intensification of habitat-degrading activities, it survives in remnant populations in a completely fragmented landscape. Before now, the only data available were isolated observations of feeding, locality records, and information on population densities and group size obtained during census. Here we present the first data on the activity budget, diet, and daily path length of the species, and compare our preliminary results with those for other capuchin monkeys. A group of nine Ka'apor capuchins was monitored over a period of four months during the dry season in the Goianésia do Pará municipality, Pará, Brazil. We used instantaneous scan sampling (n = 4,647 scans) to construct an activity budget for the monkeys, and we identified the plants in their diet to species level (n = 41 plant taxa), allowing us to compare dietary overlap with other gracile capuchin species, as well as with the robust capuchin (Sapajus spp.), a potential competitor present throughout the range of the Ka'apor capuchin. Like other species of gracile capuchins, C. kaapori was highly frugivorous, with the vast majority of the feeding records of arils and fruit pulp (74%), supplemented by arthropods (13%) and seeds (10%), although diet composition was highly variable across months. The group used a total area of 62.4 ha during the study period, and average daily path length was 2,173 m (±400 m), with the entire home range utilized in every month of the study. We found significant overlap in the diet of the Ka'apor capuchin and Sapajus, highlighting the urgency to increase knowledge of the ecological needs of C. kaapori and understand synergistic effects of sympatry with competitive species, increasing forest fragmentation, and widespread human impact on C. kaapori sustainability.

  9. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    PubMed

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved.

  10. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  11. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  12. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  13. THE 2016 ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Gene

    2015-09-01

    Every year, the American Hospital Association compiles the Environmental Scan to provide hospital leaders with insight and information about market forces that are likely to affect the health care field. One common theme this year is the pace of change. PMID:26495611

  14. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  15. Psychological Factors Capable of Preventing the Inhibition of Antibody Responses in Separated Infant Monkeys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Christopher L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Capacity of infant monkeys to mount an antibody response to viral challenge was evaluated after monkeys' removal from their mothers in several social and physical environments. Results indicated that trauma of separation was reduced when infants were familiar with the separation environment or familiar social companions were available. (PCB)

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a GII.17 Norovirus Isolated from a Rhesus Monkey in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Tao, Yufen; Li, Chao; Li, Xintong; Liu, Jiansheng; He, Zhanlong; Xia, Ming; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The previously silent GII.17 norovirus was found to be the predominant genotype causing major epidemics in China in the 2014–2015 winter epidemic season. We report here the complete genomic sequence of a GII.17 norovirus (mky/GII.17/KM1509/CHN/2015) that infected rhesus monkeys at a monkey farm in southwestern China. PMID:27609911

  17. Ogmocotyle ailuri (Price, 1954) (Digenea: Notocotylidae) found in the Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Takashi; Okada, Tomoko; Seki, Kentaro; Izawa, Kousei; Sakurai, Fujirou

    2012-09-01

    Several dozens of small trematodes were found in the small intestine of a Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata, that was captured in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The trematode was identified as Ogmocotyle ailuri. This is the first case of a Japanese monkey infected with Ogmocotyle trematodes, and a new host record for O. ailuri.

  18. Behavioral evaluation of hemiparkinsonian MPTP monkeys following dopamine pharmacological manipulation and adrenal co-graft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Howel, L L; Byrd, L D; McDonough, A M; Iuvone, P M; Bakay, R A

    2000-01-01

    Bradykinesia and rigidity are the symptoms that most directly correlate with loss of striatal dopamine in Parkinson's disease. In the hemiparkinsonian (HP) monkey, this is represented by paucity of movement as measured by coli puterized movement analysis, diminished manual dexterity on clinical examination, and diminished performance on operant behavioral tasks. The present study used an MPTP-induced HP model in rhesus monkeys to evaluate the effectiveness of adrenal medullary and peripheral nerve co-grafts in diminishing parkinsonian symptoms. Unoperated controls (N = 4), surgical controls with caudate lesioning (N = 4), and caudate co-grafted (N = 4) HP monkeys demonstrated diminished movement in the home cage following MPTP. This behavior persisted in unoperated controls, but improved in both surgical control and co-grafted monkeys. Functional hand dexterity evaluations demonstrated similar impairment in all three groups but only surgical controls and co-grafted monkeys demonstrated improvement. In general, rotational behavior in response to apomorphine was consistent with recovery of function in surgical controls and co grafted monkeys, but marked between-subject variability precluded group statistical analyses. None of the monkeys could perform the operant task using the affected limb following MPTP. However, the performance of two co-grafted animals demonstrated partial recovery. L-dopa improved operant performance, demonstrating a dopaminergic component to the task. The results demonstrate recovery of behavioral function after surgical treatment, with adrenal co-grafted monkeys showing the greatest degree of improvement. PMID:11144958

