Science.gov

Sample records for apical cup assembly

  1. Styrofoam Cup-Membrane Assembly for Studying Microorganism-Root Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Peter G.; Billingsley, Jean W.; Williamson, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    An assembly consisting of Styrofoam cups with membranes of varying porosities was developed to study microorganism-root interactions. The assembly permitted uniform distribution of a bacterium in soil and was simple, easy to use, and disposable. In tests with the bacterium Pseudomonas solanacearum, little difference in P. solanacearum survival was observed in the rhizosphere or nonrhizosphere of tomato. Images PMID:16347920

  2. Study of Charge Distribution in a Dust Beam using a Faraday Cup Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kausik, S.S.; Dutta, P.; Chakraborty, M.; Kakati, M.; Saikia, B.K.

    2005-10-31

    A Faraday cup assembly is employed to study the charge distribution in a dust beam. The Faraday Cup scans the dust beam across its diameter and the dust particle current is noted in an Electrometer. The variation of the pico ampere current, carried by the charged dust particles in the beam, is studied with change in the gas pressure. The observations provide an insight into the variation of the charge to mass ratio in a dust beam.

  3. Obstructor A Organizes Matrix Assembly at the Apical Cell Surface to Promote Enzymatic Cuticle Maturation in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Yanina-Yasmin; Riedel, Dietmar; Behr, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Assembly and maturation of the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) is crucial for protecting organisms, but underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Epidermal cells secrete proteins and enzymes that assemble at the apical cell surface to provide epithelial integrity and stability during developmental growth and upon tissue damage. We analyzed molecular mechanisms of aECM assembly and identified the conserved chitin-binding protein Obst-A (Obstructor A) as an essential regulator. We show in Drosophila that Obst-A is required to coordinate protein and chitin matrix packaging at the apical cell surface during development. Secreted by epidermal cells, the Obst-A protein is specifically enriched in the apical assembly zone where matrix components are packaged into their highly ordered architecture. In obst-A null mutant larvae, the assembly zone is strongly diminished, resulting in severe disturbance of matrix scaffold organization and impaired aECM integrity. Furthermore, enzymes that support aECM stability are mislocalized. As a biological consequence, cuticle architecture, integrity, and function are disturbed in obst-A mutants, finally resulting in immediate lethality upon wounding. Our studies identify a new core organizing center, the assembly zone that controls aECM assembly at the apical cell surface. We propose a genetically conserved molecular mechanism by which Obst-A forms a matrix scaffold to coordinate trafficking and localization of proteins and enzymes in the newly deposited aECM. This mechanism is essential for maturation and stabilization of the aECM in a growing and remodeling epithelial tissue as an outermost barrier. PMID:25737451

  4. Obstructor A organizes matrix assembly at the apical cell surface to promote enzymatic cuticle maturation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Yanina-Yasmin; Riedel, Dietmar; Behr, Matthias

    2015-04-17

    Assembly and maturation of the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) is crucial for protecting organisms, but underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Epidermal cells secrete proteins and enzymes that assemble at the apical cell surface to provide epithelial integrity and stability during developmental growth and upon tissue damage. We analyzed molecular mechanisms of aECM assembly and identified the conserved chitin-binding protein Obst-A (Obstructor A) as an essential regulator. We show in Drosophila that Obst-A is required to coordinate protein and chitin matrix packaging at the apical cell surface during development. Secreted by epidermal cells, the Obst-A protein is specifically enriched in the apical assembly zone where matrix components are packaged into their highly ordered architecture. In obst-A null mutant larvae, the assembly zone is strongly diminished, resulting in severe disturbance of matrix scaffold organization and impaired aECM integrity. Furthermore, enzymes that support aECM stability are mislocalized. As a biological consequence, cuticle architecture, integrity, and function are disturbed in obst-A mutants, finally resulting in immediate lethality upon wounding. Our studies identify a new core organizing center, the assembly zone that controls aECM assembly at the apical cell surface. We propose a genetically conserved molecular mechanism by which Obst-A forms a matrix scaffold to coordinate trafficking and localization of proteins and enzymes in the newly deposited aECM. This mechanism is essential for maturation and stabilization of the aECM in a growing and remodeling epithelial tissue as an outermost barrier.

  5. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Somesh

    2015-01-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25792565

  6. The PprA-PprB two-component system activates CupE, the first non-archetypal Pseudomonas aeruginosa chaperone-usher pathway system assembling fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Caroline; Bernard, Christophe S; Calderon, Virginie; Yang, Liang; Filloux, Alain; Molin, Søren; Fichant, Gwennaele; Bordi, Christophe; de Bentzmann, Sophie

    2011-03-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has redundant molecular systems that contribute to its pathogenicity. Those assembling fimbrial structures promote complex organized community lifestyle. We characterized a new 5.8 kb genetic locus, cupE, that includes the conserved usher- and chaperone-encoding genes. This locus, widely conserved in different bacterial species, contains four additional genes encoding non-archetypal fimbrial subunits. We first evidenced that the cupE gene cluster was specifically expressed in biofilm conditions and was responsible for fibre assembly containing at least CupE1 protein, at the bacterial cell surface. These fimbriae not only played a significant role in the early stages (microcolony and macrocolony formation) but also in shaping 3D mushrooms during P. aeruginosa biofilm development. Using wide-genome transposon mutagenesis, we identified the PprAB two-component system (TCS) as a regulator of cupE expression, and further demonstrated the involvement of the PprAB TCS in direct CupE fimbrial assembly activation. Thus, this TCS represents a new regulatory element controlling the transition between planktonic and community lifestyles in P. aeruginosa.

  7. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  8. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  9. Use of DSC and DMA Techniques to Help Investigate a Material Anomaly for PTFE Used in Processing a Piston Cup for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) on International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Human urine and flush water are eventually converted into drinking water with the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This conversion is made possible through the Distillation Assembly (DA) of the UPA. One component of the DA is a molded circular piston cup made of virgin polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The piston cup is assembled to a titanium component using eight fasteners and washers. Molded PTFE produced for spare piston cups in the first quarter of 2010 was different in appearance and texture, and softer than material molded for previous cups. For the suspect newer PTFE material, cup fasteners were tightened to only one-half the required torque value, yet the washers embedded almost halfway into the material. The molded PTFE used in the DA piston cup should be Type II, based on AMS 3667D and ASTM D4894 specifications. The properties of molded PTFE are considerably different between Type I and II materials. Engineers working with the DA thought that if Type I PTFE was molded by mistake instead of Type II material, that could have resulted in the anomalous material properties. Typically, the vendor molds flat sheet PTFE from the same material lot used to mold the piston cups, and tensile testing as part of quality control should verify that the PTFE is Type II material. However, for this discrepant lot of material, such tensile data was not available. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were two of the testing techniques used at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to investigate the anomaly for the PTFE material. Other techniques used on PTFE specimens were: Shore D hardness testing, tensile testing on dog bone specimens and a qualitative estimation of porosity by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Fast-response cup anemometer features cosine response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenzen, P.

    1968-01-01

    Six-cup, low-inertia anemometer combines high resolution and fast response with a unique ability to sense only the horizontal component of the winds fluctuating rapidly in three dimensions. Cup assemblies are fabricated of expanded polystyrene plastic.

  11. Apical cap

    SciTech Connect

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-08-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices.

  12. Impact biomechanics and pelvic deformation during insertion of press-fit acetabular cups.

    PubMed

    Kroeber, Markus; Ries, Michael D; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Renowitzky, Glen; Ashford, Frank; Lotz, Jeff

    2002-04-01

    Five fresh cadaver pelves were cleaned of soft tissue and instrumented with strain gauges. The acetabula were reamed, and a cementless cup, oversized at the periphery, was inserted. The applied force and cup acceleration were measured during insertion and used to calculate an effective mass of the cup, insertion device, and pelvis during each impact. Periacetabular strains increased variably during cup seating. After the cups were seated, strains continued to increase with postseating impacts. The effective mass remained constant throughout the test, indicating that cup seating is not associated with a change in acceleration. This finding implies that an accurate assessment of cup seating cannot be inferred by surgeon proprioception during impaction, and use of an apical hole in the cup is necessary to determine when the cup has seated.

  13. Acetabular Cup Revision.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum. Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision, accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device (cage), trabecular metal cup cage. The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision, accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.

  14. Structural and Functional Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CupB Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xun; Wang, Rui; Filloux, Alain; Waksman, Gabriel; Meng, Guoyu

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human pathogen, is estimated to be responsible for ∼10% of nosocomial infections worldwide. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa starts from its colonization in the damaged tissue or medical devices (e.g. catheters, prothesis and implanted heart valve etc.) facilitated by several extracellular adhesive factors including fimbrial pili. Several clusters containing fimbrial genes have been previously identified on the P. aeruginosa chromosome and named cup [1]. The assembly of the CupB pili is thought to be coordinated by two chaperones, CupB2 and CupB4. However, due to the lack of structural and biochemical data, their chaperone activities remain speculative. In this study, we report the 2.5 Å crystal structure of P. aeruginosa CupB2. Based on the structure, we further tested the binding specificity of CupB2 and CupB4 towards CupB1 (the presumed major pilus subunit) and CupB6 (the putative adhesin) using limited trypsin digestion and strep-tactin pull-down assay. The structural and biochemical data suggest that CupB2 and CupB4 might play different, but not redundant, roles in CupB secretion. CupB2 is likely to be the chaperone of CupB1, and CupB4 could be the chaperone of CupB4:CupB5:CupB6, in which the interaction of CupB4 and CupB6 might be mediated via CupB5. PMID:21304995

  15. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    PubMed

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  16. Bleeding and cupping.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.; Allen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bleeding and cupping have been used in medicine since ancient times in the treatment of fevers and local inflammatory disorders. Local bleeding, by 'wet cupping', was effected by a scarificator or by leeches. John Hunter recommended venesection in moderation but preferred leeches for local bleeding. Bleeding as an accepted therapeutic practice went out of vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of modern scientific methods. Dry cupping and the use of leeches, as counter irritants, persisted until the middle of this century. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6338802

  17. World Cup Final

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-05

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide were glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin Olympic stadium Olympiastadion. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  18. Apical Dominance in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a tentative hypothesis for the control of plant branching (apical dominance). Explores the mechanism by which apical buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds on the same shoot. Presents an up-to-date picture of the problem and gives economic implications of the study. (BR)

  19. Miniature modified Faraday cup for micro electron beams

    DOEpatents

    Teruya, Alan T.; Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Walton, Chris C.

    2008-05-27

    A micro beam Faraday cup assembly includes a refractory metal layer with an odd number of thin, radially positioned traces in this refractory metal layer. Some of the radially positioned traces are located at the edge of the micro modified Faraday cup body and some of the radially positioned traces are located in the central portion of the micro modified Faraday cup body. Each set of traces is connected to a separate data acquisition channel to form multiple independent diagnostic networks. The data obtained from the two diagnostic networks are combined and inputted into a computed tomography algorithm to reconstruct the beam shape, size, and power density distribution.

  20. Cups and Downs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Martin Gardner wrote about a coin-flipping trick, performed by a blindfolded magician. The paper analyses this trick, and compares it with a similar trick using three cups flipped in pairs. Several different methods of analysis are discussed, including a graphical analysis of the state space and a representation in terms of a matrix. These methods…

  1. Compact rotating cup anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Compact, collapsible rotating cup anemometer is used in remote locations where portability and durability are factors in the choice of equipment. This lightweight instrument has a low wind-velocity threshold, is capable of withstanding large mechanical shocks while in its stowed configuration, and has fast response to wind fluctuations.

  2. Cups and Downs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Martin Gardner wrote about a coin-flipping trick, performed by a blindfolded magician. The paper analyses this trick, and compares it with a similar trick using three cups flipped in pairs. Several different methods of analysis are discussed, including a graphical analysis of the state space and a representation in terms of a matrix. These methods…

  3. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  4. The perennial cup anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, L.

    1999-01-01

    A short version of the history of the cup anemometer precedes a more technical discussion of the special features of this instrument. These include its extremely linear calibration and the non-linearity of its response to wind speed changes. A simple conceptual model by Schrenk is used to demonstrate this and to explain why the cup anemometer is able to start from a zero rotation rate at zero wind to one corresponding to a sudden change in the ambient wind speed to a finite value. The same model is used to show that the cup anemometer should be characterized by a distance constant rather than by a time constant. The bias in the measured mean wind speed due to the random variations in the three velocity components is discussed in terms of standard, semiquantitative turbulence models, and the main thesis is that this bias is overwhelmingly dominated by the fluctuations of the lateral wind velocity component, i.e. the wind component perpendicular to the mean wind direction, and not, as is often assumed, by the longitudinal wind velocity component. It is shown theoretically and tested experimentally that the bias due to lateral wind velocity fluctuations can be significantly reduced by means of a special data processing of the simultaneous signals from a cup anemometer and a wind vane. This means that, with care, the overall overspeeding can be reduced to less than 1%.

  5. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  6. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  7. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  8. Left ventricular apical diseases.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Silvia; Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandez-Perez, Gabriel C; Castellon, Daniel; Calatayud, Julia; Lecumberri, Iñigo; Larrazabal, Eneritz; Ruiz, Berta Irene

    2011-08-01

    There are many disorders that may involve the left ventricular (LV) apex; however, they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. In this setting cardiac imaging methods can provide the clue to obtaining the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the spectrum of diseases that most frequently affect the apex of the LV including Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy, LV aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, apical diverticula, apical ventricular remodelling, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LV non-compaction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with LV involvement and LV false tendons, with an emphasis on the diagnostic criteria and imaging features. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0091-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  9. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (CHARGE CUPS)

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.W.

    1959-04-21

    The problems of confining a charge material in a calutron and uniformly distributing heat to the charge is described. The charge is held in a cup of thermally conductive material removably disposed within the charge chamber of the ion source block. A central thermally conducting stem is incorporated within the cup for conducting heat to the central portion of the charge contained within the cup.

  10. Gordon Bennett Airplane Cup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margoulis, W

    1921-01-01

    The characteristics of the airplanes built for the Gordon Bennet Airplane Cup race that took place on September 28, 1920 are described. The airplanes are discussed from a aerodynamical point of view, with a number of new details concerning the French machines. Also discussed is the regulation of future races. The author argues that there should be no limitations on the power of the aircraft engines. He reasons that in the present state of things, liberty with regard to engine power does not lead to a search for the most powerful engine, but for one which is reliable and light, thus leading to progress.

  11. Cup Cylindrical Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Darby, William G.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Breen, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    The cup cylindrical waveguide antenna (CCWA) is a short backfire microwave antenna capable of simultaneously supporting the transmission or reception of two distinct signals having opposite circular polarizations. Short backfire antennas are widely used in mobile/satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area networks because of their compactness and excellent radiation characteristics. A typical prior short backfire antenna contains a half-wavelength dipole excitation element for linear polarization or crossed half-wavelength dipole elements for circular polarization. In order to achieve simultaneous dual circular polarization, it would be necessary to integrate, into the antenna feed structure, a network of hybrid components, which would introduce significant losses. The CCWA embodies an alternate approach that entails relatively low losses and affords the additional advantage of compactness. The CCWA includes a circular cylindrical cup, a circular disk subreflector, and a circular waveguide that serves as the excitation element. The components that make it possible to obtain simultaneous dual circular polarization are integrated into the circular waveguide. These components are a sixpost polarizer and an orthomode transducer (OMT) with two orthogonal coaxial ports. The overall length of the OMT and polarizer (for the nominal middle design frequency of 2.25 GHz) is about 11 in. (approximately equal to 28 cm), whereas the length of a commercially available OMT and polarizer for the same frequency is about 32 in. (approximately equal to 81 cm).

  12. World Cup Hopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From May 31 to June 30 the biggest single-sport event in the world, the 2002 FIFA World Cup (tm), will be taking place in Asia. South Korea and Japan are acting as hosts for the event which is being held in Asia for the first time. This true-color image of the southern Korean peninsula and southern Japan was acquired on May 25, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Thirty-two nations are represented at this year's Finals including the 1998 champion France, European powers England and Italy, tournament favorite Argentina, and the United States. The finals are the culmination of a 2-year qualifying process which started with 132 nations competing in regional qualification tournaments. In the round-robin first round of the World Cup, the U.S. team will be competing against teams from Portugal, Poland, and South Korea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Enhanced effectiveness of copper ion buffering by CUP1 metallothionein compared with CRS5 metallothionein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L T; Howard, W R; Strain, J J; Winge, D R; Culotta, V C

    1996-08-02

    The bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a metallothionein (MT) gene family comprised of the amplified CUP1 locus and the single copy CRS5 gene. We demonstrate that CUP1 plays the dominant role in copper detoxification. A single copy of CUP1 was far more effective in conferring copper resistance than was CRS5. The CUP1 promoter contributes to this resistance; in a promoter exchange experiment, the Crs5 MT conferred strong copper resistance when its expression was driven by the CUP1 promoter, and conversely, the CRS5 promoter reduced the effectiveness of Cup1 MT. Unlike CUP1, the CRS5 promoter appears to be refractory to high concentrations of copper. The CUP1 coding sequences also contribute to copper tolerance, presumably reflecting the enhanced binding avidity of Cup1 MT for Cu(I) ions. In studies with the bathocuproine Cu(I) chelator, the Cu(I) ions bound to Crs5 were kinetically more labile than the Cu(I) binding to Cup1. Our findings are consistent with the assembly of Crs5 into two metal-binding clusters, similar to mammalian MTs, but unlike Cup1. Overall, the striking differences in gene structure, regulation, and function of CUP1 and CRS5 are remarkably reminiscent of the MTI and MTII genes of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata.

