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Sample records for aphrodisiacs

  1. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    PubMed

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  2. Legendary Chemical Aphrodisiacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Thomas G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents a survey of the literature and a summary of information regarding aphrodisiacs. Chemical compounds are discussed as groups of plant natural products, animal natural products, and synthetic products. (CS)

  3. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  4. Traditional plant aphrodisiacs and male sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany

    2014-06-01

    There has been a long history of man’s fascination with better and stronger sex drive and performance across different cultures. Several literature texts from the Hindu, Egyptian, Chinese and Roman civilizations document the human endless search for substances that can enhance sexual experiences and/or treat erectile dysfunction. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular plant aphrodisiacs and provide evidence to support or discourage the use of any of them to enhance sexual desire and/or function in men. We review the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. We found very little evidence to support the use of plant aphrodisiacs in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction. The vast majority of studies were conducted on animals with very few clinical studies. Available data suggest a beneficial effect of ginseng as a pro-sexual supplement and not an independent treatment for male sexual dysfunction. Trans-culturally, many herbal therapies show some potential benefits in improving men’s sexual function; however, adequate studies on the specific benefits and health risks associated with their use are needed. We strongly recommend the design and execution of well-controlled clinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of plant aphrodisiacs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Screening of aphrodisiac property in sea slug, Aplysia dactylomela.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Ridzwan; Roslan, Noor Atika Elliyana Mohd; Zulkipli, Farah Hanis; Daud, Jamaluddin Mohd

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the aphrodisiac property of Aplysia dactylomela (A. dactylomelan), locally known as 'dugu-dugu', which is one of the sea slug species. Two types of extractions were used; aqueous and lipid. Three doses of each A. dactylomelan extract, respectively; 50, 100, 200 mg/kg were administered (i.p.) to male mice for mounting behavior test. Sildenafil citrate or Viagra® (5 mg/kg) being positive control while negative control received saline solution. The animals treated with lipid extract at the respective dose exhibited mounting behavior, but the mounting frequency decreased at higher doses (100 and 200 mg/kg). However, all doses of aqueous extract did not show any mounting behavior. Meanwhile, in all doses of lipid extracts administered displayed significant difference (P<0.05) from the positive control. Despite this, only the lipid extract of 50 mg/kg showed significant difference (P<0.05) with negative control. This signifies that lipid extracts especially in dose 50 mg/kg have a substantial effect of aphrodisiac property. In addition, the presence of steroids was detected in the phytochemical screening of lipid extract. The findings from this study provides preliminary scientific evidence that A. dactylomela could be used as an alternative medication of natural product for promoting sexual activity in men. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Drugs in the Search for a Human Aphrodisiac Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ralph

    1971-01-01

    This article delineates man's search for sexual pleasure through the aid of drugs and other substances. While myths prevail that drugs create the sexual libertine spirit, scientific evidence indicates that no known drug serves as an aphrodisiac. (Author)

  7. In vitro antioxidant potential of selected aphrodisiac medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Riaz, M; Shahid, M; Jamil, A; Saqib, M

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of six selected aphrodisiac medicinal plants. Useful parts of the selected medicinal plants were collected and extracted in methanolic solvent. The antioxidant activity of selected plant extract was determined through different antioxidant assays, namely DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant assay. Moreover, antioxidant compounds, like total phenolics and total flavonoids contents, were also determined. Results showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract displayed high contents of phenolic compounds with total phenolic content of 683.15±4.28 mg GAE/g dry plant material while the least phenolic content was observed in Asparagus racemosus (195.5±3.02 mg GAE/g dry plant material). Highest total flavonoids content was found in Anacyclus pyrethrum roots (156.58±4.01 μg CE/g) and the least content was found in Asparagus racemosus roots. Among the studied plant extracts, the highest radical scavenging activity was shown by Mucuna pruriens seed extract (82.05±0.55%) and the least percent scavenging activity was observed in Tribulus terrestris extract (36.40±2.01%). Vitamin C was used as positive control for antioxidant assays showing 93.54±0.9% radical scavenging activity. The plant extract also exhibited a strong reducing potential against free radicals. Therefore, the present study concluded that all the studied medicinal plants possess varying concentrations of secondary active metabolites responsible for the antioxidant properties of the tested plant extracts.

  8. Assessment of general public perceptions toward traditional medicines used for aphrodisiac purpose in state of Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Farooqui, Maryam; Aljadhey, Hisham; Atif, Muhammad; Masood, Imran

    2012-11-01

    The study aims to evaluate general public perceptions regarding the use of Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) for aphrodisiac purposes. A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Respondents were selected in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 392 respondents were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Chi Square/Fischer Exact tests were used where appropriate. Out of 392 respondents, 150 (38.26%) reported using specific Traditional medicines for aphrodisiac purposes. Most respondents (46.94%) agreed that aphrodisiac medicines were easily available t. Moreover, 40.31% of the respondents reported that traditional aphrodisiac medicines were cheaper than modern (prescription) medicines. This study highlights limited public knowledge regarding the use of traditional aphrodisiac medicine. Healthcare professionals should be aware of informal TCM usage when prescribing allopathic medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  10. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn (Zea mays) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G.; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn (Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to (a) copulating male rats and (b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity. PMID:28508664

  11. Aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of alkaloidal fraction of Hygrophila spinosa T. Ander in rats.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Niraj Y; Raval, Manan A

    2016-12-24

    Seeds of Hygrophila spinosa T. Ander (Acanthaceae) are traditionally used as aphrodisiac and spermatogenic in Indian System of medicine. Preliminary phytochemical screening of plant revealed the presence of alkaloids in seeds. As, alkaloidal fractions of several plants showed aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential, set of experiments were designed to assess alkaloid enriched fraction of seeds of the plant for spermatogenic and aphrodisiac activity using in vitro and in vivo methods. Alkaloid enriched fraction was prepared and assessed for spermatogenic activity using isolated rat Leydig cells in vitro. The fraction was further evaluated in vivo for spermatogenic and aphrodisiac potential using rat as an experimental animal. Increase in weight of reproductive organs, biochemical evaluation of selected parameters, histological studies of testes and sexual behavioral studies were selected as evaluation parameters for in vivo studies. Isolated rat Leydig cells treated with the fraction showed increased amount of testosterone present in culture media (14.7µg/ml) as compared to that of control (0.8µg/ml). Results of in vivo studies showed increase in serum testosterone level in treated animals (50mg/kg) by (115%), increase in weight of testes (8.0%) as compared to control. Marked improvement in testis histo-architecture of rats evident preliminarily by observing overcrowding of spermatozoa in enlarged lumen of seminiferous tubules in animals treated with testosterone and test fraction. Sertoli cells in treated animals were enlarged with highly granulated cytoplasm. Leydig cells also showed enlarged nucleus and darkly stained cytoplasm as compared to control. Mounting behavior of test animals improved, while latency period was decreased, as observed in behavioral studies. The set studies confirmed the ability of the fraction to stimulate Leydig cells and increased serum testosterone level. Increased testosterone level might be responsible for higher number of

  12. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115

  13. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P<0.01), whereas the soil nitrogen and pH also influenced the alkaloid content in fruit (P<0.05). The linear relation between fruit protein and fruit alkaloid (P<0.01) also observed and the relationship in between different soil parameters were established. Bioassay work confirmed its aphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites.

  14. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  15. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  16. Aphrodisiac effect of aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides in sexually impaired rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-05-01

    The phytochemical constituents of the aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch. Ex Bth. and its aphrodisiac activity on male rat sexual behavior and reproductive hormones in paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction were evaluated. The extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and the reference herbal drug PowmaxM (7.14 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to paroxetine-induced sexually impaired male rats, once daily for 5 days, and their sexual behavior parameters were monitored and computed. The serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone) were determined at the end of treatment period. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, phenolics, saponins, and tannins. Mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculatory frequency (EF), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations were reduced significantly (p<0.05) in paroxetine-treated rats. Administration of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous root extract of L. cupanioides significantly (p<0.05) reversed the paroxetine-mediated alterations in MF, IF, EF, mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculatory latency (EL), postejaculatory interval (PEI), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations dose-dependently. The reversal of the male sexual behavior parameters by the extract compared well (p<0.05) with the PowmaxM-treated animals. Data obtained from this study revealed that the aqueous root extract of L. cupanioides restored sexual competence in sexually impaired rats possibly by increasing sexual drive through enhanced reproductive hormones concentration, particularly testosterone, thus supporting the folkloric claim of the plant for the management of sexual disorder in males.

  17. Aphrodisiac Use Associated with HIV Infection in Elderly Male Clients of Low-Cost Commercial Sex Venues in Guangxi, China: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guojian; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongman; Lan, Guanghua; Feng, Xue; Lin, Rui; Abdullah, Abu S.; Wu, Zunyou; Shi, Cynthia X.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi. Methods A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years), number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years), and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection. Findings This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08–3.04), never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08–3.07), and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05–2.98) were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02). Conclusions Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission. PMID:25286369

  18. Aphrodisiac use associated with HIV infection in elderly male clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenzhu; Wu, Xinghua; Li, Guojian; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongman; Lan, Guanghua; Feng, Xue; Lin, Rui; Abdullah, Abu S; Wu, Zunyou; Shi, Cynthia X

    2014-01-01

    Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi. A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years), number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years), and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection. This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08-3.04), never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08-3.07), and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.98) were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02). Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission.

  19. A hormone-related female anti-aphrodisiac signals temporary infertility and causes sexual abstinence to synchronize parental care.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katharina C; Stökl, Johannes; Schweizer, Rebecca; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Ruther, Joachim; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-03-22

    The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the time the current offspring is needy and report that this temporary infertility is communicated via a pheromone to the male partner, where it inhibits copulation. A shared pathway of hormone and pheromone system ensures the reliability of the anti-aphrodisiac. Female infertility and male sexual abstinence provide for the concerted investment of parental resources into the existing developing young. Our study thus contributes to our deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive parental decisions.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative determination of yohimbine in authentic yohimbe bark and in commercial aphrodisiacs by HPLC-UV-API/ MS methods.

    PubMed

    Zanolari, Boris; Ndjoko, Karine; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative method based on an HPLC-UV-MS technique with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation for the analysis of yohimbine in a number of commercial aphrodisiac products is reported. HPLC with multiple-stage mass spectrometry experiments allowed the identification of the target compound and increased the selectivity of complex analyses such as those involved with multi-botanical preparations. The precision and the robustness of the method were improved by the use of two internal standards: codeine for UV detection and deuterium-labelled yohimbine for MS detection. Twenty commercial aphrodisiac preparations were analysed and the amount of yohimbine measured and expressed as the maximal dose per day suggested on product labels ranged from 1.32 to 23.16 mg.

  1. A contact anti-aphrodisiac pheromone supplied by the spermatophore in the rove beetle Aleochara curtula: mode of transfer and evolutionary significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlechter-Helas, Jerry; Schmitt, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    By reducing the attractiveness of their mating partner via an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone, males can prevent a remating of the female and thus reduce the risk of sperm competition. For females, the main benefit from allowing the chemical manipulation of their attractiveness is probably the avoidance of sexual harassments from rival males. While mating plugs generally constitute a physical barrier which hinders male mating attempts, chemical manipulations must trustfully inform the responding male of the female's reluctance to mate; otherwise, it would be beneficial to ignore the repellent information. In our experiments, males of the polyandrous rove beetle Aleochara curtula chemically manipulated the attractiveness of their mating partner. Coincident with the deposition of a spermatophore into the female genital chamber, an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone was transferred and readily spread onto the female surface, where it was subsequently perceived by rival males via parameres, the claspers of the male genitalia. Males aborted contact with the mated female to avoid further time- and energy-consuming elements of the mating sequence. The chemical mode of action was demonstrated inter alia by spicing virgin females with spermatophore extracts. The action of the anti-aphrodisiac correlated with the persistence of the spermatophore in the female genital chamber and corresponded to the length of stay of the mated female at a carcass, where the density of rival males is highest. The ensuing benefits for all three parties involved in this communication system, which render this post-copulatory mate guarding strategy evolutionary stable, are discussed.

  2. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmed; Naughton, Declan P; Petroczi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level.

  3. The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in Blantyre City on sperm characteristics and fertility profile in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Lampiao, F; Matambo, E; Banda, A

    2013-09-01

    Chinese aphrodisiacs have become popular remedy for sexual dysfunction and improvement of libido in men in Malawi. However, selling of these drugs seems not to be well regulated. Probably the aphrodisiacs that are currently on the market have unknown efficacy, potency and safety profiles. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of imported Chinese aphrodisiacs using guinea pigs as a model. Two types of drugs were purchased from vendors in Blantyre City. Tonic tea, which was purported to improve erectile function and libido, and sperm multiplier tablets which were claimed to increase the sperm count. The tonic tea was prepared by soaking one tea bag in 100ml boiling water. The tea was cooled and administered to eight male experimental animals in varying doses. Each animal was introduced into a separate cage with a female guinea pig. Sexual behaviour such as mounting, sniffing behind the female were observed and recorded. Each sperm multiplier tablet was dissolved in distilled water and administered to the experimental animals in the morning and evening for seven days. At the end of the treatment, the experimental and control animals were sacrificed, their semen collected and analysed sperm motility, concentration and morphology. For the tonic tea, there were no statistical differences between the experimental and the control animals in terms of the number of mountings and sniffing behind the female. The sperm multiplier drug showed statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control animals in terms of the sperm motility (78.24 ± 1.35 vs. 86.54 ± 1.88, p< 0.05), and concentration (54.28 ± 1.24 vs. 67.59 ± 2.12, p<0.05). The tonic tea did not show any efficacy in improving erection and libido. The sperm multiplier tablets, purported to increase sperm production, significantly increased the sperm motility, sperm concentration in the treated animals.

  4. MAT, a Novel Polyherbal Aphrodisiac Formulation, Enhances Sexual Function and Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway While Reducing Oxidative Damage in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Akdemir, Fatih; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2018-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus terrestris are known as the enhancers for sexual health, functional activities, vitality, and longevity. These herbs had been widely used in the Ayurveda medicine as aphrodisiacs through the ages, and their efficacy was also verified separately in our previous publication. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of Mucuna, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus complexes on sexual function in rats. Twenty-eight male rats allocated to four groups as follows: (i) negative control (C); (ii) positive control or sildenafil citrate treated group (5 mg/kg) (S); (iii) MAT1 (combination of 10 mg Mucuna (M) + 10 mg Ashwagandha (A) + 10 mg Tribulus (T)/kg BW); (iv) MAT 2 (20 mg Mucuna + 20 mg Ashwagandha + 20 mg Tribulus/kg BW). There was no significant difference found between the MAT1 and MAT2 groups while they showed significantly increased testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels when compared to the negative control. Significant increases in Nrf2/HO1 levels and decreases in NF-κB were detected in MAT groups similar to the decrease in serum and testis malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as compared to both controls. The sperm motility, count, and rate also significantly improved in both MAT groups, while ALT, AST, creatinine, ALP, and urea levels did not change in any of the groups. Oral consumption of MATs combination in male rats resulted in inhibition of NF-κB and MDA and also increased sex hormones with Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction. MAT combinations may improve sexual functions by increasing levels of sexual hormones and regulation of NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. PMID:29853975

  5. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of the seed extract from Allium tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xingli; Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Zhou, Yifeng; Hou, Xilin

    2017-12-01

    Allium tuberosum is a well-known spice as well as a herb in traditional Chinese medicine, used for increasing libido and treating erectile dysfunction. However, not many studies have been done to evaluate the sexual enhancing properties of A. tuberosum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties of A. tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) as well as checking the effect on enhancing male rat sexual behavior, libido, potency as well as its spermatogenic properties. The seeds were powdered and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. Male Wistar rats were administered with graded doses of the n-BuOH extracts (ATB) of A. tuberosum (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. The extract/drug was administered by gastric probe once daily for 45 days and the sexual behavior was analyzed by exposing the male rats to female rats in the estrus period. ATB relaxed corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (68.9%) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The results obtained from the animal studies indicated that ATB significantly increased mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL) and markedly reduced post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount latency (ML), and intromission latency (IL). Furthermore, a remarkable increase in the test for potency was observed as witnessed by marked increase in erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. In addition, ATB significantly improved the sperm viability and count as well as increased the concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and phosphatases in the treated animals. Thus our results suggest that A. tuberosum could stimulate sexual arousal and enhance sexual execution in male rats, thus providing valuable experimental evidence that A. tuberosum possesses sexual enhancing properties.