  19. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  20. [Behavioral characteristics of rhesus monkeys in a multiple-choice environment].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skaia, K A; Sagimbaeva, Sh K; Firsov, L A

    1988-01-01

    The present work deals with dynamics of formation of complex alimentary behaviour of rhesus monkeys in multialternative environment. A detailed informational analysis of the obtained results allowed to reveal the properties of processing of proprioceptive information in the course of learning and to understand the characteristics of behaviour of the examined monkeys.

  1. Dynamic Response-by-Response Models of Matching Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Brian; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the choice behavior of 2 monkeys in a discrete-trial task with reinforcement contingencies similar to those Herrnstein (1961) used when he described the matching law. In each session, the monkeys experienced blocks of discrete trials at different relative-reinforcer frequencies or magnitudes with unsignalled transitions between the…

  2. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a GII.17 Norovirus Isolated from a Rhesus Monkey in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Tao, Yufen; Li, Chao; Li, Xintong; Liu, Jiansheng; He, Zhanlong; Xia, Ming; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming; Liu, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    The previously silent GII.17 norovirus was found to be the predominant genotype causing major epidemics in China in the 2014-2015 winter epidemic season. We report here the complete genomic sequence of a GII.17 norovirus (mky/GII.17/KM1509/CHN/2015) that infected rhesus monkeys at a monkey farm in southwestern China. PMID:27609911

  4. Calcified foci at the junction between adrenal cortex and medulla of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kast, A; Peil, H; Weisse, I

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence of calcified foci at the junction of adrenal medulla and cortex in monkeys obtained from toxicity studies during a 10-year period is reported. The survey included reinvestigated adrenal samples from 274 male and 270 female rhesus monkeys and 52 male and 52 female cynomolgus monkeys. The incidence of calcified foci was 46% in male and 45% in female rhesus monkeys, and 6% in male cynomolgus monkeys, while their females did not show the lesion. In male rhesus monkeys, the mean number of foci was 4 for both glands, in females, 2 for the right and 4 for the left one. Initial stages indicated that the lesions develop possibly from focal apoptosis of medulla cells followed by a dystrophic mineralization. No correlation was observed concerning dose groups, test article, study length, testing facility, origin of monkeys, their sex, age, diet or final body weight. The foci of mineralization were dystrophic, species-specific in the rhesus monkey and possibly related to stress. The location of the foci at the cortico-medullary junction, precisely the location of the remnants of the fetal zone, may indicate their origin from this zone.

  5. Macaque monkeys can learn token values from human models through vicarious reward.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, Sara; Cerasti, Erika; Falcone, Rossella; Cervelloni, Milena; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Ferraina, Stefano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Monkeys can learn the symbolic meaning of tokens, and exchange them to get a reward. Monkeys can also learn the symbolic value of a token by observing conspecifics but it is not clear if they can learn passively by observing other actors, e.g., humans. To answer this question, we tested two monkeys in a token exchange paradigm in three experiments. Monkeys learned token values through observation of human models exchanging them. We used, after a phase of object familiarization, different sets of tokens. One token of each set was rewarded with a bit of apple. Other tokens had zero value (neutral tokens). Each token was presented only in one set. During the observation phase, monkeys watched the human model exchange tokens and watched them consume rewards (vicarious rewards). In the test phase, the monkeys were asked to exchange one of the tokens for food reward. Sets of three tokens were used in the first experiment and sets of two tokens were used in the second and third experiments. The valuable token was presented with different probabilities in the observation phase during the first and second experiments in which the monkeys exchanged the valuable token more frequently than any of the neutral tokens. The third experiments examined the effect of unequal probabilities. Our results support the view that monkeys can learn from non-conspecific actors through vicarious reward, even a symbolic task like the token-exchange task. PMID:23544115

