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Sample records for apheresis show equivalent

  1. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  2. Volunteer donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Dan A

    2002-02-01

    Volunteer donor apheresis has evolved from early plasmapheresis procedures that collected single components into technically advanced multicomponent procedures that can produce combinations of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma units. Blood collection and utilization is increasing annually in the United States. The number of apheresis procedures is also increasing such that single donor platelet transfusions now exceed platelet concentrates from random donors. Donor qualifications for apheresis vary from those of whole blood. Depending on the procedure, the donor weight, donation interval, and platelet count must be taken into consideration. Adverse effects of apheresis are well known and fortunately occur in only a very small percentage of donors. The recruitment of volunteer donors is one of the most challenging aspects of a successful apheresis program. As multicomponent apheresis becomes more commonplace, it is important for collection centers to analyze the best methods to recruit and collect donors.

  3. Complications of donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Winters, Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    A decreasing blood donor pool in the presence of increasing blood transfusion demands has resulted in the need to maximally utilize each blood donor. This has led to a trend in the increasing use of automated blood collections. While apheresis donation shares many reactions and injuries with whole blood donation, because of the differences, unique complications also exist. Overall, evidence in the literature suggests that the frequency of reactions to apheresis donation is less than that seen in whole blood donation, though the risk of reactions requiring hospitalization is substantially greater. The most common apheresis-specific reaction is hypocalcemia due to citrate anticoagulation, which, while usually mild, has the potential for severely injuring the donor. Other reactions to apheresis donation are uncommon (e.g., hypotension) or rare (e.g., air embolism). More worrisome, and in need of additional study, are the long-term effects of apheresis donation. Recent evidence suggests that repeated apheresis platelet donations may adversely effect thrombopoiesis as well as bone mineralization. Granulocyte donation has also been implicated in unexpected long-term consequences.

  4. Distribution of indications and procedures within the framework of centers participating in the WAA apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, B; Mörtzell Henriksson, M; Newman, E; Witt, V; Derfler, K; Leitner, G; Eloot, S; Dhondt, A; Deeren, D; Rock, G; Ptak, J; Blaha, M; Lanska, M; Gasova, Z; Bhuiyan-Ludvikova, Z; Hrdlickova, R; Ramlow, W; Prophet, H; Liumbruno, G; Mori, E; Griskevicius, A; Audzijoniene, J; Vrielink, H; Rombout-Sestrienkova, E; Aandahl, A; Sikole, A; Tomaz, J; Lalic, K; Bojanic, I; Strineholm, V; Brink, B; Berlin, G; Dykes, J; Toss, F; Nilsson, T; Knutson, F; Ramsauer, B; Wahlstrom, A

    2017-01-04

    The WAA apheresis registry was established in 2003 and an increasing number of centers have since then included their experience and data of their procedures. The registry now contains data of more than 74,000 apheresis procedures in more than 10,000 patients. This report shows that the indications for apheresis procedures are changing towards more oncological diagnoses and stem cell collections from patients and donors and less therapeutic apheresis procedures. In centers that continue to register, the total extent of apheresis procedures and patients treated have expanded during the latest years.

  5. Lipoprotein-apheresis reduces circulating microparticles in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Katherine D; Willis, Gareth R; Datta, Dev B N; Ellins, Elizabeth A; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Guschina, Irina A; Rees, D Aled; James, Philip E

    2014-10-01

    Lipoprotein-apheresis (apheresis) removes LDL-cholesterol in patients with severe dyslipidemia. However, reduction is transient, indicating that the long-term cardiovascular benefits of apheresis may not solely be due to LDL removal. Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles released from the plasma membrane of cells. MPs, particularly platelet-derived MPs, are increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. We aimed to characterize the effect of apheresis on MP size, concentration, cellular origin, and fatty acid concentration in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Plasma and MP samples were collected from 12 individuals with FH undergoing routine apheresis. Tunable resistive pulse sensing (np200) and nanoparticle tracking analysis measured a fall in MP concentration (33 and 15%, respectively; P < 0.05) pre- to post-apheresis. Flow cytometry showed MPs were predominantly annexin V positive and of platelet (CD41) origin both pre- (88.9%) and post-apheresis (88.4%). Fatty acid composition of MPs differed from that of plasma, though apheresis affected a similar profile of fatty acids in both compartments, as measured by GC-flame ionization detection. MP concentration was also shown to positively correlate with thrombin generation potential. In conclusion, we show apheresis nonselectively removes annexin V-positive platelet-derived MPs in individuals with FH. These MPs are potent inducers of coagulation and are elevated in CVD; this reduction in pathological MPs could relate to the long-term benefits of apheresis.

  6. The use of a medico economic database as a part of French apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Kanouni, T; Aubas, P; Heshmati, F

    2017-02-01

    An apheresis registry is a part of each learned apheresis society. The interest in this is obvious, in terms of knowledge of the practice of apheresis, adverse events, and technical issues. However, because of the weight of data entry it could never be exhaustive and some data will be missing. While continuing our registry efforts and our efforts to match with other existing registries, we decided to extend the data collection to a medico-economic database that is available in France, the Programme de Médicalisation du Système d'Information (PMSI) that has covered reimbursement information for each public or private hospital since 2007. It contains almost all apheresis procedures in all apheresis fields, demographic patient data, and primary and related diagnoses, among other data. Although this data does not include technical apheresis issues or other complications of the procedures, its interest is great and it is complementary to the registry. From 2003-2014, we have recorded 250,585 apheresis procedures, for 48,428 patients. We showed that the data are reliable and exhaustive. The information shows a perfect real life practice in apheresis, regarding indications, the rhythm and the duration of apheresis treatment. This prospective data collection is sustainable and allows us to assess the impact of healthcare guidelines. Our objective is to extend the data collection and match it to other existing databases; this will allow us to conduct, for example, a cohort study specifically for ECP.

  7. Current evidence shows that survival outcomes are equivalent for dialysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Remón Rodríguez, C; Quirós Ganga, P L

    2011-01-01

    Studies that have analyzed survival between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have showed heterogeneous outcomes for both techniques, and often confusing, also dependent on many factors. For this reason, it is necessary to know if there are real differences between the two treatments, to put the scientific evidence as a fundamental pillar in the choice of treatment, along with the clinical circumstances of individual patients, preferences and lifestyle of these. A comparative review of survival among dialysis techniques cannot avoid a basic methodological characteristics or attributes, such as appropriate designs such as observational studies with large cohorts, with incidents and no prevalent populations, with "intent to treat analysis "survival analysis and multivariate analysis with adjustments to the main comorbidity. We studied the nine classical main studies (incidents before 2002), presenting similar conclusions: there are no major differences between the techniques outcomes. When performing a stratification and adjustment for comorbidities, peritoneal dialysis has a equivalent or better prognosis in the nondiabetic group, less comorbidity and younger, almost all the publications, and hemodialysis in diabetics, older and more comorbid groups. The recent studies (including incidents after 2002), concluding a similar behavior for the survival HD: DP. Similarly, age and comorbidity influence the patient's outcomes almost identical to previous studies. In the last decade has seen an improvement in the prognosis of patients on dialysis, more pronounced in PD patients, both in the U.S., and Europe, Australia and in Spain (Andalusia analysis also). Finally, by multivariate analysis, we can show that patient survival on dialysis is much more influenced by conditions at the beginning of the treatment, as age, presence of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, rather than the type of technique of dialysis.  

  8. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available.

  9. Use of random versus apheresis platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Andreu, G; Vasse, J; Sandid, I; Tardivel, R; Semana, G

    2007-12-01

    The respective use of random (RPC) and apheresis (APC) platelet concentrates is highly heterogeneous among countries, ranging from 10 to 98% RPC in countries supposed to provide a similar transfusion service to patients. Moreover, when considering each country in the past 10 years, one can observe that some have changed their policy, switching from a majority of APC to RPC or vice versa. This presentation intends to analyse which factors may impact such decisions. For many years, the only available platelet component was a RPC obtained from whole blood donation by a two centrifugation steps process, the "platelet rich plasma" or PRP method. Since the beginning of the 1970s, APCs became available, with in fact many different techniques leading to many APCs that may not be equivalent. Since the end of the 1980s, a new method of RPC preparation was developed, using the buffy-coat (BC-PC), providing a blood component with highly preserved platelet functions as compared to RPCs prepared by the PRP technique. Finally, the use of each of these components either native, or leuco-reduced, or suspended in a storage solution, or processed with a pathogen inactivation technique adds new layers of complexity to compare them. Innumerable references can be found in the literature describing in vitro functional parameters of platelet concentrates. Although it is clear that BC-RPC retain much more their in vitro functions than PRP-RPC, indicating that no one should use the latter any more, it is much more difficult to distinguish differences between other PCs. Conversely, only a very few studies have been published related to a comparison of clinical efficacy of RPC versus APC, the endpoints being mainly CCI. Similarly to the in vitro studies, although RPC prepared with the PRP method show the lowest CCIs, no clear difference exists between "modern" RPC and APC. Another factor that may impact policy decision is the occurrence of adverse reactions in recipients. When considering

  10. Platelet function, activation and apoptosis during and after apheresis.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Rania; Sayed, Douaa; Galal, Hanan; Shaker, Sanaa

    2010-10-01

    Platelets are known to undergo shape change, activation, release reaction and apoptosis/necrosis during processing and storage. Apheresis may have a deleterious impact on platelet achievability and functional integrity. Platelet concentrates from 50 male volunteers obtained by COBE spectra were screened for platelet activation (CD62 and CD154) and apoptosis (phosphatidylserine detected by Annexin V). Donor samples before separation, during apheresis and at the third day of storage were used as baseline donor samples. Platelet aggregation to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was performed. There was a statistically significant increase in the expression of activation markers in two different samples (during separation samples and third day samples). Although the increase in Annexin V expression was not so observable, it showed a significant increase also. There was marked decline in the platelet aggregation. The correlations between the values of CD62, CD154 and Annexin V were detected in baseline samples and increased during separation and at the third day of platelets storage. Correlation between values of platelet aggregation to collagen and Annexin V was relevant only in the baseline samples. No other correlations were encountered between platelet aggregation and markers of activation and apoptosis during apheresis and storage. Initial platelet activation induced by apheresis may have an impact on phosphatidylserine expression with no impact on aggregation function of platelets during storage.

  11. Alirocumab in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia undergoing lipoprotein apheresis: the ODYSSEY ESCAPE trial

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Patrick M.; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Babirak, Stephan P.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Duell, P. Barton; Hohenstein, Bernd; Leebmann, Josef; Ramlow, Wolfgang; Schettler, Volker; Simha, Vinaya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Thompson, Paul D.; Vogt, Anja; von Stritzky, Berndt; Du, Yunling; Manvelian, Garen

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of alirocumab on frequency of standard apheresis treatments [weekly or every 2 weeks (Q2W)] in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH). Methods and results ODYSSEY ESCAPE (NCT02326220) was a double-blind study in 62 HeFH patients undergoing regular weekly or Q2W lipoprotein apheresis. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1, respectively) to receive alirocumab 150 mg (n = 41) or placebo (n = 21) Q2W subcutaneously for 18 weeks. From day 1 to week 6, apheresis rate was fixed according to the patient’s established schedule; from weeks 7 to 18, apheresis rate was adjusted based on the patient’s low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) response in a blinded fashion. Apheresis was not performed when the LDL-C value was ≥30% lower than the baseline (pre-apheresis) value. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of apheresis treatments over 12 weeks (weeks 7–18), standardized to number of planned treatments. In the alirocumab group the least square (LS) mean ± SE (95% confidence interval [CI]) per cent change in pre-apheresis LDL-C from baseline at week 6 was −53.7 ± 2.3 (−58.2 to − 49.2) compared with 1.6 ± 3.1 (–4.7 to 7.9) in the placebo group. The primary efficacy endpoint showed statistically significant benefit in favour of alirocumab (Hodges–Lehmann median estimate of treatment difference: 0.75; 95% CI 0.67–0.83; P < 0.0001). Therefore, alirocumab-treated patients had a 0.75 (75%) additional reduction in the standardized rate of apheresis treatments vs. placebo-treated patients. During this period, 63.4% of patients on alirocumab avoided all and 92.7% avoided at least half of the apheresis treatments. Adverse event rates were similar (75.6% of patients on alirocumab vs. 76.2% on placebo). Conclusions Lipoprotein apheresis was discontinued in 63.4% of patients on alirocumab who were previously undergoing regular apheresis, and the rate was at least halved in 92.7% of

  12. Successful Direct Adsorption of Lipoproteins (DALI) Apheresis During Pregnancy in an Omani Woman with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al-Waili, Khalid; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Sheik, Shahila; Al-Sabti, Hilal; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mukhaini, Suad; Al Wahaibi, Khalifa; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    We report our experience with Direct Adsorption of Lipoproteins (DALI) apheresis in an Omani pregnant woman affected by homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first successful pregnancy treated with DALI apheresis. The patient had a history of coronary artery disease, supra-aortic valvular stenosis and severe carotid artery disease with right carotid artery stenting. She was on a regular biweekly DALI apheresis since 2008. In May 2013, she became pregnant and rosuvastatin and ezetimibe were stopped while she continued on DALI apheresis biweekly. This treatment during pregnancy was successful with no major complications. The average low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction during therapy was 50%. She spontaneously delivered a healthy male infant (2,400 g) at 37 weeks. We showed that DALI apheresis therapy was safe during pregnancy with a good outcome for both mother and neonate.

  13. Blood component collection by apheresis.

    PubMed

    Burgstaler, Edwin A

    2006-07-01

    Apheresis component collection is a rapidly growing area in the blood collection field. Several instruments with varying capabilities are available. This is a brief review of the equipment available for granulocyte and apheresis component collection and indications for their use. In the United States, granulocytes are collected with the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Haemonetics LN9000, and Fresenius AS 104. The use of hetastarch for sedimenting agent and stimulation with G-CSF and G-CSF plus dexamethasone have substantially increased granulocyte yields. Plateletapheresis is performed in the United States on the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, Fenwal Amicus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), and Haemonetics LN9000. Automated red blood cell (RBC) collections are performed with the Haemonetics MCS+LN8150, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), Amicus, and Baxter Alyx. The RBC can be collected concurrently (with other components) in some instruments or separately in others. Plasma is collected concurrently on several instruments. Plasmapheresis for plasma only is performed on the Fenwal Autopheresis C and Haemonetics PCS2. Granulocyte yields range from 0.46 x 10(10) to 1.0 x 10(10) for unstimulated donors and 2.1 x 10(10) to 2.6 x 10(10) for donors stimulated with dexamethasone or prednisone. The use of G-CSF and G-CSF with dexamethasone has substantially increased granulocyte yields with yields of 4.1 x 10(10) to 10.8 x 10(10) reported. Platelet collection rates of 0.045-0.115 x 10(11) plt/min have been reported. Collection efficiencies of 46-85.7% have been reported. Automated (apheresis) component collection has the advantages of controlled volumes or doses of component, efficient use of the donor, multiple components from the same donor, better inventory control, and better quality control due to less manipulation of the individual components. Disadvantages of automated

  14. [Apheresis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    PubMed

    De Silvestro, Giustina; Tison, Tiziana; Marson, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare clinical disorder characterized by thromboembolic manifestations and/or obstetric complications. Along with the clinical symptoms and signs, serum antiphospholipid antibodies have to be detected. APS can be primary, i.e., without any concomitant disorders, or secondary to other autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Criteria for the diagnosis of APS have been clearly established. Hyperacute APS (or catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome), often with a poor prognosis, must meet four criteria: involvement of three or more organs, rapid evolution of clinical manifestations, microangiopathic occlusion of small blood vessels at biopsy, and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The rationale for apheresis treatment is the removal of pathogenetic antibodies involved in the development of tissue damage. Our experience includes 23 patients, in particular 15 women treated for 19 pregnancies. According to the National Guidelines Program, the effectiveness of apheresis in catastrophic syndrome has a level of evidence of V/VI, with a strength of recommendation A; in highrisk pregnancy it has a level of evidence of V with a strength of recommendation B. It will be necessary to better define the prognosis of various categories of pregnant patients with APS, as well as useful laboratory parameters to monitor its clinical course and anticipate any complications of pregnancy.

  15. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool and in which direction the reward should be pushed. We also administered a trap-tube task that allowed animals to push or rake the reward with the tool to compare the subjects' performance on both tasks. We used a larger sample of subjects than in previous studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus). The results showed that apes performed better in the trap-platform task than in the trap-tube task. Subjects solved the tube task faster than in previous studies and they also preferred to rake in rather than to push the reward out. There was no correlation in the level of performance between both tasks, and no indication of interspecies differences. These data are consistent with the idea that apes may possess some specific causal knowledge of traps but may lack the ability to establish analogical relations between functional equivalent tasks.

  16. Apheresis training for nurses and physicians around the World.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Marleen; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-02-01

    A training program for apheresis nurses in leukocyte collection and therapeutic apheresis was developed by the Joint Task Force for Apheresis Education and Certification. This is a modular program with theoretical and practical information and knowledge. On request of the Indonesian authorities, in the capital of Indonesia Jakarta, a certification course for apheresis nurses/operators based on the training program described above was organized in December 2013. The course existed of themes related to apheresis, such as hematology, anatomy, physiology, calculations, adverse events, basics of apheresis, nursing aspects, quality, collection of cells for cellular therapies, pediatrics, and therapeutic collections (cell reductions and exchange procedures). A pretest and post-test regarding the knowledge and judgment in the themes described was taken in Bahasa Indonesia or in English. In total, 38 apheresis nurses and 32 physicians participated in the course. In the post-test, the nurses scored in a mean 72/100 and the physicians 77/100 (nurses vs. physicians: P = 0.005), which was significantly better than the results of the pretest (54/100 and 53/100, respectively (P < 0.0001 for both). In conclusion, with this course, 38 apheresis nurses/operators proved a significant increase of knowledge in the theory behind apheresis. This educational program provides an approach to educate and certificate apheresis nurses. It is also shown that also for physicians working in the field of apheresis, this course is of use increasing their knowledge regarding apheresis.

  17. Therapeutic apheresis--state of the art in the year 2005.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Therapeutic apheresis is an extracorporeal blood purification method for the treatment of diseases in which pathological proteins or cells have to be eliminated. Selective plasma processing is more efficient in pathogen removal than unselective plasma exchange and does not require a substitution fluid like albumin. This overview presents the various selective devices for the treatment of plasma (plasmapheresis) and blood cells (leukocyte apheresis). Prospective randomized trials were performed for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (Rheopheresis), sudden hearing loss (heparin-induced lipoprotein precipitation [HELP]), rheumatoid arthritis (Prosorba), dilative cardiomyopathy (Ig-Therasorb, Immunosorba), acute-on-chronic liver failure (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS]), and ulcerative colitis (Cellsorba). Prospective non-randomized controlled trials were carried out treating hypercholesterolemia (Liposorber) and crossmatch-positive recipients before kidney transplantation (Immunosorba). Uncontrolled studies were done for ABO-incompatibility in living donor kidney transplantation (KT) (Glycosorb), acute humoral rejection after KT (Immunosorba) and acute liver failure (Prometheus). According to the 2002 International Apheresis Registry covering 11428 sessions in 811 patients, 79% of the patients showed an improvement of their condition by apheresis and only a few sessions were fraught with adverse effects (AE). The major AE were blood access difficulties (3.1%) and hypotension (1.6%). In summary, therapeutic apheresis is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of diseases refractory to drug therapy.

  18. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Bambauer, Carolin; Lehmann, Boris; Latza, Reinhard; Schiel, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application. PMID:22654591

  19. Pediatric therapeutic apheresis: rationale and indications for plasmapheresis, cytapheresis, extracorporeal photopheresis, and LDL apheresis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeowon A; Sloan, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    Apheresis refers to the removal of a component of the blood and is performed using a group of medical technologies in which peripheral blood is processed by an instrument that separates the various components. The selected component is isolated while the remainder is returned to the patient. The rationale behind therapeutic apheresis is to remove the pathogenic components from the circulation. Apheresis is also used for peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cell collection. The procedure can be safely performed in most children with modifications to account for smaller pediatric blood volumes.

  20. Therapeutic apheresis in Asia: An Indonesia single center experience.

    PubMed

    Triyono, Teguh; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-06-01

    In developing countries, like Indonesia, apheresis is still a relative new procedure. Nowadays, therapeutic apheresis procedures are performed in the field of hematology and neurology, especially in the teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Therapeutic apheresis procedure, that is, leukocytapheresis, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and thrombocytapheresis are already performed. In the period 2009-2013, 204 apheresis procedures in 137 patients to reduce the leukocytes, 72 TPE procedures in 17 patients, and 14 thrombocyte reductions were performed in the Sardjito hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the future, to improve the therapeutic apheresis implementation, it is important to increase the insurance coverage and also should be considered to introduce the apheresis medicine into the curriculum of appropriate physician programs in Indonesia. Especially in Indonesia, a lot of efforts are still being needed to improve implementation of therapeutic apheresis.

  1. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Ilona J; Spiekstra, Sander W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a(+) MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a(-)/CD14(+)/CD68(+) which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets.

  2. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  3. Establishing an institutional therapeutic apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Mann, Steven A; McCleskey, Brandi; Marques, Marisa B; Adamski, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Apheresis was first performed as a therapeutic procedure in the 1950s. The first national therapeutic apheresis (TA) registry was established in Canada in 1981 and other national registries followed, including two attempts at establishing an international TA registry. There is no national registry in the United States. Our large, academic, tertiary hospital has a very active TA service. We created a TA database to track all procedures performed by the apheresis service by transferring data from paper appointment logs and the electronic medical records into a Microsoft Access database. Retrospective data from each TA procedure performed at UAB from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were entered, including the type of procedure, indication, date, and patient demographics. Microsoft Excel was used for data analysis. During the 10-year period, our TA service treated 1,060 patients and performed 11,718 procedures. Of these patients, 70% received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), 21% received extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), 4.5% received red cell exchange (RCE), 4.2% received leukocytapheresis, and 0.6% underwent platelet depletion. Among the procedures, 54% were TPEs, 44% were ECPs, 1.3% were RCEs, 0.5% were leukocytaphereses, and 0.1% were platelet depletions. According to the current literature, national and international TA use is underreported. We believe that the UAB TA registry provides useful information about TA practices in our region and can serve as a model for other institutions. Furthermore, data from multiple institutional registries can be used for clinical research to increase the available evidence for the role of TA in various conditions. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:516-522, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The relationship of platelet yield, donor's characteristic and apheresis instruments in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guomei; Xu, Jian; Shen, Zhuolan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun

    2013-12-01

    Platelet yield was associated with donor's characteristic and property of apheresis instruments. Here, we have analyzed the relationship of platelet yield, physiologic parameters of donors for different apheresis instruments in China. Data were consecutively retrieved from plateletapheresis donors during March 1, 2007 and March 1, 2012. Three different apheresis instruments MCS+, Amicus, Trima system were used for plateletapheresis and defined as group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Totally 77,091 Plateletapheresis donations were performed in this study. 17 donations were finally aborted because of vasovagal reaction with syncope. 5861, 37,036, 34,177 donations were performed in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Hct and platelet values before donations were similar, but platelet yield and collection rate were showed significantly difference (p<0.05) among the three groups. The values of platelet and Hct in the males before donations were higher than those in the females, and the platelet yield and collection rate were showed significantly difference between the male group and female group (p<0.05). The overall reaction rate was 1.56%. Most donors were chosen the group 2 (51.6%) for next donation, followed by group 3 (33%) and group 1 (15.4%). We concluded that the platelet yield and collection rate in the male group were higher than those in the female group and the efficiency of plateletapheresis was associated with the kind of apheresis instruments and donor's characteristic. These data will help to work out suitable apheresis protocol based on the Chinese donor's characteristic.

  5. Persistent aggregates in apheresis platelet concentrates are commonly collected from donors with a history of aggregate donation.

    PubMed

    Feys, H B; Pottel, H; Coene, J; Vandewalle, G; Vandekerckhove, P; Compernolle, V

    2016-11-01

    Platelet apheresis sometimes causes persistent aggregates (PA). This study (n = 211) shows that changing the apheresis settings to reach fixed product volumes instead of yields does not influence PA incidence, even though PA products on average contain more platelets than controls. Furthermore, logistic regression was used to model if PA can be predicted on the basis of certain predonation parameters. PA donation history was the only parameter retained, proving a strong determinant of predictability [AUC = 0.735 (SE = 0.022)]. Consequently, donations from a donor with previous PA history are 7.8 times more likely to contain PA than from a donor without preceding history.

  6. Lymphocyte Changes in Normal Apheresis Donors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    SE -1 R I TY* -tL 1’Ct 4, T- T -J𔃾, A -ý r - H I- A IN 1* P 1, -c A REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE RA) INkr ,, fi;N ;5 E~R UdR2 GOVT ACCESO NO~ 3 ;PE,’>o...donors’ immune status. Furthermore, it is not known if there are cumulative effects resulting from multiple apheresis procedures. Of further concern is... multiple sclerosis, severe atopic eczema, infiammatory bowel disease and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast, excessive numbers of T8+ suppressor

  7. Namibia’s transition from whole blood–derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT availability while reducing exposure to multiple donors via pooling. This study describes the impact this transition had on PLT availability and safety in Namibia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Annual national blood collections and PLT units issued data were extracted from a database maintained by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Production costs and unit prices were analyzed. RESULTS In 2006, NAMBTS issued 771 single and pooled PLT doses from 3054 whole blood (WB) donations (drawn from 18,422 WB donations). In 2007, NAMBTS issued 486 single and pooled PLT doses from 1477 WB donations (drawn from 18,309 WB donations) and 131 single-donor PLT doses. By 2011, NAMBTS issued 837 single-donor PLT doses per year, 99.1% of all PLT units. Of 5761 WB donations from which PLTs were made in 2006 to 2011, a total of 20 (0.35%) were from donors with confirmed test results for human immunodeficiency virus or other transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Of 2315 single-donor apheresis donations between 2007 and 2011, none of the 663 donors had a confirmed positive result for any pathogen. As apheresis replaced WB-derived PLTs, apheresis production costs dropped by a mean of 8.2% per year, while pooled PLT costs increased by an annual mean of 21.5%. Unit prices paid for apheresis- and WB-derived PLTs increased by 9 and 7.4% per year on average, respectively. CONCLUSION Namibia’s PLT transition shows that collections from repeat apheresis donors can reduce TTI risk and production costs. PMID:25727921

  8. [Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by apheresis].

    PubMed

    Reiber, I; Gógl, A

    1994-03-13

    The predominate number of homozygote familial hypercholesterolemic and approximately 20% of heterozygotes are resistant to low cholesterol diet and lipid lowering pharmacological treatment even in combination of 2 or more drugs. In such cases, the selective lipoprotein apheresis has become a promising alternative and indicated absolute (homozygotes) or relative (heterozygotes). The combination of low density lipoprotein apheresis, together with diet and drugs, should allow a maximal lowering of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-60-70%). Besides low density lipoprotein, various apheresis procedures may also eliminate other potentially atherogenic factors, such as lipoprotein(a) and fibrinogen and acutely improve the haemo-rheological status of the patient. The authors review several lipoprotein apheresis procedures with varying degrees of selectivity, those have and furthermore analysis the advantages and disadvantages and cost of each procedure.

  9. Thrombocyte adhesion and release of extracellular microvesicles correlate with surface morphology of adsorbent polymers for lipid apheresis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, René; Spittler, Andreas; Schmitz, Gerd; Fischer, Michael B; Weber, Viktoria

    2014-07-14

    Whole blood lipid apheresis is clinically applied to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied the correlation between physicochemical parameters, in particular, surface roughness and blood compatibility, of two polyacrylate-based and a dextran sulfate-based polymer for lipid apheresis. The adsorbent surface roughness was assessed by atomic force microscopy. Freshly isolated human thrombocytes were circulated over adsorbent columns downscaled equivalent to clinical use to study thrombocyte adhesion and microvesicle generation. Quantification of thrombocytes and microvesicles in the flow-through of the columns revealed that both thrombocyte adhesion and microvesicle generation increased with increasing adsorbent surface roughness. Activation of thrombocytes with thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6 favored their adhesion to the adsorbents, as demonstrated by preferential depletion of CD62(+) and PAC-1(+) thrombocytes. Taken together, enhanced polymer surface roughness fostered cell adhesion and microvesicle release, underscoring the role of extracellular microvesicles as markers of cellular activation and of blood compatibility.

  10. [The effect of leukocyte depletion by filtration on the quality of apheresis platelets].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Feng, Qian; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Chun-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Ge, Guo-Feng; Lin, Zi-Lin; Pan, Ji-Chun; Wang, De-Qing; Luo, Qun; Tian, Ya-Ping

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of leukocyte depletion by filtration on the quality of apheresis platelets. 20 units of donor apheresis platelets were randomly selected and were preserved with agitation at 20 - 24 degrees C for 24 - 96 hours, then were filtered on polyester flatbed filters. The platelet concentration, mean platelet volume (MPV), volume of apheresis platelets, leukocyte count, pH value, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration, K(+) concentration and CD62p expression level on surface of platelet membrane, were detected before and after filtration, as well as the rate of leukocyte depletion and platelet loss were calculated. The results showed that the leukocyte count after filtration was remarkably lower than that before filtration (p < 0.001), and the rate of leukocyte depletion was 99.97%. Platelet loss was approximately 8%, and obviously lower than that of the national standard (p < 0.001). MPV, pH value, K(+) and LDH concentration were not significantly different before and after filtration. Compared with platelets before filtration, CD62p expression level after filtration slightly decreased (p > 0.05). CD62p expression on surface of platelet membrane in perfusion fluid obtained from filter plate was obviously higher than that before filtration (p < 0.05). MA of platelet after filtration slightly decreased (p > 0.05). It is concluded that leukocyte and partial activated platelets can be removed efficiently by using polyester flatbed filters, and platelet loss is very low. Filtration does not adversely affect coagulation activity of the platelets in vitro. Apheresis platelets after filtration can fulfil quality requirements to prevent infection of cytomegalovirus and HLA alloimmunization.

  11. [Changes of platelet aggregation function of apheresis collected platelets and soluble P-selectin during storage].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zuo-Ting; Yang, Li-Hong; Tao, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Ming-Shan; Hong, Jun-Ying; Zhou, Wu; Chen, Zeng-Qiang; Dai, Mei-Jie

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the changes of aggregation function of apheresis platelets and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) during storage. 20 samples of apheresis platelets were collected, and the aggregation function were examined by function test and the level of sP-selectin every day in storage of 5 days. The results showed that the aggregation function of platelets declined obviously during storage, there were significant differences between the first-day group and any of the other groups (p < 0.01). The max platelet aggregation rate was < or = 3% in the fourth-day group; sP-selectin level in plasma increased with prolong of storage time; there were significant differences between the first-day group and any of the other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, platelets were activated continuously during storage, while its aggregation function declines significantly. The ability of platelet aggregation to response to ADP loses almost completely since the fourth day during platelet storage. It should be paid more attention to the damage of apheresis collected platelets during storage.

  12. Map showing contours on the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  13. Therapeutic Apheresis in Immunologic Renal and Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bambauer, Rolf; Latza, Reinhard; Burgard, Daniel; Schiel, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    Since the mid 1970s, when membrane modules became available, plasma separation techniques have gained in importance especially in the past few years. The advantages of this method are a complete separation of the corpuscular components from the plasma and due to increased blood flow rate and higher efficacy. Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a poor prognosis without treatment. Therapeutic apheresis (TA) in combination with immunosuppressive therapies has led to a steady increase in survival rates over the last 40 years. The updated information on immunology and molecular biology of different immunologic diseases are discussed in relation to the rationale for apheresis therapy and its place in combination with other modern treatments. The different diseases can be treated by various apheresis methods such as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) with substitution solution, or with online plasma or blood purification using adsorption columns, which contain biological or non-biological agents. Here, the authors provide an overview of the most important pathogenic aspects indicating that TA can be a supportive therapy in systemic autoimmune diseases such as renal and neurological disorders. For the immunological diseases that can be treated with TA, the guidelines of the German Working Group of Clinical Nephrology and of the Apheresis Committee of the American Society for Apheresis are cited.

  14. Vascular access considerations for therapeutic apheresis procedures.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chidi; Kalantarinia, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    The success of therapeutic apheresis (TA), similar to hemodialysis, depends on the integrity of the extracorporeal circuit as well as a reliable vascular access. However, unlike hemodialysis, which requires high flow of blood around 400 mL/minute through the extracorporeal circuit for effective clearance, TA is usually carried out with much lower blood flow rates (<100 ml/minute). Therefore, even peripheral venous access can be considered for TA. The main determinants of the choice of vascular access for TA is the duration of the planned treatment and, to a certain degree, the indication for its use. While peripheral venous access and temporary central venous catheters are sufficient for short-term TA, tunnelled catheters and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are usually used for long-term treatments. Because of the large body of evidence in the hemodialysis literature on the advantages of AVF over tunnelled catheters and AV grafts, they should be considered as the preferred access for chronic TA as well. However, advance planning for the care of AVF after creation is of critical importance especially since many of the healthcare providers dealing with TA are less familiar with caring for AVF than nephrologists and dialysis nurses. In this article we first review the similarities and differences between HD and TA procedures. The pros and cons of different vascular access options are discussed next. Finally, we have included a list of recommendations on maintenance of AVF created for TA based on our own experience.

  15. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  16. A Comparative Assessment of Quality of Platelet Concentrates Prepared by Buffy Coat Poor Platelet Concentrate Method and Apheresis Derived Platelet Concentrate Method.

    PubMed

    Mallhi, R S; Kumar, Sudeep; Philip, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Many blood centres in country don't have costly apheresis technology and rely heavily on the platelet production from whole blood donation. We conducted this study with the aim to compare the quality of platelet concentrates (PC) prepared by Buffy Coat derived (BC-PC) and apheresis derived platelet concentrate (Apheresis-PC). Our objective was to collect data by analysis of platelet concentrates prepared by BC-PC methods and Apheresis-PC methods in respect of swirling, volume, platelet count, WBC count and pH of the PC units and elaborate on the quality parameters. Tertiary Care Hospital and Medical College. We assessed a total of 200 BC-PC and 200 Apheresis-PC for their in vitro quality by observing swirling, volume of PC, platelet count/unit, WBC count/unit and pH, to see if they satisfy the recommended quality criteria. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical technique under the guidance of biostatistician. Apheresis-PC units showed better swirling than BC-PC units (Chi square test; P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in proportion of units satisfying the required volume QC between the two methods (Chi-square test; P < 0.05). Apheresis-PC showed better adherence to the physiological pH values (Student's unpaired t test; P < 0.05). The units of BC-PC and Apheresis-PC did not show significant difference in proportion of units satisfying the Platelet count per unit and residual WBC count per count (Chi square; P 0.203 and 0.617 respectively). There was comparable adherence to QC requirement for platelet count and WBC contamination in two methods. BC-PC were found to be adhering lesser to QC parameters for swirling, volume and pH, but found to be in required QC limits. BCPC can be used effectively in the majority of thrombocytopenic patients in resource poor setting.

