Science.gov

Sample records for aphasia

  1. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders conduct and support a broad range of scientific investigations to increase our understanding of aphasia, find better treatments, and discover improved methods to restore lost function to people who have ...

  2. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language. It can make it hard for you to ... recover from aphasia without treatment. Most, however, need language therapy as soon as possible. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  3. Communicating with someone with aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke - aphasia; Speech and language disorder - aphasia ... People who have aphasia have language problems. They may have trouble saying and/or writing words correctly. This type of aphasia is called expressive aphasia. People who ...

  4. Aphasia(s) in Alzheimer.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, M; Ferrieux, S

    2013-10-01

    Language disorders of degenerative origin are frequently tied to Alzheimer disease (AD) the different variants of which can result in primary and secondary aphasia syndromes. More specifically, Alzheimer pathology can primarily erode frontal, temporal or parietal language cortices resulting in three genuine AD language variants which account for about 30% of primary degenerative aphasias. Likewise, it can spread from non-language to language cortices leading to secondary language disorders like in typical amnesic AD and in several atypical AD variants. This paper reviews the whole set of AD variants by characterising their impact on the neural language system and on linguistic functioning. It also provides cues for diagnostic strategies which are essential for linguistic, syndromic and nosological patient classification, for adequate clinical follow-up and for guiding language rehabilitation. Such diagnostic approaches, founded on detailed linguistic phenotyping while integrating anatomical and neuropathological findings, also represent a crucial issue for future drug trials targeting the physio-pathological processes in degenerative aphasias.

  5. National Aphasia Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... ability to process language, but does not affect intelligence. Aphasia impairs the ability to speak and understand ... pages get […] read more What is Aphasia? Aphasia Definitions Find and Give Support Partners Network Stories & News ...

  6. Aphasia vs. Apraxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... comfortable Dysarthria & Apraxia - How Stroke Affects Speech Auditory Overload Reading, Writing and Math Reading Rehab (PDF opens ... 2013. American Speech-Language Hearing Association For more information on aphasia, or to find an ASHA-certified ...

  7. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this time. Seek additional counseling services as necessary. Communication Skills Family members also can help the person ... aphasia develop new skills to compensate for the communication problems. Some suggestion include: Continue to talk to ...

  8. Aphasia in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Aphasia is a central language impairment with word finding and comprehension deficit and paraphasias. The highlights of the essential language tests and the classification based on a scorable assessment are presented. The clinical syndromes of Broca's, global, Wernicke, conduction, anomic and transcortical aphasias are detailed with definition, localization, and prognosis. Modality specific disorders associated with aphasic syndromes are discussed. The management of the aphasic patient, consisting of informed support and coordination of available services, is often the responsibility of the family physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286589

  9. Starting an aphasia center?

    PubMed

    Elman, Roberta J

    2011-08-01

    Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided.

  10. Neuroplasticity: Evidence from Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents data showing that two of the four forms of neuroplasticity, homologous area adaptation and map extension, are relevant to recovery from aphasia. It discusses factors related to neuroplastic activity during language recovery, including neurophysiological, subject, and environmental treatment variables. (Contains references.)…

  11. Aphasia in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, B; Chari, P

    1993-01-01

    The neurophysiological and the neurolinguistic basis of multilingualism is not yet fully elucidated. A study of the occurrence of aphasia in multilingual patients and the pattern of recovery may help to clarify some unsolved problems. For e.g. is the ability to use a second language stored in a different area of the left hemisphere and what is the extent of involvement of the right hemisphere in language skills? When recovery from aphasia occurs, what factors determine the rate of recovery of different languages and the priorities of recovery? To understand some of the problems, a study of aphasia in multilinguals was conducted in Madras, South India, where multilingualism is common. 88 patients were studied with 40 healthy controls, using standard protocols. It was found that the pattern of recovery was dispersed widely in time, rate, level, degree and between the languages known. No support was obtained for the notion that the patients' mother tongue recovers first, nor was support found for the importance of language proficiency viewed globally. Evidence was found that the languages in which routine thinking, mental calculations and praying were carried out were the ones most resistant to damage in brain insults. It is interesting that these functions are all highly overlearned, acquired early in life and used frequently over the course of many years. Another observation made was that the incidence of crossed aphasia was fairly high, in both uni- and multi-linguals, with the latter showing a slightly higher incidence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. [Aphasia and artistic creation].

    PubMed

    Kornyey, E

    1977-01-01

    An artist active drawing and waterpainting, most prominent in sculpture, suffered an apopleptic insult at 66 years of age. Right hemiparesis and severe motor aphasia remained but this with rare unexpected and sometimes rather complicated productions in spoken, and also in written language in spite of modest progress in writing exercise. His behaviour witnessed of the memory of remote and complicated stored material. Some months after the insult he resumed his artistic activity using his left hand and continued it principally in the same manner as before his illness. His drawing and water-painting displayed some uncertainty of lines and sometimes coarseness of the stain spots. His pieces of sculpture regained the quality of his earlier works, as proven already by the first statue he made after the insult. While it is generally accepted that the motor aphasia does not essentially affect the artistic production, even of high quality, in painting, this is the first instance which proves that the same holds true for sculpture. In this case the mechanisms inciting the finest innervation on the side of the cortical center of the left hand, can work with promptness. In motor aphasia the mechanisms indispensable for the correct realisation of the function are affected without a final extinction of the function itself. Motor asphasia is an instrumental disorder not necessarily accompanied by disturbances of the intelligence.

  13. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  14. Clinicoanatomical correlation in stroke related aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bohra, Vikram; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum; Jain, Sneh; Duggal, Ashish; Ghuge, Vijay Vishwanath; Srivastava, Abhilekh

    2015-01-01

    Context: With advances in neuroimaging, traditional views regarding the clinicoanatomic correlation in stroke patients with aphasia are being challenged and it has been observed that lesions at a given cortical or subcortical site may manifest with different aphasia profiles. Aims: To study as to whether there is a strict clinicoanatomical correlation between the type of aphasia and lesion site in patients with first ever stroke. Settings and Design: Observational study, based in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Stroke patient's ≥18 years of age were screened and those with first ever stroke and aphasia were subjected to a detailed stroke workup and language assessment using the Hindi version of Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Statistical analysis was done with χ2 test with Yates correction and Kruskal-Wallis test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Overall aphasia was detected in 27.9% of the 260 screened cases with stroke. Amongst 60 cases with first ever stroke and aphasia, the aphasia type was: Global (33.33%), Broca's (28.3%), transcortical motor (13.33%), transcortical sensory (10%), Wernicke's (8.33%), anomic (5%), and conduction (1.67%) aphasia. A definite correlation between the lesion site and the type of aphasia as per the traditional classification was observed in 35% cases only. Conclusions: No absolute correlation exists between the lesion site and the type of clinical aphasia syndrome in majority of the patients with cortical and subcortical stroke. PMID:26713015

  15. Verb finding in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kohn, S E; Lorch, M P; Pearson, D M

    1989-03-01

    Word finding for nouns and verbs was examined in a heterogeneous group of aphasics (N = 9) by comparing the ability to generate synonyms and sentences for the same set of 20 nouns and 20 verbs. Synonym Generation performance resembled that of an age-matched group of normal control subjects (n = 9): In both groups, some subjects produced comparable numbers of synonyms for nouns and verbs while other subjects produced significantly fewer synonyms for verbs. Essentially the same two patterns were displayed on Sentence Generation using the frequency of "empty" nouns (e.g., 'it', 'man') and "empty" verbs (e.g., 'is', 'do') as an index of word-finding difficulty: In both groups, some subjects produced comparable numbers of empty nouns and verbs, while other subjects produced significantly more empty verbs. However, the Sentence Generation performance of one aphasic subject stood out overall by her tendency to avoid empty verbs and produce incomplete sentences. This pattern of performance was interpreted as a breakdown in an early stage of sentence planning that may be directly related to her diagnosis of transcortical motor aphasia.

  16. Simulating Recovery from Bilingual Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Describes how Random Boolean Networks can be used to simulate simple lexicons, and shows how some puzzling properties of real lexicons seem to emerge spontaneously in these models. Describes simple simulations of bilingual aphasia, and shows that a range of recovery patterns can be observed in these simulations. (Author/VWL)

  17. Aphasia Centers and the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia: A Paradigm Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Roberta J.

    2016-01-01

    The Aphasia Center is a service delivery model that provides an interactive community for persons with aphasia. This model has been increasing in popularity over the last 20 years. Aphasia Centers are consistent with a social model of health care and disability. They offer the potential for linguistic, communicative, and psychosocial benefits. The…

  18. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  19. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  20. Aphasia centers in North America: a survey.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Holland, Audrey L

    2011-08-01

    There is a growing trend toward dedicated programs designed to improve the lives of people with aphasia and their families. We are referring to these programs collectively as "aphasia centers." These programs purportedly differ from more traditional medically based aphasia rehabilitation. However, there is no directory of aphasia centers and no definition of what constitutes such a program. Therefore, an online survey was designed to identify and describe aphasia centers in the United States and Canada. A 37-question survey was posted online via SurveyMonkey. An introductory letter was distributed by electronic mail to a listserv and mailing lists of programs associated with aphasia. Potential respondents who considered themselves an aphasia center were asked to complete the survey. A total of 33 survey responses were analyzed, and descriptive data were compiled resulting in a description of the following aspects of aphasia centers: demographic information, mission, admission and discharge policies, assessment practices, program logistics, staffing patterns, marketing, funding, and services offered. In addition, a qualitative analysis of written text responses revealed the following key themes that appear to characterize the responding programs: services that differ from traditional aphasia rehabilitation; a sense of community; a holistic focus on quality of life, psychosocial well-being, participation, and social support; the centrality of group interaction; and variety/intensity of services. PMID:21968557

  1. Aphasia centers in North America: a survey.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Holland, Audrey L

    2011-08-01

    There is a growing trend toward dedicated programs designed to improve the lives of people with aphasia and their families. We are referring to these programs collectively as "aphasia centers." These programs purportedly differ from more traditional medically based aphasia rehabilitation. However, there is no directory of aphasia centers and no definition of what constitutes such a program. Therefore, an online survey was designed to identify and describe aphasia centers in the United States and Canada. A 37-question survey was posted online via SurveyMonkey. An introductory letter was distributed by electronic mail to a listserv and mailing lists of programs associated with aphasia. Potential respondents who considered themselves an aphasia center were asked to complete the survey. A total of 33 survey responses were analyzed, and descriptive data were compiled resulting in a description of the following aspects of aphasia centers: demographic information, mission, admission and discharge policies, assessment practices, program logistics, staffing patterns, marketing, funding, and services offered. In addition, a qualitative analysis of written text responses revealed the following key themes that appear to characterize the responding programs: services that differ from traditional aphasia rehabilitation; a sense of community; a holistic focus on quality of life, psychosocial well-being, participation, and social support; the centrality of group interaction; and variety/intensity of services.

  2. Computers in the treatment of chronic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Katz, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    Computers and related technology can increase the amount of treatment received by adults with chronic aphasia. Computers used in treatment, however, are only valuable to the patient if the intervention is efficacious. Real and potential applications of computer technology are discussed in the context of three roles of computerized aphasia treatment for adults with chronic aphasia. Pertinent studies regarding Phases 1 and 2 are briefly described. The only Phase 3 study of efficacy of computerized aphasia treatment is more fully described and its implications discussed.

  3. [Psycholinguistic aspects of aphasia diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Prins, R S

    1980-02-01

    A central goal of psycholinguistic research on the diagnosis and therapy of aphasic patients consists of the construction of a series of language tasks which a. can provide guidelines for the development of systematic therapy programs and b. are suited to the evaluation of the recovery process in aphasia, in particular the effectiveness of speech therapy. Since current aphasia tests fall short on both points, a number of requirements are discussed which an aphasia test should minimally meet in order to satisfy the above objectives. Some of these requirements are illustrated in the light of the preliminary results of the Amsterdam Aphasia Test (AAT).

  4. BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO APHASIA TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Small, Steven L.; Llano, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we review the basic mechanisms neural regeneration and repair and attempt to correlate the findings from animal models of stroke recovery to clinical trials for aphasia. Several randomized, controlled clinical trials that have involved manipulation of different neurotransmitter systems, including noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, have shown signals of efficacy. Biological approaches such as anti-Nogo and cell-replacement therapy have shown efficacy in preclinical models, but have yet to reach proof of concept in the clinic. Finally, noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques have been used in a few small trials, and have shown promising results. It appears that the efficacy of all of these platforms can be potentiated through coupling with speech-language therapy. Given this array of potential mechanisms that exist to augment and/or stimulate neural reorganization after stroke, we are optimistic that approaches to aphasia therapy will transition from compensatory models to models where brain reorganization is the goal. PMID:19818231

  5. Broca aphasia: pathologic and clinical.

    PubMed

    Mohr, J P; Pessin, M S; Finkelstein, S; Funkenstein, H H; Duncan, G W; Davis, K R

    1978-04-01

    The speech disturbance resulting from infarction limited to the Broca area has been delineated; it differs from the speech disorder called Broca aphasia, which results from damage extending far outside the Broca area. Nor does Broca area infarction cause Broca aphasia. The lesions in 20 cases observed since 1972 were documented by autopsy, computerized tomography, or arteriogram; the autopsy records from the Massachusetts General hospital for the past 20 years and the published cases since 1820 were also reviewed. The findings suggest that infarction affecting the Broca area and its immediate environs, even deep into the brain, causes a mutism that is replaced by rapidly improving dyspraxic and effortful articulation, but that no significant distrubance in language function persists. The more complex syndrome traditionally referred to as Broca aphasia, including Broca's original case, is characterized by protracted mutism, verbal stereotypes, and agrammatism. It is associated with a considerably larger infarct which encompasses the operculum, including the Broca area, insula, and adjacent cerebrum, in the territory supplied by the upper division of the left middle cerebral artery. PMID:565019

  6. Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

  7. Outcome Assessment in Aphasia: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Threats, Travis T.; Kagan, Aura

    2005-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in attention to the measurement of ''outcomes'' after speech-language intervention for adult aphasia. Consumers, speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and funding sources desire evidence of therapy outcomes that improve communication and enhance the quality of life for people with aphasia. While many assessment…

  8. Aphasia Handbook for Adults and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agranowitz, Aleen; McKeown, Milfred Riddle

    The occurance of aphasia in adults and children is discussed along with therapeutic measures. An orientation of what aphasia is and the problems it presents for adults is followed by a statement of present methods of retraining. Consideration is given to an evaluation of defects, attitudes and techniques in retraining, group therapy, and…

  9. Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However, some…

  10. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  11. Hermann Oppenheim's observations about music in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Amy B; Pech, Anja; Hou, Craig; Johnson, Julene K

    2012-01-01

    Hermann Oppenheim was influential in many areas of neurology, but his ideas about music are relatively unknown. In 1888, he published a paper that outlined how the assessment of music skills in patients with aphasia could lead to a better understanding of aphasia and language. Oppenheim conducted the first comprehensive music assessment as part of a neurologic examination and presented the first case series of music in aphasia. His paper was widely cited and had significant influence over the next 30 years. Although largely unrecognized as such, Oppenheim was an important historical figure in the study of music and neurology.

  12. The bilingual brain: bilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F

    2001-11-01

    Since most people in the world know more than one language, bilingual aphasia is an important line of research in clinical and theoretical neurolinguistics. From a clinical and ethical viewpoint, it is no longer acceptable that bilingual aphasics be assessed in only one of the languages they know. Bilingual aphasic patients should receive comparable language tests in all their languages. In the present work, language recovery of 20 bilingual Friulian-Italian aphasics was investigated. Thirteen patients (65%) showed a similar impairment in both languages (parallel recovery), four patients (20%) showed a greater impairment of L2, while three patients (15%) showed a greater impairment of L1. Despite the many hypotheses advanced to account for nonparallel recovery, none of them seems to provide satisfactory explanations. The study of bilingual aphasics with parallel impairment of both languages allows us to verify the hypothesis whereby grammatical disorders in aphasia depend on the specific structure of each language. As far as rehabilitation programs for multilingual aphasics are concerned, several questions have been raised, many of which still need a satisfactory answer.

  13. Primary progressive aphasia and transient global amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report three patients with history of transient global amnesia who developed primary progressive aphasia. Patients Three patients presenting to the Neurology clinic with language complaints Setting Tertiary care center Results We describe three patients with a history of transient global amnesia who were subsequently diagnosed with primary progressive aphasia. All patients had recurrent attacks of transient global amnesia. The diagnoses of primary progressive aphasia were supported by speech pathology evaluations, neuropsychometric testing and imaging findings. PET scans, for example, revealed left posterior frontal hypometabolism in one patient, predominately left temporal-parietal hypometabolism in another while single-photon emission computed tomography demonstrated decreased perfusion in the anterior left temporal and frontal lobe in the third. Conclusions There may be a relationship between recurrent transient global amnesia and the development of primary progressive aphasia. PMID:22410450

  14. Global aphasia due to left thalamic hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ozeren, Ali; Koc, Filiz; Demirkiran, Meltem; Sönmezler, Abdurrahman; Kibar, Mustafa

    2006-12-01

    Global aphasia is an acquired language disorder characterized by severe impairments in all modalities of language. The specific sites of injury commonly include Wernike's and Broca's areas and result from large strokes--particularly those involving the internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries. Rarely, deep subcortical lesions may cause global aphasia. We present three cases with global aphasia due to a more rare cause: left thalamic hemorrhage. Their common feature was the large size of the hemorrhage and its extension to the third ventricule. HMPAO-SPECT in one of the cases revealed ipsilateral subcortical, frontotemporal cortical and right frontal cortical hypoperfusion. Left thalamic hemorrhage should be considered in the differential diagnosis of global aphasia. PMID:17114855

  15. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual woman.

    PubMed

    Filley, Christopher M; Ramsberger, Gail; Menn, Lise; Wu, Jiang; Reid, Bessie Y; Reid, Allan L

    2006-10-01

    Multilingual aphasias are common because most people in the world know more than one language, but little is known of these syndromes except in patients who have had a stroke. We present a 76-year-old right-handed woman, fluent in English and Chinese, who developed anomia at age 70 and then progressed to aphasia. Functional neuroimaging disclosed mild left temporoparietal hypometabolism. Neurolinguistic testing was performed in both English and Chinese, representing a unique contribution to the literature. Results revealed conduction-like aphasia that was comparable in the two languages, although English was slightly better preserved. Primary progressive aphasia has disrupted 2 languages in a similar manner, suggesting their close neuroanatomic relationship in this case.

  16. AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse

    PubMed Central

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

  17. Computerized Script Training for Aphasia: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Holland, Audrey L.; Cole, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article describes computer software that was developed specifically for training conversational scripts and illustrates its use with three individuals with aphasia. Methods Three participants with chronic aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s and anomic) were assessed before and after nine weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and post-treatment scripts were audio-taped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews with the person with aphasia and their significant other were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. Results All measures (content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words) improved for each participant on every script. Two participants gained more than five points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from the exit interviews - increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Conclusion Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia. PMID:18230811

  18. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

  19. Treatment of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Donna C.; Hillis, Argye E.; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2015-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects language functions and often begins in the fifth or sixth decade of life. The devastating effects on work and home life call for the investigation of treatment alternatives. In this paper, we present a review of the literature on treatment approaches for this neurodegenerative disease. We also present new data from two intervention studies we have conducted, a behavioral one and a neuromodulatory one using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with written production intervention. We show that speech-language intervention improves language outcomes in individuals with PPA; and especially in the short term, tDCS augments generalization and maintenance of positive language outcomes. We also outline current issues and challenges in intervention approaches in PPA. PMID:26062526

  20. The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

  1. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  2. Social Participation through the Eyes of People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalemans, Ruth J. P.; de Witte, Luc; Wade, Derick; van den Heuvel, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the way people with aphasia perceive their social participation and its influencing factors. Aims: To explore how people with aphasia perceive participation in society and to investigate influencing factors. Methods & Procedures: In this qualitative study thirteen persons with aphasia and twelve central caregivers…

  3. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  4. Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

  5. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... her brain injury. Most individuals will undergo a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan to confirm ... on using advanced imaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to explore how language is processed in ...

  6. Etiology of stroke in Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Eugene Marsh, E; Biller, J; Tranel, D; Adams, H P; Knepper, L E

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed clinical and diagnostic data from 36 patients with Broca's aphasia due to stroke who were evaluated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 1982 and 1989. The group consisted of 20 women and 16 men, aged 28-80 (median, 63.5; mean, 57.5). The presumptive cause of cerebral infarction was embolism in 15 patients (42%), atherothrombosis in 9 (25%), undetermined in 9 (25%), and "other" in 3 (8%). The ratios of women to men were 8:7, 3:6, 7:2, and 2:1, respectively. A majority of emboli were of presumed cardiac origin: atrial fibrillation, 7; prosthetic cardiac valve, 3; and recent myocardial infarction, 2. Eight of nine patients with atherothrombotic infarction had complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery by duplex scan and/or angiography. Our data demonstrate (a) Broca's aphasia is frequently caused by cerebral embolism, (b) carotid occlusion can result in selective infarction of anterior language areas; and (c) women outnumbered men in our Broca's aphasia group. The latter finding is in contrast to a similar study of 38 patients with Wernicke's aphasia due to cerebral infarction studied at our institution, in which men outnumbered women 25 to 13, with most of the difference in the embolic and undetermined groups. Gender differences in types of aphasia might be due to a predilection for middle cerebral artery emboli to result in infarction of anterior language areas in women and posterior language areas in men. PMID:26487594

  7. Parkinson's disease showing progressive conduction aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenji; Ono, Kenjiro; Harada, Hiromi; Shima, Keisuke; Notoya, Masako; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop progressive dementia late in their clinical course. Dementia in PD is mostly related to neuropathological findings of extensive Lewy bodies (LBs), with or without the coexistence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Aphasia has been reported in patients with LB diseases with AD pathology; however, there have been no reports of typical PD patients developing progressive aphasia during their clinical course. We describe a female PD patient who later developed progressive conduction aphasia characterized by phonemic paraphasia and disturbance in repetition of short sentences without disturbance in writing or auditory comprehension. No episodes of fluctuations of attention, memory complaints, or planning errors were observed. She experienced episodes of visual hallucination. Her low scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination suggested impairment of orientation and attention, and her scores on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test indicated impaired visuospatial functions. However, her cognitive deficits were not sufficiently severe to impair her daily life. Brain magnetic resonance images revealed atrophy of the left superior temporal gyrus and widening of the left sylvian fissure. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed glucose hypometabolism in the left cerebral hemisphere. These findings may be related to conduction aphasia. During the progression of PD lesions, the brainstem LB is assumed to take an upward course, extend to the limbic system, and then extend to the neocortex. Conduction aphasia observed in our patient may be associated with an unusual progression of the LB pathology from the brainstem to the left temporoparietal lobe. PMID:21879327

  8. Passive imaging technology in aphasia therapy.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kiernan; Franklin, Sue; Gowan, Olive

    2011-10-01

    We describe a brief pilot study undertaken to investigate the potential benefit(s) of using a SenseCam in aphasia therapy. Five post-stroke persons with aphasia and their caregivers agreed to participate. Each person with aphasia wore the SenseCam for 1 day during the daytime. Slide shows and printed images were created from the images obtained and presented at a (videotaped) weekly group conversation session. Therapists' observations, reflections, and opinions were subsequently elicited in a group interview and online survey. Wearable, sensor-triggered automatic imaging devices offer potential advantages over both conventional cameras and generic pictures when used in aphasia therapy. We identified three advantages of a SenseCam over conventional imaging methods: Images can be acquired without the presence of the researcher, no action is required by the wearer for image acquisition and the continuous point of view is that of the wearer. Acquired images are of personal relevance to the wearer and may have greater efficacy for the person with aphasia in aiding conversation, and for the speech language therapist in setting functional language goals. PMID:21391108

  9. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mylius, Veit; Zouari, Hela G; Ayache, Samar S; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Poststroke aphasia results from the lesion of cortical areas involved in the motor production of speech (Broca's aphasia) or in the semantic aspects of language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia). Such lesions produce an important reorganization of speech/language-specific brain networks due to an imbalance between cortical facilitation and inhibition. In fact, functional recovery is associated with changes in the excitability of the damaged neural structures and their connections. Two main mechanisms are involved in poststroke aphasia recovery: the recruitment of perilesional regions of the left hemisphere in case of small lesion and the acquisition of language processing ability in homotopic areas of the nondominant right hemisphere when left hemispheric language abilities are permanently lost. There is some evidence that noninvasive cortical stimulation, especially when combined with language therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can promote aphasia recovery. Cortical stimulation was mainly used to either increase perilesional excitability or reduce contralesional activity based on the concept of reciprocal inhibition and maladaptive plasticity. However, recent studies also showed some positive effects of the reinforcement of neural activities in the contralateral right hemisphere, based on the potential compensatory role of the nondominant hemisphere in stroke recovery. PMID:23002940

  10. Varieties of progressive non-fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cappa, S F; Perani, D; Messa, C; Miozzo, A; Fazio, F

    1996-01-17

    We report four patients with progressive aphasia of the non-fluent type as the presenting clinical manifestation. The patients were included in a longitudinal study of focal progressive neuropsychological syndromes, and were periodically submitted to neuropsychological evaluations and neuroimaging studies (TC, MRI, SPET or PET). The pattern of neuropsychological impairment was in good agreement with the results of functional imaging studies, which indicated involvement of the anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The evolution of the clinical picture was extremely heterogeneous in the four patients, ranging from a relatively stable picture of transcortical motor aphasia to a severe progressive frontal lobe syndrome. Progressive non-fluent aphasia appears to be a reliable clinical marker of the localization of the pathological process; whether this is related to specific neuropathological conditions, such as Pick's disease, remains for the moment a matter of speculation.

  11. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter.

    PubMed

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-11-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word-referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS's spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control's range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS's test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in tailoring

  12. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter

    PubMed Central

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word–referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS’s spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control’s range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS’s test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in

  13. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter.

    PubMed

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-11-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word-referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS's spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control's range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS's test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in tailoring

  14. Shared neural substrates of apraxia and aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Georg; Randerath, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Apraxia is regularly associated with aphasia, but there is controversy whether their co-occurrence is the expression of a common basic deficit or results from anatomical proximity of their neural substrates. However, neither aphasia nor apraxia is an indivisible entity. Both diagnoses embrace diverse manifestations that may occur more or less independently from each other. Thus, the question whether apraxia is always accompanied by aphasia may lead to conflicting answers depending on which of their manifestations are considered. We used voxel based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) for exploring communalities between lesion sites associated with aphasia and with apraxia. Linguistic impairment was assessed by the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT) subtests naming, comprehension, repetition, written language, and Token Test. Apraxia was examined for imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures and for pantomime of tool use. There were two areas of overlap between aphasia and apraxia. Lesions in the anterior temporal lobe interfered with pantomime of tool use and with all linguistic tests. In the left inferior parietal lobe there was a large area where lesions were associated with defective imitation of hand postures and with poor scores on written language and the Token Test. Within this large area there were also two spots in supramarginal and angular gyrus where lesions were also associated with defective pantomime. We speculate that the coincidence of language impairment and defective pantomime after anterior temporal lesions is due to impaired access to semantic memory. The combination of defective imitation of hand postures with poor scores on Token Test and written language is not easily compatible with a crucial role of parietal regions for the conversion of concepts of intended actions into motor commands. It accords better with a role of left inferior parietal lobe regions for the categorical perception of spatial relationships. PMID:26004063

  15. Engagement in group therapy for aphasia.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S

    2009-02-01

    For group therapy for aphasia to be maximally effective, group members must be engaged in the clinical interaction. Engagement is a process through which people establish, maintain, and terminate collaborative exchanges. To investigate the interactive resources employed for managing and monitoring engagement in group therapy interactions, two videotaped conversation therapy groups for aphasia were analyzed via conversation analysis. Examples of clinician behaviors that engaged group members included gaze, body orientation, gesture, and mirrored acts. In addition, gaze, gesture, body position, and shared laughter provided evidence of engagement of group members. The study of these subtle interactive elements within clinical discourse provides information about the mechanisms that promote successful clinical interactions. PMID:19145547

  16. Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Donna C.; Niparko, John K.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:24904925

  17. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest. We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA. Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state. The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  18. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  19. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

  20. Comprehension of Passives in Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Drai and Grodzinsky have statistically analyzed a large corpus of data on the comprehension of passives by patients with Broca's aphasia. The data come, according to Drai and Grodzinsky, from binary choice tasks. Among the languages that are analyzed are Dutch and German. Drai and Grodzinsky argue that Dutch and German speaking Broca patients…

  1. Broca's Aphasia, Verbs and the Mental Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Verb production is notoriously difficult for individuals with Broca's aphasia, both at the word and at the sentence level. An intriguing question is at which level in the speech production these problems arise. The aim of the present study is to identify the functional locus of the impairment that results in verb production deficits in Broca's…

  2. Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Donna C; Niparko, John K; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes.

  3. Counseling and Aphasia Treatment: Missed Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2011-01-01

    During clinical interactions between speech-language pathologists and adults with aphasia, a variety of emotional issues arise. The literature suggests that while counseling is within the scope of practice, SLPs tend to avoid emotional issues in therapy (A. Holland, 2007a). The precise mechanisms employed for circumventing emotional issues in…

  4. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood–oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest. We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA. Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state. The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  5. Accent Identification by Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Caroline; Burns, Rebecca; Bruce, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The UK is a diverse society where individuals regularly interact with speakers with different accents. Whilst there is a growing body of research on the impact of speaker accent on comprehension in people with aphasia, there is none which explores their ability to identify accents. This study investigated the ability of this group to identify the…

  6. Aphasia and Language Functioning of the Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John L.

    1971-01-01

    Review of four published cases of aphasia in deaf patients illustrates that loss and recovery of language functions in the deaf follow the pattern noted in hearing patients, and thus the notion of a separate cerebral area for manual speech postulated by Jackson (1878) is not supported. (Author/KW)

  7. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  8. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  9. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in…

  10. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

  11. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Kempler, D.; Jackson, C.; Hanson, W.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences.

  13. The Nature of Naming Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia Versus Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Maggi A.; Kortte, Kathleen; Cloutman, Lauren; Newhart, Melissa; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Seay, Margaret W.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution of error types across subgroups of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia in different vascular locations. Method We analyzed naming errors in 49 individuals with acute left hemisphere ischemic stroke and 55 individuals with three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Location of atrophy or ischemic stroke was characterized using MRI. Results We found that distribution of error types was very similar across all subgroups, irrespective of the site or etiology of the lesion. The only significant difference across groups was the percentage of circumlocutions (F(7, 96) = 3.02, p = .005). Circumlocution errors were highest among logopenic variant PPA (24%) and semantic variant PPA (24%). Semantic coordinate errors were common in all groups, probably because they can arise from disruption of different cognitive processes underlying naming and, therefore, from different locations of brain damage. Conclusions Semantic errors are common among all types of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia, and the type of error depends in part on the location of damage. PMID:20804246

  14. Non-invasive repeated therapeutic stimulation for aphasia recovery: a multilingual, multicenter aphasia trial.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexander; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth A; Lanthier, Sylvain; Hartmann, Alexander; Chen, Joyce L; Mochizuki, George; Zumbansen, Anna; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in case series and small randomized controlled trials to improve recovery from poststroke aphasia in combination with speech and language therapy. Results of these studies suggest possible clinical efficacy and an excellent safety profile. Therefore, a larger international multicenter proof-of-concept trial was launched, to directly compare the safety and efficacy of rTMS, tDCS, and sham stimulation as adjuvant therapy to speech and language therapy in subacute poststroke aphasia. In the 4 participating centers, subacute stroke patients with aphasia are randomized between 5 and 30 days after ischemic stroke to either receive rTMS, tDCS, or sham stimulation in combination with a daily 45 minutes speech and language therapy session for 10 days. Efficacy is evaluated at 1 and 30 days after the last of the 10 treatment sessions using 3 outcome measures, validated in all participating languages: Boston naming test, Token test, and verbal fluency test. Additionally, adverse events are recorded to prove safety. In this study, a total of 90 patients will be recruited, and data analysis will be completed in 2016. This is the first multilingual and multinational randomized and controlled trial in poststroke aphasia and if positive, will add an effective new strategy for early stage poststroke aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:25735707

  15. Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Saidi, Ladan Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. Aim. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Methods. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. Results and Discussion. The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit. PMID:24825963

  16. Non-invasive repeated therapeutic stimulation for aphasia recovery: a multilingual, multicenter aphasia trial.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexander; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth A; Lanthier, Sylvain; Hartmann, Alexander; Chen, Joyce L; Mochizuki, George; Zumbansen, Anna; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in case series and small randomized controlled trials to improve recovery from poststroke aphasia in combination with speech and language therapy. Results of these studies suggest possible clinical efficacy and an excellent safety profile. Therefore, a larger international multicenter proof-of-concept trial was launched, to directly compare the safety and efficacy of rTMS, tDCS, and sham stimulation as adjuvant therapy to speech and language therapy in subacute poststroke aphasia. In the 4 participating centers, subacute stroke patients with aphasia are randomized between 5 and 30 days after ischemic stroke to either receive rTMS, tDCS, or sham stimulation in combination with a daily 45 minutes speech and language therapy session for 10 days. Efficacy is evaluated at 1 and 30 days after the last of the 10 treatment sessions using 3 outcome measures, validated in all participating languages: Boston naming test, Token test, and verbal fluency test. Additionally, adverse events are recorded to prove safety. In this study, a total of 90 patients will be recruited, and data analysis will be completed in 2016. This is the first multilingual and multinational randomized and controlled trial in poststroke aphasia and if positive, will add an effective new strategy for early stage poststroke aphasia rehabilitation.