  6. New World Monkey Aotus nancymae as a Model for Campylobacter jejuni Infection and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Franca R.; Baqar, Shahida; Gozalo, Alfonso; Nunez, Gladys; Espinoza, Nereyda; Reyes, Sharina M.; Salazar, Milagros; Meza, Rina; Porter, Chad K.; Walz, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Three groups of six monkeys (Aotus nancymae) each were inoculated intragastrically with increasing doses of Campylobacter jejuni. Infection resulted in fecal colonization (100% of monkeys), dose-related diarrhea, and robust immune responses. Colonization duration and diarrhea rate were reduced upon secondary challenge. A. nancymae may be useful for studying anti-Campylobacter vaccine efficacy. PMID:16369042

  7. Effect of rhythmic photostimulation on monkeys with hyperkinesis of post-encephalitic genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilov, I. V.; Kudrayatseva, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    In hyperkinetic monkeys a response opposite to that of healthy monkeys was observed during rhythmic photostimulation (frequency 3, 9, 18, 20, and 25/sec), i.e., the hyperkinesis disappeared. The significance of rhythmic excitatory cycles for interconnections between different brain structures is discussed.

  8. The role of sugar in diet selection in redtail and red colobus monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of diet selection by folivorous (red colobine monkeys; Piliocolobus tephrosceles) and frugivorous (redtail monkeys; Ceropithecus ascanius) was performed to provide comparable compositional descriptions of the diets of the two species, to contrast sugar content of plant foods consumed by each...

  9. Evidence of Metacognitive Control by Humans and Monkeys in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Metacognition research has focused on the degree to which nonhuman primates share humans' capacity to monitor their cognitive processes. Convincing evidence now exists that monkeys can engage in metacognitive monitoring. By contrast, few studies have explored metacognitive control in monkeys, and the available evidence of metacognitive control…

  10. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  11. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  12. New noninvasive imaging technique for cataract evaluation in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Amnotte, Rodney E.; Smith, Audrey B.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Cox, Ann B.; Hee, Michael R.; Fujimoto, James G.; Swanson, Eric A.; Roach, William P.

    1995-05-01

    We present the first in vivo study using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) as the imaging device for lenticular cataracts in the geriatric rhesus monkey. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that produces a 2D cross sectional image of intraocular tissue similar to ultrasound B scan. In OCT the images are formed by measuring optical reflections from the tissue. Eighteen geriatric subjects with documented lenticular opacities and one control subject were imaged. The OCT images produced are compared to current and previous clinical cataract grading exams and slit-lamp photography. Histopathology was collected on one subject and is compared to the OCT image. OCT provides information on nuclear, cortical and subcapsular opacities. The image formation is presented based on a color coded computer generated log reflective scale. The log reflective scale is converted to a qualitative grading system. Although movement and shadow artifact can occur, these are readily identifiable and can be differentiated from underlying lenticular abnormalities. OCT has great potential to assist in further characterization of cataracts.

  13. A Micro-Silicon Chip for in Vivo Cerebral Imprint in Monkey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Access to cerebral tissue is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we present, for the first time, a new tool designed to obtain molecular and cellular cerebral imprints in the striatum of anesthetized monkeys. The imprint is obtained during a spatially controlled interaction of a chemically modified micro-silicon chip with the brain tissue. Scanning electron and immunofluorescence microscopies showed homogeneous capture of cerebral tissue. Nano-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis of proteins harvested on the chip allowed the identification of 1158 different species of proteins. The gene expression profiles of mRNA extracted from the imprint tool showed great similarity to those obtained via the gold standard approach, which is based on post-mortem sections of the same nucleus. Functional analysis of the harvested molecules confirmed the spatially controlled capture of striatal proteins implicated in dopaminergic regulation. Finally, the behavioral monitoring and histological results establish the safety of obtaining repeated cerebral imprints in striatal regions. These results demonstrate the ability of our imprint tool to explore the molecular content of deep brain regions in vivo. They open the way to the molecular exploration of brain in animal models of neurological diseases and will provide complementary information to current data mainly restricted to post-mortem samples. PMID:23509975