  17. Loss of Plasma Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9) After Lipoprotein Apheresis

    PubMed Central

    Tavori, Hagai; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We have recently reported that >30% of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) is bound to LDL, thus we predicted that LA would also reduce plasma PCSK9 levels by removing LDL. Objective Pre- and post-apheresis plasma from 6 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on 3 consecutive treatment cycles was used to determine changes in PCSK9 levels. Methods and Results LA drastically reduced plasma LDL (by 77±4%). Concomitantly, PCSK9 levels fell by 52±5%, strongly correlating with the LDL drop (P=0.0322; r2=0.26), but not with decreases in triglyceride (49±13%) or high-density lipoprotein levels (18±2%). Levels of albumin, creatinine, and CK-MB did not show significant changes after LA. Similar to LDL, PCSK9 levels returned to pretreatment values between cycles (2-week intervals). Fractionation of pre- and post-apheresis plasma showed that 81±11% of LDL-bound PCSK9 and 48±14% of apolipoprotein B–free PCSK9 were removed. Separation of whole plasma, purified LDL, or the apolipoprotein B–free fraction through a scaled-down, experimental dextran sulfate cellulose beads column produced similar results. Conclusions Our results show, for the first time, that modulation of LDL levels by LA directly affects plasma PCSK9 levels, and suggest that PCSK9 reduction is an additional benefit of LA. Because the loss of PCSK9 could contribute to the LDL-lowering effect of LA, then (1) anti-PCSK9 therapies may reduce frequency of LA in patients currently approved for therapy, and (2) LA and anti-PCSK9 therapies may be used synergistically to reduce treatment burden. PMID:24122718

  18. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  19. Pooled platelet concentrates: an alternative to single donor apheresis platelets?

    PubMed

    Pietersz, R N I

    2009-10-01

    Three types of platelet concentrates (PC) are compared: PC either processed with the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or the Buffy coat (BC) method from whole blood units and PC obtained by apheresis. Leuko-reduction (LR) pre-storage is advocated to improve quality of the PC during storage and reduce adverse reactions in recipients. Standardization of methods allow preparation of PC with comparable yields of approximately 400 x 10(9) platelets in pooled non-LR-PRP, approximately 370 x 10(9) in pooled LR-BC-PC and in LR apheresis PC the number of platelets can be targeted on 350 x 10(9) or more with devices of various manufacturers. While viral transmission can be prevented by outstanding laboratory tests, the risk of bacterial contamination should be reduced by improved arm disinfection, deviation of the first 20-30 ml of blood and culture or rapid detection assays of the PC pre-issue. In a large prospective multicenter trial no significant difference was observed between cultures of apheresis PC (n = 15,198): 0.09% confirmed positive units versus 0.06% in pooled BC-PC (n = 37,045), respectively. Though platelet activation as measured by CD62 expression may differ in vitro in PC obtained with various apheresis equipment, and also between PC processed with the two whole blood methods there is scarce literature about the clinical impact of these findings. In conclusion the final products of LR-PC derived from whole blood or obtained by apheresis can be comparable, provided the critical steps of the processing method are identified and covered and the process is in control.

  20. Medications and therapeutic apheresis procedures: are we doing our best?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rami B; Balogun, Rasheed Abiodun

    2013-02-01

    Therapeutic apheresis refers to a group of extracorporeal therapies commonly used in the treatment of a variety of neurological, renal, hematological, and other systemic diseases caused by circulating "toxic agents" that cannot be cleared by other means. This article presents an overview of the concepts underlying the effect of therapeutic apheresis procedures on prescription drugs taken by patients and describes key drug-related and procedure-related factors that may impact drug disposition during therapeutic apheresis. Therapeutic apheresis, and specifically therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), is the process involving the extracorporeal separation of plasma from the cellular components of blood, discarding the plasma and exchanging it with replacement physiologic fluids such as albumin or fresh frozen plasma to maintain oncotic pressure and blood volume, and then returning this and the original cellular components of blood back to the patient's circulatory system (Ibrahim and Balogun, Semin Dial 2012;25:176-189). Over the last 4 decades, modern therapeutic apheresis has been used clinically for the treatment of a host of renal, hematological, and neurological diseases such as Goodpasture's syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and myasthenia gravis to name a few (Ibrahim et al., Pharmacotherapy 2007;27:1529-1549). Because of its ability to remove plasma, TPE can extract circulating drugs residing in this compartment, thereby affecting their disposition and potentially their therapeutic action (Ibrahim and Balogun, Semin Dial 2012;25:176-189; Ibrahim et al., Pharmacotherapy 2007;27:1529-1549; Kale-Pradhan and Woo, Pharmacotherapy 1997;17:684-695; Kintzel et al., J Clin Apher 2003;18:194-205). The aim of this article is to shed light on drug-related and TPE-related factors that may influence drug removal by TPE. Emphasis is put on areas needing improvement in the way of assessing drug removal by TPE. In addition, a call for an expanded investigation of TPEs

  1. Apheresis Medicine education in the United States of America: State of the discipline.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Monica B; Wehrli, Gay; Cloutier, Darlene; Galvin Karr, Eileen; Lopez-Plaza, Ileana; Schwartz, Joseph; Andrzejewski, Chester; Winters, Jeffrey L; Wong, Edward C C; Wu, Yanyun; Zantek, Nicole D

    2017-02-01

    Apheresis Medicine is a medical discipline that involves a variety of procedures (based on the targeted component to be removed or collected), indications (therapeutic vs. donation), and personnel (operators, management, and medical oversight). Apheresis services are accredited and/or regulated by a number of agencies and organizations. Given the complexity and the heterogeneity of apheresis services, it has been particularly challenging to formulate educational goals and define curriculums that easily cover all aspects of Apheresis Medicine. This review summarizes the current state of the discipline in the United States of America, and some of the challenges, strategies, and resources that Apheresis Medicine educators have used to ensure that Apheresis Medicine educational programs meet the health care needs of the relevant population within regulatory and accrediting entity frameworks.

  2. Cellular cholesterol efflux and cholesterol loading capacity of serum: effects of LDL-apheresis[S

    PubMed Central

    Adorni, M. P.; Zimetti, F.; Puntoni, M.; Bigazzi, F.; Sbrana, F.; Minichilli, F.; Bernini, F.; Ronda, N.; Favari, E.; Sampietro, T.

    2012-01-01

    High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) characterizes familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). LDL-apheresis, used in these patients to reduce LDL-C levels, has been shown to also affect HDL levels and composition. We studied LDL-apheresis effects on six FH and nine FCH subjects’ serum capacity to modulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an index of HDL functionality, and to load macrophages with cholesterol. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and macrophage cholesterol loading capacity (CLC) were measured before, immediately after, and two days after LDL-apheresis. The procedure reduced total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and apoB plasma levels (−69%, −80% and −74%, respectively), parameters only partially restored two days later. HDL-C and apoA-I plasma levels, reduced after LDL-apheresis (−27% and −16%, respectively), were restored to almost normal levels two days later. LDL-apheresis reduced serum aqueous diffusion (AD) CEC, SR-BI-CEC, and ABCA1-CEC. AD and SR-BI were fully restored whereas ABCA1-CEC remained low two days later. Sera immediately and two days after LDL-apheresis had a lower CLC than pre-LDL-apheresis sera. In conclusion, LDL-apheresis transiently reduces HDL-C levels and serum CEC, but it also reduces also serum capacity to deliver cholesterol to macrophages. Despite a potentially negative effect on HDL levels and composition, LDL-apheresis may counteract foam cells formation. PMID:22414482

  3. Effect of Mirasol pathogen reduction technology system on in vitro quality of MCS+ apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Maria Adele; Llohn, Abid Hussain; Akkök, Çiğdem Akalın; Skogheim, Ruby; Ødegaard, Elna Rathe; Nybruket, Monica Jenssen; Flesland, Annika; Mousavi, Seyed Ali

    2013-10-01

    Reducing the risk of pathogen transmission to transfusion recipients is one of the great concerns in transfusion medicine. Important among the measures suggested to minimise pathogen transmission is pathogen reduction technology (PRT) systems. The present study examined the effects of Mirasol PRT system on MCS+ apheresis platelets in vitro quality measures during a seven-day storage period at 22°C. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in platelet concentrations between the control and treated platelet concentrates (PCs) during the storage period. Glucose and lactate levels were measured to determine metabolic activities of control and treated platelets. In both control and treated platelets, the amount of glucose consumed and lactate produced increased significantly with storage time, but glucose consumption and lactate production rates were significantly higher in treated platelets compared with control platelets. The mean pH of treated PCs was decreased at all time points relative to control PCs but remained within acceptable limits. The expression of P-selectin was also higher in Mirasol PRT treated platelets throughout the storage period, but differences were not statistically significant on Days 1 and 4. Finally, visual inspection of swirling indicated that Mirasol PRT treatment of platelets is associated with platelet shape change. Overall, our results show that MCS+ apheresis platelets treated with Mirasol PRT can preserve adequate in vitro properties for at least 5 days of storage.

  4. Comparison of plasma exchange performances between Spectra Optia and COBE Spectra apheresis systems in repeated procedures considering variability and using specific statistical models.

    PubMed

    Hequet, O; Stocco, V; Assari, S; Drillat, P; Le, Q H; Kassir, A; Rigal, D; Bouzgarrou, R

    2014-08-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures using centrifugation techniques became a standard therapy in some diseases. As the new device Spectra Optia (SPO; Terumo BCT) was available, we studied its performances in repeated procedures in 20 patients in three apheresis units. First we analysed the performance results obtained by SPO. Second we compared the performances of the SPO device to a standard device, COBE Spectra (CSP; Terumo BCT) in the same patients using statistical method of mixed effects linear regression that considers variability between patients, centres and apheresis procedures. The performances analysed were classified according to plasma removal performances and their consequences on patients whose blood disturbances were assessed. Primary outcome was plasma removal efficiency (PRE) and PRE-anticoagulant corrected which was a more accurate parameter. Secondary outcomes corresponded to the volume of ACD-A consumed, platelets content in waste bag, procedure duration and status of coagulation system observed after TPE sessions. Before comparing the performances of both devices we compared the plasma volumes (PVs) processed in both techniques which showed that the PVs processed in SPO procedures were lower than in CSP procedures. In these conditions the statistical analysis revealed similar performances in both apheresis devices in PRE (p = ns) but better performances with SPO when considering higher PRE corrected by anticoagulant volume used (p < 0.05). Comparison of secondary outcomes showed no difference after SPO and CSP. After verifying that pre-apheresis patients' coagulation blood levels were identical before SPO and CSP, we showed identical haemostasis disturbances after SPO and CSP but lower platelet losses and higher fibrinogen post-apheresis blood levels after SPO (p < 0.05). No side effects or technical complications occurred during and after SPO and CSP. This study demonstrated that the Spectra Optia device is an

  5. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.

    PubMed

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education.

  6. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  7. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Moog, Rainer

    2004-12-01

    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  8. Severe citrate toxicity complicating volunteer apheresis platelet donation.

    PubMed

    Bell, A M; Nolen, J D L; Knudson, C M; Raife, T J

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of severe citrate toxicity during volunteer donor apheresis platelet collection. The donor was a 40-year-old female, first-time apheresis platelet donor. Past medical history was remarkable for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and depression. Reported medications included bumetanide, pravastatin, and paroxetine. Thirty minutes from the start of the procedure, the donor noted tingling around the mouth, hands, and feet. She then very rapidly developed acute onset of severe facial and extremity tetany. Empirical treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate was initiated, and muscle contractions slowly subsided over approximately 10 to 15 minutes. The events are consistent with a severe reaction to calcium chelation by sodium citrate anticoagulant resulting in symptomatic systemic hypocalcemia. Upon additional retrospective analysis, it was noted that bumetanide is a loop diuretic that may cause significant hypocalcemia. We conclude that careful screening for medications and underlying conditions predisposing to hypocalcemia is recommended to help prevent severe reactions due to citrate toxicity. Laboratory measurement of pre-procedure serum calcium levels in selected donors may identify cases requiring heightened vigilance. The case also illustrates the importance of maintaining preparedness for managing rare but serious reactions in volunteer apheresis blood donors.

  9. Effect of leukocyte filtration on the P-selectin expression of apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z T; Chen, C; Zhang, S H; Yang, H M; Tao, Z H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leukocyte filtration on the P-selectin (CD62P) surface expression of apheresis platelets during the retention period. Ten bags of apheresis platelets stored for 1 day (0-24 h) and 10 bags of apheresis platelets stored for 2 days (24-48 h) were used for leukocyte filtration (experimental group). Ten bags of apheresis platelets with the corresponding retention periods but without filtration were used as a negative control (control group). Thereafter, 100 μL of platelet suspensions from apheresis platelets with or without leukocyte filtration were sampled before and after leukocyte filtration for the detection of CD62P surface expression by flow cytometry. No statistical difference in the CD62P surface expression of apheresis platelets was observed before and after leukocyte filtration (P > 0.05), neither did the CD62P surface expression exhibit any change among the different retention periods. Leukocyte filtration does not affect the CD62P surface expression of apheresis platelets stored for up to 2 days, which indicates that leukocyte filtration does not damage the activation of apheresis platelets within the retention period.

  10. Role of therapeutic apheresis and phlebotomy techniques in anaesthesia and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Neeta; Kanzariya, Hitendra

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic transfusion techniques such as apheresis and phlebotomy are frequently used in intensive care units. Use of the apheresis technique for the treatment of various diseases in critically ill patients is growing day by day. There are increasing evidences for using apheresis as a primary therapy or as an adjunct to other therapies for various diseases such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, haemolytic uremic syndrome, drug toxicities, autoimmune disease, sepsis and fulminant hepatic failure. Apheresis is an invasive procedure. It has significant physiologic consequences, so the care of these patients requires continuous supervision. Phlebotomy is performed as an intervention for some disease management. Its use is nowadays restricted to conditions such as polycythaemia, haemochromatosis and porphyria cutanea tarda. In this review, we have looked at various indications, procedure and complications of apheresis and phlebotomy in critical care unit. PMID:25535434

  11. Changing perspectives of apheresis in India in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R

    2002-04-01

    Globally, the last century (20th) has seen many changes in terms of amazing advancements and applications of modern science, medicine, biotechnology and computers. One of the dramatic outcomes of such great inventions and discoveries was that the medical profession got the wonderful tool of immunomodulation and haemapheresis which has changed the outlook of the entire spectrum of immune complex disorders both in terms of the great success in treatment and the rehabilitation from so-called incurable diseases. Additionally this has resulted in a better quality of life and lower morbidity and mortality. Organ transplants have become a reality and immunomodulation plays a pivotal role in their success. India also has tasted this sweet recipe of modern medicine and has imbibed it in its medical culture. India is not only famous for the Taj Mahal and Hawa Mahal (Agra and Jaipur) but also for its brain (of brain drain/otherwise) and betz cells which have brought glories and laurels in the field of medicine, mathematics, engineering, literature, physics and computers, etc. to the native countries and India equally. Apheresis has now invaded the Indian scenario also and there is a growing interest, demand and application for it in the clinical field. But, being a unique country, the problems encountered are also unique. This paper deals with an overview of the changing perspectives of apheresis in India in the 20th century.

  12. The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment with Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment With Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours R.R. Leslie-Holt and V. W...EFFECT ON APHERESIS PLATELET QUALITY DURING SHIPMENT WITH CONTINUED INTERRUPTION OF AGITATION FOR 24 AND 48 HOURS. 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT LESLIEHOLT RONNI...maintaining an oxidative metabolism. Key Words: Agitation, apheresis , lactate, pH, platelet , quality 4 INTRODUCTION The Armed Services Blood Program

  13. Recovery of Platelet Count among Apheresis Platelet Donors

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Anandan, Ashwin; Panicker, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. Aim To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods Fifty, first time apheresis donors were followed for platelet count recovery. Platelet count was measured before donation and at 30 minutes, 48 hours, 7th day and 14th day post-donation. Donor platelet count recovery to baseline was observed during the two week period. Results were analysed statistically, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Platelet count recovered to baseline by 7th day post-donation in 50% of donors in groups I (Pre-donation platelet count 1.5 lacs/μl to 2.2 lacs/μl) and II (Donors with platelet count >2.2 lacs/μl to 2.75 lacs/μl), 30% of donors in group III (Donors with platelet count >2.75 lacs/μl to 3.5 lacs/μl) of the donors. Donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in 85% of donors by day 14 in across the three groups. Recruitment of platelets from spleen was observed in donors with pre-donation platelet count on the lower limit of normal. Conclusion By day 7, donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in majority of the donors. Allowing enough recovery periods for donor platelet count, the minimum interval between two apheresis donations can be 7 days till more prospective studies conclude on the frequency and minimum interval between plateletpheresis donations. PMID:28208861

  14. [Risk Assessment of Single-Donor (Apheresis) Platelet Concentrates and Pooled Whole-Blood-Derived Platelet Concentrates].

    PubMed

    Hitzler, Walter; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wartensleben, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    According to the risk estimates of the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) an equivalence cannot be assumed to exist between the two different platelet preparations. Differences between single-donor (apheresis) platelet concentrates (ATK) and pooled whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates (PTK) result from donor populations, donation intervals, and preparation techniques. There are no prospective randomized studies with regard to the clinical efficacy, which would unambiguously demonstrate equivalence of the therapeutic efficacy of PTK (buffy coat method) in comparison to ATK. The German Association of Blood Transfusion Services (StKB) points out that, due to the non-equivalence of PTK and ATK, it is incumbent on the transfusion physician to select the platelet concentrate, make the appropriate disclosures, and assume treatment responsibility. Proper compensation for ATK and PTK must be ensured by the health insurance companies, whereby a special indication for the selection of either PTK or ATK is not given. Exceptions are patients with known HLA antibodies in which only selected platelet concentrates may be administered. Otherwise, no indication exists in the selection of the different platelet concentrates (Article is in German).

  15. In vivo traffic of indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes collected by automated apheresis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, E.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Carter, C.S.; Yolles, P.S.; Davey, R.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The in vivo traffic patterns of autologous lymphocytes were studied in five normal human volunteers using lymphocytes obtained by automated apheresis, separated on Ficoll-Hypaque gradients, and labeled ex vivo with {sup 111}In-oxine. Final lymphocyte infusions contained 1.8-3.1 X 10(9) cells and 270-390 microCi (9.99-14.43 MBq) {sup 111}In, or 11-17 microCi (0.41-0.63 MBq) per 10(8) lymphocytes. Gamma imaging showed transient lung uptake and significant retention of radioactivity in the liver and spleen. Progressive uptake of activity in normal, nonpalpable axillary and inguinal lymph nodes was seen from 24 to 96 hr. Accumulation of radioactivity also was demonstrated at the forearm skin test site, as well as in its associated epitrochlear and axillary lymph nodes, in a subject who had been tested for delayed hypersensitivity with tetanus toxoid. Indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes may provide a useful tool for future studies of normal and abnormal lymphocyte traffic.

  16. Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation-associated Nephrotic Syndrome Successfully Treated by Low-density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Yuka; Honda, Kenjiro; Katagiri, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu; Kawakami, Takahisa; Nasu, Ryo; Hayashi, Akimasa; Shintani, Yukako; Tojo, Akihiro; Noiri, Eisei; Kurokawa, Mineo; Fukayama, Masashi; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    The development of nephrotic syndrome (NS) after umbilical cord transplantation (UBT) has been reported in only four cases to date. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who developed NS 94 days after UBT. She fell into oliguria and required dialysis. A kidney biopsy revealed focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Although glucocorticoid monotherapy did not improve her condition, the addition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis resulted in remission of NS, a drastic improvement in her renal function, and withdrawal from dialysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of UBT-associated NS treated with LDL apheresis. PMID:27725544

  17. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muso, Eri; Mune, Masatoshi; Hirano, Tsutomu; Hattori, Motoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunya; Wada, Takashi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takemura, Tsukasa; Yuzawa, Yukio; Ogahara, Satoru; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Iino, Yasuhiko; Sakai, Soichi; Ogura, Yousuke; Yukawa, Susumu; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Yorioka, Noriaki; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Saito, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims LDL apheresis (LDL-A) is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS) as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome), was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7%) showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP) level <1.0 g/day. The UP level immediately after LDL-A and the rates of improvement of UP, serum albumin, serum creatinine, eGFR, and total and LDL cholesterol after the treatment session significantly affected the outcome. Conclusions Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome. PMID:26557843

  18. The Impact of Apheresis Platelet Manipulation on Corrected Count Increment

    PubMed Central

    Karafin, Matthew; Fuller, Alice K.; Savage, William J.; King, Karen E.; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Concentrating and washing apheresis platelets (APs) substantially reduce the number of allergic transfusion reactions likely due to removal of plasma. However, these processes may damage platelets. This study evaluated whether concentrating or washing APs decrease the Corrected Count Increment (CCI). Study Design and Methods This retrospective study evaluated individuals who initially received unmanipulated APs and subsequently received concentrated and/or washed APs at a large university hospital between 1998 and 2009. Concentrated units were prepared by reducing the plasma volume of APs by a goal of >67%. Washed units were prepared by washing the APs with 1L normal saline. The CCI (plt × m2/uL) for all transfusions was calculated. Hypothesis testing was performed with Student’s t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for dichotomous variables. Results We evaluated 121 individuals; 46 patients who received unmanipulated, concentrated and then washed APs, 59 patients who received unmanipulated and then concentrated APs; and 16 patients who received unmanipulated and then washed APs. Patient demographics were similar among the three groups. The mean CCI for unmanipulated AP transfusions at 0–2 hours post transfusion were significantly higher than concentrated and washed platelet transfusions (p<0.001). However, when accounting for platelet loss due to manipulation, concentrating APs did not impact the CCI, but the CCI remained significantly lower for washed products at all time points post transfusion (40.7% mean reduction at 20–24 hours, p<0.001). Conclusions Washing APs significantly reduces platelet count recovery and survival, as demonstrated by a significantly reduced CCI. PMID:22233358

  19. LDL-apheresis depletes apoE-HDL and pre-β1-HDL in familial hypercholesterolemia: relevance to atheroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Orsoni, Alexina; Saheb, Samir; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Atassi, Marielle; Bittar, Randa; Robillard, Paul; Bruckert, Eric; Kontush, Anatol; Carrié, Alain; Chapman, M. John

    2011-01-01

    Subnormal HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels are characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reflecting perturbed intravascular metabolism with compositional anomalies in HDL particles, including apoE enrichment. Does LDL-apheresis, which reduces HDL-cholesterol, apoAI, and apoE by adsorption, induce selective changes in HDL subpopulations, with relevance to atheroprotection? Five HDL subpopulations were fractionated from pre- and post-LDL-apheresis plasmas of normotriglyceridemic FH subjects (n = 11) on regular LDL-apheresis (>2 years). Apheresis lowered both plasma apoE (−62%) and apoAI (−16%) levels, with preferential, genotype-independent reduction in apoE. The mass ratio of HDL2:HDL3 was lowered from ∼1:1 to 0.72:1 by apheresis, reflecting selective removal of HDL2 mass (80% of total HDL adsorbed). Pre-LDL-apheresis, HDL2 subpopulations were markedly enriched in apoE, consistent with ∼1 copy of apoE per 4 HDL particles. Large amounts (50-66%) of apoE-HDL were removed by apheresis, preferentially in the HDL2b subfraction (−50%); minor absolute amounts of apoE-HDL were removed from HDL3 subfractions. Furthermore, pre-β1-HDL particle levels were subnormal following removal (−53%) upon apheresis, suggesting that cellular cholesterol efflux may be defective in the immediate postapheresis period. In LDL-receptor (LDL-R) deficiency, LDL-apheresis may enhance flux through the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and equally attenuate potential biglycan-mediated deposition of apoE-HDL in the arterial matrix. PMID:21957200

  20. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access for therapeutic apheresis procedures reduces need for central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Eric; Garcia, Salvador; Miguel, Robin; Segura, Francisco J; Ipe, Tina S; Leveque, Christopher

    2016-08-10

    Therapeutic and donor apheresis requires adequate vascular access to achieve inlet flow rates of ∼50-100 mL/min. While central dialysis-type venous catheters can usually provide such access, their use includes several associated risks. Some of these risks can be avoided or diminished if adequate peripheral venous access can be established. Some patients have adequate peripheral veins for apheresis that cannot be readily identified visually or by palpation. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access would benefit such patients and would lead to placement of fewer central venous catheters. The technique of ultrasound-guided peripheral access for apheresis has been in use at Houston Methodist Hospital since 2012. We performed a prospective review of patients undergoing inpatient and outpatient apheresis at Houston Methodist Hospital from July 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015, to assess its benefit. During this time, we performed 831 procedures on 186 patients, including 787 therapeutic plasma exchanges, three red blood cell exchanges, 41 peripheral stem cell collections. Ultrasound-guided vascular access was used for 68 procedures (8% of all procedures), including 62 therapeutic plasma exchanges, 4 peripheral stem cell collections, and 2 red blood cell changes. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral access prevented the placement of central venous catheters in 37 (20%) patients, demonstrating its utility in a busy transfusion service.

  1. [Platelet concentrates from whole-blood donations (buffy-coat) or apheresis: which one to use?].

    PubMed

    Lozano, María Luisa; Rivera, José; Vicente, Vicente

    2012-05-05

    Platelet concentrates (PCs) prepared either from whole-blood donations by the buffy-coat method (BC), or by plateletpheresis are indicated to prevent or treat acute hemorrhage secondary to thrombocytopenia, and there is an ongoing debate about which platelet product should be used. Usage of each of these two products is highly heterogeneous among countries and individual institutions, ranging from 10 to 90%, with a 50:50 ratio in Europe. In comparison of pooled platelets prepared by the BC method and apheresis PCs, data suggest similar efficacy of the products. Regarding recipients' adverse reactions, there is no advantage for apheresis concentrates. From the donor's point of view, evidence favours using the abundance of platelets available from whole-blood donation. As residual viral transmission risk continues to fall, the advantage of apheresis products related to the decrease to donor exposure lessens. While the cost-effectiveness of apheresis products is comparable to that of other accepted blood safety interventions, in case of emerging pathogens, probably pathogen inactivation of pooled BC PCs would be a more desirable strategy.

  2. Significant changes in the 6th edition of FACT-JACIE standards affecting apheresis facilities.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    FACT-JACIE cellular therapy standards are being revised every 3years and currently in their 6th edition. Significant changes in the 6th edition of the standards that affect apheresis facilities participating in cellular therapy product collections are presented.

  3. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    PubMed

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  4. Fibrinogen is not a prognostic factor for response to HELP-apheresis in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL).

    PubMed

    Berger, T; Kaiser, T; Scholz, M; Bachmann, A; Ceglarek, U; Hesse, G; Hagemeyer, B; Stumvoll, M; Thiery, J; Dietz, A

    2015-12-01

    Higher levels of fibrinogen or cholesterol were associated with improved hearing recovery in SSHL patients after treatment with HELP-apheresis (Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation apheresis). The present trial was performed to demonstrate HELP-related effects on relevant metabolic and inflammatory parameters in the context of SSHL treatment. In the framework of a single arm non-controlled trial, we investigated the variation of metabolic and inflammatory parameters using HELP-apheresis for a defined group of 100 patients with SSHL. Based on cut off inclusion criteria (Serum LDL-cholesterol >1.6 g/l and/or fibrinogen >2.0 g/l, SSHL in minimum three frequencies more than 30 dB, time after event not longer than 6 days), the protocol followed a strict time line with one single shot HELP-apheresis and follow-up monitoring including laboratory parameters at six defined time points. If HELP-apheresis could not effect improvement of hearing on day 5, additional corticosteroid treatment was applied. Concentration of anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased while other proinflammatory parameters declined. Serum levels of all measured sterols and apolipoproteins decreased significantly. None of the investigated parameters were suitable to predict hearing improvement of the patients. Levels of fibrinogen and LDL-cholesterol were not prognostic for outcome after HELP-apheresis. A significant (p < 0.001) increase of anti-inflammatory IL-10 after apheresis was notable, while most of the proinflammatory parameters declined. Despite the limited validity of a single arm non-controlled trial, these alterations on immune modulating factors indicate possible secondary pleiotropic effects caused by HELP-apheresis.

  5. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  6. Transfusion and component characteristics are not associated with allergic transfusion reactions to apheresis platelets

    PubMed Central

    Savage, William J.; Tobian, Aaron A.R.; Savage, Jessica H.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Borge, P. Dayand; Kaufman, Richard M.; Ness, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-related characteristics have been hypothesized to cause allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) but they have not been thoroughly studied. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the associations of infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication with the incidence and severity of ATRs. A secondary objective is to compare the risk of these attributes relative to the previously reported risk factor for aeroallergen sensitization in transfusion recipients, as measured by an aeroallergen-specific IgE antibody screen. Study Design and Methods Clinical and transfusion-related data were collected on subjects with reported ATRs and uneventful (control) apheresis platelet transfusions over a combined 21 month period at two academic medical centers. Control transfusions were selected as the next uneventful transfusion after an ATR was reported. Logistic regression, Mann-Whitney and t tests were used to assess associations with ATRs. Previously reported aeroallergen-specific IgE screening data was incorporated into a multivariable logistic regression. Results 143 ATRs and 61 control transfusions were evaluated among 168 subjects, ages 2-86 years. Infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication showed no statistically significant association with ATRs (P>0.05). Neither infusion rate nor infusion volume increased the risk of anaphylaxis vs. mucocutaneous only ATRs. Aeroallergen sensitization has previously been associated with ATRs. After controlling for transfusion-related covariates, aeroallergen sensitization remained statistically significantly associated with ATRs (OR 2.68, 95%CI: 1.26-5.69). Conclusions Transfusion and component-specific attributes are not associated with ATRs. An allergic predisposition in transfusion recipients is associated most strongly with ATR risk. PMID:25209730

  7. Evaluation of platelets prepared by apheresis and stored for 5 days. In vitro and in vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shanwell, A.; Gulliksson, H.; Berg, B.K.; Jansson, B.A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1989-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of storage on apheresis platelets collected with a closed-system blood cell separator, an in vitro investigation was performed, with measurements of pH, lactate, ATP, the ratio of ATP to the total adenine nucleotide content, and adenylate kinase. Unmodified apheresis platelets and apheresis platelets with plasma added were compared with conventional platelets stored in PL-1240 or PL-732 plastic containers. During 6 days of storage, there were similar changes in all variables with one exception: the extracellular activity of adenylate kinase was lower in apheresis platelets with plasma than in the other three groups (p less than 0.01). In vivo studies were carried out with 111Indium-labeled autologous platelets in eight volunteers. Apheresis platelets with 100 mL of plasma added were stored in two 1000-mL containers (PL-732) at 22 degrees C during agitation. Platelets from one of the containers were labeled with 111Indium and transfused into the volunteer within 24 hours. Platelets from the other container were labeled after 5 days of storage and transfused into the same donor. There were no significant differences between apheresis platelets stored for 1 day and those stored for 5 days: the mean percentage of recovery was 58.4 and 57.6 percent, t1/2 was 69 and 67 hours, and the survival time was 5.5 and 5.6 days, respectively.

  8. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis by membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) via arteriovenous fistula performed in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Gülle, Saniye; Bak, Mustafa; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Can, Demet; Karabay, Ozalp

    2010-02-01

    Membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) is an apheresis technique by which atherogenic lipoproteins can be eliminated from plasma on the basis of particle size. In this study, we aim to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed by providing alternative vascular routes in two siblings with familial hypercholesterolemia who did not respond to medical treatment and diet. Of the two siblings, one was nine years old and the other one was three-and-a-half years old. Of the total of 78 apheresis processes performed, 24 were done via a permanent subclavian catheter, 36 were done via a subsequently provided arteriovenous fistula, and 18 were done via an arteriovenous graft. We observed a mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (61.6%), LDL cholesterol (65.5%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (38.6%). We noted that cascade filtration apheresis was effective in decreasing the LDL cholesterol in plasma, and no serious complications were noted. The success of the apheresis program depends on well-functioning blood access. An arteriovenous fistula may be the best route for the long-term treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, which requires complication-free apheresis treatments.

  9. The lipid- and lipoprotein- [LDL-Lp(a)] apheresis techniques. Updating.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, C; Morozzi, C; Perrone, G; Di Giacomo, S; Vivenzio, A; D'Alessandri, G

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic plasmapheresis allows the extracorporeal removal of plasmatic lipoproteins (Lipid-apheresis) (LA). It can be non selective (non specific), semi - selective or selective low density lipoprotein-lipoprotein(a) (specific [LDL- Lp(a)] apheresis) (Lipoprotein apheresis, LDLa). The LDL removal rate is a perfect parameter to assess the system efficiency. Plasma-Exchange (PEX) cannot be considered either specific nor, selective. In PEX the whole blood is separated into plasma and its corpuscular components usually through centrifugation or rather filtration. The corpuscular components mixed with albumin solution plus saline (NaCl 0.9%) solution at 20%-25%, are then reinfused to the patient, to substitute the plasma formerly removed. PEX eliminates atherogenic lipoproteins, but also other essential plasma proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and hemocoagulatory mediators. Cascade filtration (CF) is a method based on plasma separation and removal of plasma proteins through double filtration. During the CF two hollow-fiber filters with pores of different diameter are used to eliminate the plasma components of different weight and molecular diameter. A CF system uses a first polypropylene filter with 0.55 µm diameter pores and a second one of diacetate of cellulose with 0.02 µm pores. The first filter separates the whole blood, and the plasma is then perfused through a second filter which allows the recovery of molecules with a diameter lower than 0.02 µm, and the removal of molecules larger in diameter as apoB100-containing lipoproteins. Since both albumin and immunoglobulins are not removed, or to a negligible extent, plasma-expanders, substitution fluids, and in particular albumin, as occurs in PEX are not needed. CF however, is characterized by lower selectivity since removes also high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles which have an antiatherogenic activity. In the 80's, a variation of Lipid-apheresis has been developed which allows the LDL

  10. Time-based analysis of the apheresis platelet supply chain in England.

    PubMed

    Wilding, R; Cotton, S; Dobbin, J; Chapman, J; Yates, N

    2011-10-01

    During 2009/2010 loss of platelets within NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) due to time expiry was 9.3%. Hospitals remain reluctant to hold stocks of platelets due to the poor shelf life at issue. The purpose of this study was to identify areas for time compression in the apheresis platelet supply chain to extend the shelf life available for hospitals and reduce wastage in NHSBT. This was done within the context of NHSBT reconfiguring their supply chain and moving towards a consolidated and centralised approach. Time based process mapping was applied to identify value and non-value adding time in two manufacturing models. A large amount of the non-value adding time in the apheresis platelet supply chain is due to transportation and waiting for the next process in the manufacturing process to take place. Time based process mapping provides an effective 'lens' for supply chain professionals to identify opportunities for improvement in the platelet supply chain.