  17. Transient aphasias after left hemisphere resective surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Lam, Daniel; Babiak, Miranda; Perry, David; Shih, Tina; Hess, Christopher P.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Object Transient aphasias are often observed in the first few days in patients who undergo surgical resection in the language-dominant hemisphere. The aims of this prospective study were to characterize the incidence and nature of these aphasias, and to determine whether there are relationships between location of the surgical site and deficits in specific language domains. Methods 110 patients undergoing resection to the language-dominant hemisphere participated in the study. Patients’ language was evaluated prior to surgery, 2-3 days post-surgery, and 1 month post-surgery using the Western Aphasia Battery and the Boston Naming Test. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify relationships between the location of the surgical site assessed by MRI, and deficits in fluency, information content, comprehension, repetition, and naming. Results 71% of patients were classified as aphasic based on the Western Aphasia Battery 2-3 days post-surgery, with deficits observed in each of the language domains examined. Fluency deficits were associated with resection of the precentral gyrus and adjacent inferior frontal cortex. Reduced information content of spoken output was associated with resection of the ventral precentral gyrus and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis). Repetition deficits were associated with resection of the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Naming deficits were associated with resection of ventral temporal cortex, with mid temporal and posterior temporal damage more predictive of naming deficits than anterior temporal damage. By 1 month post-surgery, nearly all language deficits were resolved, and no language measure except for naming differed significantly from pre-surgical levels. Conclusions These findings show that transient aphasias are very common after left hemisphere resective surgery, and that the precise nature of the aphasia depends on the specific location of the surgical site. This patient cohort provides a unique

  18. AphasiaBank as BigData.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-02-01

    AphasiaBank has used a standardized protocol to collect narrative, procedural, personal, and descriptive discourse from 290 persons with aphasia, as well as 190 control participants. These data have been transcribed in the Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT) format for analysis by the Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) programs. Here, we review results from 45 studies based on these data that investigate aphasic productions in terms of these eight areas: discourse, grammar, lexicon, gesture, fluency, syndrome classification, social factors, and treatment effects. For each area, we also indicate how use of the CLAN programs has facilitated the analysis. We conclude with an examination of ways in which the size of the database could be increased through on-site recordings and data from teletherapy.

  19. Assessment of mood states in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Stern, R A

    1999-01-01

    Depression is common in patients with stroke and other neurological conditions. Accurate assessment and diagnosis is critical in understanding the causes of mood disturbance in these patients and in establishing effective treatments. Examination of mood states, however, is difficult in patients with aphasia, impaired emotional expression, and other communication and cognitive difficulties. Most standardized measures of mood are inappropriate for this population due to the instruments' linguistic, attention, and other cognitive demands. The Visual Analog Mood Scales (VAMS) are psychometrically sound measures, developed specifically for neurologically impaired patients in general and aphasic patients in particular. These very brief scales assess eight mood states: sad, happy, tense, afraid, tired, energetic, confused, and angry. The utility of these scales in clinical practice is presented, as are specific recommendations and guidelines for the assessment of mood in patients with aphasia and other communication deficits. PMID:10100375

  20. Aphasia Practice in the Year 2026.

    PubMed

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to envision how the clinical practice of aphasia management might be done 10 years in the future. The vision of how an individual clinician's daily tasks are changed is built on current trends, including the aging of the population, the life participation approach to aphasia, development and use of evidence-based practices, person-centered care, and technology. To be prepared for the future of these trends, we will need to develop clinical capacity, not only in the number of speech-language pathologists but also most importantly in their competence for using evidence-based practices and training others to support effective communication, including other health care providers. Research needs that will support the future are also described. PMID:27232092

  1. AphasiaBank as BigData.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-02-01

    AphasiaBank has used a standardized protocol to collect narrative, procedural, personal, and descriptive discourse from 290 persons with aphasia, as well as 190 control participants. These data have been transcribed in the Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT) format for analysis by the Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) programs. Here, we review results from 45 studies based on these data that investigate aphasic productions in terms of these eight areas: discourse, grammar, lexicon, gesture, fluency, syndrome classification, social factors, and treatment effects. For each area, we also indicate how use of the CLAN programs has facilitated the analysis. We conclude with an examination of ways in which the size of the database could be increased through on-site recordings and data from teletherapy. PMID:26882361

  2. Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca’s aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. Aims This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. Methods & Procedures Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. Outcomes & Results The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca’s aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants’ eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. Conclusions These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

  3. Baudelaire's aphasia: from poetry to cursing.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Sebastian; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2007-01-01

    At 45 years of age, Charles Baudelaire suffered a left hemispheric stroke that left him with a right hemiplegia and severe aphasia. In this chapter, we investigate the nature of his symptoms, drawing mostly on his own and his contemporaries' correspondence. Before specifically examining his aphasia, we put the poet's life, work, and health in context, notably his tormented mind, his probable syphilitic infection and the intellectual milieu of 19th century France. The time when Baudelaire was struck with aphasia coincides with early discoveries and debates that centered on the nature and implications of this neurological disorder. Many of the questions raised at that time still await definitive answers. Here, we compare Baudelaire's language disorder with recent research that has shed new light on the poet's disease. Most interestingly, we explore the nature of his dramatic use of the expletive Cré nom!, which was the only word he was able to express. Finally, we discuss the links between disease and creativity and dismiss the frequent notion that Baudelaire, in the end, paid the price of his genius.

  4. You Don’t Say: Dynamic Aphasia, Another Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    Perez, David L.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; McGinnis, Scott M.; Sapolsky, Daisy; Johnson, Keith; Searl, Meghan; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2013-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a language predominant neurodegenerative disorder that has three recognized variants: nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic. This report describes a 60-year-old man who presented with a progressive decline in verbal output that does not fit the currently accepted PPA subtypes. The patient exhibited a paucity of verbal output and impaired phonemic fluency with minimal associated language, cognitive, or behavioral deficits. Focal cortical thinning/hypometabolism of the left superior frontal region and a cerebrospinal fluid profile not consistent with Alzheimer’s disease pathology were identified. This case of isolated progressive dynamic aphasia extends the current boundaries of PPA diagnostic variants. PMID:23168447

  5. Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

    2007-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

  6. Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Mile; Vuković, Irena; Miller, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined patterns of acquired dyslexia in Serbian aphasic speakers, comparing profiles of groups with Broca's versus Wernicke's aphasia. The study also looked at the relationship of reading and auditory comprehension and between reading comprehension and reading aloud in these groups. Participants were 20 people with Broca's and 20 with Wernicke's aphasia. They were asked to read aloud and to understand written material from the Serbian adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. A Serbian Word Reading Aloud Test was also used. The people with Broca's aphasia achieved better results in reading aloud and in reading comprehension than those with Wernicke's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia showed significantly more semantic errors than those with Broca's aphasia who had significantly more morphological and phonological errors. From the data we inferred that lesion sites accorded with previous work on networks associated with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia and with a posterior-anterior axis for reading processes centred on (left) parietal-temporal-frontal lobes. PMID:27135368

  7. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  8. Aphasia and the Process of Revision in Writing a Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Wengelin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    Most of the previous research on aphasia and writing ability concentrates on the production of words in isolation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the process of producing written texts by clients with aphasia. By using keystroke logging, it was possible to analyse the participants' ongoing work during text writing. Results showed…

  9. International Patterns of the Public Awareness of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Code, Chris; Papathanasiou, Ilias; Rubio-Bruno, Silvia; Cabana, María de la Paz; Villanueva, Maria Marta; Haaland-Johansen, Line; Prizl-Jakovac, Tatjana; Leko, Ana; Zemva, Nada; Patterson, Ruth; Berry, Richard; Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Robert, Amelie

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that public awareness of aphasia is vital for extending services, research support, social inclusion and targeted raising of awareness. Earlier studies show that knowledge of aphasia varies across a range of variables, but is very low compared with other conditions. Aims: To report a series of surveys of public…

  10. Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.…

  11. Aphasia and Topic Initiation in Conversation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Scott E.; Candlin, Christopher N.; Ferguson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aphasiologists often research, assess and treat linguistic impairment and its consequences for daily life separately. Studies that link the language used by people with aphasia to routine communicative activities may expand the linguistic forms treated as relevant for successful communication by people with aphasia. Previous research…

  12. Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

  13. Aphasia friendly written health information: content and design characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2011-08-01

    People with aphasia need communicatively accessible written health information. Healthcare providers require knowledge of how to develop printed education materials (PEMs) in formats that people with aphasia prefer and can read. This study aimed to explore formatting characteristics considered to be barriers and facilitators to reading PEMs. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 adults with aphasia who were selected using maximum variation sampling across aphasia severity, reading ability, and time post-stroke. Participants were shown stroke and aphasia PEMs obtained from the recruiting stroke services, asked to rank them from most liked to least liked, and comment on factors that made the PEMs easier and harder to read. The majority of participants ranked the aphasia friendly stroke (56.4%, n = 22) and aphasia (87.2%, n = 34) PEMs as most liked. Forty-five facilitator and 46 barrier codes were identified using qualitative content analysis and grouped into two categories; (1) content characteristics and (2) design characteristics. Findings support many of the recommendations found within the literature for developing best practice PEMs and accessible information for other patient groups. Routine consideration of the facilitators and barriers identified will contribute to making written information more accessible to people with aphasia.

  14. Who Benefits from an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babbitt, Edna M.; Worrall, Linda; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article summarizes current outcomes from intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and examines data from one ICAP to identify those who respond and do not respond to treatment. Methods: Participants were divided into 2 groups, responders and nonresponders, based on ±5-point change score on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised…

  15. Using conversation analysis to assess and treat people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Beeke, Suzanne; Maxim, Jane; Wilkinson, Ray

    2007-05-01

    This article gives an overview of the application to aphasia of conversation analysis (CA), a qualitative methodology for the analysis of recorded, naturally occurring talk produced in everyday human interaction. CA, like pragmatics, considers language use in context, but it differs from other analytical frameworks because the clinician is not making interpretations about how an aspect of language should be coded or judging whether an utterance is successful or adequate in terms of communication. We first outline the CA methodology before discussing its application to the assessment of aphasia, principally through the use of two published assessment tools. We then move on to illustrate applications of CA in the field of aphasia therapy by discussing two single case study interventions. Key conversation behaviors are illustrated with transcripts from interactions recorded by the person with aphasia and the person's habitual conversation partner in the home environment. Finally, we explore the implications of using CA as a tool for assessment and treatment in aphasia.

  16. The public awareness of aphasia: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Code, C; Mackie, N S; Armstrong, E; Stiegler, L; Armstrong, J; Bushby, E; Carew-Price, P; Curtis, H; Haynes, P; McLeod, E; Muhleisen, V; Neate, J; Nikolas, A; Rolfe, D; Rubly, C; Simpson, R; Webber, A

    2001-01-01

    We surveyed 929 shoppers in Exeter (England), Louisiana (USA) and Sydney (Australia) to determine what they knew of aphasia. Between 10% and 18% said they had heard of aphasia but only between 1.5% and 7.6% had even some basic knowledge of aphasia. We found that more females knew something about aphasia than males and that older people were more likely to have heard of it, although those with some knowledge were significantly younger. Informants had heard of aphasia mainly through their work or the media and were mainly professionals like teachers, nurses, therapists, managers and administrators, followed by a retired/student group. We found some differences in awareness levels in the different locations we sampled. Results have implications for targeting awareness raising and campaigning.

  17. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  18. Cross linguistic aphasia testing: the Portuguese version of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT).

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Martin; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Garcia, Paula; Cabeça, Joana; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Willmes, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    We report the adaptation of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT) to the Portuguese language (PAAT) and the results of its standardization in 125 persons with aphasia and 153 healthy controls. Patients with aphasia had a previous syndromic diagnosis, obtained through a Portuguese aphasia battery, which served as a reference. The control group was stratified by age and educational level. Hierarchical cluster analyses showed good construct validity. The increasing degree of difficulty and complexity throughout the item sets comprising subtests was confirmed. The discriminatory power of the PAAT for the selection of aphasic from non-aphasic persons proved to be as high as for the AAT versions in other languages. Classification of standard aphasic syndromes by means of discriminant analyses was good. Internal consistency, measured by means of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was high to very high for the different PAAT subtests. Performance differences caused by age or educational level among the healthy control persons emphasized the need for correction factors. In conclusion, the PAAT showed robust psychometric properties, comparable to the original German and to adaptations to other languages. It constitutes a useful tool for cross-linguistic and multicenter studies.

  19. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

  20. Aphasia and auditory extinction: Preliminary evidence of binding.

    PubMed

    Shisler, Rebecca J

    2005-07-01

    Background: McNeil, Odell, and Tseng (1991), and Murray and colleagues (Murray, 2000; Murray, Holland, & Beeson, 1997a, 1997b) have suggested that variability of performance in patients with aphasia may be due to nonlinguistic cognitive variables, such as attention (i.e., resources, capacity, effort), which affect language comprehension and production. Given the research that has supported the relationship between aphasia and attention deficits, it is important to determine what effect this breakdown in attention may have on cognitive processes for individuals with aphasia.Aims: This study aims to determine if auditory extinction is present in individuals with aphasia, and if so, if this is due to a breakdown in binding. If extinction is found for individuals with aphasia, it would further support the notion that auditory attention difficulties are present among individuals with aphasia, since visual and auditory research has attributed extinction to a breakdown in attention (Baylis, Driver, & Rafal, 1993; Deouell, Bentin, & Soroker, 2000; Deouell & Soroker, 2000). If binding is found to be deficient, the fact that individuals with both left and right hemisphere lesions demonstrate this phenomenon would lead to a number of implications regarding the relationship of attention and aphasia.Methods & Procedures: Auditory extinction, in which one stimulus is not perceived during double simultaneous stimulation (DSS) presentation, was examined in six individuals with aphasia (aged 42-74 years) and six age-matched healthy adults. Two different experiments were conducted in which the auditory stimuli, consisting of male and female voices speaking the letters "T" or "O", were systematically varied to investigate whether binding of identification to location contributes to extinction.Outcomes & Results: Participants with aphasia made more omission errors (extinction) than the control group, and extinction was significantly greater for binding versus nonbinding conditions

  1. Aphasia and auditory extinction: Preliminary evidence of binding

    PubMed Central

    Shisler, Rebecca J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: McNeil, Odell, and Tseng (1991), and Murray and colleagues (Murray, 2000; Murray, Holland, & Beeson, 1997a, 1997b) have suggested that variability of performance in patients with aphasia may be due to nonlinguistic cognitive variables, such as attention (i.e., resources, capacity, effort), which affect language comprehension and production. Given the research that has supported the relationship between aphasia and attention deficits, it is important to determine what effect this breakdown in attention may have on cognitive processes for individuals with aphasia. Aims: This study aims to determine if auditory extinction is present in individuals with aphasia, and if so, if this is due to a breakdown in binding. If extinction is found for individuals with aphasia, it would further support the notion that auditory attention difficulties are present among individuals with aphasia, since visual and auditory research has attributed extinction to a breakdown in attention (Baylis, Driver, & Rafal, 1993; Deouell, Bentin, & Soroker, 2000; Deouell & Soroker, 2000). If binding is found to be deficient, the fact that individuals with both left and right hemisphere lesions demonstrate this phenomenon would lead to a number of implications regarding the relationship of attention and aphasia. Methods & Procedures: Auditory extinction, in which one stimulus is not perceived during double simultaneous stimulation (DSS) presentation, was examined in six individuals with aphasia (aged 42–74 years) and six age-matched healthy adults. Two different experiments were conducted in which the auditory stimuli, consisting of male and female voices speaking the letters “T” or “O”, were systematically varied to investigate whether binding of identification to location contributes to extinction. Outcomes & Results: Participants with aphasia made more omission errors (extinction) than the control group, and extinction was significantly greater for binding versus nonbinding

  2. Agnosia for accents in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hailstone, Julia C; Tyndall, Marina H; Cifelli, Alberto; Schott, Jonathan M; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Warren, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    As an example of complex auditory signal processing, the analysis of accented speech is potentially vulnerable in the progressive aphasias. However, the brain basis of accent processing and the effects of neurodegenerative disease on this processing are not well understood. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological study of a patient, AA with progressive nonfluent aphasia, in whom agnosia for accents was a prominent clinical feature. We designed a battery to assess AA's ability to process accents in relation to other complex auditory signals. AA's performance was compared with a cohort of 12 healthy age and gender matched control participants and with a second patient, PA, who had semantic dementia with phonagnosia and prosopagnosia but no reported difficulties with accent processing. Relative to healthy controls, the patients showed distinct profiles of accent agnosia. AA showed markedly impaired ability to distinguish change in an individual's accent despite being able to discriminate phonemes and voices (apperceptive accent agnosia); and in addition, a severe deficit of accent identification. In contrast, PA was able to perceive changes in accents, phonemes and voices normally, but showed a relatively mild deficit of accent identification (associative accent agnosia). Both patients showed deficits of voice and environmental sound identification, however PA showed an additional deficit of face identification whereas AA was able to identify (though not name) faces normally. These profiles suggest that AA has conjoint (or interacting) deficits involving both apperceptive and semantic processing of accents, while PA has a primary semantic (associative) deficit affecting accents along with other kinds of auditory objects and extending beyond the auditory modality. Brain MRI revealed left peri-Sylvian atrophy in case AA and relatively focal asymmetric (predominantly right sided) temporal lobe atrophy in case PA. These cases provide further evidence for the

  3. Verb Argument Structure in Narrative Speech: Mining AphasiaBank.

    PubMed

    Malyutina, Svetlana; Richardson, Jessica D; den Ouden, Dirk B

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that verb argument structure characteristics (such as the number of participant roles in the situation described by the verb) can facilitate or hinder aphasic language production and comprehension in constrained laboratory tasks. This research needs to be complemented by studies of narrative or unrestricted speech, which can capture the spontaneous selection of verbs and grammatical structures by people with aphasia and may be particularly sensitive to the relative cost of access to different verb types in more natural conditions. Focusing on the number of subcategorization options, we investigated verb argument structure effects in a large sample of narratives from AphasiaBank, by speakers with aphasia, as well as control speakers without brain damage. Verb argument structure complexity did not negatively affect verb selection in any type of aphasia. However, people with aphasia, particularly with Broca's aphasia, used verbs in less complex and diverse ways, with fewer arguments and less diverse subcategorization options. In line with previous research, this suggests that deficits in verb use in aphasia are likely due to difficulties with the online application of or partial damage to verb argument structure knowledge. PMID:26882363

  4. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions.

  5. Perception and production of tone in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Gandour, J; Petty, S H; Dardarananda, R

    1988-11-01

    An acoustical and perceptual study of lexical tone was conducted to evaluate the extent and nature of tonal disruption in aphasia. The language under investigation was Thai, a tone language which has five lexical tones--mid, low, falling, high, and rising. Subjects included six left brain-damaged aphasics (two Broca's, one transcortical motor, one global, one conduction, one Wernicke), one right brain-damaged nonaphasic, one cerebellar dysarthric, and five normals. High-quality tape recordings of each subject's productions of a minimal set of five, monosyllabic Thai words were presented to 10 adult Thai listeners for identification. Results from the phonemic identification tests indicated that tone production is relatively spared in aphasic patients with unilateral left hemisphere lesions. The performance of the global aphasic, however, was considerably below normal. Patterns of tonal confusions further revealed that the performance of all aphasics, except the global, differed from that of normal speakers primarily in degree rather than in kind. Tonal contrasts were signaled at a high level of proficiency by the right brain-damaged and dysarthric patients. Acoustical analysis revealed that F0 contours associated with the five tones for all aphasics, except the global, were similar in overall shape as well as position in the tone space to those of normals. F0 contours for the right brain-damaged patient and the dysarthric also generally agreed with those of normals in terms of shape and position. F0 ranges of both aphasic and nonaphasic brain-damaged speakers were generally larger than those of normals for all five tones. The relationship between tone and vowel duration was generally similar to that of normals for all brain-damaged speakers. A comparison of aphasics' performance on tone perception (J. Gandour & R. Dardarananda, 1983, Brain and Language, 18, 94-114) and tone production indicated that, for the normal and right brain-damaged subjects, performance on

  6. Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

  7. Cognitive deficits in post-stroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Milena V; Radanovic, Márcia

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of aphasics' cognitive performance is challenging and such patients are generally excluded from studies that describe cognitive deficits after stroke. We evaluated aphasics' performance in cognitive tasks compared to non-aphasic subjects. A sample of 47 patients (21 aphasics, 17 non-aphasics with left hemisphere lesions and 9 non-aphasics with right hemisphere lesions) performed cognitive tasks (attention, verbal and visual memory, executive functions, visuospatial skills and praxis). Aphasic patients performed poorer than all non-aphasics in Digit Span (p < 0.001), Clock-Drawing Test (p = 0.006), Verbal memory (p = 0.002), Visual Memory (p < 0.01), Verbal Fluency (p < 0.001), and Gesture Praxis (p < 0.001). Aphasia severity correlated with performance in Trail Making test part B (p = 0.004), Digit Span forward (p < 0.001) and backwards (p = 0.011), and Gesture Praxis (p = 0.002). Aphasia is accompanied by deficits not always easy to be evaluated by cognitive tests due to speech production and motor impairments. Assessment of cognitive functions in aphasics might contribute to optimize therapeutic intervention. PMID:26465401

  8. Judgment of functional morphology in agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Milman, Lisa H.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in production of functional morphemes like complementizers (e.g., that and if) and tense and agreement markers (e.g., –ed and –s), with complementizers often being more impaired than verbal morphology. However, there has been comparatively little work examining patients’ ability to comprehend or judge the grammaticality of these morphemes. This paper investigates comprehension of complementizers and verb inflections in two timed grammaticality-judgment experiments. In Experiment 1, participants with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and grammatical-morphology production deficits (n=10) and unimpaired controls (n=10) heard complement clause sentences, subject relative clause sentences, and conjoined sentences. In Experiment 2, the same participants heard sentences with finite auxiliaries, sentences with finite main verbs, and sentences with uninflected verbs. Results showed above-chance accuracy in aphasic participants’ judgments for complementizer sentences in Experiment 1, but chance performance for verb inflections in Experiment 2. This pattern held regardless of whether the verb inflections were affixes or free-standing auxiliaries. Implications of these results for theories of agrammatic morphological impairments, including feature underspecification accounts (Wenzlaff & Clahsen, 2004; Burchert, Swoboda-Moll & DeBleser, 2005a) and hierarchical structure-based accounts (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Izvorski & Ullman, 1999), are discussed. PMID:18438453

  9. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-04-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Roberts & Kiran, 2007; Edmonds & Kiran, 2006). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age of acquisition (AoA) and relative proficiency in the two languages to model individual participants. This model is subsequently lesioned by varying connection strengths between the semantic and phonological networks and retrained based on individual patient demographic information to evaluate whether or not the model's prediction of rehabilitation matched the actual treatment outcome. In most cases the model comes close to the target performance subsequent to language therapy in the language trained, indicating the validity of this model in simulating rehabilitation of naming impairment in bilingual aphasia. Additionally, the amount of cross-language transfer is limited both in the patient performance and in the model's predictions and is dependent on that specific patient's AoA, language exposure and language impairment. It also suggests how well alternative treatment scenarios would have fared, including some cases where the alternative would have done better. Overall, the study suggests how computational modeling could be used in the future to design customized treatment recipes that result in better recovery than is currently possible.

  10. The Thai version of Aachen aphasia test (THAI-AAT).

    PubMed

    Pracharitpukdee, N; Phanthumchinda, K; Huber, W; Willmes, K

    2000-06-01

    The lack of a standardized Thai Language aphasia test raises difficulties not only with the assessment and treatment planning for the clinical but also with the accurate diagnosis and the reliable incidence for research on aphasiology in Thailand. This study aimed to use the Thai version of German Aachen aphasia (THAI-AAT), which is systematically adapted according to well-defined linguistic criteria and psychometric requirement, to assess the language deficit of Thai aphasic patients. The subjects participating in this study were 125 aphasia patients, 60 non-aphasic brain damaged patients and 120 normal subjects. The result revealed that the THAI-AAT is linguistically parallel in test design and fulfills the same psychometric properties as the original. The THAI-AAT obtains the goals: to differential diagnosis of aphasia distinguishing it from non-aphasic disturbance and to identify the type of aphasic syndrome.

  11. Implicit and explicit learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2014-06-01

    Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes.

  12. Dissociated disorders of speaking and writing in aphasia.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, A; Taborelli, A; Vignolo, L A

    1978-01-01

    Of 500 left brain-damaged patients with educational level above elementary school investigated with a standard quantitative battery for dissociation between oral and written expression, speech was found to be selectively impaired in seven (three with "pure anarthria," two with anarthria in the context of Broca's aphasia, and two with fluent aphasia with remarkable sparing of writing), and writing in another seven (two with "pure" agraphia, two with "agraphia with mild alexia," and three with "agraphia with mild fluent aphasia.") The nature of three conditions (pure anarthria, fluent aphasia with sparing of writing, and pure agraphia) is discussed, with evidence of a selective association between pure agraphia and lesions of the upper left parietal lobule. PMID:671067

  13. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. PMID:25684286

  14. The development of modern approaches to aphasia: a concise overview.

    PubMed

    Vandenborre, Dorien; Visch-Brink, Evy; Mariën, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this article is to review the rationale on which modern aphasia test batteries are based. Since the mid-1950s, a starting point chosen because the discipline of speech (language) pathology was created during that period, a corpus of English aphasia tests was identified through searches of electronic databases. The tests were critically evaluated in terms of their theoretical roots and influences. During the past 50 years, the fundamentals of aphasia assessment remained basically unchanged, that is, to identify and gain insight into the nature and the degree of a language disturbance. However, the way in which the assessment has taken place has shifted back and forth from a purely medical approach to a more neurolinguistic or social approach depending on the influence exerted by different scientific fields. Not a single model on which aphasia assessments rely covers the many and multifaceted problems of individuals with aphasia. At several points in time during the rehabilitation process, the clinician and the patient will encounter a crossroad, where it has to be decided which path to follow next and how to evaluate the covered path. Besides application of formal test batteries, observations in different natural settings, evaluations of functional communication and insights into psychosocial coping contribute towards a holistic approach to aphasia. PMID:25851837

  15. [Specificities of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia].

    PubMed

    Magnin, E; Teichmann, M; Martinaud, O; Moreaud, O; Ryff, I; Belliard, S; Pariente, J; Moulin, T; Vandel, P; Démonet, J-F

    2015-01-01

    The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome with neuropsychological and linguistic specificities, including phonological loop impairment for which diagnosis is currently mainly based on the exclusion of the two other variants, semantic and nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia. The syndrome may be underdiagnosed due (1) to mild language difficulties during the early stages of the disease or (2) to being mistaken for mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease when the evaluation of episodic memory is based on verbal material and (3) finally, it is not uncommon that the disorders are attributed to psychiatric co-morbidities such as, for example, anxiety. Moreover, compared to other variants of primary progressive aphasia, brain abnormalities are different. The left temporoparietal junction is initially affected. Neuropathology and biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid, molecular amyloid nuclear imaging) frequently reveal Alzheimer's disease. Consequently this variant of primary progressive aphasia does not fall under the traditional concept of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These distinctive features highlight the utility of correct diagnosis, classification, and use of biomarkers to show the neuropathological processes underlying logopenic primary progressive aphasia. The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a specific form of Alzheimer's disease frequently presenting a rapid decline; specific linguistic therapies are needed. Further investigation of this syndrome is needed to refine screening, improve diagnostic criteria and better understand the epidemiology and the biological mechanisms involved.

  16. The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

  17. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic.

  18. Adult crossed aphasia in dextrals revisited.

    PubMed

    Mariën, Peter; Paghera, Barbara; De Deyn, Peter P; Vignolo, Luigi A

    2004-02-01

    The clinical study of crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) may shed light on the discreteness and modularity of several cognitive functions, such as language, gestures and visual spatial abilities, with respect to hemispheric lateralisation. Since 1975 over 180 cases have been described, employing, however, different criteria of assessment and classification. The purpose of this paper is to review them and to propose a set of diagnostic criteria that may be useful to single out a series of reliable CAD cases on which research can be safely carried out. A detailed analysis of such series is dealt with in terms of a number of characteristics concerning both the language disorder and the associated nonverbal cognitive impairments.

  19. Selective language aphasia from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, A; Lachmann, E A; Nagler, W

    1996-09-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old right-handed Chinese/English bilingual patient who developed herpes simplex encephalitis involving the left temporal lobe, with resultant aphasia. His native language was Mandarin, but he had received extensive training in English for 6 years after moving to the United States and was fluent in English. One week after admission, he could not speak, comprehend, repeat, name, read, or write in English, but he had relative preservation of most of these facilities in Mandarin. He could not write in Mandarin, and his syntax was simplified. Two months later, along with intensive bilingual speech therapy, his reading, writing, and naming in English had almost recovered.

  20. Generalizable outcomes of bilingual aphasia research.

    PubMed

    Paradis, M

    2000-01-01

    A number of constructs developed to account for bilingual aphasia phenomena have been advantageously extended to increase our understanding of language representation, processing, breakdown and rehabilitation in unilinguals as well. In particular, focus on the right-hemisphere-based pragmatic component of verbal communicative competence, the activation threshold, the control of resources, the role of emotion in second language acquisition and that of procedural vs. declarative memory, has led to the suggestion that unilinguals are in fact at one end of a continuum, with multilinguals who speak genetically unrelated languages at the other end. No function is available to the bilingual speaker that is not already available to the unilingual, unidialectal speaker. The only difference seems to be the degree of use the speaker makes of each of the relevant cerebral systems.

  1. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  2. [Comparison of the Aachen Aphasia Test, clinical study and Aachen Aphasia Beside Test in brain tumor patients].

    PubMed

    Wacker, A; Holder, M; Will, B E; Winkler, P A; Ilmberger, J

    2002-08-01

    In the clinical routine examination of patients with brain tumors, aphasic symptoms are often not recognized. In order to document the incidence of such symptoms, three diagnostic methods of testing for aphasia were compared: the Aachen aphasia test (AAT), which is the German standard aphasia test, clinical examination, and the Aachen aphasia bedside test (AABT), which was designed to test patients in the acute phases of illness. In the AAT, 50% of patients with left-sided tumors and 36% of those with right-sided tumors showed aphasic disturbances. The AAT results were defined as the gold standard. Clinical examination showed only low sensitivity; less than half of the aphasic patients were diagnosed as such. The AABT also detected only about half of the patients with aphasic disturbances. The low sensitivity is caused mainly by the results of the patients with right-hemisphere tumors, in which the mental set of the examiner during clinical examination (aphasic symptoms are not expected in patients with right-hemisphere lesions) and the pattern of disturbances in the AABT (deficits may be less severe and different in nature) may prevent detection of aphasic symptoms. Both clinical examination and AABT are thus not suitable for aphasia diagnostics in brain tumor patients. As the AAT is very time-consuming in everyday clinical routine, however, the development of an aphasia screening test seems desirable.