  6. Action of the hydroethanolic extract of the flowers of Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen on the reproductive performance of Wistar females rats: A popular female aphrodisiac from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Clarice Flexa; de Medeiros Souza Lima, Yuri; Carvalho, Helison Oliveira; Pinto, Rodrigo Costa; Ferreira, Irlon Maciel; Castro, Andres Navarrete; Lima, Clarissa Silva; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2018-03-25

    The species Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen (Asteraceae), popularly known as jambú, is marketed in fairs as a female aphrodisiac and has several pharmacological activities already confirmed, among them the sexual stimulant action. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the oral administration of the hydroethanolic extract of A. oleracea flowers (EHAo) on wistar rats during the pre-mating, mating, and pre-implantation period. During the treatment period, measurements of feed intake, water intake, weight, estrous cycle, behavior, reproductive parameters, biochemical parameters, hematological parameters, and histopathology of ovaries were performed daily. In the gas chromatography analysis - mass spectrometry characterization, the compound (2E, 6Z, 8E) -N-isobutyldeca-2,6,8-trienamide (spilanthol) was detected as the majority compound at the 84% concentration. In the conditions of this study, EHAo did not cause maternal toxicity. However, in the estrous cycle, the frequency of the Proestrous (P) and Estrous (E) phase was significantly increased with the doses of 88.91 and 444.57mg/kg of the EHAo in relation to the control. On the other hand, the metaestrous (M) and diestrous (D) phases showed a significant reduction in their frequency in the groups treated with EHAo. Water intake increased significantly (p < 0.01), as well as the triglyceride levels, the total cholesterol and fractions (p < 0.05), and the percentage of neutrophils (p < 0.05). It is concluded, therefore, that the treatment with EHAo, which is one of the forms popularly used, is safe in the concentrations and time of treatment studied as it is able to influence the estrous cycle without altering folliculogenesis and fertility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, E; Amato, M; Izzo, A A

    2000-08-01

    Ginseng is the root of the perennial herbs of Panax quinquefolium and Panax ginseng which contain a series of tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides) as active ingredients. It is considered a tonic or adaptogenic that enhances physical performance (including sexual), promotes vitality and increases resistance to stress and ageing. The adaptogenic properties of ginseng are believed to be due to its effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in elevated plasma corticotropin and corticosteroids levels. When used appropriately, ginseng appears to be safe. Nevertheless, documented side effects include hypertension, diarrhoea, restlessness, mastalgia and vaginal bleeding.

  8. Asian herbals and aphrodisiacs used for managing ED

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the East, many herbal tonics and preparations are used to assist the aging male improve his sexual drive or ability to perform penetrative sex by increasing sexual stimulation, erectile, ejaculatory, orgasmic and other responses for sexual function and satisfaction. The herbs and tonics act as or as “pick-me-ups” and energizing tonics which help the tired and fatigued male and those with sexual asthenia. The myths and realities concerning Tongkat Ali, sea horse, cobra meat and blood, animal penises and testicles amongst many other herbs and portions for oral intake or local application used by traditional “medical” practitioners and village doctors will be discussed. PMID:28540223

  9. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular tissue. Co-treatment with eTT and α-tocopherol significantly reduced the Cd burden in the testes along with reversal of the Cd-induced changes. Conclusions: eTT exhibited protective effect against Cd-induced testicular damage. The protective effect appears to be mediated through inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation by antioxidant and metal chelator activity and also, may be indirectly by stimulating the testosterone production from Leydig cells. PMID:22022002

  10. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men.

    PubMed

    Neychev, V K; Mitev, V I

    2005-10-03

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on androgen metabolism in young males. Twenty-one healthy young 20-36 years old men with body weight ranging from 60 to 125 kg were randomly separated into three groups-two experimental (each n=7) and a control (placebo) one (n=7). The experimental groups were named TT1 and TT2 and the subjects were assigned to consume 20 and 10 mg/kg body weight per day of Tribulus terrestris extract, respectively, separated into three daily intakes for 4 weeks. Testosterone, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone levels in the serum were measured 24 h before supplementation (clear probe), and at 24, 72, 240, 408 and 576 h from the beginning of the supplementation. There was no significant difference between Tribulus terrestris supplemented groups and controls in the serum testosterone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 15.75+/-1.75 nmol/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 16.32+/-1.57 nmol/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 17.74+/-1.09 nmol/l) (p>0.05)), androstenedione (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 1.927+/-0.126 ng/ml); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 2.026+/-0.256 ng/ml); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 1.952+/-0.236 ng/ml) (p>0.05)) or luteinizing hormone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.662+/-0.274U/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.103+/-0.869U/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 4.170+/-0.406U/l) (p>0.05)) levels. All results were within the normal range. The findings in the current study anticipate that Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins possess neither direct nor indirect androgen-increasing properties. The study will be extended in the clarifying the probable mode of action of Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins.

  11. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    PubMed Central

    Atroch, André Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae) is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage. PMID:18955289

  12. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/117 PMID:20828381

  13. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o.) to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate). Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice. PMID:14567759

  14. A new magnetic nanodiamond/graphene oxide hybrid (Fe3O4@ND@GO) material for pre-concentration and sensitive determination of sildenafil in alleged herbal aphrodisiacs by HPLC-DAD system.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Ulusoy, Halil İbrahim; Demir, Özge; Soylak, Mustafa

    2018-05-01

    A sensitive analytical methodology was investigated to concentrate and determine of sildenafil citrate (SLC) present at trace level in herbal supplementary products. The proposed method is based on simple and sensitive pre-concentration of SLC by using magnetic solid phase extraction with new developed magnetic nanodiamond/graphene oxide hybrid (Fe 3 O 4 @ND@GO) material as a sorbent. Experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency of SLC like; pH, sample volume, eluent type and volume, extraction time and amount of adsorbent were studied and optimized in detail. Determination of sildenafil citrate after magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) was carried out by HPLC-DAD system. The morphology, composition, and properties of the synthesized hybrid material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectrometry (Raman), X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mapping photographs, zeta potential analyzer, and BET surface area analysis. Under optimized conditions, linear range was ranged from 5.00 to 250.00 ng mL -1 with R 2 of 0.9952. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.49 ng mL -1 and the recoveries at two spiked levels were ranged from 94.0 to 104.1% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) < 7.1% (n = 5). The enhancement factor (EF) was 86.9. The results show that the combination MSPE with HPLC-DAD is a suitable and sensitive method for the determination of SLC in real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  16. [Medical mythology and etymologies].

    PubMed

    Albou, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The lecture is an allusion to Sournia's work and his book "Mythologies de la médecine moderne". (P.U.F 1969). The author evokes the origins of medical terms such as psyche, hermaphrodite, nymphomania, aphrodisiac, marcissism, hypnotism, etc.

  17. Deer Velvet

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity (as an aphrodisiac), and treat male sexual performance problems (erectile dysfunction, ED). Women use deer velvet to reduce the dose of ... combinations, deer velvet is used to improve athletic performance; to improve ... reproductive disorders including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), ED, and ...

  18. Pro-sexual and androgen enhancing effects of Tribulus terrestris L.: Fact or Fiction.

    PubMed

    Neychev, Vladimir; Mitev, Vanyo

    2016-02-17

    Historically, aphrodisiacs have had a reputation for making sex more achievable and satisfying. It has been long believed that Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae, possesses aphrodisiac properties purportedly attributed to its ability to influence levels or mimic function of sex hormones. Due to this appealing beliefs, the popularity of medicinal products from TT is expanding at a remarkable pace among consumers who are attempting to enhance their sexual health. However, reliable scientific evidence supporting these purported bioactivities are scant and far from conclusive. To critically analyze and updated the evidence supporting a role for TT as an aphrodisiac and to reappraise the widely believed view of TT as an androgen enhancing botanical supplement. An extensive review of the literature was carried out based on systematic search of major scientific databases (PubMed, Elsevier, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, and Web of Science) for studies of phytochemical, pharmacological and traditional uses of TT published between 1968 and 2015. In addition, the reference lists of the available articles were reviewed and relevant studies including material in journals which are not indexed internationally were reviewed. Analysis of phytochemical and pharmacological studies in humans and animals revealed an important role for TT in treating erectile dysfunction and sexual desire problems; however, empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that this desirable effects are due to androgen enhancing properties of TT is, at best, inconclusive, and analysis of empirical evidence from a comprehensive review of available literature proved this hypothesis wrong. While the mechanisms underlying TT aphrodisiac activity remain largely unknown, there is emerging compelling evidence from experimental studies in animals for possible endothelium and nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms underlying TT aphrodisiac and pro-erectile activities

  19. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  20. Tribulus terrestris-induced severe nephrotoxicity in a young healthy male.

    PubMed

    Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza; Abkhiz, Saeed; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2010-11-01

    Herbal medications are being progressively utilized all over the world. Nevertheless, herbal remedies are not without hazards and several cases of adverse reactions have been described. Tribulus terrestris is traditionally used because of its aphrodisiac and antiurolithiatic activities with almost complete inhibition of stone formation. We report a case of T. terrestris-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in an Iranian male patient who used the plant's extract to prevent kidney stone formation. He presented with seizure and very high serum aminotransferases and creatinine after consuming herbal water for 2 days. Discontinuation of the herbal remedy resulted in improvement in symptoms and normalization of his liver enzymes.

  1. Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick stabilizes biomembrane and rejuvenates sexual competence in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sabiu, S; Ashafa, A O T

    2017-06-09

    Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control. The rats in group 2 were treated with 7.14mg/kg body weight of PowMaxM, while animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered with the extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, respectively). All treatments (1mL) were done once daily for 4 weeks via oral gavaging and their mating behavioural, testicular, spermatogenetic and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. With the exception of the mount, intromission and post ejaculatory latencies that were dose-dependently reduced by the extract, other mating parameters were significantly improved when compared with the control. Similar patterns of significant improvement were also observed on the testes-body weight ratio, quality and viability of sperm cells as well as testicular concentrations of proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leuitenizing hormone and glutathione (reduced) subsequent to treatment with the extract. Although, administration of M. serrata had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the testicular activity of gamma glutamyl transferase, those of lactate dehydrogenase, phosphatases (alkaline and acid), superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) induced in the treated animals. The extract also conferred respective significant (p<0.05) membrane stabilization potential of 66.02% and 60.87% on the BE against hypotonic solution and heat-induced hemolysis relative to 62.14% and 40

  2. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  3. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    PubMed

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  4. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities.

    PubMed

    Bogani, P; Simonini, F; Iriti, M; Rossoni, M; Faoro, F; Poletti, A; Visioli, F

    2006-04-06

    Maca is the edible root of the Peruvian plant Lepidum meyenii, traditionally employed for its purported aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that Maca contains testosterone-like compounds, able to bind the human androgen receptor and promote transcription pathways regulated by steroid hormone signaling. Maca extracts (obtained with different solvents: methanol, ethanol, hexane and chloroform) are not able to regulate GRE (glucocorticoid response element) activation. Further experiments are needed to assess which compound, of the several Maca's components, is responsible of the observed in vivo effects.

  5. The Role of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) Pollen in Fertility: A Comprehensive Review of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tahvilzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-10-01

    Date palm pollen (DPP) is the male reproductive dust of palm flowers used as dietary supplement especially as aphrodisiac and fertility enhancer in both women and men from ancient times. Although there are few clinical trials evaluating the beneficial effects of DPP in humans, various experimental studies have been conducted on the reproductive effects of DPP. Among the compounds isolated from DPP are amino acids, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, and estroles. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of DPP and its application in fertility disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Individual prolactin reactivity modulates response of nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli during acute cannabis intoxication: an fMRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Androvicova, R; Horacek, J; Tintera, J; Hlinka, J; Rydlo, J; Jezova, D; Balikova, M; Hlozek, T; Miksatkova, P; Kuchar, M; Roman, M; Tomicek, P; Tyls, F; Viktorinova, M; Palenicek, T

    2017-07-01

    Self-report studies indicate that cannabis could increase sexual desire in some users. We hypothesized that intoxication increases activation of brain areas responsive to visual erotica, which could be useful in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, a condition marked by a lack of sexual desire. The aim of this study is to assess the aphrodisiacal properties of cannabis. We conducted an open-randomized study with 21 heterosexual casual cannabis users. A 3T MRI was used to measure brain activation in response to erotic pictures. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of cannabinoids, cortisol and prolactin. Participants were grouped according to whether they had ever experienced any aphrodisiacal effects during intoxication (Group A) or not (Group non-A). Intoxication was found to significantly increase activation in the right nucleus accumbens in the Group A while significantly decreasing activation in the Group non-A. There was also a significant interaction between the group and intoxication, with elevated prolactin in the Group non-A during intoxication. No intoxication-related differences in subjective picture evaluations were found. Cannabis intoxication increases activation of the right nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli. This effect is limited to users whose prolactin is not elevated in response to intoxication. This effect may be useful in the treatment of low sexual desire.

  7. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C

    2002-03-01

    According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500 mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2 hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6 hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats.

  8. Phytochemical and cytotoxic evaluation of Medicago monantha: In vivo protective potential in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Khan, Hizb Ullah; Abbas, Mazhar; Iqbal, Munawar; Nazir, Arif

    2018-06-01

    This research focuses on screening and evaluation of bioactive constituents in plants through pharmacological assays. In present study, we evaluated phytochemicals, cytotoxic activity, in vivo effect of M. monantha against CCl 4 induced toxicity in cardiac and renal tissues and its aphrodisiac potential in rats. Shade dried plant was extracted with methanol. The phytochemical screening indicates the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids. Aphrodisiac study showed improved sexual desire; may be attributed to the presence of saponins that boosts the androgen level. Cytotoxicity of the plant was assessed through brine shrimp lethality assay and nearly all the fractions showed promising results. The in vivo study focused on the protective ability of extract against CCl 4 -induced oxidative damage in renal and cardiac tissues of rats. Serum analysis revealed that CCl 4 intoxication increased the levels of bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Antioxidant enzyme analysis showed that catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione activity and protein levels declined due to CCl 4 induced renal and cardiac toxicity. Moreover, the histopathological studies of both low & high dose plant treated group's revealed glomerular hypertrophy and glomerular congestion in kidney, cardiac degeneration and vacuolization of germinal epithelium induced by CCl 4 intoxication. DNA also shows damage showed the toxic nature of the plant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats*

    PubMed Central

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Methods: Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. Results: AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. Conclusions: AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs. PMID:23463768

  10. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats.

    PubMed

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  11. Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder.

    PubMed

    Riley, A J

    1994-01-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid derived mainly from the bark of the African tree, Pausinystalia yohimbe. Although many pharmacological properties of yohimbine have been described, at the plasma concentration attained at recommended dosages in man the predominant activity is antagonism of alpha 2-adrenoceptors. For more than 70 years yohimbine has been used as a treatment for male and female sexual difficulties. It has enjoyed a reputation as an aphrodisiac although no effect on sexual drive in humans has been adequately demonstrated. Yohimbine has been evaluated in the management of erectile disorder by means of placebo-controlled but often poorly designed trials. It does appear to have a modest therapeutic benefit over placebo, particularly in essentially psychogenic erectile disorder, and is generally well tolerated. Yohimbine is not licensed in the UK.

  12. The Aqueous Crude Extracts of Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Reduce Immobility Faster Than Fluoxetine Through GABAA Receptors in Rats Forced to Swim.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Cueto-Escobedo, Jonathan; Flores-Aguilar, Luis Ángel; Rosas-Sánchez, Gilberto Uriel; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora have been indistinctly used for centuries in traditional Mexican medicine for reproductive impairments, anxiety, and mood disorders. Preclinical studies support their aphrodisiac and anxiolytic properties, but their effects on mood are still unexplored. The effects of 25 and 50 mg/kg of M frutescens and M grandiflora extracts were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment, and compared with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and Remotiv (7.14 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The participation of GABA A receptor in the effects produced by the treatments was explored. Montanoa extracts reduced immobility since day 1 of treatment, while fluoxetine and Remotiv required 14 days. The GABA A antagonism blocked the effects of Montanoa extracts, but not of fluoxetine or Remotiv. Montanoa extracts prevented quickly the stress-induced behaviors in the swimming test through action at the GABA A receptor, exerting a protective effect different to the typical antidepressants drugs.

  13. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated. PMID:26009694

  14. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  15. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  16. Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cysts and Primary Infertility by Iranian Traditional Medicine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehdi; Setayesh, Mohammad; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a medical and psychosocial problem with a high prevalence. There are different treatments for this problem in Iranian traditional medicine. A 28-year-old woman presented with the complaints of 4 emergency operations of the left ovarian cyst during 4 years and infertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed an ovarian cyst, adhesion, and endometriosis. Hysteroscopy was unremarkable. After 2 months of letrozole administration, the ovarian cyst ruptured again. Considering the failure of conventional treatments, Iranian traditional medicine products were administered to the patient. After 3 months, the patient conceived and delivered a healthy boy through normal vaginal delivery. These compounds may help with pregnancy as a uterine tonic, vitalizer, and aphrodisiac with brain and cardiac tonic properties. PMID:27932523

  17. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  18. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  19. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ‘curiosity plant’. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date. PMID:23055637

  20. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Ao, Mingzhang; Jin, Wenwen

    2006-04-21

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. The root of Maca is traditionally employed for its supposed properties in aphrodisiacs and improving fertility, it also has been widely used to help alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Maca on postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operated and ovariectomized groups were fed with equivolume of distilled water, and the remaining ovariectomized groups were orally administrated with ethanol extract of Maca at 0.096 and 0.24 g/kg for 28 weeks. The findings derived from the basis of bone mineral density, biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters indicated that higher dose of ethanol extract of Maca was effective in the prevention of estrogen deficient bone loss.