  11. Platelet activation of platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat and apheresis methods.

    PubMed

    Ali, Soleimany Ferizhandy

    2011-02-01

    Preparation for storage may cause platelet activation. The quality of platelet concentrates plays an important role in transfusion therapy. Platelet concentrates are produced by different centrifugation methods; buffy coat (buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates-BC) and plateletpheresis (apheresis-derived platelet concentrates-APC). Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: platelet, WBC and RBC counts pH, volume, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and Annexin V. The present paper compares the quality of both platelet preparations in vitro. In this experimental study, 30 platelet concentrates were harvested with the Haemonetics MCS plus and 30 units via the buffy coat (BC) method. The percentages of Annexin V expression, PF4 levels, platelet, WBC and RBC counts, pH and volume were measure immediately after collection and after 3 days of storage. During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed, no significant pH or RBC, difference in comparison with apheresis preparations (p>0.05). During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed a significant increase in the PF4 and Annexin V expression, compared to the apheresis preparations on day three (p<0.05). The kinetics of PF4 and Annexin V levels are influenced by the method used to prepare platelets for storage. The different levels of PF4 and Annexin V in BCs and APCs clearly demonstrates a progressive activation of BC platelets exceeding that of APC. However, in vivo studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  12. The 1st and the 2nd Italian Consensus Conferences on low-density lipoprotein-apheresis. A practical synopsis and update

    PubMed Central

    Stefanutti, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The clinical indications and guidelines for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis set by the 1st Italian Consensus Conference held in Ostuni in 1990 and completed in 1992, but never published, are reported schematically. In 1994, within the Project “Prevention and control of the factors of the disease (FATMA)” by the Italian National Research Council, subproject 8 “Control of cardiovascular disease”, a “Hearing on therapeutic apheresis: need for a target-oriented project” was organised. The meeting was the last scientific initiative on LDL-apheresis supported by public funds in Italy. After roughly two decades of use of LDL-apheresis, new guidelines were required based on the latest scientific evidence. In 2006, the Italian multicentre study on LDL-apheresis Working Group (IMSLDLa-WP), a scientific initiative at national level, was developed. It initially gathered together 19 Italian centres qualified for the application of lipid apheresis and LDL-apheresis (2007–2008), then 23 in 2010, located in the north, south, centre of Italy and in Sicily and Sardinia. The multicentre study aimed to validate the protocol for selecting patients and to create a network between the Italian centres. A secondary objective was the creation of a database of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia and other severe forms of dyslipidaemia undergoing treatment with LDL-apheresis using the available techniques. Since LDL-apheresis has multidisciplinary treatment indications, the agreement on the new guidelines was reached through a panel of experts, of different medical and surgical specialties, with scientific and medical interest in the treatment indications, application and development of LDL-apheresis. The initiatives of the IMSLDLa-WP led to the 2nd Italian Consensus Conference on LDL-apheresis held in Rome in 2009. The previous and most recent guidelines are reported here synoptically. PMID:27416576

  13. Emerging low-density lipoprotein (LDL) therapies: Management of severely elevated LDL cholesterol--the role of LDL-apheresis.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Mary P

    2013-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis is a Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or severe heterozygous FH. Based on electrochemical principles, it selectively removes apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins through extracorporeal precipitation with either heparin (Heparin-induced Extracorporeal LDL Precipitation, ie, HELP) or dextran sulfate (Liposorber). LDL-apheresis can lead to an acute decrease in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of 70%-80%, but there is a rapid rebound to baseline levels within approximately 2 weeks. LDL-apheresis is typically performed once-a-week in patients with homozygous FH and every other week in those with heterozygous FH to produce time-average LDL-C reductions of ≈ 40%. Side effects associated with LDL-apheresis include hypotension (later found to be due to concomitant use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), nausea/vomiting, flushing, angina, and fainting. Posttreatment bleeding can occur secondary to heparin used during the procedure. Challenges associated with LDL-apheresis include vascular access often requiring an arteriovenous fistula (fistulas may clot and require revision over time), the time associated with each treatment session (2-4 hours), the frequency of treatment, and the scarcity of medical centers which perform LDL-apheresis. Given the nature of LDL-apheresis, randomized placebo controlled trials are nearly impossible, and virtually all studies of clinical benefit have been non-randomized investigations of small numbers of subjects. Nonetheless, results from those studies support the benefits of LDL-C reduction for reducing coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

  14. Apheresis product identification in the transplant center: development of point-of-care protocols for extended blood typing of stem cell apheresis products.

    PubMed

    Cummerow, C; Schwind, P; Spicher, M; Spohn, G; Geisen, C; Seifried, E; Bönig, H

    2012-06-01

    Transfusion of the 'wrong' stem cell product would almost inevitably be lethal, yet assays to confirm the contents of the product bag, except by checking labels and paperwork, are lacking. To increase the likelihood that a product mix-up would be detected in the transplant center, we developed a simple protocol for extended blood typing and hence, for confirmation of donor/product identity, on a tube segment. Apheresis samples were applied, directly or after erythrocyte enrichment, to commercially available blood typing assays, including lateral flow cards and gel agglutination cards. Without sample modification, low hematocrit and high leukocyte count obviated definitive blood typing. Using the most simple erythrocyte enrichment protocol, that is, centrifugation, reliable blood group analysis became possible with either assay. Other, more cumbersome pre-analytical protocols were also successful but provided no advantage. The preferred method was validated on 100 samples; ABD was correctly identified in 100% of cases. Of the other Rh Ags, all except two 'small e', in both cases in heterozygous individuals, were detected; there were no false positives. A simple, inexpensive point-of-care assay for extended blood typing of apheresis products is available, which can reduce the fatal risk of administering the wrong stem cell product.

  15. NHLBI state of the science symposium in therapeutic apheresis: Knowledge gaps and research opportunities in the area of hematology-oncology.

    PubMed

    Karafin, Matthew S; Sachais, Bruce S; Connelly-Smith, Laura; Field, Joshua J; Linenberger, Michael L; Padmanabhan, Anand

    2016-02-01

    The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) hosted a two-day state of the science symposium on therapeutic apheresis in Bethesda, MD on November 28th-29th, 2012. The purpose of the symposium was multifaceted, and included the following aims: (a) To discuss this state of research and key scientific questions in apheresis medicine; (b) To identify gaps in knowledge for relevant cardiovascular diseases, hematological and oncological diseases, infectious diseases and sepsis, renal diseases, and neurological diseases where there may be strong therapeutic rationale for the application of apheresis treatments; (c) To explore ways of coordinating therapeutic apheresis with other medical disciplines and treatment modalities; (d) To identify and prioritize the most important research questions to be answered in apheresis medicine; and (e) To offer NHLBI suggestions on how a structured research approach can be applied to the therapeutic apheresis research agenda in future years. The following document summarizes three such key proposals presented at the meeting for evaluating apheresis therapy for the treatment of pain in sickle cell disease, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, and leukostasis from acute myeloid leukemia. The challenges and limitations regarding apheresis therapy for each disease are discussed, and avenues for future investigation for each disease are outlined.

  16. Plasma dependent reduction in red blood cell aggregation after dextran sulfate low-density lipoprotein apheresis--implications for rheological studies.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Vered; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Hershcovici, Tiberiu; Yedgar, Shaul; Beigel, Ytzhak; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Barsthein, Gershon

    2005-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is increased in familial hypercholesterolemia, and is reduced significantly after low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether this reduction depends on changes in plasma composition, RBC membrane properties, or both. RBC aggregation was determined in a computerized cell flow-properties analyzer, before and after LDL apheresis. We compared RBC aggregation in autologous plasma with aggregation in a plasma-free standard solution (0.5% of dextran 500 kDa) to define the separate contributions of plasma and cellular properties to the observed RBC aggregation. RBC aggregation in autologous plasma was reduced by 35.5% after LDL apheresis (P=0.01) but was not significantly affected when measured in dextran 500. This suggests that LDL apheresis attenuated RBC aggregation by altering plasma composition rather than RBC membrane properties. These results are relevant to the understanding of hemorheological changes which follow therapeutic apheresis in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  17. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  18. Adsorptive Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis: The First Multicenter Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ya-Min; Yao, Wei-Yan; He, Yao; Jiang, Xuan; Gu, Yu-Bei; Chen, Min-Hu; Liu, Yu-Lan; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Qian, Jia-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) have elevated levels of activated myeloid-derived leukocytes as a source of inflammatory cytokines. The selective depletion of these leukocytes by adsorptive granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMA) with an Adacolumn should alleviate inflammation, promote remission and enhance drug efficacy. However, studies have reported contrasting efficacy outcomes based on patients’ baseline demographic variables. This study was undertaken to understand the demographic features of GMA responders and nonresponders. Methods This was a multicenter study in China involving four institutions and 34 patients with active UC. Baseline conventional medications were continued without changing the dosage. The treatment efficacy was evaluated based on the endoscopic activity index and the Mayo score. Results Thirty of the 34 patients completed all 10 GMA treatment sessions. The overall efficacy rate was 70.59%. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve was approximately 0.766 for a Mayo score of ≤5.5 with 0.273 specificity and 0.857 sensitivity (Youden index, 0.584) for GMA responders. No GMA-related serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions The overall efficacy of GMA in patients with active UC who were taking first-line medications or were corticosteroid refractory was encouraging. Additionally, GMA was well tolerated and had a good safety profile. PMID:27843131

  19. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  20. Lipoprotein apheresis for the treatment of elevated circulating levels of lipoprotein(a): a critical literature review

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), which consists of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle linked to an apolipoprotein(a) moiety, is currently considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to its atherogenic (LDL-like) and prothrombotic (plasminogen-like) properties. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and newer therapies for lowering increased lipoprotein(a) levels, focusing on lipoprotein apheresis. After a systematic literature search, we identified ten studies which, overall, documented that lipoprotein apheresis is effective in reducing increased lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular events. PMID:26710351

  1. Practical aspects of direct adsorption of lipoproteins from whole blood by DALI LDL-apheresis.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) from whole blood is the first LDL-hemoperfusion procedure. The present paper addresses practical questions of DALI apheresis in order to optimise DALI therapy in sometimes critically ill coronary patients. The reduction of LDL and Lp(a) by DALI can be optimised by increasing the treated blood volume and the DALI adsorber volume. Hypotension (1.2% of sessions) may be minimised by fluid intake before the session, isovolemic connection of the patient to the ECC, reduced blood flow and low ACD-A ratio. Hypocalcemia may be avoided by low citrate anticoagulation (1:40) and reduced blood flow. Bradykinin release peaks at ca. 1000 ml of treated blood volume and may cause Quincke edema (tight throat), hypotension and flush. Reduction of the blood flow rate and decrease of citrate admixture as well as administration of iv. calcium may be helpful. While ACE inhibitors are contraindicated in DALI patients, sartans may be used without problems. Some "intrinsic" PTT increase is caused by adsorption of coagulation factors; undue PTT prolongations after DALI may be avoided by reduction of the heparin dosage during priming and treatment. In patients prone to alkalosis and hypokalemia, a reduction of the ACD-A ratio is recommended. Rises of adsorber inlet pressure may be due to insufficient anticoagulation and adsorber clotting or malfunctioning of the venous access. Rinsing of the adsorber with saline, administration of a heparin bolus and increase of the citrate admixture as well as a rinse and/or repositioning of the venous access are helpful measures. If these basic rules are followed, DALI LDL-apheresis is a safe, efficient, rapid and user-friendly LDL-apheresis procedure as evidenced by more than 80,000 DALI sessions successfully performed to date.

  2. Expression and function of purinergic receptors in platelets from apheresis-derived platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Koessler, Juergen; Weber, Katja; Koessler, Angela; Yilmaz, Pinar; Boeck, Markus; Kobsar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The storage of platelets affects platelet integrity and functionality, a process named platelet storage lesion (PSL). Reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation is a typical manifestation of PSL. However, the role of ADP receptors in this context has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate surface expression and function of the purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 in stored platelet concentrates. Material and methods Platelets were obtained from venous whole blood and from apheresis-derived platelet concentrates stored for 0, 2 and 5 days. Purinergic receptor expression was measured by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Receptor function was determined by calcium-induced fluorescence (P2Y1 and P2X1) or by flow cytometric measurement of the platelet reactivity index (P2Y12). Results The basal surface expression and total content of purinergic receptors remained unchanged throughout storage. After an initial reduction during apheresis, P2X1-mediated calcium flux was maintained, whereas the P2Y1-mediated increase of calcium flux gradually decreased during the course of storage. In contrast, the platelet reactivity index was comparable in freshly obtained and stored platelets. Discussion The function of the P2Y12 receptor is maintained during storage of apheresis-derived platelet concentrates. However, the impairment of P2X1 and especially of P2Y1 receptor function indicated by decreased receptor-mediated calcium flux is an important mechanism contributing to reduced ADP responsiveness of stored platelets. PMID:26674810

  3. Platelet Recruitment during Multiple Donor Platelet Apheresis Differs between Cell Separators.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Stefano; Keller, Peter; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: Recruitment of platelets (PLT) during donor PLT apheresis may facilitate the harvest of multiple units within a single donation. METHODS: We compared two PLT apheresis procedures (Amicus and Trima Accel) in a prospective, randomized, paired cross-over study in 60 donors. The 120 donations were compared for depletion of circulating PLT in the donors, PLT yields and PLT recruitment. A recruitment was defined as ratio of total PLT yield and donor PLT depletion > 1. RESULTS: Despite comparable differences of pre- and post-apheresis PLT counts (87 × 10(9)/l in Trima Accel vs. 92 × 10(9)/l in Amicus, p = 0.383), PLT yields were higher with Trima Accel (7.48 × 10(11) vs. 6.06 × 10(11), p < 0.001), corresponding to a higher PLT recruitment (1.90 vs. 1.42, p < 0.001). We observed a different increase of WBC counts after aphereses, which was more pronounced with Trima Accel than with Amicus (1.30 × 10(9)/l vs. 0.46 × 10(9)/l, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both procedures induced PLT recruitment. This was higher in Trima Accel, contributing to a higher yield in spite of a comparable depletion of circulating PLT in the donors. This recruitment facilitates the harvest of multiple units within a single donation and seems to be influenced by the procedure utilized. The different increases of circulating donor white blood cells after donation need further investigation.

  4. Low density lipoprotein apheresis in pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Coker, Mahmut; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Simsek, Damla Goksen; Darcan, Sukran; Bak, Mustafa; Can, Sule

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the low density lipoprotein apheresis procedure for pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in terms of efficacy, adverse effects and difficulties. The follow-up was carried out using an open, prospective uncontrolled clinical design. Data were collected from 10 patients (with an average age of 8.4 +/- 4.7 years) with FH treated with double filtration plasmapheresis. The total time span of follow-up covered five years (30.2 +/- 17.8 months [range 9-60 months]) and more than 600 sessions (62.1 +/- 35.5 sessions per patient [range 18-120 sessions]) were evaluated. The mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) pre-treatment value was 375.5 +/- 127.5 mg/dL, and the post-treatment value was 147.5 +/- 73.9 mg/dL. This corresponded to a 62.8 +/- 10.3% (43-73%) acute reduction of LDL-C, while the mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol losses amounted to 41%. The chronic reduction in LDL-C ranged from 18 to 52%, with a mean level of 36.4 +/- 11.7%. The most frequently occurring technical problems were related to blood lines: puncture difficulties (4.5%), insufficient blood flow (3.5%), and obturation of the blood lines (2.4%). The main clinical adverse effects were hypotension (0.2%), chills/feeling cold (0.1%), and nausea and vomiting (0.2%). We observed that the low pediatric patient tolerance is the main problem in compliance with treatment. In conclusion, LDL apheresis, started under the age of eight years, combined with lipid-lowering drugs, provides a safe and effective lowering of the mean LDL-C levels in pediatric homozygous FH; and there are more problems with compliance for pediatric LDL apheresis than in the adult population.

  5. Adverse events and retention of donors of double red cell units by apheresis

    PubMed Central

    Keshelashvili, Ketevan; O’Meara, Alix; Stern, Martin; Jirout, Zuzana; Pehlic, Vildana; Holbro, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Sigle, Jörg; Infanti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Safety of double-erythrocyte (2RBC) collection and reasons for ceasing 2RBC donation were retrospectively analysed in the blood donor population of Basel, Switzerland. Methods Donors with at least 1 2RBC apheresis were included in the study. Minimal requirements were Hb ≥140 g/L and body weight ≥70 kg; serum ferritin (SF) values were measured routinely, but were not part of the selection criteria. 2RBC collections were performed with ALYX devices at 6-month intervals. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded and classified according to the ISBT EHN 2008 criteria. Data of procedures were retrieved from the ALYX software. Demographics, apheresis data and AEs were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results Data of 4,377 2RBC aphereses performed in 793 donors (779 males) between 1st January 2003 and 31st May 2015 were evaluated. Mean donor age at first 2RBC donation was 44 years (standard deviation [SD] 21), median number of donations was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 8); 32% of the donors underwent a single procedure. There were 161 AEs, mostly local haematomas (55%) and vasovagal reactions (20%); fatigue was reported in 6% of the cases and was more frequent than citrate toxicity. Two severe AEs were observed. The most frequent reasons for abandoning 2RBC donation were low SF levels and donor choice (both 11%), but most donors simply did not reply to invitations (16%). Overall, procedure-related causes (AEs, low SF levels, no time for apheresis, inadequate venous access) were observed in 14% of the cases. At the end of the observation period, 40% of the donors were still active blood donors, but only 20% were donating 2RBC. Discussion 2RBC donation is overall safe. Donor retention was low over a period of 11 years. An important reason for abandoning 2RBC was the detection of low SF levels. The impact of fatigue on donor retention and the course of iron stores after repeated 6-monthly 2RBC apheresis require further investigation. PMID:27136442

  6. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  7. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels <6.7 or <6.3 on days 5 or 7, respectively, the pH in the matched product stored in the 1.3 L container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation.

  8. Single Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis Does Not Improve Vascular Endothelial Function in Chronically Treated Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Mah, Eunice; Guo, Yi; Bruno, Richard S.; Taylor, Beth A.; Beam, Jo Ellen; Polk, Donna M.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate vascular endothelial function (VEF) responses to a single low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis session in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing chronic treatment. Methods. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma lipids, vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol), markers of oxidative/nitrative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitro-γ-tocopherol (NGT)), and regulators of NO metabolism (arginine (ARG) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) prior to (Pre) and immediately following (Post) LDL apheresis and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d Post in 5 hypercholesterolemic patients (52 ± 11 y). Results. Relative to Pre, total cholesterol (7.8 ± 1.5 mmol/L) and LDL-cholesterol (6.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L) were 61% and 70% lower (P < 0.01), respectively, at Post and returned to Pre levels at 14 d. Brachial FMD responses (6.9 ± 3.6%) and plasma MDA, ARG, and ADMA concentrations were unaffected by LDL apheresis. Plasma α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and NGT concentrations were 52–69% lower at Post (P < 0.01), and α-tocopherol remained 36% lower at 1 d whereas NGT remained 41% lower at d 3. Conclusions. Acute cholesterol reduction by LDL apheresis does not alter VEF, oxidative stress, or NO homeostasis in patients treated chronically for hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26998360

  9. Comparative study of automated plateletpheresis using five different apheresis systems in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rajendra; Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Khetan, Dheeraj; Ojha, Shashank; Verma, Sunil

    2009-04-01

    Different types of cell separators are available nowadays based on either continuous or intermittent flow technology to meet the growing demands for single donor apheresis platelets. This prospective study compares the five machines used in our center with regard to procedure parameters, product quality and adverse effects on the donor. A total of 477 plateletpheresis on various machines were performed on eligible donors over a period of 28 months after taking informed consent. All procedures were performed following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) and manufacturer's instructions. All donor and procedure related details were obtained from the procedure register. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS statistical package (version 12, USA). The median age, BSA and BMI of our plateletpheresis donors were calculated to be 29 years, 1.69 m(2) and 23.1 kg/m(2), respectively. Analyzing the parameters related to donor comfort such as donation time (DT), needle time (NT) and processing time (PT), the MCS machines were not "donor friendly" compared to Amicus and Fresenius. Platelet yield by Amicus was significantly higher as compared to other cell separators (p < 0.05). Plateletpheresis associated citrate toxicity was higher with the Amicus and MCS 3p and vasovagal side-effects was observed least with the CS 3000 machine. Though, quality of apheresis product in terms of yield is comparable with all the machines, there are differences in the systems with regard to donor safety, procedure time and donor retention.

  10. Effectiveness of the haemonetics MCS cell separator in the collection of apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Keklik, Ertugrul; Korkmaz, Serdal; Aygun, Bilal; Arik, Ferhat; Kilic, Ozcan; Sarikoc, Murat

    2015-12-01

    Platelet (PLT) transfusions play an important role in patients with thrombocytopenia or severely impaired platelet function. Platelet concentrates are prepared from whole-blood donations or by plateletpheresis. In recent years, different instruments have been developed to perform plateletpheresis. We evaluated an apheresis instrument, the Haemonetics MCS(®) + with regard to PLT yield, collection efficiency (CE), and collection rate (CR) in a retrospective, randomized study in 526 donors. In this system, we used leukoreduction filters post collection to obtain leukoreduced products. The Haemonetics MCS(®) + cell separator efficiently collected apheresis platelets with median PLT yields of 3.7 × 10(11), mean CE of 66.69 ± 13.73% and mean CR of 0.063 ± 0.013 × 10(11)/min. The median blood volume processed was 3290 (2420-4370) ml, and the median volume of acid citrate dextrose-A (ACD-A) used in collections on the device was 385 (196-517) ml. Also, this device allowed the collection of white blood cell (WBC) reduced plateletpheresis with mean 0.07 ± 0.15 × 10(6) WBC content. No serious donor or recipient reactions occurred.

  11. Combination of therapeutic apheresis and therapeutic ventricular assistance for end-stage heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Eistrup, Sebastian; Ashizawa, Satoshi; Nonaka, Kenji; Ichikawa, Seiji; Motomura, Tadashi; Murai, Noriyuki; Nosé, Yukihiko

    2002-08-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a cardiac disease of unknown origin which is characterized by the gradual development of cardiac failure associated with four-chamber dilatation of the heart. Heart transplantation has been considered as the last resort for this disease. However, some patients who received support with a ventricular assist device (VAD) as a bridge-to-transplantation and then recovered without transplantation have been reported. This new concept of treating heart failure is termed bridge-to-recovery. A VAD can inhibit the heart failure compensatory mechanisms by extreme ventricular unloading. Also, heart failure is a complex neurohormonal/autocrine-paracrine syndrome, and these mechanisms consecutively lead to inflammatory response by proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Furthermore, the existence of anti-beta1-adrenoceptor autoantibodies (A-beta1-AABs) in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy has been reported. These proinflammatory cytokines and this antibody accelerate a ventricular remodeling and a contractile dysfunction over the long term. Apheresis can also inhibit the vicious cycle in heart failure by removing the factors that are produced by activated neurohormonal/autocrine-paracrine compensatory mechanisms. Therefore, we propose that the combined therapies, therapeutic VAD and therapeutic apheresis, will provide a prominent outcome for a patient who is suffering from end-stage heart failure.

  12. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will:

    Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee
    Review the PEC's current membership of 10
    Discuss how a typical application is evaluated
    Note where information can be found
    List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  13. A single apheresis procedure in the donor may be enough to complete an allograft using the “Mexican Method” of non-ablative allografting

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J.; Gutiérrez-Riveroll, Karla I.; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, César H.; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Eyzaguirre-Zapata, Renee; Priesca-Marin, Manuel; González-Carrillo, Martha L.; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Since 1999, in Mexico we have been using a regimen to conduct allografts that involves non-myeloablative conditioning and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and have introduced some changes with the main goal of decreasing the cost of the procedure. Materials and methods We analysed the salient apheresis features of a group of 175 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplants conducted in two institutions in a 7-year period. The grafts were conducted using the “Mexican” non-myelo ablative conditioning regimen employing oral busulphan, i.v. cyclophosphamide and i.v. fludarabine. In all instances, the apheresis machine employed was the Baxter CS3000 Plus and donors were mobilised with filgrastim. The apheresis procedures were performed on days 0, +1 and +2, the end-point of collection being 5,000 mL of blood/m2 in each procedure. Three apheresis sessions were planned but the number was adjusted according to the cell yield. Results The final number of allografted CD34 cells ranged between 0.5 and 25.4 × 106/Kg of the recipient’s body weight (median, 5.2 × 106/Kg). One to three apheresis procedures were needed to obtain a product containing more than 0.5 × 106 CD34 cells/Kg of the recipient, the median being two procedures; in 72 cases (41%) a single apheresis procedure was sufficient to obtain the target number of CD34 cells. The volumes of apheresis ranged between 50 and 600 mL (median, 400 mL). Conclusions Since the median cost of each apheresis procedure is 900 USD, the fact that two apheresis procedures was spared in 72 cases and one apheresis was spared in another 65 cases, led to a total saving of approximately 188,100 USD. It can be concluded that, in many cases, allogeneic transplants can be completed with a single apheresis session and that there are considerable financial benefits from this practice. PMID:19503634

  14. Determination of thromboxane formation, soluble CD40L release and thrombopoietin clearance in apheresis platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Folker; Baertl, Anja; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Zimmermann, Norbert; Weber, Artur Aron; Lorenz, Horst; Giers, Günther

    2012-01-01

    All deleterious changes in platelet morphology, structure and function that occur in platelet concentrates (PC) during storage are titled as the 'platelet storage lesion'. No single in vitro test currently available is sufficient in assessing these changes of platelet quality. The release of soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L), the formation of thromboxane (TXB2) and the thrombopoietin (TPO) clearance reflect different aspects of platelet metabolism and activitiy, and were used to examine platelet quality in apheresis platelet products. At days 1, 3 and 5, in single-donor apheresis platelet products (n = 10) under routine storage conditions, sCD40L (measured by ELISA) and TXB2 (measured by RIA) were determined after platelet stimulation (recalcification and clot formation). TPO (measured by ELISA) was determined after an incubation time of 5 h at 37°C with platelet-rich plasma (adjusted initial TPO concentration of about 500 pg/mL). Results were related to a therapeutic unit (TU = 2 × 10(11) platelets). Immediately after platelet preparation, sCD40L release was 41 ± 7.6 ng/TU, TXB2 formation 1688 ± 374 ng/TU and TPO clearance 1.22 ± 0.32 ng/h/TU. At days 1, 3 and 5, sCD40L was reduced to 89 ± 7%, 71 ± 12% and 57 ± 9%, TXB2 release to 91 ± 6%, 74 ± 12% and 58 ± 9% and TPO clearance to 90 ± 15%, 84 ± 5% and 79 ± 10% of the respective control values. In conclusion, in single-donor apheresis PC, sCD40L release and TXB2 formation as well as TPO clearance by the platelets were dependent on storage duration and reduced to about 60% to 80% of the respective control values after a storage period for 5 days. These findings are in line with literature data, indicating that a loss of platelet functionality of about 30% will occur after 5 days of storage.

  15. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  16. LDL hemoperfusion--a new procedure for LDL apheresis: biocompatibility results from a first pilot study in hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T; Schmidt, B; Kleophas, W; Otto, V; Samtleben, W

    1997-10-01

    Current lipid apheresis techniques can remove atherogenic lipoproteins only from plasma. The initial mandatory separation of plasma and blood cells renders the extracorporeal circuit complex. We recently described the first clinical application of a new lipid adsorber that adsorbs low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) directly from whole blood. In continuation of our work, this paper describes the clinical biocompatibility of this new LDL hemoperfusion system. In a 2 center phase II clinical trial, 12 hypercholesterolemic patients suffering from overt coronary or peripheral artery disease were treated once with LDL hemoperfusion. The new LDL adsorber (DALI, Fresenius, St. Wendel, Germany) contained 480 ml of polyacrylate coated polyacrylamide gel. The anticoagulation protocol consisted of an initial heparin bolus followed by an acid citrate dextrose-A (ACD-A) infusion during the treatment. One patient blood volume was treated per session. All sessions were clinically uneventful. No signs of hemolysis or extracorporeal clot formation could be detected, and cell counts remained virtually constant. In a subgroup of patients (n = 4-6), further biocompatibility parameters were studied. Activation of leukocytes (elastase release), thrombocytes (beta-thromboglobulin [beta-TG] extrusion), and monocytes (interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) were minimal. Complement activation (C3a and C5a generation) was negligible. The chosen anticoagulation protocol was both safe (constant ionized calcium levels) and effective (low thrombin-antithrombin formation). In summary, within the scope of a first pilot study, this new LDL hemoperfusion procedure combined the features of excellent clinical tolerance, good biocompatibility, and ease of handling. Phase III clinical trials will have to show whether these encouraging preliminary results can be corroborated in a larger patient population.

  17. Proteomics of apheresis platelet supernatants during routine storage: Gender-related differences

    PubMed Central

    Dzieciatkowska, Monika; D‘Alessandroa, Angelo; Burke, Timothy A.; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Moore, Ernest E.; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C.; West, Bernadette F.; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics has identified potential pathways involved in platelet storage lesions, which correlate with untoward effects in the recipient, including febrile non-haemolytic reactions. We hypothesize that an additional pathway involves protein mediators that accumulate in the platelet supernatants during routine storage in a donor gender-specific fashion. Apheresis platelet concentrates were collected from 5 healthy males and 5 females and routinely stored. The 14 most abundant plasma proteins were removed and the supernatant proteins from days 1 and 5 were analyzed via 1D-SDS-PAGE/nanoLC-MS/MS, before label-free quantitative proteomics analyses. Findings from a subset of 18 proteins were validated via LC-SRM analyses against stable isotope labeled standards. A total of 503 distinct proteins were detected in the platelet supernatants from the 4 sample groups: female or male donor platelets, either at storage day 1 or 5. Proteomics suggested a storage and gender-dependent impairment of blood coagulation mediators, pro-inflammatory complement components and cytokines, energy and redox metabolic enzymes. The supernatants from female donors demonstrated increased deregulation of structural proteins, extracellular matrix proteins and focal adhesion proteins, possibly indicating storage-dependent platelet activation. Routine storage of platelet concentrates induces changes in the supernatant proteome, which may have effects on the transfused patient, some of which are related to donor gender. Biological significance The rationale behind this study is that protein components in platelet releasates have been increasingly observed to play a key role in adverse events and impaired homeostasis in transfused recipients. In this view, proteomics has recently emerged as a functional tool to address the issue of protein composition of platelet releasates from buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates in the blood bank. Despite early encouraging studies on buffy coat-derived platelet

  18. Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction in a pediatric patient following transfusion of apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Sapatnekar, Suneeti; Sharma, Girish; Downes, Katharine A; Wiersma, Susan; McGrath, Claire; Yomtovían, Roslyn

    2005-12-01

    The practice of transfusing ABO-incompatible platelets, driven primarily by concerns about inventory management, has been considered generally safe because the accompanying plasma is usually diluted in the recipient's total blood volume. However, if the platelet product contains a large volume of plasma or a high concentration of incompatible isoagglutinin, there may be hemolysis of the recipient's red cells. Patients with a small blood volume, such as babies and children, are considered to be at particular risk for such a complication. We describe the case of a baby who suffered massive hemolysis of her group A red cells after transfusion of group O Apheresis Platelets containing a high-titered anti-A isoagglutinin. We also offer a review of the literature on this subject and recommendations to avoid acute hemolytic reactions as a result of platelet transfusion.

  19. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis as an effective treatment for Reiter disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshifuku, A; Oyama, K; Ibusuki, A; Kawasaki, M; Sakanoue, M; Matsushita, S; Kawai, K; Kawahara, K; Maruyama, I; Kanekura, T

    2012-04-01

    Reiter disease (RD) is characterized by a triad of sterile arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. The conditions occur concomitantly or sequentially, and are associated with mucocutaneous features such as circinate balanitis and stomatitis. Arthritis usually occurs in attacks followed by recovery, but it sometimes progresses to permanent damage of the affected joints. Because the symptoms of this disorder are attributable to activated neutrophils, we assessed the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) in a 73-year-old man with RD who had skin rashes on his penis, scrotum and right hand, with severe arthralgia. The patient's skin rash and joint pain responded dramatically to five sessions of GCAP delivered at intervals of 5 days. We present a detailed description of the patient and discuss the mechanisms of GCAP, and suggest that GCAP may be useful for treating RD.

  20. Changes in Lipids and Lipoproteins after Selective LDL Apheresis (7-Year Experience)

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Hatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Mihas, Constantinos; Gontoras, Nikos; Litras, Panagiotis; Devekousos, Dimitris; Kontodima, Panagiota; Sorontila, Constantina; Bilianou, Helen; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins and the cardiovascular events after selective LDL apheresis. Methods and Results. Two pediatric patients with familial hypercholesterolemia aged 11 and 13 years and 19 dyslipidemic adults aged 41 ± 14 years underwent direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) sessions. The mean follow-up period was 47 ± 23 months. The total cholesterol (TC) values before and after treatment were 8.2 ± 2.2 and 3.1 ± 1.6 mmol/l (318 ± 86 and 122 ± 62 mg/dL), respectively. The interval mean of TC was 6.9 ± 1.9 mmol/l (268 ± 75 mg/dL). The LDL cholesterol concentrations before and after treatment were 6.6 ± 2.1 and 1.7 ± 1.1 mmol/l, (256 ± 82 mg/dL and 65 ± 41 mg/dL), respectively. The percentage of acute LDL cholesterol reduction was 75 ± 11%. Cardiovascular events were observed in seven patients. The average annual event rate was 5.51%. Conclusion. LDL apheresis is a very important therapeutic tool in managing patients at high risk for premature CAD or with aggressive CAD, despite adequate medical treatment. PMID:22315677

  1. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  2. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  3. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-02-16

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  4. Improvement of hemorheology by DALI apheresis: acute effects on plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T; Wendler, T; Jaeger, B R; Samtleben, W

    2001-10-01

    Plasma viscosity (PV) and erythrocyte aggregation (EA) are determinants of microcirculation, especially under the compromised hemodynamic conditions resulting from atherosclerosis. Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) apheresis is the first method for direct adsorption of lipoproteins; it drastically reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and may therefore improve PV and EA. The current study was performed to test the effect of DALI on hemorheology. Six hypercholesterolemic patients who had been on regular LDL apheresis for at least several months were treated on a weekly or biweekly basis, on average 5 times each by DALI. Before and after each session, PV was measured by a capillary tube plasma viscosimeter and EA by rotational aggregometry. Single DALI sessions (n = 31) acutely decreased PV from 1.18 +/- 0.04 to 1.06 +/- 0.3 mPa (-10%) while EA improved from 22.8 +/- 4.4 to 13.3 +/- 4.5 (arbitrary units) (-42%). LDL-cholesterol, Lp(a), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol were effectively reduced while the decrease of triglycerides and fibrinogen was only moderate. DALI apheresis exerted an acute positive effect on blood hemorheology which may have beneficial effects on microcirculation. This hypothesis is in accordance with the clinical observation that in some patients, improvement of angina and/or exercise tolerance can be observed after only a few DALI sessions where changes of coronary stenoses cannot be expected yet.