  3. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation (Abutalebi & Green, 2008). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, non-target language(s) (e.g., Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one (e.g., Costa & Santesteban, 2004). The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic non-fluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later-learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are not shared by the two languages (e.g., use of auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages, and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals. PMID:24499302

  4. Telerehabilitation of Anomia in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Getz, Heidi R.; Brennan, David M.; Hu, Tang M.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of telerehabilitation-based treatment for anomia has been demonstrated in post-stroke aphasia, but the efficacy of this method of anomia treatment delivery has not been established within the context of degenerative illness. Aims The current study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a telerehabilitation-based approach to anomia treatment within the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Methods & Procedures Each of the three telerehabilitation participants represented a distinct subtype of PPA. Following a baseline evaluation of language and cognition, a phonological treatment and an orthographic treatment were administered to all participants over the course of six months. One month after the end of treatment, a post-treatment evaluation began. All treatment sessions and the majority of the evaluation sessions were administered via telerehabilitation. Treatment effects were examined within each subject, and treatment effects were also compared between each telerehabilitation participant and a group of in-person participants who had the same subtype of PPA. Outcomes & Results All three telerehabilitation participants exhibited positive treatment effects. CGR (nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA) and WCH (logopenic variant PPA) showed maintenance of naming for prophylaxis items in both treatment conditions, while ACR (semantic variant PPA) demonstrated increased naming of remediation items in the phonological treatment condition. Compared to in-person participants with the same subtype of PPA, each of the telerehabilitation participants typically showed effects that were either within the expected range or larger than expected. Conclusions Telerehabilitation-based anomia treatment is feasible and effective in all three subtypes of PPA. PMID:27087732

  5. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  6. Exploring the Processing Continuum of Single-Word Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moineau, Suzanne; Dronkers, Nina F.; Bates, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the vulnerability of lexical processing in individuals with aphasia. Though classical teaching of aphasia syndromes holds that people with Broca's aphasia have intact comprehension at the single-word level, the nature and extent of this purported sparing were explored under suboptimal processing conditions. A combination of…

  7. Neural Correlates of Phonological and Semantic-Based Anomia Treatment in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Moser, Dana; Bonilha, Leonardo; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Shaw, Heather; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon C.; Rorden, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Most naming treatments in aphasia either assume a phonological or semantic emphasis or a combination thereof. However, it is unclear whether semantic or phonological treatments recruit the same or different cortical areas in chronic aphasia. Employing three persons with aphasia, two of whom were non-fluent, the present study compared changes in…

  8. Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

  9. An Examination of Strategy Implementation during Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Method: Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases…

  10. The Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM): Dimensionality, Item Bank Calibration, and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Stone, Clement A.; Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Kellough, Stacey; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Ross, Katherine B.; Schumacher, James G.; St. Jacque, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the structure and measurement properties of the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM), a patient-reported outcome measure of communicative functioning for persons with aphasia. Method: Three hundred twenty-nine participants with aphasia responded to 177 items asking about communicative…

  11. Conceptualizing and Measuring Working Memory and its Relationship to Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Background General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language processing impairments. Though conceptualized within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity, impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, different measures have been used to quantify their working memory ability and identify the relationship between working memory and language performance. Aims The primary objectives of this article are to (1) review current working memory theoretical frameworks, (2) review tasks used to measure working memory, and (3) discuss findings from studies that have investigated working memory as they relate to language processing in aphasia. Main Contribution Though findings have been consistent across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, discussion of how working memory is conceptualized and defined is often missing, as is discussion of results within a theoretical framework. This is critical, as working memory is conceptualized differently across the different theoretical frameworks. They differ in explaining what limits capacity and the source of individual differences as well as how information is encoded, maintained, and retrieved. When test methods are considered within a theoretical framework, specific hypotheses can be tested and stronger conclusions that are less susceptible to different interpretations can be made. Conclusions Working memory ability has been investigated in numerous studies with individuals with aphasia. To better understand the underlying cognitive constructs that contribute to the language deficits exhibited by individuals with aphasia, future investigations should operationally define the cognitive

  12. Quality of life measurement and outcome in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Spaccavento, Simona; Craca, Angela; Del Prete, Marina; Falcone, Rosanna; Colucci, Antonia; Di Palma, Angela; Loverre, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QL) can be defined as the individual’s perception of their own well-being. Aphasia is the most important potential consequence of stroke and has a profound effect on a patient’s life, causing emotional distress, depression, and social isolation, due to loss of language functions. Aims To draw up a QL questionnaire for aphasics (QLQA) focusing particularly on difficulties in interpersonal relationships and on the loss of independence as a result of language disorders. We reported the results of a psychometric evaluation of this measure. Moreover, we experimentally focused on the differences in QLQA between patients affected only by neurological motor impairment and hemiparetic patients with aphasia (PWA) in order to verify the specific role of aphasia on QL. We also explored if the QLQA is sensitive to the severity of aphasia and to the time elapsing from the stroke. Methods A total of 146 consecutive PWA and 37 control subjects were enrolled to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency and test–retest reliability) and validity of the QLQA, using standard psychometric methods. Patients were divided into acute (within 3 months since stroke) and chronic (beyond 3 months) groups, and into mild and severe according to the severity of aphasia. The experimental group of only acute PWA was compared to control subjects, with right hemispherical lesion and without aphasia in QLQA total and partial scores. Results The QLQA had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Acute and chronic PWA and mild and severe ones differed in QLQA total, communication, and autonomy subscales. No differences were found in psychological condition. Between aphasic and control patients, significant differences were found in all QLQA subscales. Conclusion The QLQA is a valid measure of QL in PWA, contributing to a better distinction between severe and mild aphasia, and it is sensitive also to the variations in QL depending on the time interval

  13. [Acupuncture for aphasia: a retrospective analysis of clinical literature].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Han, Guodong; Ai, Kun; Deng, Shifeng

    2016-04-01

    With the Meta-analysis method, the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was evaluated, and the acupoints selection for aphasia was explored. The acupuncture literature of clinical randomized control trials for aphasia published in CNKI, WANFANG, VIP and CBM database was searched; the statistical analysis of clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was performed by using software Revman 5. 2 provided by Cochrane library. A file of Microsoft Excel was established to perform the analysis of acupoints selection based on frequency analysis method, so as to summarize the characteristics and rules. Totally 385 articles were searched, and 37 articles those met the inclusive criteria was included, involving 1,260 patients in the acupuncture group and 1 238 patients in the control group. The Meta-analysis results showed OR = 3.82, 95% Cl [3.01, 4.85]; rhombus was located on the right side and the funnel plot was nearly symmetry, indicating the treatment effect of the acupuncture group for aphasia was superior to the control group (Z = 11.04, P < 0.000 01). The frequency-analysis results showed that the frequency of acupoints from top to bottom was Lian-quan (CV 23), Tongli (HT 5), Yamen (GV 15), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), Yuye (EX-HN 13), Baihui (GV 20), Yuyan II, Yuyan I and Yuyan III. The frequency of meridians from top to bottom was the governor vessel, extra channels, conception vessel, heart meridian and large intestine meridian. It is concluded that the clinical efficacy of acupuncture combined with speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment for aphasia is superior to that of speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment alone. The clinical treatment for aphasia focuses on its local effect; the main acupoints are in the head and face, and the meridians are governor vessel, extra channels and conception vessel. PMID:27352512

  14. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Tobias S.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia. PMID:25972819

  15. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Tobias S; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia. PMID:25972819

  16. Semantic dementia and persisting Wernicke's aphasia: linguistic and anatomical profiles.

    PubMed

    Ogar, J M; Baldo, J V; Wilson, S M; Brambati, S M; Miller, B L; Dronkers, N F; Gorno-Tempini, M L

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared 10 patients with SD to 10 age- and education-matched patients with WA in three language domains: language comprehension (single words and sentences), spontaneous speech and visual semantics. Neuroanatomical involvement was analyzed using disease-specific image analysis techniques: voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for patients with SD and overlays of lesion digitized lesion reconstructions in patients with WA. Patients with SD and WA were both impaired on tasks that involved visual semantics, but patients with SD were less impaired in spontaneous speech and sentence comprehension. The anatomical findings showed that different regions were most affected in the two disorders: the left anterior temporal lobe in SD and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus in chronic WA. This study highlights that the two syndromes classically associated with language comprehension deficits in aphasia due to stroke and neurodegenerative disease are clinically distinct, most likely due to distinct distributions of damage in the temporal lobe.

  17. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Tobias S; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia.

  18. Production and Comprehension of Time Reference in Korean Nonfluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kwon, Miseon; Na, Hae Ri; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Individuals with nonfluent agrammatic aphasia show impaired production and comprehension of time reference via verbal morphology. However, cross-linguistic findings to date suggest inconsistent evidence as to whether tense processing in general is impaired or time reference to the past is selectively difficult in this population. This study examined production and comprehension of time reference via verb morphology in Korean-speaking individuals with nonfluent aphasia. Methods A group of 9 healthy controls and 8 individuals with nonfluent aphasia (5 for the production task) participated in the study. Sentence priming production and auditory sentence to picture matching tasks were used, parallel with the previous cross-linguistic experiments in English, Chinese, Turkish, and others. Results The participants with nonfluent aphasia showed different patterns of impairment in production and comprehension. In production, they were impaired in all time references with errors being dominated by substitution of incorrect time references and other morpho-phonologically well-formed errors, indicating a largely intact morphological affixation process. In comprehension, they showed selective impairment of the past, consistent with the cross-linguistic evidence from English, Chinese, Turkish, and others. Conclusion The findings suggest that interpretation of past time reference poses particular difficulty in nonfluent aphasia irrespective of typological characteristics of languages; however, in production, language-specific morpho-semantic functions of verbal morphology may play a significant role in selective breakdowns of time reference. PMID:26290861

  19. [Psychometric properties and diagnostic value of 'lexical screening for aphasias'].

    PubMed

    Pena-Chavez, R; Martinez-Jimenez, L; Lopez-Espinoza, M

    2014-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. Language assessment in persons with brain injury makes it possible to know whether they require language rehabilitation or not. Given the importance of a precise evaluation, assessment instruments must be valid and reliable, so as to avoid mistaken and subjective diagnoses. AIM. To validate 'lexical screening for aphasias' in a sample of 58 Chilean individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A screening-type language test, lasting 20 minutes and based on the lexical processing model devised by Patterson and Shewell (1987), was constructed. The sample was made up of two groups containing 29 aphasic subjects and 29 control subjects from different health centres in the regions of Biobio and Maule, Chile. Their ages ranged between 24 and 79 years and had between 0 and 17 years' schooling. Tests were carried out to determine discriminating validity, concurrent validity with the aphasia disorder assessment battery, reliability, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS. The statistical analysis showed a high discriminating validity (p < 0.001), an acceptable mean concurrent validity with aphasia disorder assessment battery (rs = 0.65), high mean reliability (alpha = 0.87), moderate mean sensitivity (69%) and high mean specificity (86%). CONCLUSION. 'Lexical screening for aphasias' is valid and reliable for assessing language in persons with aphasias; it is sensitive for detecting aphasic subjects and is specific for precluding language disorders in persons with normal language abilities.

  20. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  1. Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    PubMed Central

    GREEN, DAVID W.; RUFFLE, LOUISE; GROGAN, ALICE; ALI, NILUFA; RAMSDEN, SUE; SCHOFIELD, TOM; LEFF, ALEX P.; CRINION, JENNY; PRICE, CATHY J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a fuller picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make. PMID:21453044

  2. Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2011-06-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a full picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make.

  3. Aphasia and the process of revision in writing a text.

    PubMed

    Behrns, Ingrid; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Wengelin, Asa

    2008-02-01

    Most of the previous research on aphasia and writing ability concentrates on the production of words in isolation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the process of producing written texts by clients with aphasia. By using keystroke logging, it was possible to analyse the participants' ongoing work during text writing. Results showed that the participants with aphasia composed their texts in what may be described as a linear way. Edits concerning syntax or text structure were almost absent in the subjects' data, but they spent much time and effort on revising smaller units of text, that is, letters and words, possibly as a result of changing their minds or not being able to realize their intentions. However, these changes did not always result in correctly written words in the final text. The findings are discussed in relation to current writing theories. PMID:18253869

  4. Primary progressive aphasia: linguistic patterns and clinical variants.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Pravatà, Emanuele; Brita, Anna Clelia; Improta, Erika; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Rossi, Paola; Colosimo, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether primary progressive aphasias (PPA) reflect non-random degradation of linguistic dimensions that might be supported by different neural subsystems and to what extent this degradation contributes to the emergence of clinical entities: semantic (S), logopenic (L) and nonfluent (NF) aphasia; apraxia of speech was also considered if associated with language disorders (AOS/aph). Forty-two aphasic patients are reported. Two main definable patterns of linguistic deficits tended to emerge that corresponded with identifiable patterns of brain atrophy, and probably diseases: the S variant, which principally expresses the impact of a "deep" cognitive (semantic) disorder on language, and AOS/aph in which "peripheral" executive components play a significant role. By contrast, NF aphasia emerged as a heterogeneous variant due to disorganization of various dimensions within the linguistic domain, that assumes different patterns depending on the differential distribution of atrophy in the perisylvian regions. PMID:24974082

  5. The trouble with nouns and verbs in Greek fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms; better verb retrieval, poorer verb retrieval and equal retrieval difficulties for verbs and nouns. Verbs and nouns in Greek are considered of similar morphological complexity thus it was predicted that anomic aphasic individuals would suffer from a non-dissociated impairment of verbs and nouns. Problems with verbs and/or nouns may arise at any stage in the process of lexical retrieval, i.e. lexical-semantic, lemma, lexeme or articulation. The aim of this research was to investigate verb and noun retrieval using a picture-naming task to explore any possible selective noun and/or verb comprehension or retrieval deficits in Greek individuals with anomic aphasia. The results revealed a significant verb/noun dichotomy with verbs significantly more difficult to retrieve than nouns. These findings lend support for the growing body of evidence showing a specific verb impairment in fluent anomic individuals as well as Broca's patients. Given the prevailing view, that anomic patients experience difficulty retrieving the morpho-phonological form of the target word, the results show that specific information of the grammatical category is also important during word form retrieval. LEARNER OUTCOMES: The reader will become familiar with (i) studies investigating grammatical word class breakdown in individuals with aphasia who speak different languages, (ii) the application of the serial model to word production breakdown in aphasia and (iii) the characteristics of verbs and nouns in Greek. It will be concluded that successful verb retrieval for fluent aphasic individuals who speak Greek is dependant on the retrieval of the morpho

  6. Tracking Passive Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Mack, Jennifer E.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    People with agrammatic aphasia often experience greater difficulty comprehending passive compared to active sentences. The Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Grodzinsky, 2000) proposes that aphasic individuals cannot generate accurate syntactic representations of passive sentences and, hence, use an agent-first processing strategy which leads to at-chance performance. We tested this claim using the eyetracking-while-listening paradigm in order to reveal online processing routines. Ten agrammatic aphasic participants and 10 age-matched controls listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture matching task (i.e., selecting between two pictures with reversed thematic roles), while their eye movements were monitored. Control participants’ performance was at ceiling, whereas accuracy for the aphasic participants was above chance for active sentences and at chance for passive sentences. Further, for the control participants, the eye movement data showed an initial agent-first processing bias, followed by fixation on the correct picture in the vicinity of the verb in both active and passive sentences. However, the aphasic participants showed no evidence of agent-first processing, counter the predictions of the TDH. In addition, in active sentences, they reliably fixated the correct picture only at sentence offset, reflecting slowed processing. During passive sentence processing, fixations were at chance throughout the sentence, but different patterns were noted for correct and incorrect trials. These results are consistent with the proposal that agrammatic sentence comprehension failure involves lexical processing and/or lexical integration deficits. PMID:22043134

  7. Neural recruitment associated with anomia treatment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Morrow-Odom, Leigh; Moser, Dana; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the spatial distribution of cortical activity associated with anomia treatment in three persons with aphasia. Participants underwent three fMRI sessions before and after a period of intensive language treatment focused on object naming. The results revealed bilateral hemispheric recruitment associated with improved ability to name items targeted in treatment. This is the first study to employ multiple pre- and post-treatment fMRI sessions in the study of treatment-induced recovery from aphasia and has implications for future studies of brain plasticity in stroke.

  8. Health science students’ perceptions of motor and sensory aphasia caused by stroke

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study explored health science students’ perceptions of motor aphasia and sensory aphasia caused by stroke to provide basic material for the improvement of rehabilitation practitioners’ perceptions of aphasia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 642 freshmen and sophomores majoring in health science. Perceptions of aphasia were surveyed on a semantic differential scale using the Anchoring Vignette Method and the difference in perception of the two types of aphasia was analyzed using multi-dimensional scaling. [Results] The analysis revealed that motor aphasia and sensory aphasia have mutually corresponding images. Motor aphasia had high levels of ‘quiet’, ‘passive’ ‘dumb’, ‘unstable’ and ‘gloomy’ images, while sensory aphasia had high levels of ‘noisy’, ‘unstable’, ‘cheerful’, ‘sensitive’, ‘fluctuating in emotions’, ‘active’, ‘dumb’ and ‘gloomy’ images. [Conclusion] A systematic education is required to be implemented in the future to improve health science students’ negative perceptions of the aftereffects of stroke such as aphasia. PMID:27390413

  9. Phonological Processing in Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Maya L; Wilson, Stephen M; Babiak, Miranda C; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Beeson, Pelagie M; Miller, Zachary A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological STM impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs among PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry. Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  10. Phonological processing in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M.L.; Wilson, S.M.; Babiak, M.C.; Mandelli, M.L; Beeson, P.M.; Miller, Z.A.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological short-term memory impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs amongst PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  11. Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

  12. Training Volunteers as Conversation Partners for People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Helen; Marshall, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Background: One of the most disabling consequences of aphasia is the way it excludes the person from conversation. A number of studies have attempted to tackle this problem by training the conversational partners of aphasic people. This study offers an evaluation of this approach. Aims: Six volunteers were trained in conversing with people with…

  13. Working Memory in Aphasia: Theory, Measures, and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Shisler, Rebecca J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, researchers have suggested that deficits in working memory capacity contribute to language-processing difficulties observed in individuals with aphasia (e.g., I. Caspari, S. Parkinson, L. LaPointe, & R. Katz, 1998; R. A. Downey et al., 2004; N. Friedmann & A. Gvion, 2003; H. H. Wright, M. Newhoff, R. Downey, & S. Austermann, 2003). A…

  14. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

  15. Semantic Interference during Blocked-Cyclic Naming: Evidence from Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnur, Tatiana T.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Brecher, Adelyn; Hodgson, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Nonaphasic speakers are known to take longer to name pictures when they are blocked by semantic category and repeated multiple times. We replicated this ''semantic blocking effect'' in older controls and showed that in aphasia, the effect is manifested in increased error rates when naming semantically homogeneous, compared to mixed blocks. We…

  16. Production Latencies of Morphologically Simple and Complex Verbs in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    There are several accounts of why some individuals with post-stroke aphasia experience difficulty in producing morphologically complex verbs. Although a majority of these individuals also produce syntactically flawed utterances, at least two accounts focus on word-level encoding operations. One account proposes a difficulty with rule-governed…

  17. Improving Language without Words: First Evidence from Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangolo, Paola; Bonifazi, Silvia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Craighero, Laila; Coccia, Michela; Altoe, Gianmarco; Provinciali, Leandro; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor…

  18. A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia II: Neurological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Kennedy, David; Alpert, Nathanial; Makris, Nikos; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the effects of left hemisphere strokes on syntactically-based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control subjects for the ability to assign and interpret three syntactic structures (passives, object extracted relative…

  19. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan,…

  20. Progranulin-Associated Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Distinct Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin ("GRN") gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely…

  1. Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia…

  2. The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

  3. Bromocriptine-induced dystonia in patients with aphasia and hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Leiguarda, R; Merello, M; Sabe, L; Starkstein, S

    1993-11-01

    Five of seven patients with chronic nonfluent aphasia and hemiparesis due to a focal ischemic infarction developed painful hemidystonia during treatment with a high dose of bromocriptine. All seven patients had cortical damage, but four also had basal ganglia and one thalamic involvement. While lesion location did not differ between dystonic and nondystonic patients, the dystonic patients had more weakness than those without dystonia.

  4. Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3…

  5. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  6. Phoneme-Based Rehabilitation of Anomia in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Rosenbek, John C.; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Conway, Tim; Klenberg, Karen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of phonologic treatment for anomia in aphasia. We proposed that if treatment were directed at the level of the phonologic processor, opportunities for naming via a phonological route, as opposed to a strictly whole word route, would be enhanced, thereby improving naming. The participants, ten people with anomia…

  7. Analyzing Aphasia Data in a Multidimensional Symptom Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Elizabeth; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Moineau, Suzanne; Marangolo, Paola; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The utility of single-case vs. group studies has been debated in neuropsychology for many years. The purpose of the present study is to illustrate an alternative approach to group studies of aphasia, in which the same symptom dimensions that are commonly used to assign patients to classical taxonomies (fluency, naming, repetition, and…

  8. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

  9. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief…

  10. Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

  11. Speech Errors in Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gunawardena, Delani; Avants, Brian; Morgan, Brianna; Khan, Alea; Moore, Peachie; Gee, James; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    The nature and frequency of speech production errors in neurodegenerative disease have not previously been precisely quantified. In the present study, 16 patients with a progressive form of non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) were asked to tell a story from a wordless children's picture book. Errors in production were classified as either phonemic,…

  12. Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

  13. Prosodic Disturbance in Aphasia: Speech Timing versus Intonation Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddoh, S. Amebu

    2004-01-01

    Temporal control has often been suspected to be a critical factor in intonation production. In particular, disturbance in the production of fundamental frequency (F0) associated with intonation in patients with aphasia has been attributed to a primary underlying deficit in speech timing. The present study examined the speech timing abilities of…

  14. Script Templates: A Practical Approach to Script Training in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Rosalind C.; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Script training for aphasia involves repeated practice of relevant phrases and sentences that, when mastered, can potentially be used in other communicative situations. Although an increasingly popular approach, script development can be time-consuming. We provide a detailed summary of the evidence supporting this approach. We then…

  15. Script Training and Generalization for People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Samantha; Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects and generalization of a modified script training intervention, delivered partly via videoconferencing, on dialogue scripts that were produced by 2 individuals with aphasia. Method: Each participant was trained on 2 personally relevant scripts. Intervention sessions occurred 3 times per week, with a combination of…

  16. Donnees linguistiques, communication et aphasie (Linguistic Assumptions, Communication and Aphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand-Gelber, Regine

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses communication as a subject of psycholinguistic study, with reference to amnesiacal aphasia. The aphasic's problem is presented as a rupture of the communicative act, on the linguistic as well as on the extra-linguistic level. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  17. Cognition and Aphasia: A Discussion and a Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 13 right-handed, left hemisphere stroke patients with aphasia investigated the relationship between linguistic and nonlinguistic skills. No significant relationship was found between linguistic and nonlinguistic skills, and between nonlinguistic skills and age, education, or time post onset. Instead, individual profiles of…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

  19. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials. PMID:25932618

  20. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials.

  1. Chronic Broca's Aphasia Is Caused by Damage to Broca's and Wernicke's Areas.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Fillmore, Paul; Guo, Dazhou; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Despite being perhaps the most studied form of aphasia, the critical lesion location for Broca's aphasia has long been debated, and in chronic patients, cortical damage often extends far beyond Broca's area. In a group of 70 patients, we examined brain damage associated with Broca's aphasia using voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). We found that damage to the posterior portion of Broca's area, the pars opercularis, is associated with Broca's aphasia. However, several individuals with other aphasic patterns had considerable damage to pars opercularis, suggesting that involvement of this region is not sufficient to cause Broca's aphasia. When examining only individuals with pars opercularis damage, we found that patients with Broca's aphasia had greater damage in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG; roughly Wernicke's area) than those with other aphasia types. Using discriminant function analysis and logistic regression, based on proportional damage to the pars opercularis and Wernicke's area, to predict whether individuals had Broca's or another types of aphasia, over 95% were classified correctly. Our findings suggest that persons with Broca's aphasia have damage to both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, a conclusion that is incongruent with classical neuropsychology, which has rarely considered the effects of damage to both areas. PMID:25016386

  2. "Making a good time": the role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kyla; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda E; Howe, Tami

    2013-04-01

    Loss of friendship post-onset of aphasia is well documented, with reduced social network size and social isolation commonly reported. Because friendship has strong links to psychological well-being and health, increased knowledge about friendships of individuals with aphasia will have important clinical implications. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of 25 community dwelling individuals with chronic aphasia on the role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia. Thematic analysis of transcripts from semi-structured in-depth interviews revealed three over-arching themes relating to the role of friendship in participants' experience of life with aphasia: living with changes in friendships, good times together and support from friends, and the importance of stroke and aphasia friends. Overall, findings highlighted the valued role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia, while also providing evidence of how friendships change and evolve in both negative and positive ways following onset of aphasia. Clinicians are challenged to work creatively to address the role of friendship in life post-stroke in partnership with individuals with aphasia, their families, and friends.

  3. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  4. Transient Broca's aphasia as feature of an extradural abscess.

    PubMed

    Commondoor, Raghuram; Eisenhut, Michael; Fowler, Charlotte; Kirollos, Ramirez W; Nathwani, Nisha

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of extradural abscesses can be difficult and is often delayed. The case is presented of a 13-year-old girl who was afebrile and had episodes of expressive aphasia, with maintenance of awareness and understanding, lasting for 2-3 minutes and with normal neurologic examination in between. She was found to have a left frontal extradural abscess overlying the region of Broca's area (Brodmann area 44/45) on magnetic resonance imaging. An electroencephalogram showed continuous delta activity in the left frontotemporal region. She made a full recovery after surgical evacuation of pus, which upon culture grew Streptococcus milleri. The possible cause of transient aphasia in this condition is pressure-induced or inflammatory mediator-induced ischemia, with or without associated focal seizures. PMID:19068255

  5. Principles underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and its uses.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-06-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any condition that results in language impairment (Alzheimer's, autism, cerebellar lesions, developmental language disorders, mild cognitive impairment, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, vascular dementia, etc.). It has also been used for research purposes on non-brain-damaged unilingual and bilingual populations. By means of its 32 tasks, it assesses comprehension and production of implicit linguistic competence and metalinguistic knowledge (which provide indications for apposite rehabilitation strategies). Versions of the BAT are available for free download at www.mcgill.ca/linguistics/research/bat/.

  6. Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies. PMID:24966676

  7. Conversation Therapy for Agrammatism: Exploring the Therapeutic Process of Engagement and Learning by a Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: A recent systematic review of conversation training for communication partners of people with aphasia has shown that it is effective, and improves participation in conversation for people with chronic aphasia. Other research suggests that people with aphasia are better able to learn communication strategies in an environment…

  8. Theodor Meynert's contribution to classical 19th century aphasia studies.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, H A; Etlinger, S C

    1993-11-01

    Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) is traditionally considered the first to have described the features of, and the brain pathology underlying, impaired auditory comprehension and related symptoms. Although Wernicke (1874) clearly and repeatedly indicates his indebtedness to Theodor von Meynert (1833-1892), this is usually understood as an acknowledgment that Meynert taught Wernicke neuroanatomy (Eggert, 1977); Wernicke's own words in part support this interpretation. A more sophisticated historical analysis notes that, prior to Wernicke, both Johann Schmidt in 1871 and Charlton Bastian in 1869 had described the concept of receptive aphasia, but neither had supported their analyses with autopsy evidence as did Wernicke, thus not dislodging Wernicke's claim of priority. However, a virtually unknown work by Theodor von Meynert, published in 1866, has recently been rediscovered by us ["Ein Fall von Sprachstörung, anatomisch begründet." Medizinische Jahrbücher. XII Band der Zeitschrift der K. K. Gesellleschaft der Arzte in Wien, 22. Jahr. Pp. 152-189]. In this paper Meynert analyzes the anatomical basis for localizing the comprehension of language in the superior temporal gyrus, he argues that lesions in this area should (by analogy to Broca's earlier observations on language expression) cause impairments in language comprehension, and he presents a case of receptive aphasia with autopsy evidence of destruction of the superior temporal gyrus in the left hemisphere. The patient's aphasia was classic; impaired auditory comprehension, and fluent speech with paraphasias. It is clear that Meynert should be given historical credit for his work. PMID:8118673

  9. Theodor Meynert's contribution to classical 19th century aphasia studies.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, H A; Etlinger, S C

    1993-11-01

    Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) is traditionally considered the first to have described the features of, and the brain pathology underlying, impaired auditory comprehension and related symptoms. Although Wernicke (1874) clearly and repeatedly indicates his indebtedness to Theodor von Meynert (1833-1892), this is usually understood as an acknowledgment that Meynert taught Wernicke neuroanatomy (Eggert, 1977); Wernicke's own words in part support this interpretation. A more sophisticated historical analysis notes that, prior to Wernicke, both Johann Schmidt in 1871 and Charlton Bastian in 1869 had described the concept of receptive aphasia, but neither had supported their analyses with autopsy evidence as did Wernicke, thus not dislodging Wernicke's claim of priority. However, a virtually unknown work by Theodor von Meynert, published in 1866, has recently been rediscovered by us ["Ein Fall von Sprachstörung, anatomisch begründet." Medizinische Jahrbücher. XII Band der Zeitschrift der K. K. Gesellleschaft der Arzte in Wien, 22. Jahr. Pp. 152-189]. In this paper Meynert analyzes the anatomical basis for localizing the comprehension of language in the superior temporal gyrus, he argues that lesions in this area should (by analogy to Broca's earlier observations on language expression) cause impairments in language comprehension, and he presents a case of receptive aphasia with autopsy evidence of destruction of the superior temporal gyrus in the left hemisphere. The patient's aphasia was classic; impaired auditory comprehension, and fluent speech with paraphasias. It is clear that Meynert should be given historical credit for his work.

  10. Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

  11. Impact of Personal Relevance and Contextualization on Word-Picture Matching by People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Miechelle L.; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; Beukelman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of personal relevance and contextualization of images on the preferences and word-picture matching accuracy of people with severe aphasia. Method: Eight adults with aphasia performed 2 experimental tasks to reveal their preferences and accuracy during word-picture matching. The researchers used 3 types of visual…

  12. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  13. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  14. Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2011-01-01

    Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

  15. Linguistic and Neuropsychological Deficits in Crossed Conduction Aphasia: Report of Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Lisa; Marien, Peter; Poewe, Werner; Benke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the linguistic and neuropsychological findings in three right-handed patients with crossed conduction aphasia. Despite the location of the lesion in the right hemisphere, all patients displayed a combination of linguistic deficits typically found in conduction aphasia following analogous damage to the left hemisphere.…

  16. Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized…

  17. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

  18. Real-Time Comprehension of Wh- Movement in Aphasia: Evidence from Eyetracking while Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Choy, JungWon Janet; Thompson, Cynthia, K.

    2007-01-01

    Sentences with non-canonical wh- movement are often difficult for individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to understand (Carramazza & Zurif, 1976, inter alia). However, the explanation of this difficulty remains controversial, and little is known about how individuals with aphasia try to understand such sentences in real time. This study uses…

  19. Asking New Questions and Seeking New Answers: The Reality of Aphasia Practice in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Emerging policy in South Africa has had a marked impact on delivery of service by speech-language pathologists, particularly in the field of aphasia. This article describes major policy influences in the areas of language use, health, education, disability, and the elderly, which have had an impact on service delivery. Aphasia assessment and…

  20. Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

  1. Speech-Like and Non-Speech Lip Kinematics and Coordination in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background: In addition to the well-known linguistic processing impairments in aphasia, oro-motor skills and articulatory implementation of speech segments are reported to be compromised to some degree in most types of aphasia. Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the characteristics and coordination of lip movements in the production…

  2. Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

  3. A Comparison of Intention and Pantomime Gesture Treatment for Noun Retrieval in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Neina F.; Evans, Kelli; Raymer, Anastasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of intention gesture treatment (IGT) and pantomime gesture treatment (PGT) on word retrieval were compared in people with aphasia. Method: Four individuals with aphasia and word retrieval impairments subsequent to left-hemisphere stroke participated in a single-participant crossover treatment design. Each participant viewed…

  4. Nonlinguistic Learning in Individuals with Aphasia: Effects of Training Method and Stimulus Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to explore nonlinguistic learning ability in individuals with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method: Eighteen individuals with aphasia and 8 nonaphasic controls participated in this study. All participants completed 4 computerized,…

  5. Language Assessment of a Farsi-Norwegian Bilingual Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumanidi Knoph, Monica I.