  1. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, Mahbubeh; Memariani, Zahra; Mobli, Masumeh; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species. PMID:24453812

  2. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens.

    PubMed

    Lampariello, Lucia Raffaella; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Guerranti, Roberto; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In addition, anti-oxidant activity of M. pruriens has been also demonstrated in vitro by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this review the medicinal properties of M. pruriens are summarized, taking in consideration the studies that have used the seeds extracts and the leaves extracts.

  3. [Sexuality, heart and chocolate].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Sekoranja, L; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2013-03-20

    All along the history, many kinds of magic and aphrodisiac properties were attributed to the chocolate. Because of the presence of certain active substances, cacao and chocolate are supposed to have some potentially beneficial effects on human health, particularly on cardiovascular system. Containing flavoniods, cacao and its products have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects, as well as influence on insulin sensitivity, vascular endothelial function, and activation of nitric oxide. Other molecules, like methyxantin, biogenic amines and cannabinoid-like fatty acids, may have a psychoactive action. Synergic effect of all these substances could have a positive direct and indirect influence on sexual health and function. Nevertheless, randomized studies are needed to confirm these hypotheses and to elaborate recommendations about cacao consumption.

  4. [Chocolate in some french pharmaceutical or medicinal books from XVIIth, XVIIIth and XIXth centuries. Its beneficent and inconvenient, proved or imaginary, effects].

    PubMed

    Paternotte, Stéphanie; Labrude, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly after its appearance in France, interesting properties were attributed to chocolate and it was used in medicine,often wrongly, to treat digestive, pulmonary, nervous, even infectious diseases, and also for its nutritive and aphrodisiacal capability... But it was already charged with insomnia or constipation. During the XIXth century, chocolate was used as food and as an excipient for dissimulation and transportation of drugs. Medicinal chocolates were essentially nutritive and analeptic, pectoral, stomachic, purgative or anthelmintic. All of them have disappeared today, but the pharmacological interest of chocolate remains with its antidepressive activity and the promising proposes of some of its components. However, chocolate is still considered to be responsible of constipation, headache or pimples...

  5. A review of the potential of medicinal plants in the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Malviya, N; Malviya, S; Jain, S; Vyas, S

    2016-10-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a common disorder that appears to be a consequence of a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Due to mental stress, insufficient physical exercise and various aetiological factors, human being's life is becoming less pleasant, which leads to incapability to have sexual pleasure. The allopathic drugs used for sexual dysfunction are believed to produce a variety of side effects and affect other physiological processes and, ultimately, general health. Therefore, the search for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified probably because of less side effects availability and affordability. Ethnobotanical surveys have indicated a large number of plants traditionally used as aphrodisiacs but only few of them are scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. This article has summarised the medicinal plants traditionally recommended and scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Jamal; Siddique, Khalid M.; Bi, Salma; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2011-01-01

    The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet MuhammadPBUH). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak. PMID:21430961

  7. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens

    PubMed Central

    Lampariello, Lucia Raffaella; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Guerranti, Roberto; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In addition, anti-oxidant activity of M. pruriens has been also demonstrated in vitro by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this review the medicinal properties of M. pruriens are summarized, taking in consideration the studies that have used the seeds extracts and the leaves extracts. PMID:24716148

  8. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  9. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Pholpramool, C

    2008-10-01

    Krachaidum (KD, Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker), a native plant of Southeast Asia, is traditionally used to enhance male sexual function. However, only few scientific data in support of this anecdote have been reported. The present study investigated the effects of feeding three different extracts of KD (alcohol, hexane, and water extracts) for 3-5 weeks on the reproductive organs, the aphrodisiac activity, fertility, sperm motility, and blood flow to the testis of male rats. Sexual performances (mount latency, mount frequency, ejaculatory latency, post-ejaculatory latency) and sperm motility were assessed by a video camera and computer-assisted sperm analysis respectively, while blood flow to the testis was measured by a directional pulsed Doppler flowmeter. The results showed that all extracts of KD had virtually no effect on the reproductive organ weights even after 5 weeks. However, administration of the alcohol extract at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 4 weeks significantly decreased mount and ejaculatory latencies when compared with the control. By contrast, hexane and water extracts had no influence on any sexual behavior parameters. All types of extracts of KD had no effect on fertility or sperm motility. On the other hand, alcohol extract produced a significant increase in blood flow to the testis without affecting the heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. In a separate study, an acute effect of alcohol extract of KD on blood flow to the testis was investigated. Intravenous injection of KD at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg BW caused dose-dependent increases in blood flow to the testis. The results indicate that alcohol extract of KD had an aphrodisiac activity probably via a marked increase in blood flow to the testis.

  10. Documentation and quantitative analysis of the local knowledge on medicinal plants in Kalrayan hills of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, S; Vijayakumar, S; Yabesh, J E Morvin; Ravichandran, K; Sakthivel, B

    2014-11-18

    The aim of the present study was to document the medicinal plants by the traditional medical practitioners from Kalrayan hills of Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. Quantitatively analyses of the data were made to acquire some useful leads for further studies. Successive free listing was the method adopted for the interview. In this study, 54 traditional healer medical practitioners were included and their knowledge on medicinal plants was gathered. The data were assessed with the help of two indices viz., informant consensus factor (Fic) and Informant Agreement on Remedies (IAR). The present survey is in accordance with some of the aspects of our previous surveys. Regarding the demography of the informants, it exhibited unevenness in male-female ratio and majority of the informants were poorly educated. Practicing this system of medicine as part time job by majority of the informants might indicate the reduced social status of this medicinal system. The present study had recorded the usage of 81 species, which in turn yielded 1073 use reports. The major illness category 'aphrodisiac, hair care and endocrinal disorders' hold a high Fic values. Among the other illness categories, gastro-intestinal ailments, genito-urinary ailments and dermatological infection ailments have a high percentage of use reports. Eye ailments, general health, kapha ailments, psychological ailments and skeleton muscular system ailments were the other illness categories with high Fic values. Some of the claims viz., Argyrolobium roseum (aphrodisiac ailments), Rosa brunonii (eye ailments) Hibiscus surattensis (dermatological infections ailments), Bauhinia variegata (neurology Ailments), Cotinus coggygria (circulatory system/cardiovascular ailments) and Uvaria narum (gastro-intestinal ailments) which have relatively high consensus can be taken up for further biomedical studies, since no substantial studies have been conducted on them. Based on the results of our present study, we have

  11. Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum): a review of its botany, ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Zakia; Singh, Ompal; Singh, Rampal; Bhat, Irshad Ul Haq

    2013-11-25

    Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) is an eminent medicinal plant of India and considered as a 'white gold' or 'divya aushad' in Indian systems of medicine. In Ayurveda, Chlorophytum borivilianum belongs to the group of "Vajikaran Rasayana" corroborated to its rejuvenating, aphrodisiac, natural sex tonic properties and effective in alleviating sexual disorders. It is largely used as ethnic medicine by local healers of indigenous communities of India. A thorough bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing worldwide accepted scientific data base (Pub Med, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science), thesis, recognized books, non impact and non indexed journals. Traditionally, Chlorophytum borivilianum is well known for treating male impotency in India. The multi therapeutic and nutritional importance of Chlorophytum borivilianum is attributed to the rich source of phytochemicals particularly saponins. Recently, Chlorophytum borivilianum has gained a well established domestic (Indian) and international market for being the herbal alternative of "Viagra" without any side effects. Under the trade name 'Nai Chetna', the state government of Gujarat, India, has launched a novel potency drug from Chlorophytum borivilianum. Modern pharmacological studies of Chlorophytum borivilianum have demonstrated a wide range of pharmacological activities, most importantly aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. The increased commercial exploitation of Chlorophytum borivilianum and low productivity of this endangered plant has raised the concern over its conservation. It has been envisaged that efforts should be made to standardize, encourage and popularize the cultivation of Chlorophytum borivilianum as a commercial crop. The analysis of previous pharmacological investigations suggested lack of substantial scientific evidences in various studies and do not stand the test of critical assessment. Due to high economic value, Chlorophytum borivilianum has also

  12. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats.

    PubMed

    JianFeng, Cao; PengYing, Zhang; ChengWei, Xu; TaoTao, Huang; YunGui, Bai; KaoShan, Chen

    2012-02-01

    Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p < 0.05). The latencies of mount and intromission were significantly reduced and ejaculation latency was prolonged. Administration of the extract also reduced the post-ejaculatory interval. The standard drug (Viagra) was more effective than the extract. The extract significantly increased the frequencies of all components of penile reflexes as well as serum testosterone levels, compared with the distilled water controls. The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p < 0.05). The latencies of mount and intromission were significantly reduced and ejaculation latency was prolonged. Administration of the extract also reduced the post-ejaculatory interval. The standard drug (Viagra) was more effective than the extract. The extract significantly increased the frequencies of all components of penile reflexes as well as serum testosterone levels, compared with the distilled water controls. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central

  14. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  15. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. PMID:28761827

  16. Process standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura.

    PubMed

    Gokarn, Rohit A; Gokarn, Supriya R; Hiremath, Shobha G

    2014-01-01

    Rajata Sindura (RS) is a mercurial preparation, known for its properties like Rasayana (rejuvinating), Balya (strengthening), Vrushya (aphrodisiac), Medhya (increasing intellect) and can cure various diseases when used with appropriate adjuvant. It is prepared with Hingulottha Parada (purified mercury), Shuddha Gandhaka (purified sulfur) and Shuddha Rajata (purified silver) in a proportion of 1:1:4. Process standardization and characterization of RS are not reported until date. Pharmaceutical standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura. Purified mercury and silver were triturated to form amalgam, followed by the addition of purified sulfur to prepare Kajjali and lavigated with Vatankura (leaf buds of Ficus benghalensis Linn.) swarasa (juice). This Kajjali was processed by Kupipakwa method. RS was prepared in 33 h with 20.25% yield. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis has shown Mercury 86.21%, sulfur 13.27% as major elements; iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and silver were other detected minor elements. X-ray diffraction report revealed the chemical nature of RS as HgS compound, having cubic crystal structure.

  17. Impacts of biological globalization in the Mediterranean: Unveiling the deep history of human-mediated gamebird dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Forcina, Giovanni; Guerrini, Monica; van Grouw, Hein; Gupta, Brij K.; Panayides, Panicos; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Al-Sheikhly, Omar F.; Awan, Muhammad N.; Khan, Aleem A.; Zeder, Melinda A.; Barbanera, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a long history of moving wildlife that over time has resulted in unprecedented biotic homogenization. It is, as a result, often unclear whether certain taxa are native to a region or naturalized, and how the history of human involvement in species dispersal has shaped present-day biodiversity. Although currently an eastern Palaearctic galliform, the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) was known to occur in the western Mediterranean from at least the time of Pliny the Elder, if not earlier. During Medieval times and the Renaissance, the black francolin was a courtly gamebird prized not only for its flavor, but also its curative, and even aphrodisiac qualities. There is uncertainty, however, whether this important gamebird was native or introduced to the region and, if the latter, what the source of introduction into the western Mediterranean was. Here we combine historical documentation with a DNA investigation of modern birds and archival (13th–20th century) specimens from across the species’ current and historically documented range. Our study proves the black francolin was nonnative to the western Mediterranean, and we document its introduction from the east via several trade routes, some reaching as far as South Asia. This finding provides insight into the reach and scope of long-distance trade routes that serviced the demand of European aristocracy for exotic species as symbols of wealth and prestige, and helps to demonstrate the lasting impact of human-mediated long-distance species dispersal on current day biodiversity. PMID:25733899

  18. RNA-Seq mediated root transcriptome analysis of Chlorophytum borivilianum for identification of genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Kalra, Shikha; Singh, Baljinder; Kumar, Avneesh; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important species of liliaceae family, owing to its vital medicinal properties. Plant roots are used for aphrodisiac, adaptogen, anti-aging, health-restorative and health-promoting purposes. Saponins, are considered to be the principal bioactive components responsible for the wide variety of pharmacological properties of this plant. In the present study, we have performed de novo root transcriptome sequencing of C. borivilianum using Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform, to gain molecular insight into saponins biosynthesis. A total of 33,963,356 high-quality reads were obtained after quality filtration. Sequences were assembled using various programs which generated 97,344 transcripts with a size range of 100-5,216 bp and N50 value of 342. Data was analyzed against non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), and enzyme commission (EC) databases. All the genes involved in saponins biosynthesis along with five full-length genes namely farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, cycloartenol synthase, β-amyrin synthase, cytochrome p450, and sterol-3-glucosyltransferase were identified. Read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM)-based comparative expression profiling was done to study the differential regulation of the genes. In silico expression analysis of seven selected genes of saponin biosynthetic pathway was validated by qRT-PCR.

  19. It's All in the Mix: Blend-Specific Behavioral Response to a Sexual Pheromone in a Butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Eriksson, Kerstin; Liblikas I, Ilme; Wiklund, Christer; Borg-Karlson, Anna K.; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas; Carlsson, Mikael A.

    2016-01-01

    Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioral response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer) and neral (Z-isomer) in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behavior, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca2+ imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to, for example, plant-related compounds, i.e., no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time. PMID:26973536

  20. Testicular effects of sub-chronic administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx aqueous extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Husaini, Danladi Chiroma; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The sub-chronic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calyx aqueous extract on the rat testes was investigated with a view to evaluate the pharmacological basis for the use of HS calyx extract as an aphrodisiac. Three test groups received different doses of 1.15, 2.30, and 4.60 g/kg based on the LD(50). The extracts were dissolved in the drinking water. The control group was given equivalent volume of water only. The animals were allowed free access to drinking solution during the 12-week period of exposure. At the expiration of the treatment period, animals were sacrificed, testes excised and weighed, and epididymal sperm number recorded. The testes were processed for histological examination. Results did not show any significant (P>0.05) change in the absolute and relative testicular weights. There was, however, a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the epididymal sperm counts in the 4.6 g/kg group, compared to the control. The 1.15 g/kg dose group showed distortion of tubules and a disruption of normal epithelial organization, while the 2.3 g/kg dose showed hyperplasia of testis with thickening of the basement membrane. The 4.6 g/kg dose group, on the other hand, showed disintegration of sperm cells. The results indicate that aqueous HS calyx extract induces testicular toxicity in rats.

  1. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and its anthocyanins on some reproductive aspects in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumyia; Ziada, Amal; Al Salam, Suhail; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Blunden, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a common beverage in many parts of the world. Reports on its effect on reproduction are conflicting, with anecdotal evidence that the plant is an aphrodisiac, while others report that it is estrogenic, and adversely affects spermatogenesis in rats. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces (10%, 15% and 20%) used as drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks, and its anthocyanins (50, 100, 200 mg/kg for 5 days, orally) on the weight and histology of the testis, and on some biochemical constituents in testicular homogenates, in addition to the plasma concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol. The possible presence of an estrogenic effect of the extract and anthocyanins on the uteri of immature female rats was also tested. Neither the H. sabdariffa extract nor the anthocyanins significantly altered either testicular weight and histology, or uterus weight. Plasma concentrations of the three hormones studied, the testicular concentrations of protein, reduced glutathione and total cholesterol, and superoxide dismutase activity were all insignificantly affected by either the extract or the anthocyanins, except for a slight, but statistically significant, decrease in testicular protein concentration caused by the 15% aqueous extract when compared with controls. These results suggest that H. sabdariffa exerts no adverse effect on the male reproductive system. Consumption of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract inhibited the growth of the rats compared with the controls.

  2. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk).

    PubMed

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-11-01

    Purwoceng ( Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus , Escherichia coli , and MG42 bacterial isolate.

  3. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    PubMed

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  4. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study.

    PubMed

    Akhtari, Elham; Raisi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Hosseini, Hamed; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghobadi, Ali

    2014-04-28

    Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.