  5. Effects of two whole blood systems (DALI and Liposorber D) for LDL apheresis on lipids and cardiovascular risk markers in severe hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Otto, Carsten; Berster, Jutta; Otto, Bärbel; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2007-01-01

    LDL apheresis is an extracorporal modality to lower the concentration of atherogenic lipoproteins, e.g., LDL cholesterol. We compared two recently introduced whole-blood LDL apheresis systems inpatients with hypercholesterolemia in a randomized cross-over trial with respect to their effects on lipoproteins as well as on other cardiovascular risk markers. Six patients (4 women, 2 men, median age 62.5 years, median BMI 25.9 kg/m(2)) on regular LDL apheresis were randomly assigned to receive six weekly treatments with either DALI (Fresenius) or Liposorber D (Kaneka). After 6 weeks, the patients were switched to the other device (again six weekly treatments). Blood was drawn before and immediately after LDL apheresis at three time points (last regular apheresis before the study; after six treatments with DALI and after six treatments with Liposorber D). LDL cholesterol concentration before the sixth apheresis (DALI 129 mg/dL, Liposorber D 132 mg/dL) as well as LDL cholesterol reduction during the sixth apheresis (DALI 68.3% and Liposorber D 68.4%) were similar with the two systems. CRP and fibrinogen concentrations were lower but interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, and resistin concentrations were higher after the last Liposorber treatment compared with DALI (P < 0.05, respectively). No differences were observed concerning adiponectin, ghrelin, and PYY levels. In conclusion, both devices were highly effective in eliminating atherogenic lipoproteins. CRP and fibrinogen were better eliminated with Liposorber D. However, following Liposorber D, interleukin-6 levels were higher than after DALI possibly indicating an increased inflammatory activation.

  6. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  7. The GRADE approach for assessing new technologies as applied to apheresis devices in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the last few years, a new non-pharmacological treatment, termed apheresis, has been developed to lessen the burden of ulcerative colitis (UC). Several methods can be used to establish treatment recommendations, but over the last decade an informal collaboration group of guideline developers, methodologists, and clinicians has developed a more sensible and transparent approach known as the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). GRADE has mainly been used in clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews. The aim of the present study is to describe the use of this approach in the development of recommendations for a new health technology, and to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats found when doing so. Methods A systematic review of the use of apheresis for UC treatment was performed in June 2004 and updated in May 2008. Two related clinical questions were selected, the outcomes of interest defined, and the quality of the evidence assessed. Finally, the overall quality of each question was taken into account to formulate recommendations following the GRADE approach. To evaluate this experience, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis was performed to enable a comparison with our previous experience with the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) method. Results Application of the GRADE approach allowed recommendations to be formulated and the method to be clarified and made more explicit and transparent. Two weak recommendations were proposed to answer to the formulated questions. Some challenges, such as the limited number of studies found for the new technology and the difficulties encountered when searching for the results for the selected outcomes, none of which are specific to GRADE, were identified. GRADE was considered to be a more time-consuming method, although it has the advantage of taking into account patient values when defining and

  8. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Soner; Çetinkaya, Rıza Aytaç; Eker, İbrahim; Ünlü, Aytekin; Uyanık, Metin; Tapan, Serkan; Pekoğlu, Ahmet; Pekel, Aysel; Erkmen, Birgül; Muşabak, Uğur; Yılmaz, Sebahattin; Avcı, İsmail Yaşar; Avcu, Ferit; Kürekçi, Emin; Eyigün, Can Polat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC) was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5%) was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%). These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of post-thaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute) when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute) and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute). The flow-cytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their viability

  9. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  10. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  11. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  12. Characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques of chronic lipid apheresis patients as assessed by In Vivo High-Resolution CMR - a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Components of carotid atherosclerotic plaques can reliably be identified and quantified using high resolution in vivo 3-Tesla CMR. It is suspected that lipid apheresis therapy in addition to lowering serum lipid levels also has an influence on development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic lipid apheresis (LA) on the composition of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Methods 32 arteries of 16 patients during chronic LA-therapy with carotid plaques and stenosis of 1–80% were matched according to degree of stenosis with 32 patients, who had recently suffered an ischemic stroke. Of these patients only the asymptomatic carotid artery was analyzed. All patients underwent black-blood 3 T CMR of the carotids using parallel imaging and dedicated surface coils. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Morphology and composition of carotid plaques were evaluated. For statistical evaluation Fisher’s Exact and unpaired t-test were used. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Patients in the LA-group were younger (63.5 vs. 73.9. years, p<0.05), had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and of established coronary heart disease in patients and in first-degree relatives (p<0.05, respectively). LA-patients had smaller maximum wall areas (49.7 vs. 59.6mm2, p<0.05), showed lower prevalence of lipid cores (28.1% vs. 56.3%, p<0.05) and the lipid content was smaller than in the control group (5.0 vs. 11.6%, p<0.05). Minimum lumen areas and maximum total vessel areas did not differ significantly between both groups. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that, despite a severer risk profile for cardiovascular complications in LA-patients, chronic LA is associated with significantly lower lipid content in carotid plaques compared to plaques of patients without LA with similar degrees of stenosis, which is characteristic of clinically stable plaques. PMID:23194143

  13. Development of model for analysing respective collections of intended hematopoietic stem cells and harvests of unintended mature cells in apheresis for autologous hematopoietic stem cell collection.

    PubMed

    Hequet, O; Le, Q H; Rodriguez, J; Dubost, P; Revesz, D; Clerc, A; Rigal, D; Salles, G; Coiffier, B

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) required to perform peripheral hematopoietic autologous stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) can be collected by processing several blood volumes (BVs) in leukapheresis sessions. However, this may cause granulocyte harvest in graft and decrease in patient's platelet blood level. Both consequences may induce disturbances in patient. One apheresis team's current purpose is to improve HSC collection by increasing HSC collection and prevent increase in granulocyte and platelet harvests. Before improving HSC collection it seemed important to know more about the way to harvest these types of cells. The purpose of our study was to develop a simple model for analysing respective collections of intended CD34+ cells among HSC (designated here as HSC) and harvests of unintended platelets or granulocytes among mature cells (designated here as mature cells) considering the number of BVs processed and factors likely to influence cell collection or harvest. For this, we processed 1, 2 and 3 BVs in 59 leukapheresis sessions and analysed corresponding collections and harvests with a referent device (COBE Spectra). First we analysed the amounts of HSC collected and mature cells harvested and second the evolution of the respective shares of HSC and mature cells collected or harvested throughout the BV processes. HSC collections and mature cell harvests increased globally (p<0.0001) and their respective shares remained stable throughout the BV processes (p non-significant). We analysed the role of intrinsic (patient's features) and extrinsic (features before starting leukapheresis sessions) factors in collections and harvests, which showed that only pre-leukapheresis blood levels (CD34+cells and platelets) influenced both cell collections and harvests (CD34+cells and platelets) (p<0.001) and shares of HSC collections and mature unintended cells harvests (p<0.001) throughout the BV processes. Altogether, our results suggested that the main factors likely

  14. Equivalence theorem of uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2017-01-01

    We present an equivalence theorem to unify the two classes of uncertainty relations, i.e. the variance-based ones and the entropic forms, showing that the entropy of an operator in a quantum system can be built from the variances of a set of commutative operators. This means that an uncertainty relation in the language of entropy may be mapped onto a variance-based one, and vice versa. Employing the equivalence theorem, alternative formulations of entropic uncertainty relations are obtained for the qubit system that are stronger than the existing ones in the literature, and variance-based uncertainty relations for spin systems are reached from the corresponding entropic uncertainty relations.

  15. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-09

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage.

  16. Immediate adverse reactions to platelet transfusions: whole blood derived versus apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Hosain, G M; Hosain, M M; Narvios, A; Sazama, K; Lichtiger, B

    2013-01-01

    The transfusion of whole blood derived platelets (WBDPs) or apheresis platelets (APs) is standard support for cancer patients. However, disputes remain about which type of platelets are ideal in terms of efficacy, cost, and the risk of adverse reactions. This cross sectional study included 141 cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy or hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation and received platelet transfusions at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 2002 and 2003 were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 141 patients who did not differ significantly in terms of age or sex had a reaction to transfusions (WBDPs, n=123; APs, n=18), for a frequency of 0.66% in patients who received WBDPs and 0.45% in patients who received APs, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.13). More WBDP-related reactions occurred in patients transfused with older platelets (>2 days old) than in patients transfused with fresh platelets, but the difference compared with AP-associated reactions was not statistically significant. However, the rate of reactions to WBDP may increase if WBDPs are stored for a prolonged time (>2 days). Until evidence becomes available that clearly refutes this; the more fresh platelets as possible may be used.

  17. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  18. Evaluation of store lesion in platelet obtained by apheresis compared to platelet derived from whole blood and its impact on the in vitro functionality.

    PubMed

    Quintero, M; Núñez, M; Mellado, S; Maldonado, M; Wehinger, S

    2015-12-01

    Platelet units for transfusion purposes are obtained manually from whole blood or by apheresis, in an automated process. In both methods, platelets during storage present a characteristics grouped under the name "storage lesion" that are associated with adverse effects on platelet units. Oxidative stress has been claimed to be one of major causes, leading to activation and apoptosis processes affecting their post transfusion functionality. In this work, we observed an association between apheresis and a reduced presence of oxidative stress and better results in functional markers in stored platelets, compared to manually obtained platelets. Then, apheresis which would ensure a greater number of functional platelets during the 5 days of storage, compared to concentrates obtained from whole blood.

  19. Pancytopenia with severe thrombocytopenia in a patient treated with twice-weekly LDL-apheresis by polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Rainer; Wiedemann, Günther

    2010-01-01

    Pancytopenia with severe thrombocytopenia occurred in a patient treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis by polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood, after treatment frequency had been increased from once to twice a week. Cell counts recovered with discontinuation of LDL-apheresis, but thrombocytopenia recurred after resumption of twice-weekly treatments. Thrombocyte counts remained stable following the replacement of polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood by double-filtration plasmapheresis. The complications' close coincidence with twice-weekly polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood suggests a causal relationship, although by a still unknown mechanism. Monitoring of thrombocytes should be advised in patients treated with LDL-apheresis by polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood.

  20. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  1. Motivational Differences between Whole Blood and Apheresis Donors in Quebec, Canada: A Questionnaire-Based Survey in a Voluntary Nonremunerated Context

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Finding ways to recruit apheresis donors is crucial. The aim of this study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the motivations of regular plasma/platelets donors (PPDs) in comparison with those of regular whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and nonremunerated context. Study Design and Methods. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Chi-square tests were completed to determine which motivations stand out across the two blood donor groups. Results. The motivator selected by the highest percentage was “my blood can save lives.” Comparison of WBDs and PPDs showed that 12 out of 23 items were statistically significantly different from one group to another. Conclusion. The belief that helping others is in their nature is more prevalent among PPDs. In this sense, their profile is unique. Four other motivators distinguish this group from the WBDs: “I think there is a strong need for blood products,” “it gives me a sense of pride,” “I like to have goals,” and “I receive telephone reminders.” These motivators point to the role the ongoing support provided by blood collection agencies (BCAs) plays with PPDs. PMID:26295006

  2. Motivational Differences between Whole Blood and Apheresis Donors in Quebec, Canada: A Questionnaire-Based Survey in a Voluntary Nonremunerated Context.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Finding ways to recruit apheresis donors is crucial. The aim of this study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the motivations of regular plasma/platelets donors (PPDs) in comparison with those of regular whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and nonremunerated context. Study Design and Methods. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Chi-square tests were completed to determine which motivations stand out across the two blood donor groups. Results. The motivator selected by the highest percentage was "my blood can save lives." Comparison of WBDs and PPDs showed that 12 out of 23 items were statistically significantly different from one group to another. Conclusion. The belief that helping others is in their nature is more prevalent among PPDs. In this sense, their profile is unique. Four other motivators distinguish this group from the WBDs: "I think there is a strong need for blood products," "it gives me a sense of pride," "I like to have goals," and "I receive telephone reminders." These motivators point to the role the ongoing support provided by blood collection agencies (BCAs) plays with PPDs.

  3. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2016-10-14

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  4. Impact of increasing sample volume from 4 ml to 8 ml on bacterial detection rates in apheresis platelets: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, R; Custer, B; Vanderpool, S; Townsend, M; Kamel, H; Tomasulo, P

    2015-04-01

    Some blood centres have increased sample volume of in-process cultures to improve detection of bacterial contamination when screening apheresis platelet units. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate extant published North American data comparing apheresis platelet bacterial contamination rates from 4 ml and 8 ml sample volume. Pooled results indicate an 8 ml sample volume yields higher true-positive rates than 4 ml resulting in a significant increase in the detection rate and interdiction of contaminated units, which should contribute to reduced risk of adverse transfusion outcomes.

  5. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of Apheresis Donor Deferral and Adverse Reactions at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ketan; Kaushik, Ankit; Sharma, Richa; Rawat, DS; Mandal, AK

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With increasing demand of platelet component each day, blood bank plays a pivotal role in ensuring supply of safe blood as and when required. Plateletpheresis procedure is a relatively simple, safe and important adjunct to blood bank inventory. However, recruitment of healthy blood donors is a challenge that the health industry is facing today. Aim To determine the reasons and rates of apheresis donor deferral along with investigation of adverse reactions encountered during the procedure. Materials and Methods Records of single donor apheresis were retrospectively analysed from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2014. The study was carried out at Blood Bank, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. The donor details that were studied included – age, sex, type of donation (voluntary/replacement/ repeat), reason for donor deferral and type of adverse reaction, if encountered during the procedure. Results Among the 478 donors screened for plateletpheresis procedure during a study period of 5 years, 134 (28.03%) were deferred. Temporary deferrals accounted for majority (93.28%) of the deferrals. Low platelet count (50.75%) was the main reason of donor deferral followed by low haemoglobin (20.89%). Amongst the 344 selected donors, 15 (4.36%) had some type of adverse reaction associated with the procedure. Conclusion We suggest that the selection criteria for plateletpheresis donors should be revised to deal with shortage of apheresis donors. The criteria regarding minimum pre-procedure platelet count (above1.5 lac/μl) and haemoglobin (above 12.5 g/dl) need to be lowered so as to suit the Indian scenario. The lower adverse reaction rates, 14/344 (4.06%) associated with this procedure encourages safety of donors and is important in recruitment of new donors. PMID:28050376

  7. Efficacy and safety of DALI LDL-apheresis at high blood flow rates: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Wendler, T; Schilling, R; Lennertz, A; Sodemann, K; Kleophas, W; Messner, H; Riechers, G; Wagner, J; Keller, C; Bosch, T

    2003-01-01

    Direct adsorption of lipids (DALI) is the first LDL-apheresis method compatible with whole blood. Usually, the blood flow rate is adjusted at 60-80 ml/min, which results in session times of about 2 hr. The present study was performed to test the safety and efficacy of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] removal by DALI at high blood flow rates in order to reduce treatment time. Thirteen chronic DALI patients in seven centers suffering from hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C 162 +/- 42 mg/dl at baseline) and coronary artery disease were treated on a weekly or biweekly basis by DALI apheresis. The blood flow rate QB was held constant for at least two sessions, respectively, and was increased from 60 to 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240 ml/min. All patients had pre-existing av-fistulas. The anticoagulation was performed by a heparin bolus plus ACD-A at a ratio of citrate:blood ranging from 1:20 to 1:90. Clinically, the sessions were well tolerated and only 26/201 sessions (12%) of the treatments were fraught with minor adverse events. Acute LDL-C reductions (derived from LDL-C levels determined by lipoprotein electrophoresis) averaged 72/66/60/53/50/48% for QB=60/80/120/160/200/240 ml/min. Lp(a) reductions were 68/67/62/60/58/56%, whereas HDL-C losses were < or =10%. Routine blood chemistries and blood cell counts remained in the normal range. Treatment times averaged 142/83/45 min at Qb=60/120/240 ml/min. On average, DALI LDL-apheresis could be performed safely and effectively at high blood flow rates up to at least 120 ml/min in patients with good blood access, which significantly reduced treatment time from 142 to 83 min (-42%).

  8. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  9. Comparison of Platelet Transfusion as Fresh Whole Blood Versus Apheresis Platelets for Massively Transfused Combat Trauma patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    T R A N S F U S I O N P R A C T I C E Comparison of platelet transfusion as fresh whole blood versus apheresis platelets for massively transfused...J. Rentas, Charles E . Wade, John B. Holcomb, and the 31st Combat Support Hospital Research Group BACKGROUND: At major combat hospitals, the military...Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 6900 Georgia Avenue, NW, Washing- ton, DC 20307; e -mail: Jeremy.perkins1@us.army.mil. The opinions or assertions

  10. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  11. Benefits and challenges of starting a new therapeutic apheresis service in a resource-constrained setting.

    PubMed

    Arogundade, Fatiu A; Sanusi, Abubakr A; Oguntola, Stephen O; Omotoso, Bolanle A; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M; Akinsola, Adewale; Balogun, Rasheed A

    2014-08-01

    Therapeutic apheresis (TA) refers to a group of extracorporeal blood treatment modalities with clinical indications for which the clinicians' knowledge, availability and applicability vary widely worldwide. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), the most common TA technique, is neither readily available nor affordable in many parts of Africa. This article focuses on the challenges of starting a TPE program in a resource-constrained economy and the result of a survey of Nigerian nephrology professionals on TPE. A critical appraisal of published manuscripts from Nigeria on TA was undertaken to assess uses, methods, and challenges encountered followed by a survey of the perceptions of Nigerian nephrology professionals on TPE. Survey results: 56.7% of respondents had very little or no knowledge of TPE; 40.5% moderate and only 2.7% admitting to having a good knowledge. Only 18.9% of respondents have ever participated or observed a TPE procedure with the remaining 81.1% not having any exposure to the procedure. A vast majority of the respondents 97.3% felt they needed better exposure and training in TPE and its applications. Among consultants, 56% had little knowledge, 88% had never participated or observed the TPE procedure, and 94% felt they needed better exposure and training. There is significant limitation in accessibility, availability, and use of TPE in Nigeria; knowledge of TPE and its applications is minimal among nephrology professionals. Efforts should be concentrated on improving the knowledge and availability of TPE in resource-constrained economy like Nigeria. Centers that would be able to manage cases requiring TA should be developed.

  12. Blood Product Supply in Germany: The Impact of Apheresis and Pooled Platelet Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Karin; Schopohl, Dorothee; Wittmann, Georg; Schramm, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Helmut; Rieger, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background In Germany, about 60% of all produced platelet concentrates (PCs) are apheresis PCs (APCs). Ongoing discussions on APC reimbursement and costs might lead to a potential shift in pooled PC (PPC)/APC production. Objective of this analysis was to build a comprehensive model from the societal perspective to evaluate consequences associated with shifts in platelet supply and demand. Methods Literature search, desktop researches on platelet supply and demand. Model calculations, time horizon one year: model input from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, data 2013. Base case: 19.2% of annual whole blood donations (WBDs) were used for production of 38.5% PPCs, decay of 46,218 PCs (8.0%). Scenarios calculated: variation in PPC proportion of 10-100%. Results Base case: during PPC production 41,957-83,913 red blood cell concentrates (RBCCs) are estimated to be lost, which corresponds to 1-2% of annual RBCCs in Germany. Scenarios were calculated for a production of 60-100% PPCs: loss is estimated to be 1.5-5.0% of annual RBCCs (65,430-218,099), decay 54,189-69,022 PCs (9.4-12.0%). Conclusion Production of different blood components is interlinked and sensitive to unidimensional decisions. Increasing PPC proportion has negative impact on the RBCC production and on the antigen-matched APC donor pool. Completion of the model calculations to predict the optimal PPC/APC proportion would require evidence on the number of refractory patients, donor pool sizes, and incidences of diseases requiring platelet transfusions. PMID:27994524

  13. Comparison of Manual Hematocrit Determinations vs Automated Methods for Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Apheresis Products

    PubMed Central

    Avecilla, Scott T.; Marionneaux, Steven M.; Leiva, Tyler D.; Tonon, Jo-ann; Chan, Virgil T.; Moung, Christine; Meagher, Richard C.; Maslak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell donor selection is based primarily on human leukocyte antigen degree of match and it often occurs without regard to the red blood cell (RBC) compatibility between donor and recipient. When major ABO-mismatched grafts are infused, it is imperative that an accurate determination of the incompatible RBC content is made to ensure that the product is safe for infusion. RBC content determination requires the hematocrit (HCT) parameter which can be obtained via manual (directly measured) or automated (calculated) methods. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Ninety-seven (97) apheresis hematopoietic progenitor grafts were assessed for HCT by manual testing and by 4 commercially available automated hematology analyzer instruments. A clinical model was developed to assess the frequency of unnecessary RBC reductions or alteration in standard infusion practice. RESULTS Statistically significant (p<0.001) differences were observed where the manual HCT value was markedly lower than automated HCT values. At stringent incompatible RBC threshold of 10 mL, the number of preventable RBC reduction procedures ranged from 18–69%. CONCLUSION Accurate determination of RBC content of hematopoietic progenitor grafts is essential for patient safety. Despite the rapidity and convenience offered by automated HCT methods, they significantly overestimate the incompatible RBC content of grafts which may trigger unnecessary RBC reduction procedures or split infusions. In products where automated HCT methods indicate excessive amounts of incompatible RBCs are present, we advise the performance of confirmatory testing with a manual HCT method to ensure that the automated HCT value is not a false positive. PMID:26395285

  14. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  15. The expanding role of lipoprotein apheresis in the treatment of raised lipoprotein(a) in ischaemic heart disease and refractory angina

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tina Z; Pottle, Alison; Pennell, Dudley J; Barbir, Mahmoud S

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], an inherited, genetically-determined form of LDL-cholesterol, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Lp(a) is felt to increase cardiovascular risk via its pro-thrombotic effect and by enhancing intimal lipoprotein deposition. Lipoprotein apheresis is currently the most effective treatment for raised Lp(a). There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that aggressively lowering raised Lp(a) may improve cardiovascular and clinical outcomes, although much more research is required in this field. Angina which is refractory to conventional medical therapy and revascularisation, is extremely challenging to manage. Treatment options for such patients remain very limited. We describe the case of a patient with refractory angina and raised lipoprotein(a) in whom aggressive reduction of Lp(a) with lipoprotein apheresis successfully ameliorated the progression of coronary stenosis and provided effective and durable relief of angina symptoms. In our centre, we are currently conducting a prospective, randomised controlled cross-over study of patients with refractory angina and raised Lp(a), randomised to undergoing lipoprotein apheresis or ‘sham’ apheresis with assessment of myocardial perfusion, carotid atherosclerosis, endothelial vascular function, thrombogenesis, oxidised phospholipids and their antibodies, exercise capacity, angina symptoms and quality of life at the beginning and end of treatment. PMID:25054114

  16. Buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis platelet concentrates: which product type should be preferred?

    PubMed

    Schrezenmeier, H; Seifried, E

    2010-07-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether platelet concentrates (PCs) prepared from either whole-blood donations or by plateletpheresis are superior. Usage of these two product types varies greatly between countries and individual institutions. Some use mainly apheresis PCs; others prefer pooled PCs which are produced from whole-blood donations. This review summarizes the existing information on these product types. In the first part data on quality, efficacy and safety are reviewed. It is important to note that the issue cannot be answered just by comparing 'the' apheresis platelet concentrate versus 'the' pooled platelet concentrate. Other factors which determine the quality of a product, e.g. residual leukocyte count, plasma content, additive solution or storage period may be even more important. The focus of the debate should be shifted. It is much more needed to further improve the overall quality of PCs and to optimize treatment of thrombocytopenic patients than to concentrate on a single-edged view on just the preparation method. In the second part of this review we compare the product types from the donor's point of view. If PCs which are equally safe and effective can be obtained by various methods, ethics and the safety of the healthy volunteer donor tips the scales. The decision on the use of a particular product type should take into account all aspects of efficacy, side effects and availability of the product as well as the donor's perspective and the commitment to maximize the use of the valuable whole-blood donation.

  17. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis in a pediatric patient of familial hypercholesterolemia: Primi experientia from a tertiary care center in North India

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Kanchan; Goyal, Alpesh; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Gupta, Yashdeep; Rout, Diptiranjan; Fulzele, Parag Prabhakar; Chaurasia, Rahul; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita

    2017-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder due to mutation of apolipoprotein-B receptor gene causing severe dyslipidemia. Lifestyle modification and medical treatment attenuate the disease progression, but as these fail to control the blood cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis comes forth as a treatment option. To the best of our knowledge, the following is the very first case of pediatric FH being treated by LDL-apheresis to be reported from India. A severely malnourished female child presented with yellowish skin lesions over different parts of the body, viz., bilateral Achilles tendon, both knees, elbows, both pinnae, and outer canthus of both eyes. She had a strong family history of borderline hypercholesterolemia and was diagnosed as a case of FH. She was maintained on diet modification. LDL-apheresis was planned as the cholesterol levels were not controlled with the diet modificationt. However, unavailability of an appropriate kit in India for LDL-apheresis led to the use of the modified PL1 kit meant for therapeutic plasma exchange procedures. We conducted two sessions of LDL-apheresis. After the first session, the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) level fell by 75.9% and the total cholesterol fell by 73.5%. A second procedure led to a decline in total cholesterol level by 18.6% and LDL-C by 19.46%. Subsequently, she was advised diet modification and statin therapy with regular follow-up after every 6 months. Thus, the cascade filtration technique is a safe and effective treatment option for removing the undesired lipoproteins. PMID:28316443

  18. Efficacy and safety of DALI-LDL-apheresis in two patients treated with the angiotensin II-receptor 1 antagonist losartan.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thomas; Wendler, Thorsten

    2004-08-01

    Direct adsorption of lipids (DALI) is the first low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis technique capable of adsorbing LDL and lipoprotein (a) directly from whole blood. The adsorber consists of negatively charged polyacrylate ligands linked to a Eupergit matrix. Negatively charged ligands give rise to activation of bradykinin, which is rapidly degraded by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Thus, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are contraindicated in DALI-LDL-apheresis. This is the first paper to describe the efficacy and safety of DALI-LDL-apheresis in patients treated with 50 mg of the angiotensin II-receptor 1 antagonist (ARA) losartan. Two hypercholesterolemic patients were treated for 79 patient months with weekly or biweekly DALI sessions (N = 221 sessions). Approximately 1.4 patient blood volumes were treated per session. Acute reductions of LDL-cholesterol (63%) and lipoprotein (a) (62%) exceeded 60% and laboratory safety parameters remained in the apheresis typical range. Mean bradykinin plasma levels peaked in the efferent line post-adsorber at 1000 mL of treated blood volume; 467 fmol/mL (N = 6 sessions) in the ARA-treated patients and 671 fmol/mL (N = 9 sessions) in a control group of three DALI patients without ARA medication (P = 0.69, n.s.). Clinically, the DALI sessions for the ARA-treated patients were completely uneventful and blood pressure was not significantly different in the two groups. In summary, according to this retrospective pilot study, DALI-LDL-apheresis was shown for the first time to be safe and effective in patients on ARA medication.

  19. Consistency and proportionality in policy decision-making in blood safety: the case for an all-apheresis platelet supply in Germany.

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, E C; Hitzler, W E

    2013-01-01

    Recently, German investigators presented the first mathematical model finding a significant increase in the risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission when pools of 4 whole-blood-derived buffy-coat platelets, rather than 1 single-donor (apheresis) component, are used to provide one platelet dose. Based, in both cases, on mathematical models employing the incidence/window-period method, the relative risk of transmission from pooled versus apheresis platelets (2.2 or 2.75 for HIV, 2.7 or 3.375 for HCV, and 3.2 or 4.0 for HBV, with pools of 4 or 5 concentrates, respectively) is similar to the difference in risk before (versus after) introduction of HIV-1 and HCV RNA screening. The absolute increase in the risk from pools (1 to 2 HIV-, HCV-, or HBV-infectious platelet doses annually) is much smaller than the yield from HIV-1 and HCV RNA screening projected in the 1990s, but it becomes similar to that yield (with up to 88 infectious platelet doses intercepted) when we consider the next transfusion-transmitted pathogen to emerge in the future. Although pathogen reduction (PR) of platelets would eliminate the difference in risk between pooled and apheresis platelets vis-a-vis viral transmission, PR is not ready for implementation because the safety of PR needs to be investigated further. German transfusion guidelines should be revised to indicate the difference in risk associated with pooled versus apheresis platelets, and transition toward an all-apheresis platelet supply should commence. These actions are consistent with and proportionate to the action taken in the 1990s when screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA was implemented.

  20. Physeal bar equivalent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Hamlet A; Shaughnessy, William J; Stans, Anthony A

    2016-09-29

    Premature partial physeal arrest without the formation of an osseous bar - physeal bar equivalent (PBE) - is uncommon. Four children with a PBE had an infection near the distal femoral physis before the age of 11 months. Some growth was achieved after resection of the PBE in each case. Of two cases diagnosed and treated early, one required only contralateral physeal arrests to achieve limb-length equality at maturity. The other, currently 8 years and 4 months old, has a 1.1-cm limb-length discrepancy 6 years after PBE resection and will require observation until maturity. Of two cases diagnosed and treated late, one required ipsilateral femoral lengthening and contralateral femoral shortening and physeal arrests to treat the limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity. The other, currently 7 years and 1 month old, has a 4.8-cm discrepancy and will need future surgical limb-length equalization. Early recognition and treatment of PBE is required to avoid severe limb-length inequality and angular deformity.

  1. Biomonitoring Equivalents for molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Hays, Sean M; Macey, Kristin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Lu, Ming; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L

    2016-06-01

    Molybdenum is an essential trace element for mammalian, plant, and other animal systems. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has established an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to assure sufficient molybdenum intakes for human populations; however excessive exposures can cause toxicity. As a result, several agencies have established exposure guidance values to protect against molybdenum toxicity, including a Reference Dose (RfD), Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Biomonitoring for molybdenum in blood or urine in the general population is being conducted by the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Using pharmacokinetic data from controlled human dosing studies, Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) were calculated for molybdenum in plasma, whole blood, and urine associated with exposure guidance values set to protect against both nutritional deficits and toxicity. The BEEAR values in plasma, whole blood and urine are 0.5, 0.45 and 22 μg/L, respectively. The BEs associated with toxicity range from 0.9 to 31 μg/L in plasma, 0.8-28 μg/L in whole blood and 200-7500 μg/L in urine. These values can be used to interpret molybdenum biomonitoring data from a nutritional and toxicity perspective.

  2. Biomonitoring Equivalents for selenium.

    PubMed

    Hays, Sean M; Macey, Kristin; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L

    2014-10-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient for human health with a narrow range between essentiality and toxicity. Selenium is incorporated into several proteins that perform important functions in the body. With insufficient selenium intake, the most notable effect is Keshan disease, an endemic cardiomyopathy in children. Conversely, excessive selenium intake can result in selenosis, manifested as brittle nails and hair and gastro-intestinal disorders. As such, guidance values have been established to protect against both insufficient and excessive selenium exposures. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have been established as standard reference values for nutritional adequacy in North America. To protect against selenosis resulting from exposure to excessive amounts of selenium, several government and non-governmental agencies have established a range of guidance values. Exposure to selenium is primarily through the diet, but monitoring selenium intake is difficult. Biomonitoring is a useful means of assessing and monitoring selenium status for both insufficient and excessive exposures. However, to be able to interpret selenium biomonitoring data, levels associated with both DRIs and toxicity guidance values are required. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) were developed for selenium in whole blood, plasma and urine. The BEs associated with assuring adequate selenium intake (Estimated Average Requirements - EAR) are 100, 80 and 10μg/L in whole blood, plasma and urine, respectively. The BEs associated with protection against selenosis range from 400 to 480μg/L in whole blood, 180-230μg/L in plasma, and 90-110μg/L in urine. These BE values can be used by both regulatory agencies and public health officials to interpret selenium biomonitoring data in a health risk context.

  3. Accumulation of CD62P during storage of apheresis platelet concentrates and the role of CD62P in transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shan; Wang, Haibao; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Linfeng; Liu, Bowei

    2015-11-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. Activated platelets have important roles in TRALI and CD62P was identified to be an important indicator of platelet activation. However, the precise roles of CD62P in TRALI have remained elusive. The present study assessed CD62P accumulation during storage of apheresis platelet concentrates (A‑Plts) and established a mouse model of TRALI to further investigate the roles of CD62P in TRALI. The results showed that the CD62P concentration in A‑Plts was increased with the storage time. Mice were treated with monoclonal major histocompatibility complex (MHC)‑1 antibody to induce TRALI. The murine model of TRALI was successfully established as evidenced by pulmonary oedema, accompanied by decreased clearance of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), increased pulmonary and systemic inflammation, elevated lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as increased pulmonary and systemic coagulation in the TRALI group compared with those in the control group. To further determine the role of CD62P in TRALI, mice were treated with anti‑CD62P antibody to knockdown CD62P in vivo. It was found that pulmonary oedema, BALF clearance, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, MPO activity as well as pulmonary and systemic coagulation were decreased in the TRALI + anti‑CD62P antibody group compared with those in the TRALI + isotype antibody group. The present study supported the notion that CD62P is involved in mediating TRALI and may provide an important molecular basis for enhancing the clinical safety and effectiveness of platelet transfusion.

  4. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. High-efficiency DALI apheresis using 1,250 ml adsorbers in a hypercholesterolemic obese patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T; Lennertz, A; Samtleben, W

    2001-10-01

    Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) apheresis is the first method for direct adsorption of lipoproteins from whole blood and is therefore an easy and rapid procedure. The majority of patients reaches >60% acute low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction using either the DALI 750 or 1000 configuration. However, in patients with extremely high LDL-C levels or very large blood volumes, these configurations may lead to suboptimal results. The current study was performed to test the safety and efficacy of DALI 1250. In a severely obese patient (185 cm, 133 kg, blood volume 7.2 L, LDL-C 239 mg/dl), 11 L of blood (1.53-fold patient blood volume) was processed at a flow rate of 80 ml/min in 2.5 h; a combined heparin-plus-citrate anticoagulation regimen was used. Commercially available DALI 1250 and DALI hardware and disposables were manufactured by Fresenius HemoCare Adsorber Technology, St. Wendel, Germany. Twenty weekly sessions were performed. Clinically and technically, the apheresis sessions were completely uneventful. As compared to DALI 1000 (n = 4 sessions), the reduction rates by DALI 1250 (n = 20) improved for LDL-C (from 52% to 66%), lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) (53% vs. 66%), and fibrinogen (11% vs. 16%). There was a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) loss (20% vs. 24%). Moreover, the absolute amount of LDL-C removed per session increased from 5.06 g to 5.94 g. Laboratory safety parameters remained within the normal range, the anticoagulation was well controlled, and the pressure gradients over the adsorber remained constant. In this case report, DALI 1250 was perfectly safe and significantly increased the efficacy of LDL-C and Lp(a) elimination compared to standard DALI. Thus, this high-efficiency version of DALI may be used in patients with extremely high LDL-C levels and/or large blood volumes.

  6. Monitoring and isolation of blood dendritic cells from apheresis products in healthy individuals: a platform for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alejandro López, J; Crosbie, Georgina; Kelly, Cathryn; McGee, Ann Marie; Williams, Katrina; Vuckovic, Slavica; Schuyler, Robert; Rodwell, Robyn; Wright, Sue J; Taylor, Kerry; Hart, Derek N J

    2002-09-15

    The fundamental role of dendritic cells (DC) in initiating and directing the primary immune response is well established. Furthermore, it is now accepted that DC may be useful in new vaccination strategies for preventing certain malignant and infectious diseases. As blood DC (BDC) physiology differs from that of the DC homologues generated in vitro from monocyte precursors, it is becoming more relevant to consider BDC for therapeutic interventions. Until recently, protocols for the isolation of BDC were laborious and inefficient; therefore, their use for investigative cancer immunotherapy is not widespread. In this study, we carefully documented BDC counts, yields and subsets during apheresis (Cobe Spectra), the initial and essential procedure in creating a BDC isolation platform for cancer immunotherapy. We established that an automated software package (Version 6.0 AutoPBPC) provides an operator-independent reliable source of mononuclear cells (MNC) for BDC preparation. Further, we observed that BDC might be recovered in high yields, often greater than 100% relative to the number of circulating BDC predicted by blood volume. An average of 66 million (range, 17-179) BDC per 10-l procedure were obtained, largely satisfying the needs for immunization. Higher yields were possible on total processed blood volumes of 15 l. BDC were not activated by the isolation procedure and, more importantly, both BDC subsets (CD11c(+)CD123(low) and CD11c(-)CD123(high)) were equally represented. Finally, we established that the apheresis product could be used for antibody-based BDC immunoselection and demonstrated that fully functional BDC can be obtained by this procedure.