  14. [Apical endodontic surgery].

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, J A

    2004-04-01

    If (a revision of) a conventional endodontic treatment is not possible or not successful, apical endodontic surgery can be indicated. The contemporary indications, the better retrograde preparation techniques with ultrasonic retro-tips, and the better visualisation of the operation area with an operation microscope can lead to higher success percentages. Moreover, the current developments in the field of compatible filling materials are promising. Also the application of lasers is promising, but has still to prove its clinical usefulness.

  15. Optic atrophy and glaucomatous cupping.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Maumenee, A E

    1978-02-01

    We reviewed 170 eyes of 112 patients with optic atrophy from various causes. Special attention was directed towards measured cup:disk ratios as well as presence of glaucomatous-like cupping of the optic nerve head. We observed a small but significant increase in nerve head cupping in eyes with optic atrophy when compared to contralateral eyes, as well as to eyes of 50 diabetic patients. No characteristic glaucomatous disk changes were documented. We evaluated these findings with respect to possible causes of glaucomatous disk and field changes.

  16. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

  17. On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.

  18. Two Cases of Apical Ballooning Syndrome Masking Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ranjini Raina; Hakim, Fayaz A.; Hurst, R. Todd; Simper, David; Appleton, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Apical akinesis and dilation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is a typical feature of stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, whereas apical hypertrophy is seen in apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report the cases of 2 patients who presented with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and were subsequently found to have apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, after the apical ballooning from the takotsubo cardiomyopathy had resolved. The first patient, a 43-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, presented with shortness of breath, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and no significant coronary artery disease. An echocardiogram 2 weeks later revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and newly apparent apical hypertrophy. The 2nd patient, a 70-year-old woman with pancreatitis, presented with chest pain, apical akinesis, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.39, consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. One month later, her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal; however, hypertrophy of the left ventricular apex was newly noted. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases in which apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was masked by apical ballooning from stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:24808780

  19. A case of apical fenestration misdiagnosed as persistent apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Hiroki; Ida, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of apical fenestration misdiagnosed as persistent apical periodontitis. The patient was a 55-year-old woman who presented with persistent tooth pain at the right maxillary canine, despite repeated root canal treatment by a general practitioner. When the patient visited Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital, a CT examination was performed and apical fenestration diagnosed. The patient received an apicoectomy after which the symptoms disappeared. This suggests that dentists should consider the possibility of apical fenestration when examining patients with persistent tooth pain after repeated root canal treatment.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of anemometer cups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T

    1934-01-01

    The static lift and drag forces on three hemispherical and two conical cups were measured over a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees to 180 degrees and a range of Reynolds Numbers from very small up to 400,000. The problems of supporting the cup for measurement and the effect of turbulence were also studied. The results were compared with those of other investigators.

  1. Open Science- Space Coffee Cup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-11

    In low-gravity environments like the space station, fluids tend to get ‘sticky.’ Surface tension and capillary effects, which are overwhelmed by gravity on Earth, rule the day in space. As a result, coffee tends to cling to the walls of the cup. The zero-G coffee cup solves these problems by 'going with the flow': putting the strange behavior of fluid in microgravity to work.

  2. A fast microwave-assisted, acid-vapor, steam-cleaning procedure for autosampler cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ramon M.; Quináia, Sueli P.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Blanco, Thelma

    1998-05-01

    A new and fast procedure is proposed for cleaning autosampler cups using acid-vapor steam-cleaning with a miniaturized assembly in a microwave-heated sealed Teflon vessel. A glass cactus-shaped holder was made to support six polyethylene autosampler cups (volume, 2.0 mL) inside a 100 mL microwave vessel. Regent-grade nitric acid was added to the vessels, and the system was heated in a microwave oven for 5 min at 300 W. Chromium was determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The blank values were lower with cleaned cups compared to untreated cups (i.e., as received from supplier). The quantification limits, estimated from detection limits established with Milli-Q water, were 0.66 and 0.95 μg Cr L -1 for cleaned and untreated auto-sampler cups, respectively.

  3. Spoon-to-Cup Fading as Treatment for Cup Drinking in a Child with Intestinal Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Rebecca A.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Zeleny, Jason R.; Dempsey, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    We treated a child with intestinal failure who consumed solids on a spoon but not liquids from a cup. We used spoon-to-cup fading, which consisted of taping a spoon to a cup and then gradually moving the bowl of the spoon closer to the edge of the cup. Spoon-to-cup fading was effective for increasing consumption of liquids from a cup. (Contains 2…

  4. World Cup Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  5. World Cup Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  6. Microtubules regulate disassembly of epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I; McCall, Ingrid C; Babbin, Brian; Samarin, Stanislav N; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) form the apical junctional complex (AJC) which regulates cell-cell adhesion, paracellular permeability and cell polarity. The AJC is anchored on cytoskeletal structures including actin microfilaments and microtubules. Such cytoskeletal interactions are thought to be important for the assembly and remodeling of apical junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of microtubules in disassembly of the AJC in intestinal epithelial cells using a model of extracellular calcium depletion. Results Calcium depletion resulted in disruption and internalization of epithelial TJs and AJs along with reorganization of perijunctional F-actin into contractile rings. Microtubules reorganized into dense plaques positioned inside such F-actin rings. Depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole prevented junctional disassembly and F-actin ring formation. Stabilization of microtubules with either docetaxel or pacitaxel blocked contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated internalization of junctional proteins into a subapical cytosolic compartment. Likewise, pharmacological inhibition of microtubule motors, kinesins, prevented contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated disassembly of apical junctions. Kinesin-1 was enriched at the AJC in cultured epithelial cells and it also accumulated at epithelial cell-cell contacts in normal human colonic mucosa. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated association of kinesin-1 with the E-cadherin-catenin complex. Conclusion Our data suggest that microtubules play a role in disassembly of the AJC during calcium depletion by regulating formation of contractile F-actin rings and internalization of AJ/TJ proteins. PMID:16509970

  7. Can A Cup Anemometer `Underspeed'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, L.

    An analysis of cup-anemometer dynamics has been carried out inorder to determine whether the mean-wind velocity can have anegative bias. This would be contrary to the general belief thatcup anemometers always overspeed. Compared to prior analyses, theeffect of a possible nonlinearity of the calibration function isincluded. The conclusion is that neither longitudinal nor lateralvelocity fluctuations can contribute significantly to a negativebias. However, if a cup anemometer has an angular response thatfalls below the ideal cosine response, there will, as demonstratedin the concluding discussion, be a negative contribution from thevertical velocity fluctuations to the total bias, and thiscontribution may even outbalance the positive contributions fromthe longitudinal velocity fluctuations. Concrete evidence of suchexotic cup anemometer behaviour has not been reported in theliterature.

  8. Immunolocalization of FGF8/10 in the Apical Epidermal Peg and Blastema of the regenerating tail in lizard marks this apical growing area.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that Fibroblast Growth Factors are present in the regenerating tail tissues of lizards where they may stimulate the process of regeneration. The present study is focused on the immunolocalization of FGF8 and FGF10 in the regenerating lizard tail, two signaling proteins of the apical epidermal cup/ridge and mesenchymal blastema sustaining tail and limb regeneration in amphibians and the development of the tail and limbs in vertebrate embryos. Main immunoreactive protein bands at 15-18kDa for FGF8/10 are detected in the regenerating epidermis and only a band at 30 or 35kDa in the underlying connective tissues. FGF8 appears particularly localized in cells and nuclei of the apical epidermal peg and of the ependymal ampulla present at the tip of the regenerating tail. FGF10 is also immuno-localized in the apical epidermis but is particularly intensely localized in the mesenchyme of the apical blastema. In accordance with previous studies, the present observations supports the hypothesis that the apical epidermal peg and the ependymal tube with the few regenerated neurons present within it, release FGF8/10 that may contribute to maintenance of cell proliferation in the apical front of the mesenchyme for the growth of the regenerating tail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerodynamic Investigation of a Cup Anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, John D; Brescoll, George P

    1934-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of an investigation wherein the change of the normal force coefficient with Reynolds Number was obtained statically for a 15.5-centimeter hemisphere cup under the following conditions: (1) single cup with no interference; (2) single cup with three-cup interference; (3) four cups. The coefficients found in this research vary with Reynolds Number and are high as compared with those of Eiffel. The effect of interference upon a single cup is to increase the drag and normal force coefficients. The curve resulting from the summation of the coefficients for four cups agrees with the static torque curve of a Robinson type cup anemometer. All tests were carried on in the University of Detroit atmospheric wind tunnel during May 1933.

  10. Dummy Cup Helps Robot-Welder Programmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1990-01-01

    Dummy gas cup used on torch of robotic welder during programming and practice runs. Made of metal or plastic, dummy cup inexpensive and durable. Withstands bumps caused by programming errors, and is sized for special welding jobs within limited clearances. After robot satisfactorily programmed, replaced by ceramic cup of same dimensions for actual welding.

  11. Dummy Cup Helps Robot-Welder Programmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1990-01-01

    Dummy gas cup used on torch of robotic welder during programming and practice runs. Made of metal or plastic, dummy cup inexpensive and durable. Withstands bumps caused by programming errors, and is sized for special welding jobs within limited clearances. After robot satisfactorily programmed, replaced by ceramic cup of same dimensions for actual welding.

  12. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  13. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  14. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E. )

    1993-01-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  15. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-05-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for {sup 238}PuO{sup 2} fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  16. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-05-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for {sup 238}PuO{sup 2} fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  17. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, George B.; DeRoos, Larry F.; Stinnette, Samuel E.

    1993-01-01

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for 238PuO2 fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  18. Co-ordination of NDH and Cup proteins in CO2 uptake in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Han, Xunling; Sun, Nan; Xu, Min; Mi, Hualing

    2017-06-01

    High and low affinity CO2-uptake systems containing CupA (NDH-1MS) and CupB (NDH-1MS'), respectively, have been identified in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, but it is yet unknown how the complexes function in CO2 uptake. In this work, we found that deletion of cupB significantly lowered the growth of cells, and deletion of both cupA and cupB seriously suppressed the growth below pH 7.0 even under 3% CO2. The rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution was decreased slightly by deletion of cupA but significantly by deletion of cupB and more severely by deletion of both cupA and cupB, especially in response to changed pH conditions under 3% CO2. Furthermore, we found that assembly of CupB into NDH-1MS' was dependent on NdhD4 and NdhF4. NDH-1MS' was not affected in the NDH-1MS-degradation mutant and NDH-1MS was not affected in the NDH-1MS'-degradation mutants, indicating the existence of independent CO2-uptake systems under high CO2 conditions. The light-induced proton gradient across thylakoid membranes was significantly inhibited in ndhD-deletion mutants, suggesting that NdhDs functions in proton pumping. The carbonic anhydrase activity was suppressed partly in the cupA- or cupB-deletion mutant but severely in the mutant with both cupA and cupB deletion, indicating that CupA and CupB function in conversion of CO2 to HCO3-. In turn, deletion of cup genes lowered the transthylakoid membrane proton gradient and deletion of ndhDs decreased the CO2 hydration. Our results suggest that NDH-1M provides an alkaline region to activate Cup proteins involved in CO2 uptake. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyo; Boddy, Kate; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the evidence for or against the effectiveness of cupping as a treatment option for pain. Fourteen databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) testing cupping in patients with pain of any origin were considered. Trials using cupping with or without drawing blood were included, while trials comparing cupping with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials with cupping as concomitant treatment together with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials were also excluded if pain was not a central symptom of the condition. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by three reviewers. Seven RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested significant pain reduction for cupping in low back pain compared with usual care (P < .01) and analgesia (P < .001). Another two RCTs also showed positive effects of cupping in cancer pain (P < .05) and trigeminal neuralgia (P < .01) compared with anticancer drugs and analgesics, respectively. Two RCTs reported favorable effects of cupping on pain in brachialgia compared with usual care (P = .03) or heat pad (P < .001). The other RCT failed to show superior effects of cupping on pain in herpes zoster compared with anti-viral medication (P = .065). Currently there are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of cupping in the management of pain. Most of the existing trials are of poor quality. Therefore, more rigorous studies are required before the effectiveness of cupping for the treatment of pain can be determined. PMID:19423657

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Robinson-Type Cup Anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a Robinson-type anemometer. The investigation covered force measurements on individual cups, as well as static and dynamic torque measurements and calibrations on complete cup wheels. In the tests on individual cups 5 cup forms were used and in the measurements on complete cup wheels 4 cup wheels with 3 arm lengths for each cup wheel were tested. All the results are presented in graphical form.

  1. Cheaper Custom Shielding Cups For Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.

    1992-01-01

    New way of making special-purpose shielding cups for gas/tungsten arc welding from hobby ceramic greatly reduces cost. Pattern machined in plastic. Plaster-of-paris mold made, and liquid ceramic poured into mold. Cost 90 percent less than cup machined from lava rock.

  2. Cheaper Custom Shielding Cups For Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.

    1992-01-01

    New way of making special-purpose shielding cups for gas/tungsten arc welding from hobby ceramic greatly reduces cost. Pattern machined in plastic. Plaster-of-paris mold made, and liquid ceramic poured into mold. Cost 90 percent less than cup machined from lava rock.

  3. Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Imanol; Aguado, Maite

    2013-06-01

    The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the ratio between the first two coefficients in the Fourier series decomposition of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force.

  4. Vacuum extraction: a randomized controlled comparison of the New Generation cup with the original Bird cup.

    PubMed

    Carmody, F; Grant, A; Somchiwong, M

    1986-01-01

    A new design of vacuum extractor cup--'the New Generation cup'--has recently been introduced into clinical practice. Its major modification is a traction cord which passes around the rim of the cup for 180 degrees and is free to slide within the rim. Claims that this design 'enables the operator to pull obliquely without causing the cup to tilt' and thereby 'reduces failure rates, reduces the incidence of scalp trauma and increases operator confidence' have been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. 123 women with singleton pregnancies of 37 completed weeks or more, with a cephalic presentation and for whom a decision to deliver by vacuum extraction had been taken, were randomly allocated to the 'New Generation' cup or BIRD's original vacuum extractor cup; 50 mm anterior and posterior cups were used in both groups as appropriate. The two groups were comparable at entry and delivered by obstetricians of similar status. The two types of cup were similar in respect of number of failures to deliver with the vacuum extractor, correct positioning of the cup, number of pulls required for delivery and time taken to expedite delivery. Cup detachments occurred in nine cases allocated to the 'New Generation' cup compared with four allocated to the original BIRD cup. The babies in the two groups were in similar condition at birth and sustained similar amounts of scalp trauma. Neonatal jaundice, both clinical and biochemical, was more common in babies delivered with the 'New Generation cup' and this was reflected in greater use of phototherapy in this group. Operators were equally divided in their preference of cup.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Comparison of vacuum extraction delivery between the conventional metal cup and the new soft rubber cup.

    PubMed

    Srisomboon, J; Piyamongkol, W; Sahapong, V; Mongkolchaipak, S

    1998-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness and complications of vacuum extraction delivery between the conventional metal cup and the silicone rubber cup. A prospective randomized clinical trial of 90 pregnant women requiring assisted vaginal delivery who met the predetermined criteria for vacuum extraction were allocated to delivery by the Malstrom metal cup (46 cases) or the silicone rubber cup (44 cases). The two groups were similar in respect of age, parity gestational age and indications for assisted vaginal delivery. The mean and median numbers of tractions and time from cup application to delivery were not significantly different between the groups. The overall success rate was higher in the metal cup (89.1%) than in the rubber cup (79.5%) but not significantly different. The silicone cup was more likely to fail in cases of occiput posterior position, excessive caput, and severe degree of molding. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of Apgar scores, birth canal injury, and maternal blood loss. Scalp injuries occurred more frequently with the metal than with the rubber cup (P = 0.006). Vacuum extraction delivery with the silicone rubber cup is associated with reduced scalp injuries but has a greater tendency to fail when the fetus presents in occiput posterior position, has excessive caput or severe degree of molding.

  6. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  7. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  8. A tribological study of UHMWPE acetabular cups and polyurethane compliant layer acetabular cups.