  5. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  6. Histopathological changes in Poecilia latipinna male gonad due to Tribulus terrestris administration.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Subramanian, P

    2012-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is a traditionally known non-toxic aphrodisiac herb for maleness. It was experimented recently to understand the effect and mechanism on mono sex production in Poecilia latipinna. It would help to develop a new eco-friendly way to masculinize P. latipinna, since males have higher commercial value than females. The different concentration (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/L) of T. terrestris extract and a control were tested for their effect on sex transformation/reversal in P. latipinna by immersing the newly born young ones in the respective concentrations for 2 mo. The obtained results indicate that a dose dependant masculinization is obtained due to T. terrestris administration, which improved the male proportion. Histological results revealed that the testes of fish treated with T. terrestris extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis, clearly demonstrating that the administration of T. terrestris extract to P. latipinna stimulated spermatogenesis. Thus, it is discernible that 0-d-old hatchlings of P. latipinna exposed to T. terrestris extract orient/reverse their sex more towards maleness besides yielding better growth and spermatogenesis which is a mandate for fancy fish industry.

  7. Erythropoietic activity of Asteracantha longifolia (Nees.) in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Jain, Alok Pal; Lodhi, Santram; Singhai, Abhay K

    2010-05-27

    Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (Family-Acanthaceae) is a wild herb commonly used in traditional ayurvedic medicine as Kokilaaksha and the Unani drug as Talimakhana in India and Srilanka for various medicinal uses as aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative and blood diseases etc. The aim of the current study was to validate and explore the folk use of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (AL) (Leaf part) on pharmacological grounds using haloperidol induced iron deficiency anemia for the assessment of erythropoietic activity. Determination of iron in plant extracts was carried out using spectrophotometric method. Plant extract was obtained from crude drugs using extraction with ethanol. In vivo study, haloperidol induced iron deficiency anemia model was used in experimental studies. An administration of ethanolic extract of AL at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight, i.p., demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) increase in erythrocyte count, haemoglobin count, serum iron and serum protein etc. This effect may be due to the presence of iron (622 microg/50 mg) in extract estimated by spectrophotometric method. An ethanolic extract of AL effectively restored the hematological parameters, serum iron and serum protein and normalized the microcytic (smaller in size), anisocytosis (disturbed shape) and hypochromic RBCs. These observations could justify the inclusion of this plant in the management of iron deficiency anemia due the presence of iron and other constituents as flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, lupeol and betulin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Explant Position on Growth of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. Adventitious Root in Solid Medium and Enhance Production Biomass in Balloon Type Bubble Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solim, M. H.; Kristanti, A. N.; Manuhara, Y. S. W.

    2017-03-01

    Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. is one of traditional medicinal plant in Indonesia as an aphrodisiac. This plant has various compounds which is accumulated in roots. In vitro culture of this plant can enhance production of adventitious roots. The aim of this research was to know the influence of explants position on growth of T. paniculatum Gaertn. adventitious root in MS solid medium and enhance the production of biomass in balloon type bubble bioreactor. Explants from leaf were cultured at abaxial and adaxial positions in solid MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1. Adventitious roots were cultured in bioreactor with various treatments (without IBA, supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 and supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3). Result showed that the main growth of abaxial root was higher than adaxial, however, the total of adaxial root branch was higher than abaxial. The highest biomass production of adventitious root cultured was achieved by MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3. This treatment has produced fresh biomass two fold of initial inoculum.

  9. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  10. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for standardisation of ingredients of an ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puspendra; Jha, Shivesh; Naved, Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of diagnostic characters of each ingredient of Shatavaryadi churna individually was carried out. Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of area, length and breadth of identifying characters were performed using Leica DMLS-2 microscope. The method was validated for intraday precision, linearity, specificity, repeatability, accuracy and system suitability, respectively. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate, and can be used for routine standardisation of raw materials of herbal drugs. This method gives the ratio of individual ingredients in the powdered drug so that any adulteration of genuine drug with its adulterant can be found out. The method shows very good linearity value between 0.988-0.999 for number of identifying character and area of identifying character. Percentage purity of the sample drug can be determined by using the linear equation of standard genuine drug.

  11. Mating in the Closest Living Relatives of Animals Is Induced by a Bacterial Chondroitinase.

    PubMed

    Woznica, Arielle; Gerdt, Joseph P; Hulett, Ryan E; Clardy, Jon; King, Nicole

    2017-09-07

    We serendipitously discovered that the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri induces sexual reproduction in one of the closest living relatives of animals, the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta. Although bacteria influence everything from nutrition and metabolism to cell biology and development in eukaryotes, bacterial regulation of eukaryotic mating was unexpected. Here, we show that a single V. fischeri protein, the previously uncharacterized EroS, fully recapitulates the aphrodisiac-like activity of live V. fischeri. EroS is a chondroitin lyase; although its substrate, chondroitin sulfate, was previously thought to be an animal synapomorphy, we demonstrate that S. rosetta produces chondroitin sulfate and thus extend the ancestry of this important glycosaminoglycan to the premetazoan era. Finally, we show that V. fischeri, purified EroS, and other bacterial chondroitin lyases induce S. rosetta mating at environmentally relevant concentrations, suggesting that bacteria likely regulate choanoflagellate mating in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P < 0.05 for both). However, patients taking Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P < 0.001). Both Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P < 0.05). However, only Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data support a small but significant effect of Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED.

  13. Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances--an overview.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Musharof

    2011-03-01

    Orchids have been used as a source of medicine for millennia to treat different diseases and ailments including tuberculosis, paralysis, stomach disorders, chest pain, arthritis, syphilis, jaundice, cholera, acidity, eczema, tumour, piles, boils, inflammations, menstrual disorder, spermatorrhea, leucoderma, diahorrhea, muscular pain, blood dysentery, hepatitis, dyspepsia, bone fractures, rheumatism, asthma, malaria, earache, sexually transmitted diseases, wounds and sores. Besides, many orchidaceous preparations are used as emetic, purgative, aphrodisiac, vermifuge, bronchodilator, sex stimulator, contraceptive, cooling agent and remedies in scorpion sting and snake bite. Some of the preparations are supposed to have miraculous curative properties but rare scientific demonstration available which is a primary requirement for clinical implementations. Incredible diversity, high alkaloids and glycosides content, research on orchids is full of potential. Meanwhile, some novel compounds and drugs, both in phytochemical and pharmacological point of view have been reported from orchids. Linking of the indigenous knowledge to the modern research activities will help to discover new drugs much more effective than contemporary synthetic medicines. The present study reviews the traditional therapeutic uses of orchids with its recent advances in pharmacological investigations that would be a useful reference for plant drug researches, especially in orchids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parasympathomimetic effect of shilajit accounts for relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sarabjeet; Kumar, Pravin; Kumar, Deo; Kharya, M D; Singh, Nityanand

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an enhancement of central cholinergic signal cascade by shilajit. For the present study, it was hypothesized that parasympathomimetic effect of shilajit accounting for relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum may be one of the major mechanisms attributing to its traditional role as an aphrodisiac. To test this hypothesis, the acute peripheral effect of standard acetylcholine (ACh), shilajit, and their combination was evaluated on cardiorespiratory parameters such as mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Furthermore, in vitro effect of standard ACh, shilajit, and their combination was tested on the rat corpus cavernosum. Six groups were used for the in vivo study (N = 5): Group I (control-saline), Group II (ACh), Group III (Sh), Group IV (Sh followed by ACh), Group V (Atropine followed by ACh), and Group VI (Atropine followed by Sh). The in vitro study included four groups: Group I (control-saline), Group II (ACh), Group III (Sh), and Group IV (Sh followed by ACh). The results of the in vivo study confirmed the peripheral parasympathomimetic effect of shilajit (400 µg/mL). The in vitro results revealed that shilajit (400 and 800 µg/mL) relaxed cavernous strips' concentration dependently and enhanced ACh-mediated relaxations. The peripheral parasympathomimetic effects of shilajit were confirmed by blockade of shilajit-induced relaxations (in vitro) and shilajit-induced lowering of MABP and HR (in vivo) by atropine.

  15. The neuropeptide tachykinin is essential for pheromone detection in a gustatory neural circuit

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Shruti; Chua, Jia Yi; Tan, Kah Junn; Calvert, Meredith EK; Weng, Ruifen; Ng, Wan Chin; Mori, Kenji; Yew, Joanne Y

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory pheromones play an essential role in shaping the behavior of many organisms. However, little is known about the processing of taste pheromones in higher order brain centers. Here, we describe a male-specific gustatory circuit in Drosophila that underlies the detection of the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone (3R,11Z,19Z)-3-acetoxy-11,19-octacosadien-1-ol (CH503). Using behavioral analysis, genetic manipulation, and live calcium imaging, we show that Gr68a-expressing neurons on the forelegs of male flies exhibit a sexually dimorphic physiological response to the pheromone and relay information to the central brain via peptidergic neurons. The release of tachykinin from 8 to 10 cells within the subesophageal zone is required for the pheromone-triggered courtship suppression. Taken together, this work describes a neuropeptide-modulated central brain circuit that underlies the programmed behavioral response to a gustatory sex pheromone. These results will allow further examination of the molecular basis by which innate behaviors are modulated by gustatory cues and physiological state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06914.001 PMID:26083710

  16. Impacts of biological globalization in the Mediterranean: unveiling the deep history of human-mediated gamebird dispersal.

    PubMed

    Forcina, Giovanni; Guerrini, Monica; van Grouw, Hein; Gupta, Brij K; Panayides, Panicos; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Al-Sheikhly, Omar F; Awan, Muhammad N; Khan, Aleem A; Zeder, Melinda A; Barbanera, Filippo

    2015-03-17

    Humans have a long history of moving wildlife that over time has resulted in unprecedented biotic homogenization. It is, as a result, often unclear whether certain taxa are native to a region or naturalized, and how the history of human involvement in species dispersal has shaped present-day biodiversity. Although currently an eastern Palaearctic galliform, the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) was known to occur in the western Mediterranean from at least the time of Pliny the Elder, if not earlier. During Medieval times and the Renaissance, the black francolin was a courtly gamebird prized not only for its flavor, but also its curative, and even aphrodisiac qualities. There is uncertainty, however, whether this important gamebird was native or introduced to the region and, if the latter, what the source of introduction into the western Mediterranean was. Here we combine historical documentation with a DNA investigation of modern birds and archival (13th-20th century) specimens from across the species' current and historically documented range. Our study proves the black francolin was nonnative to the western Mediterranean, and we document its introduction from the east via several trade routes, some reaching as far as South Asia. This finding provides insight into the reach and scope of long-distance trade routes that serviced the demand of European aristocracy for exotic species as symbols of wealth and prestige, and helps to demonstrate the lasting impact of human-mediated long-distance species dispersal on current day biodiversity.

  17. [Methaemoglobinaemia and respiratory tract irritation connected with poppers inhalation].

    PubMed

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Eryk

    2010-01-01

    "Poppers" is the street name for volatile nitrites offered by online shops and sex-shops for their aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. Although nitrites have been abused since the late 1960s, recently they became popular in Poland. Recreational poppers using was associated with homosexual men at first. Currently they are commonly reported among heterosexual men and regular dicso participants. Advertisements of these substances tempt potential buyers with the promise of a legal narcotic high. Easy access and the sense of safety make these products the reason of acute toxicity. Volatile nitrites relaxes smooth muscle, the consequent intense peripheral vasodilatation produces flushing, a fall in blood pressure, and reflex increase in heart rate. These effects are accompanied by feeling of warmth, euphoria and intensifying of sexual pleasure. Serious poisoning results in severe methaemoglobinaemia, coma, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and even death. Skin and mucous contact with poppers can produce a crusty lesion at the site. This article presents the case of 44-years old male hospitalized three times in Toxicology Department after history of poppers abusing. Methaemoglobinaemia (26.4%) and tracheobronchial irritation were the main symptoms observed. Patient was given specific therapy with methylene blue.

  18. [Poisoning with "poppers", a rare cause of methemoglobinemia observed in emergency cases].

    PubMed

    Staïkowsky, F; Perret, A; Péviriéri, F; Zanker, C; Zerkak, D; Pelloux, P; Danhiez, F

    1997-10-04

    Methemoglobulinemia should be entertained as a differential diagnosis in patients with cyanosis. Recently in France there has been an increase in the number of cases of acquired methemoglobulinemia due to inhalation of poppers. Four patients were admitted to the emergency room of a Paris hospital in a state of unconsciousness with cyanosis. All four patients had inhaled poppers shortly before admission. The clinical course was rapidly favorable after intravenous infusion of methylene blue in 3 cases. Poppers are inorganic aliphatic nitrites used for their relaxing effect on smooth muscle and for their aphrodisiac effect. One poorly recognized effect is the development of methemoglobulinemia. Tissue hypoxia results because methemoglobulin cannot bind oxygen, leading to a brown or blue coloration of the blood. Methemoglobulin usually results from exposure to a wide variety of oxidizing compounds including certain drugs. Methylene blue is the specific treatment for symptomatic methemoglobulinemia. These four cases emphasize the toxic effect of products sold in sex shops and calls attention to the life-threatening risks involved.

  19. New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Muhammad, Ilias; Dunbar, D Chuck; Mustafa, Jamal; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-02-09

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) has been used as a food in Peru for thousands of years. More recently a wide array of commercial maca products have gained popularity as dietary supplements, with claims of anabolic and aphrodisiac effects, although the biologically active principles are not fully known. In an earlier chemical investigation, two new alkamides and a novel fatty acid, as well as the N-hydroxypyridine derivative, macaridine, were isolated from L. meyenii. Further examination has led to the isolation of five additional new alkamides, namely, N-benzyl-9-oxo-12Z-octadecenamide (1), N-benzyl-9-oxo-12Z,15Z-octadecadienamide (2), N-benzyl-13-oxo-9E,11E-octadecadienamide (3), N-benzyl-15Z-tetracosenamide (4), and N-(m-methoxybenzyl)hexadecanamide (5). Their structures were established by spectrometric and spectroscopic methods including ESI-HRMS, EI-MS, (1)H, (13)C, and 2D NMR, as well as (1)H-(15)N 2D HMBC experiments. In addition, the identity of N-benzyl-15Z-tetracosenamide (4) was confirmed by synthesis. These compounds have been found from only L. meyenii and could be used as markers for authentication and standardization.

  20. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-03-25

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs.

  1. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    PubMed Central

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  2. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  3. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojia; Toyohira, Yumiko; Horisita, Takafumi; Satoh, Noriaki; Takahashi, Keita; Zhang, Han; Iinuma, Munekazu; Yoshinaga, Yukari; Ueno, Susumu; Tsutsui, Masato; Sata, Takeyoshi; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2015-12-01

    Ikarisoside A is a natural flavonol glycoside derived from plants of the genus Epimedium, which have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as tonics, antirheumatics, and aphrodisiacs. Here, we report the effects of ikarisoside A and three other flavonol glycosides on catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that ikarisoside A (1-100 μM), but not icariin, epimedin C, or epimedoside A, concentration-dependently inhibited the secretion of catecholamines induced by acetylcholine, a physiological secretagogue and agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Ikarisoside A had little effect on catecholamine secretion induced by veratridine and 56 mM K(+). Ikarisoside A (1-100 μM) also inhibited (22)Na(+) influx and (45)Ca(2+) influx induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner similar to that of catecholamine secretion. In Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ikarisoside A (0.1-100 μM) directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine. It also suppressed (14)C-catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by acetylcholine at 1-100 μM and 10-100 μM, respectively. The present findings suggest that ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

  5. Wound healing activity of Argyreia nervosa leaves extract

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, AK; Gupta, H; Bhati, VS

    2011-01-01

    Background: Argyreia nervosa (Convolvulaceae) plant is an example of hallucinogenic plant. The antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant. Aim: The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in normal and diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of leaves. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various biochemicals (alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, saponins, steroids, tannins). A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.5) was administered to produce diabetes in rats and mice, after overnight fasting. Excision wounds (sized 300 mm2 and of 2 mm depth) were used for the study of rate of contraction of wound and epithelization. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervalswere compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnet's test. Results: Extracts of A. nervosa showed significant wound healing effect in normal (topically treated) and diabetic (both topically and orally treated) rats. In diabetic rats, the topically treated group showed more significant effect than the orally treated groups. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that A. nervosa leaves extract applied topically promotes healing of wounds more significantly as compared to oral application, in both normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats, where healing is otherwise delayed. PMID:23776770

  6. The effects of Mucuna pruriens extract on histopathological and biochemical features in the rat model of ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Vanishri S; Kumar, Nitesh; D'Souza, Antony S; Nayak, Sunil S; Cheruku, Sri P; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2017-12-13

    Stroke is considered to be one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Global ischemia causes widespread brain injury and infarctions in various regions of the brain. Oxidative stress can be considered an important factor in the development of tissue damage, which is caused because of arterial occlusion with subsequent reperfusion. Kapikacchu or Mucuna pruriens, commonly known as velvet bean, is well known for its aphrodisiac activities. It is also used in the treatment of snakebites, depressive neurosis, and Parkinson's disease. Although this plant has different pharmacological actions, its neuroprotective activity has received minimal attention. Thus, this study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the neuroprotective action of M. pruriens in bilateral carotid artery occlusion-induced global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats. The carotid arteries of both sides were occluded for 30 min and reperfused to induce global cerebral ischemia. The methanolic plant extract was administered to the study animals for 10 days. The brains of the Wistar rats were isolated by decapitation and observed for histopathological and biochemical changes. Cerebral ischemia resulted in significant neurological damage in the brains of the rats that were not treated by M. pruriens. The group subjected to treatment by the M. pruriens extract showed significant protection against brain damage compared with the negative control group, which indicates the therapeutic potential of this plant in ischemia.