  7. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  8. Early-onset plasmapheresis and LDL-apheresis provide better disease control for pediatric homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia than HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and ameliorate atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dann, Eldad J; Shamir, Raanan; Mashiach, Tatiana; Shaoul, Ron; Badian, Alla; Stravets, Tselestina; Kerzman, Yelena; Finkelbaum, Svetlana; Gaitini, Diana; Lorber, Avraham; Bonstein, Lilach

    2013-10-01

    Plasmapheresis (PA) and low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A) were assessed in five children with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH) previously receiving statins. LDL-A required smaller extracorporeal blood volumes. Mean HDL-cholesterol reduction post-procedure was 32% and 60% with LDL-A and PA, respectively. Non-HDL-C reduction was 64% and 69%, respectively. Pre-procedural LDL-C decreased significantly with weekly versus biweekly LDL-A. Carotid intimal media thickness (IMT) studies demonstrated disappearance of atheromatous lesions and normal ITM in 4/5 patients. Echocardiography revealed normal aortic valves, coronary orifices and supra-valvular area in all patients. Apheresis is effective in pediatric HFH. It may be started in patients weighing 14 kg.

  9. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  10. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  11. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  12. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  13. Morita equivalence of noncommutative supertori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil; Nakajima, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we study the extension of Morita equivalence of noncommutative tori to the supersymmetric case. The structure of the symmetry group yielding Morita equivalence appears to be intact but its parameter field becomes supersymmetrized having both body and soul parts. Our result is mainly in the two dimensional case in which noncommutative supertori have been constructed recently: The group SO(2,2,VZ0), where VZ0 denotes Grassmann even number whose body part belongs to Z, yields Morita equivalent noncommutative supertori in two dimensions.

  14. Morita equivalence of noncommutative supertori

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil; Nakajima, Hiroaki

    2010-06-15

    In this paper we study the extension of Morita equivalence of noncommutative tori to the supersymmetric case. The structure of the symmetry group yielding Morita equivalence appears to be intact but its parameter field becomes supersymmetrized having both body and soul parts. Our result is mainly in the two dimensional case in which noncommutative supertori have been constructed recently: The group SO(2,2,V{sub Z}{sup 0}), where V{sub Z}{sup 0} denotes Grassmann even number whose body part belongs to Z, yields Morita equivalent noncommutative supertori in two dimensions.

  15. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  16. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  17. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  18. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  19. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods. PMID:28220075

  20. Equivalent probability density moments determine equivalent epidemics in an SIRS model with temporary immunity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Thomas W

    2017-02-01

    In an SIRS compartment model for a disease we consider the effect of different probability distributions for remaining immune. We show that to first approximation the first three moments of the corresponding probability densities are sufficient to well describe oscillatory solutions corresponding to recurrent epidemics. Specifically, increasing the fraction who lose immunity, increasing the mean immunity time, and decreasing the heterogeneity of the population all favor the onset of epidemics and increase their severity. We consider six different distributions, some symmetric about their mean and some asymmetric, and show that by tuning their parameters such that they have equivalent moments that they all exhibit equivalent dynamical behavior.

  1. Response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter to neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.; Gibbons, F.; Braby, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose as a function of lineal energy was measured at the CERN-EC Reference-field Facility (CERF) using a 512-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and neutron dose equivalent response evaluated. Although there are some differences, the measured dose equivalent is in agreement with that measured by the 16-channel HANDI tissue equivalent counter. Comparison of TEPC measurements with those made by a silicon solid-state detector for low linear energy transfer particles produced by the same beam, is presented. The measurements show that about 4% of dose equivalent is delivered by particles heavier than protons generated in the conducting tissue equivalent plastic. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating Equivalency of Explosives Through A Thermochemical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-08

    The Cheetah thermochemical computer code provides an accurate method for estimating the TNT equivalency of any explosive, evaluated either with respect to peak pressure or the quasi-static pressure at long time in a confined volume. Cheetah calculates the detonation energy and heat of combustion for virtually any explosive (pure or formulation). Comparing the detonation energy for an explosive with that of TNT allows estimation of the TNT equivalency with respect to peak pressure, while comparison of the heat of combustion allows estimation of TNT equivalency with respect to quasi-static pressure. We discuss the methodology, present results for many explosives, and show comparisons with equivalency data from other sources.

  3. Efficacy of a Novel Granulocyte Monocyte Apheresis Adsorber Device in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Maria; Sartini, Alessandro; Critelli, Rosina; Bertani, Angela; Merighi, Alberto; Villa, Erica

    2016-12-01

    Granulocyte monocyte apheresis (GMA) is a non-pharmacological treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. In our study, we tested a novel GMA adsorber device in terms of clinical efficacy and safety in patients' non-response to pharmacological therapy. Secondary outcomes were the evaluation of adsorber's technical performance, the reduction of inflammatory markers and the improvement of patients' life quality. The prospective study included 18 patients enrolled from 2011 to 2012 with a monitoring of 48 weeks. All patients with Crohn's disease achieved a clinical remission after GMA treatments, sustained until the end of follow up, while 80% of ulcerative colitis patients obtained a clinical benefit, maintained after 48 weeks of monitoring. Leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and platelets, compared to erythrocytes and lymphocytes, were effectively removed from peripheral blood. There was no statistically significant result about serological markers of inflammation. A consistent improvement of the patients' quality of life was observed up to the end of follow up. No significant side-effects were recorded. Our study underlines the efficacy and the safety of this novel GMA adsorber device; a prospective randomized clinical trial with adequate sample size should be performed.

  4. Red blood cell exchange: 2015 American Society for Apheresis consensus conference on the management of patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Ravi; Ballas, Samir K; Garcia, Alicia; Kim, Haewon C; King, Karen; Sachais, Bruce; Williams, Lance A

    2016-10-09

    The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) conducted a one-day consensus conference on red blood cell exchange (RBCx) in sickle cell disease (SCD) during its annual meeting in San Antonio, TX, on May 5, 2015. The authors of this article, a subcommittee of ASFA's Clinical Applications Committee, developed several questions with regard to pathophysiology of SCD and use of RBCx in the management of various complications. These questions were provided to the seven invited speakers who are the experts in the field of SCD. Two experts in the field moderated the proceedings of the conference, which was attended by more than 150 participants. After each presentation, there was a summary of the main points by the moderators and an open discussion with questions from the audience. A video recording of the proceedings, as well as each presentation, was made available to the authors. Each author's summary was reviewed and approved by the respective speaker before submission of this manuscript. The subcommittee also developed several key questions to generate a consensus amongst the speakers on key issues for using RBCx for patients with SCD.

  5. National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis: scientific opportunities in extracorporeal photopheresis.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Nora; Dunbar, Nancy M; Adamski, Jill; Couriel, Daniel; Edelson, Richard; Kitko, Carrie L; Levine, John E; Morgan, Shanna; Schneiderman, Jennifer; Sloan, Steve; Wu, Yanyun; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Cooling, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) for accepted indications such as graft-versus-host disease, transplant rejection, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma continues to increase. Expanded applications for ECP, such as the treatment of select autoimmune diseases, are being explored. Extracorporeal photopheresis's capacity to both immunotolerize in the autoreactive setting, while immunizing against a lymphoma is unusual and suggestive of a unique mechanism. It is likely that ECP's induction of dendritic cells is key to its efficacy in both of these settings, but exactly how ECP impacts other immune components and their interactions is not fully understood. Further basic science research is necessary to elucidate how these dissimilar cellular activities are functionally integrated. On the clinical side, collaborative multicenter trials designed to recognize the principal variables controlling therapeutic responses and improve prognostic indicators may enable tailoring devices, treatment schedules, and doses to the needs of the individual patients or diseases. This review describes our current understanding of how ECP influences the immune system, reviews the existing clinical applications of ECP, and explores areas for future basic science and clinical research as presented at the National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis in November 2012.

  6. Equivalence Class Formation: A Method for Teaching Statistical Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Travis, Robert; Roy, Deborah; Yadlovker, Eytan; de Aguiar-Rocha, Liliane; Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Many students struggle with statistical concepts such as interaction. In an experimental group, participants took a paper-and-pencil test and then were given training to establish equivalent classes containing four different statistical interactions. All participants formed the equivalence classes and showed maintenance when probes contained novel…

  7. Equivalent Linear Logistic Test Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Verstralen, Huub H. F. M.; Verhelst, Norma D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Linear Logistic Test Model (LLTM) and demonstrates that there are many equivalent ways to specify a model. Analyzed a real data set (300 responses to 5 analogies) using a Lagrange multiplier test for the specification of the model, and demonstrated that there may be many ways to change the specification of an LLTM and achieve the…

  8. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  9. Representational Implications for Understanding Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Ding, Meixia; Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Robert M.; Li, Xiaobao

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have long recognized that students tend to misunderstand the equal sign as an operator; that is, a signal for "doing something" rather than a relational symbol of equivalence or quantity sameness. Students' equal sign misconception has been researched for more than thirty years (Weaver, 1971, 1973) with little…

  10. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  11. Equivalence theorem in effective theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, D.; Gorbenko, V.; Vereshagin, V.

    2011-11-01

    The famous equivalence theorem is reexamined in order to make it applicable to the case of effective theories. We slightly modify the formulation of this theorem and prove it based on the notion of the generating functional for Green functions. This allows one to trace (directly in terms of graphs) the mutual cancellation of different groups of contributions.

  12. Mathematically Equivalent, Computationally Non-equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    bears little resemblance to it for computational reasons. Therefore, although the flow of control of the coded algorithm may be visible to a...software. The computational algorithm used is often mathematically equivalent to the defining formula, but bears little resemblence to it for...computational considera- tions, and often bears little resemblence to the formulas that were used to define the transaction originally. Therefore, although the

  13. Dextran-sulfate-adsorption of atherosclerotic lipoproteins from whole blood or separated plasma for lipid-apheresis--comparison of performance characteristics with DALI and Lipidfiltration.

    PubMed

    Julius, Ulrich; Parhofer, Klaus G; Heibges, Andreas; Kurz, Stefan; Klingel, Reinhard; Geiss, Hans-Christian

    2007-01-01

    For many years dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA) treatment of separated plasma has been an established technology for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-elimination. Recently a system for the treatment of whole blood based on DSA was introduced into clinical practice. To further characterize DSA treatment of whole blood, the performance characteristics of both DSA modalities were compared at two investigational sites with two alternative LDL apheresis systems being already in routine clinical use. In prospective cross-over design, DSA whole blood treatment was compared with a whole blood polyacrylate LDL adsorption system (DALI) in one study group. DSA for plasma treatment was compared with Lipidfiltration in cross-over design in a second study group. In total, 12 patients on chronic LDL apheresis received 169 treatments. Six patients were treated twice with whole blood polyacrylate adsorption and twice with whole blood DSA. LDL-cholesterol (74.9-78.0%) and lipoprotein (a) (72.1-73.3%) were reduced by both with equal efficacy. DSA achieved a significantly higher reduction rate of fibrinogen. Another six patients were treated eight times with DSA plasma adsorption followed by 16 Lipidfiltration treatments. LDL-cholesterol (67.0-70.2%) and lipoprotein (a) (69.2-73.7%) were reduced by both with equal efficacy. Fibrinogen was eliminated more efficiently by Lipidfiltration (50.2 vs. 38.5%). DSA proved to be a safe and effective in both treatment modes, for plasma as well as for whole blood. At the discretion of the apheresis specialist, depending upon the status of national approval, DSA of whole blood complements the armamentarium of powerful modalities for extracorporeal elimination of atherosclerotic lipoproteins to meet specific individual, medical, or logistic needs.

  14. Direct adsorption of low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein(a) from whole blood: results of the first clinical long-term multicenter study using DALI apheresis.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T; Lennertz, A; Schenzle, D; Dräger, J

    2002-01-01

    Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) is the first low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis technique by which atherogenic LDL and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) can be selectively removed from whole blood without plasma separation. The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy, selectivity and safety of long-term DALI apheresis. Sixty-three hypercholesterolemic coronary patients were treated by weekly DALI sessions. Initial LDL-cholesterol (C) plasma levels averaged 238 +/- 87 mg/dl (range 130-681 mg/dl). On average, 34 sessions (1-45) were performed processing 1.5 patient blood volumes. The primary aim was to acutely reduce LDL-C by >or=60% per session. To this end, three different adsorber sizes could be employed, i.e., DALI 500, 750, and 1000, which were used in 4, 73, and 23% of the 2156 sessions, respectively. On average, 7387 ml of blood were processed in 116 min per session. This resulted in the following mean acute changes: LDL-C 198 --> 63 mg/dl (-69%), Lp(a) 86 --> 32 mg/dl (-64%), triglycerides 185 --> 136 mg/dl (-27%). HDL-C (-11%) and fibrinogen (-15%) were not significantly influenced. The mean long-term reduction of LDL-C was 42% compared to baseline while HDL-C slightly increased in the long run (+4%). The selectivity of LDL removal was good as recoveries of albumin, immunoglobulins, and other proteins exceeded 85%. Ninety-five percent of 2156 sessions were completely uneventful. The most frequent adverse effects were hypotension (1.2% of sessions) and paresthesia (1.1%), which were probably due to citrate anticoagulation. Access problems had to be overcome in 1.5%, adsorber and hardware problems in 0.5% of the sessions. In this multicenter long-term study, DALI apheresis proved to be an efficient, safe, and easy procedure for extracorporeal LDL and Lp(a) elimination.

  15. Direct adsorption of low-density lipoprotein by DALI-LDL-apheresis: results of a prospective long-term multicenter follow-up covering 12,291 sessions.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thomas; Gahr, Simon; Belschner, Ulrike; Schaefer, Claudia; Lennertz, Andrea; Rammo, Jörg

    2006-06-01

    Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) is the first low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis technology by which atherogenic LDL and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) can be selectively removed from whole blood without plasma separation. The present follow-up was carried out to evaluate the clinical efficacy, selectivity and safety of long-term DALI apheresis. The follow-up was carried out in an open, prospective uncontrolled multicenter clinical design. Included were 158 drug-resistant hypercholesterolemic patients from 28 apheresis centers. These patients underwent 12 291 DALI sessions between January 1997 and March 2002. The patients suffered from severe atherosclerosis and their mean LDL-C was 188 mg/dL before the sessions. Mean follow-up was 25 +/- 16 (range 1-56) months during which 78 +/- 53 sessions were carried out. In most treatments, DALI 750 (63%) or DALI 1000 (30%) adsorbers were used. On average, 7423 +/- 1495 mL blood was processed at a flow rate of 84 +/- 16 mL/min in 102 +/- 25 min. Acute reductions by the single DALI sessions averaged 69 +/- 12% for LDL-C, 41 +/- 18% for TG, 15 +/- 10% for HDL-C, 19 +/- 11% for fibrinogen and 62 +/- 24% for Lp(a) (in patients with Lp(a) > 30 mg/dL). Adverse events were recorded in only 3.9% of the sessions. In this 5-year follow-up, long-term therapy with DALI was safe, effective and selective as LDL-C and Lp(a) could be reduced by >60% per session in approximately 100 min treatment time while HDL-C decrease and the incidence of AE were low.

  16. Early storage lesions in apheresis platelets are induced by the activation of the integrin αIIbβ₃ and focal adhesion signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Thomas; Iuga, Cristina; Janetzky, Susann; Schwertz, Hansjorg; Gesell Salazar, Manuela; Fürll, Birgit; Völker, Uwe; Greinacher, Andreas; Steil, Leif

    2012-12-05

    Production and storage of platelet concentrates (PC) induce protein changes in platelets leading to impaired platelet function. This study aimed to identify signaling pathways involved in the development of early platelet storage lesions in apheresis-PCs stored in plasma or additive solution (PAS). Apheresis-PCs from four donors were stored in plasma or in PAS at 22°C (n=4 each). Platelets were analyzed at day 0 (production day) and after 1, 6 and 9 days of storage. Platelet response to agonists (TRAP, collagen, ADP) and to hypotonic shock decreased, CD62P expression increased in both storage media over time. Using DIGE 1550 protein spots were monitored and compared to baseline values at day 0. Platelets in plasma displayed changes in 352 spots (166/day 1, 263/day 6 and 201/day 9); in PAS 325 spots changed (202/day 1, 221/day 6, 200/day 9). LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of 405 platelet proteins revealed 32 proteins changed during storage in plasma (9/day 1, 15/day 6 and 26/day 9) and 28 in PAS (5/day 1, 20/day 6, 26/day 9). Ingenuity pathway analysis found integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling pathways involved in early alterations, being confirmed by Western blotting. Corresponding mRNAs in platelets were identified by next generation sequencing for 84 changed proteins. Integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling cause irreversible early storage lesions in apheresis platelets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  17. TNT Equivalency of Bulk Nitrocellulose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    9TIN ’IN AD-E400 576 CONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-81007 TNT EQUIVALENCY OF BULK NITROCELLULOSE F. L. MCINTYRE COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION NSTL...September 1978 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(S) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) F. L. Mc~ntyre, Computer Sciences Corporation P. Price...PROJECT. TASK Computer Sciences Corporation AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS NSTL Station, MS 39529 MMT-5784285 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12

  18. Equivalent circuit for birdcage resonators.

    PubMed

    Harpen, M D

    1993-02-01

    We present an equivalent circuit analysis for both low pass and high pass birdcage resonators loaded with lossy samples. In a generalization of the method of Hoult and Lauterbur (J. Magn. Reson. 34, 425 (1979)), we also derive circuit component values by application of the laws of electrodynamics. Measured resonance spectra, quality factors, and feed point impedances in a test resonator are shown to be in agreement with those predicted by the proposed model.

  19. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  20. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  1. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  2. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys.

    PubMed

    Hox, Joop J; De Leeuw, Edith D; Zijlmans, Eva A O

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study). Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects. The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales.

  3. Thévenin equivalence in disorderless quantum networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, C. A.; Wu, C. H.

    2015-01-14

    We outline the procedure of extending the Thévenin equivalence principle for classical electric circuits to reducing Aharonov-Bohm-based quantum networks into equivalent models. With examples, we show from first principles how the requirements are related to the electron band structure's Fermi level and the lattice spacing of the network. Quantum networks of varying degrees of coupling strength from four basic classifications of single and double entangled loops sharing symmetry and highly correlated band structures are used to demonstrate the concept. We show the limitations of how the principle may be applied. Several classes of examples are given and their equivalent forms are shown.

  4. Lipoprotein apheresis in the management of severe hypercholesterolemia and of elevation of lipoprotein(a): current perspectives and patient selection

    PubMed Central

    Julius, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This review reports the current situation with respect to therapeutic options (lifestyle and drugs) reducing the concentrations of atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]). Three lipoprotein apheresis (LA) principles have been realized: precipitation, filtration, and adsorption. Available LA methods are herein described in detail – major components, pumps, extracorporeal volume, treated volume, and anticoagulation. General features of all LA methods as well as pleotropic effects are elaborated. Indications for LA therapy are quoted: homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HCH), severe HCH, and isolated elevation of Lp(a) and progress of atherosclerotic disease. A major focus is on the evidence of the effect of LA on cardiovascular outcome data, and the most important publications are cited in this context. The best studies have been performed in patients with elevated Lp(a) in whom cardiovascular events were reduced by more than 80%. Major adverse effects and contraindications are listed. The impact of an LA therapy on patient quality of life and the requirements they have to fulfill are also highlighted. Finally, the future role of LA in treating high-risk patients with high LDL-C and/or high Lp(a) is discussed. It is probable that the significance of LA for treating patients with elevated LDL-C will decrease (with the exception of homozygous familial HCH) due to the application of PCSK9 inhibitors. The antisense oligonucleotide against apolipoprotein(a) could replace LA in patients with high Lp(a), provided positive outcome data are generated. PMID:27785114

  5. Lipoprotein(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia as cause of chronic spinal cord ischemia resulting in progressive myelopathy - successful treatment with lipoprotein apheresis.

    PubMed

    Heigl, Franz; Hettich, Reinhard; Mauch, Erich; Klingel, Reinhard; Fassbender, Cordula

    2017-03-01

    High concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) represent an important independent and causal risk factor associated with adverse outcome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Effective Lp(a) lowering drug treatment is not available. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has been proven to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with Lp(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP) and progressive CVD. Here we present the course of a male patient with established peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) at the early age of 41 and coronary artery disease (CAD), who during follow-up developed over 2 years a progressive syndrome of cerebellar and spinal cord deficits against the background of multifactorial cardiovascular risk including positive family history of CVD. Spastic tetraplegia and dependency on wheel chair and nursing care represented the nadir of neurological deficits. All conventional risk factors including LDL-cholesterol had already been treated and after exclusion of other causes, genetically determined Lp(a)-HLP was considered as the major underlying etiologic factor of ischemic vascular disease in this patient including spinal cord ischemia with vascular myelopathy. Treatment with an intensive regimen of chronic LA over 4.5 years now was successful to stabilize PAOD and CAD and led to very impressive neurologic and overall physical rehabilitation and improvement of quality of life.Measurement of Lp(a) concentration must be recommended to assess individual cardiovascular risk. Extracorporeal clearance of Lp(a) by LA should be considered as treatment option for select patients with progressive Lp(a)-associated ischemic syndromes.

  6. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  7. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, N. K.

    2011-02-01

    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  8. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  9. Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Benson, M D

    2001-01-01

    With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety.

  10. Hysteretic damping in rotordynamics: An equivalent formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Amati, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    The hysteretic damping model cannot be applied to time domain dynamic simulations: this is a well-known feature that has been discussed in the literature since the time when analog computers were widespread. The constant equivalent damping often introduced to overcome this problem is also discussed, and its limitations are stated, in particular those linked with its application in rotordynamics to simulate rotating damping. An alternative model based on the nonviscous damping (NVD) model, but with a limited number of additional degrees of freedom, is proposed, and the relevant equations are derived. Some examples show applications to the rotordynamics field.

  11. Evaluation of platelet function using the in vitro bleeding time and corrected count increment of transfused platelets. Comparison between platelet concentrates derived from pooled buffy coates and apheresis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L; Kristensen, J; Olsson, K; Bring, J; Högman, C F

    1996-01-01

    The functional capacity of transfused platelets was evaluated with in vitro bleeding time (IVBT) and corrected count increment (CCI) in order to compare platelet concentrates (PCs) derived from pooled buffy coats (BC-PCs) with PCs collected by apheresis (A-PCs). The suspension medium in the BC-PCs was 30% CPD plasma and 70% of an additive solution (containing sodium and potassium chloride, sodium citrate and phosphate, mannitol), and in the A-PCs the medium was 100% CPD plasma. IVBT was evaluated using a Thrombostat 4000/2. BC-PC and A-PC were transfused 57 and 41 times, respectively to 36 patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. PCs transfused within 2 days of donation were considered fresh, and those transfused within 3-5 days were considered stored. IVBT was determined before, as well as 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion; CCI was determined 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion. The median pretransfusion IVBT value was 486 s. It was measurable in 21 of 98 (21%) of the transfusions, i.e. below the cutoff limit of 486 s. Ten to 30 min after transfusion, the IVBT showed a measurable reduction in 90% of the transfusions with fresh BC-PCs, 92% of those with fresh a-PCs, 63% of those with stored BC-PCs and 79% of those with stored A-PCs. After 24 h, the corresponding values were 63% for fresh BC-PCs, 50% for fresh A-PCs, 26% for stored BC-PCs and 38% for stored A-PCs. The median value of CCI 10-30 min after transfusion was 20 for fresh BC-PCs, 17 for fresh A-PCs, 16 for stored BC-PCs and 14 for stored A-PCs. The difference in IVBT between fresh and stored BC-PCs was significant (p = 0.032), unlike that between fresh and stored A-PC. After 24 h the corresponding values were 7 for fresh BC-PCs, 4 for fresh A-PCs, 4 for stored BC-PCs and 3 for stored A-PCs. When all transfusions with fresh PCs (BC-PCs + A-PCs) were compared with all transfusions with stored PCs, a statistical difference was demonstrated in both CCI (p = 0.027) and IVBT (p = 0.043). Spearman

  12. An improved equivalent circuit model of radial mode piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wei

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, both the equivalent circuit models of the radial mode and the coupled thickness vibration mode of the radial mode piezoelectric transformer are deduced, and then with the Y-parameter matrix method and the dual-port network theory, an improved equivalent circuit model for the multilayer radial mode piezoelectric transformer is established. A radial mode transformer sample is tested to verify the equivalent circuit model. The experimental results show that the model proposed in this paper is more precise than the typical model.

  13. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  14. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  15. Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; de Mol, Joey; den Hollander, Frank; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-12-01

    It is generally believed that, in the thermodynamic limit, the microcanonical description as a function of energy coincides with the canonical description as a function of temperature. However, various examples of systems for which the microcanonical and canonical ensembles are not equivalent have been identified. A complete theory of this intriguing phenomenon is still missing. Here we show that ensemble nonequivalence can manifest itself also in random graphs with topological constraints. We find that, while graphs with a given number of links are ensemble equivalent, graphs with a given degree sequence are not. This result holds irrespective of whether the energy is nonadditive (as in unipartite graphs) or additive (as in bipartite graphs). In contrast with previous expectations, our results show that (1) physically, nonequivalence can be induced by an extensive number of local constraints, and not necessarily by long-range interactions or nonadditivity, (2) mathematically, nonequivalence is determined by a different large-deviation behavior of microcanonical and canonical probabilities for a single microstate, and not necessarily for almost all microstates. The latter criterion, which is entirely local, is not restricted to networks and holds in general.

  16. Equivalent equations of motion for gravity and entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate an equivalence between the wave equation obeyed by the entanglement entropy of CFT subregions and the linearized bulk Einstein equation in Anti-de Sitter space. In doing so, we make use of the formalism of kinematic space [1] and fields on this space, introduced in [2]. We show that the gravitational dynamics are equivalent to a gauge invariant wave-equation on kinematic space and that this equation arises in natural correspondence to the conformal Casimir equation in the CFT.

  17. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  18. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  19. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  20. [Generalization of money-handling though training in equivalence relationships].

    PubMed

    Vives-Montero, Carmen; Valero-Aguayo, Luis; Ascanio, Lourdes

    2011-02-01

    This research used a matching-to-sample procedure and equivalence learning process with language and verbal tasks. In the study, an application of the equivalence relationship of money was used with several kinds of euro coins presented. The sample consisted of 16 children (8 in the experimental group and 8 in the control group) aged 5 years. The prerequisite behaviors, the identification of coins and the practical use of different euro coins, were assessed in the pre and post phases for both groups. The children in the experimental group performed an equivalence task using the matching-to-sample procedure. This consisted of a stimulus sample and four matching stimuli, using a series of euro coins with equivalent value in each set. The children in the control group did not undergo this training process. The results showed a large variability in the children's data of the equivalence tests. The experimental group showed the greatest pre and post changes in the statistically significant data. They also showed a greater generalization in the identification of money and in the use of euro coins than the control group. The implications for educational training and the characteristics of the procedure used here for coin equivalence are discussed.

  1. Equivalence between spin Hamiltonians and boson sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peropadre, Borja; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2017-03-01

    Aaronson and Arkhipov showed that predicting or reproducing the measurement statistics of a general linear optics circuit with a single Fock-state input is a classically hard problem. Here we show that this problem, known as boson sampling, is as hard as simulating the short time evolution of a large but simple spin model with long-range X Y interactions. The conditions for this equivalence are the same for efficient boson sampling, namely, having a small number of photons (excitations) as compared to the number of modes (spins). This mapping allows efficient implementations of boson sampling in small quantum computers and simulators and sheds light on the complexity of time evolution with critical spin models.

  2. A restricted proof that the weak equivalence principle implies the Einstein equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.; Lee, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Schiff has conjectured that the weak equivalence principle (WEP) implies the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP). A proof is presented of Schiff's conjecture, restricted to: (1) test bodies made of electromagnetically interacting point particles, that fall from rest in a static, spherically symmetric gravitational field; (2) theories of gravity within a certain broad class - a class that includes almost all complete relativistic theories that have been found in the literature, but with each theory truncated to contain only point particles plus electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The proof shows that every nonmentric theory in the class (every theory that violates EEP) must violate WEP. A formula is derived for the magnitude of the violation. It is shown that WEP is a powerful theoretical and experimental tool for constraining the manner in which gravity couples to electromagnetism in gravitation theories.

  3. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.

  4. Aldehydes as alkyl carbanion equivalents for additions to carbonyl compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haining; Dai, Xi-Jie; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Nucleophilic addition reactions of organometallic reagents to carbonyl compounds for carbon-carbon bond construction have played a pivotal role in modern chemistry. However, this reaction's reliance on petroleum-derived chemical feedstocks and a stoichiometric quantity of metal have prompted the development of many carbanion equivalents and catalytic metal alternatives. Here, we show that naturally occurring carbonyls can be used as latent alkyl carbanion equivalents for additions to carbonyl compounds, via reductive polarity reversal. Such 'umpolung' reactivity is facilitated by a ruthenium catalyst and diphosphine ligand under mild conditions, delivering synthetically valuable secondary and tertiary alcohols in up to 98% yield. The unique chemoselectivity exhibited by carbonyl-derived carbanion equivalents is demonstrated by their tolerance to protic reaction media and good functional group compatibility. Enantioenriched tertiary alcohols can also be accessed with the aid of chiral ligands, albeit with moderate stereocontrol. Such carbonyl-derived carbanion equivalents are anticipated to find broad utility in chemical bond formation.

  5. Establishment of an equivalence acceptance criterion for accelerated stability studies.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Richard K; Sidor, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the use of statistical equivalence testing for providing evidence of process comparability in an accelerated stability study is advocated over the use of a test of differences. The objective of such a study is to demonstrate comparability by showing that the stability profiles under nonrecommended storage conditions of two processes are equivalent. Because it is difficult at accelerated conditions to find a direct link to product specifications, and hence product safety and efficacy, an equivalence acceptance criterion is proposed that is based on the statistical concept of effect size. As with all statistical tests of equivalence, it is important to collect input from appropriate subject-matter experts when defining the acceptance criterion.

  6. Inductive Reasoning in Zambia, Turkey, and the Netherlands Establishing Cross-Cultural Equivalence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Administered tasks of inductive reasoning to 704 Zambian, 877 Turkish, and 632 Dutch students from the highest 2 grades of primary and the lowest 2 grades of secondary school. Results show strong evidence for structural equivalence and partial evidence for measurement unit equivalence, but did not support full score equivalence. (SLD)

  7. Solving complex-valued linear systems via equivalent real formulations

    SciTech Connect

    DAY,DAVID M.; HEROUX,MICHAEL A.

    2000-05-22

    Most algorithms used in preconditioned iterative methods are generally applicable to complex valued linear systems, with real valued linear systems simply being a special case. However, most iterative solver packages available today focus exclusively on real valued systems, or deal with complex valued systems as an afterthought. One obvious approach to addressing this problem is to recast the complex problem into one of a several equivalent real forms and then use a real valued solver to solve the related system. However, well-known theoretical results showing unfavorable spectral properties for the equivalent real forms have diminished enthusiasm for this approach. At the same time, experience has shown that there are situations where using an equivalent real form can be very effective. In this paper, the authors explore this approach, giving both theoretical and experimental evidence that an equivalent real form can be useful for a number of practical situations. Furthermore, they show that by making good use of some of the advance features of modem solver packages, they can easily generate equivalent real form preconditioners that are computationally efficient and mathematically identical to their complex counterparts. Using their techniques, they are able to solve very ill-conditioned complex valued linear systems for a variety of large scale applications. However, more importantly, they shed more light on the effectiveness of equivalent real forms and more clearly delineate how and when they should be used.

  8. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  9. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor increases the platelet volume in peripheral stem cell apheresis donors.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Akihiro; Matsui, Keiko; Minami, Ryouta; Uchida, Shuzou; Ueda, Shuji; Nishiura, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the short-term influence of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration on platelet counts and platelet indices in 12 donors (8 males and 4 females; median age 34 years, range 16-49) for peripheral stem cell transplantation using an automated blood cell analyzer. On day 3 (D3) compared with D0, 11 donors with normal laboratory and physical findings showed increases in platelet indices (chi(2) = 12.0, p = 0.0025). Furthermore, mean platelet volume (MPV) was significantly increased (p = 0.04). Also, platelet count decreased, and platelet distribution width and platelet-large cell ratio were increased, but these were not significant. On the contrary, 1 donor with abnormal laboratory findings who had large platelets (MPV 11.4 fl) before G-CSF administration showed decreases in platelet indices (MPV 10.3 fl) on D3, although platelet count (18.2 x 10(4)/microl) decreased after G-CSF administration. G-CSF administration induces an inflammatory process with endothelial cell activation. This is probably the reason why platelet volume increases after G-CSF use. This is the first report showing that G-CSF administration immediately induces increases in large platelets in peripheral stem cell transplant donors before harvest.

  10. It Pays to Be Organized: Organizing Arithmetic Practice around Equivalent Values Facilitates Understanding of Math Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Chesney, Dana L.; Matthews, Percival G.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Wheeler, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that organizing arithmetic fact practice by equivalent values facilitates children's understanding of math equivalence. Children (M age = 8 years 6 months, N = 104) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions: (a) equivalent values, in which problems were grouped by equivalent sums (e.g., 3 + 4 = 7, 2…

  11. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test.

    PubMed

    Frápolli, Maria J; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane's assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis' epistemic contextualism and Frege's content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions.

  12. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test

    PubMed Central

    Frápolli, Maria J.; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane’s assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom–up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis’ epistemic contextualism and Frege’s content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  13. Effect of low-dose citrate anticoagulation on the clinical safety and efficacy of direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI apheresis) in hypercholesterolemic patients: a prospective controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T; Heinemann, O; Duhr, C; Wendler, T; Keller, C; Fink, E; Kirschner, T; Klebert, S; Samtleben, W

    2000-10-01

    Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) is the first lipid apheresis system compatible with whole blood with the advantage of a very simple procedure. A mixture of heparin plus citrate (ACD-A) is used for the anticoagulation regimen (AR). A clinical, prospective, controlled crossover study was performed to test the safety and efficacy of low-dose citrate (LDC) anticoagulation in DALI. Five chronic DALI patients suffering from coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia underwent 3 DALI sessions each using the LDC anticoagulation regimen (60 IU heparin/kg body weight as initial bolus; 1:40 ACD-A: blood as perfusion). This was compared to 3 sessions per patient with the standard AR (bolus of 20 IU heparin/kg, 1:20 ACD-A as perfusion). Patient blood volumes (1.6; average of 7,040 ml) were treated with 750 ml adsorber gel per session at a blood flow rate of 60 ml/min. Mean LDL and Lp(a) reductions exceeded 60% with both AR. No clinical side effects were observed. Both AR controlled the coagulation well as evidenced by a sufficient prolongation of the partial prothrombin time (PTT) and activated clotting time as well as low thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) formation. Biocompatibility parameters exhibited favorable results (low activation of complement and cells, and only slight formation of C3a, C5a, beta-thromboglobulin, elastase, and TNF-alpha). The asymptomatic bradykinin generation was comparable in both study arms. LDC optimized the ionized calcium levels and pH in the efferent blood postadsorber. LDC anticoagulation was safe and effective, and may further improve the tolerance of DALI apheresis in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  14. In vitro evaluation of COM.TEC apheresis platelet concentrates using a preparation set and pathogen inactivation over a storage period of five days.