    PubMed

    Smith, S L; Ash, H E; Unsworth, A

    2000-01-01

    A novel design of polyurethane compliant layer acetabular cup has been developed through a series of friction, creep and wear tests. Friction tests were initially conducted on ABG standard form, polyurethane acetabular cups and an ABG standard form, UHMWPE acetabular cup for comparison. The polyurethane cups showed lower friction than the UHMWPE cup with maximum friction factors between 0. 008 and 0.02 compared with 0.035 for the UHMWPE cup. This indicated that, in the polyurethane cups, more of the load across the joint was carried by the fluid entrapped in the joint space rather than with asperity contact, compared with the UHMWPE cup. The inherent compliance of the polyurethane is used to promote elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. However, this compliance raised concerns over excessive creep, which may in turn adversely affect tribological performance. Therefore, creep tests were undertaken on the ABG standard form, polyurethane acetabular cups followed by further friction tests. Small amounts of creep occurred in the polyurethane cups at ambient temperature, which reduced the friction slightly (maximum friction factors of 0.009) due to increased conformity between the head and the cup. However, at 37 degrees C, greater creep occurred causing pinching of the femoral head by the acetabular cup resulting in lubricant starvation and higher friction (maximum friction factors of 0.035). The design of the polyurethane cups was subsequently modified to incorporate a flared rim to eliminate the possibility of fluid starvation through pinching. Creep in polyurethane acetabular cups is also affected by the method of fixation of the cups, due to the conformity with and the stiffness of the cup backing. Hence, a one-million-cycle wear test was performed on five ABG flared form, polyurethane acetabular cups on the Mk. I Durham Hip Joint Wear Simulator to evaluate the best method of fixation for the polyurethane cups. The smallest amount of penetration, due to creep and wear

  9. The Apical Complex Provides a Regulated Gateway for Secretion of Invasion Factors in Toxoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Katris, Nicholas J.; van Dooren, Giel G.; McMillan, Paul J.; Hanssen, Eric; Tilley, Leann; Waller, Ross F.

    2014-01-01

    The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring—the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites. PMID:24743791

  10. Regeneration of Cassava Plants from Apical Meristems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Apical meristem culture offers a rapid, efficient method for vegetative propagation of plants and for eliminating systemic viral infections. Since...the first demonstration that virus-free dahlia plants could be regenerated from virus-infected plants by culturing apical meristems , this technique has...widely for human consumption. Propagation through stem cuttings encourages the spread of many virus diseases, such as cassava mosaic virus. This paper reports on procedures for regenerating cassava plants from the apical meristems .

  11. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  12. Universal Assembly for Captive Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marke, M. L.; Hagopian, B.

    1982-01-01

    New method allows for virtually any bolt to be easily converted to "captive" bolt. Method eliminates need for separate design for each application. Cup-shaped washer that is flattened secures tap to bolt. Wire attached to tab holds bolt assembly captive. Flattening washer can also be done during installation of bolt. Wash, tab and spacer are all made of corrosion-resistant steel.

  13. Membrane rafting: from apical sorting to phase segregation.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Unal; Simons, Kai

    2010-05-03

    In this review we describe the history of the development of the raft concept for membrane sub-compartmentalization. From its early beginnings as a mechanism for apical sorting in epithelial cells the concept has evolved to a general principle for membrane organisation. After a shaky start with crude methodology based on detergent extraction the field has become increasingly sophisticated, employing a host of different methods that support the existence of dynamic raft domains in membranes. These are composed of fluctuating nanoscale assemblies of sphingolipid, cholesterol and proteins that can be stabilized to coalesce, forming platforms that function in membrane signalling and trafficking.

  14. Constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Robert Aaron; Runge, Steven William; Moran, William Michael

    2004-11-01

    In Aplysia californica enterocytes, alanine-stimulated Na+ absorption increases both apical membrane exocytosis and fractional capacitance (fCa; a measure of relative apical membrane surface area). These increases are thought to reduce membrane tension during periods of nutrient absorption that cause the enterocytes to swell osmotically. In the absence of alanine, exocytosis and fCa are constant. These findings imply equal rates of constitutive endocytosis and exocytosis and constitutive recycling of the apical plasma membrane. Thus, the purpose of this study was to confirm and determine the relative extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes. Biotinylated lectins are commonly used to label plasma membranes and to investigate plasma membrane recycling. Of fourteen biotinylated lectins tested, biotinylated wheat germ agglutinin (bWGA) bound preferentially to the enterocytes apical surface. Therefore, we used bWGA, avidin D (which binds tightly to biotin), and the UV fluorophore 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (AMCA)-conjugated avidin D to assess the extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling. A temperature-dependent (20 vs. 4 degrees C) experimental protocol employed the use of two tissues from each of five snails and resulted in a approximately 60% difference in apical surface fluorescence intensity. Because the extent of membrane recycling is proportional to the difference in surface fluorescence intensity, this difference reveals a relatively high rate of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes.

  15. A plasma membrane template for macropinocytic cups

    PubMed Central

    Veltman, Douwe M; Williams, Thomas D; Bloomfield, Gareth; Chen, Bi-Chang; Betzig, Eric; Insall, Robert H; Kay, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis is a fundamental mechanism that allows cells to take up extracellular liquid into large vesicles. It critically depends on the formation of a ring of protrusive actin beneath the plasma membrane, which develops into the macropinocytic cup. We show that macropinocytic cups in Dictyostelium are organised around coincident intense patches of PIP3, active Ras and active Rac. These signalling patches are invariably associated with a ring of active SCAR/WAVE at their periphery, as are all examined structures based on PIP3 patches, including phagocytic cups and basal waves. Patch formation does not depend on the enclosing F-actin ring, and patches become enlarged when the RasGAP NF1 is mutated, showing that Ras plays an instructive role. New macropinocytic cups predominantly form by splitting from existing ones. We propose that cup-shaped plasma membrane structures form from self-organizing patches of active Ras/PIP3, which recruit a ring of actin nucleators to their periphery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20085.001 PMID:27960076

  16. Uncoupling apical constriction from tissue invagination.

    PubMed

    Chung, SeYeon; Kim, Sangjoon; Andrew, Deborah J

    2017-03-06

    Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction. We demonstrate that neither loss of spatially coordinated apical constriction nor its complete blockage prevent internalization and tube formation, although such manipulations affect the geometry of invagination. When apical constriction is disrupted, compressing force generated by a tissue-level myosin cable contributes to SG invagination. We demonstrate that fully elongated polarized SGs can form outside the embryo, suggesting that tube formation and elongation are intrinsic properties of the SG.

  17. An updated review of the efficacy of cupping therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.

  18. An Updated Review of the Efficacy of Cupping Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Method Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. Results 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Conclusions Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted. PMID:22389674

  19. Analysis of version in the acetabular cup.

    PubMed

    Seradge, H; Nagle, K R; Miller, R J

    1982-06-01

    To determine the amount of anteversion or retroversion of the acetabular component of the implanted total hip prosthesis, two anteroposterior radiographs of the hip are obtained, with the contralateral hip flexed to compensate for the possible existing flexion contracture. The X-ray beam is centered on the implanted total hip in one radiograph, and moved away from it toward the contralateral hip in the second radiograph. If the cup is anteverted, the opening will seem wider in the second radiograph. To calculate the angle, the location of the center of the X-ray beam on the X-ray plate must be know. The center of the X-ray beam can be marked on the radiograph by putting a metalic cross on the patient, over the centering cross of the X-ray light source. If the distance of the signature of the X-ray's center beam is less than 8 mm for the center of the cup on the X-ray film, the cup version can be calculated from the arcsin of the shortest to the largest diameter of the cup. If the central ray's signature is farther away, correction is necessary for this calculation. Also, the variable parameters, e.g., cup size, and magnification rate, should be considered in the calculations. The anteroposterior radiographs of the implanted total hip, obtained with the central beam being marked on the X-ray plate, not only are useful for evaluation of the implant but also can be used to calculate the version angle with an accuracy of +/-2 degrees. The necessary calculation is tabulated for cups with an outside diameter of 44-56 mm.

  20. Pak1 regulates the orientation of apical polarization and lumen formation by distinct pathways.

    PubMed

    deLeon, Orlando; Puglise, Jason M; Liu, Fengming; Smits, Jos; ter Beest, Martin B; Zegers, Mirjam M

    2012-01-01

    The development of the basic architecture of branching tubules enclosing a central lumen that characterizes most epithelial organs crucially depends on the apico-basolateral polarization of epithelial cells. Signals from the extracellular matrix control the orientation of the apical surface, so that it faces the lumen interior, opposite to cell-matrix adhesion sites. This orientation of the apical surface is thought to be intrinsically linked to the formation of single lumens. We previously demonstrated in three-dimensional cyst cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that signaling by β1 integrins regulates the orientation of the apical surface, via a mechanism that depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Here, we investigated whether the Rac1 effector Pak1 is a downstream effector in this pathway. Expression of constitutive active Pak1 phenocopies the effect of β1 integrin inhibition in that it misorients the apical surface and induces a multilumen phenotype. The misorientation of apical surfaces depends on the interaction of active Pak1 with PIX proteins and is linked to defects in basement membrane assembly. In contrast, the multilumen phenotype was independent of PIX and the basement membrane. Therefore, Pak1 likely regulates apical polarization and lumen formation by two distinct pathways.

  1. Pak1 Regulates the Orientation of Apical Polarization and Lumen Formation by Distinct Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Jos; ter Beest, Martin B.; Zegers, Mirjam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the basic architecture of branching tubules enclosing a central lumen that characterizes most epithelial organs crucially depends on the apico-basolateral polarization of epithelial cells. Signals from the extracellular matrix control the orientation of the apical surface, so that it faces the lumen interior, opposite to cell-matrix adhesion sites. This orientation of the apical surface is thought to be intrinsically linked to the formation of single lumens. We previously demonstrated in three-dimensional cyst cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that signaling by β1 integrins regulates the orientation of the apical surface, via a mechanism that depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Here, we investigated whether the Rac1 effector Pak1 is a downstream effector in this pathway. Expression of constitutive active Pak1 phenocopies the effect of β1 integrin inhibition in that it misorients the apical surface and induces a multilumen phenotype. The misorientation of apical surfaces depends on the interaction of active Pak1 with PIX proteins and is linked to defects in basement membrane assembly. In contrast, the multilumen phenotype was independent of PIX and the basement membrane. Therefore, Pak1 likely regulates apical polarization and lumen formation by two distinct pathways. PMID:22815903

  2. Factors affecting apical leakage assessment.

    PubMed

    Karagöz-Küçükay, I; Küçükay, S; Bayirli, G

    1993-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of immediate versus delayed immersion time, and passive dye immersion versus centrifuged dye on apical leakage measurements. Eighty-four extracted human teeth with single straight canals were instrumented and divided into four experimental groups of 20 teeth each plus 2 negative and 2 positive controls. Low-temperature injection thermoplasticized gutta-percha and sealer were used to obturate the root canals. In groups A and B the filling materials were allowed to set for 72 h before the teeth were placed in India ink. In groups C and D the teeth were placed in India ink immediately after obturation. Also, in groups B and D the teeth were centrifuged in India ink for 20 min at 3,000 rpm before being immersed in ink. After 72 h in India ink, the teeth were cleared, and the linear extent of ink penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in leakage among the experimental groups whether the teeth were immersed in ink immediately after obturation or after setting of the filling materials for 72 h, and whether or not the teeth were centrifuged in ink prior to immersion.

  3. Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years Past ... Athlete Stands Again…On His Own! / Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years Spring ...

  4. Improved analytical method to study the cup anemometer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindado, Santiago; Ramos-Cenzano, Alvaro; Cubas, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics is analytically studied based on the aerodynamics of a single cup. The effect of the rotation on the aerodynamic force is included in the analytical model, together with the displacement of the aerodynamic center during one turn of the cup. The model can be fitted to the testing results, indicating the presence of both the aforementioned effects.

  5. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    MedlinePlus

    ... production increases during a meal and helps neutralize acid production and rinse food particles from the mouth.) If your child is thirsty between meals, offer water in the cup. Do not let your child ...

  6. Nuclear Physics in a Coffee Cup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses physical phenomena which can be demonstrated by using a coffee cup, involving the short-range field, alpha-particle scattering, standing waves, and Bohr's closed electron orbits. Indicates that observation of the physics of the classroom in everyday objects can attract student interest in physics learning. (CC)

  7. Fast Faraday Cup With High Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, Craig E

    2006-03-14

    A circuit card stripline Fast Faraday cup quantitatively measures the picosecond time structure of a charged particle beam. The stripline configuration maintains signal integrity, and stitching of the stripline increases the bandwidth. A calibration procedure ensures the measurement of the absolute charge and time structure of the charged particle beam.

  8. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  14. Biorobotic adhesion in water using suction cups.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hrubes, J Dana; Leinhos, Henry A

    2008-03-01

    Echeneid fish, limpets and octopi use suction cups for underwater adhesion. When echeneid fish use suckers to 'hitch a ride' on sharks (which have riblet-patterned skins), the apparent absence of any pump or plumbing may be an advantage over biorobotic suction cups. An intriguing question is: How do they achieve seemingly persistent leak-free contact at low energy cost over rough surfaces? The design features of their suckers are explored in a biorobotic context of adhesion in water over rough surfaces. We have carried out experiments to compare the release force and tenacity of man-made suction cups with those reported for limpets and echeneid fish. Applied tensile and shear release forces were monotonically increased until release. The effects of cup size and type, host surface roughness, curvature and liquid surface tension have been examined. The flow of water in the sharkskin-like host surface roughness has been characterized. The average tenacity is 5.28 N cm(-2) (sigma = 0.53 N cm(-2), N = 37) in the sub-ambient pressure range of 14.6-49.0 kPa, in man-made cups for monotonically increasing applied release force. The tenacity is lower for harmonically oscillating release forces. The dynamic structural interactions between the suction cup and the oscillating applied forcing are discussed. Inspired by the matching of sharkskin riblet topology in echeneid fish suckers, it was found that biorobotic sealed contact over rough surfaces is also feasible when the suction cup makes a negative copy of the rough host surface. However, for protracted, persistent contact, the negative topology would have to be maintained by active means. Energy has to be spent to maintain the negative host roughness topology to minute detail, and protracted hitch-riding on sharks for feeding may not be free for echeneid fish. Further work is needed on the mechanism and efficiency of the densely populated tiny actuators in the fish suckers that maintain leak-proof contact with minimal

  15. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  16. APIC: A generic interface for sequencing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bisson, G.; Garreau, A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, we describe the APIC graphical interface that aims at displaying the results produced by the genomic sequence analysis methods and at helping a comparison of these results. The major feature of APIC lies in its genericity. As a matter of fact, this interface can obviously be used to visualize genetic or physical maps but it also able to display other kinds of information such as curves or pictures. On the one hand, APIC provides the biologist who builds a new sequence analysis method with a standard interface allowing to display his results. Thus, he can avoid implementing a specific visualization tool. On the other hand, even when the methods already have their own interfaces, using APIC has the advantage of giving a homogeneous way to compare several results coming from different analysis tools. Moreover, it provides some powerful functions for navigating and browsing into the results.

  17. Comparison of flanged and unflanged acetabular cup design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Adequate depth of cement penetration and cement mantle thickness is important for the durability of cemented cups. A flanged cup, as opposed to unflanged, has been suggested to give a more uniform cement mantle and superior cement pressurization, thus improving the depth of cement penetration. This hypothesis was tested experimentally. Materials and methods The same cup design with and without flange (both without cement spacers) was investigated regarding intraacetabular pressure, cement mantle thickness, and depth of cement penetration. With machine control, the cups were inserted into open-pore ceramic acetabular models (10 flanged, 10 unflanged) and into paired cadaver acetabuli (10 flanged, 10 unflanged) with prior pressurization of the cement. Results No differences in intraacetabular pressures during cup insertion were found, but unflanged cups tended to migrate more towards the acetabular pole. Flanged cups resulted in thicker cement mantles because of less bottoming out, whereas no differences in cement penetration into the bone were observed. Interpretation Flanged cups do not generate higher cementation pressure or better cement penetration than unflanged cups. A possible advantage of the flange, however, may be to protect the cup from bottoming out, and there is possibly better closure of the periphery around the cup, sealing off the cement-bone interface. PMID:20860522

  18. Effectiveness of four sterilizing procedures on prophylaxis cups.

    PubMed

    Forgas, L B; Durland, B J; Duncanson, M G; Parker, D E

    1990-12-01

    Though manufactured as a single use, disposable item, prophylaxis (prophy) cups are often cleaned, sterilized or disinfected, and re-used. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 1) sterilization of prophy cups is achieved during routine procedures 2) debris is completely removed after cleaning. Three types of prophy cups (250 of each type) were evaluated. Prophy cups were contaminated with a pumice slurry containing B. stearothermophilus spore. After contamination, cups were distributed equally between ultrasonic or manual cleaning, then further distributed to one of four sterilization procedures: ETO, chemiclave, autoclave, and glutaraldehyde (GLU) immersion (6 3/4 hours). Five cups served as control and were not subjected to sterilization. Additionally, 15 prophy cups were contaminated and immersed in GLU for 10 minutes. Results indicate sterilization may be achieved by all sterilization methods tested. However, recommended disinfection immersion time of 10 minutes for GLU was not effective in achieving adequate disinfection of prophy cups. Photomicrographs indicate debris remains trapped in prophy cups after manual or ultrasonic cleaning. Prophy cup sterilization may be achieved through standard routine sterilization procedures, but remaining debris is likely due to porosity of rubber and configuration of the cups. Time management, cost effectiveness, and sound clinical judgment suggest single use.