  7. Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation.

    PubMed

    Pulikkalpura, Haridas; Kurup, Rajani; Mathew, Paravanparampil Jacob; Baby, Sabulal

    2015-06-09

    Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.). High and low L-dopa yielding genotypes/chemotypes of M. pruriens could be multiplied for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. HPTLC profiles of M. pruriens seeds on repeated extraction (24 h) in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol followed by development in butanol:acetic acid:water (4:1:1, v/v) showed consistent degradation of L-dopa (Rf 0.34 ± 0.02) into a second peak (Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). An average of 52.11% degradation of L-dopa was found in seeds of M. pruriens varieties. Since M. pruriens seeds and/or L-dopa are used for treatment of Parkinson's disease and as an aphrodisiac both in modern and/or traditional systems of medicine, the finding of high level of L-dopa degradation (in pure form and in M. pruriens extracts) into damaging quinones and ROS is very significant.

  8. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

  9. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  10. Quality variations in black musli (curculigo orchioides gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Mathew, P P Joy Samuel; Savithri, K E; Skaria, Baby P; Kurien, Kochurani

    2004-07-01

    Black musli (Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.) one of the ayurvedic dasapushpa and a rejuvenating and aphrodisiac drug. Is on the verge of extinction and needs to be conserved and cultivated. Large variations are also observed in the quality of the crude drug available in the market. Study on the quality of C. orchioides in natural habitat, under cultivation and in trade in south India showed that there was considerable variation with biotypes and habitats. Drugs collected form the natural habitat was superior in quality to that produced by cultivation. Among the market samples collected from the various Zones of kerala, those from the High Ranges were superior in most of the quality parameters, which indicated its superiority for high quality drug formulation. Among the southern states, Tamil Nadu samples ranked next to High Range samples in this respect. There exists large variability in the market samples and there is felt-need for proper standardization of the crude drug for ensuring quality in the drug formulations.

  11. Ginger From Ancient Times to the New Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believed that ginger was a vermifuge as well as a remedy for paralysis and obstructive jaundice. They also revealed that this phytomedicine cures diarrhea due to corrupted food. This study aimed to compare the medicinal properties (afaal) of ginger in ITM with those indicated in modern research. Results: Results of this study showed that the modern phytotherapy confirmed some of the properties of ginger. In addition, some of the properties of this phytomedicine have not been studied yet. Conclusions: By studding the ITM literature, herb elements or in other words ITM keywords, researchers can predict and state some unknown or less known potential pharmacologic effects of medicinal plants. PMID:25866718

  12. Ginger from ancient times to the new outlook.

    PubMed

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-02-01

    Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believed that ginger was a vermifuge as well as a remedy for paralysis and obstructive jaundice. They also revealed that this phytomedicine cures diarrhea due to corrupted food. This study aimed to compare the medicinal properties (afaal) of ginger in ITM with those indicated in modern research. Results of this study showed that the modern phytotherapy confirmed some of the properties of ginger. In addition, some of the properties of this phytomedicine have not been studied yet. By studding the ITM literature, herb elements or in other words ITM keywords, researchers can predict and state some unknown or less known potential pharmacologic effects of medicinal plants.

  13. Is the use of plants in Jordanian folk medicine for the treatment of male sexual dysfunction scientifically based? Review of in vitro and in vivo human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Abbas, M A

    2017-04-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a serious problem which has an impact on the quality of life. In Jordanian folk medicine, 56 plant species were reported to be used by males to improve sexual potency and as aphrodisiacs. The aim of this study was to search for scientific evidence justifying their folk use. Of the 15 studied plants, only five were found to enhance spermatogenesis. The other 10 were reported to decrease spermatogenesis at least by one study. The majority of the studied plants possessed a protective effect on testis in different in vivo models as well as antioxidant activities. The effect of these plants on steroidogenesis and the hypothalamic-gonadal axis was also reviewed. The effect of only five plants was studied on sexual behaviour enhancement and three of them were active. Three of the four studied plants enhanced erection. The mechanism of action of active constituents isolated from the studied plants was also investigated. In conclusion, many plants used in Jordanian folk medicine decreased or had no effect on spermatogenesis in animal models. These plants have antioxidant and/or adaptogenic effects, and this may result in a beneficial action on male reproductive system. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. A Review on Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V. K.; Thakur, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction. PMID:25215296

  15. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims.

  16. Melatonin: the dark force.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, W H; Hakanson, D O

    1998-01-01

    Although the pineal gland was described 2,300 years ago, its functions remained obscure and productive research was limited until 1958, when Lerner and associates defined melatonin. In 1965 Wurtman and Axelrod advanced the "melatonin hypothesis," according to which the pineal gland acts as a transducer responding to changes in circumambient light by changing its rates of melatonin output. Sites and mechanisms of melatonin action are still poorly understood. Two consistent effects are the induction of sleep and an antigonadotropic influence on reproductive structure and behavior. The former is demonstrable and clinically useful in human subjects; the latter has been shown in birds, rodents, and sheep. Alteration of skin color by the contraction of melanophores was effected by pineal extracts before the discovery of melatonin. This phenomenon, seen in reptiles, amphibians, and fish, has received little recent attention. Areas of greater interest and potential importance include the antimitotic effects of melatonin on some types of tumor cells in culture and the apparent in vivo protection of immunocompetent lymphocytes during chronic stress, which reduces the functional capacity of lymphocytes in control rodents. Clinical application of the antimitotic and immunosupportive properties of melatonin seems likely in the near future. Unfortunately, this innocent molecule has been touted in two recent books and many advertisements as an aphrodisiac, rejuvenator, protector against disease, and general wonder-worker. Because interest in melatonin is high, all physicians can expect questions and may have use for the information provided in this review.

  17. Penile erection responses of Nigella sativa seed extract on isolated rat corpus cavernosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminyoto, M.; Ismail, S.

    2018-04-01

    Nigella sativa L. (NS) from Ranunculaceae family is known as black cumin in Indonesia. The seed has been used as an aphrodisiac in ethnobotanical studies and reported to have pharmacological activities such as antihypertensive through the relaxant effect of vascular smooth muscles but the direct effect to the blood vessels of the corpus cavernosum is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of NS seed extract on penile erection in vitro. NS seeds were macerated in ethanol solvent for three days in room temperature and repeated for two times. Penile erection responses was assessed using isolated rat corpus cavernosum in Krebs-Henseleit solution, temperature 37°C, pH 7.4, aerated with carbogen gas. After acclimation, corpus cavernosum was contracted with a phenylephrine solution. Ethanolic extract of NS seeds or control solution were given after reaching the plateu phase of the highest contraction. This study showed that the contraction response of the corpus cavernosum decreased after addition of NS extract and this action was increased with the addition of the extract concentration. This study concluded that NS seed ethanol extract affects the penile erection response directly through the relaxation of blood vessels in the corpus cavernosum.

  18. Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf of Cordia macleodii Hook., An ethnomedicinally important plant.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Bhargav; Pillai, A P G; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-04-01

    Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study.

  19. Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf of Cordia macleodii Hook., An ethnomedicinally important plant

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, Bhargav; Pillai, A. P. G.; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study. PMID:22408312

  20. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-05-12

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  1. Effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, M. S.; Yuliani, S.; Sari, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Nutmeg is dried kernel of broadly ovoid seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt. It has been mentioned in ethnomedical literature as aphrodisiac, stomachic, carminative, tonic, and nervous stimulant. In order to establish the safety of nutmeg, the effect of the repeated administration of nutmeg is needed. The study was aimed to determine the toxic effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat. A total of 28 male adult Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I as control was given by 0.5% CMC-suspension, group II, III, and IV were given by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively, of nutmeg ethanolic extract. The treatments were administered daily for 31 days. On day 31 bloods were taken from orbital sinus. The hematological parameter consisted of the numbers of erythrocyte and leukocyte as well as hemoglobin and total protein levels were measured. The data were statistically analyzed by one way Anova followed by LSD test. All of observed hematological parameters in rats showed that there were no significant difference between the nutmeg ethanolic extract treated groups and control group. The result indicated that the subchronic administration of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw of nutmeg ethanolic extract did not cause the change of hematological parameters in rat.

  2. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

  3. Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, A A; Newaz, M; Hercule, H; Saleh, M; Bode, C O; Oyekan, A O

    2003-12-01

    The bark of the African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe has been used as a food additive with aphrodisiac and penile erection enhancing properties. The effect of an aqueous extract of P. yohimbe (CCD-X) on renal circulation was assessed in order to test the hypothesis that it possesses additional effects on nitric oxide production and/or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-like actions. In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001). Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA). These preliminary observations indicate that, in addition to the alpha-adrenergic antagonist actions that characterize yohimbine, CCD-X possesses endothelin-like actions and affects nitric oxide (NO) production in renal circulation. These findings suggest a strong possibility of post-receptor cross-talk between alpha2-adrenoceptors and endothelin, as well as a direct effect of alpha2-adrenoceptors on renal NO production. (c) 2003 Prous Science

  4. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products.

    PubMed

    Betz, J M; White, K D; der Marderosian, A H

    1995-01-01

    The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe [K. Schumann] Pierre (Rubiaceae), long valued as an aphrodisiac in West Africa, recently has been promoted in the United States as a dietary supplement alternative to anabolic steroids for enhancement of athletic performance. As the number of yohimbe products on the retail market increases, concerns about their safety are raised because of the reported toxicity of yohimbine (the major alkaloid of the plant). Although plant materials are usually identified microscopically, we were unable to identify them in many of the products, because as their labels indicated, the products were mixtures of various botanicals or were bark extracts and contained little or no plant material. A method for extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation of the alkaloids of P. yohimbe was, therefore, developed and used to analyze a number of commercial yohimbe products. The method involved solvent extraction and partitioning in chloroform-water followed by separation on a methyl silicone capillary GC column (N-P detection). Comparisons of chromatograms of extracts of authentic bark with those of commercial products indicated that, although many products contained measurable quantities of the alkaloid yohimbine, they were largely devoid of the other alkaloids previously reported in this species. Concentrations of yohimbine in the commercial products ranged from < 0.1 to 489 ppm, compared with 7089 ppm in the authentic material. Authentic bark has been reported to contain up to 6% total alkaloids, 10-15% of which are yohimbine. The possible presence of undeclared diluents in the products was indicated by peaks in product chromatograms but not in those of authentic bark.

  5. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city ofmore » Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.« less

  6. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    PubMed Central

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  7. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or

  8. Effects of aqueous extract of Musa paradisiaca root on testicular function parameters of male rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oyeyipo, Theo Oyetayo; Quadri, Ayodeji Luqman; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    There is an age-long claim that the Musa paradisiaca root is used to manage reproductive dysfunction, most especially sexual dysfunction (as an aphrodisiac), but there are no data in the open scientific literature that have refuted or supported this claim and the effects of M. paradisiaca root on the testes. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca root on the testicular function parameters of male rat testes. Sexually matured male albino rats (138.67±5.29 g) were randomly assigned into four groups, A, B, C, and D, that respectively received 0.5 mL (3.6 mL/kg body weight) of distilled water and 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract, orally, once daily, for 14 days. The extract significantly increased (p<0.05) the testes-body weight ratio, total protein, sialic acid, glycogen, cholesterol, activities of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, acid phosphatase, and the concentration of testicular testosterone. In contrast, the extract decreased the concentrations of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones in the serum of the animals. The results revealed that oral administration of M. paradisiaca root extract at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight enhanced the testosterone-dependent normal functioning of the testes. Overall, the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca stimulated the normal functioning of the testes and exhibited both androgenic and anabolic properties. The results may explain the rationale behind the folkloric beneficial effect of the plant in the management of reproductive dysfunction.

  9. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the dichloromethane extracts and constituents of Ferulago bracteata roots.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Songül; Gözcü, Sefa; Güvenalp, Zühal; Özbek, Hilal; Yuca, Hafize; Dursunoğlu, Benan; Kazaz, Cavit; Kılıç, Ceyda Sibel

    2018-12-01

    Ferulago (Apiaceae) species have been used since ancient times for the treatment of intestinal worms, hemorrhoids, and as a tonic, digestive, aphrodisiac, or sedative, as well as in salads or as a spice due to their special odors. This study reports the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of dichloromethane extract and bioactive compounds isolated from Ferulago bracteata Boiss. & Hausskn. roots. The isolated compounds obtained from dichloromethane extract of Ferulago bracteata roots through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation process were evaluated for their in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities at 5000-400 µg/mL concentrations. Compound structures were elucidated by detailed analyses (NMR and MS). A new coumarin, peucedanol-2'-benzoate (1), along with nine known ones, osthole (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), prantschimgin (5), grandivitinol (6), suberosin (7), xanthotoxin (8), felamidin (9), umbelliferone (10), and a sterol mixture consisted of stigmasterol (11), β-sitosterol (12) was isolated from the roots of F. bracteata. Felamidin and suberosin showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.42 and 0.89 mg/mL, respectively) when compared to the reference standard acarbose (IC 50 4.95 mg/mL). However, none of the tested extracts were found to be active on α-amylase inhibition. The present study demonstrated that among the compounds isolated from CH 2 Cl 2 fraction of F. bracteata roots, coumarins were determined as the main chemical constituents of this fraction. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of the bioactive compounds from root extracts of F. bracteata and on their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

  10. Protocatechuic Acid from Alpinia oxyphylla Induces Schwann Cell Migration via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 Activation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Da-Tong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Paul, Catherine Reena; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Chien-Chung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chang, Yung-Ming; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ (Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus, AOF) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb whose fruits is widely used to prepare tonics and is used as an aphrodisiac, anti salivary, anti diuretic and nerve-protective agent. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound was isolated from the kernels of AOF. This study investigated the role of PCA in promoting neural regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nerve regeneration is a complex physiological response that takes place after injury. Schwann cells play a crucial role in the endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate and migrate. The role of PCA in Schwann cell migration was determined by assessing the induced migration potential of RSC96 Schwann cells. PCA induced changes in the expression of proteins of three MAPK pathways, as determined using Western blot analysis. In order to determine the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) pathways in PCA-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production, the expression of several MAPK-associated proteins was analyzed after siRNA-mediated inhibition assays. Treatment with PCA-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation that activated the downstream expression of PAs and MMPs. PCA-stimulated ERK1/2, JNK and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by individual pretreatment with siRNAs or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580), resulting in the inhibition of migration and the uPA-related signal pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that PCA extract regulate the MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38)/PA (uPA, tPA)/MMP (MMP2, MMP9) mediated regeneration and migration signaling pathways in Schwann cells. Therefore, PCA plays a major role in Schwann cell migration and the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve.

  11. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection.

    PubMed

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2013-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extract on rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated after oral administration of the extract for 1 month to evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in the organ bath occurred in vivo. Additionally, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in the CC by immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percentage decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. The ICP was also assessed in rats after oral administration of the extract for 1 month, and changes in concentrations of cGMP and cAMP were monitored. Concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the extract on the CC were detected in the organ bath study. Relaxation of the CC by the T. terrestris extract was inhibited in both an endothelium-removed group and an L-arginen methyl ester pretreatment group. The ICP measured after oral administration of the T. terrestris extract for 1 month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the T. terrestris extract group. The T. terrestris extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the CC in an organ bath. The mechanism included a reaction involving the nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase pathway and endothelium of the CC. Moreover, in an in vivo study, the T. terrestris extract showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in ICP. Accordingly, the T. terrestris extract may improve erectile function.

  12. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg(-1), orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg(-1) for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility.