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fröhlich, A; Mayaudon, V; Lin, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro data on platelets collected by apheresis, processed on a preparation set followed by photochemical treatment (PCT). Fifteen single-donor platelet concentrates (PCs) were collected by apheresis (COM.TEC blood cell separator, Fresenius, Bad Homburg, Germany). The platelets were transferred to the preparation set and plasma was removed after centrifugation to resuspend the platelets in approximately 37% plasma and 63% platelet additive solution InterSol. PCT was done by exposing the platelets to amotosalen HCl followed by illumination with ultraviolet light. Blood cell counts and in vitro PLT function were measured up to 5 days. An average of 3.44 +/- 0.28 x 10(11) platelets were collected in a product volume of 351 +/- 21 mL. Plasma removal resulted in a mean platelet loss of 7.8%. After PCT, a progressive decrease in platelet function was observed. LDH level rose through storage (171 +/- 81 U/L) to levels approximating LDH levels observed post-collection (180 +/- 103 U/L). There was a gradual decrease of the platelets to respond to hypotonic shock response from 90 +/- 9 % post-plasma reduction to 48 +/- 16% at day 5. All PLT units met the European requirements for leukoreduction and the pH limit of 6.8 up to day 5 post-collection. The new preparation set was capable of producing platelet units meeting the requirements for PCT. Despite differences observed in in vitro platelet function parameters, PLTs at storage day 5 fit the German and European guidelines.

  15. Apheresis in high risk antiphospholipid syndrome pregnancy and autoimmune congenital heart block.

    PubMed

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Brucato, Antonio; Ramoni, Veronique; Facchinetti, Myriam; Tonello, Marta; Del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Hoxha, Ariela; Grava, Chiara; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2015-12-01

    In the first part a prospective cohort study was reported to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a treatment protocol including plasma exchange (PE) or PE plus intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) or immunoadsorption (IA) plus IVIG administered in addition to conventional therapy to 22 pregnant women with high-risk APS. The results indicate that PE or IA treatments administered along with IVIG and conventional antithrombotic therapy could be a valuable and safe therapeutic option in pregnant APS women with triple antiphospholipid antibody positivity along with a history of thrombosis and/or one or more severe pregnancy complications. In the second part the efficacy and safety of PE combined with IVIG and steroids were evaluated for the treatment of 10 patients with autoimmune congenital heart block (CHB) by comparing maternal features, pregnancy outcome and side effects with those of 24 CHB patients treated with steroids only. The patients treated with the combined therapy showed a statistically significant regression of 2nd degree blocks, an increase in heart rate at birth and a significantly lower prevalence of pacing in the first year of life. Moreover, no side effects were observed except for a few steroid-related events. If these results are confirmed by large-scale studies, the apheretic procedures could lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of these devastating diseases.

  16. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, met.no and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.

  17. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  18. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  19. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  20. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  1. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  2. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  3. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  4. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  5. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  6. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  7. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  8. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  9. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  10. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  11. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  12. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  13. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  14. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  15. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  16. Mania and Behavioral Equivalents: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita B.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has failed to address the possibility of behavioral equivalents in people with ID and mania. The relationship between a measure of mania and possible behavioral equivalents was assessed in 693 adults, most with severe or profound ID, living in a large residential setting. The mania subscale of the DASH-II proved to be a…

  17. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  18. 46 CFR 133.09 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Equivalents. When this part requires a particular fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement, the Commandant (CG-521) may accept any other fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement... evaluations and tests to determine the equivalent effectiveness of the substitute fitting, material,...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  2. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  4. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  5. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  6. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  7. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  8. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  9. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  10. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  11. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  12. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  13. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  14. Equivalence-Equivalence Responding: Training Conditions Involved in Obtaining a Stable Baseline Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Andres; Bohorquez, Cristobal; Perez, Vicente; Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Gomez, Jesus; Luciano, Carmen; Wilson, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the variables associated with equivalence-equivalence responding, in which participants match pairs of equivalent or nonequivalent stimuli. One such variable is the presence of response competition from nonarbitrary (physical) relational response options. In the current analysis, the experimenters examined the effect…

  15. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, after being trained on A-B and A-C matching tasks, subjects match not only functionally-same B and C stimuli (stimulus equivalence), but also BC compounds with same-class elements and BC compounds with different-class elements (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a :…

  16. On asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalent set sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancaroglu, Nimet; Nuray, Fatih; Savas, Ekrem

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we define asymptotically invariant equivalence, strongly asymptotically invariant equivalence, asymptotically invariant statistical equivalence, asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalence, strongly asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence, asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence (Wijsman sense) for sequences of sets. Also we investigate some relations between asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalence and asymptotically invariant statistical equivalence for sequences of sets. We introduce some notions and theorems as follows, asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalence, strongly asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence, asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence (Wijsman sense) for sequences of sets.

  17. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  18. Allowed Vales of J in jj coupling of Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    Provides a simple method for finding the values of the total angular momentum J for configurations of equivalent electrons in jj coupling. Shows how a knowledge of both the LS and jj terms can contribute to the students' understanding of the role of different representations in quantum mechanics. (Author/GS)

  19. The equivalent depth of burst for impact cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of modeling an impact cratering event with an explosive event with the explosive buried at some equivalent depth of burst (d.o.b.) is discussed. Various and different ways to define this equivalent d.o.b. are identified. Recent experimental results for a dense quartz sand are used to determine the equivalent d.o.b. for various conditions of charge type, event size, and impact conditions. The results show a decrease in equivalent d.o.b. with increasing energy for fixed impact velocity and a decrease in equivalent d.o.b. with increasing velocity for fixed energy. The values for an iron projectile are on the order of 2-3 projectile radii for energy equal to one ton of TNT, decreasing to about 1.5 radii at a megaton of TNT. The dependence on projectile and target mass density matches that included in common jet-penetration formulas for projectile densities greater than target densities and for the higher energies.

  20. Gauge equivalence of two different IAnsaaumlItze Rfor non-Abelian charged vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.K.

    1987-05-15

    Recently the existence of non-Abelian charged vortices has been established by taking two different Ansa$uml: tze in SU(2) gauge theories. We point out that these two Ansa$uml: tze are in two topologically equivalent prescriptions. We show that they are gauge equivalent only at infinity. We also show that this gauge equivalence is not possible for Z/sub N/ vortices in SU(N) gauge theories for Ngreater than or equal to3.

  1. Dynamic equivalences in the hard-sphere dynamic universality class.

    PubMed

    López-Flores, Leticia; Ruíz-Estrada, Honorina; Chávez-Páez, Martín; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno

    2013-10-01

    We perform systematic simulation experiments on model systems with soft-sphere repulsive interactions to test the predicted dynamic equivalence between soft-sphere liquids with similar static structure. For this we compare the simulated dynamics (mean squared displacement, intermediate scattering function, α-relaxation time, etc.) of different soft-sphere systems, between them and with the hard-sphere liquid. We then show that the referred dynamic equivalence does not depend on the (Newtonian or Brownian) nature of the microscopic laws of motion of the constituent particles, and hence, applies independently to colloidal and to atomic simple liquids. Finally, we verify another more recently proposed dynamic equivalence, this time between the long-time dynamics of an atomic liquid and its corresponding Brownian fluid (i.e., the Brownian system with the same interaction potential).

  2. Topological equivalence between the Fibonacci quasicrystal and the Harper model.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Yaacov E; Zilberberg, Oded

    2012-09-14

    One-dimensional quasiperiodic systems, such as the Harper model and the Fibonacci quasicrystal, have long been the focus of extensive theoretical and experimental research. Recently, the Harper model was found to be topologically nontrivial. Here, we derive a general model that embodies a continuous deformation between these seemingly unrelated models. We show that this deformation does not close any bulk gaps, and thus prove that these models are in fact topologically equivalent. Remarkably, they are equivalent regardless of whether the quasiperiodicity appears as an on-site or hopping modulation. This proves that these different models share the same boundary phenomena and explains past measurements. We generalize this equivalence to any Fibonacci-like quasicrystal, i.e., a cut and project in any irrational angle.

  3. Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg, Uwe B

    2006-03-01

    Some novel concepts of designing antireflection (AR) coatings with equivalent layers are presented. As an introduction, essential papers concerning thin-film optics and AR designs are cited, and the AR problem and a previously introduced AR-hard design type are discussed. Based on the known matrix formalism, a potential AR region, an equivalent stack index, and an equivalent substrate index are defined to use the theory of stop-band suppression as a starting point for the design of broadband AR coatings. The known multicycle AR design type is identified as a typical solution to the AR problem if the presented approach is used.

  4. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  5. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  6. On asymptotically generalized statistical equivalent set sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, Ekrem

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we shall study the asymptotically λ-statistical equivalent (Wijsman sense) of multiple L. In addition to these definition, natural inclusion theorems shall also be presented. This approach has not been considered in any context before.

  7. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., calculation, information, or test which provides a level of safety equivalent to that established by specific... provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as...

  8. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of safety... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with...

  9. [Therapeutic equivalence of the new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villar, A; Nacle López, I; Barbero Hernández, M J; Lizan Tudela, L

    2015-10-01

    In an attempt to minimize the economic impact due to the incorporation of innovative drugs, health authorities have promoted and supported the evaluation and market positioning of drugs, as equivalent therapeutic alternatives. This issue has recently gained importance, possibly due to the current economic crisis. The equivalent therapeutic alternatives are justified by the need to compete on price, and by the authorities recommendation to establish therapeutic equivalence, price and financing of medicinal products at the same time. The establishment of the new oral anticoagulants and the equivalent therapeutic alternatives is a problematic issue if it is based on the absence of direct comparisons between different drugs and the questionable methodology used in the current indirect comparisons. Currently, it is difficult to determine when a new oral anticoagulant is more recommendable than others, but efforts are being made in order to propose alternatives for the decision based on patient characteristics.

  10. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  11. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  12. 46 CFR 125.170 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... required by this subchapter may be accepted by the cognizant OCMI; by the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS GENERAL § 125.170 Equivalents... of safety....

  13. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  14. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  15. Methods for Equivalence and Noninferiority Testing

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gisela Tunes da; Logan, Brent R.; Klein, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Classical hypothesis testing focuses on testing whether treatments have differential effects on outcome. However, sometimes clinicians may be more interested in determining whether treatments are equivalent or whether one has noninferior outcomes. We review the hypotheses for these noninferiority and equivalence research questions, consider power and sample size issues, and discuss how to perform such a test for both binary and survival outcomes. The methods are illustrated on 2 recent studies in hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:19147090

  16. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  17. Quantum equivalence of dual field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, E. S.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    1985-06-01

    Motivated by the study of ultraviolet properties of different versions of supergravities duality transformations at the quantum level are discussed. Using the background field method it is proven on shell quantum equivalence for several pairs of dual field theories known to be classically equivalent. The examples considered include duality in chiral model, duality of scalars and second rank antisymmetric gauge tensors, vector duality and duality of the Einstein theory with cosmological term and the Eddington-Schrödinger theory.

  18. The nonequivalence of behavioral and mathematical equivalence.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R R; Green, G

    1992-03-01

    Sidman and his colleagues derived behavioral tests for stimulus equivalence from the axiom in logic and mathematics that defines a relation of equivalence. The analogy has generated abundant research in which match-to-sample methods have been used almost exclusively to study interesting and complex stimulus control phenomena. It has also stimulated considerable discussion regarding interpretation of the analogy and speculation as to its validity and generality. This article reexamines the Sidman stimulus equivalence analogy in the context of a broader consideration of the mathematical axiom than was included in the original presentation of the analogy and some of the data that have accumulated in the interim. We propose that (a) mathematical and behavioral examples of equivalence relations differ substantially, (b) terminology is being used in ways that can lead to erroneous conclusions about the nature of the stimulus control that develops in stimulus equivalence experiments, and (c) complete analyses of equivalence and other types of stimulus-stimulus relations require more than a simple invocation of the analogy. Implications of our analysis for resolving current issues and prompting new research are discussed.

  19. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The “inverse piano” apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes of neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  20. Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2016-03-01

    Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too.

  1. Frequencies and Flutter Speed Estimation for Damaged Aircraft Wing Using Scaled Equivalent Plate Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalent plate analysis is often used to replace the computationally expensive finite element analysis in initial design stages or in conceptual design of aircraft wing structures. The equivalent plate model can also be used to design a wind tunnel model to match the stiffness characteristics of the wing box of a full-scale aircraft wing model while satisfying strength-based requirements An equivalent plate analysis technique is presented to predict the static and dynamic response of an aircraft wing with or without damage. First, a geometric scale factor and a dynamic pressure scale factor are defined to relate the stiffness, load and deformation of the equivalent plate to the aircraft wing. A procedure using an optimization technique is presented to create scaled equivalent plate models from the full scale aircraft wing using geometric and dynamic pressure scale factors. The scaled models are constructed by matching the stiffness of the scaled equivalent plate with the scaled aircraft wing stiffness. It is demonstrated that the scaled equivalent plate model can be used to predict the deformation of the aircraft wing accurately. Once the full equivalent plate geometry is obtained, any other scaled equivalent plate geometry can be obtained using the geometric scale factor. Next, an average frequency scale factor is defined as the average ratio of the frequencies of the aircraft wing to the frequencies of the full-scaled equivalent plate. The average frequency scale factor combined with the geometric scale factor is used to predict the frequency response of the aircraft wing from the scaled equivalent plate analysis. A procedure is outlined to estimate the frequency response and the flutter speed of an aircraft wing from the equivalent plate analysis using the frequency scale factor and geometric scale factor. The equivalent plate analysis is demonstrated using an aircraft wing without damage and another with damage. Both of the problems show that the scaled

  2. Acceptance criteria for method equivalency assessments.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Marion J; Borman, Phil J

    2009-12-15

    Quality by design (ICH-Topic Q8) requires that process control strategy requirements are met and maintained. The challenging task of setting appropriate acceptance criteria for assessment of method equivalence is a critical component of satisfying these requirements. The use of these criteria will support changes made to methods across the product lifecycle. A method equivalence assessment is required when a change is made to a method which may pose a risk to its ability to monitor the quality of the process. Establishing appropriate acceptance criteria are a vital, but not clearly understood, prerequisite to deciding the appropriate design/sample size of the equivalency study. A number of approaches are proposed in the literature for setting acceptance criteria for equivalence which address different purposes. This perspective discusses those purposes and then provides more details on setting acceptance criteria based on patient and producer risk, e.g., tolerance interval approach and the consideration of method or process capability. Applying these to a drug substance assay method for batch release illustrates that, for the equivalence assessment to be meaningful, a clear understanding and appraisal of the control requirements of the method is needed. Rather than a single exact algorithm, the analyst's judgment on a number of aspects is required in deciding the appropriate acceptance criteria.

  3. The relative safety of pooled whole-blood-derived platelets prepared by the buffy-coat method versus single-donor (apheresis) platelets.

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, Eleftherios C

    2010-01-01

    Conversion to a single-donor (apheresis) platelet inventory in Western Europe and other countries that provide similar health care to the US but rely on buffy-coat pooled whole-blood-derived platelets will confer the benefit of a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of all emerging transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In Europe, this benefit will include a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of acquiring variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) from platelet transfusion. In countries that use buffy coats from first-time donors to produce platelet pools, there will also be a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections. Conversion to a single-donor inventory collected from male donors (or female donors without a history of pregnancy or shown not to have white-blood-cell antibodies) should also reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury, although this prediction is based on theory and may not materialize or prove hard to document. Because conversion to a single-donor inventory can effect a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of all TTIs without incurring any risk, it is a more advantageous risk-reduction strategy for emerging TTIs compared with the introduction of pathogen-reduction systems for platelets. The latter cannot protect from vCJD and potentially also from some other emerging TTIs; moreover, they have recently been associated with an increased risk of bleeding.

  4. Stability of Thawed Apheresis Fresh-Frozen Plasma Stored for up to 120 Hours at 1°C to 6°C

    PubMed Central

    Bhakta, Varsha; Yi, Qi-Long; Jenkins, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Regulations concerning the storage of transfusable plasma differ internationally. In Canada, plasma obtained from whole blood donations and frozen within 24 hours of phlebotomy (frozen plasma, FP) may be thawed and transfused within 120 hours of refrigerated storage. However, plasma frozen within 8 hours of phlebotomy following apheresis donation (FFPA) must be transfused within 24 hours of thawing and refrigeration. Our objectives were to measure coagulation factors (F) V, VII, and VIII, fibrinogen activities, and the prothrombin time (PT) in thawed refrigerated FFPA at 0, 24, and 120 hours of storage and to compare these values to those in thawed refrigerated FP. Fibrinogen activity remained unchanged over time, while mean factor levels in 28 FFPA units declined by 17% (FV), 19.7% (FVII), and 54.6% (FVIII) over 120 hours, while PT values rose to 7.6%. Factor activities were significantly higher in FFPA than FP after 120 hours of refrigerated storage. Residual FVIII activities in thawed FFPA met predefined noninferiority criteria compared to thawed FP after 120 hours. These results support a change in Canadian regulations to permit transfusion of thawed FFPA made in a closed system and refrigerated for up to 120 hours, one that could reduce wastage of transfusable plasma. PMID:28003931

  5. Equivalent Skin Analysis of Wing Structures Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of modeling trapezoidal built-up wing structures is developed by coupling. in an indirect way, an Equivalent Plate Analysis (EPA) with Neural Networks (NN). Being assumed to behave like a Mindlin-plate, the wing is solved using the Ritz method with Legendre polynomials employed as the trial functions. This analysis method can be made more efficient by avoiding most of the computational effort spent on calculating contributions to the stiffness and mass matrices from each spar and rib. This is accomplished by replacing the wing inner-structure with an "equivalent" material that combines to the skin and whose properties are simulated by neural networks. The constitutive matrix, which relates the stress vector to the strain vector, and the density of the equivalent material are obtained by enforcing mass and stiffness matrix equities with rec,ard to the EPA in a least-square sense. Neural networks for the material properties are trained in terms of the design variables of the wing structure. Examples show that the present method, which can be called an Equivalent Skin Analysis (ESA) of the wing structure, is more efficient than the EPA and still fairly good results can be obtained. The present ESA is very promising to be used at the early stages of wing structure design.

  6. Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-01-01

    In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.

  7. Chickadees fail standardized operant tests for octave equivalence.

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Weisman, Ronald G; Guillette, Lauren M; Hahn, Allison H; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2013-07-01

    Octave equivalence occurs when an observer judges notes separated by a doubling in frequency perceptually similar. The octave appears to form the basis of pitch change in all human cultures and thus may be of biological origin. Previously, we developed a nonverbal operant conditioning test of octave generalization and transfer in humans. The results of this testing showed that humans with and without musical training perceive the octave relationship between pitches. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether black-capped chickadees, a North American songbird, perceive octave equivalence. We chose these chickadees because of their reliance on pitch in assessing conspecific vocalizations, our strong background knowledge on their pitch height perception (log-linear perception of frequency), and the phylogenetic disparity between them and humans. Compared to humans, songbirds are highly skilled at using pitch height perception to classify pitches into ranges, independent of the octave. Our results suggest that chickadees used that skill, rather than octave equivalence, to transfer the note-range discrimination from one octave to the next. In contrast, there is evidence that at least some mammals, including humans, do perceive octave equivalence.

  8. Multigroup Equivalence Analysis for High-Dimensional Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Celeste; Bartolucci, Alfred A.; Cui, Xiangqin

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis tests of equivalence are typically known for their application in bioequivalence studies and acceptance sampling. Their application to gene expression data, in particular high-dimensional gene expression data, has only recently been studied. In this paper, we examine how two multigroup equivalence tests, the F-test and the range test, perform when applied to microarray expression data. We adapted these tests to a well-known equivalence criterion, the difference ratio. Our simulation results showed that both tests can achieve moderate power while controlling the type I error at nominal level for typical expression microarray studies with the benefit of easy-to-interpret equivalence limits. For the range of parameters simulated in this paper, the F-test is more powerful than the range test. However, for comparing three groups, their powers are similar. Finally, the two multigroup tests were applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset to identify genes whose expression follows a prespecified trajectory across five prostate cancer stages. PMID:26628859

  9. Multigroup Equivalence Analysis for High-Dimensional Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Celeste; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Cui, Xiangqin

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis tests of equivalence are typically known for their application in bioequivalence studies and acceptance sampling. Their application to gene expression data, in particular high-dimensional gene expression data, has only recently been studied. In this paper, we examine how two multigroup equivalence tests, the F-test and the range test, perform when applied to microarray expression data. We adapted these tests to a well-known equivalence criterion, the difference ratio. Our simulation results showed that both tests can achieve moderate power while controlling the type I error at nominal level for typical expression microarray studies with the benefit of easy-to-interpret equivalence limits. For the range of parameters simulated in this paper, the F-test is more powerful than the range test. However, for comparing three groups, their powers are similar. Finally, the two multigroup tests were applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset to identify genes whose expression follows a prespecified trajectory across five prostate cancer stages.

  10. On SLλ(I)-asymptotically statistical equivalent sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, Hafize; Savas, Ekrem

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the notion of SLλ(I)-asymptotically statistical equivalence which is a natural combination of asymptotic I-equivalence and λ-statistical equivalence. We find its relation to I-asymptotically statistical convergence, strong λI-asymptotically equivalence and strong Cesàro I-asymptotically equivalence.

  11. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  12. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g., wrist, corn). For pairs of both types, event-related cortical potentials were recorded during and immediately after the presentation of the second word. The obtained waveforms differentiated these two types of pairs. For the unrelated pairs, the waveforms were significantly more negative about 400 ms after the second word was presented, thus replicating the “N400” phenomenon of the cognitive neuroscience literature. In addition, there was a strong positive-tending wave form difference post-stimulus presentation (peaked at about 500 ms) that also differentiated the unrelated from related stimulus pairs. In Experiment 2, the procedures were extended to study arbitrary stimulus–stimulus relations established via matching-to-sample training. Participants were experimentally naïve adults. Sample stimuli (Set A) were trigrams, and comparison stimuli (Sets B, C, D, E, and F) were nonrepresentative forms. Behavioral tests evaluated potentially emergent equivalence relations (i.e., BD, DF, CE, etc.). All participants exhibited classes consistent with the arbitrary matching training. They were also exposed also to an event-related potential procedure like that used in Experiment 1. Some received the ERP procedure before equivalence tests and some after. Only those participants who received ERP procedures after equivalence tests exhibited robust N400 differentiation initially. The positivity observed in Experiment 1 was absent for all participants. These results support speculations that equivalence tests may provide contextual support for the formation of equivalence classes including those that emerge gradually during testing

  13. Grammatical equivalents of Palaeolithic tools: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio B

    2010-09-01

    In this article, language is considered as a behavioural trait evolving by means of natural selection, in co-evolution with the Palaeolithic tool industries. This perspective enables an analysis of the grammatical and syntactic equivalents of the multiple abilities and effects of lithic tools across the successive modes of their development and consider their influence in intra-group communication and the social biology of the hominine species concerned. The hypothesis is that grammatical equivalents inherent to stone tool work guide the evolution of language.

  14. Equivalent Widths in the Spectrum of Sirius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Qiu, H. M.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, Z. W.

    2000-02-01

    The equivalent widths of total 546 lines (26 elements are included) in the spectrum of the bright Am star Sirius from 380 to 930 nm are tabulated. The high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum was obtained with the Coudé Echelle Spectrograph attached to the 2.16 m telescope at Beijing Astronomical Observatory (Xinglong, China). Here we also give the results of the equivalent widths comparison between our measurements and those of Strom et al. and Sadakane & Ueta.

  15. Non-Machian Singularity and Inconsistent Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Murli Manohar

    We show that the non-Machian feature of singularity in the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) can be avoided with scale-invariance. Further, the global non-conservation of energy in GTR results from inconsistency between scale-invariance and equivalence principle. We propose a negative energy density component with a positive equation of state that can drive the late-time acceleration in the universe, while the positive component confines to smaller scales.

  16. Equivalent Ground Conductivity Inversion in Maritime ASF Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yurong; Xi, Xiaoli; Zhu, Hong

    This letter presents an efficient method for the maritime Loran-C additional secondary factor (ASF) correction based on equivalent ground conductivity inversion. Using the proposed method, the accuracy of Loran-C system on maritime positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) can be improved significantly with a limited number of surveys. Comparison with measured ASF results shows a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of less than 100ns in most areas.

  17. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  18. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  19. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  20. 46 CFR 154.32 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliance may meet an alternate standard if the Commandant (CG-522) finds that the alternate standard provides an equivalent or greater level of protection for the purpose of safety. (b) The Commandant (CG-522... requesting the finding submits a written application to the Commandant (CG-522) that includes— (1) A...

  1. Equivalence of partition properties and determinacy

    PubMed Central

    Kechris, Alexander S.; Woodin, W. Hugh

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that, within L(ℝ), the smallest inner model of set theory containing the reals, the axiom of determinacy is equivalent to the existence of arbitrarily large cardinals below Θ with the strong partition property κ → (κ)κ. PMID:16593299

  2. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  3. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  4. The Nature of Dynamic Equivalence in Translating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of three types of translation: formal correspondence, cognitive content and emotive response-oriented. The latter two are dynamic-equivalent translations. Their purpose is to enable the receptors to understand the implications of the cognitive content or to make a corresponding emotive response without recourse to the original text.…

  5. HOW TO PASS HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAGSBRUN, FRANCINE, ED.

    ORGANIZED INTO A FIVE-DAY STUDY PLAN, ALLOWING ONE DAY'S STUDY TO EACH PART OF THE EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION (SPELLING AND GRAMMAR, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND MATHEMATICS), THIS BOOK PROVIDES SAMPLE TESTS AND ANSWER SHEETS, A TEST SCORE RECORD AND SELF EVALUATION PROFILE, AND SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS FOR EACH SUBJECT. THE EXAMINEE CAN ORDER…

  6. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  7. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  13. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted to the Marine Safety Center via the cognizant OCMI. If necessary, the Marine Safety Center may... submitted to the Marine Safety Center via the cognizant OCMI. (c) The Commandant may approve a novel.... Requests for determination of equivalency must be submitted to Commandant (CG-543) via the cognizant OCMI....

  14. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  17. SUPPORT FOR USEPA'S PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss recommended and new resources for the USEPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee including: 1) Committee's creation in 1985 and its purpose 2) Drexel University Professor Chuck Haas' 2001 report (Assessment of the PEC Process) and its findings 3) NAS/NR...

  18. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  19. 46 CFR 199.09 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.09 Equivalents. When this part requires a particular fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement, the Commandant (CG-521) may accept any other fitting... effectiveness of the substitute fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement....

  20. Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

  1. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for…

  2. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  3. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  4. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  5. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  6. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  7. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  8. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  9. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  10. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  11. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  12. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  13. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  14. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  15. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  16. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  17. 46 CFR 170.010 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the Commanding Officer (MSC), Attn: Marine Safety Center, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7410, 4200 Wilson Boulevard Suite 400, Arlington, VA 20598-7410, or the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, if the... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.010 Equivalents. Substitutions for fittings,...

  18. 46 CFR 170.010 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the Commanding Officer, U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Center, 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop 7102, Washington, DC 20593-7102, or the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, if the substitution provides an... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.010 Equivalents. Substitutions for fittings,...

  19. AN UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES SEEKING PFRP EQUIVALENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: 1) Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), 2) Review the PEC's current membership (of 10), 3) Discuss how a typical application is evaluated, 4) Note where information can be found by those interested in applying to the PEC, 5) List...

  20. The equivalent fundamental-mode source

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G.D.; Busch, R.D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1997-02-01

    In 1960, Hansen analyzed the problem of assembling fissionable material in the presence of a weak neutron source. Using point kinetics, he defined the weak source condition and analyzed the consequences of delayed initiation during ramp reactivity additions. Although not clearly stated in Hansen`s work, the neutron source strength that appears in the weak source condition corresponds to the equivalent fundamental-mode source. In this work, we describe the concept of an equivalent fundamental-mode source and we derive a deterministic expression for a factor, g*, that converts any arbitrary source distribution to an equivalent fundamental-mode source. We also demonstrate a simplified method for calculating g* in subcritical systems. And finally, we present a new experimental method that can be employed to measure the equivalent fundamental-mode source strength in a multiplying assembly. We demonstrate the method on the zero-power, XIX-1 assembly at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  1. Procedures for Determining the Equivalence of Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunivant, Noel

    Eight different methods are reviewed for determining whether two or more tests are equivalent measures. These methods vary in restrictiveness from the Wilks-Votaw test of compound symmetry (which requires that all means, variances, and covariances are equal), to Joreskog's theory of congeneric tests (which requires only that the tests are measures…

  2. Determination of equivalent weight of amines

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.S.

    1987-01-08

    A procedure for the determination of equivalent weight of amines is described. This procedure is based on an acid-base reaction performed in glacial acetic acid. The sum of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines are determined by titration with standard perchloric acid in glacial acetic acid. 1 ref.

  3. Equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices and their similarity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Gullo, N.; Vittadello, L.; Bazzan, M.; Dell'Anna, L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate, theoretically and experimentally, the properties of Fibonacci lattices with arbitrary spacings. Different from periodic structures, the reciprocal lattice and the dynamical properties of Fibonacci lattices depend strongly on the lengths of their lattice parameters, even if the sequence of long and short segment, the Fibonacci string, is the same. In this work we show that by exploiting a self-similarity property of Fibonacci strings under a suitable composition rule, it is possible to define equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices. We show that the diffraction patterns generated by Fibonacci lattices belonging to the same equivalence class can be rescaled to a common pattern of strong diffraction peaks thus giving to this classification a precise meaning. Furthermore we show that, through the gap labeling theorem, gaps in the energy spectra of Fibonacci crystals belonging to the same class can be labeled by the same momenta (up to a proper rescaling) and that the larger gaps correspond to the strong peaks of the diffraction spectra. This observation makes the definition of equivalence classes meaningful also for the spectral and therefore dynamical and thermodynamical properties of quasicrystals. Our results apply to the more general class of quasiperiodic lattices for which similarity under a suitable deflation rule is in order.

  4. Derivation of Equivalent Continuous Dilution for Cyclic, Unsteady Driving Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering; Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2010-12-15

    This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilution is defined as a weighted average concentration. This derivation has direct applications to the ventilation of indoor spaces where indoor air quality and energy consumption cannot in general be simultaneously optimized. By solving the equation we can specify how much air we need to use in one ventilation pattern compared to another to obtain same indoor air quality. Because energy consumption is related to the amount of air exchanged by a ventilation system, the equation can be used as a first step to evaluate different ventilation patterns effect on the energy consumption. The use of the derived equation is demonstrated by representative cases of interest in both residential and non-residential buildings.

  5. MEG forward problem formulation using equivalent surface current densities.

    PubMed

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Muravchik, Carlos H; Nehorai, Arye

    2005-07-01

    We present a formulation for the magnetoencephalography (MEG) forward problem with a layered head model. Traditionally the magnetic field is computed based on the electric potential on the interfaces between the layers. We propose to express the effect of the volumetric currents in terms of an equivalent surface current density on each interface, and obtain the magnetic field based on them. The boundary elements method is used to compute the equivalent current density and the magnetic field for a realistic head geometry. We present numerical results showing that the MEG forward problem is solved correctly with this formulation, and compare it with the performance of the traditional formulation. We conclude that the traditional formulation generally performs better, but still the new formulation is useful in certain situations.

  6. Equivalent Pairs of Words and Points of Connection

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Qaiser; Razaq, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Higman has defined coset diagrams for PGL(2, ℤ). The coset diagrams are composed of fragments, and the fragments are further composed of two or more circuits. A condition for the existence of a certain fragment γ in a coset diagram is a polynomial f in ℤ[𝔃], obtained by choosing a pair of words F[wi, wj] such that both wi and wj fix a vertex v in γ. Two pairs of words are equivalent if and only if they have the same polynomial. In this paper, we find distinct pairs of words that are equivalent. We also show there are certain fragments, which have the same orientations as those of their mirror images. PMID:25333072

  7. Efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte apheresis for antibiotic-refractory pouchitis after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: an open-label, prospective, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Shimoyama, Takahiro; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Uchino, Motoi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has shown therapeutic efficacy in active ulcerative colitis (UC). We thought that in patients with pouchitis after proctocolectomy for UC, GMA might produce immunological effects in the intestinal mucosa, and improve clinical symptoms. This prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of GMA for antibiotic-refractory pouchitis after proctocolectomy for UC. Methods: A total of 13 patients with pouchitis disease activity index (PDAI) > 7 unresponsive to 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy were included. All patients received 10 GMA sessions at 2 sessions/week over 5 consecutive weeks. The primary endpoints were response (a decrease of ⩾3 points in the PDAI) and remission (PDAI < 4). Secondary endpoints included reduction of white blood cells (WBCs), C-reactive protein (CRP), faecal markers (calprotectin and lactoferrin), reduction of the PDAI endoscopic subscore, and GMA safety. Results: The median PDAI score was significantly decreased from 11 (range, 9–15) at entry to 9 (range, 6–13) after the GMA therapy (p = 0.02). A total of six patients (46%) responded to the treatment, but none achieved remission. The median endoscopic subscore (maximum: 6) was 5 (range, 4–6) at entry and 5 (range, 1–6) after the treatment (p = 0.10). None of the laboratory markers (WBCs, CRP, faecal calprotectin and lactoferrin) significantly changed during the treatment. Transient adverse events (AEs) were observed in two patients (15%), dyspnoea in one and headache in one. The AEs were not serious, and all patients completed the 10 GMA sessions. Conclusions: GMA has a good safety profile, but its efficacy appears to be limited in the management of chronic refractory pouchitis. However, a large controlled study should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GMA therapy in patients with pouchitis at an earlier clinical stage, before the disease has become refractory to conventional medical therapy. PMID:28203278

  8. Selective granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis as a first-line treatment for steroid naïve patients with active ulcerative colitis: a prospective uncontrolled study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Naoki; Saniabadi, Abby R; Saito, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Corticosteroid therapy of ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with frequent adverse side effects and poor quality of life. Recently, adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage apheresis has shown efficacy in patients with severe steroid refractory UC. The objective of this study was to investigate if, instead of corticosteroids, adsorptive leukocytapheresis has efficacy as the first-line therapy for steroid-naïve patients with active UC. Twenty patients, aged 15-49 years, with a mean clinical activity index (CAI) of 8.6 were recruited. Adsorptive leukocytapheresis was done with Adacolumn, which contains cellulose acetate beads as adsorptive carriers for granulocytes and monocytes (FcgammaR and complement receptors expressing leukocytes). Each patient received 6 to 10 leukocytapheresis sessions of 60-min duration, at 2 sessions/week. Efficacy was assessed 1 week after the last session. Post treatment, the mean CAI was 3.0 (P = 0001), and 17 of 20 patients (85%) were in remission. There were significant falls in C-reactive protein (P = 0.0003), total white cell counts (P = 0.003), neutrophils (P = 0.0029), and monocytes (P = 0.0038), an increase in lymphocytes (P = 0.001), and increases in the blood levels of soluble TNF-alpha receptors I (P = 0.0007) and II (P = 0.0045) in the column outflow (blood return to the patients). Further, at 8 months, 60% of patients had maintained their remission. No severe side effects were reported. In conclusion, adsorptive leukocytapheresis should reduce corticosteroid therapy in patients with moderate UC; cases with early-stage active disease may benefit most.