    2011-01-01

    The increased occurrence of strokes combined with the high incidence of bilingualism in many regions of the world has led to an increasing number of bilingual adults with aphasia. The literature on bilingual aphasia shows the need for valid, comprehensive and reliable assessment tools for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In spite of a growing…

  6. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  7. The Auditory Comprehension of "Wh"-Questions in Aphasia: Support for the Intervener Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Shannon M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines 3 hypotheses about the processing of "wh"-questions in both neurologically healthy adults and adults with Broca's aphasia. Method: We used an eye tracking while listening method with 32 unimpaired participants (Experiment 1) and 8 participants with Broca's aphasia (Experiment 2). Accuracy, response time, and…

  8. Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

  9. Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

  10. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  11. An Exploration of Factors Affecting Performance of Adults with Aphasia on a Functional Communication Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Luke Marcus

    2013-01-01

    In traditional aphasia testing and treatment, clinicians administer a standardized aphasia test that measures language impairment, followed by a linguistic approach to treatment. Many clinicians have argued the need for emphasis on functional communication, and third party payers desire functional information to determine patient progress. This…

  12. Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence for within- and between-Language Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Method: Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant,…

  13. Exposed and Embedded Corrections in Aphasia Therapy: Issues of Voice and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially…

  14. Community-Based Resources for Persons with Aphasia and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Klein, K

    1996-01-01

    The article traces the emergence of associations for persons with aphasia and their families in Finland, Germany, Sweden, England, Japan, and the United States, and the subsequent formation of pan-national associations. Historical and current contributions of American associations to resources availableto persons with aphasia and their families are also explored. PMID:27620149

  15. A 3-Year Evolution of Linguistic Disorders in Aphasia after Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Visch-Brink, Evy G.

    2011-01-01

    Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is…

  16. A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

  17. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  18. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

  19. Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Miranda L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

  20. A MEG Investigation of Single-Word Auditory Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipse, Lauryn; Kearns, Kevin; Nicholas, Marjorie; Marantz, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether individuals with aphasia exhibit differences in the M350, an electrophysiological marker of lexical activation, compared with healthy controls. Method: Seven people with aphasia, 9 age-matched controls, and 10 younger controls completed an auditory lexical decision task while cortical activity was recorded with…

  1. Production Variability and Single Word Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Martin, Gwenyth

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate test-retest reliability of orthographic speech intelligibility testing in speakers with aphasia and AOS and to examine its relationship to the consistency of speaker and listener responses. Monosyllabic single word speech samples were recorded from 13 speakers with coexisting aphasia and AOS. These words were…

  2. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

  3. Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9…

  4. Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

  5. Using mobile technology with individuals with aphasia: native iPad features and everyday apps.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gretchen; Dittelman, Janice

    2014-02-01

    The use of mobile technology, including smartphones and tablet devices, is a growing trend among adults nationwide, and its potential use in aphasia rehabilitation has generated widespread interest. Despite this trend, adults living with disability are less likely than other adults to go online. Complicating things further, most adults living with aphasia come from a generation where computers and technology were not an integral part of their lives. Additionally, training adults with aphasia requires a different approach than training those in the same age bracket without a disability. This article describes the mobile technology program at the Adler Aphasia Center in Maywood, New Jersey. The goal of this program is to improve access to mobile technology for people with aphasia. The use of mobile devices is the focus of the article. Mobile technology concepts and skills needed to establish a strong foundation for successful iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) use are suggested. We discuss how apps may be used to support aphasia therapy with a focus on apps that are native to the iPad and on other apps that were not specifically developed for aphasia rehabilitation. Challenges in implementing a mobile technology program for people with aphasia and individual member success stories are included.

  6. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

  7. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

  8. C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients’ ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

  9. How Does Severity of Aphasia Influence Individual Responsiveness to Rehabilitation? Using Big Data to Understand Theories of Aphasia Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi

    2016-02-01

    Our ability to make great progress in delivering, optimizing, and predicting rehabilitation outcomes for individuals with aphasia is challenged by factors that influence rehabilitation outcomes. These include patient demographic factors such as age, education, and neurologic factors such as time poststroke, the site and size of the lesion, and the resulting severity of language impairment. Also variable across individuals is the type of treatment and its duration and intensity. This article examines the utility of big data analysis for understanding one of these factors, severity of impairment, and how individual responsiveness to rehabilitation is influenced by a patient's severity of language and cognitive impairment(s). Using examples from two studies and a larger data set, we show that when rehabilitation is tailored to an individual's specific level of impairment, severe and mild patients both show improvements in accuracy and latency. Furthermore, more severe patients tend to show substantial gains on targeted rehabilitation tasks as well as on standardized tests. These results provide support for recent reviews of aphasia rehabilitation studies in concluding that systematic aphasia rehabilitation is indeed effective, and importantly, severity is not a negative prognostic indicator for successful outcomes. PMID:26882364

  10. Acquired aphasia in children after surgical resection of left-thalamic tumors.

    PubMed

    Nass, R; Boyce, L; Leventhal, F; Levine, B; Allen, J; Maxfield, C; Salsberg, D; Sarno, M; George, A

    2000-09-01

    Five children (three males, two females; four right-, one left-handed; age range 6 to 14 years) who developed aphasia after gross-total excision of left predominantly thalamic tumors are reported. Three patients had Broca aphasia, one had mixed transcortical aphasia, and one patient had conduction aphasia. In the months after surgery, three children improved while receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy, although none recovered completely. Two patients with malignant tumors developed worsening aphasia when the tumor recurred, and later died. Two of three patients tested had visuospatial difficulties in addition to language deficits. Attention and executive functioning were affected in three of three patients tested. Memory, verbal and/or visual functioning, were affected in four of four patients tested. Both patients who were tested showed transient right hemineglect. Two of two patients tested were probably apraxic. The wide range of deficits in these children highlights the importance of the thalamus and other subcortical structures in developing cognition. PMID:11034450

  11. A case of mixed transcortical aphasia with intact naming.

    PubMed

    Heilman, K M; Tucker, D M; Valenstein, E

    1976-09-01

    Altholgh Lichtheim recognized that Wernicke's 'reflex arch' (primary auditory area, to Wernicke's area, to Broca's area, to primary motor area) was important for repetition, he recognized that other areas of the brain (for example, area of concepts or semantic area) must be important in comprehension and voluntary speech. He suggested that Wernicke's area (phonemic area) not only projected to Broca's area (as Wernicke suggested) but that it also projected to the area of concepts. A lesion of this latter pathway or in the area of concepts would produce a syndrome where repetition was intact but comprehension was impaired (e.g. transcortical sensory aphasia). Lichtheim also thought that the area of concepts projected directly to Broca's area and that voluntary speech was mediated by this pathway. Although Lichtheim's model could explain the mechanism underlying transcortical aphasia, his schema could not explain anomic aphasia. Unlike Lichtheim's schema, Kussmaul's schema suggested that the area of concepts projects back to Wernicke's area before projecting to Broca's area. With this schema, a patient with a hypothetical lesion which interrupted the pathway from the area of concepts to Wernicke's area (but did not interrupt the pathway from Wernicke's area to the area of concepts) should be anomic, with normal comprehension and repetition. In order for this latter schema to be plausible there should also be a lesion which interrupts the pathway from Wernicke's area to the area of concepts but does not interrupt the pathway which goes from the area of concepts to Wernicke's area. A patient with this hypothetical lesion should comprehend poorly; however, in spite of poor comprehension, naming and repetition should be intact. We report a patient who demonstrates poor comprehension with intact naming and repetition. This patient could also read aloud but could not comprehend written language. Not only could this patient name objects but he could demonstrate their use

  12. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients’ speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  13. Progranulin-associated primary progressive aphasia: a distinct phenotype?

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Warren, Jason D

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin (GRN) gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely impoverished propositional speech with anomia and prolonged word-finding pauses, impaired speech repetition most marked for sentences, and severely impaired verbal (with preserved spatial) short-term memory. There was a dissociated profile of performance on semantic processing tasks: visual semantic processing was intact, while within the verbal domain, verb comprehension was impaired and processing of nouns was intact on tasks requiring direct semantic processing but impaired on tasks requiring associative or inferential processing. Brain MRI showed asymmetric left cerebral atrophy particularly affecting the temporo-parietal junction, supero-lateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes. This case most closely resembles the PPA syndrome known as the logopenic/phonological aphasia variant (LPA) however there were also deficits of grammar and speech repetition suggesting an overlap with the progressive non-fluent aphasia (agrammatic) variant (PNFA). Certain prominent features of this case (in particular, the profile of semantic impairment) have not been emphasised in previous descriptions of LPA or PNFA, suggesting that GRN may cause an overlapping PPA syndrome but with a distinctive cognitive profile. This neuropsychological evidence suggests that GRN-PPA may result from damage involving the temporo-parietal junction and its functional connections in both the dorsal and ventral language networks, with implications for our understanding of language network pathophysiology.

  14. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients' speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  15. Mirror neuron system based therapy for aphasia rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenli; Ye, Qian; Ji, Xiangtong; Zhang, Sicong; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Qiumin; Cong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Bing; Xia, Yang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hand action observation training, i.e., mirror neuron system (MNS) based training, on language function of aphasic patients after stroke. In addition, to reveal the tentative mechanism underlying this effect. Methods: Six aphasic patients after stroke, meeting the criteria, undergo 3 weeks' training protocol (30 min per day, 6 days per week). Among them, four patients accepted an ABA training design, i.e., they implemented Protocol A (hand action observation combined with repetition) in the first and third weeks and carried out Protocol B (static object observation combined with repetition) in the second week. Conversely, for the other two patients, BAB training design was adopted, i.e., patients took Protocol B in the first and third weeks and accepted Protocol A in the second week. Picture naming test, western aphasia battery (WAB) and Token Test were applied to evaluate the changes of language function before and after each week's training. Furthermore, two subjects (one aphasic patient and one healthy volunteer) attended a functional MRI (fMRI) experiment, by which we tried to reveal the mechanism underlying possible language function changes after training. Results: Compared with static object observation and repetition training (Protocol B), hand action observation and repetition training (Protocol A) effectively improved most aspects of the language function in all six patients, as demonstrated in the picture naming test, subtests of oral language and aphasia quotient (AQ) of WAB. In addition, the fMRI experiment showed that Protocol A induced more activations in the MNS of one patient and one healthy control when compared to Protocol B. Conclusion: The mirror neuron based therapy may facilitate the language recovery for aphasic patients and this, to some extent, provides a novel direction of rehabilitation for aphasia patients. PMID:26579046

  16. Online Sentence Reading in People With Aphasia: Evidence From Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Knilans, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a lot of evidence that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding structurally complex sentences (e.g., object clefts) than simpler sentences (subject clefts). However, subject clefts also occur more frequently in English than object clefts. Thus, it is possible that both structural complexity and frequency affect how people with aphasia understand these structures. Method Nine people with aphasia and 8 age-matched controls participated in the study. The stimuli consisted of 24 object cleft and 24 subject cleft sentences. The task was eye tracking during reading, which permits a more fine-grained analysis of reading performance than measures such as self-paced reading. Results As expected, controls had longer reading times for critical regions in object cleft sentences compared with subject cleft sentences. People with aphasia showed the predicted effects of structural frequency. Effects of structural complexity in people with aphasia did not emerge on their first pass through the sentence but were observed when they were rereading critical regions of complex sentences. Conclusions People with aphasia are sensitive to both structural complexity and structural frequency when reading. However, people with aphasia may use different reading strategies than controls when confronted with relatively infrequent and complex sentence structures. PMID:26383779

  17. Lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jin; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Global aphasia without hemiparesis is a striking stroke syndrome involving language impairment without the typically manifested contralateral hemiparesis, which is usually seen in patients with global aphasia following large left perisylvian lesions. The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific areas for lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by retrospectively studying the brain magnetic resonance images of six patients with global aphasia without hemiparesis to define global aphasia without hemiparesis-related stroke lesions before overlapping the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Lesions where the images of more than three patients overlapped were considered significant. The overlapped global aphasia without hemiparesis related stroke lesions of six patients revealed that the significantly involved anatomical lesions were as follows: frontal lobe, sub-gyral, sub-lobar, extra-nuclear, corpus callosum, and inferior frontal gyrus, while caudate, claustrum, middle frontal gyrus, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, uncus, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal, amygdala, and subcallosal gyrus were seen less significantly involved. This study is the first to demonstrate the heterogeneous anatomical involvement in global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images. PMID:25657725

  18. Expert versus proxy rating of verbal communicative ability of people with aphasia after stroke.

    PubMed

    de Jong-Hagelstein, Marjolein; Kros, Lieke; Lingsma, Hester F; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Visch-Brink, Evy G

    2012-11-01

    In randomized clinical trials of aphasia treatment, a functional outcome measure like the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), administered by speech-language therapists, is often used. However, the agreement between this expert rating and the judgment of the proxy about the quality of the daily life communication of the person with aphasia is largely unknown. We examined the association between ANELT scores by speech-language therapists and proxy judgments on the Partner Communication Questionnaire both at 3 and 6 months in 39 people with aphasia after stroke. We also determined which factors affected the level of agreement between expert and proxy judgment of the communicative ability at 6 months in 53 people with aphasia. We found moderate agreement (at 3 months r = .662; p = < .0001 and at 6 months r = .565; p = .0001), with proxies rating slightly higher than experts. Less severe aphasia, measured with the Aphasia Severity Rating Scale, was associated with better agreement. In conclusion, although proxies were slightly more positive than experts, we found moderate agreement between expert and proxy rating of verbal communicative ability of people with aphasia after stroke, especially in milder cases.

  19. A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

  20. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task.

    PubMed

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory. Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success. In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

  1. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task.

    PubMed

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory. Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success. In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation.

  2. Connected speech production in three variants of primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Maya L.; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Jarrold, William; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive deficits isolated to speech and/or language, and can be classified into non-fluent, semantic and logopenic variants based on motor speech, linguistic and cognitive features. The connected speech of patients with primary progressive aphasia has often been dichotomized simply as ‘fluent’ or ‘non-fluent’, however fluency is a multidimensional construct that encompasses features such as speech rate, phrase length, articulatory agility and syntactic structure, which are not always impacted in parallel. In this study, our first objective was to improve the characterization of connected speech production in each variant of primary progressive aphasia, by quantifying speech output along a number of motor speech and linguistic dimensions simultaneously. Secondly, we aimed to determine the neuroanatomical correlates of changes along these different dimensions. We recorded, transcribed and analysed speech samples for 50 patients with primary progressive aphasia, along with neurodegenerative and normal control groups. Patients were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based morphometry was used to identify regions where atrophy correlated significantly with motor speech and linguistic features. Speech samples in patients with the non-fluent variant were characterized by slow rate, distortions, syntactic errors and reduced complexity. In contrast, patients with the semantic variant exhibited normal rate and very few speech or syntactic errors, but showed increased proportions of closed class words, pronouns and verbs, and higher frequency nouns, reflecting lexical retrieval deficits. In patients with the logopenic variant, speech rate (a common proxy for fluency) was intermediate between the other two variants, but distortions and syntactic errors were less common than in the non-fluent variant, while lexical access was less impaired than in the semantic variant. Reduced speech rate

  3. Thinking Outside the Stroke: Treating Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    PubMed Central

    Khayum, Becky; Wieneke, Christina; Rogalski, Emily; Robinson, Jaimie; O'Hara, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the symptoms, cause, treatment potential, and supportive services for individuals diagnosed with Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). Although it is possible to regain certain cognitive abilities with stroke or brain injury, in PPA, language abilities worsen and other symptoms emerge with time, shortening the lifespan. The goal of speech therapy for PPA is not to regain lost language, but rather to maximize communication for as long as possible. In this article, we offer information and tools for speech-language pathologists to help people living with PPA achieve these goals and improve overall quality of life. PMID:26500714

  4. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  5. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  6. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere.

  7. Historical aphasia cases: "Tan-tan", "Vot-vot", and "Cré nom!".

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Caramelli, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    We describe three cases of aphasia in patients who were internationally famous historical personalities, such as the case of Mr. Leborgne ("Tan") published by Paul Broca in 1861, which became a reference for the study of aphasias. The other cases described here are those of the Russian revolutionary and politician Vladimir Ilyitch Ulianov (Lenin) ("Vot-vot") and the French poet Charles Baudelaire ("Cré nom!"). Besides their historical relevance and the clinical picture of aphasia, these three cases share as a common feature the occurrence of speech automatisms or stereotypes.

  8. Effect of propranolol on naming in chronic Broca's aphasia with anomia.

    PubMed

    Beversdorf, David Q; Sharma, Umesh K; Phillips, Nicole N; Notestine, Margaret A; Slivka, Andrew P; Friedman, Norman M; Schneider, Sandra L; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Hillier, Ashleigh

    2007-08-01

    Previous research suggests that the noradrenergic system modulates flexibility of access to the lexical-semantic network, with propranolol benefiting normal subjects in lexical-semantic problem solving tasks. Patients with Broca's aphasia with anomia have impaired ability to access appropriate verbal output for a given visual stimulus in a naming task. Therefore, we tested naming in a pilot study of chronic Broca's aphasia patients with anomia after propranolol and after placebo in a double-blinded crossover manner. Naming was better after propranolol than after placebo, suggesting a potential benefit from propranolol in chronic Broca's aphasia with anomia. Larger follow-up studies are necessary to further investigate this effect.

  9. Group effects of instrumentality and name relation on action naming in bilingual anomic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in sentences in either language. However, there was a negative effect of verb-noun name relation on instrumental verb production in English only. Results confirm intact verb lemma retrieval for this group of bilingual individuals with anomic aphasia, but a breakdown at the level of accessing the phonological or lexical form.

  10. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  11. Motor Speech Disorders Associated with Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and conditions that overlap with it can be accompanied by motor speech disorders. Recognition and understanding of motor speech disorders can contribute to a fuller clinical understanding of PPA and its management as well as its localization and underlying pathology. Aims To review the types of motor speech disorders that may occur with PPA, its primary variants, and its overlap syndromes (progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome, corticobasal syndrome, motor neuron disease), as well as with primary progressive apraxia of speech. Main Contribution The review should assist clinicians' and researchers' understanding of the relationship between motor speech disorders and PPA and its major variants. It also highlights the importance of recognizing neurodegenerative apraxia of speech as a condition that can occur with little or no evidence of aphasia. Conclusion Motor speech disorders can occur with PPA. Their recognition can contribute to clinical diagnosis and management of PPA and to understanding and predicting the localization and pathology associated with PPA variants and conditions that can overlap with them. PMID:25309017

  12. Co-verbal gestures among speakers with aphasia: Influence of aphasia severity, linguistic and semantic skills, and hemiplegia on gesture employment in oral discourse

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po; Wat, Watson Ka-Chun; Lai, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The use of co-verbal gestures is common in human communication and has been reported to assist word retrieval and to facilitate verbal interactions. This study systematically investigated the impact of aphasia severity, integrity of semantic processing, and hemiplegia on the use of co-verbal gestures, with reference to gesture forms and functions, by 131 normal speakers, 48 individuals with aphasia and their controls. All participants were native Cantonese speakers. It was found that the severity of aphasia and verbal-semantic impairment was associated with significantly more co-verbal gestures. However, there was no relationship between right-sided hemiplegia and gesture employment. Moreover, significantly more gestures were employed by the speakers with aphasia, but about 10% of them did not gesture. Among those who used gestures, content-carrying gestures, including iconic, metaphoric, deictic gestures, and emblems, served the function of enhancing language content and providing information additional to the language content. As for the non-content carrying gestures, beats were used primarily for reinforcing speech prosody or guiding speech flow, while non-identifiable gestures were associated with assisting lexical retrieval or with no specific functions. The above findings would enhance our understanding of the use of various forms of co-verbal gestures in aphasic discourse production and their functions. Speech-language pathologists may also refer to the current annotation system and the results to guide clinical evaluation and remediation of gestures in aphasia. PMID:26186256

  13. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    PubMed

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation.

  14. What's in a sentence? The crucial role of lexical content in sentence production in nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wilshire, Carolyn E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lexical content on sentence production in nonfluent aphasia. Five participants with nonfluent aphasia, four with fluent aphasia, and eight controls were asked to describe pictured events in subject-verb-object sentences. Experiment 1 manipulated speed of lexical retrieval by varying the frequency of sentence nouns. Nonfluent participants' accuracy was consistently higher for sentences commencing with a high- than with a low-frequency subject noun, even when errors on those nouns were themselves excluded. This was not the case for the fluent participants. Experiment 2 manipulated the semantic relationship between subject and object nouns. The nonfluent participants produced sentences less accurately when they contained related than when they contained unrelated lexical items. The fluent participants exhibited the opposite trend. We propose that individuals with nonfluent aphasia are disproportionately reliant on activated conceptual-lexical representations to drive the sentence generation process, an idea we call the content drives structure (COST) hypothesis. PMID:24512548

  15. "Waiting on the words": procedures and outcomes of a drama class for individuals with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; Oehring, Ann K; Whipple, Keith; Rubenstein, Ted

    2011-08-01

    Drama therapy offers an authentic medium through which people with aphasia can interact and share their experiences. We describe the rationale and procedures of a drama class, informed by the principles and practices of drama therapy, in which individuals with chronic aphasia conceptualized, wrote, and produced a play addressing their experiences of having, living with, and coping with the effects of aphasia. Sessions were cofacilitated by a speech-language pathologist and a drama therapist. We describe the drama activities and techniques in each of four distinct stages of a drama therapy process through which the group transitioned. We also summarize patient-reported outcomes of a representational group of seven participants. Subscales of the Burden of Stroke Scale and the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia were administered before and after participation in the 18-week class. Means, standard deviations, and effect sizes were computed. Results indicated perceived improvements in both communication and mood.

  16. Unusual Recovery of Aphasia in a Polyglot Iranian Patient after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Motamed, Mohammad R.; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Nazanin; Ghoreishi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from a lesion in the cerebral cortex. In this case report, we present a polyglot patient who recovered from aphasia by speaking his newly active learned language Case Report A 69 years old male referred with acute onset right hemiparesis and global aphasia. After imaging, he treated with 75 mg r-TPA (0.9 mg/kg). After the fourth day of hospitalization, he could name some objects and some short phrases but interestingly only in French language (although his mother language was Persian). Discussion In our patient, recovery was first in the last learned language and his learning memory was recovered earlier than his native languages. As in our case, we can expect to have different recovery theory that means active learning language could be the first part of recovery in aphasia. PMID:25337377

  17. "Waiting on the words": procedures and outcomes of a drama class for individuals with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; Oehring, Ann K; Whipple, Keith; Rubenstein, Ted

    2011-08-01

    Drama therapy offers an authentic medium through which people with aphasia can interact and share their experiences. We describe the rationale and procedures of a drama class, informed by the principles and practices of drama therapy, in which individuals with chronic aphasia conceptualized, wrote, and produced a play addressing their experiences of having, living with, and coping with the effects of aphasia. Sessions were cofacilitated by a speech-language pathologist and a drama therapist. We describe the drama activities and techniques in each of four distinct stages of a drama therapy process through which the group transitioned. We also summarize patient-reported outcomes of a representational group of seven participants. Subscales of the Burden of Stroke Scale and the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia were administered before and after participation in the 18-week class. Means, standard deviations, and effect sizes were computed. Results indicated perceived improvements in both communication and mood. PMID:21968559

  18. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Aphasia: The Case of Mr. C

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Rogers, Lynn M.; Stinear, James; Wang, Xue; Harvey, Richard L.; Parrish, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the ethical challenges that arose from investigating a novel treatment procedure, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in a research participant with aphasia. Method First, we reviewed the current evidence supporting the use of tDCS in aphasia research, highlighting methodological gaps in our knowledge of tDCS. Second, we examined the case of Mr. C, a person with chronic aphasia who participated in a research protocol investigating the impact of tDCS on aphasia treatment. Results We describe the procedures that he underwent and the resulting behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes bed. Finally, we share the steps that were taken to balance beneficence and nonmaleficence, and to ensure Mr. C’s autonomy. Conclusion: Researchers must consider not only the scientific integrity of their studies, but also potential ethical issues and consequences to the research participants. PMID:23340067

  19. Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-06-01

    Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

  20. Talking to Individuals with Aphasia: A Challenge for the Rehabilitation Team.

    PubMed

    Holland, A L; Halpery, A S

    1996-01-01

    This article provides the rehabilitation team with some tips concerning how to maximize their chances for successful communication with individuals who have aphasia. These ideas can be applied across the range of settings in which health care is provided. The notions described here can increase the effectiveness of interpersonal communication with aphasictalkers, as well as helpto improve the quality of life after aphasia. PMID:27620150

  1. [Verbal ability of Alzheimer's disease patients and very elderly control patients using the Aachen aphasia test].

    PubMed

    Ecklin, R; Schönenberger, P M

    1992-01-01

    We assessed language function, using the Aachen aphasia test (AAT), in 14 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 6 control patients. Aphasia did not occur in control patients, but in 11 of 14 Alzheimer's disease patients. Impairment of object naming was the most prevalent abnormality. Performance in AAT subtests repetition, written language, object naming, comprehension and token test correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State scores.

  2. Spared musical abilities in a conductor with global aphasia and ideomotor apraxia.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, A; Capitani, E

    1985-01-01

    A conductor suddenly developed global aphasia and severe ideomotor apraxia as a result of an infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery. Although aphasia and apraxia remained unchanged during the following six years, his musical capacities were largely spared and he was still able to conduct. This case provides some evidence in favour of right hemisphere dominance for music. Images PMID:2582094

  3. Aphasia secondary to tuberculosis: a review of a nineteenth-century case report by Booth and Curtis (1893).

    PubMed

    Shafi, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The topic of aphasia secondary to tuberculosis deserves attention for two reasons: first, for better understanding rare etiologies of aphasia in medical history; and secondly, for initiating a multidisciplinary discussion relevant to aphasiologists, neurologists, pathologists, and clinicians generally. This article will focus on clinical observations of tuberculosis-related aphasia in the nineteenth century, highlighting a noteworthy case report presented by Booth and Curtis (1893).

  4. [A case of conduction aphasia due to small infarction in the left parietal lobe].

    PubMed

    Ibayashi, Katsuhiko

    2002-08-01

    This is a report on the patient with conduction aphAsia due to small infarction in the left parietal lobe. The patient is a right-handed man aged 74, who developed a speech disorder and mild paralysis of the right hand on November 13. 1996. A CT scan showed a small low-density in the supramarginal gyrus of the left parietal lobe. Standard Language Test of aphasia (SLTA) conducted at five days after admission to the hospital showed preserved auditory comprehension and phonemic para-aphasia symptoms with respect to volitional speech, naming, reading aloud and repetition. Frequent self-correction was also observed while repetition was not remarkably impaired. A test at three months after the onset revealed generally fluent speech, while there still remained occasional phonemic para-aphasia and self-correction for the speech disruption. Three years and four months later, most of the aphasic syndromes disappeared, although the patient claimed he still had difficulty in speaking. This case suggests that conduction aphasia can be caused by a lesion, though small, located in arcuate fibers of the cerebrum. The characteristics are phonemic para-aphasia with respect to general speech functions as well as self-correction toward target words. The indicated that lesions in the pathway connecting Broca's area and Wernicke's area causes difficulties in selecting accurate phonemes due to a malfunctioning interface between the two areas. PMID:12701218

  5. Revealing and quantifying the impaired phonological analysis underpinning impaired comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds areas in the superior temporal cortex responsive to phonological stimuli. However behavioural evidence to support the link between a phonological analysis deficit and auditory comprehension has not been yet shown. This study extends seminal work by Blumstein, Baker, and Goodglass (1977) to investigate the relationship between acoustic-phonological perception, measured through phonological discrimination, and auditory comprehension in a case series of Wernicke's aphasia participants. A novel adaptive phonological discrimination task was used to obtain reliable thresholds of the phonological perceptual distance required between nonwords before they could be discriminated. Wernicke's aphasia participants showed significantly elevated thresholds compared to age and hearing matched control participants. Acoustic-phonological thresholds correlated strongly with auditory comprehension abilities in Wernicke's aphasia. In contrast, nonverbal semantic skills showed no relationship with auditory comprehension. The results are evaluated in the context of recent neurobiological models of language and suggest that impaired acoustic-phonological perception underlies the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia and favour models of language which propose a leftward asymmetry in phonological analysis.

  6. A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families.

  7. A new modified listening span task to enhance validity of working memory assessment for people with and without aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) are an important subset of cognitive processing deficits associated with aphasia. However, there are serious limitations to research on WM in aphasia largely due to the lack of an established valid measure of WM impairment for this population. The aim of the current study was to address shortcomings of previous measures by developing and empirically evaluating a novel WM task with a sentence-picture matching processing component designed to circumvent confounds inherent in existing measures of WM in aphasia. The novel WM task was presented to persons with (n = 27) and without (n = 33) aphasia. Results demonstrated high concurrent validity of a novel WM task. Individuals with aphasia performed significantly worse on all conditions of the WM task compared to individuals without aphasia. Different patterns of performance across conditions were observed for the two groups. Additionally, WM capacity was significantly related to auditory comprehension abilities in individuals with mild aphasia but not those with moderate aphasia. Strengths of the novel WM task are that it allows for differential control for length versus complexity of verbal stimuli and indexing of the relative influence of each, minimizes metalinguistic requirements, enables control for complexity of processing components, allows participants to respond with simple gestures or verbally, and eliminates reading requirements. Results support the feasibility and validity of using a novel task to assess WM in individuals with and without aphasia. PMID:24986153

  8. A set of observational measures for rating support and participation in conversation between adults with aphasia and their conversation partners.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Aura; Winckel, Joanne; Black, Sandra; Duchan, Judith Felson; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Square, Paula

    2004-01-01

    Conversation partners of individuals with aphasia, including health care professionals, families, and others, play a role that is as important for communication as the language disorder suffered by individuals with aphasia. Two complementary measures designed to capture elements of conversation between adults with aphasia and their speaking conversation partners have been developed. The first measure provides an index of the conversation partner's skill in providing conversational support. The second provides an index of the level of participation in conversation by the person with aphasia. This article describes the development of the measures, including preliminary psychometric data, and discusses applications. PMID:14872401

  9. Disentangling the web: neologistic perseverative errors in jargon aphasia.

    PubMed

    Moses, Melanie S; Nickels, Lyndsey A; Sheard, Christine

    2004-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between the neologisms and perseverative errors produced by KVH, a man with severe neologistic jargon aphasia. Detailed examination of KVH's level of language processing breakdown revealed mild difficulties with phonological encoding and severe difficulties accessing the lexical form of the word. Many of KVH's neologisms contained phonemes perseverated from previous neologisms, suggesting an integral relationship between the production of neologisms and the perseveration of phonemes. Furthermore, KVH's patterns of whole word (total)and phonological (blended) perseverations reflected his proposed underlying language processing deficits, consistent with recent literature on perseveration (e.g.,Cohen and Dehaene, 1998). However, the simple binary distinction oftotalandblendedperseveration is proposed to be somewhat limited for understanding the underlying nature of KVH's complex neologistic errors. Possible explanations regarding the mechanisms underlying the production of KVH's neologistic and perseverative errors also are discussed.

  10. Brain contusion with aphasia following an ice hockey injury.

    PubMed

    Degen, Ryan M; Fink, Matthew E; Callahan, Lisa; Fibel, Kenton H; Ramsay, Jim; Kelly, Bryan T

    2016-09-01

    Head injuries are relatively common in ice hockey, with the majority represented by concussions, a form of mild traumatic brain injury. More severe head injuries are rare since the implementation of mandatory helmet use in the 1960s. We present a case of a 27 year-old male who sustained a traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage with an associated subdural hematoma resulting after being struck by a puck shot at high velocity. The patient presented with expressive aphasia, with no other apparent neurologic deficits. Acutely, he was successfully treated with observation and serial neuroimaging studies ensuring an absence of hematoma expansion. After a stable clinical picture following 24 hours of observation, the patient was discharged and managed with outpatient speech therapy with full resolution of symptoms and return to play 3 months later. We will outline the patient presentation and pertinent points in the management of acute head injuries in athletes. PMID:27074595

  11. The language-gesture connection: Evidence from aphasia.

    PubMed

    Dipper, Lucy; Pritchard, Madeleine; Morgan, Gary; Cocks, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of evidence from cross-linguistic and developmental studies converges to suggest that co-speech iconic gesture mirrors language. This paper aims to identify whether gesture reflects impaired spoken language in a similar way. Twenty-nine people with aphasia (PWA) and 29 neurologically healthy control participants (NHPs) produced a narrative discourse, retelling the story of a cartoon video. Gesture and language were analysed in terms of semantic content and structure for two key motion events. The aphasic data showed an influence on gesture from lexical choices but no corresponding clausal influence. Both the groups produced gesture that matched the semantics of the spoken language and gesture that did not, although there was one particular gesture-language mismatch (semantically "light" verbs paired with semantically richer gesture) that typified the PWA narratives. These results indicate that gesture is both closely related to spoken language impairment and compensatory. PMID:26169504

  12. [Aphasia in a polyglot: description and neuropsychological course].