  19. Reusable and disposable cups: An energy-based evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1994-11-01

    A group of five different types of reusable and disposable hot drink cups have been analyzed in detail with respect to their overall energy costs during fabrication and use. Electricity generating methods and efficiencies have been found to be key factors in the primary energy consumption for the washing of reusable cups and a less important factor in cup fabrication. In Canada or the United States, over 500 or more use cycles, reusable cups are found to have about the same or slightly more energy consumption, use for use, as moulded polystyrene foam cups used once and then discarded. For the same area paper cups used once and discarded are found to consume less fossil fuel energy per use than any of the other cup types examined. Details of this analysis, which could facilitate the comparative assessment of other scenarios, are presented.

  20. 76 FR 77375 - Airworthiness Directives; Apical Industries, Inc., (Apical) Emergency Float Kits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ..., Inc., (Apical) Emergency Float Kits AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This amendment adopts a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Apical emergency float kits... certain supplemental type certificates with certain emergency float kits, was published in the...

  1. Apical dominance and apical control in multiple flushing of temperate woody species.

    Treesearch

    M. Cline; C. Harrington

    2007-01-01

    In young plants of many woody species, the first flush of growth in the spring may be followed by one or more flushes of the terminal shoot if growing conditions are favorable. The occurrence of these additional flushes may significantly affect crown form and structure. Apical dominance (AD) and apical control (AC) are thought to be important control mechanisms in this...

  2. Solar Probe Cup - Demonstrated Laboratory Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Larson, D. E.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup instrument that will fly on the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) spacecraft, orbiting the Sun as close as 9.86 solar radii from the center of the Sun. The SPC instrument is designed to measure the thermal solar wind plasma (protons, alphas, and electrons) that will be encountered throughout its close encounter with the Sun. Due to the solar wind flow being primarily radial, the SPC instrument is pointed directly at the Sun, resulting in an extreme thermal environment that must be tolerated throughout the primary data collection phase. Laboratory testing has been performed over the past 6 months to demonstrate the instrument's performance relative to its requirements, and to characterize the measurements over the expected thermal range. This presentation will demonstrate the performance of the instrument as measured in the lab, describe the operational configurations planned for flight, and discuss the data products that will be created.

  3. Sampling Bias on Cup Anemometer Mean Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, L.; Hansen, O. F.; Højstrup, J.

    2003-10-01

    The cup anemometer signal can be sampled in several ways to obtain the mean wind speed. Here we discuss the sampling of series of mean wind speeds from consecutive rotor rotations, followed by unweighted and weighted averaging. It is shown that the unweighted averaging creates a positive bias on the long-term mean wind speed, which is at least one order of magnitude larger than the positive bias from the weighted averaging, also known as the sample-and-hold method. For a homogeneous, neutrally stratified flow the first biases are 1%-2%. For comparison the biases due to fluctuations of the three wind velocity components and due to calibration non-linearity are determined under the same conditions. The largest of these is the v-bias from direction fluctuations. The calculations pertain to the Risø P2546A model cup anemometer.

  4. Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups

    SciTech Connect

    Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf

    2010-06-15

    The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function 'Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

  5. CUP-syndrome diagnostic procedure scheme.

    PubMed

    Pujanek, Zuzanna; Burduk, Paweł K

    2013-01-01

    Patients with CUP-Syndrome represent a small percentage of patients treated by ENT doctor. Often, in spite of the implementation detailed diagnostics, detection of the primary tumor fails. Very important element is to follow the correct sequence of tests and taking into account conditions outside ENT. I our article, we would like to propose a diagnostic scheme including interview with patient, laryngological and imaging tests and multi-disciplinary consulting. We hope that this scheme will facilitate the treatment of patients with CUP-Syndrome and increase the efficiency of detection of primary tumor. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystal structure of the CupB6 adhesive tip from the chaperone-usher family of pili from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Masooma; Garnett, James; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Muhl, Daniela; Filloux, Alain; Matthews, Steve

    2016-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that can cause chronic infection of the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Chaperone-usher systems in P. aeruginosa are known to translocate and assemble adhesive pili on the bacterial surface and contribute to biofilm formation within the host. Here, we report the crystal structure of the tip adhesion subunit CupB6 from the cupB1-6 gene cluster. The tip domain is connected to the pilus via the N-terminal donor strand from the main pilus subunit CupB1. Although the CupB6 adhesion domain bears structural features similar to other CU adhesins it displays an unusual polyproline helix adjacent to a prominent surface pocket, which are likely the site for receptor recognition.

  7. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  8. Uncoupling apical constriction from tissue invagination

    PubMed Central

    Chung, SeYeon; Kim, Sangjoon; Andrew, Deborah J

    2017-01-01

    Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction. We demonstrate that neither loss of spatially coordinated apical constriction nor its complete blockage prevent internalization and tube formation, although such manipulations affect the geometry of invagination. When apical constriction is disrupted, compressing force generated by a tissue-level myosin cable contributes to SG invagination. We demonstrate that fully elongated polarized SGs can form outside the embryo, suggesting that tube formation and elongation are intrinsic properties of the SG. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22235.001 PMID:28263180

  9. Microbiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2013-04-01

    Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease.

  10. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  11. CAMSAP3 orients the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubule arrays in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Toya, Mika; Kobayashi, Saeko; Kawasaki, Miwa; Shioi, Go; Kaneko, Mari; Ishiuchi, Takashi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Meng, Wenxiang; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells exhibit a characteristic array of microtubules that are oriented along the apicobasal axis of the cells. The minus-ends of these microtubules face apically, and the plus-ends face toward the basal side. The mechanisms underlying this epithelial-specific microtubule assembly remain unresolved, however. Here, using mouse intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells, we show that the microtubule minus-end binding protein CAMSAP3 (calmodulin-regulated–spectrin-associated protein 3) plays a pivotal role in orienting the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubules in epithelial cells. In these cells, CAMSAP3 accumulated at the apical cortices, and tethered the longitudinal microtubules to these sites. Camsap3 mutation or depletion resulted in a random orientation of these microtubules; concomitantly, the stereotypic positioning of the nucleus and Golgi apparatus was perturbed. In contrast, the integrity of the plasma membrane was hardly affected, although its structural stability was decreased. Further analysis revealed that the CC1 domain of CAMSAP3 is crucial for its apical localization, and that forced mislocalization of CAMSAP3 disturbs the epithelial architecture. These findings demonstrate that apically localized CAMSAP3 determines the proper orientation of microtubules, and in turn that of organelles, in mature mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:26715742

  12. Wear and periprosthetic osteolysis in a match-paired study of modular and nonmodular uncemented acetabular cups.

    PubMed

    González Della Valle, Alejandro; Su, Edwin; Zoppi, Adriana; Sculco, Thomas P; Salvati, Eduardo A

    2004-12-01

    The wear and prevalence of periprosthetic osteolysis at 5 to 8 years of follow-up of the Trilogy cup, which has a modular liner assembled during surgery, was compared with the Implex cup, which has a fixed liner preassembled at the factory. Sixty-three patients (65 hips) with a Trilogy cup and 64 patients (65 hips) with an Implex cup were match-paired for sex, age, height, weight, and diagnosis (osteoarthritis). All patients had a cemented stem with a 28-mm head and a successful clinical and radiographic result. After an average follow-up of 5.65 years, radiographs were studied to determine the total penetration, using the Livermore technique, and the presence of osteolysis. The average total wear in the Trilogy group was 0.47 mm (range, 0-1.95 mm); for the Implex cup, it was 0.43 mm (range, 0-1.45 mm) (P.99). One patient in each group presented with periacetabular osteolysis (P.99). There was no difference in the wear rate and prevalence of periprosthetic osteolysis between the 2 groups.

  13. Faraday Cup Detector Array with Electronic Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidemann, Adi A.; Schumacher, Frank. J.; Darling, Robert B.; Isakharov, Arthur; Jones, Patrick

    2000-03-01

    A position sensitive Faraday cup detector array [FCDA] for ion beam detection has been developed. The FCDA is combined with an electronic multiplexing unit that allows collecting and integrating the charge deposited in the array and simultaneously reading out the same. The interface allows a duty cycle of > 98% for the position sensitive read-out, thus monitoring the entire array simultaneously. The multiplexing is achieved by collecting the charge with large number of small, and electronically de-coupled Faraday cups. The device measures absolute ion currents, has a wide dynamic range from 0.2 picoA to 2 microA, and a cross talk of less than 750:1. Read-out speeds ranging from 37 Hz to 117 kHz have been demonstrated. The low cross talk of the FCDA originates from an effective electronic de-coupling of the cups and a gray-code driven MUX-cascade as interface. The integration of the interface with the detector array on a printed circuit board allows further, reducing the number of feedthroughs that are necessary to monitor the array to six. Detector pitch sizes from 150 mm to 2.1mm haven been realized. A linear system composed of 256 elements and a square arrangement with 64 elements will be discussed.

  14. Apical aneurysm of Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, J S; Mello De Oliveira, J A; Frederigue, U; Lima Filho, E C

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of Chagas's heart disease was carried out by a review of necropsy reports with special reference to the lesion known as the apical aneurysm. It was concluded that this lesion was more frequent in men, was unrelated to age, and was unrelated to heart weight. Patients dying of the cardiac consequences of Chagas's cardiomyopathy were more likely to have an apical aneurysm than those whose death was unrelated to the disease but the mode of death (sudden, or with heart failure) was unconnected with its presence. Transillumination from within the ventricle at necropsy was not only useful in demonstrating the aneurysm but also showed areas of myocardial thinning elsewhere. Thrombosis within the lesion was frequent. The aetiology of the apical aneurysm is discussed and it is concluded that while ischaemia, inflammation, thrombosis, and mechanical factors may produce and localise this lesion, the underlying cause is the basic pathogenetic process-parasympathetic nerve cell destruction. Images PMID:7295439

  15. Compilation of LLNL CUP-2 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eppich, G.; Kips, R.; Lindvall, R.

    2016-07-31

    The CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate (UOC) standard reference material, a powder, was produced at the Blind River uranium refinery of Eldorado Resources Ltd. in Canada in 1986. This material was produced as part of a joint effort by the Canadian Certified Reference Materials Project and the Canadian Uranium Producers Metallurgical Committee to develop a certified reference material for uranium concentration and the concentration of several impurity constituents. This standard was developed to satisfy the requirements of the UOC mining and milling industry, and was characterized with this purpose in mind. To produce CUP-2, approximately 25 kg of UOC derived from the Blind River uranium refinery was blended, homogenized, and assessed for homogeneity by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The homogenized material was then packaged into bottles, containing 50 g of material each, and distributed for analysis to laboratories in 1986. The CUP-2 UOC standard was characterized by an interlaboratory analysis program involving eight member laboratories, six commercial laboratories, and three additional volunteer laboratories. Each laboratory provided five replicate results on up to 17 analytes, including total uranium concentration, and moisture content. The selection of analytical technique was left to each participating laboratory. Uranium was reported on an “as-received” basis; all other analytes (besides moisture content) were reported on a “dry-weight” basis. A bottle of 25g of CUP-2 UOC standard as described above was purchased by LLNL and characterized by the LLNL Nuclear Forensics Group. Non-destructive and destructive analytical techniques were applied to the UOC sample. Information obtained from short-term techniques such as photography, gamma spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to guide the performance of longer-term techniques such as ICP-MS. Some techniques, such as XRF and ICP-MS, provided complementary types of data. The results

  16. An Unusual Left Ventricular Apical Mass

    PubMed Central

    Cavallero, Erika; Curzi, Mirko; Cioccarelli, Sara Anna; Papalia, Giulio; Ornaghi, Diego; Bragato, Renato Maria

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular apical masses constitute a rare finding. Imaging properties together with the clinical history of the patient usually allow an etiologic definition. We report a challenging case of an ambiguous left ventricular apical mass of uncertain nature till histological examination. Points of interest were singular clinical history and echocardiographic findings, although not conclusive in hypothesis generating. Furthermore to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the rare attempt to excise a deep left ventricular mass with a mini-invasive surgical approach. PMID:28465915

  17. Comparison of Endodontic Biomaterials as Apical Barriers in Simulated Open Apices

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mamak; Nima, Moradi Majd; Shivaie Kojoori, Shiva; Norooz Oliaie, Hooryeh; Naghavi, Neda; Asgary, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effect of apical foramen diameter and apical barrier thickness on the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) plugs in open apices. Materials and Methods. The fluid filtration method was conducted on a total of 136 roots. Samples were randomly divided into two control (n = 8) and four experimental groups (n = 30). Apical foramen diameters measuring 1.1 and 1.7 mm were shaped for groups “1 and 3” and “2 and 4”, respectively. In groups 1 and 2 MTA plug and in groups 3 and 4 CEM plug was inserted. The groups were further divided into subgroups according to the thickness of the apical plugs (3- or 5-mm). Microleakage was measured at 1, 7, and 30 days. Results. Mixed ANOVA test showed that the microleakage in groups 1 and 3 as well as all 5-mm plug subgroups were significantly less than groups 2 and 4 (P < 0.05) and 3-mm subgroups (P < 0.05), respectively. Microleakage was significantly lower at 30th day (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Reducing canal diameter or increasing apical plug thickness and the time interval increases the sealing ability of apical barriers. Furthermore, in comparison to MTA, CEM plugs demonstrated superior sealing ability. PMID:22792475

  18. Apical versus Non-Apical Lead: Is ICD Lead Position Important for Successful Defibrillation?

    PubMed

    Amit, Guy; Wang, Jia; Connolly, Stuart J; Glikson, Michael; Hohnloser, Stephan; Wright, David J; Brachmann, Johannes; Defaye, Pascal; Neuzner, Joerg; Mabo, Philippe; Vanerven, Liselot; Vinolas, Xavier; O'Hara, Gilles; Kautzner, Josef; Appl, Ursula; Gadler, Fredrik; Stein, Kenneth; Konstantino, Yuval; Healey, Jeff S

    2016-05-01

    We aim to compare the acute and long-term success of defibrillation between non-apical and apical ICD lead position. The position of the ventricular lead was recorded by the implanting physician for 2,475 of 2,500 subjects in the Shockless IMPLant Evaluation (SIMPLE) trial, and subjects were grouped accordingly as non-apical or apical. The success of intra-operative defibrillation testing and of subsequent clinical shocks were compared. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for the impact of differences in baseline variables between these groups. There were 541 leads that were implanted at a non-apical position (21.9%). Patients implanted with a non-apical lead had a higher rate of secondary prevention indication. Non-apical location resulted in a lower mean R-wave amplitude (14.0 vs. 15.2, P < 0.001), lower mean pacing impedance (662 ohm vs. 728 ohm, P < 0.001), and higher mean pacing threshold (0.70 V vs. 0.66 V, P = 0.01). Single-coil leads and cardiac resynchronization devices were used more often in non-apical implants. The success of intra-operative defibrillation was similar between propensity score matched groups (89%). Over a mean follow-up of 3 years, there were no significant differences in the yearly rates of appropriate shock (5.5% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.98), failed appropriate first shock (0.9% vs. 1.0%, P = 0.66), or the composite of failed shock or arrhythmic death (2.8% vs. 2.3% P = 0.35) according to lead location. We did not detect any reduction in the ICD efficacy at the time of implant or during follow-up in patients receiving a non-apical RV lead. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lipocalins Are Required for Apical Extracellular Matrix Organization and Remodeling in Caenorhabiditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Forman-Rubinsky, Rachel; Cohen, Jennifer D; Sundaram, Meera V

    2017-08-25

    A lipid and glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix (aECM) or glycocalyx lines exposed membranes in the body, and is particularly important to protect narrow tube integrity. Lipocalins ("fat cups") are small, secreted, cup-shaped proteins that bind and transport lipophilic cargo and are often found in luminal or aECM compartments such as mammalian plasma, urine, or tear film. Although some lipocalins can bind known aECM lipids and/or matrix metalloproteinases, it is not known if and how lipocalins affect aECM structure due to challenges in visualizing the aECM in most systems. Here we show that two C. elegans lipocalins, LPR-1 and LPR-3, have distinct functions in the pre-cuticular glycocalyx of developing external epithelia. LPR-1 moves freely through luminal compartments, while LPR-3 stably localizes to a central layer of the membrane-anchored glycocalyx, adjacent to the transient zona pellucida domain protein LET-653. Like LET-653 and other C. elegans glycocalyx components, these lipocalins are required to maintain the patency of the narrow excretory duct tube, and also affect multiple aspects of later cuticle organization. lpr-1 mutants cannot maintain a continuous excretory duct apical domain and have misshapen cuticle ridges (alae) and abnormal patterns of cuticular surface lipid staining. lpr-3 mutants cannot maintain a passable excretory duct lumen, properly degrade the eggshell, or shed old cuticle during molting, and they lack cuticle barrier function. Based on these phenotypes, we infer that both LPR-1 and LPR-3 are required to build a properly organized aECM, while LPR-3 additionally is needed for aECM clearance and remodeling. The C. elegans glycocalyx provides a powerful system, amenable to both genetic analysis and live imaging, for investigating how lipocalins and lipids impact aECM structure. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.