  14. A micro-silicon chip for in vivo cerebral imprint in monkey.

    PubMed

    Zaccaria, Affif; Bouamrani, Ali; Selek, Laurent; El Atifi, Michelle; Hesse, Anne Marie; Juhem, Aurélie; Ratel, David; Mathieu, Herve; Coute, Yohann; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jerome; Benabid, Alim L; Chabardes, Stephan; Piallat, Brigitte; Berger, François

    2013-03-20

    Access to cerebral tissue is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we present, for the first time, a new tool designed to obtain molecular and cellular cerebral imprints in the striatum of anesthetized monkeys. The imprint is obtained during a spatially controlled interaction of a chemically modified micro-silicon chip with the brain tissue. Scanning electron and immunofluorescence microscopies showed homogeneous capture of cerebral tissue. Nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis of proteins harvested on the chip allowed the identification of 1158 different species of proteins. The gene expression profiles of mRNA extracted from the imprint tool showed great similarity to those obtained via the gold standard approach, which is based on post-mortem sections of the same nucleus. Functional analysis of the harvested molecules confirmed the spatially controlled capture of striatal proteins implicated in dopaminergic regulation. Finally, the behavioral monitoring and histological results establish the safety of obtaining repeated cerebral imprints in striatal regions. These results demonstrate the ability of our imprint tool to explore the molecular content of deep brain regions in vivo. They open the way to the molecular exploration of brain in animal models of neurological diseases and will provide complementary information to current data mainly restricted to post-mortem samples. PMID:23509975

  15. Short-term effects of Q-switched ruby laser on monkey anterior chamber angle

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, C.H.; Gaasterland, D.E.; Rodrigues, M.M.; Raymond, J.J.; Donohoo, P.

    1982-03-01

    Three Q-switched ruby laser pulses were applied to the trabecular meshwork of 10 monkey eyes. Pulse energies ranging from 20 to 110 mJ were studied. The spot size ranged from 100 to 200 micrometer (in air), and the pulse durations was 28 sec. Gonioscopic examinations showed a graded response from no appreciable change at 20 mJ per pulse to marked disruption of anterior chamber angle structures at 100 mJ or more per pulse. Perfusions done within an hour of treatment showed no consistent alteration of the outflow facility. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the graded anterior chamber angle response. No disruption of the angle structures was seen after the 20 mJ treatment, but discrete trabecular damage occurred after treatments with 25 mJ. After pulses equal to or greater than 45 mJ the anterior chamber angle structures were markedly altered. The power density causing extensive tissue disruption was equal to or greater than 150 X 10(8) watts/cm2. In each specimen with an identifiable trabecular lesion, tissue debris and endothelial edema were found on the adjacent inner surface of the cornea. Tearing of Descemet's membrane next to the trabecular meshwork occurred with the 100 mJ pulses.

  16. A Web-based Brain Atlas of the Vervet Monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger P.; Fears, Scott C.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Toga, Arthur W.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2010-01-01

    Vervet monkeys are a frequently studied animal model in neuroscience research. Although equally distantly related to humans, the ancestors of vervets diverged from those of macaques and baboons more than eleven million years ago, antedating the divergence of the ancestors of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. To facilitate anatomic localization in the vervet brain, two linked on-line electronic atlases are described, one based on registered MRI scans from hundreds of vervets (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetmratlas/vervetmratlas.html) and the other based on a high-resolution cryomacrotome study of a single vervet (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetatlas/vervetatlas.html). The averaged MRI atlas is also available as a volume in Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative format. In the cryomacrotome atlas, various sulcal and subcortical structures have been anatomically labeled and surface rendered views are provided along the primary planes of section. Both atlases simultaneously provide views in all three primary planes of section, rapid navigation by clicking on the displayed images, and stereotaxic coordinates in the averaged MRI atlas space. Despite the extended time period since their divergence, the major sulcal and subcortical landmarks in vervets are highly conserved relative to those described in macaques. PMID:20923706

  17. Histological study of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser trabeculoplasty on monkey eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zi-kui; Wang, Kang-sun; Shi, Hai-yun