    PubMed

    Martinell-Gispert-Saúch, M; Gil-Saladié, D; Delgado-González, M

    1997-04-01

    We present a case of aphasia due to an ischaemic lesion in the left temporo-occipital region of the brain of a 60 year old right-handed polyglot. Mother tongues: French, Italian, Arabic. Educated at school in English. Languages learnt as an adult: German, Portuguese, Spanish. Language habitually spoken prior to illness: Spanish. His language disorder was of non-fluent type and progressed to an anomic disorder. The non-parallel recovery of languages led to an initial and predominant recovery of English (language at school) followed by French (his first language). This type of non-parallel recovery may be compatible with the inhibition-disinhibition mechanism hypothesis. This would mean that the languages of least recovery are inhibited by raising the threshold of some circuits while still permitting comprehension. PMID:9172921

  13. Grammatical category-specific deficits in bilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Hernàndez, Mireia; Caño, Agnés; Costa, Albert; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi

    2008-10-01

    We report the naming performance of an early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilingual (JPG) suffering from Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). JPG's performance revealed a grammatical category-specific deficit, with worse performance in naming verbs than nouns. This dissociation was present in oral and written naming and in his two languages, and it seems to stem from damage to, at least, the lexical level. Despite the fact that JPG's performance was qualitatively very similar across languages, his second language seemed to be more affected than his first language. These results indicate that the cortical organization of the two languages of highly proficient bilinguals follow similar organizational principles, one of this principles being grammatical class.

  14. The language–gesture connection: Evidence from aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dipper, Lucy; Pritchard, Madeleine; Morgan, Gary; Cocks, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A significant body of evidence from cross-linguistic and developmental studies converges to suggest that co-speech iconic gesture mirrors language. This paper aims to identify whether gesture reflects impaired spoken language in a similar way. Twenty-nine people with aphasia (PWA) and 29 neurologically healthy control participants (NHPs) produced a narrative discourse, retelling the story of a cartoon video. Gesture and language were analysed in terms of semantic content and structure for two key motion events. The aphasic data showed an influence on gesture from lexical choices but no corresponding clausal influence. Both the groups produced gesture that matched the semantics of the spoken language and gesture that did not, although there was one particular gesture–language mismatch (semantically “light” verbs paired with semantically richer gesture) that typified the PWA narratives. These results indicate that gesture is both closely related to spoken language impairment and compensatory. PMID:26169504

  15. Friends and Foes in the Lexicon: Homophone Naming in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Erica L.; Chen, Qi; Verkuilen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The study of homophones—words with different meanings that sound the same--has great potential to inform models of language production. Of particular relevance is a phenomenon termed frequency inheritance, where a low frequency word (e.g., deer) is produced more fluently than would be expected based on its frequency characteristics, presumably because of shared phonology with a high-frequency homophone counterpart (e.g., dear). However, prior studies have been inconsistent in showing frequency inheritance. To explain this inconsistency, we propose a dual nature account of homophony: a high-frequency counterpart exerts two counterposing effects on a low frequency homophone target during the two main stages of naming: (1) a detrimental impact during semantically-driven lexical retrieval; (2) a beneficial impact during phonological retrieval. In a study of naming in participants with chronic aphasia followed by computational investigations, we find strong evidence for the dual nature account of homophony. PMID:25329091

  16. [Aphasia in a polyglot: description and neuropsychological course].

    PubMed

    Martinell-Gispert-Saúch, M; Gil-Saladié, D; Delgado-González, M

    1997-04-01

    We present a case of aphasia due to an ischaemic lesion in the left temporo-occipital region of the brain of a 60 year old right-handed polyglot. Mother tongues: French, Italian, Arabic. Educated at school in English. Languages learnt as an adult: German, Portuguese, Spanish. Language habitually spoken prior to illness: Spanish. His language disorder was of non-fluent type and progressed to an anomic disorder. The non-parallel recovery of languages led to an initial and predominant recovery of English (language at school) followed by French (his first language). This type of non-parallel recovery may be compatible with the inhibition-disinhibition mechanism hypothesis. This would mean that the languages of least recovery are inhibited by raising the threshold of some circuits while still permitting comprehension.

  17. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan, Waters, Dede, Michaud, & Reddy, 2007; Haarmann, Just, & Carpenter, 1997) propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, and two versions of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH), in a computational framework for sentence processing (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) implemented in ACT-R (Anderson, Byrne, Douglass, Lebiere, & Qin, 2004). The assumption of slowed processing is operationalized as slow procedural memory, so that each processing action is performed slower than normal, and intermittent deficiency as extra noise in the procedural memory, so that the parsing steps are more noisy than normal. We operationalize the TDH as an absence of trace information in the parse tree. To test the predictions of the models implementing these theories, we use the data from a German sentence-picture matching study reported in Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011). The data consist of offline (sentence-picture matching accuracies and response times) and online (eye fixation proportions) measures. From among the models considered, the model assuming that both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency are present emerges as the best model of sentence processing difficulty in aphasia. The modeling of individual differences suggests that, if we assume that patients have both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, they

  18. Anomia training and brain stimulation in chronic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cotelli, Maria; Fertonani, Anna; Miozzo, Antonio; Rosini, Sandra; Manenti, Rosa; Padovani, Alessandro; Ansaldo, Ana Ines; Cappa, Stefano F; Miniussi, Carlo

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies have reported enhanced performance on language tasks induced by non-invasive brain stimulation, i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in patients with aphasia due to stroke or Alzheimer's disease (AD). The first part of this article reviews brain stimulation studies related to language recovery in aphasic patients. The second part reports results from a pilot study with three chronic stroke patients who had non-fluent aphasia, where real or placebo rTMS was immediately followed by 25 minutes of individualised speech therapy. Real rTMS consisted of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 8/9) for 25 minutes. Each patient underwent a total of four weeks of intervention. P1 underwent four weeks of real rTMS (5 days/week) where individualised speech therapy was provided for 25 minutes immediately following each rTMS session. P2 and P3 each underwent two weeks of placebo rTMS, followed immediately by individualised speech therapy; then two weeks of real rTMS, followed immediately by individualised speech therapy. Assessments took place at 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks post-entry/baseline testing. Relative to entry/baseline testing, a significant improvement in object naming was observed at all testing times, from two weeks post-intervention in real rTMS plus speech therapy, or placebo rTMS plus speech therapy. Our findings suggest beneficial effects of targeted behavioural training in combination with brain stimulation in chronic aphasic patients. However, further work is required in order to verify whether optimal combination parameters (rTMS alone or speech therapy alone) and length of rTMS treatment may be found.

  19. Beyond the temporal pole: limbic memory circuit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rachel H; Wong, Stephanie; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M

    2014-07-01

    Despite accruing evidence for relative preservation of episodic memory in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (previously semantic dementia), the neural basis for this remains unclear, particularly in light of their well-established hippocampal involvement. We recently investigated the Papez network of memory structures across pathological subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and demonstrated severe degeneration of all relay nodes, with the anterior thalamus in particular emerging as crucial for intact episodic memory. The present study investigated the status of key components of Papez circuit (hippocampus, mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus, cingulate cortex) and anterior temporal cortex using volumetric and quantitative cell counting methods in pathologically-confirmed cases with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (n = 8; 61-83 years; three males), behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with TDP pathology (n = 9; 53-82 years; six males) and healthy controls (n = 8, 50-86 years; four males). Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia cases with TDP pathology were selected because of the association between the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and TDP pathology. Our findings revealed that the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia show similar degrees of anterior thalamic atrophy. The mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail were preserved in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia but were significantly atrophic in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Importantly, atrophy in the anterior thalamus and mild progressive atrophy in the body of the hippocampus emerged as the main memory circuit regions correlated with increasing dementia severity in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Quantitation of neuronal populations in the cingulate cortices confirmed the selective loss of anterior cingulate

  20. Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2011-01-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

  1. Motivating for Infrastructure Change: Toward a Communicatively Accessible, Participation-Based Stroke Care System for All Those Affected by Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Aura; LeBlanc, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for changing the base upon which healthcare services for individuals with stroke and aphasia can be provided. It summarizes the interaction between the Aphasia Institute and the West Greater Toronto Stroke Network who worked together to effect meaningful change. A set of guidelines is provided. (Contains…

  2. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  3. "That Doesn't Translate": The Role of Evidence-Based Practice in Disempowering Speech Pathologists in Acute Aphasia Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Abby; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; O'Halloran, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: An evidence-practice gap has been identified in current acute aphasia management practice, with the provision of services to people with aphasia in the acute hospital widely considered in the literature to be inconsistent with best-practice recommendations. The reasons for this evidence-practice gap are unclear; however, speech…

  4. Production of Graphic Symbol Sentences by Individuals with Aphasia: Efficacy of a Computer-Based Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Rajinder; Corwin, Melinda; Hayes, Summer

    2005-01-01

    The study employed a single-subject multiple baseline design to examine the ability of 9 individuals with severe Broca's aphasia or global aphasia to produce graphic symbol sentences of varying syntactical complexity using a software program that turns a computer into a speech output communication device. The sentences ranged in complexity from…

  5. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  6. The Influence of Phonomotor Treatment on Word Retrieval Abilities in 26 Individuals with Chronic Aphasia: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Oelke, Megan; Brookshire, Carmel Elizabeth; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of aphasia therapy should be to achieve gains in function that generalize to untrained exemplars and daily conversation. Anomia is one of the most disabling features of aphasia. The predominantly lexical/semantic approaches used to treat anomia have low potential for generalization due to the orthogonality of semantic…

  7. An Integrated Approach for Treating Discourse in Aphasia: Bridging the Gap between Language Impairment and Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A primary goal of aphasia intervention is to improve everyday communication. Although a large body of research focuses on treatment generalization, transfer of learning to real-world interactions involving discourse does not always occur. The goal of an integrated discourse treatment for aphasia (IDTA) approach is to facilitate such…

  8. Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

  9. Using Computers to Enable Self-Management of Aphasia Therapy Exercises for Word Finding: The Patient and Carer Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…

  10. The Participants' Perspective: How Biographic-Narrative Intervention Influences Identity Negotiation and Quality of Life in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsten, Sabine; Schimpf, Erika J.; Konradi, Jürgen; Keilmann, Annerose; Hardering, Friedericke

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with aphasia experience a pronounced decrease in quality of life (QoL). Beyond that identity negotiation is hindered, which is crucial for QoL. Biographic-narrative approaches use life story telling to support identity (re)development after disruptive events like stroke. Because of the language deficits inherent in aphasia such…

  11. Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca’s area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca’s and global aphasia

  12. Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

    2013-11-01

    Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca's area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca's and global aphasia

  13. Frontal dynamic aphasia in progressive supranuclear palsy: Distinguishing between generation and fluent sequencing of novel thoughts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail A; Spooner, Donna; Harrison, William J

    2015-10-01

    Frontal dynamic aphasia is characterised by a profound reduction in spontaneous speech despite well-preserved naming, repetition and comprehension. Since Luria (1966, 1970) designated this term, two main forms of dynamic aphasia have been identified: one, a language-specific selection deficit at the level of word/sentence generation, associated with left inferior frontal lesions; and two, a domain-general impairment in generating multiple responses or connected speech, associated with more extensive bilateral frontal and/or frontostriatal damage. Both forms of dynamic aphasia have been interpreted as arising due to disturbances in early prelinguistic conceptual preparation mechanisms that are critical for language production. We investigate language-specific and domain-general accounts of dynamic aphasia and address two issues: one, whether deficits in multiple conceptual preparation mechanisms can co-occur; and two, the contribution of broader cognitive processes such as energization, the ability to initiate and sustain response generation over time, to language generation failure. Thus, we report patient WAL who presented with frontal dynamic aphasia in the context of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). WAL was given a series of experimental tests that showed that his dynamic aphasia was not underpinned by a language-specific deficit in selection or in microplanning. By contrast, WAL presented with a domain-general deficit in fluent sequencing of novel thoughts. The latter replicated the pattern documented in a previous PSP patient (Robinson, et al., 2006); however, unique to WAL, generating novel thoughts was impaired but there was no evidence of a sequencing deficit because perseveration was absent. Thus, WAL is the first unequivocal case to show a distinction between novel thought generation and subsequent fluent sequencing. Moreover, WAL's generation deficit encompassed verbal and non-verbal responses, showing a similar (but more profoundly reduced) pattern

  14. SEMANTIC DEMENTIA AND PERSISTING WERNICKE’S APHASIA: LINGUISTIC AND ANATOMICAL PROFILES

    PubMed Central

    Ogar, JM; Baldo, JV; Wilson, SM; Brambati, SM; Miller, BL; Dronkers, NF; Gorno-Tempini, ML

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically the semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared 10 patients with SD to 10 age- and education-matched patients with WA in three language domains: language comprehension (single words and sentences), spontaneous speech and visual semantics. Neuroanatomical involvement was analyzed using disease-specific image analysis techniques: voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for patients with SD and overlays of lesion masks in patients with WA. Patients with SD and WA were both impaired on tasks that involved visual semantics, but patients with SD were less impaired in spontaneous speech and sentence comprehension. The anatomical findings showed that different regions were most affected in the two disorders: the left anterior temporal lobe in SD and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus in chronic WA. This study highlights that the two syndromes classically associated with language comprehension deficits in aphasia due to stroke and neurodegenerative disease are clinically distinct, most likely due to distinct distributions of damage in the temporal lobe. PMID:21315437

  15. Using others' words: conversational use of reported speech by individuals with aphasia and their communication partners.

    PubMed

    Hengst, Julie A; Frame, Simone R; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among individuals with aphasia. Grounded in an interactional sociolinguistic perspective, the study presented here documents and analyzes the use of reported speech by 7 adults with mild to moderately severe aphasia and their routine communication partners. Each of the 7 pairs was videotaped in 4 everyday activities at home or around the community, yielding over 27 hr of conversational interaction for analysis. A coding scheme was developed that identified 5 types of explicitly marked reported speech: direct, indirect, projected, indexed, and undecided. Analysis of the data documented reported speech as a common discourse practice used successfully by the individuals with aphasia and their communication partners. All participants produced reported speech at least once, and across all observations the target pairs produced 400 reported speech episodes (RSEs), 149 by individuals with aphasia and 251 by their communication partners. For all participants, direct and indirect forms were the most prevalent (70% of RSEs). Situated discourse analysis of specific episodes of reported speech used by 3 of the pairs provides detailed portraits of the diverse interactional, referential, social, and discourse functions of reported speech and explores ways that the pairs used reported speech to successfully frame talk despite their ongoing management of aphasia. PMID:15934449

  16. Verbal Description of Concrete Objects: A Method for Assessing Semantic Circumlocution in Persons With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    MacWilliam, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated from a theoretically motivated perspective what information differentiated sufficient from insufficient descriptions of objects provided by persons with aphasia. Method Twenty-one adults with aphasia consequent to single left-hemisphere stroke verbally described 9 living and 9 nonliving objects. Responses were scored for accuracy (i.e., sufficiency) and tallied for type and quantity of semantic feature information provided. Main effects and interactions were identified using repeated measures analyses of variance, with significant findings followed up with planned comparisons. Results Differences between correct and incorrect descriptions were identified with respect to both feature type and feature distinctiveness for living and nonliving items, in particular highlighting the importance of distinctive features in descriptions of both domains. Conclusions These findings add to the relatively small body of literature investigating semantic feature processing in adults with aphasia. This is a critical gap to close when considered in light of the preponderance of semantically based treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia. Our findings provide preliminary support for the notion that semantically guided treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia may be geared toward increasing specificity of semantic circumlocution to increase semantic self-cueing and to improve communication of information to conversation partners. PMID:26381474

  17. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeDe, Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using on-line measures of sentence processing. Methods People with aphasia and non-brain-damaged controls participated in the experiment (n=8 per group). Twenty-one sentence pairs containing high and low frequency words were presented in self-paced listening and reading tasks. The sentences were syntactically simple and differed only in the critical words. The dependent variables were response times for critical segments of the sentence and accuracy on the comprehension questions. Results The results showed that word frequency influences performance on measures of sentence comprehension in people with aphasia. The accuracy data on the comprehension questions suggested that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding sentences containing low frequency words in the written compared to auditory modality. Both group and single case analyses of the response time data also pointed to more difficulty with reading than listening. Conclusions The results show that sentence comprehension in people with aphasia is influenced by word frequency and presentation modality. PMID:22294411

  18. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Perilesional Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aphasia: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Ulm, Lena; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design, and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI, which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioral stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS effects on brain functions in aphasia. PMID:26500522

  19. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in communication with his wife, a native Putonghua speaker, and was thus a priority for investigation. Given a paucity of standardised tests of aphasia in Putonghua, our goal was to use the BAT to assess G's impairments in his L2. Results showed that G's performance on the BAT subtests measuring word and sentence comprehension and production was impaired. His pattern of performance on the BAT allowed us to generate hypotheses about his higher-level language impairments in Putonghua, which were subsequently found to be impaired. We argue that the BAT is able to capture the primary language impairments in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia when Putonghua is the second language. We also suggest some modifications to the BAT for testing Chinese-speaking patients with bilingual aphasia. PMID:21631312

  20. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual speaker: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-06-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities by means of the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987). The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), which is specifically devised for studying language levels and skills in bilingual/polyglot individuals with aphasia. Specifically, we focused on different tasks extracted from the Bilingual Aphasia Test, targeting phonology, morphology, syntax and lexical semantics. Results show that both languages were affected to a clinically significant degree, but with different profiles in terms of linguistic levels, suggesting the presence of greater phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactic impairments in L2. Results are discussed in terms of possible dissociations both within the language system of each language and between languages, within the Procedural/Declarative theoretical framework of language acquisition in bilinguals. PMID:21631307

  1. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual speaker: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-06-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities by means of the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987). The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), which is specifically devised for studying language levels and skills in bilingual/polyglot individuals with aphasia. Specifically, we focused on different tasks extracted from the Bilingual Aphasia Test, targeting phonology, morphology, syntax and lexical semantics. Results show that both languages were affected to a clinically significant degree, but with different profiles in terms of linguistic levels, suggesting the presence of greater phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactic impairments in L2. Results are discussed in terms of possible dissociations both within the language system of each language and between languages, within the Procedural/Declarative theoretical framework of language acquisition in bilinguals.

  2. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in communication with his wife, a native Putonghua speaker, and was thus a priority for investigation. Given a paucity of standardised tests of aphasia in Putonghua, our goal was to use the BAT to assess G's impairments in his L2. Results showed that G's performance on the BAT subtests measuring word and sentence comprehension and production was impaired. His pattern of performance on the BAT allowed us to generate hypotheses about his higher-level language impairments in Putonghua, which were subsequently found to be impaired. We argue that the BAT is able to capture the primary language impairments in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia when Putonghua is the second language. We also suggest some modifications to the BAT for testing Chinese-speaking patients with bilingual aphasia.

  3. Effect of Number of Graphic Symbols, Levels, and Listening Conditions on Symbol Identification and Latency in Persons with Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Petroi, Diana; Koul, Rajinder K; Corwin, Melinda

    2014-02-27

    This study investigated the ability of persons with aphasia to complete a series of experimental tasks involving single symbol and subject-verb-object sentence identification on a speech-generating device (SGD) in the presence/absence of competing stimuli. In all, 10 persons with Broca's aphasia and 10 persons in the control group were compared on accuracy and response latency of symbol identification across three listening conditions. Persons with aphasia identified fewer symbols accurately and had longer response latencies than persons in the control group. Number of symbols on the screen and location level had a significant effect on accuracy and latency for both groups. Persons with aphasia perceived tasks to be more difficult than persons in the control group. Results indicate that effective use of SGDs by persons with aphasia may depend on several message organization factors including location and number of symbols per screen. PMID:24575783

  4. Therapy-induced brain reorganization patterns in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Abel, Stefanie; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus; Specht, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Both hemispheres are engaged in recovery from word production deficits in aphasia. Lexical therapy has been shown to induce brain reorganization even in patients with chronic aphasia. However, the interplay of factors influencing reorganization patterns still remains unresolved. We were especially interested in the relation between lesion site, therapy-induced recovery, and beneficial reorganization patterns. Thus, we applied intensive lexical therapy, which was evaluated with functional magnetic resonance imaging, to 14 chronic patients with aphasic word retrieval deficits. In a group study, we aimed to illuminate brain reorganization of the naming network in comparison with healthy controls. Moreover, we intended to analyse the data with joint independent component analysis to relate lesion sites to therapy-induced brain reorganization, and to correlate resulting components with therapy gain. As a result, we found peri-lesional and contralateral activations basically overlapping with premorbid naming networks observed in healthy subjects. Reduced activation patterns for patients compared to controls before training comprised damaged left hemisphere language areas, right precentral and superior temporal gyrus, as well as left caudate and anterior cingulate cortex. There were decreasing activations of bilateral visuo-cognitive, articulatory, attention, and language areas due to therapy, with stronger decreases for patients in right middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus, bilateral precuneus as well as left anterior cingulate cortex and caudate. The joint independent component analysis revealed three components indexing lesion subtypes that were associated with patient-specific recovery patterns. Activation decreases (i) of an extended frontal lesion disconnecting language pathways occurred in left inferior frontal gyrus; (ii) of a small frontal lesion were found in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus; and (iii) of a large temporo-parietal lesion occurred in

  5. Severe Generalized Weakness, Paralysis, and Aphasia following Administration of Irinotecan and Oxaliplatin during FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandar, Manisha; de Wilton Marsh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Irinotecan is commonly used in combination with oxaliplatin as a component of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy for several gastrointestinal malignancies. The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who developed acute paralysis and aphasia while receiving her initial infusion of irinotecan. Case Report A 67-year-old woman with newly diagnosed metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presented for her first cycle of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy. During her infusion of irinotecan, she developed acute onset of generalized weakness, paralysis of all extremities, and nonfluent aphasia with complete inability to communicate. This episode was self-limited and resolved within 2 h. Prior to subsequent infusions she received intravenous repletion of potassium and had no recurrence of symptoms. Discussion In selected cases, coadministration of irinotecan and oxaliplatin may result in severe generalized weakness and aphasia, which may be triggered by underlying electrolyte disturbances. Careful monitoring and correction of potassium may help prevent this reaction. PMID:25873880

  6. Contributions of bilateral white matter to chronic aphasia symptoms as assessed by diffusion tensor MRI

    PubMed Central

    Geva, Sharon; Correia, Marta M.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Language reorganisation following stroke has been studied widely. However, while studies of brain activation and grey matter examined both hemispheres, studies of white matter changes have mostly focused on the left hemisphere. Here we examined the relationship between bilateral hemispheric white matter and aphasia symptoms. 15 chronic stroke patients with aphasia and 18 healthy adults were studied using Diffusion Weighted Imaging data. By applying histogram analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, tractography and lesion-tract overlap methods, it was found that damage to the left hemisphere in general, and to the arcuate fasciculus in particular, correlated with impairments on word repetition, object naming, sentence comprehension and homophone and rhyme judgement. However, no such relationship was found in the right hemisphere. It is suggested that while some language function in aphasia can be explained by damage to the left arcuate fasciculus, it cannot be explained by looking at the contra-lesional tract. PMID:26401977

  7. Why Is It Difficult to Predict Language Impairment and Outcome in Patients with Aphasia after Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Varkanitsa, Maria; Selai, Caroline; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most devastating consequences of stroke is aphasia. Communication problems after stroke can severely impair the patient's quality of life and make even simple everyday tasks challenging. Despite intense research in the field of aphasiology, the type of language impairment has not yet been localized and correlated with brain damage, making it difficult to predict the language outcome for stroke patients with aphasia. Our primary objective is to present the available evidence that highlights the difficulties of predicting language impairment after stroke. The different levels of complexity involved in predicting the lesion site from language impairment and ultimately predicting the long-term outcome in stroke patients with aphasia were explored. Future directions and potential implications for research and clinical practice are highlighted. PMID:24829592

  8. Activity in preserved left hemisphere regions predicts anomia severity in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Bonilha, Leonardo; Baker, Julie M; Moser, Dana; Rorden, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the neural mechanism that supports preserved language processing in aphasia has implications for both basic and applied science. This study examined brain activation associated with correct picture naming in 15 patients with aphasia. We contrasted each patient's activation to the activation observed in a neurologically healthy control group, allowing us to identify regions with unusual activity patterns. The results revealed that increased activation in preserved left hemisphere areas is associated with better naming performance in aphasia. This relationship was linear in nature; progressively less cortical activation was associated with greater severity of anomia. These findings are consistent with others who suggests that residual language function following stroke relies on preserved cortical areas in the left hemisphere.

  9. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain. PMID:17715800

  10. Aphasia in polyglots: report of two cases and analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, L; Ferrante, L; Celli, P; Acqui, M; Fortuna, A

    1991-10-01

    Two cases of aphasia in polyglot patients who experienced different symptoms in each of the languages they knew are reported. The authors discuss the problem and analyze the available literature in an attempt to formulate a pathogenetic hypothesis of the different involvement of the known idioms sometimes observed in aphasic polyglots. In particular, when time has elapsed between the learning of the mother tongue and other languages, and all the known languages are, consequently, functionally independent, it is possible that the two or more known idioms have distinct anatomical representations, probably localized separately in the two hemispheres. This could explain why, in some polyglots, aphasia affects one of the known languages preferentially. In subjects in whom the different known idioms were learned during early childhood, the anatomical representation of the languages is similar, which explains why, in this kind of polyglot, all the known languages can be equally affected by cerebral damage that causes aphasia. PMID:1944849

  11. Telepractice in the Assessment and Treatment of Individuals with Aphasia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Nerissa; Boisvert, Michelle; Steele, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Telepractice involves the application of technology to deliver services over a geographical distance. Studies in which telepractice procedures were used in the assessment or treatment of individuals with aphasia were reviewed. Systematic searches identified 10 studies meeting inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the: (a) characteristics of the participants, (b) technology utilized (c), services delivered via telepractice, (d) research methodology, and (e) results and conclusions of the study. Telepractice was used by speech-language pathologists and allied health professionals to assist with the delivery of services to participants with aphasia by their caretakers or clinicians. The services delivered included appraisal, diagnostic assessments, interventions, and consultation. This review suggests that telepractice is a viable method of service delivery for individuals with aphasia, however further research is warranted. Guidelines for practitioners and potential directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25945211

  12. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain.

  13. Predictability effect on N400 reflects the severity of reading comprehension deficits in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ting; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chou, Chia-Ju; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2016-01-29

    Predictability effect on N400, in which low predictability words elicited a larger N400 than high predictability words did over central to posterior electrodes, has been used to index difficulty of lexical retrieval and semantic integration of words in sentence comprehension. This study examined predictability effect on N400 in aphasic patients to determine if the properties of N400 are suited to indexing the severity of reading comprehension deficits. Patients with aphasia were divided into high and low ability groups based on scores on the reading comprehension subtest in the Chinese Concise Aphasia Test (CCAT). The two aphasia groups, a group of healthy elders who were age-matched to the aphasic participants, and a group of young adults, were requested to read sentences that either ended with highly predictable words or unexpected but plausible words, while undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). The young adult and healthy elderly groups exhibited the typical centro-parietal distributed effect of predictability on N400; however, healthy elders exhibited a reduced N400 effect in a delayed time window compared to the young adults. Compared with the elderly control, the high ability aphasia group exhibited a comparable N400 effect in a more restricted time window; by contrast, the low ability aphasia group exhibited a frontal distributed N400 in a much later time window (400-700 ms). These data suggest that the severity of reading comprehension deficits affects predictability effect on a set of N400 characteristics (i.e., amplitude, time window, and topographic distribution), which may be effective as ERP signatures in the evaluation of language recovery in aphasia.

  14. Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G.; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25477859

  16. Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Sylvie; Racette, Amélie; Gagnon, Lise; Peretz, Isabelle

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in a non-fluent patient, C.C., who had a severe expressive aphasia following a right-hemisphere stroke, but whose language comprehension and memory were relatively preserved. In experiment 1, C.C. repeated familiar song excerpts under four different conditions: spoken lyrics, sung lyrics on original melody, lyrics sung on new but familiar melody and melody sung to a neutral syllable "la". In experiment 2, C.C. repeated novel song excerpts under three different conditions: spoken lyrics, sung lyrics and sung-to-la melody. The mean number of words produced under the spoken and sung conditions did not differ significantly in either experiment. The mean number of notes produced was not different either in the sung-to-la and sung conditions, but was higher than the words produced, hence showing a dissociation between C.C.'s musical and verbal productions. Therefore, our findings do not support the claim that singing helps word production in non-fluent aphasic patients. Rather, they are consistent with the idea that verbal production, be it sung or spoken, result from the operation of same mechanisms.

  17. Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

  18. Anomia in moderate aphasia: problems in accessing the lexical representation.

    PubMed

    Le Dorze, G; Nespoulous, J L

    1989-10-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to determine through the analysis of surface manifestations of anomia whether one or several anomic syndromes exist, (2) to identify the psycholinguistic process at fault in anomia with reference to M. F. Garrett's (1982, in A. Ellis (Ed.), Normality and pathology in cognitive functions, London/New York: Academic Press) language production model. Two naming tasks were administered to 24 moderate aphasics. Test A was a standard naming task, and test B was a similar task which included subtests designed to indicate which level of representation was affected whenever patients did not name the target word. The subtests required, respectively, the identification of (a) a conceptual property, (b) two semantic attributes, (c) the first and (d) last syllable of the target word, and (e) the target word itself. Descriptive statistics yielded three groups of subjects different in terms of surface anomic manifestations, yet unrelated to clinical type of aphasia. Moreover, no significant differences between groups emerged on the subtests. All groups showed a good performance on the conceptual and the semantic subtests, suggesting preservation of high-level cognitive and semantic processes. In contrast, subjects evidenced poorer performances in syllabic identification, indicating a disruption of lower level mechanisms which are assumed to retrieve and process formal lexical representations. Results support the view that aphasic anomia originates from a difficulty in accessing the formal lexical representation and not from a semantic problem.

  19. Artificial grammar learning in individuals with severe aphasia.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A

    2014-01-01

    One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice.

  20. Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n = 15) and healthy volunteers (n = 17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200 ms and under DAF at 200 ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200 ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA. PMID:25305712

  1. Selective attention and aphasia in adults: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Petry, M C; Crosson, B; Gonzalez Rothi, L J; Bauer, R M; Schauer, C A

    1994-11-01

    Thirteen patients with left-hemisphere stroke and history of aphasia and 13 normal controls were administered the covert orientation of visual attention task (COVAT). This task presents targets to the right or left of a central fixation point after a cue (84% of trials) or with no cue (16% of trials). Left-hemisphere damaged patients also received tests of language function at the time of the study. For targets presented 100 msec after cue onset, normal controls demonstrated equivalent responding for targets to the left and to the right of a central fixation point. Patients with left-hemisphere damage showed slower reaction times when responding to targets on the right as opposed to the left side of space when attention was first cued to the opposite side of space (invalid trials) or when attention was focused on a central fixation point (uncued trials), but they did not show slower reaction times on the right side when attention was first cued to the right (valid trials). For left-sided targets, no differences between valid, invalid, and uncued trials existed. Slower responding to right- as opposed to left-sided targets on invalid and uncued trials was correlated with impaired performance on six of seven language measures for patients with left-hemisphere damage. Implications for the relationship between language and selective attention systems in the left hemisphere are discussed. PMID:7533276

  2. Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis With Transient Hemiparesis and Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Arseny A; Lienhard, Reto; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Erard, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    Nervous system involvement in Lyme disease often mimics other conditions and thus represents a diagnostic challenge, especially in an emergency department setting. We report a case of a female teenager presenting with sudden-onset aphasia and transient right-sided faciobrachial hemiplegia, along with headache and agitation. Ischemia, vasculitis, or another structural lesion was excluded by brain imaging. Toxicologic evaluation results were negative. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography and electroencephalography showed left parietotemporal brain dysfunction. Lumbar puncture result, although atypical, suggested bacterial infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was initiated. Finally, microbiological cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed Lyme neuroborreliosis, showing specific intrathecal antibody production and high level of C-X-C motif chemokine 13. The patient rapidly recovered. To our knowledge, this report for the first time illustrates that acute-onset language and motor symptoms may be directly related to Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neuroborreliosis may mimic other acute neurologic events such as stroke and should be taken into diagnostic consideration even in the absence of classic symptoms and evolution.