  13. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg–1, orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg–1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. PMID:26401358

  14. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine— Ginseng (II): Collected Chemical Entities, Modern Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications Emanated from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The ‘Yin and Yang’ theory and the fundamentals of the ‘five elements’ applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng’s bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng

  15. Documentation and quantitative analysis of local ethnozoological knowledge among traditional healers of Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Chellappandian, M; Pandikumar, P; Mutheeswaran, S; Gabriel Paulraj, M; Prabakaran, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2014-05-28

    This study investigated the use of animals among the traditional healers in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India. The data regarding the medicinal animals/animal products were documented and their usages were analyzed quantitatively. Based on free list interviews with the traditional healers, we documented the medicinal usage of animals/animal products and calculated the indices such as informant consensus factor (Fic) to determine the consensus over the species for an illness category, as well as the Index Agreement on Remedies (IAR) to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. In this study, 69 medicinal animals/animal products were documented with the help of standardized questionnaires among the local healers. The results were tabulated and Fic value for each illness category was calculated. Three illness categories viz., jaundice (milk of Capra aegagrus hircus), orthopedics (egg white and meat of Gallus gallus domesticus) and pediatrics (milk of Equus africanus asinus) had got high Fic values. Fifteen illness categories had moderate Fic values. Highly cited animals in these illness categories were: Rusa unicolor (antiemetic), Reticulitermes spp. (diabetes), flesh of Varanus benghalensis (oral ailments), milk (eye ailments, fever) and urine (antidote) of Homo sepians, meat of Trachypithecus johnii (respiratory ailments), various parts of C. aegagrus hircus (blood ailments, coolants, diarrhea, pulmonary and urinary ailments), flesh of Chamaeleon zeyalnica (neural ailments), meat of Passer domesticus (aphrodisiac), curd and dung of Bos primigenius taurus (dermatological ailments), meat of G. domesticus (musculo-skeletal disorders, analgesic), meat of Lissemys punctata (hemorrhoids), and Pherthima posthuma (psychological ailments). Six illness categories had low Fic values. This study indicated that the animals are still being used by the local healers of Theni district, to treat various illnesses. Cross-disciplinary approaches to explore the

  16. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Touhara, Kazushige; Ejima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment. PMID:26252206

  17. Pandanus odoratissimus (Kewda): A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Nutritional Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Adkar, Prafulla P.; Bhaskar, V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. (family: Pandanaceae) is traditionally recommended by the Indian Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of headache, rheumatism, spasm, cold/flu, epilepsy, wounds, boils, scabies, leucoderma, ulcers, colic, hepatitis, smallpox, leprosy, syphilis, and cancer and as a cardiotonic, antioxidant, dysuric, and aphrodisiac. It contains phytochemicals, namely, lignans and isoflavones, coumestrol, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, glycosides, proteins, amino acids as well as vitamins and nutrients, and so forth. It is having immense importance in nutrition. A 100 g edible Pandanus pericarp is mainly comprised of water and carbohydrates (80 and 17 g, resp.) and protein (1.3 mg), fat (0.7 mg), and fiber (3.5 g). Pandanus fruits paste provides 321 kilocalories, protein (2.2 g), calcium (134 mg), phosphorus (108 mg), iron (5.7 mg), thiamin (0.04 mg), vitamin C (5 mg), and beta-carotene (19 to 19,000 μg) (a carotenoid that is a precursor to vitamin A). Pandanus fruit is an important source of vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, and so forth, usually prepared as a Pandanus floured drink. Traditional claims were scientifically evaluated by the various authors and the phytochemical profile of plant parts was well established. The methods for analytical estimations were developed. However, there is paucity of systematic compilation of scientifically important information about this plant. In the present review we have systematically reviewed and compiled information of pharmacognostic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, nutritional aspects, and analytical methods. This review will enrich knowledge leading the way into the discovery of new therapeutic agents with improved and intriguing pharmacological properties. PMID:25949238

  18. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Important Molecular Networks and Metabolic Pathways of the Plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Shikha; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Singh, Kashmir

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single end reads were retrieved after quality filtering. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 101,141 assembled transcripts were obtained, with coverage size of 22.42 Mb and average length of 221 bp. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was found to be 44%. Bioinformatics analysis, using non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), enzyme commission (EC) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases, extracted all the known enzymes involved in saponin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Few genes of the alkaloid biosynthesis, along with anticancer and plant defense genes, were also discovered. Additionally, several cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glycosyltransferase unique sequences were also found. We identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts with an abundance of di-nucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 43.1%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Genes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community, interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of C. borivilianum. PMID:24376689

  20. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  1. Maca reduces blood pressure and depression, in a pilot study in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, L; Law, C; Lai, B; Chung, T; Nelson, K; Day, S; Apostolopoulos, V; Haines, C

    2015-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been used for centuries for its fertility-enhancing and aphrodisiac properties. In an Australian study, Maca improved anxiety and depressive scores. The effects of Maca on hormones, lipids, glucose, serum cytokines, blood pressure, menopausal symptoms and general well-being in Chinese postmenopausal women were evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in 29 postmenopausal Hong Kong Chinese women. They received 3.3 g/day of Maca or placebo for 6 weeks each, in either order, over 12 weeks. At baseline, week 6 and week 12, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), full lipid profiles, glucose and serum cytokines were measured. The Greene Climacteric, SF-36 Version 2, Women's Health Questionnaire and Utian Quality of Life Scales were used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms and health-related quality of life. There were no differences in estradiol, FSH, TSH, SHBG, glucose, lipid profiles and serum cytokines amongst those who received Maca as compared to the placebo group; however, significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure and depression were apparent after Maca treatment. Maca did not exert hormonal or immune biological action in the small cohort of patients studied; however, it appeared to reduce symptoms of depression and improve diastolic blood pressure in Chinese postmenopausal women. Although results are comparable to previous similar published studies in postmenopausal women, there might be a cultural difference among the Chinese postmenopausal women in terms of symptom reporting.

  2. Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Abishkar; Kunwar, Bimal; Choi, Young; Dai, Yuntao; van Andel, Tinde; Chaudhary, Ram P; de Boer, Hugo J; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2013-08-31

    Wild orchids are illegally harvested and traded in Nepal for use in local traditional medicine, horticulture, and international trade. This study aims to: 1) identify the diversity of species of wild orchids in trade in Nepal; 2) study the chain of commercialization from collector to client and/or export; 3) map traditional knowledge and medicinal use of orchids; and 4) integrate the collected data to propose a more sustainable approach to orchid conservation in Nepal. Trade, species diversity, and traditional use of wild-harvested orchids were documented during field surveys of markets and through interviews. Trade volumes and approximate income were estimated based on surveys and current market prices. Orchid material samples were identified to species level using a combination of morphology and DNA barcoding. Orchid trade is a long tradition, and illegal export to China, India and Hong Kong is rife. Estimates show that 9.4 tons of wild orchids were illegally traded from the study sites during 2008/2009. A total of 60 species of wild orchids were reported to be used in traditional medicinal practices to cure at least 38 different ailments, including energizers, aphrodisiacs and treatments of burnt skin, fractured or dislocated bones, headaches, fever and wounds. DNA barcoding successfully identified orchid material to species level that remained sterile after culturing. Collection of wild orchids was found to be widespread in Nepal, but illegal trade is threatening many species in the wild. Establishment of small-scale sustainable orchid breeding enterprises could be a valuable alternative for the production of medicinal orchids for local communities. Critically endangered species should be placed on CITES Appendix I to provide extra protection to those species. DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and monitoring of illegal cross-border trade.

  3. Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild orchids are illegally harvested and traded in Nepal for use in local traditional medicine, horticulture, and international trade. This study aims to: 1) identify the diversity of species of wild orchids in trade in Nepal; 2) study the chain of commercialization from collector to client and/or export; 3) map traditional knowledge and medicinal use of orchids; and 4) integrate the collected data to propose a more sustainable approach to orchid conservation in Nepal. Methods Trade, species diversity, and traditional use of wild-harvested orchids were documented during field surveys of markets and through interviews. Trade volumes and approximate income were estimated based on surveys and current market prices. Orchid material samples were identified to species level using a combination of morphology and DNA barcoding. Results Orchid trade is a long tradition, and illegal export to China, India and Hong Kong is rife. Estimates show that 9.4 tons of wild orchids were illegally traded from the study sites during 2008/2009. A total of 60 species of wild orchids were reported to be used in traditional medicinal practices to cure at least 38 different ailments, including energizers, aphrodisiacs and treatments of burnt skin, fractured or dislocated bones, headaches, fever and wounds. DNA barcoding successfully identified orchid material to species level that remained sterile after culturing. Conclusions Collection of wild orchids was found to be widespread in Nepal, but illegal trade is threatening many species in the wild. Establishment of small-scale sustainable orchid breeding enterprises could be a valuable alternative for the production of medicinal orchids for local communities. Critically endangered species should be placed on CITES Appendix I to provide extra protection to those species. DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and monitoring of illegal cross-border trade. PMID:24004516

  4. Associations between crystal methamphetamine use and potentially unsafe sexual activity among gay men in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Patrick; Digiusto, Erol; Worth, Heather; Zablotska, Iryna

    2007-10-01

    It has been suggested that crystal methamphetamine may have disinhibiting or aphrodisiac effects, which may lead to unsafe sexual behavior and increase the risk of HIV transmission. Using data from two Australian studies, the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey study and the Positive Health (PH) cohort study, we examined changes over time in use of crystal, other recreational drugs, and Viagra, and in a range of sex-related behaviors. Compared to non-users, crystal users reported having more sex partners, looking for sex in more types of venues, and being more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (UAIC) and in esoteric sex. Crystal users were also more likely to be using other recreational drugs and Viagra than non-users. Crystal use remained significantly associated with UAIC after adjustment for other relevant variables in a log-binomial regression analysis (adjusted prevalence rate ratio=1.26; 95% CI: 1.19-1.34). The other variables (HIV status, number of sex partners, number of types of venue where men looked for sex, Viagra use, other drug use) were independently associated with UAIC, and did not show confounding or mediating effects on the crystal-UAIC association. Nevertheless, these data did not allow reliable attribution of higher levels of these sex-related behaviors among crystal users specifically to the effects of crystal. The prevalence of crystal use among Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) increased between 2002 and 2005 (e.g., from 26% to 39% among HIV-+ MSM). However, the prevalence of UAIC remained stable or decreased over time in various study subgroups, as did the prevalence of other sex-related behaviors, suggesting that crystal use does not necessarily drive unsafe sexual behavior. Crystal use and unsafe sexual behavior can, and should, be considered and addressed separately in health promotion and community education campaigns.

  5. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae) prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g), dopamine (0.1 μM/kg), aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg). Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg) prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg) were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg) induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg), no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg). Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii. PMID:23295154

  6. Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulikkalpura, Haridas; Kurup, Rajani; Mathew, Paravanparampil Jacob; Baby, Sabulal

    2015-06-01

    Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.). High and low L-dopa yielding genotypes/chemotypes of M. pruriens could be multiplied for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. HPTLC profiles of M. pruriens seeds on repeated extraction (24 h) in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol followed by development in butanol:acetic acid:water (4:1:1, v/v) showed consistent degradation of L-dopa (Rf 0.34 ± 0.02) into a second peak (Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). An average of 52.11% degradation of L-dopa was found in seeds of M. pruriens varieties. Since M. pruriens seeds and/or L-dopa are used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and as an aphrodisiac both in modern and/or traditional systems of medicine, the finding of high level of L-dopa degradation (in pure form and in M. pruriens extracts) into damaging quinones and ROS is very significant.

  7. Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2009-04-21

    According to Indian Systems of Medicine, Mucuna pruriens Linn., belonging to the leguminous family (Papilionaceae), were used for treating male sexual disorders since ancient times. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extracts of the Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on general mating behaviour, libido and potency of normal male Wister albino rats were investigated and also compared with the standard reference drug, Sildenafil citrate. Animals were divided into one control group (Group I--received saline) and four experimental groups (Groups II-V). Experimental groups were divided on the basis of the dosage of extract to the animals as follows: 150 mg/kg body weight (Group I), 200mg/kg body weight (Group II) and 250 mg/kg body weight (Group IV) while Group V received Sildenafil citrate (5mg/kg body weight). Animals were fed PO with saline or extract or standard drug once in a day for 45 days. To analyse the mating behaviour, female rats with oestrus phase were used. The extract administered PO significantly increased the mounting frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculation latency, and decreased the mounting latency, intromission latency, post-ejaculatory interval and inter-intromission interval. The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. Therefore, the results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats at a particular dose (200mg/kg). When compared to control, all the drug-treated groups have shown drug-induced effects for a few parameters. However in Group II, there was an obvious enhancement in all parameters, without affecting the normal behaviour. When compared with the standard drug, the net effect of extract is even less than that in Group II. Therefore, the resulting aphrodisiac activity of the extract lends support to the claim that it has traditionally been used for the treatment of sexual

  8. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on oxidative stress mediated damage in aged rat sperm.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2010-02-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn., a leguminous plant, has been recognized as an aphrodisiac and spermatogenic agent. Protective efficacy of M. pruriens on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pathophysiological alterations in structural and functional integrity of epididymal sperm in aged Wister albino rat was analysed. Animals were grouped as groups I, II, III and IV, i.e. young (control), aged, aged treated with ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg b.w.) of M. pruriens and young rats treated with M. pruriens, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, i.e. after 60 days animals were sacrificed, epididymal sperm were collected and subjected to count, viability, motility, morphology and morphometric analysis. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential were estimated. Results obtained from the aged animals showed significant reduction in sperm count, viability and motility, increased morphological damage and an increase in the number of sperm with cytoplasmic remnant, and these alterations were significantly reversed in M. pruriens treated group. Significant increase in LPO, HO and H(2)O(2) production and significant decline in the levels of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in the aged animals. Supplementation of M. pruriens significantly reduced ROS and LPO production and significant increase in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels. There were significant DNA damage, loss of chromosomal integrity and increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability in aged rat sperm. This was significantly reduced in group III. Present observation indicates the antioxidant enhancing property, free radical quenching ability and spermatogenic efficacy of the M. pruriens. Collectively, sperm damage in ageing was significantly reduced by quenching ROS, improving antioxidant defence system and mitochondrial function.

  9. Mucuna pruriens and Its Major Constituent L-DOPA Recover Spermatogenic Loss by Combating ROS, Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Sarkar, Saumya; Tripathi, Muktanand; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP) to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD), and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. Methodology/Findings Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15th day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR) group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. Conclusion/Significance M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro

  10. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Sarkar, Saumya; Tripathi, Muktanand; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP) to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD), and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th) day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR) group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro-spermatogenic properties of M. pruriens. The manuscript bears CDRI

  11. Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pulikkalpura, Haridas; Kurup, Rajani; Mathew, Paravanparampil Jacob; Baby, Sabulal

    2015-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.). High and low L-dopa yielding genotypes/chemotypes of M. pruriens could be multiplied for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. HPTLC profiles of M. pruriens seeds on repeated extraction (24 h) in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol followed by development in butanol:acetic acid:water (4:1:1, v/v) showed consistent degradation of L-dopa (Rf 0.34 ± 0.02) into a second peak (Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). An average of 52.11% degradation of L-dopa was found in seeds of M. pruriens varieties. Since M. pruriens seeds and/or L-dopa are used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and as an aphrodisiac both in modern and/or traditional systems of medicine, the finding of high level of L-dopa degradation (in pure form and in M. pruriens extracts) into damaging quinones and ROS is very significant. PMID:26058043

  12. Identification, characterization and distribution of monoterpene indole alkaloids in Rauwolfia species by Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-01-25

    Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) are medicinally important class of compounds abundant in the roots of Rauwolfia species (Apocynaceae). MIAs such as yohimbine (aphrodisiac agent) and reserpine (antihypertensive, tranquilizer) are the official drugs included in Model List of Essential Drugs of World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, we have attempt to identify and characterize the MIAs in the crude extracts of six Rauwolfia species using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap Velos Pro hybrid mass spectrometer. The identity of the MIAs were construed using the high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) spectra of standard compounds 'yohimbine' and 'reserpine' in higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) modes. The diagnostic fragment ions found in HCD mode was highly affected by variation of normalized collision energy (NCE) and gave few product ions ('C-F') while CID produced intense and more diagnostic product ions ('A-F'). Consequently, CID-MS/MS mode provided significantly more structural information about basic skeleton and therefore the recommended mode for analysis of MIAs. Furthermore, six diagnostic fragmentation pathways were established by multi-stage mass analysis (MS(n) (n=5)) analysis which gave information regarding the substitution. Fragment ions 'A-F' revealed the number and position of substituents on indole and terpene moieties. The proposed diagnostic fragmentation pathways have been successfully applied for identification and characterization of MIAs in crude root extracts of six Rauwolfia species. Ten bioactive reserpine class of MIAs were tentatively identified and characterized on the basis of chromatographic and mass spectrometric features as well as HRMS/MS an MS(n) (n=4) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural characterization of monoterpene indole alkaloids in ethanolic extracts of Rauwolfia species by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Srivastava, Mukesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-12-01

    Rauwolfia species (Apocynaceae) are medicinal plants well known worldwide due to its potent bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine. Reserpine, ajmalicine and ajmaline are powerful antihypertensive, tranquilizing agents used in hypertension. Yohimbine is an aphrodisiac used in dietary supplements. As there is no report on the comparative and comprehensive phytochemical investigation of the roots of Rauwolfia species, we have developed an efficient and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for ethanolic root extract of Rauwolfia species to elucidate the fragmentation pathways for dereplication of bioactive MIAs using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) in positive ion mode. We identified and established diagnostic fragment ions and fragmentation pathways using reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine. The MS/MS spectra of reserpine, ajmalicine, and ajmaline showed C -ring-cleavage whereas E -ring cleavage was observed in serpentine via Retro Diels Alder (RDA). A total of 47 bioactive MIAs were identified and characterized on the basis of their molecular formula, exact mass measurements and MS/MS analysis. Reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine were unambiguously identified by comparison with their authentic standards and other 42 MIAs were tentatively identified and characterized from the roots of Rauwolfia hookeri, Rauwolfia micrantha, Rauwolfia serpentina, Rauwolfia verticillata, Rauwolfia tetraphylla and Rauwolfia vomitoria . Application of LC-MS followed by principal component analysis (PCA) has been successfully used to discriminate among six Rauwolfia species.