    1998-11-01

    Two eyes of a rhesus monkey subject to frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser LTP were examined by light and electron microscopy twenty-four hours and four weeks postoperatively. Light microscopy demonstrated trabecular meshwork edema, acute inflammatory changes such as the presence of polymorphonuclears and amorphous eosinphilous substance of the Schlemm's canal in the specimen 24 hours after surgery, otherwise, membrane-like extension over the surface of uveal meshwork was found in the tissue four weeks after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the specimens excited at earlier stage after irradiation revealed evidences of disruption, coalescence of the trabecular beams and the exudation of deformed erythrocytes among intertrabecular spaces; the specimens excited at later stage showed partial or total occlusion of intertrabecular spaces at laser burn site by a membrane like layer which probably originate from so called trabecular stem cell near the Schwalbe's line. Transmission electron microscopy of the tissue excited at 24 hours post laser showed necrosis of the trabecular cells, collagen fibrils edema, as well a macrophages and pigment cells among intertrabecular spaces; the tissues excited at 4 weeks post laser showed degenerated collagen fibrils and denuded collagen core without superficial trabecular cells.

  18. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

  19. Long-term marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. IV. Effects on skeletal growth and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Leek, J C; Keen, C L; Vogler, J B; Golub, M S; Hurley, L S; Hendrickx, A G; Gershwin, M E

    1988-05-01

    Skeletal maturation was evaluated from ages 1 to 3 y in rhesus monkeys that had been subjected to a diet marginally deficient in zinc (4 micrograms/g Zn) from conception through age 3 y. Skeletal development was assessed at 18, 24, 30, and 36 mo of age and compared with that of controls fed ad libitum. Skeletal maturation was determined by the presence of epiphyseal ossification centers. To evaluate endochondral bone mineralization the appearance of the zone of provisional calcification on the metaphyseal side of the growth plate and the width of the growth plate were observed. Marginal Zn deprivation was associated with delayed skeletal maturation in monkeys up to age 3 y. Defective mineralization of bone was evident in these monkeys up to age 6 mo. Between ages 6 mo and 3 y bone mineralization increased in some of the marginal-Zn monkeys to values that were only slightly below those for control monkeys.

  20. Generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that express green fluorescent protein throughout the whole body

    PubMed Central

    Seita, Yasunari; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Matsushita, Jun; Azami, Takuya; Okahara, Junko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji; Itoh, Yasushi; Imamura, Takeshi; Nishimura, Masaki; Tooyama, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Erika; Ema, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are valuable for human disease modelling, because rodents poorly recapitulate some human diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease amongst others. Here, we report for the first time, the generation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic cynomolgus monkeys by lentivirus infection. Our data show that the use of a human cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer and chicken beta actin promoter (CAG) directed the ubiquitous expression of the transgene in cynomolgus monkeys. We also found that injection into mature oocytes before fertilization achieved homogenous expression of GFP in each tissue, including the amnion, and fibroblasts, whereas injection into fertilized oocytes generated a transgenic cynomolgus monkey with mosaic GFP expression. Thus, the injection timing was important to create transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that expressed GFP homogenously in each of the various tissues. The strategy established in this work will be useful for the generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys for transplantation studies as well as biomedical research. PMID:27109065

  1. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  2. Utility functions predict variance and skewness risk preferences in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Genest, Wilfried; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-26

    Utility is the fundamental variable thought to underlie economic choices. In particular, utility functions are believed to reflect preferences toward risk, a key decision variable in many real-life situations. To assess the validity of utility representations, it is therefore important to examine risk preferences. In turn, this approach requires formal definitions of risk. A standard approach is to focus on the variance of reward distributions (variance-risk). In this study, we also examined a form of risk related to the skewness of reward distributions (skewness-risk). Thus, we tested the extent to which empirically derived utility functions predicted preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk in macaques. The expected utilities calculated for various symmetrical and skewed gambles served to define formally the direction of stochastic dominance between gambles. In direct choices, the animals' preferences followed both second-order (variance) and third-order (skewness) stochastic dominance. Specifically, for gambles with different variance but identical expected values (EVs), the monkeys preferred high-variance gambles at low EVs and low-variance gambles at high EVs; in gambles with different skewness but identical EVs and variances, the animals preferred positively over symmetrical and negatively skewed gambles in a strongly transitive fashion. Thus, the utility functions predicted the animals' preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk. Using these well-defined forms of risk, this study shows that monkeys' choices conform to the internal reward valuations suggested by their utility functions. This result implies a representation of utility in monkeys that accounts for both variance-risk and skewness-risk preferences. PMID:27402743