  3. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  4. Frontotemporal networks and behavioral symptoms in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel M.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Murphy, Declan; Wieneke, Christina; Martersteck, Adam; Cobia, Derin; Rogalski, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine if behavioral symptoms in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) were associated with degeneration of a ventral frontotemporal network. Methods: We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to quantify abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus that connects the anterior temporal lobe and the ventrolateral frontal cortex. Two additional ventral tracts were studied: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We also measured cortical thickness of anterior temporal and orbitofrontal regions interconnected by these tracts. Thirty-three patients with PPA and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Results: In keeping with the PPA diagnosis, behavioral symptoms were distinctly less prominent than the language deficits. Although all 3 tracts had structural pathology as determined by tractography, significant correlations with scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory were found only for the uncinate fasciculus. Cortical atrophy of the orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobe cortex was also correlated with these scores. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that damage to a frontotemporal network mediated by the uncinate fasciculus may underlie the emergence of behavioral symptoms in patients with PPA. PMID:26992858

  5. Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Fletcher, Phillip D; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2014-12-15

    The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n=15) and healthy volunteers (n=17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200 ms and under DAF at 200 ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200 ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA.

  6. Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Farrajota, Luísa; Maruta, Carolina; Maroco, João; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT) on naming ability in PPA. Methods An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months) with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18) = 10.763; p = 0.005) on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial. PMID:22962556

  7. Aphasia, apraxia and neurogenic stuttering as complications of metrizamide myelography (speech deficits following myelography).

    PubMed

    Pimental, P A; Gorelick, P B

    1985-11-01

    Aphasia following metrizamide myelography has been reported infrequently. During a seven-month period, we examined two patients who developed Broca's aphasia, apraxia of speech, oral-buccal-facial apraxia and neurogenic stuttering after intrathecal metrizamide administration. In each case, focal neurologic deficits were accompanied by clinical, electroencephalographic and radiologic signs of generalized neurologic disease. Serial speech and language evaluations initially revealed severe deficits that were largely resolved by the third day post-myelography. Out-patient follow-up examinations demonstrated persistence of mild speech and language abnormalities in each case. Our findings suggest that metrizamide may cause longlasting neurologic dysfunction. PMID:4082914

  8. Case Studies Illustrating Focal Alzheimer's, Fluent Aphasia, Late-Onset Memory Loss, and Rapid Dementia.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Gamze Balci; Murray, Melissa E; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2016-08-01

    Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis). Recognizing the different syndromes can help the clinician to improve their diagnostic skills, leading to improved patient outcomes by early and accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, and appropriate counseling and guidance. PMID:27445249

  9. A Dextral Primary Progressive Aphasia Patient with Right Dominant Hypometabolism and Tau Accumulation and Left Dominant Amyloid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Young Kyoung; Park, Seongbeom; Kim, Hee Jin; Cho, Hanna; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative disease that presents as progressive decline of language ability with preservation of other cognitive functions in the early stages. Three subtypes of PPA are known: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic aphasia (LPA). Patients and Methods We report the case of a 77-year-old patient with PPA whose clinical findings did not correspond to the three subtypes but mainly fit LPA. Unlike other LPA patients, however, this patient showed a right hemisphere predominant glucose hypometabolism and tau accumulation and a left hemisphere predominant amyloid deposition. The right-handed patient presented with comprehension difficulty followed by problems naming familiar objects. This isolated language problem had deteriorated rapidly for 2 years, followed by memory difficulties and impairment of daily activities. Using a Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery, aphasia was consistent with a severe form of Wernicke's aphasia. According to the brain magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography results, right hemisphere atrophy and hypometabolism, more predominant on the right hemisphere than the left, were apparent despite the fact that Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire scores indicated strong right-handedness. On Pittsburgh compound B-PET, amyloid accumulation was asymmetrical with the left hemisphere being more predominant than the right, whereas 18F-T807-PET showed a right dominant tau accumulation. Conclusions This is the first report of atypical PPA, in which the patient exhibited crossed aphasia and asymmetrical amyloid accumulation. PMID:27194988

  10. Profiling performance in L1 and L2 observed in Greek-English bilingual aphasia using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: a case study from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

    2011-06-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author, a bilingual English-Greek speech pathologist. The results revealed a non-parallel recovery in the two languages. This information will be used not only to guide clinical intervention for the patient but also to provide the first report on the manifestations of aphasia in Greek. Moreover, the use of the (Standard Modern) Greek version of the BAT to investigate Greek Cypriot aphasics has implications for the use of the BAT on underspecified languages or dialects. Such studies may help with the development of assessment measures and therapy strategies that focus on specific characteristics of one or multiple languages. PMID:21453038

  11. Profiling performance in L1 and L2 observed in Greek-English bilingual aphasia using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: a case study from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

    2011-06-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author, a bilingual English-Greek speech pathologist. The results revealed a non-parallel recovery in the two languages. This information will be used not only to guide clinical intervention for the patient but also to provide the first report on the manifestations of aphasia in Greek. Moreover, the use of the (Standard Modern) Greek version of the BAT to investigate Greek Cypriot aphasics has implications for the use of the BAT on underspecified languages or dialects. Such studies may help with the development of assessment measures and therapy strategies that focus on specific characteristics of one or multiple languages.

  12. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034

  13. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices.

  14. Coverbal Gestures in the Recovery from Severe Fluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlomagno, Sergio; Zulian, Nicola; Razzano, Carmelina; De Mercurio, Ilaria; Marini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This post hoc study investigated coverbal gesture patterns in two persons with chronic Wernicke's aphasia. They had both received therapy focusing on multimodal communication therapy, and their pre- and post-therapy verbal and gestural skills in face-to-face conversational interaction with their speech therapist were analysed by administering a…

  15. Psychosocial well-being in persons with aphasia participating in a nursing intervention after stroke.

    PubMed

    Bronken, Berit Arnesveen; Kirkevold, Marit; Martinsen, Randi; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Kvigne, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial adjustment process after stroke is complicated and protracted. The language is the most important tool for making sense of experiences and for human interplay, making persons with aphasia especially prone to psychosocial problems. Persons with aphasia are systematically excluded from research projects due to methodological challenges. This study explored how seven persons with aphasia experienced participating in a complex nursing intervention aimed at supporting the psychosocial adjustment process and promoting psychosocial well-being. The intervention was organized as an individual, dialogue-based collaboration process based upon ideas from "Guided self-determination." The content addressed psychosocial issues as mood, social relationships, meaningful activities, identity, and body changes. Principles from "Supported conversation for adults with aphasia" were used to facilitate the conversations. The data were obtained by participant observation during the intervention, qualitative interviews 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention and by standardized clinical instruments prior to the intervention and at 2 weeks and 12 months after the intervention. Assistance in narrating about themselves and their experiences with illness, psychological support and motivation to move on during the difficult adjustment process, and exchange of knowledge and information were experienced as beneficial and important by the participants in this study. PMID:22888417

  16. Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…

  17. Patterns of Comprehension Performance in Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia: A Test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caramazza, A.; Capasso, R.; Capitani, E.; Miceli, G.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the core prediction of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) of agrammatic Broca's aphasia, which contends that such patients' comprehension performance is normal for active reversible sentences but at chance level for passive reversible sentences. We analyzed the comprehension performance of 38 Italian Broca's aphasics with verified…

  18. Overcoming Unintelligibility in Aphasia: The Impact of Non-Verbal Interactive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, Jack S.; Wilson, Brent T.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina N.; Tetnowski, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous research, this report focuses on the wide range of gestures employed by an individual with aphasia to overcome instances of unintelligibility and re-establish intelligibility. The gestures observed are woven seamlessly into the fabric of the interactions and range from deictic to metaphorical or symbolic in nature.…

  19. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

  20. Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

  1. The Linguistic Interpretation of Broca's Aphasia: A Reply to M.-L. Kean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolk, Herman H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Kean (EJ 165 107) presented a linguistic model to account for the features of the syndrome of Broca's aphasia, especially their agrammatism. This paper critiques Kean's paper by describing and evaluating her five major arguments. It is concluded that Kean's phonological model cannot account for agrammatism as well as syntactic models can.…

  2. Conversational Discourse Analysis as a Method for Evaluating Progress in Aphasia: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Gains made by a woman with Broca's aphasia as documented by traditional measures were paralleled by changes in conversation, including increased verbal output and efficiency, and changes in conversation-repair patterns. The progress documented with conversational discourse analysis was not observable from other test measures. (Author/DB)

  3. Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

  4. Experimental Analysis of Syntax Training in Broca's Aphasia: A Generalization and Social Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Patrick J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The effect of syntax training on the sentence production of four adults with Broca's aphasia was examined. Generalization and maintenance were measured, and naive judges rated "adequacy" of responses. Findings indicated that effects are limited to the grammatical constructions taught, and that effects on response adequacy may be limited.…

  5. The Merest L"ogomachy": The 1868 Norwich Discussion of Aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2008-01-01

    This article reconsiders the events that took place at the 1868 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA) in Norwich. Paul Broca and John Hughlings Jackson were invited to speak on the new and controversial subject of aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, there have been repeated references made to a debate between Broca…

  6. Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24% (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4%). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing. PMID:25352157

  7. Facilitating Generalized Requesting Behavior in Broca's Aphasia: An Experimental Analysis of a Generalization Training Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Patrick J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a generalization training procedure on requesting by four adult subjects with Broca's aphasia were examined. Results revealed that generalization effects were greatest when trainers, as opposed to unfamiliar volunteers, served as conversational participants. Subjects' requests increased to a level comparable to a normal comparison…

  8. Word-Category Violations in Patients with Broca's Aphasia: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenaar, Marlies; Hagoort, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate on-line syntactic processing in patients with Broca's aphasia. Subjects were visually presented with sentences that were either syntactically correct or contained violations of word-category. Three groups of subjects were tested: Broca patients (N=11), non-aphasic patients…

  9. A Redefinition of the Syndrome of Broca's Aphasia: Implications for a Neurological Model of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Rita Sloan; Caramazza, Alfonso

    1980-01-01

    Provides redefinition for the syndrome of Broca's aphasia. Advances argument that the neurological explanation should be on separable psychological mechanisms that might be disrupted in isolation from other components of focal brain damages. Neuroanatomical implications are considered within the framework of a "strong localizationist" hypothesis.…

  10. Category and Letter Fluency in Semantic Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Kertesz, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of various degenerative dementias on access to semantic knowledge and the status of semantic representations. Patients with semantic dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and Alzheimer's disease were compared with elderly controls on tasks of category and letter fluency, with number of words generated, mean lexical…

  11. Treating Verbs in Aphasia: Exploring the Impact of Therapy at the Single Word and Sentence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Janet; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been significant interest in the differential processing of nouns and verbs in people with aphasia, but more limited consideration about whether the differences have implications for therapy. It remains unclear whether verbs can be treated in a similar way to nouns or should be treated using approaches that…

  12. Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

  13. TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

  14. The Potential of Virtual Reality to Assess Functional Communication in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Linda J.; Rebolledo, Mercedes; Metthe, Lynn; Lefebvre, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with adults with cognitive-linguistic impairments, including aphasia, have long needed an assessment tool that predicts ability to function in the real world. In this article, it is argued that virtual reality (VR)-supported approaches can address this need. Using models of disability such as the…

  15. Induction of neuroplasticity and recovery in post-stroke aphasia by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priyanka P; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Allendorfer, Jane; Hamilton, Roy H

    2013-01-01

    Stroke victims tend to prioritize speaking, writing, and walking as the three most important rehabilitation goals. Of note is that two of these goals involve communication. This underscores the significance of developing successful approaches to aphasia treatment for the several hundred thousand new aphasia patients each year and over 1 million stroke survivors with chronic aphasia in the U.S. alone. After several years of growth as a research tool, non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) is gradually entering the arena of clinical aphasiology. In this review, we first examine the current state of knowledge of post-stroke language recovery including the contributions from the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Next, we briefly discuss the methods and the physiologic basis of the use of inhibitory and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as research tools in patients who experience post-stroke aphasia. Finally, we provide a critical review of the most influential evidence behind the potential use of these two brain stimulation methods as clinical rehabilitative tools.

  16. Fluent Versus Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Comparison of Clinical and Functional Neuroimaging Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.G.; Charuvastra, A.; Miller, B.L.; Shapira, J.S.; Mendez, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    To better characterize fluent and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although investigators have recognized both fluent and nonfluent patients with PPA (Mesulam, 2001), the clinical and neuroimaging features of these variants have not been fully defined. We present clinical and neuropsychological data on 47 PPA patients…

  17. The problem of aphasia in the assessment of consciousness in brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Schnakers, Caroline; Giacino, Joseph T; Laureys, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of the level and content of consciousness in brain-damaged patients relies to a large extent on behavioral assessment techniques. The limited behavioral repertoire displayed by vegetative and minimally conscious states requires the use of highly sensitive and reliable behavioral assessment methods, allowing the detection of subtle changes in behavior and associated level of consciousness. This situation is further complicated when patients with such disorders of consciousness have underlying deficits in the domain of communication functions, such as aphasia. The present paper examines the consequences of receptive and/or productive aphasia on the already limited behavioral repertoire presented in these patients and discusses a number of behavioral and neuroimaging assessment procedures designed to: (1) detect the presence of aphasia in patients with disorders of consciousness, and (2) reliably assess the level of consciousness of brain-damaged patients while taking into account the existence of receptive and/or expressive language deficits. The combined use of behavioral and neuroimaging assessment techniques appears to be particularly promising for disentangling impaired consciousness and aphasia.

  18. Biomarkers of "Linguistic Anxiety" in aphasia: a proof-of-concept case study.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Oveis, Abigail C; Sayers, Jesse T; Pineles, Suzanne L; Spiro, Avron; Albert, Martin L

    2015-05-01

    This is a proof-of-concept case study designed to evaluate the presence of "Linguistic Anxiety" in a person with mild aphasia. The participant (aged 68) was tested on linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive tasks administered under conditions that differed in levels of anxiety. A validated anxiety-induction technique rarely used in previous aphasia studies was employed: the participant was instructed to prepare for a public speaking presentation. Measures of linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive performance, and anxiety (self-report and psychophysiologic) were obtained. The participant exhibited increased psychophysiologic stress reactivity (heart rate, skin conductance and self-report ratings) in the high-anxiety condition. In the state of increased anxiety, performance on language tasks, in particular discourse production, declined relative to performance in low-anxiety settings. Even in mild aphasia, language-based anxiety can interfere with language performance. This finding provides a basis for carrying out a study with a larger sample that can open a new path to assessment and treatment of persons with aphasia.

  19. Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Bilingual Speaker: A Single-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities…

  20. Intentional and Reactive Inhibition during Spoken-Word Stroop Task Performance in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompon, Rebecca Hunting; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Spencer, Kristie A.; Kendall, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The integrity of selective attention in people with aphasia (PWA) is currently unknown. Selective attention is essential for everyday communication, and inhibition is an important part of selective attention. This study explored components of inhibition--both intentional and reactive inhibition--during spoken-word production in PWA and in…

  1. Cross-Language Lexical Connections in the Mental Lexicon: Evidence from a Case of Trilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Obler, Loraine K.; Cohen, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Despite anecdotal data on lexical interference among the languages of multilingual speakers, little research evidence about the lexical connections among multilinguals' languages exists to date. In the present paper, two experiments with a multilingual speaker who had suffered aphasia are reported. The first experiment provides data about…

  2. Psychopathology and the essence of language: the interpretation of aphasia by Kurt Goldstein and Roman Jakobson.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Janette

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the research on aphasia carried out by the linguist Roman Jakobson and the neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein. The linguistic theory of aphasia advocated by Jakobson in the 1950s and 1960s is based on clinical case studies reported by Goldstein at the beginning of the 1930s. However, Jakobson used Goldstein's clinical observations without taking into account his theoretical work on language pathology. In particular, Jakobson fed the symptoms described by Goldstein into a structuralist model, allowing him to predict different types of aphasia deductively. Goldstein, however, saw the clinical manifestations of aphasia as a particular way of being in the world. By studying the changes associated with the patient's reaction to the disease, Goldstein wanted to reach an understanding of language functioning in the normal subject. He distinguished between an instrumental use and a symbolic use of language, the latter mainly characteristic of language use in the normal subject. Only a symbolic use reveals the essence of language by showing its intimate nature, the psychic link tying the subject to the world.

  3. The Phonomotor Approach to Treating Phonological-Based Language Deficits in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The phonomotor treatment program for treating word-retrieval deficits among people with aphasia is inspired by a parallel distributed processing model of lexical processing and is focused at the level of individual phonemes and phoneme sequences. Because verbal production of words involves the translation of a lexical-semantic representation into…

  4. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits.

  5. Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

  6. The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

  7. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Laura R.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of…

  8. The Effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy on Nonfluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklyn, Dwyer; Novak, Eric; Boissy, Adrienne; Bethoux, Francois; Chemali, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy…

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

  10. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  11. Altered Intrinsic Regional Activity and Interregional Functional Connectivity in Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Li, Yibo; Li, Rong; Pang, Yajing; Yao, Dezhong; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have examined cerebral function in patients who suffer from aphasia, but the mechanism underlying this disorder remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local regional and remote interregional network cerebral functions in aphasia combined with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and interregional functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 post-stroke aphasic patients, all having suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere, as well as 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The aphasic patients showed significantly increased intrinsic regional activity mainly in the contralesional mesial temporal (hippocampus/parahippocampus, [HIP/ParaHIP]) and lateral temporal cortices. In addition, intrinsic regional activity in the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP was negatively correlated with construction score. Aphasic patients showed increased remote interregional FC between the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP and fusiform gyrus, but reduced FC in the ipsilesional occipital and parietal cortices. These findings suggested that the intrinsic regional brain dysfunctions in aphasia were related to interregional functional connectivity. Changes in the intrinsic regional brain activity and associated remote functional connectivity pattern would provide valuable information to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of aphasia. PMID:27091494

  12. Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberber, Amanda Miller

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

  13. [A method of speech donorship and speech discourse for the speech restoration in aphasia].

    PubMed

    Rudnev, V A; Shteĭnerdt, V V

    2012-01-01

    An objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of speech restoration in aphasia in outpatients using audiovisual samples of the speech of first-degree relatives of the patient with the following transformation of the restoration into the feedback with the own audiovisual material (a method of speech donorship and speech discourse). We studied 53 outpatients with different severity of aphasia (28 patients with moderate severity, 12 patients with mild severity and 13 patients with marked severity) that was pathogenetically associated with stroke or brain injury. We used the following algorithm of speech restoration: 1) the work in the regime of biological feedback with the audiovisual sample of the speech of the close relative (7th-14th days); 2) the DVD recording of the own speech of the patient and the work with the own audiovisual sample (14th-21st days). Sessions were carried out twice a day. After the rehabilitation, there was a significant improvement (p<0,001) in the speech function including the decrease in the frequency of literal and verbal paraphasias, literal perseverations as well as the improvement of speech initiation and nonverbal speech component (intonation and kinesthetic appearances). The results of the restoration were worse in patients with severe aphasia than in those with moderate and mild aphasia, for the latter patients the method was very effective.

  14. Production and comprehension in aphasia: gains and pitfalls in using macrostructure tasks in Aesop's fables.

    PubMed

    Ulatowska, Hanna K; Reyes, Belinda; Olea Santos, Tricia; Garst, Diane; Mak, Kelly; Graham, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Macrostructures provide the global meaning of a text. Using Aesop's fables, the main goal of this study has been to identify the advantages and limitations in using the macrostructure tasks of retell, summary, lesson, and gist as clinical tools in understanding 16 patients with mild-to-moderate aphasia. Results suggest that all of the macrostructure tasks are important in determining the production skills of patients with aphasia. Comprehension, on the other hand, is best determined through the macrostructure tasks of retell and lesson. In addition to the language processing skills of patients with aphasia, macrostructures also provide a cognitive picture of how patients manipulate information from stories (i.e., reducing information, making inferences, and generalizing didactic information). Inherent limitations, however, are seen when interpreting possible reasons why patients with aphasia are unable to perform some of these tasks. Given that the potential gains of using macrostructure tasks outweigh the limitations, this study suggests that macrostructures may have clinical value as a diagnostic tool in understanding the cognitive-linguistic processes of patients with brain injury. PMID:23721371

  15. Legal Decision-Making by People with Aphasia: Critical Incidents for Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues…

  16. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  17. Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and if error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy. Method Nine participants with aphasia and ten neurologically-intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were instructed to adopt phonological or semantic self-cued retrieval strategies. In the error learning manipulation, items evoking TOT states during TOT-elicitation were randomly assigned to a short or long time condition where participants were encouraged to continue to try to retrieve the name for either 20 seconds (short interval) or 60 seconds (long). The incidence of TOT on the same items was measured on a post test after 48-hours. Error learning was defined as a higher rate of recurrent TOTs (TOT at both TOT-elicitation and post test) for items assigned to the long (versus short) time condition. Results In the phonological condition, participants with aphasia showed error learning whereas controls showed a pattern opposite to error learning. There was no evidence for error learning in the semantic condition for either group. Conclusion Error learning is operative in aphasia, but dependent on the type of strategy employed during naming failure. PMID:23816662

  18. Cognitive and Cognate-Based Treatments for Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Two consecutive treatments were conducted to investigate skill learning and generalization within and across cognitive-linguistic domains in a 62-year-old Spanish-English bilingual man with severe non-fluent aphasia. Treatment 1 was a cognitive-based treatment that emphasized non-linguistic skills, such as visual scanning, categorization, and…

  19. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

  20. Comparison of Alternatives to Multidimensional Scoring in the Assessment of Language Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odekar, Anshula; Hallowell, Brooke

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Multidimensional scoring methods yield valuable information about communication abilities. However, issues of training demands for valid and reliable scoring, especially in current service delivery contexts, may preclude common usage. Alternatives to multidimensional scoring were investigated in a sample of adults with aphasia. Method:…

  1. Some Neurological and Linguistic Accompaniments of the Fluent and Nonfluent Aphasias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko; Goodglass, Harold

    1984-01-01

    Fluent and nonfluent types of aphasia in adults and children are noted. The value of assessing psycholinguistic differences (e.g., syntactic skills and ability to produce connected discourse) is examined. Treatment implications for enhancing residual linguistic skills are addressed. (CL)

  2. Variability in Subcortical Aphasia Is Due to Variable Sites of Cortical Hypoperfusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Argye E.; Barker, Peter B.; Wityk, Robert J.; Aldrich, Eric M.; Restrepo, Lucas; Breese, Elisabeth L.; Work, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    A variety of fluent and nonfluent aphasias have been reported after left basal ganglia stroke. It has been speculated that this heterogeneity may reflect variations in cortical hypoperfusion resulting from large vessel stenosis. To test this hypothesis, a consecutive series of 24 patients with left caudate infarct identified with…

  3. Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavis, Ilknur

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

  4. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  5. Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

  6. Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

  7. A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

  8. Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia: History and Variability to Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Danielle; Cannizzaro, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Broca's aphasia often present with deficits in their ability to comprehend non-canonical sentences. This has been contrastingly characterized as a systematic loss of specific grammatical abilities or as individual variability in the dynamics between processing load and resource availability. The present study investigated sentence…

  9. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

  10. Involvement in volunteering: an exploration of the personal experience of people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Gill; Sage, Karen; Young, Alys

    2011-01-01

    This article reports results from a qualitative study in the U.K. of people with aphasia who have been involved in volunteering. The study describes their experiences; explores, from their perspective, the effects of involvement; and identifies key facilitators and barriers to the successful participation of people with aphasia in community activity. Data were collected by means of 10 individual semi-structured interviews using supported conversation techniques and through a focus group involving five more people. All participants had aphasia following a stroke. Average length of time since stroke for participants in the individual interviews was 5.6 years (range 3-12 years) and for participants in the focus group was 4.6 (range 1-10 years). Results are discussed according to four themes: (i) the effects of the activity on self; (ii) the effects on others; (iii) the effects on organisations hosting the activity and (iv) perceived barriers and facilitators impacting on volunteering. Implications are drawn for the promotion of participatory community activity within the matrix of therapeutic approaches and considered in light of previous studies that have reported the conceptualisations of people with aphasia about their lives and aspirations.

  11. Gesture and Naming Therapy for People with Severe Aphasia: A Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures.…

  12. Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

  13. Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

  14. Tell Me Your Story: Analysis of Script Topics Selected by Persons with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Audrey L.; Halper, Anita S.; Cherney, Leora R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the content of 100 short scripts, co-constructed by persons with aphasia (PWA) and a clinician. The PWA subsequently learned the scripts by interacting with a computerized virtual therapist. The goal was to provide clinicians with ideas regarding content for treatment that is meaningful to PWAs. Method: Thirty-three…

  15. Mismatch Negativity Elicited by Tones and Speech Sounds: Changed Topographical Distribution in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

    2007-01-01

    This study used the event-related brain potential mismatch negativity (MMN) to investigate preconscious discrimination of harmonically rich tones (differing in duration) and consonant-vowel syllables (differing in the initial consonant) in aphasia. Eighteen Norwegian aphasic patients, examined on average 3 months after brain injury, were compared…

  16. A Note on the Organization of Fluent Speech in a Semantic Kind of Amnestic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    A thirty-year case study of a Russian soldier suffering from a severe syndrome of parietal aphasia is discussed. Luria's book, "The Man with a Shattered World," is based on the soldier's 3,000-page diary, written after a period of training wherein he was told to write as fast as possible. (SCC)

  17. Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts…

  18. Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24% (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4%). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing.

  19. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

  20. Listening to the Voice of Living Life with Aphasia: Anne's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rozanne

    2008-01-01

    Background: Listening to how people talk about the consequences of acquired aphasia helps one gain insight into how people construe disability and communication disability in particular. It has been found that some of these construals can be more of a disabling barrier in re-engaging with life than the communication impairment itself. Aims: To…

  1. Novel Technology for Treating Individuals with Aphasia and Concomitant Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article describes three individuals with aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits who used state-of-the-art computer software for training conversational scripts. Method Participants were assessed before and after 9 weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and posttreatment scripts were audiotaped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. Results There was great variability in improvements across scripts, with two participants improving on two of their three scripts in measures of content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of script-related words. One participant gained more than 5 points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from exit interviews: increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Conclusion Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits. PMID:19158062

  2. Bilingual aphasia due to spontaneous acute subdural haematoma from a ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vajramani, Girish V; Akrawi, Hawar; McCarthy, Rosaleen A; Gray, William P

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of spontaneous subdural haematoma due to ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm, presenting with bilingual aphasia and illustrating differential language recovery. A 62-year-old right-handed bilingual gentleman, with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis, developed headache and became expressively aphasic in the English language. Three days later he was receptively and expressively aphasic in both English and Arabic. Cranial MRI scans showed a left-sided acute subdural haematoma with mass effect and midline shift. Contrast CT brain scans showed an enhancing speck adjacent to the clot and cerebral angiogram confirmed a distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm. He underwent image-guided craniotomy, evacuation of the subdural haematoma and excision of the aneurysm. Histopathological examination was consistent with an infectious intracranial aneurysm. Postoperatively his aphasia did not improve immediately. He had widened pulse pressure due to severe aortic regurgitation, confirmed on echocardiography. He underwent aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair, following which his aphasia recovered gradually. Initially the recovery of his language was limited to Arabic. About a week later he recovered his English language as well. At 3-year follow-up he is doing well and has no neurological deficits. His aphasia has recovered completely. The present case is unique because of (a) presence of pure subdural haematoma, and (b) the differential susceptibility and recovery of native (L1) and acquired language (L2) in presence of a common pathology. The neurology of language in a bilingual is analysed and possible mechanisms discussed.

  3. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  4. A Proposed Regional Hierarchy in Recovery of Post-Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, W.-D.; Thiel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Activation studies in patients with aphasia due to stroke or tumours in the dominant hemisphere have revealed effects of disinhibition in ipsilateral perilesional and in contralateral homotopic cortical regions, referred to as collateral and transcallosal disinhibition. These findings were supported by studies with selective disturbance of…

  5. The Use of Semantic- and Phonological-Based Feature Approaches to Treat Naming Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare approaches highlighting either semantic or phonological features to treat naming deficits in aphasia. Treatment focused on improving picture naming. An alternating treatments design was used with a multiple baseline design across stimuli to examine effects of both approaches in two participants with varying…

  6. Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

    2011-01-01

    This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

  7. The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

  8. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

  9. Do Particular Design Features Assist People with Aphasia to Comprehend Text? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lucy; Read, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much of the evidence underlying guidelines for producing accessible information for people with aphasia focuses on client preference for particular design features. There is limited evidence regarding the effects of these features on comprehension. Aims: To examine the effects of specific design features on text comprehension. It was…

  10. Activation of syntax in lexical production in healthy speakers and in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Ruth; Anderson, Elizabeth; Best, Wendy; Gregory, Emma

    2014-08-01

    Theories of spoken word production agree that semantic and phonological representations are activated in spoken word production. There is less agreement concerning the role of syntax. In this study we investigated noun syntax activation in English bare noun naming, using mass and count nouns. Fourteen healthy controls and 13 speakers with aphasia took part. Participants named mass and count nouns, and completed a related noun syntax judgement task. We analysed speakers' noun syntax knowledge when naming accurately, and when making errors in production. Healthy speakers' noun syntax judgement was accurate for words they named correctly, but this did not correlate with naming accuracy. Speakers with aphasia varied in their noun syntax judgement, and this also did not correlate with naming accuracy. Healthy speakers' syntax for semantic errors was less accurate, as was that for speakers with aphasia. For phonological errors half the participants with aphasia could access syntax, half could not, indicating two types of phonological error. Individual differences were found in no responses. Finally, we found no effect of frequency for any of the above. The lack of a relationship between syntax and naming accuracy suggests that syntax is available, but access is not obligatory. This finding supports theories incorporating non-obligatory syntactic processing, which is independent of phonological access. The semantic error data are best explained within such a theory where there is damage to phonological access and hence to independent syntax. For the aphasia group we identify two types of phonological error, one implicating syntax and phonology, and one implicating phonology only, again supporting independent access to these systems. Overall the data support a model within which syntax is independent of phonology, and activation of syntax operates flexibly dependent on task demands and integrity of other processing routines.

  11. A new test battery to assess aphasic disturbances and associated cognitive dysfunctions -- German normative data on the aphasia check list.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, Elke; Reinhold, Nadine; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J; Kessler, Josef

    2005-10-01

    Aphasia, defined as an acquired impairment of linguistic abilities, can be accompanied by a diversity of neuropsychological dysfunction. Accordingly, the necessity to include cognitive testing in the diagnosis of aphasia is increasingly recognized. Here we present the Aphasia Check List (ACL), a new test battery for the assessment of aphasic and associated cognitive disorders. The language part of the battery provides a differentiated profile of important linguistic abilities. In addition, the ACL includes nonverbal screening tests for three neuropsychological domains: memory, attention, and reasoning. Dysfunctions in these domains have been observed in aphasic patients and can have an impact on language function. The ACL is applicable to patients with language disturbances of different etiologies, different stages of disease, and to patients with mild to severe aphasia. As the entire test duration is only about 30 minutes, the ACL is also economically valuable. It thus presents an adequate starting point in aphasia diagnosis for a wide range of patients. Here we describe the construction of the ACL, and the normative study of its original German version with 154 aphasic patients and 106 healthy comparison subjects. The ACL cognition part revealed additional neuropsychological dysfunction in the aphasia group. We present the patterns of these dysfunctions and their correlations with language deficits.