  20. Perceptual elements in Penn & Teller's "Cups and Balls" magic trick.

    PubMed

    Rieiro, Hector; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Macknik, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    Magic illusions provide the perceptual and cognitive scientist with a toolbox of experimental manipulations and testable hypotheses about the building blocks of conscious experience. Here we studied several sleight-of-hand manipulations in the performance of the classic "Cups and Balls" magic trick (where balls appear and disappear inside upside-down opaque cups). We examined a version inspired by the entertainment duo Penn & Teller, conducted with three opaque and subsequently with three transparent cups. Magician Teller used his right hand to load (i.e. introduce surreptitiously) a small ball inside each of two upside-down cups, one at a time, while using his left hand to remove a different ball from the upside-down bottom of the cup. The sleight at the third cup involved one of six manipulations: (a) standard maneuver, (b) standard maneuver without a third ball, (c) ball placed on the table, (d) ball lifted, (e) ball dropped to the floor, and (f) ball stuck to the cup. Seven subjects watched the videos of the performances while reporting, via button press, whenever balls were removed from the cups/table (button "1") or placed inside the cups/on the table (button "2"). Subjects' perception was more accurate with transparent than with opaque cups. Perceptual performance was worse for the conditions where the ball was placed on the table, or stuck to the cup, than for the standard maneuver. The condition in which the ball was lifted displaced the subjects' gaze position the most, whereas the condition in which there was no ball caused the smallest gaze displacement. Training improved the subjects' perceptual performance. Occlusion of the magician's face did not affect the subjects' perception, suggesting that gaze misdirection does not play a strong role in the Cups and Balls illusion. Our results have implications for how to optimize the performance of this classic magic trick, and for the types of hand and object motion that maximize magic misdirection.

  1. Aerodynamic Analysis of Cup Anemometers Performance: The Stationary Harmonic Response

    PubMed Central

    Pindado, Santiago; Cubas, Javier; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cup anemometer shape parameters, such as the cups' shape, their size, and their center rotation radius, was experimentally analyzed. This analysis was based on both the calibration constants of the transfer function and the most important harmonic term of the rotor's movement, which due to the cup anemometer design is the third one. This harmonic analysis represents a new approach to study cup anemometer performances. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the average rotational speed of the anemometer's rotor and the mentioned third harmonic term of its movement. PMID:24381512

  2. Aerodynamic analysis of cup anemometers performance: the stationary harmonic response.

    PubMed

    Pindado, Santiago; Cubas, Javier; Sanz-Andrés, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cup anemometer shape parameters, such as the cups' shape, their size, and their center rotation radius, was experimentally analyzed. This analysis was based on both the calibration constants of the transfer function and the most important harmonic term of the rotor's movement, which due to the cup anemometer design is the third one. This harmonic analysis represents a new approach to study cup anemometer performances. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the average rotational speed of the anemometer's rotor and the mentioned third harmonic term of its movement.

  3. Bacterial pathogenesis and mediators in apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2007-01-01

    Apical periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms (mainly bacteria) infecting the necrotic root canal system. The pathogenesis of different types of apical periodontitis and even the same type in different individuals is unlikely to follow a stereotyped fashion with regard to the involved bacterial mediators. Disease pathogenesis is rather complex and involves a multitude of bacteria- and host-related factors. This review article discusses the bacterial pathogenesis of acute and chronic apical periodontitis, with the main focus on the bacterial mediators conceivably involved in the different stages of the infectious process, including secreted products (enzymes, exotoxins, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine peptides, heat-shock proteins and metabolic end-products) and structural components (lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, lipoproteins, fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins and vesicles, DNA, and exopolysaccharides). Knowledge of the bacterial factors involved in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis is important to the understanding of the disease process and to help establishing proper therapeutic measures to inactivate this bacterial "artillery".

  4. Demonstrated Performance of the Solar Probe Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Daigneau, P.; Freeman, M.; Caldwell, D.; Gauron, T.; Wright, K. H.; Bergner, H.; Cirtain, J. W.; Larson, D.; Brodu, E.; Balat-Pichelin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup being developed for the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission. SPP will be the first spacecraft to directly measure the solar environment near the Alfven point in the atmosphere of the Sun, approaching to within 10 solar radii of the center of the Sun. In order to make the observations of radially flowing solar wind needed to address questions of coronal and solar wind heating and acceleration, SPC must operate while looking directly at the Sun. As a result, SPC will face a harsh and unprecidented environment, with component temperatures exceeding 1000C at closest approach. SPC is similar in design and operation to the two Faraday Cup instruments on the Wind spacecraft, which have been making stable measurements of the solar wind near Earth for two decades, with two key differences. SPC must survive and operate at extreme temperatures due to the levels of solar flux near the Sun, and it must record the solar wind approximately one thousand times faster than the instruments on Wind to keep up with the rapid variations expected near the Sun. We present results of a demonstration model of SPC operated in laboratory reproductions of the near-Sun environment. In the last year, SPC has been exposed to simulated encounter solar fluxes and resulting temperature profiles using a vaccum chamber and modified IMAX film projectors. In addition, SPC has been exposed to realistic ion beams. We show that SPC can operate in these environments, and make the measurements required for the sucess of the Solar Probe mission. Based on the performance of our prototype, the expected cadence and sensitivity of SPC will be discussed, with a focus on its ability to distinguish between models of heating in the solar corona.

  5. Apical membrane permeability of MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Rivers, R L; McAteer, J A; Clendenon, J L; Connors, B A; Evan, A P; Williams, J C

    1996-07-01

    The osmotic water permeability (Pf) and permeability to nonelectrolytes were determined for the apical membrane of clonal strain Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) C12 cells cultured as cysts with the apical membrane facing the surrounding medium. Pf and solute permeabilities were calculated from the rate of volume change of cysts by digitizing images at 1-s intervals after instantaneous osmotic challenge. Image measurement was fully automated with the use of a program that separated the image of the cyst from the background by using adaptive intensity thresholding and shape analysis. Pf, calculated by curve fitting to the volume loss data, averaged 2.4 +/- 0.1 micron/s and was increased by addition of amphotericin B. The energy of activation for Pf was high (16.3 kcal/mol), and forskolin (50 microM) had no effect on Pf. Two populations of MDCK cysts were studied: those with two to three cells and those that appeared to be composed of only one cell. The Pf of multicell cysts was the same as single cell cysts, suggesting that paracellular water flow is not significant. Solute permeability was measured using paired osmotic challenges (sucrose and test solute) on the same cyst. Urea permeability was not different from zero, whereas the permeabilities of acetamide and formamide were consistent with their relative oil-water partition coefficients. Our data are similar to values from studies on the permeability properties of vesicles of water-tight epithelial apical membrane. The combination of the unique model of MDCK apical-out cysts and fully automated data analysis enabled determination of apical membrane permeability in intact epithelial cells with high precision.

  6. The Impact of Apical Patency in the Success of Endodontic Treatment of Necrotic Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo; Ferrari, Carlos Henrique; Back, Eduardo; Comparin, Daniel; Tomazinho, Luiz Fernando; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of soft tissue or dentinal remnants in the apical region is a common event that can cause blockage of root canals. This event can be avoided if apical patency is performed during the root canal shaping procedures. However, there is no consensus on the role of apical patency in relation to the success of endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to conduct a brief review on the role of apical patency in guaranteeing the success of endodontic treatments of necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis considering two other key points; the root canal anatomy and microbiology.

  7. NCI Holds on to Defelice Cup | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    NCI kept the Defelice Cup trophy this year after beating Leidos Biomedical Research, 15 to 9, at the 10th annual Ronald H. Defelice Golf Tournament held on Columbus Day. Sixteen players on each team battled it out at the yearly contractor vs. government tournament held at Rattlewood Golf Course in Mount Airy, Md. NCI leads the series 6–4. “The score was the highest NCI margin of victory in the 10-year series,” said Denny Dougherty, retired senior subcontracts advisor at what was formerly SAIC-Frederick. “The intensity of the annual competition has increased each year and has become...

  8. NCI Holds on to Defelice Cup | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    NCI kept the Defelice Cup trophy this year after beating Leidos Biomedical Research, 15 to 9, at the 10th annual Ronald H. Defelice Golf Tournament held on Columbus Day. Sixteen players on each team battled it out at the yearly contractor vs. government tournament held at Rattlewood Golf Course in Mount Airy, Md. NCI leads the series 6–4. “The score was the highest NCI margin of victory in the 10-year series,” said Denny Dougherty, retired senior subcontracts advisor at what was formerly SAIC-Frederick. “The intensity of the annual competition has increased each year and has become...

  9. Microbiome in the Apical Root Canal System of Teeth with Post-Treatment Apical Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, José F.; Antunes, Henrique S.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Rachid, Caio T. C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bacteria present in the apical root canal system are directly involved with the pathogenesis of post-treatment apical periodontitis. This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in cryopulverized apical root samples from root canal-treated teeth with post-treatment disease. Methods Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of ten adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground. DNA was extracted from the powder and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Results All samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 11 phyla and 103 genera composed by 538 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3% of dissimilarity. Over 85% of the sequences belonged to 4 phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria. In general, these 4 phyla accounted for approximately 80% of the distinct OTUs found in the apical root samples. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in 6/10 samples. Fourteen genera had representatives identified in all cases. Overall, the genera Fusobacterium and Pseudomonas were the most dominant. Enterococcus was found in 4 cases, always in relatively low abundance. Conclusions This study showed a highly complex bacterial community in the apical root canal system of adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. This suggests that this disease is characterized by multispecies bacterial communities and has a heterogeneous etiology, because the community composition largely varied from case to case. PMID:27689802

  10. Microbiome in the Apical Root Canal System of Teeth with Post-Treatment Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Antunes, Henrique S; Rôças, Isabela N; Rachid, Caio T C C; Alves, Flávio R F

    Bacteria present in the apical root canal system are directly involved with the pathogenesis of post-treatment apical periodontitis. This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in cryopulverized apical root samples from root canal-treated teeth with post-treatment disease. Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of ten adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground. DNA was extracted from the powder and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. All samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 11 phyla and 103 genera composed by 538 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3% of dissimilarity. Over 85% of the sequences belonged to 4 phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria. In general, these 4 phyla accounted for approximately 80% of the distinct OTUs found in the apical root samples. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in 6/10 samples. Fourteen genera had representatives identified in all cases. Overall, the genera Fusobacterium and Pseudomonas were the most dominant. Enterococcus was found in 4 cases, always in relatively low abundance. This study showed a highly complex bacterial community in the apical root canal system of adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. This suggests that this disease is characterized by multispecies bacterial communities and has a heterogeneous etiology, because the community composition largely varied from case to case.

  11. Loss of laminin alpha 1 results in multiple structural defects and divergent effects on adhesion during vertebrate optic cup morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Chase D; Chien, Chi-Bin; Kwan, Kristen M

    2016-08-15

    The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup throughout the process, yet the functions of the matrix and its specific molecular components have remained unclear. Previous work established a role for laminin extracellular matrix in particular steps of eye development, including optic vesicle evagination, lens differentiation, and retinal ganglion cell polarization, yet it is unknown what role laminin might play in the early process of optic cup formation subsequent to the initial step of optic vesicle evagination. Here, we use the zebrafish lama1 mutant (lama1(UW1)) to determine the function of laminin during optic cup morphogenesis. Using live imaging, we find, surprisingly, that loss of laminin leads to divergent effects on focal adhesion assembly in a spatiotemporally-specific manner, and that laminin is required for multiple steps of optic cup morphogenesis, including optic stalk constriction, invagination, and formation of a spherical lens. Laminin is not required for single cell behaviors and changes in cell shape. Rather, in lama1(UW1) mutants, loss of epithelial polarity and altered adhesion lead to defective tissue architecture and formation of a disorganized retina. These results demonstrate that the laminin extracellular matrix plays multiple critical roles regulating adhesion and polarity to establish and maintain tissue structure during optic cup morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishing Apical Patency and its Effect on Endodontic Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    canal space and periodontal ligament. Establishing apical patency is controversial with only 50% of dental programs in the United States teaching the... periodontal ligament (PDL) (1) where a small file can passively continue through the apical foramen (2). Establishing apical patency is...teeth with apical periodontitis that will eventually heal demonstrate signs of healing at 1 year follow-up, and almost 50% are completely healed

  13. Reversible left ventricular apical ballooning associated with jet lag in a Taiwanese woman: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Nen-Chung; Lin, Mei-Shu; Huang, Chun-Yao; Shih, Chun-Ming; Bi, Wei-Fung

    2007-01-01

    Reversible left ventricular apical ballooning, without coronary artery stenosis, is a novel heart syndrome mimicking acute myocardial infarction, and is very rare in Taiwan. A 74-year-old Taiwanese woman returned from travelling abroad for one week and suffered from persistent, severe jet lag with sleep disturbance. She had a cold exacerbated by bronchial asthma for three days. She presented with sudden onset of chest pain after drinking three cups of coffee and taking a sauna for more than 1 h. On admission, an electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in leads II, III, aVF and V3–6, and cardiac enzyme tests revealed minimal elevation. An echocardiogram showed apical ballooning and basal hyperkinesias of the left ventricle (LV) in systole. A coronary angiogram on the second day was normal, while the ST segment was still elevated, and the patient continued to experience chest pain. A negative T wave developed three days later. The electrocardiogram abnormality and LV dysfunction resolved completely six months later. A takotsubo (ampulla) cardiomyopathy was diagnosed. The activated myocardial adrenergic nervous system, stimulated by acute and marked stress in this patient, with more adrenergic innervations distributed in the apex of the LV, may be the trigger for this novel cardiac syndrome. PMID:22477274

  14. Polystyrene cups and containers: styrene migration.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, M S; Huyghebaert, A

    1998-07-01

    The level of styrene migration from polystyrene cups was monitored in different food systems including: water, milk (0.5, 1.55 and 3.6% fat), cold beverages (apple juice, orange juice, carbonated water, cola, beer and chocolate drink), hot beverages (tea, coffee, chocolate and soup (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3.6% fat), take away foods (yogurt, jelly, pudding and ice-cream), as well as aqueous food simulants (3% acetic acid, 15, 50, and 100% ethanol) and olive oil. Styrene migration was found to be strongly dependent upon the fat content and storage temperature. Drinking water gave migration values considerably lower than all of the fatty foods. Ethanol at 15% showed a migration level equivalent to milk or soup containing 3.6% fat. Maximum observed migration for cold or hot beverages and take-away foods was 0.025% of the total styrene in the cup. Food simulants were responsible for higher migration (0.37% in 100% ethanol). A total of 60 food samples (yogurt, rice with milk, fromage, biogardes, and cheese) packed in polystyrene containers were collected from retail markets in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. The level of styrene detected in the foods was always fat dependent.

  15. Dual mobility cups in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Ivan; Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios Konstantinos; Sculco, Peter Keyes; Sculco, Thomas Peter

    2014-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is considered one of the most successful surgical procedures in orthopaedics. With the increase in the number of THAs performed in the world in the next decades, reducing or preventing medical and mechanical complications such as post-operative THA instability will be of paramount importance, particularly in an emerging health care environment based on quality control and patient outcome. Dual mobility acetabular component (also known as unconstrained tripolar implant) was introduced in France at the end of the 1970s as an alternative to standard sockets, to reduce the risk of THA dislocation in patients undergoing primary THA in France. Dual mobility cups have recently gained wider attention in the United States as an alternative option in the prevention and treatment of instability in both primary and revision THA and offer the benefit of increased stability without compromising clinical outcomes and implant longevity. In this article, we review the use of dual mobility cup in total hip arthroplasty in terms of its history, biomechanics, outcomes and complications based on more than 20 years of medical literature. PMID:25035820

  16. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Harst, Eugenie van der; Potting, José

    2013-11-15

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes. -- Highlights: • Conflicting results from life cycle assessment (LCA) on disposable cups • GWP results of LCAs did not point to a best or worst cup material. • Differences in GWP results are due to methodological choices and data sets used. • Standardized LCA: transparency of LCA studies, but still different in approaches.

  17. Nutrient disorders of 'Evolution' mealy-cup sage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To produce popular floriculture crops like mealy-cup sage (Salvia farinacea (Benth.)), growers must be equipped with cultural information including the ability to recognize and characterize disorders. Diagnostic criteria of nutrient disorders of mealy-cup sage are absent from the literature. Theref...

  18. Construction and performance of rugged ceramic cup soil water samplers

    Treesearch

    Douglas M. Stone; James L. Robl

    1996-01-01

    To assess solute concentration changes associated with soil compaction and organic matter removal resulting from forest harvesting, we constructed and field tested ceramic cup soil water samplers designed to withstand the forces of compaction by heavy equipment. They were installed with the cup at either the 30-or 60-cm depth; the vacuum and collection tubes rested on...