  3. Traditions in Spider Monkeys Are Biased towards the Social Domain

    PubMed Central

    Santorelli, Claire J.; Schaffner, Colleen M.; Campbell, Christina J.; Notman, Hugh; Pavelka, Mary S.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; Aureli, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. These studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. We examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) across five long-term field sites in Central America using a well established ethnographic cross-site survey method. Spider monkeys possess a relatively rare social system with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, also typical of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans (Homo sapiens). From the initial 62 behaviors surveyed 65% failed to meet the necessary criteria for traditions. The remaining 22 behaviors showed cross-site variation in occurrence ranging from absent through to customary, representing to our knowledge, the first documented cases of traditions in this taxon and only the second case of multiple traditions in a New World monkey species. Of the 22 behavioral variants recorded across all sites, on average 57% occurred in the social domain, 19% in food-related domains and 24% in other domains. This social bias contrasts with the food-related bias reported in great ape cross-site comparison studies and has implications for the evolution of human culture. No pattern of geographical radiation was found in relation to distance across sites. Our findings promote A. geoffroyi as a model species to investigate traditions with field and captive based experiments and emphasize the importance of the social domain for the study of animal traditions. PMID:21373196

  4. Cooperative vocal control in marmoset monkeys via vocal feedback

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Yoon; Takahashi, Daniel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Humans adjust speech amplitude as a function of distance from a listener; we do so in a manner that would compensate for such distance. This ability is presumed to be the product of high-level sociocognitive skills. Nonhuman primates are thought to lack such socially related flexibility in vocal production. Using predictions from a simple arousal-based model whereby vocal feedback from a conspecific modulates the drive to produce a vocalization, we tested whether another primate exhibits this type of cooperative vocal control. We conducted a playback experiment with marmoset monkeys and simulated “far-away” and “nearby” conspecifics using contact calls that differed in sound intensity. We found that marmoset monkeys increased the amplitude of their contact calls and produced such calls with shorter response latencies toward more distant conspecifics. The same was not true in response to changing levels of background noise. To account for how simulated conspecific distance can change both the amplitude and timing of vocal responses, we developed a model that incorporates dynamic interactions between the auditory system and limbic “drive” systems. Overall, our data show that, like humans, marmoset monkeys cooperatively control the acoustics of their vocalizations according to changes in listener distance, increasing the likelihood that a conspecific will hear their call. However, we propose that such cooperative vocal control is a system property that does not necessitate any particularly advanced sociocognitive skill. At least in marmosets, this vocal control can be parsimoniously explained by the regulation of arousal states across two interacting individuals via vocal feedback. PMID:25925323

  5. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    PubMed

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog.

  6. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    PubMed

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog. PMID:25831582

  7. Utility functions predict variance and skewness risk preferences in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Genest, Wilfried; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-26

    Utility is the fundamental variable thought to underlie economic choices. In particular, utility functions are believed to reflect preferences toward risk, a key decision variable in many real-life situations. To assess the validity of utility representations, it is therefore important to examine risk preferences. In turn, this approach requires formal definitions of risk. A standard approach is to focus on the variance of reward distributions (variance-risk). In this study, we also examined a form of risk related to the skewness of reward distributions (skewness-risk). Thus, we tested the extent to which empirically derived utility functions predicted preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk in macaques. The expected utilities calculated for various symmetrical and skewed gambles served to define formally the direction of stochastic dominance between gambles. In direct choices, the animals' preferences followed both second-order (variance) and third-order (skewness) stochastic dominance. Specifically, for gambles with different variance but identical expected values (EVs), the monkeys preferred high-variance gambles at low EVs and low-variance gambles at high EVs; in gambles with different skewness but identical EVs and variances, the animals preferred positively over symmetrical and negatively skewed gambles in a strongly transitive fashion. Thus, the utility functions predicted the animals' preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk. Using these well-defined forms of risk, this study shows that monkeys' choices conform to the internal reward valuations suggested by their utility functions. This result implies a representation of utility in monkeys that accounts for both variance-risk and skewness-risk preferences.