  12. "Well it has to be language-related": speech-language pathologists' goals for people with aphasia and their families.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Sue; Worrall, Linda; Pearson, Charlene; Howe, Tami; Hersh, Deborah; Davidson, Bronwyn

    2011-08-01

    Goal-setting is considered an essential part of rehabilitation practice and integral to person-centredness. However, people with aphasia are not always satisfied with goal-setting, and speech-language pathologists are concerned about the appropriateness of therapy. Furthermore, family members are often excluded from goal-setting, despite the impact aphasia has on them. The actual goals set by clinicians for clients with aphasia and their family members have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to examine the goals that clinicians set for their clients with aphasia and their family members. Data from in-depth interviews with 34 speech-language pathologists describing 84 goal-setting experiences with people with aphasia were coded into superordinate goals for both groups. Clinicians expressed a wide range of goals for people with aphasia and their family members, relating to communication, coping and participation factors, and education. In addition, evaluation was considered a goal for the clients. There were clients for whom no goals were set, particularly for family members, due to a lack of/limited contact. The goals described broadly addressed all aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and reflected the use of both functional and impairment-based therapeutic approaches; they also emphasize the importance of providing goal-setting options for the family members of these clients.

  13. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia.

  14. Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.

    PubMed

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Kalra, Lalit; Murphy, Declan G M; Williams, Steven C R; Catani, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 ± 17 years, range 28-87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally introduced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = -0.630, t(-3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = -0.678, t(-3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long

  15. Effects of working memory load on processing of sounds and meanings of words in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nadine; Kohen, Francine; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Soveri, Anna; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background Language performance in aphasia can vary depending on several variables such as stimulus characteristics and task demands. This study focuses on the degree of verbal working memory (WM) load inherent in the language task and how this variable affects language performance by individuals with aphasia. Aims The first aim was to identify the effects of increased verbal WM load on the performance of judgments of semantic similarity (synonymy) and phonological similarity (rhyming). The second aim was to determine if any of the following abilities could modulate the verbal WM load effect: semantic or phonological access, semantic or phonological short-term memory (STM) and any of the following executive processing abilities: inhibition, verbal WM updating, and set shifting. Method and Procedures Thirty-one individuals with aphasia and 11 controls participated in this study. They were administered a synonymy judgment task and a rhyming judgment task under high and low verbal WM load conditions that were compared to each other. In a second set of analyses, multiple regression was used to identify which factors (as noted above) modulated the verbal WM load effect. Outcome and Results For participants with aphasia, increased verbal WM load significantly reduced accuracy of performance on synonymy and rhyming judgments. Better performance in the low verbal WM load conditions was evident even after correcting for chance. The synonymy task included concrete and abstract word triplets. When these were examined separately, the verbal WM load effect was significant for the abstract words, but not the concrete words. The same pattern was observed in the performance of the control participants. Additionally, the second set of analyses revealed that semantic STM and one executive function, inhibition ability, emerged as the strongest predictors of the verbal WM load effect in these judgment tasks for individuals with aphasia. Conclusions The results of this study have

  16. Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.

    PubMed

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Kalra, Lalit; Murphy, Declan G M; Williams, Steven C R; Catani, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 ± 17 years, range 28-87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally introduced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = -0.630, t(-3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = -0.678, t(-3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long

  17. Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Catherine Y; Zheng, Xin; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2014-09-01

    Using a pre-post design, eleven chronic stroke patients with large left hemisphere lesions and nonfluent aphasia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and language testing before and after receiving 15 weeks of an intensive intonation-based speech therapy. This treated patient group was compared to an untreated patient group (n=9) scanned twice over a similar time period. Our results showed that the treated group, but not the untreated group, had reductions in fractional anisotropy in the white matter underlying the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, pars opercularis and pars triangularis), the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the right posterior cingulum. Furthermore, we found that greater improvements in speech production were associated with greater reductions in FA in the right IFG (pars opercularis). Thus, our findings showed that an intensive rehabilitation program for patients with nonfluent aphasia led to structural changes in the right hemisphere, which correlated with improvements in speech production. PMID:25041868

  18. The design and application of a data- and methodbase system for the Aachen Aphasia Test.

    PubMed

    Willmes, K; Ratajczak, H

    1987-01-01

    The basic components of a data- and methodbase system useful for both individual diagnosis and (group-study) research in neuropsychology are described. Such a system enables one to organize, access and evaluate large data-sets of behavioural, neuroradiological and neurological information. The most important component of the system, the data- and methodbase management system, is described in some detail. It operates on databases comprised of Aachen Aphasia Test examinations and standardized CT evaluations as well as on methodbases containing various sets of analysis routines for the psychometric evaluation of (individual) aphasia test results and the evaluation and (graphical) presentation of standardized (individual) CT lesions. Although exemplified for AAT scores the techniques and principles employed are applicable to data- and methodbase systems in general.

  19. [The Aachen Aphasia Bedside Test--criteria for validity of psychologic tests].

    PubMed

    Biniek, R; Huber, W; Glindemann, R; Willmes, K; Klumm, H

    1992-08-01

    The Aachen Aphasia Bedside Test (AABT) has been developed in order to examine aphasic patients within the first 4 to 6 weeks after onset of illness. The psychometric properties of the AABT were established by repeated examination of 82 acute stroke patients, ratings by 20 raters on the basis of 10 videotapes, repeated examination of 28 chronic aphasics three times with an interval of 2 days, and parallel examination of 47 chronic aphasic patients with the AABT and the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), administered on the same day. Objectivity, reliability and validity of the AABT were highly rated, indicating its usefulness in acute stroke cases. Data on the 82 acute stroke patients showed that an initial prognosis can be made as early as the fourth day after the stroke.

  20. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  1. Neural activity associated with semantic versus phonological anomia treatments in aphasia.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Sophia; McMahon, Katie; Angwin, Anthony; de Zubicaray, Greig; Copland, David A

    2014-02-01

    Naming impairments in aphasia are typically targeted using semantic and/or phonologically based tasks. However, it is not known whether these treatments have different neural mechanisms. Eight participants with aphasia received twelve treatment sessions using an alternating treatment design, with fMRI scans pre- and post-treatment. Half the sessions employed Phonological Components Analysis (PCA), and half the sessions employed Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA). Pre-treatment activity in the left caudate correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with SFA, whereas recruitment of the left supramarginal gyrus and right precuneus post-treatment correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with PCA. The results support previous studies that have found greater treatment outcome to be associated with activity in predominantly left hemisphere regions, and suggest that different mechanisms may be engaged dependent on the type of treatment employed.

  2. When semantics aids phonology: A processing advantage for iconic word forms in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Meteyard, Lotte; Stoppard, Emily; Snudden, Dee; Cappa, Stefano F; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Iconicity is the non-arbitrary relation between properties of a phonological form and semantic content (e.g. "moo", "splash"). It is a common feature of both spoken and signed languages, and recent evidence shows that iconic forms confer an advantage during word learning. We explored whether iconic forms conferred a processing advantage for 13 individuals with aphasia following left-hemisphere stroke. Iconic and control words were compared in four different tasks: repetition, reading aloud, auditory lexical decision and visual lexical decision. An advantage for iconic words was seen for some individuals in all tasks, with consistent group effects emerging in reading aloud and auditory lexical decision. Both these tasks rely on mapping between semantics and phonology. We conclude that iconicity aids spoken word processing for individuals with aphasia. This advantage is due to a stronger connection between semantic information and phonological forms.

  3. Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

  4. Linguistic analysis of discourse in aphasia: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Lucy; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This review examined previous research applications of linguistic discourse analysis to assess the language of adults with aphasia. A comprehensive literature search of seven databases identified 165 studies that applied linguistic measures to samples of discourse collected from people with aphasia. Analysis of methodological applications revealed an increase in published research using linguistic discourse analysis over the past 40 years, particularly to measure the generalisation of therapy outcomes to language in use. Narrative language samples were most frequently subject to analysis though all language genres were observed across included studies. A total of 536 different linguistic measures were applied to examine language behaviours. Growth in the research use of linguistic discourse analysis and suggestions that this growth may be reflected in clinical practice requires further investigation. Future research directions are discussed to investigate clinical use of discourse analysis and examine the differences that exist between research and clinical practice.

  5. Pathophysiology of language switching and mixing in an early bilingual child with subcortical aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mariën, Peter; Abutalebi, Jubin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2005-12-01

    Acquired aphasia after circumscribed vascular subcortical lesions has not been reported in bilingual children. We report clinical and neuroimaging findings in an early bilingual boy who incurred equally severe transcortical sensory aphasia in his first language (L1) and second language (L2) after a posterior left thalamic hemorrhage. Following recurrent bleeding of the lesion the aphasic symptoms substantially aggravated. Spontaneous pathological language switching and mixing were found in both languages. Remission of these phenomena was reflected on brain perfusion SPECT revealing improved perfusion in the left frontal lobe and left caudate nucleus. The parallelism between the evolution of language symptoms and the SPECT findings may demonstrate that a subcortical left frontal lobe circuity is crucially involved in language switching and mixing.

  6. An unusual presentation of migraine: temporary complete body paralysis and aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2012-01-01

    A 47-year-old gentleman with a medical history of long-standing migraine presented with temporary total body paralysis and expressive aphasia for 4 h. It was also associated with worsening severe unilateral pulsating pain, nausea, photophobia, blurred vision, hearing disturbance and neck stiffness. All these symptoms were resolving gradually after 4 h and had resolved completely after 1 day. Investigations were unremarkable. Migraine was made as a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:22665470

  7. The Wernicke conundrum and the anatomy of language comprehension in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Wernicke’s aphasia is characterized by severe word and sentence comprehension impairments. The location of the underlying lesion site, known as Wernicke’s area, remains controversial. Questions related to this controversy were addressed in 72 patients with primary progressive aphasia who collectively displayed a wide spectrum of cortical atrophy sites and language impairment patterns. Clinico-anatomical correlations were explored at the individual and group levels. These analyses showed that neuronal loss in temporoparietal areas, traditionally included within Wernicke’s area, leave single word comprehension intact and cause inconsistent impairments of sentence comprehension. The most severe sentence comprehension impairments were associated with a heterogeneous set of cortical atrophy sites variably encompassing temporoparietal components of Wernicke’s area, Broca’s area, and dorsal premotor cortex. Severe comprehension impairments for single words, on the other hand, were invariably associated with peak atrophy sites in the left temporal pole and adjacent anterior temporal cortex, a pattern of atrophy that left sentence comprehension intact. These results show that the neural substrates of word and sentence comprehension are dissociable and that a circumscribed cortical area equally critical for word and sentence comprehension is unlikely to exist anywhere in the cerebral cortex. Reports of combined word and sentence comprehension impairments in Wernicke’s aphasia come almost exclusively from patients with cerebrovascular accidents where brain damage extends into subcortical white matter. The syndrome of Wernicke’s aphasia is thus likely to reflect damage not only to the cerebral cortex but also to underlying axonal pathways, leading to strategic cortico-cortical disconnections within the language network. The results of this investigation further reinforce the conclusion that the left anterior temporal lobe, a region ignored by classic aphasiology

  8. The Wernicke conundrum and the anatomy of language comprehension in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J

    2015-08-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by severe word and sentence comprehension impairments. The location of the underlying lesion site, known as Wernicke's area, remains controversial. Questions related to this controversy were addressed in 72 patients with primary progressive aphasia who collectively displayed a wide spectrum of cortical atrophy sites and language impairment patterns. Clinico-anatomical correlations were explored at the individual and group levels. These analyses showed that neuronal loss in temporoparietal areas, traditionally included within Wernicke's area, leave single word comprehension intact and cause inconsistent impairments of sentence comprehension. The most severe sentence comprehension impairments were associated with a heterogeneous set of cortical atrophy sites variably encompassing temporoparietal components of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and dorsal premotor cortex. Severe comprehension impairments for single words, on the other hand, were invariably associated with peak atrophy sites in the left temporal pole and adjacent anterior temporal cortex, a pattern of atrophy that left sentence comprehension intact. These results show that the neural substrates of word and sentence comprehension are dissociable and that a circumscribed cortical area equally critical for word and sentence comprehension is unlikely to exist anywhere in the cerebral cortex. Reports of combined word and sentence comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia come almost exclusively from patients with cerebrovascular accidents where brain damage extends into subcortical white matter. The syndrome of Wernicke's aphasia is thus likely to reflect damage not only to the cerebral cortex but also to underlying axonal pathways, leading to strategic cortico-cortical disconnections within the language network. The results of this investigation further reinforce the conclusion that the left anterior temporal lobe, a region ignored by classic aphasiology, needs to be

  9. Transcortical aphasia from ischaemic infarcts of the thalamus: a report of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    McFarling, D; Rothi, L J; Heilman, K M

    1982-01-01

    Thalamic injury from various natural causes, including tumours an haemorrhage, has been reported to lead abnormalities of language. The pathophysiology of these language disorders remains controversial because the naturally occurring thalamic lesions often are associated with mass effects. Two patients are described with hypodense left thalamic lesions, shown by computed tomography, probably representing infarction. Both patients had aphasia, but neither had evidence of appreciable brain swelling or distortion, nor were cortical language areas damaged. Images PMID:7069422

  10. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today.

  11. Contrasting effects of errorless naming treatment and gestural facilitation for word retrieval in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Anastasia M; McHose, Beth; Smith, Kimberly G; Iman, Lisa; Ambrose, Alexis; Casselton, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of two treatments for aphasic word retrieval impairments, errorless naming treatment (ENT) and gestural facilitation of naming (GES), within the same individuals, anticipating that the use of gesture would enhance the effect of treatment over errorless treatment alone. In addition to picture naming, we evaluated results for other outcome measures that were largely untested in earlier ENT studies. In a single participant crossover treatment design, we examined the effects of ENT and GES in eight individuals with stroke-induced aphasia and word retrieval impairments (three semantic anomia, five phonological anomia) in counterbalanced phases across participants. We evaluated effects of the two treatments for a daily picture naming/gesture production probe measure and in standardised aphasia tests and communication rating scales administered across phases of the experiment. Both treatments led to improvements in naming of trained words (small-to-large effect sizes) in individuals with semantic and phonological anomia. Small generalised naming improvements were noted for three individuals with phonological anomia. GES improved use of corresponding gestures for trained words (large effect sizes). Results were largely maintained at one month post-treatment completion. Increases in scores on standardised aphasia testing also occurred for both ENT and GES training. Both ENT and GES led to improvements in naming measures, with no clear difference between treatments. Increased use of gestures following GES provided a potential compensatory means of communication for those who did not improve verbal skills. Both treatments are considered to be effective methods to promote recovery of word retrieval and verbal production skills in individuals with aphasia.

  12. "Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularization errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of "pre-semantic" processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven "pre-semantic" tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularization errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single-case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on "pre-semantic" tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate

  13. Contrasting Effects of Errorless Naming Treatment and Gestural Facilitation for Word Retrieval in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Raymer, Anastasia M.; McHose, Beth; Smith, Kimberly G.; Iman, Lisa; Ambrose, Alexis; Casselton, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We compared the effects of two treatments for aphasic word retrieval impairments, errorless naming treatment (ENT) and gestural facilitation of naming (GES), within the same individuals, anticipating that the use of gesture would enhance the effect of treatment over errorless treatment alone. In addition to picture naming, we evaluated results for other outcome measures that were largely untested in earlier ENT studies. Methods In a single participant crossover treatment design, we examined the effects of ENT and GES in eight individuals with stroke-induced aphasia and word retrieval impairments (three semantic anomia, five phonologic anomia) in counterbalanced phases across participants. We evaluated effects of the two treatments for a daily picture naming/gesture production probe measure and in standardized aphasia tests and communication rating scales administered across phases of the experiment. Results Both treatments led to improvements in naming of trained words (small-to-large effect sizes) in individuals with semantic and phonologic anomia. Small generalized naming improvements were noted for three individuals with phonologic anomia. GES improved use of corresponding gestures for trained words (large effect sizes). Results were largely maintained at one month post treatment completion. Increases in scores on standardized aphasia testing also occurred for both ENT and GES training. Discussion Both ENT and GES led to improvements in naming measures, with no clear difference between treatments. Increased use of gestures following GES providing a potential compensatory means of communication for those who did not improve verbal skills. Both treatments are considered to be effective methods to promote recovery of word retrieval and verbal production skills in individuals with aphasia. PMID:22047100

  14. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Issues of experimental design for relating cognitive to neural changes

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Brenda; Caplan, David; Edwards, Susan; Visch-Brink, Evy; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    The design of functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neural changes that support treatment-based recovery of targeted language functions in acquired aphasia faces a number of challenges. In this paper, we discuss these challenges and focus on experimental tasks and experimental designs that can be used to address the challenges, facilitate the interpretation of results and promote integration of findings across studies. PMID:22974976

  15. Making sense of progressive non-fluent aphasia: an analysis of conversational speech.

    PubMed

    Knibb, Jonathan A; Woollams, Anna M; Hodges, John R; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-10-01

    The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and executive function. The degree to which speech was affected was independent of the severity of the other cognitive deficits. A partial dissociation was also observed between slow speech with simplified grammar on the one hand, and grammatical and speech sound errors on the other. Overlap between these sets of impairments was however, the rule rather than the exception, producing continuous variation within a single consistent syndrome. The distribution of atrophy was remarkably variable, with frontal, temporal and medial temporal areas affected, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The study suggests that PNFA is a coherent, well-defined syndrome and that varieties such as logopaenic progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech may be seen as points in a space of continuous variation within progressive non-fluent aphasia. PMID:19696033

  16. Episodic receptive aphasia in a child with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: PET correlates.

    PubMed

    Luat, Aimee F; Chugani, Harry T; Asano, Eishi; Juhász, Csaba; Trock, Gary; Rothermel, Robert

    2006-10-01

    We report a four-year-old boy with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) characterized by episodic receptive aphasia lasting for few weeks followed by gradual recovery of baseline language functions. Neuropsychological evaluation during an episode showed severe impairment in verbal skills and comprehension, but relative preservation of non-verbal skills. Although he could carry on a conversation during remission, neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated findings reflective of receptive language deficits. Prolonged EEG disclosed frequent sharp-wave activity in the left and right temporal regions but no electrographic seizures. Glucose metabolism PET scan during the fourth episode of aphasia revealed intense hypermetabolism in the left temporal neocortex. Awake EEG during the PET tracer uptake period showed 6.0 spikes/min in the left temporal region and 4.0 spikes/min in the right. A repeat PET scan during remission showed hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex. Awake EEG during the FDG uptake period showed 16.0 spikes/min in the right temporal region and 0.3 spikes/min in the left. During his fifth aphasic episode, EEG (without PET) showed 0.16 spikes/min in the right temporal region and none in the left. Intermittent short episodes of predominantly receptive aphasia with near-total recovery between episodes can be one of the clinical presentations of LKS. This case illustrates the dynamic changes of glucose metabolism in the temporal lobe during episodes of aphasia and remission in a case with LKS. The clinical course of our patient with transient EEG and PET findings suggest that glucose metabolism in LKS cannot be attributed solely to interictal epileptiform activities on scalp EEG.

  17. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M

    2016-08-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke. PMID:27489401

  18. Graded modality-specific specialisation in semantics: A computational account of optic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Plaut, David C

    2002-10-01

    A long-standing debate regarding the representation of semantic knowledge is whether such knowledge is represented in a single, amodal system or whether it is organised into multiple subsystems based on modality of input or type of information. The current paper presents a distributed connectionist model of semantics that constitutes a middle ground between these unitary- versus multiple-semantics accounts. In the model, semantic representations develop under the pressure of learning to mediate between multiple input and output modalities in performing various tasks. The system has a topographic bias on learning that favours short connections, leading to a graded degree of modality-specific functional specialisation within semantics. The model is applied to the specific empirical phenomena of optic aphasia--a neuropsychological disorder in which patients exhibit a selective deficit in naming visually presented objects that is not attributable to more generalised impairments in object recognition (visual agnosia) or naming (anomia). As a result of the topographic bias in the model, as well as the relative degrees of systematicity among tasks, damage to connections from vision to regions of semantics near phonology impairs visual object naming far more than visual gesturing or tactile naming, as observed in optic aphasia. Moreover, as in optic aphasia, the system is better at generating the name of an action associated with an object than at generating the name of the object itself, because action naming receives interactive support from the activation of action representations. The ability of the model to account for the pattern of performance observed in optic aphasia across the full range of severity of impairment provides support for the claim that semantic representations exhibit graded functional specialisation rather than being entirely amodal or modality-specific.

  19. Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effect of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed, with emphasis on internal validity issues, the number of participants enrolled in published studies, operational specification of the dependent and independent variables, and reliability of measurement. Learning outcomes As a result of reading this paper, the participant will: (1) understand the mechanisms required for demonstration of internal and external validity using single subject controlled experimental designs, (2) become familiar with the basic requirements of single subject controlled experimental research, (3) understand the types of single subject controlled experimental designs that are the most appropriate for studying the effects of treatment for aphasia, and (4) become familiar with trends in the published aphasia treatment literature in which single subject controlled experimental designs have been used. PMID:16635494

  20. Language specificity of lexical-phonological therapy in bilingual aphasia: A clinical and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Radman, Narges; Spierer, Lucas; Laganaro, Marina; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Colombo, Françoise

    2016-08-01

    Based on findings for overlapping representations of bilingual people's first (L1) and second (L2) languages, unilingual therapies of bilingual aphasia have been proposed to benefit the untrained language. However, the generalisation patterns of intra- and cross-language and phonological therapy and their neural bases remain unclear. We tested whether the effects of an intensive lexical-phonological training (LPT) in L2 transferred to L1 word production in a Persian-French bilingual stroke patient with Broca's aphasia. Language performance was assessed using the Bilingual Aphasia Test, a 144-item picture naming (PN) task and a word-picture verification (WPV) task. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during PN and WPV in both languages before and after an LPT in French on a wordlist from the PN task. After the therapy, naming improved only for the treated L2 items. The naming performance improved neither in the untrained L2 items nor in the corresponding items in L1. EEG analyses revealed a Language x Session topographic interaction at 540 ms post-stimulus, driven by a modification of the electrophysiological response to the treated L2 but not L1 items. These results indicate that LPT modified the brain networks engaged in the phonological-phonetic processing during naming only in the trained language for the trained items. PMID:26010483

  1. A longitudinal study of sentence comprehension difficulty in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, M; Moore, P

    2005-01-01

    Context: Patients with primary progressive aphasia have sentence comprehension difficulty, but the longitudinal course of this deficit has not been investigated. Objective: To determine how grammatical, single word meaning, and working memory factors contribute to longitudinal decline of sentence comprehension in primary progressive aphasia. We hypothesised partially distinct patterns of sentence comprehension difficulty in subgroups of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) and semantic dementia (SD). Design: Cohort. Setting: Institutional out patient referral centre. Patients: PNFA (n = 14), SD (n = 10). Main outcome measure: Sentence comprehension accuracy. Results: PNFA patients were significantly impaired at understanding grammatically complex sentences when first seen, and this was more evident than impairment of their comprehension of grammatically simple sentences (p<0.05). Comprehension of grammatically complex sentences correlated with their working memory deficit at presentation (p<0.05). PNFA patients showed modest decline over time in grammatical comprehension. In SD, comprehension of grammatically complex sentences was not more impaired than comprehension of grammatically simple sentences when first seen, but these patients demonstrated a significant longitudinal decline in understanding grammatically complex sentences (p<0.05). Cox regression analyses showed that a deficit in single word meaning contributes to the progressive impairment for grammatically complex sentences in SD (p<0.05), but working memory does not contribute to longitudinal decline in PNFA. Conclusion: Patients with PNFA and SD have sentence comprehension difficulty, but distinct factors contribute to this impairment during the course of their disease. PMID:15834020

  2. Electrophysiological responses to argument structure violations in healthy adults and individuals with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kielar, Aneta; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires processing of argument structure information associated with verbs, i.e. the number and type of arguments that they select. Many individuals with agrammatic aphasia show impaired production of verbs with greater argument structure density. The extent to which these participants also show argument structure deficits during comprehension, however, is unclear. Some studies find normal access to verb arguments, whereas others report impaired ability. The present study investigated verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasia by examining event-related potentials associated with argument structure violations in healthy young and older adults as well as aphasic individuals. A semantic violation condition was included to investigate possible differences in sensitivity to semantic and argument structure information during sentence processing. Results for the healthy control participants showed a negativity followed by a positive shift (N400-P600) in the argument structure violation condition, as found in previous ERP studies (Friederici & Frisch, 2000; Frisch, Hahne, & Friederici, 2004). In contrast, individuals with agrammatic aphasia showed a P600, but no N400, response to argument structure mismatches. Additionally, compared to the control groups, the agrammatic participants showed an attenuated, but relatively preserved, N400 response to semantic violations. These data show that agrammatic individuals do not demonstrate normal real-time sensitivity to verb argument structure requirements during sentence processing. PMID:23022079

  3. Semantic Knowledge Use in Discourse Produced by Individuals with Anomic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kintz, Stephen; Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have demonstrated that people with aphasia (PWA) have preserved semantic knowledge (Dell et al., 1997; Jefferies & Lambon Ralph, 2006). However, Antonucci (2014) demonstrated that some PWA have impaired access to certain types of knowledge more than others. Yet, all these studies used single concepts. It has not been demonstrated whether PWA have difficulty accessing certain types of features within a discourse sample. Aims The main goals of this study were to determine if semantic knowledge and two category types were used differently within discourse produced by participants with anomic aphasia and healthy controls. Method & Procedures Participants with anomic aphasia (n=19) and healthy controls (n=19) told stories that were transcribed and coded for 10 types of semantic knowledge and two category types, living and nonliving things. Outcomes & Results A Poisson regression model was conducted. The results indicated a significant difference between the groups for the semantic knowledge types, sound and internal state, but no difference was found for category types. Yet the distribution of semantic knowledge and category types produced within the discourse samples were similar between the groups. Conclusion PWA might have differential access to certain types of semantic knowledge within discourse production, but it does not rise to the level of categorical deficits. These findings extend single-concept research into the realm of discourse. PMID:27429506

  4. How intensive does anomia therapy for people with aphasia need to be?

    PubMed

    Sage, Karen; Snell, Claerwen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of aphasia therapy has been a key clinical question. The aim of this case-series study was to compare the outcome of intensive and non-intensive therapy in the relearning of words for people with aphasia. Eight participants took part in a study comparing the intensity of delivery of the therapy. Participants received two courses of the same therapy (each lasting 10 sessions) delivered either intensively or non-intensively. Therapy consisted of confrontation naming with progressive phonemic and orthographic cues. Post-therapy assessments were carried out immediately after the study and one month later. Performance was also monitored during each therapy session. Immediately post-therapy, both types of therapy had improved naming accuracy considerably and there was no significant difference between the two interventions. One month later, seven out of eight participants showed a small yet significant difference in naming accuracy, favouring non-intensive over intense therapy. There were no differences in the learning patterns during the therapy sessions between the intensive and non-intensive therapies. For the majority of people with aphasia post-stroke, both intense and non-intense therapy for anomia leads to improved naming performance. Retention at one-month post therapy is relatively superior after non-intensive therapy.

  5. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM.

  6. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM. PMID:26275964

  7. Cases of aphasia in a work on medicine from the 16th century.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Sanz, Augustin; Garcia-Avila, Juan Fernando; Vallejo, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the international community the role in the history of aphasiology of the eminent Renaissance figure, the Extremaduran Francisco Arceo de Fregenal. To present the subject, after a brief biography of this surgeon, we will trace the development of the concept of aphasia up to the 16th century. In some ancient cultures we find that this disorder was described as a "cerebral accident", to be presented subsequently in the Middle Ages as a divine punishment, only for the original idea to be taken up again during the Renaissance. This return to the concept of the early civilisations was not to lead to the formal classification of this condition however, until the studies of Broca and Wernicke were published in the 19th century. The contribution of Arceo lies in the description of clinical cases included in his book De Recta cvrandorum, which are presented in their original written version in Latin accompanied by a translation in English. The first of these cases tells of spontaneous recovery from the disease, and the second of the evolution of a patient with aphasia secondary to traumatic brain injury following surgery. Despite the great value of Arceo's report, the historical context and his professional attitude did not allow for a localisationist interpretation of the concept of aphasia. PMID:25811692

  8. Language specificity of lexical-phonological therapy in bilingual aphasia: A clinical and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Radman, Narges; Spierer, Lucas; Laganaro, Marina; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Colombo, Françoise

    2016-08-01

    Based on findings for overlapping representations of bilingual people's first (L1) and second (L2) languages, unilingual therapies of bilingual aphasia have been proposed to benefit the untrained language. However, the generalisation patterns of intra- and cross-language and phonological therapy and their neural bases remain unclear. We tested whether the effects of an intensive lexical-phonological training (LPT) in L2 transferred to L1 word production in a Persian-French bilingual stroke patient with Broca's aphasia. Language performance was assessed using the Bilingual Aphasia Test, a 144-item picture naming (PN) task and a word-picture verification (WPV) task. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during PN and WPV in both languages before and after an LPT in French on a wordlist from the PN task. After the therapy, naming improved only for the treated L2 items. The naming performance improved neither in the untrained L2 items nor in the corresponding items in L1. EEG analyses revealed a Language x Session topographic interaction at 540 ms post-stimulus, driven by a modification of the electrophysiological response to the treated L2 but not L1 items. These results indicate that LPT modified the brain networks engaged in the phonological-phonetic processing during naming only in the trained language for the trained items.

  9. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

  10. Are vowel errors influenced by consonantal context in the speech of persons with aphasia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfer, Carole E.; Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Boyle, Mary

    2001-05-01

    The literature suggests that vowels and consonants may be affected differently in the speech of persons with conduction aphasia (CA) or nonfluent aphasia with apraxia of speech (AOS). Persons with CA have shown similar error rates across vowels and consonants, while those with AOS have shown more errors for consonants than vowels. These data have been interpreted to suggest that consonants have greater gestural complexity than vowels. However, recent research [M. Boyle et al., Proc. International Cong. Phon. Sci., 3265-3268 (2003)] does not support this interpretation: persons with AOS and CA both had a high proportion of vowel errors, and vowel errors almost always occurred in the context of consonantal errors. To examine the notion that vowels are inherently less complex than consonants and are differentially affected in different types of aphasia, vowel production in different consonantal contexts for speakers with AOS or CA was examined. The target utterances, produced in carrier phrases, were bVC and bV syllables, allowing us to examine whether vowel production is influenced by consonantal context. Listener judgments were obtained for each token, and error productions were grouped according to the intended utterance and error type. Acoustical measurements were made from spectrographic displays.

  11. Psychosocial Well-Being in Persons with Aphasia Participating in a Nursing Intervention after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bronken, Berit Arnesveen; Kirkevold, Marit; Martinsen, Randi; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Kvigne, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial adjustment process after stroke is complicated and protracted. The language is the most important tool for making sense of experiences and for human interplay, making persons with aphasia especially prone to psychosocial problems. Persons with aphasia are systematically excluded from research projects due to methodological challenges. This study explored how seven persons with aphasia experienced participating in a complex nursing intervention aimed at supporting the psychosocial adjustment process and promoting psychosocial well-being. The intervention was organized as an individual, dialogue-based collaboration process based upon ideas from “Guided self-determination.” The content addressed psychosocial issues as mood, social relationships, meaningful activities, identity, and body changes. Principles from “Supported conversation for adults with aphasia” were used to facilitate the conversations. The data were obtained by participant observation during the intervention, qualitative interviews 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention and by standardized clinical instruments prior to the intervention and at 2 weeks and 12 months after the intervention. Assistance in narrating about themselves and their experiences with illness, psychological support and motivation to move on during the difficult adjustment process, and exchange of knowledge and information were experienced as beneficial and important by the participants in this study. PMID:22888417

  12. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s.

  13. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals With and Without Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of pupil dilation and constriction during a cognitive task), yet pupillometry has not been implemented in studies including PWA. In the present study, we tested a novel method for indexing cognitive effort during linguistic processing in people with and without aphasia. Method Forty control participants and 39 PWA listened to semantically easy and difficult single nouns and looked at images while their pupillary responses were monitored. Mean pupil dilation in response to easy versus difficult nouns was calculated to index cognitive effort. Results Larger mean pupil dilation values were obtained for difficult compared with easy nouns for both groups. Conclusion Results provide preliminary evidence that pupillometry can be used to index cognitive effort during linguistic processing of single nouns in people with and without aphasia. Methods for indexing cognitive effort will be a valuable addition to existing assessment methods. Suggestions for further research are offered. PMID:26163655

  14. Cross-language lexical connections in the mental lexicon: evidence from a case of trilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K; Cohen, Eyal

    2006-08-01

    Despite anecdotal data on lexical interference among the languages of multilingual speakers, little research evidence about the lexical connections among multilinguals' languages exists to date. In the present paper, two experiments with a multilingual speaker who had suffered aphasia are reported. The first experiment provides data about inter-language activation during natural conversations; the second experiment examines performance on a word-translation task. Asymmetric patterns of inter-language interference and translation are evident. These patterns are influenced by age of language learning, degree of language recovery and use, and prevalence of shared lexical items. We conclude that whereas age of language learning plays a role in language recovery following aphasia, the degrees of language use prior to the aphasia onset and of shared vocabulary determine the ease with which words are accessed. The findings emphasize the importance of patterns of language use and the relations between the language pair under investigation in understanding lexical connections among languages in bilinguals and multilinguals.