  14. Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. Garlic's properties result from a combination of variety biologically active substances which all together are responsible for its curative effect. The compounds contained in garlic synergistically influence each other so that they can have different effects. The active ingredients of garlic include enzymes (e.g. alliinase), sulfur-containing compounds such as alliin and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (e.g. allicin). There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The concentration of Allicin (main active ingredient) and the source of garlic's distinctive odor depend on processing method. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemicals rather quickly. It's documented that products obtained even without allicin such as aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, liver and other areas. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cold or the prevention of atherosclerosis and the development of tumors. Many available publications indicates possible antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Due to the chemical complexity of garlic and the use of different processing methods we obtain formulations with varying degrees of efficacy and safety.

  15. Crocus sativus Extract Tightens the Blood-Brain Barrier, Reduces Amyloid β Load and Related Toxicity in 5XFAD Mice.

    PubMed

    Batarseh, Yazan S; Bharate, Sonali S; Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Ajay; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Bharate, Sandip B; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2017-08-16

    Crocus sativus, commonly known as saffron or Kesar, is used in Ayurveda and other folk medicines for various purposes as an aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, and expectorant. Previous evidence suggested that Crocus sativus is linked to improving cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to in vitro and in vivo investigate the mechanism(s) by which Crocus sativus exerts its positive effect against AD. The effect of Crocus sativus extract on Aβ load and related toxicity was evaluated. In vitro results showed that Crocus sativus extract increases the tightness of a cell-based blood-brain barrier (BBB) model and enhances transport of Aβ. Further in vivo studies confirmed the effect of Crocus sativus extract (50 mg/kg/day, added to mice diet) on the BBB tightness and function that was associated with reduced Aβ load and related pathological changes in 5XFAD mice used as an AD model. Reduced Aβ load could be explained, at least in part, by Crocus sativus extract effect to enhance Aβ clearance pathways including BBB clearance, enzymatic degradation and ApoE clearance pathway. Furthermore, Crocus sativus extract upregulated synaptic proteins and reduced neuroinflammation associated with Aβ pathology in the brains of 5XFAD mice. Crocin, a major active constituent of Crocus sativus and known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, was also tested separately in vivo in 5XFAD mice. Crocin (10 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce Aβ load but to a lesser extent when compared to Crocus sativus extract. Collectively, findings from this study support the positive effect of Crocus sativus against AD by reducing Aβ pathological manifestations.

  16. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-Tumor Activity of Eurycoma longifolia Root Extracts against K-562 Cell Line: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Kit-Lam, Chan; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Zaki, Abdelhamid; Jamal Din, Shah Kamal Khan; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities. Its anticancer activity has also been recently reported on different solid tumors, however no anti-leukemic activity of this plant has been reported. Thus the present study assesses the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative and apoptotic potentials of E. longifolia on K-562 leukemic cell line. The K-562 cells (purchased from ATCC) were isolated from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) were treated with the various fractions (TAF273, F3 and F4) of E. longifolia root methanolic extract at various concentrations and time intervals and the anti-proliferative activity assessed by MTS assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with 107 K-562 cells were used to study the anti-leukemic activity of TAF273 in vivo. TAF273, F3 and F4 showed various degrees of growth inhibition with IC50 values of 19, 55 and 62 µg/ml, respectively. TAF273 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. TAF273 arrested cell cycle at G1and S phases. Intraperitoneal administration of TAF273 (50 mg/kg) resulted in a significant growth inhibition of subcutaneous tumor in TAF273-treated mice compared with the control mice (P = 0.024). TAF273 shows potent anti-proliferative activity in vitro and in vivo models of CML and therefore, justifies further efforts to define more clearly the potential benefits of using TAF273 as a novel therapeutic strategy for CML management. PMID:24409284

  18. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine- ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The 'Yin and Yang' theory and the fundamentals of the 'five elements' applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng's bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson's disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng mainly due to its

  19. Anti-diabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Khedekar, Sanjay; Rukkudin, Galib; Ravishankar, Basavaiah; Prajapati, Pradeepkumar

    2016-01-01

    Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja (SBM) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting STZ in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered SBM and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On the 21(st) day, animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. The study was conducted in the year 2011. Test drug observed significant decrease (P < 0.001) in glyacated hemoglobin level compared to diabetic control rats. Blood sugar level of test drug group shown a significant decrease (279.11 ± 57.95) compared with diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that SBM and dried extract of T. cordifolia with honey significantly reduces the blood glucose level and shows anti-diabetic effect.

  20. Anti-diabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Khedekar, Sanjay; Rukkudin, Galib; Ravishankar, Basavaiah; Prajapati, Pradeepkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja (SBM) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting STZ in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered SBM and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On the 21st day, animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. The study was conducted in the year 2011. Results: Test drug observed significant decrease (P < 0.001) in glyacated hemoglobin level compared to diabetic control rats. Blood sugar level of test drug group shown a significant decrease (279.11 ± 57.95) compared with diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that SBM and dried extract of T. cordifolia with honey significantly reduces the blood glucose level and shows anti-diabetic effect. PMID:27104037

  1. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through

  2. 'Every mother is a mini-doctor': ethnomedicinal uses of fish, shellfish and some other aquatic animals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Deb, Apurba Krishna; Emdad Haque, C

    2011-03-24

    This research article examines the zootherapeutic uses of fish, shellfish and some other aquatic animals in two fishing villages in Bangladesh-one floodplain and one coastal. The floodplain fishing village Volarkandi is located within the Hakaluki wetland ecosystem in the northern Bangladesh and is inhabited mostly by Muslim fishers, whereas the coastal fishing village Thakurtala is located on Moheskhali island and most of the inhabitants are caste-based Hindu fishers. Participatory techniques were used to collect and validate information from the key informants. The research revealed that, historically, fishers have used fish and other aquatic animals not only as food items for nutrition, but also to solve a host of physical problems and diseases. Fish and shellfish are widely used for their galactogogue and aphrodisiac properties, for quick recovery from long-time sickness, to enhance the 'intelligence level' of children, and to prevent and treat a host of diseases like night blindness, chicken pox, dysentery, piles, muscular inflammation, fistula, malaria, skin diseases and 'big belly' syndrome in children. Depending on the objective of the use, different parts of the animal body, its derivatives, or the whole animal are used. The research also clarified different forms of the recipes used. The socio-cultural construction of the ethnomedicinal uses and the distinct gender roles of the fisherwomen were analyzed. The research revealed that the aetiologies and the preventive measures against folk illness are socio-culturally embedded and such indigenous medical systems grow and are sustained as a situated body of knowledge within the boundaries of a typical world view framed by local culture and biodiversity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sildenafil-associated hepatoxicity: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Graziano, S; Montana, A; Zaami, S; Rotolo, M C; Minutillo, A; Busardò, F P; Marinelli, E

    2017-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) is a vasoactive agent available worldwide since 1998 for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. It is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5-enzyme inhibitor able to potentiate the downstream effects of nitric oxide on smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation through its effects on the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) pathway in the erectile tissue of the penis. When sildenafil is orally administered, it is rapidly absorbed with a maximum plasma concentration achieved within 1 h and has a terminal half-life of between 3 to 6 h. The drug is extensively and rapidly metabolized by the liver, primarily by the CYP3A4 enzyme. Although the drug is well tolerated, specific adverse events have been observed, like flushing, headaches, dyspepsia, and visual disturbances. Liver toxicity related to sildenafil consumption has been considered a very rare event. However, in the last decade, some cases of sildenafil-associated hepatotoxicity have been reported. Furthermore, some hepatic intoxications have been reported after the intake of "natural" or "herbal" aphrodisiac supplements sold through Internet, sex shops, social media, and by word-of-mouth found to contain sildenafil and other phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Studies investigating a possible link between sildenafil use and liver damage are limited, and the underlying mechanism responsible for hepatotoxicity is still missing. Studies in animals evidence that the hematopoietic function of the liver may have severely been affected as a result of a probable toxic effect of sildenafil. Here, the studies reporting liver toxicity by sildenafil in humans and in animals are reported and discussed.

  4. In Vivo Evaluation of Anti Diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Antioxidative Activities of Saudi Date Seed Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Marghoob; Mohieldein, Abdelmarouf

    2016-03-01

    Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. In folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. The date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene. This study intended to evaluate the anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities of date seed extract in diabetes-induced rats. Total of seven groups of rats, consisting of control rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100g/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat. To evaluate the anti-diabetic property, glucose and weight was analysed weekly and at the end of eight week all rats were sacrificed. To evaluate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were estimated. Liver enzymes and kidney function tests were performed. Moreover to verify the glycaemic effect; glycated haemoglobin and serum insulin was performed. Aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100 gm/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat brings a significant reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in comparison of control rats. There were significant differences in the investigated clinical chemistry and oxidative stress parameters between control and diabetic rats with both seed extract of Ajwa and Sukkari dates. Present study verifies the antidiabetic property, of aqueous seed extracts of two different varieties of dates namely Ajwa and Sukkari of Kingdom of Saudi on streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats. Prolong treatments with the extract restores the function of liver and kidney and balance the oxidative stress condition in diabetic treated rats.

  5. De Novo transcriptome sequencing reveals important molecular networks and metabolic pathways of the plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Shikha; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Singh, Kashmir

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single end reads were retrieved after quality filtering. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 101,141 assembled transcripts were obtained, with coverage size of 22.42 Mb and average length of 221 bp. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was found to be 44%. Bioinformatics analysis, using non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), enzyme commission (EC) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases, extracted all the known enzymes involved in saponin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Few genes of the alkaloid biosynthesis, along with anticancer and plant defense genes, were also discovered. Additionally, several cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glycosyltransferase unique sequences were also found. We identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts with an abundance of di-nucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 43.1%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Genes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community, interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of C. borivilianum.

  6. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    PubMed

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  7. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  8. AB69. Phyto-androgenic androgens in men’s health, sex and aging FX

    PubMed Central

    Adimoelja, Arif; Siauw, Ali Fuchih

    2014-01-01

    Protodioscin is a Herbal Steroid Saponin extract derived mainly from Tribulus terristris L. grown mainly in Bulgaria. This herbal plant begun well known in main stream medicine since the periods around 1972 in Indonesia when this phyto-steroid compound has been proven of having the ability to be converted to DHEA and further to another androgenic androgen (T) in hypogonadal men in the presence of 5-alpha-dehydrogenase (A. Adimoelja, 1976, 1978). Biogenic androgens and androgenic androgens Testosterone as a product of the male gonads from blood serum cholesterol. Cholesterol is further converted to DHEA. This product is identified as one of the biogenic or endogenic androgens (testosterone, pregnenolone, progesterone, aldosterone, androstendione). Health disorders are often hampered by the tendencies of men or women to conceal their health (sexual health) conditions due to fear and/or embarrassments. If these conditions are not being soonest medically diagnosed and left to be untreated, another un-healthy condition may appear. (hypertension, high blood serum cholesterol, decrease HDL, CVD). Decrease libido, sex arousal and ED are the first expression of the down-degraded health conditions which may appear (A. Adimoelja 1985). Prescription of phytopharmaceuticals in mainstream medicine Surprisingly more phyto-pharmaceuticals in mainstream medicine were unconsciously prescribed by physicians (25% of prescriptions, WHO, 1908). Prescriptions were made to support health conditions and promote sexual health problems, most common as aphrodisiacs. Prtodioscin and health enhancers Protodioscin indeed promote health condition in hypogonadic men (A.Adimoelja and Tjahjo Djojo Tanojo, 2009). Regretfully most herbal products whih has been promoted as health foods in the market, or sex-tonics are combined with other chemical product(s), some of which combined with erectogenics (W. Pangkahila, 2010). Sharlip ID (USA) too reported in the “Newark Star Ledger in 2002” that 9 out

  9. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  10. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat human ailments in the prehistoric place of Harla and Dengego valleys, eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicines remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary health care system among diverse communities in Ethiopia. The Oromo community living in the prehistoric Harla and Dengego valleys has long history of ethnomedicinal know-how and practice against human and livestock ailments. However, this rich ethnomedicinal knowledge had been remained unexplored hitherto. This study focus on the comprehensive ethnomedicinal investigation in an attempt to safeguard the deteriorating ethnomedicinal knowledge that can be used as a steppingstone for phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Methods Fifty five (44 male and 11 female) systematically selected informants including ten traditional herbalists (key informants) were participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the data collection methods. Factor of informant consensus (Fic), frequency of citation (F%), and binomial test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at Herbarium of Haramaya University (HHU). Results A total of 83 traditional medicinal plant species against human ailments in 70 genera and 40 Families were recorded. Twelve medicinal plants were marketable in open market places of the nearby towns. Formulations recorded added to 140 remedies for 81 human ailments. Concoction accounts 50.7% of the total preparations followed by fluids extraction (10.7%) and infusion (6.4%). Fifteen different plant parts were used for remedies preparation wherein leaves accounted 46.4%, stem 9.2%, fruits and roots each 7.8%. Most of the remedies (90.7%) were prepared from single plant species like, aphrodisiac fresh rhizome of Kleinia abyssinica (A. Rich.) A. Berger chewed and swallowed few hours before sexual performance for a man having problem of erectile dysfunction. The Fic value ranges between 1.0 (gastritis and heartburn/pyrosis) and 0.77 (swollen

  11. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection

    PubMed Central

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. Materials and Methods The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extract on rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated after oral administration of the extract for 1 month to evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in the organ bath occurred in vivo. Additionally, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in the CC by immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percentage decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. The ICP was also assessed in rats after oral administration of the extract for 1 month, and changes in concentrations of cGMP and cAMP were monitored. Results Concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the extract on the CC were detected in the organ bath study. Relaxation of the CC by the T. terrestris extract was inhibited in both an endothelium-removed group and an L-arginen methyl ester pretreatment group. The ICP measured after oral administration of the T. terrestris extract for 1 month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the T. terrestris extract group. Conclusions The T. terrestris extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the CC in an organ bath. The mechanism included a reaction involving the nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase pathway and endothelium of the CC. Moreover, in an in vivo study, the T. terrestris extract showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in ICP. Accordingly, the T

  12. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process

    PubMed Central

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mudabbar/Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Methods: Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Results: Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Conclusion: Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude

  13. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process.