  8. Taste responses to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats and baboon monkeys.

    PubMed

    Naim, M; Rogatka, H; Yamamoto, T; Zehavi, U

    1982-06-01

    Preference-aversion behavior to solutions containing neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC) was studied rats and baboon monkeys. Electrophysiological responses evoked by application of NHDHC solutions to taste receptors innervated by the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves were also measured. As a group, rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC in short and long-term preference tests. A solution containing the very high concentration of 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC was consumed less than water by all rats. The aversive behavior of rats to the 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC solution appeared to be due to taste quality rather than olfaction. When percent preferences were calculated on an individual basis for the long-term preference tests, 59% of the rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC, 33% of the animals found this solution aversive and less than 8% showed preference. Behavioral responses to a solution of 3.4 x 10(-4) M aspartame also varied considerably among rats. The electrophysiological data were in line with the behavioral responses suggesting weak taste responses for NHDHC in rats. More pronounced responses observed in the glossopharyngeal nerve as compared to the chorda tympani. Baboon monkeys showed a strong preference for solutions containing 1.6 x 10(-5) M-1.6 x 10(-3) M NHDHC. A solution of 1.6 x 10(-2) M was consumed to a lesser extent than water. It is concluded that baboon monkeys present a better experimental model than rats for investigating the sweetness of NHDHC.

  9. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  10. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  11. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  12. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  13. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  14. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  15. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  16. Auditory short-term memory in the Japanese monkey.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S

    1985-01-01

    Auditory short-term memory in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) was studied using a GO/NO GO auditory delayed matching to sample task. Three temporal parameters: delay interval, intertrial interval and sample stimulus duration were manipulated. Delayed matching performance deteriorated as the delay interval was lengthened, and reached a near chance level at 16 sec. Longer intertrial intervals and sample duration ameliorated performance. When the number of the sample stimulus was increased to 3 tones to examine a serial position effect, a primary effect was not observed, although a recency effect was obtained. The fragility of auditory delayed matching performance was discussed.

  17. Long-term results after intentional tooth reimplantation in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Caffesse, R G; Nasjleti, C E; Castelli, W A

    1977-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically the long-term response to intentional tooth reimplantation in six rhesus monkeys. The study revealed that cervical and apical root resorption is a universal complication after tooth reimplantation and that arrested areas of resorption will show repair by deposition of cementum. A highly cellular periodontal membrane usually will develop. Periodontal fibers will reattach to reparative bone and cementum but seldom regain functional orientation. Partial or complete ankylosis may result. A further complication is progressive undermining resorption of the ankylosed teeth. Long-term studies are mandatory to evaluate the response to intentional tooth reimplantation.

  18. The squirrel monkey as a candidate for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Kaack, B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of its size and other unique diurnal-primate characteristics, the squirrel monkey is used in: (1) actual bioflight missions, (2) in laboratory tests designed to clarify the risks to man during launch and recovery as well as in hazardous spaceflight environments; and (3) in the acquisition of data on unknown risks encountered in long duration space exploration. Pertinent data concerning samiri sciureus as described in published and unpublished reports are summarized. Topics include: taxonomy, ethology, life history, sensory-learning-motor capabilities in primate perspective, anatomy and physiology (including homeostatic adaptation to stress), susceptibility to environmental hazards, reproduction, care and clinical management, and previous use in aerospace biomedical research.

  19. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  20. Collagen fibril arrangement and size distribution in monkey oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    OTTANI, V.; FRANCHI, M.; DE PASQUALE, V.; LEONARDI, L.; MOROCUTTI, M.; RUGGERI, A.

    1998-01-01

    Collagen fibre organisation and fibril size were studied in the buccal gingival and hard palate mucosa of Macacus rhesus monkey. Light and electron microscopy analysis showed connective papillae exhibiting a similar inner structure in the different areas examined, but varying in distribution, shape and size. Moving from the deep to surface layers of the buccal gingival mucosa (free and attached portions), large collagen fibril bundles became smaller and progressively more wavy with decreasing collagen fibril diameter. This gradual diameter decrease did not occur in the hard palate mucosa (free portion, rugae and interrugal regions) where the fibril diameter remained constant. A link between collagen fibril diameter and mechanical function is discussed. PMID:9688498