  19. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation

    PubMed Central

    GENÇ, Özgür; ALAÇAM, Tayfun; KAYAOGLU, Guven

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two NiTi rotary apical preparation techniques used with an electronic apex locator-integrated endodontic motor and a manual technique to create an apical stop at a predetermined level (0.5 mm short of the apical foramen) in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth. Material and Methods: 85 intact human mandibular permanent incisors with single root canal were accessed and the apical constriction was disrupted using a #25 K-file. The teeth were embedded in alginate and instrumented to #40 using rotary Lightspeed or S-Apex techniques or stainless-steel K-files. Distance between the apical foramen and the created apical stop was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. In another set of instrumented teeth, root canals were obturated using gutta-percha and sealer, and leakage was tested at 1 week and 3 months using a fluid filtration device. Results All techniques performed slightly short of the predetermined level. Closest preparation to the predetermined level was with the manual technique and the farthest was with S-Apex. A significant difference was found between the performances of these two techniques (p<0.05). Lightspeed ranked in between. Leakage was similar for all techniques at either period. However, all groups leaked significantly more at 3 months compared to 1 week (p<0.05). Conclusions Despite statistically significant differences found among the techniques, deviations from the predetermined level were small and clinically acceptable for all techniques. Leakage following obturation was comparable in all groups. PMID:21655774

  20. Human Exoproteome in Acute Apical Abscesses.

    PubMed

    Alfenas, Cristiane F; Mendes, Tiago A O; Ramos, Humberto J O; Bruckner, Fernanda P; Antunes, Henrique S; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F; Provenzano, José C

    2017-09-01

    An acute apical abscess is a severe response of the host to massive invasion of the periapical tissues by bacteria from infected root canals. Although many studies have investigated the microbiota involved in the process, information on the host factors released during abscess formation is scarce. The purpose of this study was to describe the human exoproteome in samples from acute apical abscesses. Fourteen pus samples were obtained by aspiration from patients with an acute apical abscess. Samples were subjected to protein digestion, and the tryptic peptides were analyzed using a mass spectrometer and ion trap instrument. The human proteins identified in this analysis were classified into different functional categories. A total of 303 proteins were identified. Most of these proteins were involved in cellular and metabolic processes. Immune system proteins were also very frequent and included immunoglobulins, S100 proteins, complement proteins, and heat shock proteins. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil proteins were also commonly detected, including myeloperoxidases, defensins, elastases, and gelatinases. Iron-sequestering proteins including transferrin and lactoferrin/lactotransferrin were found in many samples. The human exoproteome included a wide variety of proteins related to cellular processes, metabolism, and immune response. Proteins involved in different mechanisms against infection, tissue damage, and protection against tissue damage were identified. Knowledge of the presence and function of these proteins using proteomics provides an insight into the complex host-pathogen relationship, the host antimicrobial strategies to fight infections, and the disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis.

  2. Architecture of apical dendrites in the murine neocortex: dual apical dendritic systems.

    PubMed

    Escobar, M I; Pimienta, H; Caviness, V S; Jacobson, M; Crandall, J E; Kosik, K S

    1986-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody (5F9) against microtubule-associated protein 2 is a selective and sensitive marker for neocortical dendrites in the mouse. The marker stains all dendrites. It affords a particularly comprehensive picture of the patterns of arrangements of apical dendrites which are most intensely stained with this antibody. Dual systems of apical dendrites arise from the polymorphic neurons of layer VI, on the one hand, and the pyramidal neurons of layers II-V, on the other. Terminal arborization of the former is concentrated principally at the interface of layers V and IV, while that of the latter is in the molecular layer. Apical dendrites of both systems are grouped into fascicles. In supragranular layers and in upper layer VI-lower layer V, where apical dendrites are most abundant, the fascicles coalesce into septa. These generate a honeycomb-like pattern, subdividing these cortical levels into columnar spaces of approximately 20-40 micron diameter. At the level of layer IV, where the number of apical dendrites is greatly reduced, the fascicles are isolated bundles. These bundles have the form of circular, elliptical or rectangular columns in the primary somatosensory, temporal and frontal regions, respectively. Those in the barrel field are preferentially concentrated in the sides of barrels and the interbarrel septa. The configurations of the dendritic fascicles, particularly the midcortical bundles, may conform to the spatial configuration of investing axons of interneurons.

  3. Experimental fluid dynamics of transventricular apical aortic cannulation.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Yanaoka, Hideki; Inamura, Takao; Minakawa, Masahito; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2010-03-01

    To clarify the flow pattern from a transventricular apical aortic cannula, hydrodynamic analysis of transventricular apical aortic cannulation (apical cannulation) was performed using particle-image velocimetry in a glass aortic model. Simulated apical cannulation using a 7-mm Sarns Soft-Flow cannula and the newly developed 7-mm apical aortic cannula was compared with standard aortic cannulation. The flow-velocity, streamline, and distribution of magnitude of the strain rate tensor (function of shear stress) were analyzed. Streamline analysis revealed a steady and organized flow profile in apical cannulation as compared with that in standard aortic cannulation. The magnitude of the strain rate tensor decreased within a few centimeters from the exit of the apical cannula.

  4. Possibility of a spin cup method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokimitsu, Terumasa

    1998-09-01

    In reticle manufacturing process, error budget of CD uniformity includes error components caused from material process, exposure system, mask process and measurement technology. We examined error source coming from material process. In the previous paper, the variation of resists thickness was not so dominant to affect CD variation. But it is clear that the variation of resist thickness deeply affects CD linearity. We found that the variation of resists thickness is related to repeatability of fine patterns making such as an OPC structure. Because feature size of OPC patterns are almost as same as the smallest pattern size to be realized by current exposure systems.In this report we will show a method which is called 'spin cup' to achieve the sophisticated design for mask making as a resist coating machine maker. We hope it will be a solution to make mask which has highly accurate resist thickness.

  5. Minimal Apical Enlargement for Penetration of Irrigants to the Apical Third of Root Canal System: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, P; Krishna, Amaravadi Gopi; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, E Sujayeendranatha; Battu, Someshwar; Aravelli, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine minimal apical enlargement for irrigant penetration into apical third of root canal system using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Distobuccal canals of 40 freshly extracted human maxillary first molar teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique. The teeth were divided into four test groups according to size of their master apical file (MAF) (#20, #25, #30, #35 0.06% taper), and two control groups. After final irrigation, removal of debris and smear layer from the apical third of root canals was determined under a SEM. Data was analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: Smear layer removal in apical third for MAF size #30 was comparable with that of the control group (size #40). Conclusion: Minimal apical enlargement for penetration of irrigants to the apical third of root canal system is #30 size. PMID:26124608

  6. The translational regulator Cup controls NMJ presynaptic terminal morphology

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Kaushiki P.; Carrillo, Robert A.; Zinn, Kai

    2015-01-01

    During oogenesis and early embryonic development in Drosophila, translation of proteins from maternally deposited mRNAs is tightly controlled. We and others have previously shown that translational regulatory proteins that function during oogenesis also have essential roles in the nervous system. Here we examine the role of Cup in neuromuscular system development. Maternal Cup controls translation of localized mRNAs encoding the Oskar and Nanos proteins and binds to the general translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this paper, we show that zygotic Cup protein is localized to presynaptic terminals at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). cup mutant NMJs have strong phenotypes characterized by the presence of small clustered boutons called satellite boutons. They also exhibit an increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate release events (mEPSPs). Reduction of eIF4E expression synergizes with partial loss of Cup expression to produce satellite bouton phenotypes. The presence of satellite boutons is often associated with increases in retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and we show that synaptic BMP signaling is elevated in cup mutants. cup genetically interacts with four genes (EndoA, WASp, Dap160, and Synj) encoding proteins involved in endocytosis that are also neuronal modulators of the BMP pathway. Endophilin protein, encoded by the EndoA gene, is downregulated in a cup mutant. Our results are consistent with a model in which Cup and eIF4E work together to ensure efficient localization and translation of endocytosis proteins in motor neurons and control the strength of the retrograde BMP signal. PMID:26102195

  7. Feeding neonates by cup: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Christy M.; Glass, Robin P.; Coffey, Patricia; Rue, Tessa; Vaughn, Matthew G.; Cunningham, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective WHO and UNICEF recommend cup feeding for neonates unable to breastfeed in low-resource settings. In developed countries, cup feeding in lieu of bottle feeding in the neonatal period is hypothesized to improve breastfeeding outcomes for those initially unable to breastfeed. Our aim was to synthesize the entire body of evidence on cup feeding. Methods We searched domestic and international databases for original research. Our search criteria required original data on cup feeding in neonates published in English between January 1990 and December 2014. Results We identified 28 original research papers. Ten were randomized clinical trials, 7 non-randomized intervention studies, and 11 observational studies; 11 were conducted in developing country. Outcomes evaluated included physiologic stability, safety, intake, duration, spillage, weight gain, any and exclusive breastfeeding, length of hospital stay, compliance, and acceptability. Cup feeding appears to be safe though intake may be less and spillage greater relative to bottle or tube feeding. Overall, slightly higher proportions of cup fed versus bottle fed infants report any breastfeeding; a greater proportion of cup fed infants reported exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and beyond. Cup feeding increases breastfeeding in subgroups (e.g. those who intend to breastfeed or women who had a Caesarean section). Compliance and acceptability is problematic in certain settings. Conclusions Further research on long-term breastfeeding outcomes and in low-resource settings would be helpful. Research data on high risk infants (e.g. those with cleft palates) would be informative. Innovative cup feeding approaches to minimize spillage, optimize compliance, and increase breastfeeding feeding are needed. PMID:27016350

  8. Cup anemometer calibration: effect of flow velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccato, A.; Spazzini, P. G.; Malvano, R.

    2011-10-01

    The effects of different working conditions and specifically of different velocity profiles on the output of a commercial cup anemometer were analysed experimentally. A simple mathematical model is also presented and provides results in line with the experiments. Results show that a cup anemometer with certain geometrical features can be calibrated through a rotating drag rig by correcting for the bias on the instrument output. The increase in uncertainty caused by this systematic correction was evaluated and applied to the results. The correction was validated by checking the compatibility of calibrations of a cup anemometer at the rotating rig and in a wind tunnel.

  9. Response function of modulated grid Faraday cup plasma instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, A.; Olbert, S.

    1986-01-01

    Modulated grid Faraday cup plasma analyzers are a very useful tool for making in situ measurements of space plasmas. One of their great attributes is that their simplicity permits their angular response function to be calculated theoretically. An expression is derived for this response function by computing the trajectories of the charged particles inside the cup. The Voyager plasma science experiment is used as a specific example. Two approximations to the rigorous response function useful for data analysis are discussed. Multisensor analysis of solar wind data indicates that the formulas represent the true cup response function for all angles of incidence with a maximum error of only a few percent.

  10. Apical parietal pleural holes: what are they?

    PubMed

    Galetta, D; Serra, M; Gossot, D

    2010-06-01

    We report the incidental discovery of an apical pleural abnormality characterized by the presence of pleural holes during video-thoracoscopic surgery for upper limb hyperhidrosis. Patients were 4 males and one female with a median age of 24 years. These pleural anomalies were left sided in all cases with a maximum diameter of 5 mm. One of the defects was double. There was neither air leakage nor water leakage after irrigation. Our hypothesis is that the revealed pleural defect is a precursor of cervical lung hernia.

  11. 78 FR 32990 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... the on-water activities associated with the ``Louis Vuitton Cup, Red Bull Youth America's Cup and the... Alcatraz Island. (77 FR 41902) The special local regulation and safety zone regulate the on-water activities associated with the ``Louis Vuitton Cup, Red Bull Youth America's Cup and the 34th America's...

  12. Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CupD Fimbrial Genes Is Antagonistically Controlled by RcsB and the EAL-Containing PvrR Response Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Helga; Ball, Geneviève; Giraud, Caroline; Filloux, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium with a high adaptive potential that allows proliferation in a broad range of hosts or niches. It is also the causative agent of both acute and chronic biofilm-related infections in humans. Three cup gene clusters (cupA-C), involved in the assembly of cell surface fimbriae, have been shown to be involved in biofilm formation by the P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 or PAK. In PA14 isolates, a fourth cluster, named cupD, was identified within a pathogenicity island, PAPI-I, and may contribute to the higher virulence of this strain. Expression of the cupA genes is controlled by the HNS-like protein MvaT, whereas the cupB and cupC genes are under the control of the RocS1A1R two-component system. In this study, we show that cupD gene expression is positively controlled by the response regulator RcsB. As a consequence, CupD fimbriae are assembled on the cell surface, which results in a number of phenotypes such as a small colony morphotype, increased biofilm formation and decreased motility. These behaviors are compatible with the sessile bacterial lifestyle. The balance between planktonic and sessile lifestyles is known to be linked to the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP with high levels favoring biofilm formation. We showed that the EAL domain-containing PvrR response regulator counteracts the activity of RcsB on cupD gene expression. The action of PvrR is likely to involve c-di-GMP degradation through phosphodiesterase activity, confirming the key role of this second messenger in the balance between bacterial lifestyles. The regulatory network between RcsB and PvrR remains to be elucidated, but it stands as a potential model system to study how the equilibrium between the two lifestyles could be influenced by therapeutic agents that favor the planktonic lifestyle. This would render the pathogen accessible for the immune system or conventional antibiotic treatment. PMID:19547710

  13. "The Gammage Cup" as Utopian Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Considers how Carol Kendall's fantasy novel, "The Gammage Cup," can be read as utopian literature for children. Provides a close reading and explication of Kendall's novel. Pronounces Kendall's novel a stimulating success providing hope for young readers. (HB)

  14. Sound of a cup with and without instant coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    An empty coffee cup, like an ancient Chinese two-tone bell, emits two distinctly different tones, depending upon where it is tapped. When it is filled with hot water, and some instant coffee is added, however, a whole new set of sounds is heard when the cup is tapped. The pitch rises an octave or more as the foam clears due to the dramatic change in the speed of sound in the bubble-filled liquid. A similar, but smaller, effect was noted in beer by Bragg [The World of Sound (1968)] and in hot chocolate by Crawford [Am. J. Phys. (1982)]. We describe the modes of vibration in a coffee cup and the sound emitted by a coffee cup as filled with instant coffee as the bubble density changes.

  15. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  17. Space Coffee Cup: Capillary Flow Driven Fluids in Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Interested in learning more about how fluids react in Space? In this video, Professor Mark Weislogel, and Dr. Marshall Porterfield will discuss the Space Coffee Cup and Capillary Flow Driven Fluids...

  18. Fresnel cup reflector directs maximum energy from light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, E. G.; Youngberg, C. L.

    1964-01-01

    To minimize shielding and overheating, a composite Fresnel cup reflector design directs the maximum energy from a light source. It consists of a uniformly ellipsoidal end surface and an extension comprising a series of confocal ellipsoidal and concentric spherical surfaces.

  19. Unevenness of the apical constriction in human maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Olson, David G; Roberts, Steven; Joyce, Anthony P; Collins, D Edward; McPherson, James C

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the incisoapical extent of the apical constriction in 45 human maxillary central incisors. The null hypothesis was that the apical constriction is a flat ring. Our working hypothesis was that the constriction is actually uneven or "skewed" as it traces a path around the circumference of the canal. Teeth were split and imaged with 25x magnification, and the most apical and coronal limits of the apical constriction were identified and measured. Analysis of the data indicates that a majority (>70%) of maxillary central incisors exhibit an unevenness or "skew" of the apical constriction of greater than 100 microm in the incisoapical dimension, with a maximum measured skew of 385 microm. On the basis of the results of this study, a statistically significant (P < .05) variation in the longitudinal position of the apical constriction around its circumference was confirmed in maxillary central incisors.

  20. Ontogeny of the maize shoot apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Elizabeth M; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Schnable, Patrick S; Timmermans, Marja C P; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize.

  1. Prevalence of disc cupping in non-glaucomatous eyes.

    PubMed

    Chiappe, José Pablo; Nahum, Pablo; Casiraghi, Javier F; Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed optic disc size and cupping, using a commercially available ophthalmoscope, in order to show norms of these values for clinical practice. Subjects were office-workers referred from their respective workplaces for a routine medical examination, which included eye examination. The optic disc size was classified as small, medium or large, for having a diameter < 1.0, 1.0-1.5, or > 1.5 times (respectively) the diameter of the ophthalmoscope's selected light spot on the posterior pole. The cupping was classified as the ratio of the vertical cupping diameter and the vertical disc diameter on a relative decimal scale from 0.0 to 1.0.This study included 184 subjects with a mean age of 40.5 ± 9.5 years; 149 (81%) were males. Their mean ocular pressure was 12.4 ± 1.5 mmHg (range 10-17 mmHg). There was a high correlation between optic disc sizes and cupping in the right and left eyes (Pearson Correlation r = 0.866, p < 0.001); therefore, for simplicity only the data for right eyes are presented. According to our definition, the optic discs in these eyes comprised 27 (14.7%) small, 141 (76.6%) medium and 16 (8.7%) large. The small optic discs were rarely cupped, and the large optic discs were always cupped. Optic disc cupping greater than 0.7 was rarely found and should be suspect of glaucoma. Clinical doctors should be aware of this and refer those subjects with abnormal cupping to the specialist.