    PubMed

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Mudabbar/ Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd ( Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude and MKK were established for future reference. Mudabbar

  14. Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring (Selaginellaceae), commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception. Methods Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH) was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p.) antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Results A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively). Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively), as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively). Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination. Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports previous claims of

  15. Consensus analysis of sastric formulations used by non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners of Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Mutheeswaran, S; Pandikumar, P; Chellappandian, M; Ignacimuthu, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Logamanian, M

    2014-04-11

    Siddha system of traditional medicine has been practiced in Tamil Nadu. This system of medicine has a high number of non-institutionally trained practitioners but studies on their traditional medicinal knowledge are not adequate. The present study is aimed to document and analyze the sastric (traditional) formulations used by the non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners in Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India. After obtaining prior informed consent, interviews were conducted with 115 non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners about the sastric formulations used by them for the treatment. Successive free listing method was adopted to collect the data and the data were analyzed by calculating Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR). The study documented data regarding 194 sastric formulations and they were classified into plant, mineral and animal based formulations. Quantitative analysis showed that 62.5% of the formulations were plant based, while the mineral based formulations had a high mean number of citations and versatile uses. Gastrointestinal (12.0%), kapha (11.3%) and dermatological (10.8%) ailments had a high percentage of citations. Jaundice had a high Fic value (0.750) followed by the dermatological ailments. The illness categories with high Fic values under each type of formulation were as follows: jaundice, aphrodisiac and urinary ailments (plant based); jaundice, cuts & wounds and dermatological ailments (mineral based); and hemorrhoids, kapha ailments and heart ailments (animal based formulations). The scientific studies conducted with important formulations under each illness category are discussed. The present study indicated the importance of some illnesses over the others and inclusion of new illnesses under each formulation. The ingredients used to prepare these formulations have shown varying degrees of scientific evidence; generally limited studies were available

  16. Simultaneous quantitative determination of bioactive terpene indole alkaloids in ethanolic extracts of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Kumar, Brijesh; Singh, Bikarma; Bahadur, Lal; Lal, Mohan

    2018-03-20

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QqQ LIT -MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of anticancer (vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine), antihypertensive (ajmaline, ajmalicine, reserpine), aphrodisiac (yohimbine), sedative (serpentine) agents, dietary supplement (vinpocetine, yohimbine) and precursor of vinblastine (vindoline) from crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus. The precursor to product ion transitions for these compounds were observed at m/z 327 → 144, 355 → 144, 754 → 355, 353 → 144, 349 → 317, 825 → 225, 811 → 224, 458 → 188, 351 → 280 and 609 → 195, respectively in positive ionization mode. Chromatographic separation of all targeted TIAs was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH™ C 18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). The calibration curves were linear within the concentration range 0.5-1000 ng/mL and correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were closer to 1. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.039-0.583 ng/mL and 0.118-1.767 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day (0.23-2.71% RSD) and inter-day (0.40-2.90% RSD) precision, stability (0.69-3.45% RSD) and recovery (99.63-104.30% ± %RSD ≤ 3.03%) were acceptable indicating good accuracy of the developed method. The method was successfully applied in ethanolic extracts of 39 samples of C. roseus parts (leaf, stem and root) collected from five different locations in India. Serpentine was detected as one of the most abundant TIA. Principal component analysis (PCA) was able to successfully discriminate among C. roseus samples on the basis of content of targeted TIAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol, an estrogenic-like compound, on catecholamine secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Haoping; Wang, Hong; Ma, Shangwei

    2014-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of catecholamine (CA) secretion was related with several diseases. Recently, estrogen and phytoestrogens were reported to regulate the activity of CA system. Bakuchiol is a phytoestrogen isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) which has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic or aphrodisiac. In the present study, bovine adrenal medullary cells were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bakuchiol on the regulation of CA secretion. Further, its anti-depressant like and anti-stress effects were evaluated by using behavioral despair and chronic immobilization stress models. Our results indicated that bakuchiol showed bidirectionalmore » regulation on CA secretion. It stimulated basal CA secretion in a concentration dependent manner (p < 0.01), while it reduced 300 μM acetylcholine (ACh) (p < 0.01), 100 μM veratridine (Ver) (p < 0.01) and 56 mM K{sup +} (p < 0.05) induced CA secretion, respectively. We also found that the stimulation of basal CA secretion by bakuchiol may act through estrogen-like effect and the JNK pathway in an extra-cellular calcium independent manner. Further, bakuchiol elevated tyrosine hydroxylase Ser40 and Ser31 phosphorylation (p < 0.01) through the PKA and ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Bakuchiol inhibited ACh, Ver and 56 mM K{sup +} induced CA secretion was related with reduction of intracellular calcium rise. In vivo experiments, we found that bakuchiol significantly reduced immobilization time in behavioral despair mouse (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in chronic immobilization stress (p < 0.05). Overall, these results present a bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol on CA secretion which indicated that bakuchiol may exert anti-stress and the potential anti-depressant-like effects. - Highlights: • Bakuchiol stimulated basal catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol inhibited various secretagogues induced catecholamine

  18. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  19. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on oxidative stress-induced structural alteration of corpus cavernosum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2011-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications of diabetes. Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens), a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and fertility enhancing properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. The objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on free radicals-mediated penile tissue alterations in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods.  Male albino rats were divided as group I (sham) control, group II (STZ) diabetes-induced (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight [bw] in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III (STZ + MP) diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV (STZ + SIL) diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate, group V (sham + MP) administered with 200 mg/kg bw of extract alone, and group VI (sham + SIL) administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate. The M. pruriens and sildenafil citrate were given (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. At the end of 60 days, the animals were sacrificed and subjected to analysis of reactive oxygen species levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant levels, levels of NOx, histological, and histomorphometrical study of penile tissue. Remedial use of M. pruriens seed extract on diabetes-induced erectile tissue damage. Significantly high levels of oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants in the penile tissue seem to contribute to the increased collagen deposition and fibrosis of erectile tissue in STZ rats. Relatively, there was increased damage in STZ + SIL group. Supplementation of M. pruriens in STZ + MP group has revealed the potency to overcome oxidative stress, and good preservation of penile histoarchitecture.  The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed significantly recovered or protected erectile tissue from the oxidative stress-induced degeneration by its antioxidant potentials. These findings propound to serve mankind by the treatment of

  20. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on sexual behavior and sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rat.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2012-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in the diabetic. Mucuna pruriens, a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and improving fertility properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. Objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on male sexual behavior and sperm parameters in long-term hyperglycemic male rats. Male albino rats were divided as group I control, group II diabetes induced (streptozotocin [STZ] 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of sildenafil citrate (SC), group V administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of extract, and group VI administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of SC. M. pruriens and SC were administered in single oral dosage per day for a period of 60 days. The animals were subjected to mating behavior analyses, libido, test of potency, and epididymal sperms were analyzed. The mating behavior, libido, test of potency, along with epididymal sperms were studied. The study showed significant reduction in sexual behavior and sperm parameters in group II. Daily sperm production (DSP) and levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were significantly reduced in group II, whereas the animals with diabetes administered with seed extract of M. pruriens (group III) showed significant improvement in sexual behavior, libido and potency, sperm parameters, DSP, and hormonal levels when compared to group II. The present work reveals the potential efficacy of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens to improve male sexual behavior with androgenic and antidiabetic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic male rats. This study supports the usage of M. pruriens in the Indian system of medicine as sexual invigorator in diabetic condition and encourages performing similar study in men.

  1. Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Sausage tree): Phytochemistry and pharmacological review of a quintessential African traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Bello, Idris; Shehu, Mustapha W; Musa, Mustapha; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd; Mahmud, Roziahanim

    2016-08-02

    Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care. The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant. The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books. Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market. The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated

  2. Eulophia macrobulbon - an orchid with significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect and anticancerogenic potential exerted by its root extract.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Roswitha; Zeindl, Laura; Holzer, Wolfgang; Khumpirapang, Nattakanwadee; Okonogi, Siriporn; Viernstein, Helmut; Mueller, Monika

    2017-01-15

    The Orchidaceae family is one of the largest families of flowering plants. Orchids are widely used for the traditional herbal medicine, acting as aphrodisiac, antisepic, antimicrobial, anti-cancer agent, etc. This study was designed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of a 50% ethanolic extract of Eulophia macrobulbon roots (EME) in vitro, an orchid growing in Southern Asia. Furthermore, the main active compounds were isolated, and the bioactivity of the single constituents was determined. The anti-inflammatory activity of EME and its compounds was evaluated by the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and by the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model, as determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Antioxidant activity was assessed using a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) photometric assay. Cytotoxic effects were determined using a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay. EME and its compounds significantly reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), the expression of iNOS and subsequently increased the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally it could be demonstrated that EME is rich in radical scavengers. Furthermore, EME and its components showed notable cytotoxic effects on the human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa, the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line CaCo-2 and the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. The most active constituents were identified as 4-methoxy-9,10-dihydro-2,7-phenanthrenediol (8), 4-methoxy-2,7-phenanthrenediol (9), 1,5-dimethoxy-2,7-phenanthrenediol (10), 1,5,7-trimethoxy-2,6-phenanthrenediol (11), 1-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-4,8-dimethoxy-2,7-phenanthrenediol (15). Based on

  3. The Trade in African Medicinal Plants in Matonge-Ixelles, Brussels (Belgium).

    PubMed

    van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrants often shift to using species that double as food and medicine. This paper focuses on the trade in African medicinal plants in a Congolese neighborhood in Brussels (Belgium). What African medicinal plants are sold in Matonge, where do they come from, and to which extent are they food medicines? Does vendor ethnicity influence the diversity of the herbal medicine sold? We hypothesized that most medicinal plants, traders, and clients in Matonge were of Congolese origin, most plants used medicinally were mainly food crops and that culture-bound illnesses played a prominent role in medicinal plant use. We carried out a market survey in 2014 that involved an inventory of medicinal plants in 19 shops and interviews with 10 clients of African descent, voucher collection and data gathering on vernacular names and uses. We encountered 83 medicinal plant species, of which 71% was primarily used for food. The shredded leaves of Gnetum africanum Welw., Manihot esculenta Crantz, and Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam were among the most frequently sold vegetables with medicinal uses. Cola nuts, shea butter, Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.). Skeels were the main non-food medicines sold. Women's health, aphrodisiacs, and rituals were the most important medicinal applications, but culture-bound ailments did not entirely dominate the plant uses. While most clients in Matonge were Congolese, most vendors and plant species were not. The Pakistanis dominated the food trade, and typical Congolese plants were sometimes replaced by West African species, creating confusion in vernacular names. African-managed shops had significantly more species of medicinal plants in stock than shops

  4. The Impact of Illicit Use of Amphetamine on Male Sexual Functions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Nan-Hua; Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Data concerning the impact of amphetamine on male sexual functions are limited, although amphetamine has been used as an aphrodisiac. This cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions. Male illicit drug users in a Drug Abstention and Treatment Center were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and data were compared with age-matched controls. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and global assessment questions were used to assess sexual functions. Of 1,159 amphetamine mono-illicit drug users, the mean age was 31.9 ± 7.5 (18-57) years, and mean duration of drug use was 30.7 ± 52.2 (median 9, range 0.1-252) months. Half of them reported that drug use had no impact on their sexual functions. The other half reported drug impacts as reduced erectile rigidity and sexual life satisfaction, enhanced orgasmic intensity, and prolonged ejaculation latency time more often than the opposite effects, while they reported enhanced or reduced effect equally on sexual desire. Dosing frequency of amphetamine was associated with its impact on sexual functions, but duration of its use had little association with that. Compared with 211 age-matched controls, the amphetamine mono-illicit drug users had lower IIEF scores in the domains of erectile function, orgasmic function, and overall satisfaction, but there are no significant differences in intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire scores. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) was significantly higher in the drug users than in the controls (29.3% vs. 11.9%). The odds ratio of ED for amphetamine use was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.6) after adjustment for other risk factors. The impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions varied among users, and their ED prevalence was higher than the controls. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    controlled telescope near Los Angeles (where it was still dark for some reason), but gloom quickly replaced by encouraging notion that with 200 billion other stars in our galaxy you could put money on the existence of extraterrestrial life and thus of potential Mr Right out there somewhere. Then really fascinating lunchtime lecture by dishy New Scientist editor Jeremy Webb about how racy covers can even sell 'serious' magazines. Made copious notes in order to impress Daniel (my boss) and might even consider buying it to improve image. Wasn't sure I'd have the stamina for an afternoon talk by chemist John Emsley (from Cambridge so must be really brainy), but it was surprisingly interesting—about things called 'mollycules' which are everywhere. Apparently finger-nails have same ones as rhino horn, so can get aphrodisiac kick with a quick chew and do my bit for conservation all in one go. Brilliant! Trev was so right when he said that men don't realize that girls with great legs can have good ideas as well! David Smith and friends Highgate School, London

  6. Ethnomedicobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used for the treatment of reproductive problems in Nalbari district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Partha Pradip; Talukdar, Simi; Borah, Ananta

    2018-01-10

    as, infertility in male, impotence, erectile dysfunctioning, retrograde ejaculation and sexual potency in men and in women, aphrodisiac, metrorrhagia, infertility, dysmenorrhea and/or post birth difficulties under mono (57), di (17) and poly (8) herbal formulations. Herbs (40.85%) were reported as the most common lifeform, whereas leaves (22.54%) and the roots (22.54%) were the commonly used plant parts against different ailments. Extracts of Abroma augusta L. (stem) (FL: 66.67%, PR: IM-77.33%, L-65.33, FS: 2), Morinda angustifolia Roxb. (bark) (FL: 64.29%, PR: L-68%, FS: 1), Hodgsonia heteroclita Roxb. (fruit) (FL: 63.64%, PR: IF-65.33, FS: 0.25) and Hibiscus mutabilis L. (stem) (FL: 40%, PR: IM-68%, IIM: 65.33%, IML-68%, FS: 2) were than selected for further phytochemical analysis. Of the 71 plants used for reproductive management system, the highest number of plants were used for the treatment of irregular menstruation (22) followed by infertility (in both men and women) (19), vaginal disorder and leucorrhoea (9) and sexual potency (8). The qualitative chemical profiling have demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phytosterols, in maximum concentrations. Additionally, these data may be the most important resource for the new discovery of many bioactive principles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is the hype around the reproductive health claims of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) justified?

    PubMed

    Beharry, Shruti; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-01-30

    Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp. has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1300-2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims. A search of electronic databases such as EMBASE and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about maca. Lepidium meyenii is used traditionally as a tonic, fertility enhancer for both humans and cattle, and to treat a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, respiratory disorders and anaemia among others. Maca root is cooked, baked, fermented as a drink and made into porridge. In the last twenty years, maca was introduced onto the global market and demand has dramatically grown over this time with its promotion on the internet, as the 'Peruvian Ginseng' for libido and fertility enhancement. It has also been said to treat menopausal symptoms, erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The sky-rocketing demand for the plant has seen a shift from traditional cultivation methods to mass production practices with the use of fertilisers and also pesticides; as maca is now grown in areas other than the Andes such as in the Yunnan province in China. This can potentially affect the phytochemistry and composition of the plant and thus, the quality, safety and efficacy of maca products. Meanwhile, research into maca's medicinal properties has followed the spike in popularity of maca and has been focused mainly on maca's aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties. So far, the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted have yielded inconclusive results. Some of the key limitations reside in methodology and sample size. Chemical profiling, led

  8. Standardized quassinoid-rich Eurycoma longifolia extract improved spermatogenesis and fertility in male rats via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2013-02-13

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack, a small Simaroubaceae tree, known locally as 'Tongkat Ali' is popularly used as a sexual tonic in traditional medicine for aphrodisiac activity and improvement of fertility and male libido. To investigate the effects of the standardized bioactive fraction of E. longifolia and its chemical constituents on the male fertility and the mechanisms of action involved. The powdered roots of E. longifolia were extracted separately with methanol and water. The organic extract upon further fractionation on HP 20 resin and elution with the methanol/water mixture afforded four fractions (F1-F4). These fractions, together with the crude aqueous (W) and organic extracts were standardized following their respective major quassinoid content and profile. The effects of the fractions on the rat spermatogenesis were compared with that of the aqueous extract (W) to determine the bioactive fraction. The effects of the bioactive fraction on the sperm count and quality, the histological morphometric changes on the spermatogenesis cycle, fertility and hormonal changes of plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrogen in the animals upon oral administration were determined. The effects of the bioactive quassinoids on the testosterone release from the isolated testicular interstitial cells rich in Leydig cells, were also described. The male rats orally administered with 25mg/kg of F2 and 250mg/kg of W, significantly increased the sperm concentration when compared with that of the control animals (P<0.05). High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that 25mg/kg of F2 and 250mg/kg of W were almost similar in concentration of eurycomanone, the major and most potent quassinoid. Microscopic morphometrical analysis of the rat testis following treatment with F2, showed significant increase in the number of spermatocytes and round spermatids at Stage VII of the spermatogenesis cycle when compared to that of the

  9. Wound healing effect of Euphorbia hirta linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Begum, Mst Marium; Rahman, Md Sohanur; Karim, Rubaba; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Mostofa, Ronia; Hossain, Amir; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-08-24

    Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant. The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of E. hirta whole plant. The ethanolic extract of E. hirta was subjected to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using galic acid and quercetin, respectively as standard. A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in normal saline was administered to produce diabetes in rats, after overnight fasting. For analyzing the rate of contraction of wound, excision wounds sized 4.90cm 2 and of 2 mm depth were used. Oral (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day; p.o.) and topical treatment with the extract (5% and 10% ointment 50 mg/kg/day) and standard (5% povidone iodine ointment 50 mg/kg/day) was started on the day of induction of wound and continued up to 16 days. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervals were compared using ANOVA and Dunnet's test. The diabetic wound healing mechanism was studied by measuring the plasma level of glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in both control and treated groups. For the confirmation of activity, histopathology of the wounds tissues from excision wound model was performed. Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various phytoconstituents (carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins). In the ethanolic extract of E. hirta the total phenol content was 285