  15. A Comparison of the Visual Attention Patterns of People with Aphasia and Adults without Neurological Conditions for Camera-Engaged and Task-Engaged Visual Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Amber; Beukelman, David; Hux, Karen; Longenecker, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the visual attention patterns of adults with aphasia and adults without neurological conditions when viewing visual scenes with 2 types of engagement. Method: Eye-tracking technology was used to measure the visual attention patterns of 10 adults with aphasia and 10 adults without neurological…

  16. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the…

  17. Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

  18. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Intensity of Treatment and Constraint-Induced Language Therapy for Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Patterson, Janet P.; Raymer, Anastasia; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review summarizes evidence for intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) on measures of language impairment and communication activity/participation in individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Method: A systematic search of the aphasia literature using 15 electronic databases (e.g., PubMed,…

  19. Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

  20. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  1. Effects of Cognate Status and Language of Therapy during Intensive Semantic Naming Treatment in a Case of Severe Nonfluent Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Falcon, Marahu

    2011-01-01

    As bilingualism becomes less exceptional in the world, and with the growing incidence of stroke and aphasia, a better understanding of how bilingualism affects aphasia recovery is increasingly important. The present study examined the effect of intensive semantic naming therapy in three phases (Spanish, English and mixed) on within- and…

  2. A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly…

  3. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sandra L.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. Aim This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant’s sentence production was also examined. Methods & Procedures Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions—semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state verbs (semantic

  4. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sandra L; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. AIM: This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant's sentence production was also examined. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions-semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state

  5. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  6. The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae & Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n=8) and older unimpaired controls (n=60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb’s selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n=4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n=4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests that

  7. Lesion correlates of patholinguistic profiles in chronic aphasia: comparisons of syndrome-, modality- and symptom-level assessment.

    PubMed

    Henseler, Ilona; Regenbrecht, Frank; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2014-03-01

    One way to investigate the neuronal underpinnings of language competence is to correlate patholinguistic profiles of aphasic patients to corresponding lesion sites. Constituting the beginnings of aphasiology and neurolinguistics over a century ago, this approach has been revived and refined in the past decade by statistical approaches mapping continuous variables (providing metrics that are not simply categorical) on voxel-wise lesion information (voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping). Here we investigate whether and how voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping allows us to delineate specific lesion patterns for differentially fine-grained clinical classifications. The latter encompass 'classical' syndrome-based approaches (e.g. Broca's aphasia), more symptom-oriented descriptions (e.g. agrammatism) and further refinement to linguistic sub-functions (e.g. lexico-semantic deficits for inanimate versus animate items). From a large database of patients treated for aphasia of different aetiologies (n = 1167) a carefully selected group of 102 first ever ischaemic stroke patients with chronic aphasia (∅ 12 months) were included in a VLSM analysis. Specifically, we investigated how performance in the Aachen Aphasia Test-the standard clinical test battery for chronic aphasia in German-relates to distinct brain lesions. The Aachen Aphasia Test evaluates aphasia on different levels: a non-parametric discriminant procedure yields probabilities for the allocation to one of the four 'standard' syndromes (Broca, Wernicke, global and amnestic aphasia), whereas standardized subtests target linguistic modalities (e.g. repetition), or even more specific symptoms (e.g. phoneme repetition). Because some subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (e.g. for the linguistic level of lexico-semantics) rely on rather coarse and heterogeneous test items we complemented the analysis with a number of more detailed clinically used tests in selected mostly mildly affected subgroups of patients. Our results

  8. Lesion correlates of patholinguistic profiles in chronic aphasia: comparisons of syndrome-, modality- and symptom-level assessment.

    PubMed

    Henseler, Ilona; Regenbrecht, Frank; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2014-03-01

    One way to investigate the neuronal underpinnings of language competence is to correlate patholinguistic profiles of aphasic patients to corresponding lesion sites. Constituting the beginnings of aphasiology and neurolinguistics over a century ago, this approach has been revived and refined in the past decade by statistical approaches mapping continuous variables (providing metrics that are not simply categorical) on voxel-wise lesion information (voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping). Here we investigate whether and how voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping allows us to delineate specific lesion patterns for differentially fine-grained clinical classifications. The latter encompass 'classical' syndrome-based approaches (e.g. Broca's aphasia), more symptom-oriented descriptions (e.g. agrammatism) and further refinement to linguistic sub-functions (e.g. lexico-semantic deficits for inanimate versus animate items). From a large database of patients treated for aphasia of different aetiologies (n = 1167) a carefully selected group of 102 first ever ischaemic stroke patients with chronic aphasia (∅ 12 months) were included in a VLSM analysis. Specifically, we investigated how performance in the Aachen Aphasia Test-the standard clinical test battery for chronic aphasia in German-relates to distinct brain lesions. The Aachen Aphasia Test evaluates aphasia on different levels: a non-parametric discriminant procedure yields probabilities for the allocation to one of the four 'standard' syndromes (Broca, Wernicke, global and amnestic aphasia), whereas standardized subtests target linguistic modalities (e.g. repetition), or even more specific symptoms (e.g. phoneme repetition). Because some subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (e.g. for the linguistic level of lexico-semantics) rely on rather coarse and heterogeneous test items we complemented the analysis with a number of more detailed clinically used tests in selected mostly mildly affected subgroups of patients. Our results

  9. [Non-pharmacological therapies for language deficits in the agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Routhier, Sonia; Gravel-Laflamme, Karine; Macoir, Joël

    2013-03-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative condition characterised by a progressive and isolated disorder of expressive language, associated with atrophy of the left posterior frontoinsular region (nonfluent/agrammatic variant) or with atrophy of the left temporoparietal junction area (logopenic variant). This literature review reports studies about language therapies for these two variants of primary progressive aphasia. More precisely, the review presents the behavioral interventions and the augmentative/alternative communication tools reported in the literature to improve language performances or to compensate for language difficulties. Most of these studies reported that interventions are efficient. However, inconsistent results are found regarding maintenance of improvement and generalization to untreated language abilities. Other studies are still required to establish the clinical relevance of interventions for language and communication disorders in primary progressive aphasia. In these studies, the use of more ecological interventions focusing on the specific needs of people living with this disease should be specifically addressed.

  10. The Swedish Speech Interpretation Service: an exploratory study of a new communication support provided to people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Inger; Thorén-Jönsson, Anna-Lisa

    2007-12-01

    Until recently, people with complex communication needs have had no access to professional interpreters. The Swedish Speech Interpretation Service (SSIS) is attempting to address this problem. This qualitative study reports on how 12 persons with aphasia experienced the services of a professional interpreter from the SSIS. The results are presented in two themes: (a) The purpose of using an interpreter, which addresses issues relating to autonomy, privacy, and burden on family members; and (b) perceptions of quality of service, which addresses issues relating to the skills and professionalism of and accessibility to interpreters. Results highlight the ongoing need for the SSIS and its importance to the participants. The professional interpreter as an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) "tool" that could be used to enhance the participation of people with aphasia in the community-at-large, is also discussed; as is whether relatives and other non-professionals or professional interpreters should interpret for people with aphasia.

  11. The Swedish Speech Interpretation Service: an exploratory study of a new communication support provided to people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Inger; Thorén-Jönsson, Anna-Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, people with complex communication needs have had no access to professional interpreters. The Swedish Speech Interpretation Service (SSIS) is attempting to address this problem. This qualitative study reports on how 12 persons with aphasia experienced the services of a professional interpreter from the SSIS. The results are presented in two themes: (a) The purpose of using an interpreter, which addresses issues relating to autonomy, privacy, and burden on family members; and (b) perceptions of quality of service, which addresses issues relating to the skills and professionalism of and accessibility to interpreters. Results highlight the ongoing need for the SSIS and its importance to the participants. The professional interpreter as an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) "tool" that could be used to enhance the participation of people with aphasia in the community-at large, is also discussed; as is whether relatives and other non-professionals or professional interpreters should interpret for people with aphasia.

  12. Development and validation of Australian aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    PubMed Central

    Power, Emma; Thomas, Emma; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; Togher, Leanne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Hersh, Deborah; Godecke, Erin; O'Halloran, Robyn; Lamont, Sue; O'Connor, Claire; Clarke, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a national set of best practice statements for use in post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. Design Literature review and statement validation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). Participants A national Community of Practice of over 250 speech pathologists, researchers, consumers and policymakers developed a framework consisting of eight areas of care in aphasia rehabilitation. This framework provided the structure for the development of a care pathway containing aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements. Nine speech pathologists with expertise in aphasia rehabilitation participated in two rounds of RAND/UCLA appropriateness ratings of the statements. Panellists consisted of researchers, service managers, clinicians and policymakers. Main outcome measures Statements that achieved a high level of agreement and an overall median score of 7–9 on a nine-point scale were rated as ‘appropriate’. Results 74 best practice statements were extracted from the literature and rated across eight areas of care (eg, receiving the right referrals, providing intervention). At the end of Round 1, 71 of the 74 statements were rated as appropriate, no statements were rated as inappropriate, and three statements were rated as uncertain. All 74 statements were then rated again in the face-to-face second round. 16 statements were added through splitting existing items or adding new statements. Seven statements were deleted leaving 83 statements. Agreement was reached for 82 of the final 83 statements. Conclusions This national set of 82 best practice statements across eight care areas for the rehabilitation of people with aphasia is the first to be validated by an expert panel. These statements form a crucial component of the Australian Aphasia Rehabilitation Pathway (AARP) (http://www.aphasiapathway.com.au) and provide the basis for more consistent implementation of evidence-based practice in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26137883

  13. Comparison of metabolic rates, language, and memory in subcortical aphasias. [Tomographic studies using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglulcose

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with subcortical lesions and either aphasia or amnesia were compared to four patients with cortical lesions and aphasia. Each patient had /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography and language and memory evaluations. Metabolic depression was found in the thalamus and caudate in both groups, while only the cortical group showed cortical changes. Language changes were mild in the subcortical, while moderate to severe in the cortical group. Both groups showed severe verbal memory dysfunction. The only common abnormalities in the two groups were metabolic changes in thalamus, and severity of verbal memory dysfunction. These findings suggest a relationship between verbal memory and thalamic function.

  14. A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel M; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

    2013-08-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca's region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

  15. A multimodal neuroimaging study of a case of crossed nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Edoardo G; Caso, Francesca; Agosta, Federica; Gambina, Giuseppe; Magnani, Giuseppe; Canu, Elisa; Blasi, Valeria; Perani, Daniela; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Crossed aphasia has been reported mainly as post-stroke aphasia resulting from brain damage ipsilateral to the dominant right hand. Here, we described a case of a crossed nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), who developed a corticobasal syndrome (CBS). We collected clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging data for four consecutive years from a 55-year-old right-handed lady (JV) presenting with speech disturbances. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) and DaT-scan with (123)I-Ioflupane were obtained. Functional MRI (fMRI) during a verb naming task was acquired to characterize patterns of language lateralization. Diffusion tensor MRI was used to evaluate white matter damage within the language network. At onset, JV presented with prominent speech output impairment and right frontal atrophy. After 3 years, language deficits worsened, with the occurrence of a mild agrammatism. The patient also developed a left-sided mild extrapyramidal bradykinetic-rigid syndrome. The clinical picture was suggestive of nfvPPA with mild left-sided extrapyramidal syndrome. At this time, voxel-wise SPM analyses of (18)F-FDG PET and structural MRI showed right greater than left frontal hypometabolism and damage, which included the Broca's area. DaT-scan showed a reduced uptake in the right striatum. FMRI during naming task demonstrated bilateral language activations, and tractography showed right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) involvement. Over the following year, JV became mute and developed frank left-sided motor signs and symptoms, evolving into a CBS clinical picture. Brain atrophy worsened in frontal areas bilaterally, and extended to temporo-parietal regions, still with a right-sided asymmetry. Tractography showed an extension of damage to the left SLF and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We report a case of crossed nfvPPA followed longitudinally and studied with advanced neuroimaging techniques. The results highlight a

  16. Extended turn construction and test question sequences in the conversations of three speakers with agrammatic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Beeke, Suzanne; Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The application of Conversation Analysis (CA) to the investigation of agrammatic aphasia reveals that utterances produced by speakers with agrammatism engaged in everyday conversation differ significantly from utterances produced in response to decontextualised assessment and therapy tasks. Early studies have demonstrated that speakers with agrammatism construct turns from sequences of nouns, adjectives, discourse markers and conjunctions, packaged by a distinct pattern of prosody. This article presents examples of turn construction methods deployed by three people with agrammatism as they take an extended turn, in order to recount a past event, initiate a discussion or have a disagreement. This is followed by examples of sequences occurring in the talk of two of these speakers that result in different, and more limited, turn construction opportunities, namely "test" questions asked in order to initiate a new topic of talk, despite the conversation partner knowing the answer. The contrast between extended turns and test question sequences illustrates the effect of interactional context on aphasic turn construction practices, and the potential of less than optimal sequences to mask turn construction skills. It is suggested that the interactional motivation for test question sequences in these data are to invite people with aphasia to contribute to conversation, rather than to practise saying words in an attempt to improve language skills. The idea that test question sequences may have their origins in early attempts to deal with acute aphasia, and the potential for conversation partnerships to become "stuck" in such interactional patterns after they may have outlived their usefulness, are discussed with a view to clinical implications. PMID:23848370

  17. Comparison of emotional and non-emotional word repetitions in patients with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiyari, Jalal; Khatoonabadi, Seyyed Ahmad Reza; Dadgar, Hooshang; Bakhtiari, Behrooz Mahmoodi; Khosravizadeh, Parvaneh; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia is a language disorder caused by left hemisphere damage. For treatment of aphasia, in some of therapeutic approaches, the right hemisphere (RH) abilities, such as, emotional perception, is used for stimulation of the language process in the left hemisphere. The aim of this study is to investigate emotional word repetition in aphasia after a stroke, in Persian language patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen aphasic patients (eleven male and four female) between 45 and 65 (58/4 ± 7/8) years of age, participated in this cross-sectional study. A list of 20 emotional words and a list of 20 neutral words as stimuli were prepared and the patients were asked to repeat each word after five seconds; if a patient needed to repeat a word again, it was repeated for him/her again, and the total score for each subject was calculated. The paired t-test was used to test group mean differences and the significant level was 0.05. Results: The mean and standard deviation for emotional word repetitions were 6.93 ± 1.72 and for non-emotional word repetition was 7.10 ± 2.23, and the P value = 0.892, thus, no significant difference between emotional and non-emotional word repetitions was noticed. The mean and standard deviation for the positive emotional word repetitions were 3.53 ± 3.29 and for negative word repetitions were 3.40 ± 3.56, (P = 0.751), with no significant difference between positive and negative emotional word repetitions. Conclusion: Despite the main hypothesis that the right hemisphere is involved in the processing of emotions, it can be stated that both hemispheres are involved in the processing of emotional words, albeit in a different and probably complementary manner. PMID:26436078

  18. Neurology of anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mesulam, Marsel; Rogalski, Emily; Wieneke, Christina; Cobia, Derin; Rademaker, Alfred; Thompson, Cynthia; Weintraub, Sandra

    2009-09-01

    The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by the combination of word comprehension deficits, fluent aphasia and a particularly severe anomia. In this study, two novel tasks were used to explore the factors contributing to the anomia. The single most common factor was a blurring of distinctions among members of a semantic category, leading to errors of overgeneralization in word-object matching tasks as well as in word definitions and object descriptions. This factor was more pronounced for natural kinds than artifacts. In patients with the more severe anomias, conceptual maps were more extensively disrupted so that inter-category distinctions were as impaired as intra-category distinctions. Many objects that could not be named aloud could be matched to the correct word in patients with mild but not severe anomia, reflecting a gradual intensification of the semantic factor as the naming disorder becomes more severe. Accurate object descriptions were more frequent than accurate word definitions and all patients experienced prominent word comprehension deficits that interfered with everyday activities but no consequential impairment of object usage or face recognition. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed three characteristics: greater atrophy of the left hemisphere; atrophy of anterior components of the perisylvian language network in the superior and middle temporal gyri; and atrophy of anterior components of the face and object recognition network in the inferior and medial temporal lobes. The left sided asymmetry and perisylvian extension of the atrophy explains the more profound impairment of word than object usage and provides the anatomical basis for distinguishing the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia from the partially overlapping group of patients that fulfil the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for semantic dementia.

  19. A controlled study of changes in conversation following aphasia therapy for anomia.

    PubMed

    Best, Wendy; Grassly, Jennie; Greenwood, Alison; Herbert, Ruth; Hickin, Julie; Howard, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between change in picture naming with anomia therapy and changes in word retrieval in conversations between adults with aphasia and a regular conversational partner. We present data from two therapy projects (Hickin et al. [ 1 ] and Best et al. [ 2 ]). In each study, therapy involved cueing with the aim of improving retrieval of a set of nouns. Naming of the experimental items was assessed twice prior to therapy and again immediately afterwards. There was a significant change in word finding, as measured by picture naming, for the group and for 11 of the 13 participants. At the same time points, we collected conversations between the person with aphasia and a regular conversational partner. We analysed these using Profile of Word Errors and Retrieval in Speech (Herbert et al. [ 3 ]) and investigated a set of conversational variables predicted to change with therapy. Unsurprisingly, the conversation data is not straightforward. There is no significant change on the conversation measures for the group but some changes for individuals. We predicted change in word retrieval after therapy would relate to change in everyday conversations and tested this by correlating the change (post-therapy minus mean pre-therapy) in picture naming with the change in conversation variables. There was a significant positive relationship between the change in picture naming and change in some conversation measures including the number of nouns produced in 5 min of conversation (r = 0.50, p < 0.05, one-tailed) and the number of nouns produced per substantive turn (r = 0.55, p < 0.05, one-tailed). The findings suggest changes in word finding following therapy for aphasia can be reflected in changes in conversation. The clinical implications of the complex results are explored.

  20. Effects of verb meaning on lexical integration in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking.

    PubMed

    Mack, Jennifer E; Ji, Woohyuk; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2013-11-01

    Relatively little is known about the time course of access to the lexical representations of verbs in agrammatic aphasia and its effects on the prediction and integration of the verb's arguments. The present study used visual-world eyetracking to test whether verb meaning can be used by agrammatic aphasic individuals to predict and facilitate the integration of a subsequent noun argument. Nine adults with agrammatic aphasia and ten age-matched controls participated in the study. In Experiment 1, participants viewed arrays of four objects (e.g., jar, plate, stick, pencil) while listening to sentences containing either a restrictive verb that was semantically compatible only with the target object or an unrestrictive verb compatible with all four objects (e.g., Susan will open/break the jar). For both participant groups, the restrictive condition elicited more fixations to the target object immediately after the verb. Experiment 2 differed from Experiment 1 in that the auditory sentences presented were incomplete (e.g., Susan will open/break the…). For controls, restrictive verbs elicited more target fixations immediately after the verb; however, the effects of verb type were noted downstream from the verb for the aphasic listeners. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia have preserved ability to use verb information to facilitate integration of overt arguments, but prediction of upcoming arguments is impaired. Impaired lexical-semantic prediction processes may be caused by damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been argued to support higher-level lexical processes. PMID:24092952

  1. Extended turn construction and test question sequences in the conversations of three speakers with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The application of Conversation Analysis (CA) to the investigation of agrammatic aphasia reveals that utterances produced by speakers with agrammatism engaged in everyday conversation differ significantly from utterances produced in response to decontextualised assessment and therapy tasks. Early studies have demonstrated that speakers with agrammatism construct turns from sequences of nouns, adjectives, discourse markers and conjunctions, packaged by a distinct pattern of prosody. This article presents examples of turn construction methods deployed by three people with agrammatism as they take an extended turn, in order to recount a past event, initiate a discussion or have a disagreement. This is followed by examples of sequences occurring in the talk of two of these speakers that result in different, and more limited, turn construction opportunities, namely “test” questions asked in order to initiate a new topic of talk, despite the conversation partner knowing the answer. The contrast between extended turns and test question sequences illustrates the effect of interactional context on aphasic turn construction practices, and the potential of less than optimal sequences to mask turn construction skills. It is suggested that the interactional motivation for test question sequences in these data are to invite people with aphasia to contribute to conversation, rather than to practise saying words in an attempt to improve language skills. The idea that test question sequences may have their origins in early attempts to deal with acute aphasia, and the potential for conversation partnerships to become “stuck” in such interactional patterns after they may have outlived their usefulness, are discussed with a view to clinical implications. PMID:23848370

  2. Improving Production of Treated and Untreated Verbs in Aphasia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Vânia; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These outcomes may rely on different mechanisms, and therefore be predicted by different variables. Furthermore, treatment features are not typically accounted for when studying predictors of aphasia recovery. This is partly due to the small numbers of cases reported in studies, but also to limitations of data analysis techniques usually employed. Method: We reviewed the literature on predictors of aphasia recovery, and conducted a meta-analysis of single-case studies designed to assess the efficacy of treatments for verb production. The contribution of demographic, clinical, and treatment-related variables was assessed by means of Random Forests (a machine-learning technique used in classification and regression). Two outcomes were investigated: production of treated (for 142 patients) and untreated verbs (for 166 patients). Results: Improved production of treated verbs was predicted by a three-way interaction of pre-treatment scores on tests for verb comprehension and word repetition, and the frequency of treatment sessions. Improvement in production of untreated verbs was predicted by an interaction including the use of morphological cues, presence of grammatical impairment, pre-treatment scores on a test for noun comprehension, and frequency of treatment sessions. Conclusion: Improvement in the production of treated verbs occurs frequently. It may depend on restoring access to and/or knowledge of lexeme representations, and requires relative sparing of semantic knowledge (as measured by verb comprehension) and phonological output abilities (including working memory, as measured by word repetition). Improvement in the production of untreated verbs has not been reported very often

  3. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia and 16 normal controls participated in the study. A confrontation naming task was used to elicit verb production with a total of 36 items for each verb type (1-place unergative, 1-place unaccusative, 2-place, and 3-place verbs). Individuals with aphasia presented lower mean percentage correctness in 3-place than in 1-place verbs, and showed differentially greater difficulties with unaccusative constructions than with unergative verbs, compared to the control group. The effects of verb-argument complexity were clearly observed in Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia. The effects of the number of arguments were observed most clearly in Broca's and Wernicke's types of aphasia and individuals with lower overall aphasia severity. The effects of Korean unaccusativity manifested across aphasia groups. General patterns of verb-argument complexity in Korean were consistent with previous findings in English. PMID:25533926

  4. Effect of Donepezil on Wernicke Aphasia After Bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Subtraction Analysis of Brain F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomographic Images.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Kim, Je-Kyung; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common neurologic deficits occurring after stroke. Although the speech-language therapy is a mainstream option for poststroke aphasia, pharmacotherapy is recently being tried to modulate different neurotransmitter systems. However, the efficacy of those treatments is still controversial. We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient with Wernicke aphasia, after the old infarction in the territory of left middle cerebral artery for 8 years and the recent infarction in the right middle cerebral artery for 4 months. On the initial evaluation, the Aphasia Quotient in Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 25.6 of 100. Baseline brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images demonstrated a decreased cerebral metabolism in the left temporoparietal area and right temporal lobe. Donepezil hydrochloride, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was orally administered 5 mg/d for 6 weeks after the initial evaluation and was increased to 10 mg/d for the following 6 weeks. After the donepezil treatment, the patient showed improvement in language function, scoring 51.0 of 100 on Aphasia Quotient. A subtraction analysis of the brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images after donepezil medication demonstrated increased uptake in both middle temporal gyri, extended to the occipital area and the left cerebellum. Thus, we suggest that donepezil can be an effective therapeutic choice for the treatment of Wernicke aphasia.

  5. Emergence Delirium with Transient Associative Agnosia and Expressive Aphasia Reversed by Flumazenil in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Drobish, Julie K.; Kelz, Max B.; DiPuppo, Patricia M.; Cook-Sather, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil. PMID:26035220

  6. Effects of context and word class on lexical retrieval in Chinese speakers with anomic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Loretta Wing-Shan; Lai, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in processing nouns and verbs have been investigated intensely in psycholinguistics and neuropsychology in past decades. However, the majority of studies examining retrieval of these word classes have involved tasks of single word stimuli or responses. While the results have provided rich information for addressing issues about grammatical class distinctions, it is unclear whether they have adequate ecological validity for understanding lexical retrieval in connected speech which characterizes daily verbal communication. Previous investigations comparing retrieval of nouns and verbs in single word production and connected speech have reported either discrepant performance between the two contexts with presence of word class dissociation in picture naming but absence in connected speech, or null effects of word class. In addition, word finding difficulties have been found to be less severe in connected speech than picture naming. However, these studies have failed to match target stimuli of the two word classes and between tasks on psycholinguistic variables known to affect performance in response latency and/or accuracy. Aims The present study compared lexical retrieval of nouns and verbs in picture naming and connected speech from picture description, procedural description, and story-telling among 19 Chinese speakers with anomic aphasia and their age, gender, and education matched healthy controls, to understand the influence of grammatical class on word production across speech contexts when target items were balanced for confounding variables between word classes and tasks. Methods & Procedures Elicitation of responses followed the protocol of the AphasiaBank consortium (http://talkbank.org/AphasiaBank/). Target words for confrontation naming were based on well-established naming tests, while those for narrative were drawn from a large database of normal speakers. Selected nouns and verbs in the two contexts were matched for age

  7. The relationship of music to the melody of speech and to syntactic processing disorders in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2005-12-01

    Two new empirical studies address the relationship between music and language. The first focuses on melody and uses research in phonetics to investigate the long-held notion that instrumental music reflects speech patterns in a composer's native language. The second focuses on syntax and addresses the relationship between musical and linguistic syntactic processing via the study of aphasia, an approach that has been explored very little. The results of these two studies add to a growing body of evidence linking music and language with regard to structural patterns and brain processing.

  8. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil. PMID:26035220

  9. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil.

  10. Functional MRI of Language in Aphasia: A Review of the Literature and the Methodological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith; Gopinath, Kaundinya S.; Conway, Tim W.; Benjamin, Michelle; Chang, Yu-Ling; Moore, Anna Bacon; Raymer, Anastasia M.; Briggs, Richard W.; Sherod, Megan G.; Wierenga, Christina E.; White, Keith D.

    2009-01-01

    Animal analogue studies show that damaged adult brains reorganize to accommodate compromised functions. In the human arena, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to study reorganization of language substrates in aphasia. The resulting controversy regarding whether it is the right or the left hemisphere that supports language recovery and treatment progress must be reframed. A more appropriate question is when left-hemisphere mechanisms and when right-hemisphere mechanisms support recovery of language functions. Small lesions generally lead to good recoveries supported by left-hemisphere mechanisms. However, when too much language eloquent cortex is damaged, right-hemisphere structures may provide the better substrate for recovery of language. Some studies suggest that recovery is particularly supported by homologues of damaged left-hemisphere structures. Evidence also suggests that under some circumstances, activity in both the left and right hemispheres can interfere with recovery of function. Further research will be needed to address these issues. However, daunting methodological problems must be managed to maximize the yield of future fMRI research in aphasia, especially in the area of language production. In this review, we cover six challenges for imaging language functions in aphasia with fMRI, with an emphasis on language production: (1) selection of a baseline task, (2) structure of language production trials, (3) mitigation of motion-related artifacts, (4) the use of stimulus onset vs. response onset in fMRI analyses, (5) use of trials with correct responses and errors in analyses, and (6) reliability and stability of fMRI images across sessions. However, this list of methodological challenges is not exhaustive. Once methodology is advanced, knowledge from conceptually driven fMRI studies can be used to develop theoretically driven, mechanism-based treatments that will result in more

  11. A Case of Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia with Severe Insular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chow, T. W.; Links, K. A.; Masterman, D. L.; Mendez, M.F.; Vinters, H. V.

    2012-01-01

    Insular degeneration has been linked to symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Presented in this case is a patient exhibiting semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, behavioral disturbance. Upon autopsy, he was found to have severe insular atrophy. In addition, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were ineffective in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive behaviours or emotional blunting. This case suggests that Seeley et al.'s hypothesis that VEN and fork cell-rich brain regions, particularly in the insula, are targeted in additional subtypes of FTD beyond the behavioral variant. PMID:22150361

  12. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  13. Auditory serial position effects in story retelling for non-brain-injured participants and persons with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Martin B; McNeil, Malcolm R; Doyle, Patrick J; Fossett, Tepanata R D; Timm, Neil H; Park, Grace H

    2003-10-01

    Using story retelling as an index of language ability, it is difficult to disambiguate comprehension and memory deficits. Collecting data on the serial position effect (SPE), however, illuminates the memory component. This study examined the SPE of the percentage of information units (%IU) produced in the connected speech samples of adults with aphasia and age-matched, non-brain-injured (NBI) participants. The NBI participants produced significantly more direct and alternate IUs than participants with aphasia. Significant age and gender differences were found in subsamples of the NBI controls, with younger and female participants generating significantly more direct IUs than male and older NBI participants. Alternate IU productions did not generate an SPE from any group. There was a significant linear increase from the initial (primacy) to the final (recency) portion of the recalled alternate IUs for both the NBI group and the group of participants with aphasia. Results provide evidence that individuals with aphasia recall discourse length information using similar memory functions as the nonimpaired population, though at a reduced level of efficiency or quantity. A quadratic model is suggested for the recall of information directly recalled from discourse-length language material.

  14. It's Either a Cook or a Baker: Patients with Conduction Aphasia Get the Gist but Lose the Trace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldo, Juliana V.; Klostermann, Ellen C.; Dronkers, Nina F.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with conduction aphasia have been characterized as having a short-term memory deficit that leads to relative difficulty on span and repetition tasks. It has also been observed that these same patients often get the gist of what is said to them, even if they are unable to repeat the information verbatim. To study this phenomenon…

  15. The Relationship between Phonological and Morphological Deficits in Broca's Aphasia: Further Evidence from Errors in Verb Inflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braber, N.; Patterson, K.; Ellis, K.; Lambon Ralph, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A previous study of 10 patients with Broca's aphasia demonstrated that the advantage for producing the past tense of irregular over regular verbs exhibited by these patients was eliminated when the two sets of past-tense forms were matched for phonological complexity (Bird, Lambon Ralph, Seidenberg, McClelland, & Patterson, 2003). The…

  16. Clause Structure and Verb Movement in a Greek-English Speaking Bilingual Patient with Broca's Aphasia: Evidence from Adverb Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Artemis; Stavrakaki, Stavroula

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Greek-English bilingual patient with Broca's aphasia and mild agrammatism on the placement of CP, MoodP, AspectP, and NegP-related adverbs, labeled specifier-type adverbs, and VP-related adverbs, labeled complement-type adverbs, by means of a constituent ordering task and a grammaticality judgment…

  17. A New Empirical Angle on the Variability Debate: Quantitative Neurosyntactic Analyses of a Large Data Set from Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drai, Dan; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral variation in Broca's aphasia has been characterized as boundless, calling into question the validity of the syndrome-based schema and related diagnostic methods of acquired language disorders. More generally, this putative variability has cast serious doubts on the feasibility of localizing linguistic operations in cortex. We present a…

  18. Improved Picture Naming in Chronic Aphasia after Tms to Part of Right Broca's Area: An Open-Protocol Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, M.A.; Martin, P.I.; Nicholas, M.; Baker, E.H.; Seekins, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Theoret, H.; Fregni, F.; Maria-Tormos, J.; Kurland, J.; Doron, K.W.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed ''over-activation'' in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca's homologue daily, for…

  19. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  20. Stimulating Conversation: Enhancement of Elicited Propositional Speech in a Patient with Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Sanders, Linda; Benson, Jennifer; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Norise, Catherine; Naeser, Margaret; Martin, Paula; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and non-fluent aphasia who receive 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language…