  2. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  3. An investigation of home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis.

    PubMed

    Gayton, William F; Steinroeder, William; Bonnica, Corrine; Loignon, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis matches was examined by analyzing the outcome of Davis Cup finals matches from 1900 to 2007. There was no significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Matches 4 and 5. However, there was a significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Match 5. These findings are compared with those from earlier studies in which data from professional basketball and baseball were examined.

  4. Splash-cup plants accelerate raindrops to disperse seeds

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Yamada, Yasukuni; McCurley, Matthew; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The conical flowers of splash-cup plants Chrysosplenium and Mazus catch raindrops opportunistically, exploiting the subsequent splash to disperse their seeds. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate their mechanism for maximizing dispersal distance. We fabricate conical plant mimics using three-dimensional printing, and use high-speed video to visualize splash profiles and seed travel distance. Drop impacts that strike the cup off-centre achieve the largest dispersal distances of up to 1 m. Such distances are achieved because splash speeds are three to five times faster than incoming drop speeds, and so faster than the traditionally studied splashes occurring upon horizontal surfaces. This anomalous splash speed is because of the superposition of two components of momentum, one associated with a component of the drop's motion parallel to the splash-cup surface, and the other associated with film spreading induced by impact with the splash-cup. Our model incorporating these effects predicts the observed dispersal distance within 6–18% error. According to our experiments, the optimal cone angle for the splash-cup is 40°, a value consistent with the average of five species of splash-cup plants. This optimal angle arises from the competing effects of velocity amplification and projectile launching angle. PMID:23235266

  5. Splash-cup plants accelerate raindrops to disperse seeds.

    PubMed

    Amador, Guillermo J; Yamada, Yasukuni; McCurley, Matthew; Hu, David L

    2013-02-01

    The conical flowers of splash-cup plants Chrysosplenium and Mazus catch raindrops opportunistically, exploiting the subsequent splash to disperse their seeds. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate their mechanism for maximizing dispersal distance. We fabricate conical plant mimics using three-dimensional printing, and use high-speed video to visualize splash profiles and seed travel distance. Drop impacts that strike the cup off-centre achieve the largest dispersal distances of up to 1 m. Such distances are achieved because splash speeds are three to five times faster than incoming drop speeds, and so faster than the traditionally studied splashes occurring upon horizontal surfaces. This anomalous splash speed is because of the superposition of two components of momentum, one associated with a component of the drop's motion parallel to the splash-cup surface, and the other associated with film spreading induced by impact with the splash-cup. Our model incorporating these effects predicts the observed dispersal distance within 6-18% error. According to our experiments, the optimal cone angle for the splash-cup is 40°, a value consistent with the average of five species of splash-cup plants. This optimal angle arises from the competing effects of velocity amplification and projectile launching angle.

  6. A Zero-Gravity Cup for Drinking Beverages in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Weislogel, Mark; Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    2011-01-01

    To date, the method for astronauts to drink liquids in microgravity or weightless environments is to suck the liquid from a bag or pouch through a straw. A new beverage cup works in microgravity and allows astronauts to drink liquids from a cup in a manner consistent with that on Earth. The cup is capable of holding beverages with an angled channel running along the wall from the bottom to the lip. In microgravity, a beverage is placed into the cup using the galley dispenser. The angled channel acts as an open passage that contains only two sides where capillary forces move the liquid along the channel until it reaches the top lip where the forces reach an equilibrium and the flow stops. When one sips the liquid at the lip of the channel, the capillary force equilibrium is upset and more liquid flows to the lip from the reservoir at the bottom to re-establish the equilibrium. This sipping process can continue until the total liquid contents of the cup is consumed, leaving only a few residual drops about the same quantity as in a ceramic cup when it is drunk dry on Earth.

  7. Apical targeting of the formin Diaphanous in Drosophila tubular epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Rousso, Tal; Shewan, Annette M; Mostov, Keith E; Schejter, Eyal D; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2013-01-01

    Apical secretion from epithelial tubes of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by apical F-actin cables generated by the formin-family protein Diaphanous (Dia). Apical localization and activity of Dia are at the core of restricting F-actin formation to the correct membrane domain. Here we identify the mechanisms that target Dia to the apical surface. PI(4,5)P2 levels at the apical membrane regulate Dia localization in both the MDCK cyst model and in Drosophila tubular epithelia. An N-terminal basic domain of Dia is crucial for apical localization, implying direct binding to PI(4,5)P2. Dia apical targeting also depends on binding to Rho1, which is critical for activation-induced conformational change, as well as physically anchoring Dia to the apical membrane. We demonstrate that binding to Rho1 facilitates interaction with PI(4,5)P2 at the plane of the membrane. Together these cues ensure efficient and distinct restriction of Dia to the apical membrane. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00666.001 PMID:23853710

  8. Pyrosequencing analysis of the apical root canal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Alves, Flávio R F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial biofilm communities established in the apical part of infected root canals are conceivably of utmost importance in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. This study investigated the diversity of the apical endodontic microbiota by using cryopulverized root segments and massive parallel pyrosequencing analysis. Ten extracted teeth with attached apical periodontitis lesions were sectioned to obtain 2 root fragments (apical and middle/coronal segments). Apical root fragments were cryogenically ground, and DNA was extracted from samples and subjected to multiplex tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. Pyrosequencing analysis yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 187 bacterial species-level phylotypes (at 3% divergence), 84 genera, and 10 phyla. The most represented, abundant, and prevalent phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria. The majority of species-level phylotypes occurred at low levels. The mean number of species-level phylotypes per sample was 37 (range, 13-80). A great interindividual variation in the composition of the apical microbiota was disclosed. This study extensively describes the diversity of the bacterial communities present selectively in the apical part of root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis and revealed a previously unanticipated high bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence of Intraflagellar Transport and Apical Complex Formation in a Free-Living Relative of the Apicomplexa

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Neil; Foster, Christie; Walker, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Since its first description, Chromera velia has attracted keen interest as the closest free-living relative of parasitic Apicomplexa. The life cycle of this unicellular alga is complex and involves a motile biflagellate form. Flagella are thought to be formed in the cytoplasm, a rare phenomenon shared with Plasmodium in which the canonical mode of flagellar assembly, intraflagellar transport, is dispensed with. Here we demonstrate the expression of intraflagellar transport components in C. velia, answering the question of whether this organism has the potential to assemble flagella via the canonical route. We have developed and characterized a culturing protocol that favors the generation of flagellate forms. From this, we have determined a marked shift in the mode of daughter cell production from two to four daughter cells per division as a function of time after passage. We conduct an ultrastructural examination of the C. velia flagellate form by using serial TEM and show that flagellar biogenesis in C. velia occurs prior to cytokinesis. We demonstrate a close association of the flagellar apparatus with a complex system of apical structures, including a micropore, a conoid, and a complex endomembrane system reminiscent of the apical complex of parasitic apicomplexans. Recent work has begun to elucidate the possible flagellar origins of the apical complex, and we show that in C. velia these structures are contemporaneous within a single cell and share multiple connections. We propose that C. velia therefore represents a vital piece in the puzzle of the origins of the apical complex. PMID:24058169

  10. Evidence of intraflagellar transport and apical complex formation in a free-living relative of the apicomplexa.

    PubMed

    Portman, Neil; Foster, Christie; Walker, Giselle; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first description, Chromera velia has attracted keen interest as the closest free-living relative of parasitic Apicomplexa. The life cycle of this unicellular alga is complex and involves a motile biflagellate form. Flagella are thought to be formed in the cytoplasm, a rare phenomenon shared with Plasmodium in which the canonical mode of flagellar assembly, intraflagellar transport, is dispensed with. Here we demonstrate the expression of intraflagellar transport components in C. velia, answering the question of whether this organism has the potential to assemble flagella via the canonical route. We have developed and characterized a culturing protocol that favors the generation of flagellate forms. From this, we have determined a marked shift in the mode of daughter cell production from two to four daughter cells per division as a function of time after passage. We conduct an ultrastructural examination of the C. velia flagellate form by using serial TEM and show that flagellar biogenesis in C. velia occurs prior to cytokinesis. We demonstrate a close association of the flagellar apparatus with a complex system of apical structures, including a micropore, a conoid, and a complex endomembrane system reminiscent of the apical complex of parasitic apicomplexans. Recent work has begun to elucidate the possible flagellar origins of the apical complex, and we show that in C. velia these structures are contemporaneous within a single cell and share multiple connections. We propose that C. velia therefore represents a vital piece in the puzzle of the origins of the apical complex.

  11. Comparison of dual-mobility cup and unipolar cup for prevention of dislocation after revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Amanda Inez; Bartolone, Placido; Lubbeke, Anne; Dupuis Lozeron, Elise; Peter, Robin; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with higher dislocation rates than primary THA. We compared the risk of dislocation within 6 months and all-cause re-revision during the whole study period using either the dual-mobility cup or the unipolar cup. Methods — We used a prospective hospital registry-based cohort including all total and cup-only revision THAs performed between 2003 and 2013. The cups used were either dual-mobility or unipolar; the choice was made according to the preference of the surgeon. 316 revision THAs were included. The mean age of the cohort was 69 (25–98) years and 160 THAs (51%) were performed in women. The dual-mobility group (group 1) included 150 THAs (48%) and the mean length of follow-up was 31 (0–128) months. The unipolar group (group 2) included 166 THAs (53%) and the mean length of follow-up was 52 (0–136) months. Results — The incidence of dislocation within 6 months was significantly lower with the dual-mobility cup than with the unipolar cup (2.7% vs. 7.8%). The unadjusted risk ratio (RR) was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.11–1.02) and the adjusted RR was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.09–0.87). The number of patients needed to treat with a dual-mobility cup in order to prevent 1 case of dislocation was 19. The unadjusted incidence rate ratio for all-cause re-revision in the dual-mobility group compared to the unipolar group was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.3–1.4). Interpretation — Use of a dual-mobility rather than a unipolar cup in revision THA reduced the risk of dislocation within 6 months. PMID:27841712

  12. Dbl3 drives Cdc42 signaling at the apical margin to regulate junction position and apical differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zihni, Ceniz; Munro, Peter M.G.; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Keep, Nicholas H.; Terry, Stephen J.; Harris, John

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells develop morphologically characteristic apical domains that are bordered by tight junctions, the apical–lateral border. Cdc42 and its effector complex Par6–atypical protein kinase c (aPKC) regulate multiple steps during epithelial differentiation, but the mechanisms that mediate process-specific activation of Cdc42 to drive apical morphogenesis and activate the transition from junction formation to apical differentiation are poorly understood. Using a small interfering RNA screen, we identify Dbl3 as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is recruited by ezrin to the apical membrane, that is enriched at a marginal zone apical to tight junctions, and that drives spatially restricted Cdc42 activation, promoting apical differentiation. Dbl3 depletion did not affect junction formation but did affect epithelial morphogenesis and brush border formation. Conversely, expression of active Dbl3 drove process-specific activation of the Par6–aPKC pathway, stimulating the transition from junction formation to apical differentiation and domain expansion, as well as the positioning of tight junctions. Thus, Dbl3 drives Cdc42 signaling at the apical margin to regulate morphogenesis, apical–lateral border positioning, and apical differentiation. PMID:24379416

  13. Apical phosphatidylserine externalization in auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaorui; Gillespie, Peter G; Nuttall, Alfred L

    2007-01-01

    In hair cells of the inner ear, phosphatidylserine (PS), detected with fluorescent annexin V labeling, was rapidly exposed on the external leaflet of apical plasma membranes upon dissection of the organ of Corti. PS externalization was unchanged by caspase inhibition, suggesting that externalization did not portend apoptosis or necrosis. Consistent with that conclusion, mitochondrial membrane potential and hair-cell nuclear structure remained normal during externalization. PS externalization was triggered by forskolin, which raises cAMP, and blocked by inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase. Blocking Na(+) influx by inhibiting the mechanoelectrical transduction channels and P2X ATP channels also inhibited external PS externalization. Diminished PS externalization was also seen in cells exposed to LY 294002, which blocks membrane recycling in hair cells by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. These results indicate that PS exposure on the external leaflet, presumably requiring vesicular transport, results from elevation of intracellular cAMP, which can be triggered by Na(+) entry into hair cells.

  14. Fixation strength analysis of cup to bone material using finite element simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-04-01

    Fixation of acetabular cup to bone material is an important initial stability for artificial hip joint. In general, the fixation in cement less-type acetabular cup uses press-fit and screw methods. These methods can be applied alone or together. Based on literature survey, the additional screw inside of cup is effective; however, it has little effect in whole fixation. Therefore, an acetabular cup with good fixation, easy manufacture and easy installation is required. This paper is aiming at evaluating and proposing a new cup fixation design. To prove the strength of the present cup fixation design, the finite element simulation of three dimensional cup with new fixation design was performed. The present cup design was examined with twist axial and radial rotation. Results showed that the proposed cup design was better than the general version.

  15. Apical entry channels in calcium-transporting epithelia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-Bin; Brown, Edward M; Hediger, Matthias A

    2003-08-01

    The identification of the apical calcium channels CaT1 and ECaC revealed the key molecular mechanisms underlying apical calcium entry in calcium-transporting epithelia. These channels are regulated directly or indirectly by vitamin D and dietary calcium and undergo feedback control by intracellular calcium, suggesting their rate-limiting roles in transcellular calcium transport.

  16. Apical Ballooning Syndrome: A Complication of Dual Chamber Pacemaker Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Abu Sham'a, Raed A. H; Asher, Elad; Luria, David; Berger, Michael; Glikson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Apical ballooning is a cardiac syndrome (Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy) described as a typical form of acute transient left ventricular dysfunction. While its onset has often been associated with emotionally or physically stressful situations, it has an overall favorable prognosis. We describe here a case of transient apical ballooning following permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:19652736

  17. Apical ballooning syndrome: a complication of dual chamber pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Abu Sham'a, Raed A H; Asher, Elad; Luria, David; Berger, Michael; Glikson, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Apical ballooning is a cardiac syndrome (Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy) described as a typical form of acute transient left ventricular dysfunction. While its onset has often been associated with emotionally or physically stressful situations, it has an overall favorable prognosis. We describe here a case of transient apical ballooning following permanent pacemaker implantation.

  18. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    PubMed

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-09-25

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.

  19. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B

    2015-05-13

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.

  20. Mathematical analysis of the effect of rotor geometry on cup anemometer response.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Andrés, Ángel; Pindado, Santiago; Sorribes-Palmer, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The calibration coefficients of two commercial anemometers equipped with different rotors were studied. The rotor cups had the same conical shape, while the size and distance to the rotation axis varied. The analysis was based on the 2-cup positions analytical model, derived using perturbation methods to include second-order effects such as pressure distribution along the rotating cups and friction. The comparison with the experimental data indicates a nonuniform distribution of aerodynamic forces on the rotating cups, with higher forces closer to the rotating axis. The 2-cup analytical model is proven to be accurate enough to study the effect of complex forces on cup anemometer performance.

  1. Mathematical Analysis of the Effect of Rotor Geometry on Cup Anemometer Response

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Andrés, Ángel; Sorribes-Palmer, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The calibration coefficients of two commercial anemometers equipped with different rotors were studied. The rotor cups had the same conical shape, while the size and distance to the rotation axis varied. The analysis was based on the 2-cup positions analytical model, derived using perturbation methods to include second-order effects such as pressure distribution along the rotating cups and friction. The comparison with the experimental data indicates a nonuniform distribution of aerodynamic forces on the rotating cups, with higher forces closer to the rotating axis. The 2-cup analytical model is proven to be accurate enough to study the effect of complex forces on cup anemometer performance. PMID:25110735

  2. Efficacy of Biodentine as an Apical Plug in Nonvital Permanent Teeth with Open Apices: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Bani, Mehmet; Sungurtekin-Ekçi, Elif; Odabaş, Mesut Enes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of Biodentine and MTA orthograde apical plugs and to compare the effect of thickness of these biomaterials on their sealing ability. A total of eighty maxillary anterior teeth were used. The apices were removed by cutting with a diamond disc (Jota, Germany) 2 mm from the apical root end in an attempt to standardize the working length of all specimens to 15 ± 1 mm. Both materials were placed in 1-4 mm thickness as apical plugs root canal. Root canal leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. One-way ANOVA was used in order to determine normality of dispersal distribution of parameters; thereafter, results were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Overall, between microleakage values of MTA and Biodentine regardless of apical plug thickness, no difference was observed. In terms of plug thickness, a statistically significant difference was observed between the subgroups of MTA and Biodentine (p < 0.05). The apical sealing ability of Biodentine was comparable to MTA at any apical plug thickness.