  9. Scaling Laws for Hydrodynamically Equivalent Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masakatsu

    2001-10-01

    The EPOC (equivalent physics of confinement) scenario for the proof of principle of high gain inertial confinement fusion is presented, where the key concept "hydrodynamically equivalent implosions" plays a crucial role. Scaling laws on the target and confinement parameters are derived by applying the Lie group analysis to the PDE (partially differential equations) chain of the hydrodynamic system. It turns out that the conventional scaling law based on adiabatic approximation significantly differs from one which takes such energy transport effect as electron heat conduction into account. Confinement plasma parameters of the hot spot such as the central temperature and the areal mass density at peak compression are obtained with a self-similar solution for spherical implosions.

  10. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward-feedback compound control.

  11. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  12. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  13. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  14. Equivalent Multipole Operators for Degenerate Rydberg States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-23

    Equivalence of two operators means here that they yield identical matrix elements within a subspace of Hilbert space that corresponds to fixed n. Such...Rydberg atom in time -dependent electric and magnetic fields 6. For example, analytical probabilities have been derived 3–5, without the need for...any perturbative and numerical analysis, for the full array of l→ l transitions in atomic hydrogen Hnl induced by a time -varying weak electric field

  15. Energy conservation economics by investment equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Investment Equivalents of Energy Savings is a quick and easy technique for companies to assess investment options. Energy conservation proposals must produce an acceptable return before a company will allocate capital. The author describes how the technique operates and how it produces results which allow design engineers, supervisors, and others to choose between alternatives. A hypothetical case provides figures to illustrate how the system develops evaluation criteria and ranks possible solutions. 2 tables.

  16. Einstein's equivalence principle in quantum mechanics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The gravitational equivalence principle in quantum mechanics is of considerable importance, but it is generally not included in physics textbooks. In this note, we present a precise quantum formulation of this principle and comment on its verification in a neutron diffraction experiment. The solution of the time dependent Schrödinger equation for this problem also gives the wave function for the motion of a charged particle in a homogeneous electric field, which is also usually ignored in textbooks on quantum mechanics.

  17. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  18. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Endo, A.; Visser, P. J. de; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  19. Demonstrating Competency and Equivalency of Two Commercial SPRT Calibration Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiandt, T. J.

    2009-02-01

    The Hart Scientific Division of Fluke Corporation operates two accredited low-uncertainty SPRT calibration facilities; one in the USA and the other in the UK. Competency and equivalency must be demonstrated for both facilities. However, because of the low uncertainties involved, the required experiments are both expensive and challenging. In the USA, a proficiency test (PT) is available through NVLAP based on the long-standing NIST measurement assurance program to accomplish this purpose. Although needed, a PT of this level is not readily available elsewhere in the world. Consequently, an alternative approach is required. This paper describes the approach taken in an effort to show both competency and equivalency of these two facilities and a logical link to the USA NVLAP PT conducted at the USA facility. Additionally, the description of the tests and establishment of performance criteria will disclose the seriousness and rigor to which this activity was held. Finally, the data will demonstrate that not only are such tests possible, but also the degree of equivalence attained can be very high.

  20. On the Equivalent Dose for Auger Electron Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Roger W.; Narra, Venkat R.; Sastry, Kandula S. R.; Rao, Dandamudi V.

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons are widely used in nuclear medicine (e.g., 99mTc, 123I, 201T1) and biomedical research (e.g., 51Cr, 125I), and they are present in the environment (e.g., 40K, 55Fe). Depending on the subcellular distribution of the radionuclide, the biological effects caused by tissue-incorporated Auger emitters can be as severe as those from high-LET α particles. However, the recently adopted recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) provide no guidance with regard to calculating the equivalent dose for these radionuclides. The present work, using spermatogenesis in mouse testis as the experimental model, shows that the lethality of the prolific Auger emitter 125I is linearly dependent on the fraction of the radioactivity in the organ that is bound to DNA. This suggests that the equivalent dose for Auger emitters may have a similar linear dependence. Accordingly, a formalism for calculating the equivalent dose for Auger emitters is advanced within the ICRP framework. PMID:8475256

  1. Equivalence of deterministic walks on regular lattices on the plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechtman, Ana; Rechtman, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    We consider deterministic walks on square, triangular and hexagonal two dimensional lattices. In each case, there is a scatterer at every lattice site that can be in one of two states that forces the walker to turn either to his/her immediate right or left. After the walker is scattered, the scatterer changes state. A lattice with an arrangement of scatterers is an environment. We show that there are only two environments for which the scattering rules are injective, mirrors or rotators, on the three lattices. On hexagonal lattices Webb and Cohen (2014), proved that if a walker with a given initial position and velocity moves through an environment of mirrors (rotators) then there is an environment of rotators (mirrors) through which the walker would move with the same trajectory. We refer to these trajectories on mirror and rotator environments as equivalent walks. We prove the equivalence of walks on square and triangular lattices and include a proof of the equivalence of walks on hexagonal lattices. The proofs are based both on the geometry of the lattice and the structure of the scattering rule.

  2. Training intraverbal naming to establish equivalence class performances.

    PubMed

    Ma, Monica L; Miguel, Caio F; Jennings, Adrienne M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this three-experiment study was to evaluate whether performance consistent with the formation of equivalence classes could be established after training adults to tact and intraverbally relate the names of visual stimuli. Fourteen participants were exposed to tact training, listener testing, and intraverbal training (A'B' and B'C') prior to matching-to-sample (MTS) and intraverbal posttests presented in different sequences across experiments. All participants demonstrated emergent MTS and intraverbal relations consistent with equivalence class formation. More importantly, all participants emitted experimentally defined or self-generated tacts or intraverbally named the correct sample-comparison pairs at some point during posttests. These results are consistent with the intraverbal naming account (Horne & Lowe, 1996) in that participants who passed novel relations MTS tests also demonstrated emergence of corresponding intraverbal relations. However, verbal reports and latency data suggest that participants did not necessarily have to use intraverbal naming as a problem solving strategy continuously throughout MTS posttests. These results extended previous research by showing that verbal behavior training of baseline relations (A'B' and B'C') is sufficient to establish novel conditional relations consistent with equivalence class formation.

  3. Potency Determination of Antidandruff Shampoos in Nystatin International Unit Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Anusha Hewage, D. B. G.; Pathirana, W.; Pinnawela, Amara

    2008-01-01

    A convenient standard microbiological potency determination test for the antidandruff shampoos was developed by adopting the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay procedure of the drug nystatin. A standard curve was drawn consisting of the inhibition zone diameters vs. logarithm of nystatin concentrations in international units using the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) strain National Collection of Type Culture (NCTC) 1071606 as the test organism. From the standard curve the yeast inhibitory potencies of the shampoos in nystatin international unit equivalents were determined from the respective inhibition zones of the test samples of the shampoos. Under test conditions four shampoo samples showed remarkable fungal inhibitory potencies of 10227, 10731, 12396 and 18211 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml while two shampoo samples had extremely feeble inhibitory potencies 4.07 and 4.37 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml although the latter two products claimed antifungal activity. The potency determination method could be applied to any antidandruff shampoo with any one or a combination of active ingredients. PMID:21394271

  4. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Martinec, J.; Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Vankatwijk, V.

    1988-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  5. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, Albert; Van Katwijk, Victor F.; Martinec, Jaroslav; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  6. Equivalences between nonuniform exponential dichotomy and admissibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linfeng; Lu, Kening; Zhang, Weinian

    2017-01-01

    Relationship between exponential dichotomies and admissibility of function classes is a significant problem for hyperbolic dynamical systems. It was proved that a nonuniform exponential dichotomy implies several admissible pairs of function classes and conversely some admissible pairs were found to imply a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. In this paper we find an appropriate admissible pair of classes of Lyapunov bounded functions which is equivalent to the existence of nonuniform exponential dichotomy on half-lines R± separately, on both half-lines R± simultaneously, and on the whole line R. Additionally, the maximal admissibility is proved in the case on both half-lines R± simultaneously.

  7. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.

  8. Equivalent beam modeling using numerical reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. M.; Shaw, F. H.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical procedures that can accomplish model reductions for space trusses were developed. Three techniques are presented that can be implemented using current capabilities within NASTRAN. The proposed techniques accomplish their model reductions numerically through use of NASTRAN structural analyses and as such are termed numerical in contrast to the previously developed analytical techniques. Numerical procedures are developed that permit reductions of large truss models containing full modeling detail of the truss and its joints. Three techniques are presented that accomplish these model reductions with various levels of structural accuracy. These numerical techniques are designated as equivalent beam, truss element reduction, and post-assembly reduction methods. These techniques are discussed in detail.

  9. Development and Testing of Living Skin Equivalent.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Model a) The use of Isografts in an inbred strain of rats. In a preliminary series of experiments the potential use of Fischer strain rats has been...tested by preparing a series of isografts made by grafting skin equivalents with cells from female donors to male hosts. On the average, wound...Autograft--rat 4 1 4 3 5 17 Autograft--rabbit 6 3 1 1 11 Isograft --rat 37 13 13 1 64 Allo fib., iso ker--rat 15 12 3 30 Allo fib, iso ker--rab 8 6 14 Iso

  10. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  11. Validation Of Equivalent Viscous Damping Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquer Araujo, Xavier; Fransen, S. H. J. A.; Germes, S.; Thiry, N.

    2012-07-01

    An important step in the design and verification process of spacecraft structures is the coupled dynamic analysis with the launch vehicle in the low-frequency domain. To obtain accurate predictions of the satellite’s dynamic environment it is essential that the damping of the system is correctly defined and taken into account within the resolution methodologies for the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). When working with finite element models, the materials’ damping is characterized by structural damping ratios. In addition, most of the load cases present in the CLA are transient excitations so the resolution of the equations of motion must be done in the time domain. Unfortunately, transient analyses cannot be carried out using structural damping models. Thus, a transformation from a structural to a viscous damping characterization is necessary. Nevertheless, this transformation is not trivial. There exist many methodologies aiming at computing an equivalent viscous damping matrix of the system so it can be used in transient analyses. This paper describes the results obtained in the validation of equivalent viscous damping methodologies used in the European Space Agency. This work permitted to identify the limitations of these methodologies and to come up with an enhanced methodology that predicts more reliable results.

  12. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  13. Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy Are Equivalent for Gaussian Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Lionel; Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.

    2009-12-01

    Granger causality is a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression. Developed originally in the field of econometrics, it has since found application in a broader arena, particularly in neuroscience. More recently transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between jointly dependent processes, has gained traction in a similarly wide field. While it has been recognized that the two concepts must be related, the exact relationship has until now not been formally described. Here we show that for Gaussian variables, Granger causality and transfer entropy are entirely equivalent, thus bridging autoregressive and information-theoretic approaches to data-driven causal inference.

  14. Equivalent circuit of the barrier-conductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.

    Novel heterostructure devices are comprised of potential barriers connected by short conductors. In this paper we present a simple theory for the transport properties of the barrier-conductor chain. The analysis is based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation supplemented by the boundary conditions provided by the barrier reflection and transmission probabilities. As an application of the theory the small signal equivalent circuit is constructed for the single and double barrier cases and for the infinite periodic chain. The high frequency properties of these structures are discussed. In general, the multibarrier structures show transit time resonances associated with multiple reflections.

  15. Rotating black holes in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2016-05-01

    We derive set of solutions with flat transverse sections in the framework of a teleparallel equivalent of general relativity which describes rotating black holes. The singularities supported from the invariants of torsion and curvature are explained. We investigate that there appear more singularities in the torsion scalars than in the curvature ones. The conserved quantities are discussed using Einstein-Cartan geometry. The physics of the constants of integration is explained through the calculations of conserved quantities. These calculations show that there is a unique solution that may describe true physical black hole.

  16. Gratings and their quasistatic equivalents for high optical absorptance

    SciTech Connect

    McPhedran, R. C.; Chen, P. Y.; Bonod, N.; Popov, E.

    2009-05-15

    We consider thin lamellar and cylinder gratings, composed of silicon carbide and air, and investigate the conditions under which they can totally absorb an incident plane wave, for both p and s polarizations. We also consider thin-film equivalent in the quasistatic limit to the gratings, deriving the effective dielectric tensor for cylinder gratings. We show that the accuracy of the quasistatic models is a strong function of polarization, wavelength, and grating thickness due to the resonant nature of the optical constants of silicon carbide but that these models can be quantitatively accurate and give a good qualitative guide to the parameter values under which thin gratings can deliver high optical absorptance.

  17. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  18. Equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Erwan, T.; Lesur, V.

    2014-12-01

    As a by-product of our recent work to build a candidate model over the oceans for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) version 2, we derived global distributions of the equivalent magnetization in oceanic domains. In a first step, we use classic point source forward modeling on a spherical Earth to build a forward model of the marine magnetic anomalies at sea-surface. We estimate magnetization vectors using the age map of the ocean floor, the relative plate motions, the apparent polar wander path for Africa, and a geomagnetic reversal time scale. As magnetized source geometry, we assume 1 km-thick layer bearing a 10 A/m magnetization following the topography of the oceanic basement as defined by the bathymetry and sedimentary thickness. Adding a present-day geomagnetic field model allows the computation of our initial magnetic anomaly model. In a second step, we adjust this model to the existing marine magnetic anomaly data, in order to make it consistent with these data. To do so, we extract synthetic magnetic along the ship tracks for which real data are available and we compare quantitatively the measured and computed anomalies on 100, 200 or 400 km-long sliding windows (depending the spreading rate). Among the possible comparison criteria, we discard the maximal range - too dependent on local values - and the correlation and coherency - the geographical adjustment between model and data being not accurate enough - to favor the standard deviation around the mean value. The ratio between the standard deviations of data and model on each sliding window represent an estimate of the magnetization ratio causing the anomalies, which we interpolate to adjust the initial magnetic anomaly model to the data and therefore compute a final model to be included in our WDMAM candidate over the oceanic regions lacking data. The above ratio, after division by the magnetization of 10 A/m used in the model, represents an estimate of the equivalent magnetization under the

  19. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  20. Equivalent damage validation by variable cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Carlo; Ferlito, Rachele; Zucconi, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to perform a clustering analysis on the damage relieved in the old center of L'Aquila after the earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009 and to validate an Indicator of Equivalent Damage ED that summarizes the information reported on the AeDES card regarding the level of damage and their extension on the surface of the buildings. In particular we used a sample of 13442 masonry buildings located in an area characterized by a Macroseismic Intensity equal to 8 [1]. The aim is to ensure the coherence between the clusters and its hierarchy identified in the data of damage detected and in the data of the ED elaborated.

  1. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  2. Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2009-11-15

    Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in

  3. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or operator... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to...

  4. Elementary equivalence of Chevalley groups over local rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bunina, Elena I

    2010-05-11

    It is proved that (elementary) Chevalley groups over local rings with invertible 2 are elementarily equivalent if and only if their types and weight lattices coincide and the initial rings are elementarily equivalent. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  5. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  6. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PAPER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  7. Optimizing Equivalence-Based Instruction: Effects of Training Protocols on Equivalence Class Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Wright, Nicole A.; Fields, Lanny

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of the simple-to-complex and simultaneous training protocols on the formation of academically relevant equivalence classes. The simple-to-complex protocol intersperses derived relations probes with training baseline relations. The simultaneous protocol conducts all training trials and test trials in separate…

  8. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... equivalent methods are identified as follows: EQPM-1013-207, ``Thermo Scientific TEOM 1405-DF Dichotomous... external enclosures, and operated in accordance with the Thermo Scientific TEOM 1405-DF Dichotomous Ambient..., ``Thermo Scientific TEOM 1405-DF Dichotomous Ambient Particular Monitor with FDMS ,'' configured for...

  9. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume I,'' EPA/600/R-94/038a and ``Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New...

  10. Distributed resonance self-shielding using the equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Altiparmakov, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an extension of the equivalence principle to allow distributed resonance self-shielding in a multi-region fuel configuration. Rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability is applied in order to establish equivalence between the actual fuel configuration and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen and resonant absorber, which is a commonly used model to calculate library tables of resonance integrals. The main steps in derivation are given along with the basic physics assumptions on which the presented approach relies. The method has been implemented in the lattice code WIMS-AECL and routinely used for calculation of CANDU-type reactor lattices. Its capabilities are illustrated by comparison of WIMS-AECL and MCNP results of {sup 238}U resonance capture in a CANDU lattice cell. In order to determine optimal rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability, the calculations were carried out by varying the number of rational terms from 1 to 6. The results show that 4 terms are sufficient. The further increase of the number of terms affects the computing time, while the impact on accuracy is negligible. To illustrate the convergence of the results, the fuel subdivision is gradually refined varying the number of fuel pin subdivisions from 1 to 32 equal-area annuli. The results show very good agreement with the reference MCNP calculation. (authors)

  11. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems.

  12. A Bioengineered Human Skin Equivalent (HSE) for the Evaluation of Protectants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    full thickness skin equivalent that has been optimized by addition of various growth factors, such as ascorbic acid, lipids and a PPAR-α agonist. It...has been characterized for morphology, lipid composition and barrier properties and compared to the commercially available skin equivalents...Compared to these, the HSE possesses closer lipid composition and barrier properties to human skin . The morphology shows a highly differentiated epidermis

  13. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  15. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  16. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels....

  19. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels....

  20. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels....

  1. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels....

  2. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels....

  3. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  6. Tests of Equivalence for One-Way Independent Groups Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbie, Robert A.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Gruman, Jamie A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers in education are often interested in determining whether independent groups are equivalent on a specific outcome. Equivalence tests for 2 independent populations have been widely discussed, whereas testing for equivalence with more than 2 independent groups has received little attention. The authors discuss alternatives for testing the…

  7. Reasons for the Decalage between Identity Conservation and Equivalence Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ron

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments investigated which of two factors is responsible for decalage between Piaget's equivalence and identity conservation tasks. Performance of 78 primary school students between 57 and 79 months of age was compared on equivalence and identity tasks and a third task, equivalence I, which retains transitivity requirement of Piaget's task…

  8. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  9. Determination of Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Products of Gentamicin in the Neutropenic Mouse Thigh Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga, Andres F.; Agudelo, Maria; Cardeño, John J.; Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Vesga, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Background Drug regulatory agencies (DRA) support prescription of generic products of intravenous antibiotics assuming therapeutic equivalence from pharmaceutical equivalence. Recent reports of deaths associated with generic heparin and metoprolol have raised concerns about the efficacy and safety of DRA-approved drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings To challenge the assumption that pharmaceutical equivalence predicts therapeutic equivalence, we determined in vitro and in vivo the efficacy of the innovator product and 20 pharmaceutically equivalent generics of gentamicin. The data showed that, while only 1 generic product failed in vitro (MIC = 45.3 vs. 0.7 mg/L, P<0.05), 10 products (including gentamicin reference powder) failed in vivo against E. coli due to significantly inferior efficacy (Emax = 4.81 to 5.32 vs. 5.99 log10 CFU/g, P≤0.043). Although the design lacked power to detect differences in survival after thigh infection with P. aeruginosa, dissemination to vital organs was significantly higher in animals treated with generic gentamicin despite 4 days of maximally effective treatment. Conclusion Pharmaceutical equivalence does not predict therapeutic equivalence of generic gentamicin. Stricter criteria based on solid experimental evidence should be required before approval for human use. PMID:20505762

  10. Effects of equivalence ratio variation on lean, stratified methane-air laminar counterflow flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, E. S.; Granet, V. E.; Eyssartier, A.; Chen, J. H.

    2010-11-01

    The effects of equivalence ratio variations on flame structure and propagation have been studied computationally. Equivalence ratio stratification is a key technology for advanced low emission combustors. Laminar counterflow simulations of lean methane-air combustion have been presented which show the effect of strain variations on flames stabilized in an equivalence ratio gradient, and the response of flames propagating into a mixture with a time-varying equivalence ratio. 'Back supported' lean flames, whose products are closer to stoichiometry than their reactants, display increased propagation velocities and reduced thickness compared with flames where the reactants are richer than the products. The radical concentrations in the vicinity of the flame are modified by the effect of an equivalence ratio gradient on the temperature profile and thermal dissociation. Analysis of steady flames stabilized in an equivalence ratio gradient demonstrates that the radical flux through the flame, and the modified radical concentrations in the reaction zone, contribute to the modified propagation speed and thickness of stratified flames. The modified concentrations of radical species in stratified flames mean that, in general, the reaction rate is not accurately parametrized by progress variable and equivalence ratio alone. A definition of stratified flame propagation based upon the displacement speed of a mixture fraction dependent progress variable was seen to be suitable for stratified combustion. The response times of the reaction, diffusion, and cross-dissipation components which contribute to this displacement speed have been used to explain flame response to stratification and unsteady fluid dynamic strain.

  11. A formal and data-based comparison of measures of motor-equivalent covariation.

    PubMed

    Verrel, Julius

    2011-09-15

    Different analysis methods have been developed for assessing motor-equivalent organization of movement variability. In the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) method, the structure of variability is analyzed by comparing goal-equivalent and non-goal-equivalent variability components at the level of elemental variables (e.g., joint angles). In contrast, in the covariation by randomization (CR) approach, motor-equivalent organization is assessed by comparing variability at the task level between empirical and decorrelated surrogate data. UCM effects can be due to both covariation among elemental variables and selective channeling of variability to elemental variables with low task sensitivity ("individual variation"), suggesting a link between the UCM and CR method. However, the precise relationship between the notion of covariation in the two approaches has not been analyzed in detail yet. Analysis of empirical and simulated data from a study on manual pointing shows that in general the two approaches are not equivalent, but the respective covariation measures are highly correlated (ρ > 0.7) for two proposed definitions of covariation in the UCM context. For one-dimensional task spaces, a formal comparison is possible and in fact the two notions of covariation are equivalent. In situations in which individual variation does not contribute to UCM effects, for which necessary and sufficient conditions are derived, this entails the equivalence of the UCM and CR analysis. Implications for the interpretation of UCM effects are discussed.

  12. A portable dose equivalent meter based on microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braby, L. A.

    1985-05-01

    It is generally accepted that the physical basis of the relative biological effectiveness of different radiations is the difference in the spatial distribution of ionization along the charged particle tracks. Thus it is possible to measure physical quantities which may be related to biological damage, and use them to estimate the radiation protection quantity "dose equivalent". A prototype instrument utilizing a spherical proportional counter and a microcomputer to make such measurements has been developed and tested. The detector is filled with gas at low pressure in order to simulate micrometer diameter volumes of tissue. Energy deposition in these small volumes is a stochastic quantity which depends on charged particle stopping power, path length through the site, energy loss straggling, and energy transport by secondary charged particles (delta rays). It has been suggested that this energy deposition distribution be used as a basis for defining radiation quality factor ( overlineQ) [1]. However, to the extent that the energy deposition in the site is proportional to the geometric chord length distribution, energy deposition can also be used to determine the linear energy transfer. The mean quality factor can then be calculated on the basis of the current definition. The prototype instrument uses two amplifiers, with gains of 50 and 1000, processing the pulses from a single detector in order to resolve the wide range of energy deposition events produced by neutron and gamma irradiation. Each amplifier is connected to a specially designed analog to digital converter and a 128 channel multichannel analyzer. A microcomputer controls the system and calculates dose and dose equivalent. Test results for a variety of accelerator produced neutron irradiations show that, from 0.1 to 15 MeV, system accuracy is ±0.5 for overlineQ and ± 15% for dose equivalent.

  13. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Chang Yong

    2002-06-19

    To express the antioxidant capacity of plant foods in a more familiar and easily understood manner (equivalent to vitamin C mg/100 g), two stable radical species, ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*), commonly used for antioxidant activity measurements, were employed independently to evaluate their efficacies using apple polyphenolic extracts and seven polyphenolic standards including synthetic Trolox. Their antioxidant activities were expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) in mg/100 g apple or mg/100 mL of the reference chemical compounds in 10 and 30 min using the ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*) scavenging assays, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of Gala apples and seven phenolic standards, determined by both ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*) scavenging assays, showed a dose-response of the first-order. Fresh Gala apples had a VCEAC of 205.4 +/- 5.6 mg/100 g using the ABTS assay, and the relative VCEACs of phenolic standards were as follows: gallic acid > quercetin > epicatechin > catechin > vitamin C > rutin > chlorogenic acid > Trolox. With the DPPH radical assay, the VCEAC of fresh Gala apples was 136.0 +/- 6.6 mg/100 g, and the relative VCEACs of seven phenolic standards were, in decreasing order, as follows: gallic acid > quercetin > epicatechin > catechin > or = vitamin C > Trolox > rutin > chlorogenic acid. Because the ABTS assay can be used in both organic and aqueous solvent systems, employs a specific absorbance at a wavelength remote from the visible region, and requires a short reaction time, it is a more desirable method than the DPPH assay. Therefore, it is recommended that antioxidant capacity be expressed as vitamin C mg/100 g equivalent (VCEAC) using the ABTS assay.

  14. Surface-Treated versus Untreated Large-Bore Catheters as Vascular Access in Hemodialysis and Apheresis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Schiel, Ralf; Bambauer, Carolin; Latza, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background. Catheter-related infections, thrombosis, and stenosis are among the most frequent complications associated with catheters, which are inserted in vessels. Surface treatment processes of the outer surface, such as ion-beam-assisted deposition, can be used to mitigate such complications. Methods. This retrospective study (1992–2007) evaluated silver-coated (54 patients) and noncoated (105 patients) implanted large-bore catheters used for extracorporeal detoxification. The catheters were inserted into the internal jugular or subclavian veins. After removal, the catheters were cultured for bacterial colonization using standard microbiologic assays. They also were examined using scanning electron microscope. Results. The silver coated catheters showed a tendency towards longer in situ time. The microbiologic examinations of the catheter tips were in both catheter types high positive, but not significant. Conclusion. The silver-coated catheters showed no significantly reduction in infection rate by evaluation of all collected data in this retrospective study. There was no association between both catheters in significantly reducing savings in treatment costs and in reducing patient discomfort. Other new developed catheter materials such as the microdomain-structured inner and outer surface are considered more biocompatible because they mimic the structure of natural biological surface. PMID:22577548

  15. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  16. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  17. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  18. Noise Equivalent Power of Graphene-Superconductor-Based Optical Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghda, B. Afkhami; Moftakharzadeh, A.; Hosseini, M.

    In this paper, the noise equivalent power (NEP) of optical sensors based on graphene-superconductor junctions in the voltage bias operation mode has been calculated. The effects of device parameters such as temperature, magnetic field and device resistance on the NEP of these detectors have been thoroughly investigated. By solving the related equations, graphene specific heat, thermal conductivity, electron-phonon interaction and responsivity of the detector have been obtained. Using the calculated parameters, the NEP of the device was obtained. The results show that at constant magnetic field the NEP will increase linearly by increasing device temperature. On the other hand, at constant temperature the behavior of NEP versus magnetic field is first increasing and then decreasing. Our calculations show that the optimal resistance of the device has a direct relation with respect to the device temperature, while in the investigated operating range the optimal resistance of device is almost independent of the magnetic field.

  19. Temporal patterns of energy equivalence in temperate soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Werner; Hoste-Danyłow, Alexia; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Hajdamowicz, Izabela; Ilieva-Makulec, Krassimira; Olejniczak, Izabella; Stańska, Marzena; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    The question whether total population energy use is invariant to species body size (the energy equivalence hypothesis) is central to metabolic ecology and continues to be controversial. While recent comparative field work and meta-analyses pointed to systematic deviations of the underlying allometric scaling laws from predictions of metabolic theory none of these studies included the variability of metabolic scaling in ecological time. Here we used extensive data on the invertebrate soil fauna of Kampinos National Park (Poland) obtained from six consecutive quantitative sampling seasons to show that phylogenetically corrected species density-body weight and population energy use-body weight relationships across all soil fauna species and within trophic groups and body weight classes were highly variable in time. On average, population energy use tended to increase with species body weight in decomposers and phytophages, but not in predators. Despite these trends, our data do not exclude the possibility that energy equivalence marks the central tendency of energy use in the edaphon. Our results highlight the need for long-term studies on energy use to unequivocally assess predictions of metabolic theory.

  20. Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T

    2009-12-11

    This study presents discrete and continuum simulations of shock wave propagating through jointed media. The simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode GEODYN-L with joints treated explicitly using an advanced contact algorithm. They studied both isotropic and anisotropic joint representations. For an isotropically jointed geologic medium, the results show that the properties of the joints can be combined with the properties of the intact rock to develop an equivalent continuum model suitable for analyzing wave propagation through the jointed medium. For an anisotropically jointed geologic medium, they found it difficult to develop an equivalent continuum (EC) model that matches the response derived from mesoscopic simulation. They also performed simulations of wave propagation through jointed media. Two appraoches are suggested for modeling the rock mass. In one approach, jointed are modeled explicitly in a Lagrangian framework with appropriate contact algorithms used to track motion along the interfaces. In the other approach, the effect of joints is taken into account using a constitutive model derived from mesoscopic simulations.

  1. Universal Decoherence under Gravity: A Perspective through the Equivalence Principle.

    PubMed

    Pang, Belinda H; Chen, Yanbei; Khalili, Farid Ya

    2016-08-26

    Pikovski et al. [Nat. Phys. 11, 668 (2015)] show that a composite particle prepared in a pure initial quantum state and propagated in a uniform gravitational field undergoes a decoherence process at a rate determined by the gravitational acceleration. By assuming Einstein's equivalence principle to be valid, we analyze a physical realization of the (1+1)D thought experiment of Pikovski et al. to demonstrate that the dephasing between the different internal states arises not from gravity but rather from differences in their rest mass, and the mass dependence of the de Broglie wave's dispersion relation. We provide an alternative view to the situation considered by Pikovski et al., where we propose that gravity plays a kinematic role by providing a relative velocity to the detector frame with respect to the particle; visibility can be easily recovered by giving the screen an appropriate uniform velocity. We then apply this insight to their thought experiment in (1+1)D to draw a direct correspondence, and obtain the same mathematical result for dephasing. We finally propose that dephasing due to gravity may in fact take place for certain modifications to the gravitational potential where the equivalence principle is violated.

  2. An equivalent relative utility metric for evaluating screening mammography.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Craig K; Eckstein, Miguel P; Boone, John M

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies of performance in screening mammography are often ambiguous. A new method will frequently show a higher sensitivity or detection rate than an existing standard with a concomitant increase in false positives or recalls. The authors propose an equivalent relative utility (ERU) metric based on signal detection theory to quantify screening performance in such comparisons. The metric is defined as the relative utility, as defined in classical signal detection theory, needed to make 2 systems equivalent. ERU avoids the problem of requiring a predefined putative relative utility, which has limited application of utility theory in receiver operating characteristic analysis. The metric can be readily estimated from recall and detection rates commonly reported in comparative clinical studies. An important practical advantage of ERU is that in prevalence matched populations, the measure can be estimated without an independent estimate of disease prevalence. Thus estimating ERU does not require a study with long-term follow-up to find cases of missed disease. The approach is applicable to any comparative screening study that reports results in terms of recall and detection rates, although the authors focus exclusively on screening mammography in this work. They derive the ERU from the definition of utility given in classical treatments of signal detection theory. They also investigate reasonable values of relative utility in screening mammography for use in interpreting ERU using data from a large clinical study. As examples of application of ERU, they reanalyze 2 recently published reports using recall and detection rates in screening mammography.

  3. A study on deriving equivalent winds from Ionosonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libo; Luan, Xiaol; Wan, Weixi; Ning, Baiqi

    2003-04-01

    The equivalent winds are derived from ionosonde measurements over Wuhan (114.4E, 30.6N, 45.2dip) and other stations to investigate their seasonal, latitudinal and solar dependence behaviors using a method introduced by Libo Liu et al. The results show that the diurnal pattern of the vertical equivalent winds (VEWs) has prominent seasonal variations, e.g., over Wuhan the VEWs in vernal equinox have smaller magnitudes than those in autumn equinox. One of the outstanding questions involving the upper atmosphere, the solar cycle variability of thermospheric circulation, is also examined with ionosonde data lasting for more than one solar cycle. Take Wuhan for example, the solar activity trends of VEWs have an obvious local time and seasonal dependence. The magnitudes of VEWs decrease with the increasing of solar activity around midnight for all seasons and around midday in winter and autumn. In contrast, little variation is found throughout the solar cycle around midday in summer and spring. The magnitudes of daily mean and amplitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal components of VEWs over Wuhan decrease with solar activity, which also confirms that it is not a feature of a particular location. There is a more pronounced decrease in diurnal amplitudes of VEWs than other harmonic components over Wuhan. The decrease in diurnal amplitudes with increasing solar activity can be reasonably explained if the greater ion drag at solar maximum not only compensates for pressure gradients due to the greater EUV input.

  4. Adjustment for unbalanced sample size for analytical biosimilar equivalence assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoyu Cassie; Weng, Yu-Ting; Tsong, Yi

    2017-01-06

    Large sample size imbalance is not uncommon in the biosimilar development. At the beginning of a product development, sample sizes of a biosimilar and a reference product may be limited. Thus, a sample size calculation may not be feasible. During the development stage, more batches of reference products may be added at a later stage to have a more reliable estimate of the reference variability. On the other hand, we also need a sufficient number of biosimilar batches in order to have a better understanding of the product. Those challenges lead to a potential sample size imbalance. In this paper, we show that large sample size imbalance may increase the power of the equivalence test in an unfavorable way, giving higher power for less similar products when the sample size of biosimilar is much smaller than that of the reference product. Thus, it is necessary to make some sample size imbalance adjustments to motivate sufficient sample size for biosimilar as well. This paper discusses two adjustment methods for the equivalence test in analytical biosimilarity studies. Please keep in mind that sufficient sample sizes for both biosimilar and reference products (if feasible) are desired during the planning stage.

  5. Competitive equivalence maintains persistent inter-clonal boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, David L

    2005-01-01

    Clear boundaries often separate adjacent conspecific competitors. These boundaries may reflect bordering animal territories or regions of inter-organism contact in mobile and non-mobile organisms, respectively. Sessile, clonal organisms often form persistent inter-clonal boundaries despite great variation in competitive ability among genotypes within a population. I show that neighboring clones in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and three species of the marine hydroid genus Hydractinia are more evenly matched in terms of competitive ability than expected by chance. Hypotheses of genetic relatedness or similar environmental regime shared by neighboring clones are inconsistent with the observed similarities between adjacent competitors in one or both taxa. Instead, inter-clonal borders evidently persist as standoffs between evenly matched competitors. Large differences in competitive ability between bordering clones were rarely observed, suggesting that dominant clones quickly displace or eliminate others in competitive mismatches. This ecological parallel between taxa (i.e., competitive equivalence) exists despite several fundamental differences (e.g., geographical distribution, habitat, body size, longevity), suggesting that competitive equivalence may be a widespread determinant of boundary persistence between adjacent competitors.

  6. Universal Decoherence under Gravity: A Perspective through the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Belinda H.; Chen, Yanbei; Khalili, Farid Ya.

    2016-08-01

    Pikovski et al. [Nat. Phys. 11, 668 (2015)] show that a composite particle prepared in a pure initial quantum state and propagated in a uniform gravitational field undergoes a decoherence process at a rate determined by the gravitational acceleration. By assuming Einstein's equivalence principle to be valid, we analyze a physical realization of the (1 +1 )D thought experiment of Pikovski et al. to demonstrate that the dephasing between the different internal states arises not from gravity but rather from differences in their rest mass, and the mass dependence of the de Broglie wave's dispersion relation. We provide an alternative view to the situation considered by Pikovski et al., where we propose that gravity plays a kinematic role by providing a relative velocity to the detector frame with respect to the particle; visibility can be easily recovered by giving the screen an appropriate uniform velocity. We then apply this insight to their thought experiment in (1 +1 )D to draw a direct correspondence, and obtain the same mathematical result for dephasing. We finally propose that dephasing due to gravity may in fact take place for certain modifications to the gravitational potential where the equivalence principle is violated.

  7. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    PubMed

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations.

  8. Validation of equivalent viscous damping methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquer Araujo, Xavier; Fransen, Sebastiaan H. J. A.; Germès, Sylvain; Thiry, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    An important step in the design and verification process of spacecraft structures is the coupled dynamic analysis with the launch vehicle in the low-frequency domain. To obtain accurate predictions of the satellite's dynamic environment, it is essential that the damping of the system is correctly defined and taken into account within the resolution methodologies for the coupled loads analysis (CLA). When working with finite element models, the materials' damping is characterized by structural damping ratios. In addition, most of the load cases present in the CLA are transient excitations, and so the resolution of the equations of motion must be done in the time domain. Unfortunately, in the CLA, transient analyses cannot be carried out using structural damping models. Thus, a transformation from a structural to a viscous damping characterization is necessary in this case. Nevertheless, this transformation is not trivial. There exist many methodologies for computing an equivalent viscous damping (EqVD) matrix of the system which can be used in transient analyses. This paper describes the results obtained from the validation of EqVD methodologies used in the European Space Agency. This work identifies the limitations of these methodologies and comes up with an enhanced methodology that predicts more reliable results.

  9. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λL<ℓBAO. We calculate a universal piece of the three-point correlation function in this regime. The same effect is shown to underlie the spread of the acoustic peak, and is calculable to all orders in the long modes. This can be used to improve the result of perturbative calculations—a technique known as "infra-red resummation"—and is explicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  10. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    PubMed

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'.

  11. Prospective evaluation of cell kinetics, yields and donor experiences during a single large-volume apheresis versus two smaller volume consecutive day collections of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bolan, Charles D; Carter, Charles S; Wesley, Robert A; Yau, Yu Ying; Barrett, A John; Childs, Richard W; Read, Elizabeth J; Leitman, Susan F

    2003-03-01

    We report cell kinetics, yields and donation experiences of 20 demographically matched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors who were prospectively assigned to undergo either a single 25 l or two consecutive daily 15 l (15 l x 2) apheresis procedures. Procedures were performed using prophylactic intravenous calcium administration after standard granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) mobilization (10 microg/kg/d). Central line placements (two each), initial CD34 cell counts (0.077 vs 0.078 x 10(9)/l) and yields (7.9 vs 8.1 x 10(8) CD34 cells) were similar in the two groups; however, 25 l donors spent significantly less time both in the clinic (7.5 vs 10.8 h) and with central venous catheters in place (8.5 vs 29.5 h) than 15 l x 2 donors. End-procedure platelet counts were below 100 x 10(9)/l in one out of 10 25 l donors versus five out of 10 in 15 l x 2 donors (41%vs 53% mean decrease in platelet counts, P = 0.02). PBSC collection efficiency increased by 37% after 15 l of the 25-l volume had been processed, compared with no significant change during 15 l x 2 procedures. Results similar to these prospective findings were also observed in CD34 yields, symptoms and platelet counts in additional 25 l and 15 l procedures performed during the same period and evaluated retrospectively. This study indicates that a single 25-l apheresis procedure results in similar yields and symptoms, but less donor thrombocytopenia and inconvenience than two consecutive daily 15-l procedures.

  12. Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Xiaobing; Xie, Yi; Kang, Mingwu; Zhang, Qiuzhi

    2014-10-01

    A liquid crystal grating with high spatial frequency and equivalent capacitance configuration is proposed, where two layers of periodical ground electrodes are interlaced and aligned with the addressing electrodes. The equivalent capacitance configuration can reduce the fringing field effect efficiently owing to the generated electric field resisting the fringing field and redistributing the equivalent voltage exerting on the liquid crystal layer. The phase modulation depth and far-field diffraction patterns both for conventional and novel configurations were simulated. The results show that phase modulation is greatly enhanced and the maximum diffraction efficiency for a sinusoidal phase grating is 33.86%, which indicates that the equivalent capacitance configuration provides a good solution for suppressing the fringing field effect.

  13. Applying a polynomial formula to photon beam output and equivalent square field.

    PubMed

    Chen, F S

    1990-01-01

    The polynomial formula proposed by Chen [Med. Phys. 15, 348 (1988)] in calculating the electron beam output from a Therac 20 linear accelerator has been applied to generating the output factor of various machines with photon energies ranging from 100 kVp to 18 MeV. The calculated outputs are within 1% of the measured values. This formula can be very useful to the physicist in preparing an output table of photon beams or electron beams for a therapeutic unit. An equation is derived from this formula to calculate the equivalent square. The derivation shows that only under special circumstances is the equivalent square field equivalent to 2ab/(a + b); otherwise the equivalent square field depends on the formula's parameters as well as the sides of the rectangular field. These parameters, in turn, are dependent on the photon energy, the medium irradiated, and the collimator design.

  14. Applying a polynomial formula to photon beam output and equivalent square field

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The polynomial formula proposed by Chen (Med. Phys. {bold 15}, 348 (1988)) in calculating the electron beam output from a Therac 20 linear accelerator has been applied to generating the output factor of various machines with photon energies ranging from 100 kVp to 18 MeV. The calculated outputs are within 1% of the measured values. This formula can be very useful to the physicist in preparing an output table of photon beams or electron beams for a therapeutic unit. An equation is derived from this formula to calculate the equivalent square. The derivation shows that only under special circumstances is the equivalent square field equivalent to 2{ital ab}/({ital a}+{ital b}); otherwise the equivalent square field depends on the formula's parameters as well as the sides of the rectangular field. These parameters, in turn, are dependent on the photon energy, the medium irradiated, and the collimator design.

  15. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  16. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  17. Fully characterization of an active optical filter based on an equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ye; Li, Ming; Shi, Nuannuan; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Wei; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-10-01

    A fully characterization of an active optical filter based on an equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA has been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. By employing an optical vector network analyzer (OVNA), transmission characteristics of the equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA are obtained. The influences of driven current on transmission characteristics of the equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA are also investigated. In addition to the advantage of integration, the proposed equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA also shows significant application in design of photonic devices for all-optical signal processing and computing.

  18. The DINA model as a constrained general diagnostic model: Two variants of a model equivalency.

    PubMed

    von Davier, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    The 'deterministic-input noisy-AND' (DINA) model is one of the more frequently applied diagnostic classification models for binary observed responses and binary latent variables. The purpose of this paper is to show that the model is equivalent to a special case of a more general compensatory family of diagnostic models. Two equivalencies are presented. Both project the original DINA skill space and design Q-matrix using mappings into a transformed skill space as well as a transformed Q-matrix space. Both variants of the equivalency produce a compensatory model that is mathematically equivalent to the (conjunctive) DINA model. This equivalency holds for all DINA models with any type of Q-matrix, not only for trivial (simple-structure) cases. The two versions of the equivalency presented in this paper are not implied by the recently suggested log-linear cognitive diagnosis model or the generalized DINA approach. The equivalencies presented here exist independent of these recently derived models since they solely require a linear - compensatory - general diagnostic model without any skill interaction terms. Whenever it can be shown that one model can be viewed as a special case of another more general one, conclusions derived from any particular model-based estimates are drawn into question. It is widely known that multidimensional models can often be specified in multiple ways while the model-based probabilities of observed variables stay the same. This paper goes beyond this type of equivalency by showing that a conjunctive diagnostic classification model can be expressed as a constrained special case of a general compensatory diagnostic modelling framework.

  19. The Role of Multiple-Exemplar Training and Naming in Establishing Derived Equivalence in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Carmen; Becerra, Inmaculada Gómez; Valverde, Miguel Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    The conditions under which symmetry and equivalence relations develop are still controversial. This paper reports three experiments that attempt to analyze the impact of multiple-exemplar training (MET) in receptive symmetry on the emergence of visual–visual equivalence relations with a very young child, Gloria. At the age of 15 months 24 days (15m24d), Gloria was tested for receptive symmetry and naming and showed no evidence of either repertoire. In the first experiment, MET in immediate and delayed receptive symmetrical responding or listener behavior (from object–sound to immediate and delayed sound–object selection) proceeded for one month with 10 different objects. This was followed, at 16m25d, by a second test conducted with six new objects. Gloria showed generalized receptive symmetry with a 3-hr delay; however no evidence of naming with new objects was found. Experiment 2 began at 17m with the aim of establishing derived visual–visual equivalence relations using a matching-to-sample format with two comparisons. Visual–visual equivalence responding emerged at 19m, although Gloria still had not shown evidence of naming. Experiment 3 (22m to 23m25d) used a three-comparison matching-to-sample procedure to establish visual–visual equivalence. Equivalence responding emerged as in Experiment 2, and naming emerged by the end of Experiment 3. Results are discussed in terms of the history of training in bidirectional relations responsible for the emergence of visual–visual equivalence relations and of their implications for current theories of stimulus equivalence. PMID:17575901

  20. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  1. Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.

  2. Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Modelling the universe without relying on a set of hypothetical entities (HEs) to explain observations and overcome problems and difficulties is essential to developing a physical cosmology. The well-known big bang cosmology, widely accepted as the standard model, stands on two fundamentals, which are Einstein’s general relativity (GR) that describes the effect of matter on spacetime and the cosmological principle (CP) of spacetime isotropy and homogeneity. The field equation of GR along with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric of spacetime derived from CP generates the Friedmann equation (FE) that governs the development and dynamics of the universe. The big bang theory has made impressive successes in explaining the universe, but still has problems and solutions of them rely on an increasing number of HEs such as inflation, dark matter, dark energy, and so on. Recently, the author has developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which, instead of making many those hypotheses, only includes a new single postulate (or a new principle) to the cosmology - Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence (SBHEP) - to explain all the existing observations of the universe and overcome all the existing problems in conventional cosmologies. This study thoroughly demonstrates how this newly developed black hole universe model, which therefore stands on the three fundamentals (GR, CP, and SBHEP), can fully explain the universe as well as easily conquer the difficulties according to the well-developed physics, thus, neither needing any other hypotheses nor existing any unsolved difficulties. This work was supported by NSF/REU (Grant #: PHY-1263253) at Alabama A & M University.

  3. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    PubMed

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  4. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  5. A general approach to DNA-programmable atom equivalents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Macfarlane, Robert J; Young, Kaylie L; Choi, Chung Hang J; Hao, Liangliang; Auyeung, Evelyn; Liu, Guoliang; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Mirkin, Chad A

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles can be combined with nucleic acids to programme the formation of three-dimensional colloidal crystals where the particles' size, shape, composition and position can be independently controlled. However, the diversity of the types of material that can be used is limited by the lack of a general method for preparing the basic DNA-functionalized building blocks needed to bond nanoparticles of different chemical compositions into lattices in a controllable manner. Here we show that by coating nanoparticles protected with aliphatic ligands with an azide-bearing amphiphilic polymer, followed by the coupling of DNA to the polymer using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as copper-free azide-alkyne click chemistry), nanoparticles bearing a high-density shell of nucleic acids can be created regardless of nanoparticle composition. This method provides a route to a virtually endless class of programmable atom equivalents for DNA-based colloidal crystallization.

  6. A Computational Theory for the Learning of Equivalence Relations

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Sergio E.; Zanutto, B. Silvano

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence relations (ERs) are logical entities that emerge concurrently with the development of language capabilities. In this work we propose a computational model that learns to build ERs by learning simple conditional rules. The model includes visual areas, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic structures as well as prefrontal and motor areas, each of them modeled as a group of continuous valued units that simulate clusters of real neurons. In the model, lateral interaction between neurons of visual structures and top-down modulation of prefrontal/premotor structures over the activity of neurons in visual structures are necessary conditions for learning the paradigm. In terms of the number of neurons and their interaction, we show that a minimal structural complexity is required for learning ERs among conditioned stimuli. Paradoxically, the emergence of the ER drives a reduction in the number of neurons needed to maintain those previously specific stimulus–response learned rules, allowing an efficient use of neuronal resources. PMID:22102838

  7. Calculations of a wideband metamaterial absorber using equivalent medium theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin; Wang, Danqi; Yu, Shengqing; Lou, Yanchao; Guo, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) have drawn increasing attention in many areas due to the fact that they can achieve electromagnetic (EM) waves with unity absorptivity. We demonstrate the design, simulation, experiment and calculation of a wideband MMA based on a loaded double-square-loop (DSL) array of chip resisters. For a normal incidence EM wave, the simulated results show that the absorption of the full width at half maximum is about 9.1 GHz, and the relative bandwidth is 87.1%. Experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. More importantly, equivalent medium theory (EMT) is utilized to calculate the absorptions of the DSL MMA, and the calculated absorptions based on EMT agree with the simulated and measured results. The method based on EMT provides a new way to analysis the mechanism of MMAs.

  8. Lipschitz Equivalence of Totally Disconnected General Sierpinski Triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Given an integer n ≥ 2 and an ordered pair (A, B) with A ⊂ {k1α + k2β : k1 + k2 ≤ n - 1 and k1, k2 ∈ ℕ ∪{0}} and B ⊂ {k1α + k2β : 2 ≤ k1 + k2 ≤ n and k1, k2 ∈ ℕ}, where α =(1,0), β =(1/2,√ {3}/2). Let T ≔ T(A, B) be unique compact set of ℝ2 satisfying the set equation: T = [(T+A)∪(B-T)]/n. In this paper, we show that such self-similar sets which are totally disconnected are determined to within Lipschitz equivalence by their Hausdorff dimension.

  9. Water-level surface in the Chicot equivalent aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomaszewski, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Chicot equivalent aquifer system is an important source of freshwater in southeastern Louisiana. In 2005, about 47 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from the Chicot equivalent aquifer system in East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Livingston, Tangipahoa, St. Helena, St. Tammany, Washington, and West Feliciana Parishes. Concentrated withdrawals exceeded 5 Mgal/d in Bogalusa, the city of Baton Rouge, and in northwestern East Baton Rouge Parish. In the study area, about 30,000 wells screened in the Chicot equivalent aquifer system were registered with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LaDOTD). These wells were constructed for public-supply, industry, irrigation, and domestic uses. Most of the wells were registered as domestic-use wells and are small-diameter, low-yielding wells. Total withdrawal from the Chicot equivalent aquifer system for domestic use was estimated to be 12 Mgal/d in 2005. This report documents the 2009 water-level surface of the Chicot equivalent aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana. The report also shows differences in water-level measurements for the years 1991 and 2009 at selected sites. Understanding changes and trends in water levels is important for continued use, planning, and management of groundwater resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, conducted this study of the water-level surface of the Chicot equivalent aquifer system as part of an ongoing effort to monitor groundwater levels in aquifers in Louisiana.

  10. An equivalent viscoelastic model for rock mass with parallel joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Ma, Guowei; Zhao, Jian

    2010-03-01

    An equivalent viscoelastic medium model is proposed for rock mass with parallel joints. A concept of "virtual wave source (VWS)" is proposed to take into account the wave reflections between the joints. The equivalent model can be effectively applied to analyze longitudinal wave propagation through discontinuous media with parallel joints. Parameters in the equivalent viscoelastic model are derived analytically based on longitudinal wave propagation across a single rock joint. The proposed model is then verified by applying identical incident waves to the discontinuous and equivalent viscoelastic media at one end to compare the output waves at the other end. When the wavelength of the incident wave is sufficiently long compared to the joint spacing, the effect of the VWS on wave propagation in rock mass is prominent. The results from the equivalent viscoelastic medium model are very similar to those determined from the displacement discontinuity method. Frequency dependence and joint spacing effect on the equivalent viscoelastic model and the VWS method are discussed.

  11. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  12. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  13. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  15. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  16. Computational Simulation of Equivalence Class Formation Using the go/no-go Procedure with Compound Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vernucio, Renato Roberto; Debert, Paula

    Research about equivalence has commonly utilized human participants as experimental subjects. More recently, computational models have been capable of reproducing performances observed in experiments with humans. The computational model often utilized is called RELNET, and it simulates training and testing trials of conditional relations using the matching-to-sample procedure (MTS). The differentiation between sample stimulus and comparison stimuli, indispensable in MTS, implies operational difficulties for simulations. For this reason, new studies seek to utilize alternative procedures to MTS, which do not differentiate the functions of the antecedent stimuli. This work evaluated the possibility of developing a new computational model to simulate equivalence class formation using the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli. In Experiment 1, artificial neural networks were utilized to simulate training of the AB and BC relations as well as the testing of the AC relation. The results showed that four out of six runs demonstrated equivalence class formation. Experiment 2 evaluated whether the additional class training performed in Experiment 1, which was analogous to the simulation of pre-experimental experience of human participants, would be essential for simulating the establishment of equivalence classes. It was found that it was not possible to simulate equivalence class formation without the additional class training. Altogether, the experiments show that it is possible to simulate equivalence class formation using the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli and that it is necessary to conduct additional class training. The model developed is, therefore, an alternative to RELNET for the study of equivalence relations using computational simulations.

  17. Assessment of the effective dose equivalent for external photon radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.D.; Poston, J.W.; Xu, X.G. )

    1993-02-01

    Beginning in January 1994, US nuclear power plants must change the way that they determine the radiation exposure to their workforce. At that time, revisions to Title 10 Part 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations will be in force requiring licensees to evaluate worker radiation exposure using a risk-based methodology termed the effective dose equivalent.'' A research project was undertaken to improve upon the conservative method presently used for assessing effective dose equivalent. In this project effective dose equivalent was calculated using a mathematical model of the human body, and tracking photon interactions for a wide variety of radiation source geometries using Monte Carlo computer code simulations. Algorithms were then developed to relate measurements of the photon flux on the surface of the body (as measured by dosimeters) to effective dose equivalent. This report (Volume I of a two-part study) describes: the concept of effective dose equivalent, the evolution of the concept and its incorporation into regulations, the variations in human organ susceptibility to radiation, the mathematical modeling and calculational techniques used, the results of effective dose equivalent calculations for a broad range of photon energiesand radiation source geometries. The study determined that for beam radiation sources the highest effective dose equivalent occurs for beams striking the front of the torso. Beams striking the rear of the torsoproduce the next highest effective dose equivalent, with effective dose equivalent falling significantly as one departs from these two orientations. For point sources, the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the sources are in contact with the body on the front of the torso. For females the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the source is on the sternum, for males when it is on the gonads.

  18. Data-Driven Method to Estimate Nonlinear Chemical Equivalence

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Michael; Collier, Zachary A.; Winton, Corey; Chappell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    There is great need to express the impacts of chemicals found in the environment in terms of effects from alternative chemicals of interest. Methods currently employed in fields such as life-cycle assessment, risk assessment, mixtures toxicology, and pharmacology rely mostly on heuristic arguments to justify the use of linear relationships in the construction of “equivalency factors,” which aim to model these concentration-concentration correlations. However, the use of linear models, even at low concentrations, oversimplifies the nonlinear nature of the concentration-response curve, therefore introducing error into calculations involving these factors. We address this problem by reporting a method to determine a concentration-concentration relationship between two chemicals based on the full extent of experimentally derived concentration-response curves. Although this method can be easily generalized, we develop and illustrate it from the perspective of toxicology, in which we provide equations relating the sigmoid and non-monotone, or “biphasic,” responses typical of the field. The resulting concentration-concentration relationships are manifestly nonlinear for nearly any chemical level, even at the very low concentrations common to environmental measurements. We demonstrate the method using real-world examples of toxicological data which may exhibit sigmoid and biphasic mortality curves. Finally, we use our models to calculate equivalency factors, and show that traditional results are recovered only when the concentration-response curves are “parallel,” which has been noted before, but we make formal here by providing mathematical conditions on the validity of this approach. PMID:26158701

  19. Test of the Equivalence Principle in the Dark sector on galactic scales

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapi, N.; Hees, A.; Larena, J. E-mail: a.hees@ru.ac.za

    2016-03-01

    The Einstein Equivalence Principle is a fundamental principle of the theory of General Relativity. While this principle has been thoroughly tested with standard matter, the question of its validity in the Dark sector remains open. In this paper, we consider a general tensor-scalar theory that allows to test the equivalence principle in the Dark sector by introducing two different conformal couplings to standard matter and to Dark matter. We constrain these couplings by considering galactic observations of strong lensing and of velocity dispersion. Our analysis shows that, in the case of a violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, data favour violations through coupling strengths that are of opposite signs for ordinary and Dark matter. At the same time, our analysis does not show any significant deviations from General Relativity.

  20. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  1. Irradiated PVAl membrane swelled with chitosan solution as dermal equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodas, A. C. D.; Ohnuki, T.; Mathor, M. B.; Lugao, A. B.

    2005-07-01

    Synthetic membranes as dermal equivalent can be applied at in vitro studies for developing new transdermal drugs or cosmetics. These membranes could be composed to mimic the dermis and seed cultivated keratinocytes as epidermal layer on it. The endothelial cells ingrowth to promote neovascularization and fibroblasts ingrowth to promote the substitution of this scaffold by natural components of the dermis. As, they can mimic the scaffold function of dermis; the membranes with biological interaction could be used for in vivo studies as dermal equivalent. For this application, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) membranes crosslinked by gamma radiation were swelled with chitosan solution. PVAl do not interact with the organism when implanted and is intended to mimic the mechanical characteristics of the dermal scaffold. The chitosan as a biocompatible biosynthetic polysaccharide were incorporated into PVAl membranes to improve the organism response. Degradation of chitosan by the organism occurs preferably by hydrolysis or enzymatic action, for example, by lysozyme. For this purpose the swelling kinetic of PVAl membranes with chitosan solution were performed and it was verified their degradation in vitro. The results showed that the swelling equilibrium of the PVAl membranes with chitosan membranes was reached in 120 h with average swelling of 1730%. After swelling, PVAl and chitosan/PVAl membranes were dried and immersed in phosphate buffer solution pH 5.7 and pH 7.4, with and without lysozyme, as those pH values are the specific physiologic pH for external skin and the general physiological pH for the organism, respectively. It was verified that the pure PVAl membrane did not showed change in their mass during 14 days. PVAl membranes swelled with chitosan solution showed mass decrease from 1 to 14 days inside these solutions. The highest mass decrease was verified at pH 5.7 in phosphate buffer solution without lysozyme. The smallest mass decrease was verified at pH 7.4 in

  2. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  3. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  4. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected on the filter of an...

  5. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  6. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected on the filter of an...

  7. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected on the filter of an...

  8. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  9. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  10. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  11. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  12. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust in milligrams collected on the filter of an...

  13. 30 CFR 71.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust shall be determined by dividing the weight of dust...

  14. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  15. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentrations. 70.206 Section 70.206 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust... concentration to an equivalent concentration as measured with an MRE instrument. To convert a concentration...

  16. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to those... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or...

  17. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  18. 49 CFR 37.105 - Equivalent service standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent service standard. 37.105 Section 37.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private Entities § 37.105 Equivalent service...

  19. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  20. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat--Software for a Thermistor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boleman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus from PASCO scientific provides the means for doing a simple experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat, "J." A necessary step of this experiment is to determine the temperature of an aluminum cylinder. By measuring the resistance of a thermistor embedded in the cylinder, one is able to…

  1. Assessment Battery for Communication: Development of Two Equivalent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G.; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with…

  2. 33 CFR 140.15 - Equivalents and approved equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents and approved equipment. 140.15 Section 140.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES GENERAL General § 140.15 Equivalents and...

  3. 49 CFR 37.105 - Equivalent service standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent service standard. 37.105 Section 37.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private Entities § 37.105 Equivalent service...

  4. 43 CFR 426.11 - Class 1 equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Equivalency determinations can be made only on a district-wide basis. (c) Definition of Class 1 land. Class 1... measured in terms of net income per acre (reflecting both productivity and costs of production). The... farm income will be the measure of productivity to establish equivalency factors reflecting the...

  5. Assessing Measurement Equivalence in Ordered-Categorical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Assessing measurement equivalence in the framework of the common factor linear models (CFL) is known as factorial invariance. This methodology is used to evaluate the equivalence among the parameters of a measurement model among different groups. However, when dichotomous, Likert, or ordered responses are used, one of the assumptions of the CFL is…

  6. Neutron detector simultaneously measures fluence and dose equivalent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, R. F.; Dyer, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Neutron detector acts as both an area monitoring instrument and a criticality dosimeter by simultaneously measuring dose equivalent and fluence. The fluence is determined by activation of six foils one inch below the surface of the moderator. Dose equivalent is determined from activation of three interlocked foils at the center of the moderator.

  7. Nodal Structure and the Partitioning of Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Watanabe-Rose, Mari

    2008-01-01

    By definition, all of the stimuli in an equivalence class have to be functionally interchangeable with each other. The present experiment, however, demonstrated that this was not the case when using post-class-formation dual-option response transfer tests. With college students, two 4-node 6-member equivalence classes with nodal structures of…

  8. Teaching Statistical Variability with Equivalence-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Leif; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Kisamore, April N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, equivalence-based instruction was used to teach 2 4-member classes representing high and low statistical variability to 10 college students. Computerized equivalence-based instruction with multiple-exemplar training was used to teach the classes. A pretest-training-posttest design evaluated performances on both computer-based…

  9. Continuous and stepwise thermal demagnetization: are they equivalent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, David J.

    2009-06-01

    decay of magnetization must occur during cooling from T, where the continuous measurement is made, to T0, where the stepwise result is measured. There are no high-temperature measurements of subsidiary cooling-heating cycles to confirm this deduction, but continuously recorded heating-cooling cycles below room temperature in inverse thermal demagnetization (or low-temperature demagnetization) show both reversible and irreversible features, depending on the remanence tested. The most important conclusion of this study is that MS(T)-corrected continuous demagnetization results do not exactly reproduce measured stepwise demagnetization results except for very fine grains, of SD size or close to it. Continuous thermal demagnetization cannot be used in general as a time-saving alternative to stepwise demagnetization if exact equivalence is required.

  10. Thermodynamics and Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three-part project "How the principle of energy conservation evolved between 1842 and 1870: the view of a participant". This paper aims at showing how the new ideas of Mayer and Joule were received, what constituted the new theory in the period under study, and how it was supported experimentally. A…

  11. Inference of equivalence for the ratio of two normal means with unspecified variances.

    PubMed

    Xu, Siyan; Hua, Steven Ye; Menton, Ronald; Barker, Kerry; Menon, Sandeep; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2014-01-01

    Equivalence trials aim to demonstrate that new and standard treatments are equivalent within predefined clinically relevant limits. We focus on when inference of equivalence is made in terms of the ratio of two normal means. In the presence of unspecified variances, methods such as the likelihood-ratio test use sample estimates for those variances; Bayesian models integrate them out in the posterior distribution. These methods limit the knowledge on the extent to which equivalence is affected by variability of the parameter of interest. In this article, we propose a likelihood approach that retains the unspecified variances in the model and partitions the likelihood function into two components: F-statistic function for variances, and t-statistic function for the ratio of two means. By incorporating unspecified variances, the proposed method can help identify a numeric range of variances where equivalence is more likely to be achieved, which cannot be accomplished by current analysis methods. By partitioning the likelihood function into two components, the proposed method provides more inference information than a method that relies solely on one component. Using a published set of real example data, we show that the proposed method produces the same results as the likelihood-ratio test and is comparable to Bayesian analysis in the general case. In a special case where the ratio of two variances is directly proportional to the ratio of two means, the proposed method yields better results in inference about equivalence than either the likelihood-ratio test or the Bayesian method. Using a published set of real example data, the proposed likelihood method is shown to be a better alternative than current analysis methods for equivalence inference.

  12. SU-E-T-353: Verification of Water Equivalent Thickness (WET) and Water Equivalent Spreadness (WES) of Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Demez, N; Lee, T; Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To verify calculated water equivalent thickness (WET) and water equivalent spreadness (WES) in various tissue equivalent media for proton therapy Methods: Water equivalent thicknesses (WET) of tissue equivalent materials have been calculated using the Bragg-Kleeman rule. Lateral spreadness and fluence reduction of proton beams both in those media were calculated using proton loss model (PLM) algorithm. In addition, we calculated lateral spreadness ratios with respect to that in water at the same WET depth and so the WES was defined. The WETs of those media for different proton beam energies were measured using MLIC (Multi-Layered Ionization Chamber). Also, fluence and field sizes in those materials of various thicknesses were measured with ionization chambers and films Results: Calculated WETs are in agreement with measured WETs within 0.5%. We found that water equivalent spreadness (WES) is constant and the fluence and field size measurements verify that fluence can be estimated using the concept of WES. Conclusions: Calculation of WET based on the Bragg-Kleeman rule as well as the constant WES of proton beams for tissue equivalent phantoms can be used to predict fluence and field sizes at the depths of interest both in tissue equivalent media accurately for clinically available protonenergies.

  13. An Equivalent cross-section Framework for improving computational efficiency in Distributed Hydrologic Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Urooj; Tuteja, Narendra; Ajami, Hoori; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-05-01

    the accuracy of equivalent cross-section approach, the sub-basins are also divided into equally spaced multiple hillslope cross-sections. These cross-sections are simulated in a fully distributed settings using the 2-dimensional, Richards' equation based distributed hydrological model. The simulated fluxes are multiplied by the contributing area of each cross-section to get total fluxes from each sub-basin referred as reference fluxes. The equivalent cross-section approach is investigated for seven first order sub-basins of the McLaughlin catchment of the Snowy River, NSW, Australia, and evaluated in Wagga-Wagga experimental catchment. Our results show that the simulated fluxes using an equivalent cross-section approach are very close to the reference fluxes whereas computational time is reduced of the order of ~4 to ~22 times in comparison to the fully distributed settings. The transpiration and soil evaporation are the dominant fluxes and constitute ~85% of actual rainfall. Overall, the accuracy achieved in dominant fluxes is higher than the other fluxes. The simulated soil moistures from equivalent cross-section approach are compared with the in-situ soil moisture observations in the Wagga-Wagga experimental catchment in NSW, and results found to be consistent. Our results illustrate that the equivalent cross-section approach reduces the computational time significantly while maintaining the same order of accuracy in predicting the hydrological fluxes. As a result, this approach provides a great potential for implementation of distributed hydrological models at regional scales.

  14. On the Equivalence of Nonnegative Matrix Factorization and K-means- Spectral Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Simon, Horst D.; Jin, Rong

    2005-12-04

    We provide a systematic analysis of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) relating to data clustering. We generalize the usual X = FG{sup T} decomposition to the symmetric W = HH{sup T} and W = HSH{sup T} decompositions. We show that (1) W = HH{sup T} is equivalent to Kernel K-means clustering and the Laplacian-based spectral clustering. (2) X = FG{sup T} is equivalent to simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a bipartite graph. We emphasizes the importance of orthogonality in NMF and soft clustering nature of NMF. These results are verified with experiments on face images and newsgroups.

  15. Scattering by Randomly Oriented Thin Ice Disks with Moderate Equivalent-Sphere Size Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakharova, Nadia T.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We use the T-matrix method to compute the scattering matrix for randomly oriented circular ice cylinders with diameter-to-length ratios 1 and 20 and surface-equivalent-sphere size parameters up to 12. We show that wavelength-sized, sharp-edged ice plates with extreme diameter-to-length ratios possess the same scattering properties as smooth plate-like spheroids: their phase functions are similar to those of surface-equivalent compact particles, whereas all other elements of the scattering matrix are typical of Rayleigh scattering.

  16. On the ensemble Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother and its equivalence to the ensemble Kalman smoother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanes, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother is a linear-Gaussian smoothing algorithm that is popular in the engineering community. This is a study of its ensemble formulation (EnRTS). An on-line expression is derived and discussed. In particular, it is used to show that the EnRTS is equivalent to the ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS), even in the non-linear, non-Gaussian case. The theory is revisited under practical considerations and equability is illustrated by numerical experiments, even though equivalence is broken by inflation and localisation.

  17. Testing the Equivalence Principle in space with MICROSCOPE: the data analysis challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergé, Joel; Baghi, Quentin; Pires, Sandrine

    2014-05-01

    Theories beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity predict a violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) just below the current best experimental upper limits. MICROSCOPE (Micro-Satellite à traînée Compensée pour l'Observation du Principe d'Equivalence) will allow us to lower them by two orders of magnitude, and maybe to detect a WEP violation. However, analyzing the MICROSCOPE data will be challenging, mostly because of missing data and a colored noise burrying the signal of interest. In this communication, we apply an inpainting technique to simulated MICROSCOPE data and show that inpainting will help detect a WEP violation signal.

  18. Mirrors movement-induced equivalent rotation effect in ring laser gyros.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangfeng; Fan, Zhenfang; Hu, Shaomin; Luo, Hui

    2013-06-17

    In this letter, the relationship between the change of the closed-loop optical path and the movement of two adjacent spherical mirrors in ring laser gyros is investigated by matrix optical approach. When one spherical mirror is pushed forward and the other is pulled backward to maintain the total length of the closed-loop optical path constant, an equivalent rotation of the closed-loop optical path is found for the first time. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show the equivalent rotation rate is proportional to the velocities of the mirrors' movement.

  19. Simple proof of equivalence between adiabatic quantum computation and the circuit model.

    PubMed

    Mizel, Ari; Lidar, Daniel A; Mitchell, Morgan

    2007-08-17

    We prove the equivalence between adiabatic quantum computation and quantum computation in the circuit model. An explicit adiabatic computation procedure is given that generates a ground state from which the answer can be extracted. The amount of time needed is evaluated by computing the gap. We show that the procedure is computationally efficient.

  20. New Knowledge Derived from Learned Knowledge: Functional-Anatomic Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund, Michael W.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Forming new knowledge based on knowledge established through prior learning is a central feature of higher cognition that is captured in research on stimulus equivalence (SE). Numerous SE investigations show that reinforcing behavior under control of distinct sets of arbitrary conditional relations gives rise to stimulus control by new, "derived"…