  3. Efficacy of Biodentine as an Apical Plug in Nonvital Permanent Teeth with Open Apices: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bani, Mehmet; Sungurtekin-Ekçi, Elif; Odabaş, Mesut Enes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of Biodentine and MTA orthograde apical plugs and to compare the effect of thickness of these biomaterials on their sealing ability. A total of eighty maxillary anterior teeth were used. The apices were removed by cutting with a diamond disc (Jota, Germany) 2 mm from the apical root end in an attempt to standardize the working length of all specimens to 15 ± 1 mm. Both materials were placed in 1–4 mm thickness as apical plugs root canal. Root canal leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. One-way ANOVA was used in order to determine normality of dispersal distribution of parameters; thereafter, results were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Overall, between microleakage values of MTA and Biodentine regardless of apical plug thickness, no difference was observed. In terms of plug thickness, a statistically significant difference was observed between the subgroups of MTA and Biodentine (p < 0.05). The apical sealing ability of Biodentine was comparable to MTA at any apical plug thickness. PMID:26436090

  4. Versatile, high-sensitivity faraday cup array for ion implanters

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Patterson, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    An improved Faraday cup array for determining the dose of ions delivered to a substrate during ion implantation and for monitoring the uniformity of the dose delivered to the substrate. The improved Faraday cup array incorporates a variable size ion beam aperture by changing only an insertable plate that defines the aperture without changing the position of the Faraday cups which are positioned for the operation of the largest ion beam aperture. The design enables the dose sensitivity range, typically 10.sup.11 -10.sup.18 ions/cm.sup.2 to be extended to below 10.sup.6 ions/cm.sup.2. The insertable plate/aperture arrangement is structurally simple and enables scaling to aperture areas between <1 cm.sup.2 and >750 cm.sup.2, and enables ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications by incorporation of UHV-compatible materials.

  5. A novel cupping-assisted plasma treatment for skin disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zilan; Graves, David B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel plasma treatment method/plasma source called cupping-assisted plasma treatment/source for skin disinfection is introduced. The idea combines ancient Chinese ‘cupping’ technology with plasma sources to generate active plasma inside an isolated, pressure-controlled chamber attached to the skin. Advantages of lower pressure include reducing the threshold voltage for plasma ignition and improving the spatial uniformity of the plasma treatment. In addition, with reduced pressure inside the cup, skin pore permeability might be increased and it improves attachment of the plasma device to the skin. Moreover, at a given pressure, plasma-generated active species are restricted inside the cup, raising local reactive species concentration and enhancing the measured surface disinfection rate. A surface micro-discharge (SMD) device is used as an example of a working plasma source. We report discharge characteristics and disinfection efficiency as a function of pressure and applied voltage.

  6. The response function of modulated grid Faraday cup plasma instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, A.; Olbert, S.

    1986-01-01

    Modulated grid Faraday cup plasma analyzers are a very useful tool for making in situ measurements of space plasmas. One of their great attributes is that their simplicity permits their angular response function to be calculated theoretically. An expression is derived for this response function by computing the trajectories of the charged particles inside the cup. The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) experiment is used as a specific example. Two approximations to the rigorous response function useful for data analysis are discussed. The theoretical formulas were tested by multi-sensor analysis of solar wind data. The tests indicate that the formulas represent the true cup response function for all angles of incidence with a maximum error of only a few percent.

  7. The response function of modulated grid Faraday cup plasma instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, A.; Olbert, S.

    Modulated grid Faraday cup plasma analyzers are a very useful tool for making in situ measurements of space plasmas. One of their great attributes is that their simplicity permits their angular response function to be calculated theoretically. An expression is derived for this response function by computing the trajectories of the charged particles inside the cup. The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) experiment is used as a specific example. Two approximations to the rigorous response function useful for data analysis are discussed. The theoretical formulas were tested by multi-sensor analysis of solar wind data. The tests indicate that the formulas represent the true cup response function for all angles of incidence with a maximum error of only a few percent.

  8. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  9. Measuring Mean Cup Depth in the Optic Nerve Head

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, John K.; Rhodes, Lindsay; Fazio, Massimo; Smith, Brandon; Wang, Lan; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girkin, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the deformation of structures in the optic nerve head (ONH) is associated with glaucoma and other diseases of the optic nerve, measurement of this deformation is of current research interest. This paper considers the computation of cup depth, a measurement of the depth of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). The computation of cup depth requires a reference structure against which to measure the ILM, and the construction of two reference structures is discussed, one based on Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the other based on the anterior surface of the peripapillary sclera (AS). A main focus of the paper is the robust computation of mean cup depth, which requires a good sampling of a reconstruction of the ILM surface. To evaluate our algorithm, the construction of synthetic datasets is considered. PMID:27942258

  10. Slit disk for modified faraday cup diagnostic for determining power density of electron and ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Teruya, Alan T [Livermore, CA; Elmer,; John, W [Danville, CA; Palmer, Todd A [State College, PA

    2011-03-08

    A diagnostic system for characterization of an electron beam or an ion beam includes an electrical conducting disk of refractory material having a circumference, a center, and a Faraday cup assembly positioned to receive the electron beam or ion beam. At least one slit in the disk provides diagnostic characterization of the electron beam or ion beam. The at least one slit is located between the circumference and the center of the disk and includes a radial portion that is in radial alignment with the center and a portion that deviates from radial alignment with the center. The electron beam or ion beam is directed onto the disk and translated to the at least one slit wherein the electron beam or ion beam enters the at least one slit for providing diagnostic characterization of the electron beam or ion beam.

  11. User's Guide: An Enhanced Modified Faraday Cup for the Profiling of the Power Density Distribution in Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Teruya, A T; Palmer, T A

    2002-06-01

    This handbook describes the assembly and operation of an enhanced Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) diagnostic device for measuring the power density distribution of high power electron beams used for welding. The most recent version of this diagnostic device, [1] Version 2.0, contains modifications to the hardware components of previous MFC designs.[2] These modifications allow for more complete capture of the electrons and better electrical grounding, thus improving the quality of the acquired data and enabling a more accurate computed tomographic (CT) reconstruction [3,4] of the power density distribution of the electron beam to be performed. [ 5-9

  12. Brassinosteroids regulate organ boundary formation in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Joshua M.; Liu, Jiang-Shu; Fan, Min; Bai, Ming-Yi; Wenkel, Stephan; Springer, Patricia S.; Barton, M. Kathryn; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of the formation of organ primordia and organ boundaries from the stem cell niche in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) determines the patterning and architecture of plants, but the underlying signaling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that brassinosteroids (BRs) play a key role in organ boundary formation by repressing organ boundary identity genes. BR-hypersensitive mutants display organ-fusion phenotypes, whereas BR-insensitive mutants show enhanced organ boundaries. The BR-activated transcription factor BZR1 directly represses the CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) family of organ boundary identity genes. In WT plants, BZR1 accumulates at high levels in the nuclei of central meristem and organ primordia but at a low level in organ boundary cells to allow CUC gene expression. Activation of BR signaling represses CUC gene expression and causes organ fusion phenotypes. This study uncovers a role for BR in the spatiotemporal control of organ boundary formation and morphogenesis in the SAM. PMID:23213257

  13. Earliest Directly-Dated Human Skull-Cups

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Silvia M.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of human braincases as drinking cups and containers has extensive historic and ethnographic documentation, but archaeological examples are extremely rare. In the Upper Palaeolithic of western Europe, cut-marked and broken human bones are widespread in the Magdalenian (∼15 to 12,000 years BP) and skull-cup preparation is an element of this tradition. Principal Findings Here we describe the post-mortem processing of human heads at the Upper Palaeolithic site of Gough's Cave (Somerset, England) and identify a range of modifications associated with the production of skull-cups. New analyses of human remains from Gough's Cave demonstrate the skilled post-mortem manipulation of human bodies. Results of the research suggest the processing of cadavers for the consumption of body tissues (bone marrow), accompanied by meticulous shaping of cranial vaults. The distribution of cut-marks and percussion features indicates that the skulls were scrupulously 'cleaned' of any soft tissues, and subsequently modified by controlled removal of the facial region and breakage of the cranial base along a sub-horizontal plane. The vaults were also ‘retouched’, possibly to make the broken edges more regular. This manipulation suggests the shaping of skulls to produce skull-cups. Conclusions Three skull-cups have been identified amongst the human bones from Gough's Cave. New ultrafiltered radiocarbon determinations provide direct dates of about 14,700 cal BP, making these the oldest directly dated skull-cups and the only examples known from the British Isles. PMID:21359211

  14. Apical surgery: A review of current techniques and outcome

    PubMed Central

    von Arx, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery is considered a standard oral surgical procedure. It is often a last resort to surgically maintain a tooth with a periapical lesion that cannot be managed with conventional endodontic (re-)treatment. The main goal of apical surgery is to prevent bacterial leakage from the root-canal system into the periradicular tissues by placing a tight root-end filling following root-end resection. Clinicians are advised to utilize a surgical microscope to perform apical surgery to benefit from magnification and illumination. In addition, the application of microsurgical techniques in apical surgery, i.e., gentle incision and flap elevation, production of a small osteotomy, and the use of sonic- or ultrasonic driven microtips, will result in less trauma to the patient and faster postsurgical healing. A major step in apical surgery is to identify possible leakage areas at the cut root face and subsequently to ensure adequate root-end filling. Only a tight and persistent apical obturation will allow periapical healing with good long-term prognosis. The present paper describes current indications, techniques and outcome of apical surgery. PMID:24151412

  15. FIP5 phosphorylation during mitosis regulates apical trafficking and lumenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongying; Mangan, Anthony; Cicchini, Louis; Margolis, Ben; Prekeris, Rytis

    2014-04-01

    Apical lumen formation is a key step during epithelial morphogenesis. The establishment of the apical lumen is a complex process that involves coordinated changes in plasma membrane composition, endocytic transport, and cytoskeleton organization. These changes are accomplished, at least in part, by the targeting and fusion of Rab11/FIP5-containing apical endosomes with the apical membrane initiation site (AMIS). Although AMIS formation and polarized transport of Rab11/FIP5-containing endosomes are crucial for the formation of a single apical lumen, the spatiotemporal regulation of this process remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the formation of the midbody during cytokinesis is a symmetry-breaking event that establishes the location of the AMIS. The interaction of FIP5 with SNX18, which is required for the formation of apical endocytic carriers, is inhibited by GSK-3 phosphorylation at FIP5-T276. Importantly, we show that FIP5-T276 phosphorylation occurs specifically during metaphase and anaphase, to ensure the fidelity and timing of FIP5-endosome targeting to the AMIS during apical lumen formation.

  16. Healing of apical periodontitis through modern endodontic retreatment techniques.

    PubMed

    Ray, Jarom J; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    The presence of apical periodontitis in teeth which have undergone initial root canal treatment is largely attributed to bacteria residing in or invading from the apical root canal space. Bacteria-associated apical periodontitis will not heal spontaneously, nor will systemic antibiotics eradicate the infection. Only endodontic retreatment, endodontic surgery, or extraction will control the bacterial etiology. Modern retreatment is an effective means of addressing apical periodontitis. A mandibular premolar with apical periodontitis, apical root resorption, and overfilled gutta percha was retreated with post removal, retrieval of gutta percha from beyond the apex, ultrasonic irrigation and disinfection, and placement of a collagen internal matrix to facilitate a well-controlled MTA apical fill. The magnification and illumination imparted by the operating microscope was integral to achievement of treatment objectives. The patient's symptoms were resolved and complete osseous healing occurred. During treatment planning, clinicians should consider the capability of modern endodontic techniques to overcome technical challenges, often allowing the natural dentition to be preserved and restored to function days after retreatment.

  17. Auxin at the Shoot Apical Meristem

    PubMed Central

    Vernoux, Teva; Besnard, Fabrice; Traas, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Plants continuously generate new tissues and organs through the activity of populations of undifferentiated stem cells, called meristems. Here, we discuss the so-called shoot apical meristem (SAM), which generates all the aerial parts of the plant. It has been known for many years that auxin plays a central role in the functioning of this meristem. Auxin is not homogeneously distributed at the SAM and it is thought that this distribution is interpreted in terms of differential gene expression and patterned growth. In this context, auxin transporters of the PIN and AUX families, creating auxin maxima and minima, are crucial regulators. However, auxin transport is not the only factor involved. Auxin biosynthesis genes also show specific, patterned activities, and local auxin synthesis appears to be essential for meristem function as well. In addition, auxin perception and signal transduction defining the competence of cells to react to auxin, add further complexity to the issue. To unravel this intricate signaling network at the SAM, systems biology approaches, involving not only molecular genetics but also live imaging and computational modeling, have become increasingly important. PMID:20452945

  18. Virus interaction with the apical junctional complex.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Garay, Erika; Lechuga, Susana

    2009-01-01

    In order to infect pathogens must breach the epithelial barriers that separate the organism from the external environment or that cover the internal cavities and ducts of the body. Epithelia seal the passage through the paracellular pathway with the apical junctional complex integrated by tight and adherens junctions. In this review we describe how viruses like coxsackie, swine vesicular disease virus, adenovirus, reovirus, feline calcivirus, herpes viruses 1 and 2, pseudorabies, bovine herpes virus 1, poliovirus and hepatitis C use as cellular receptors integral proteins present at the AJC of epithelial cells. Interaction with these proteins contributes in a significant manner in defining the particular tropism of each virus. Besides these proteins, viruses exhibit a wide range of cellular co-receptors among which proteins present in the basolateral cell surface like integrins are often found. Therefore targeting proteins of the AJC constitutes a strategy that might allow viruses to bypass the physical barrier that blocks their access to receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.

  19. Are porous tantalum cups superior to conventional reinforcement rings?

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Anders; Fredlund, Erik; Mallmin, Hans; Hailer, Nils P

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose— Porous tantalum cups have been introduced as an alternative to various reinforcement rings in revision hip surgery. We hypothesized that porous tantalum cups would be superior to Müller acetabular roof reinforcement rings (MARRs) in revision hip surgery with re-revision for aseptic loosening as the primary outcome measure. Patients and methods— 207 hips operated with either a porous tantalum cup (TM cup, n = 111) or a MARR (n = 96) at index procedure were identified in our local arthroplasty register. Acetabular defects were classified according to Paprosky. There were 96 men and 111 women with a median age of 71 (35–95) years, presenting acetabular defect size type I in 39 cases, IIA in 22, IIB in 27, IIC in 43, IIIA in 32, and IIIB in 37 cases. Analysis of medical records identified all patients with subsequent re-revision and reasons for re-revisions. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used to estimate implant survival. Results— With re-revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the 6-year unadjusted cumulative survival was 97% (95% CI: 94–100) for TM cups and 96% (CI: 92–100) for MARR (p = 0.6). Using re-revision for any reason as the endpoint, 6-year survival was 87% (CI: 81–94) for TM cups and 95% (CI: 90–99) for MARR (p = 0.06). The main reason for re-revision in the TM group was dislocation (n = 10), followed by loosening (n = 3), whereas the main reason for re-revision in the MARR group was aseptic loosening (n = 8). Duration of the index procedure and perioperative blood loss were lower in the TM group. Interpretation— Both TM and MARR lead to good 6-year results in acetabular revision surgery. The methods differ in their respective failure mechanisms. We conclude that TM cups are a valuable treatment option in acetabular revision surgery, but the reasons underlying dislocations after the use of TM cups must be analyzed further. PMID:27892748

  20. Calibration and Lag of a Friez Type Cup Anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkerton, Robert M

    1930-01-01

    Tests on a Friez type cup anemometer have been made in the variable density wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to calibrate the instrument and to determine its suitability for velocity measurements of wind gusts. The instrument was calibrated against a Pitot-static tube placed directly above the anemometer at air densities corresponding to sea level, and to an altitude of approximately 6000 feet. Air-speed acceleration tests were made to determine the lag in the instrument reading. The calibration results indicate that there should be an altitude correction. It is concluded that the cup anemometer is too sluggish for velocity measurements of wind gusts.

  1. Are porous tantalum cups superior to conventional reinforcement rings?

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Anders; Fredlund, Erik; Mallmin, Hans; Hailer, Nils P

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose - Porous tantalum cups have been introduced as an alternative to various reinforcement rings in revision hip surgery. We hypothesized that porous tantalum cups would be superior to Müller acetabular roof reinforcement rings (MARRs) in revision hip surgery with re-revision for aseptic loosening as the primary outcome measure. Patients and methods - 207 hips operated with either a porous tantalum cup (TM cup, n = 111) or a MARR (n = 96) at index procedure were identified in our local arthroplasty register. Acetabular defects were classified according to Paprosky. There were 96 men and 111 women with a median age of 71 (35-95) years, presenting acetabular defect size type I in 39 cases, IIA in 22, IIB in 27, IIC in 43, IIIA in 32, and IIIB in 37 cases. Analysis of medical records identified all patients with subsequent re-revision and reasons for re-revisions. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used to estimate implant survival. Results - With re-revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the 6-year unadjusted cumulative survival was 97% (95% CI: 94-100) for TM cups and 96% (CI: 92-100) for MARR (p = 0.6). Using re-revision for any reason as the endpoint, 6-year survival was 87% (CI: 81-94) for TM cups and 95% (CI: 90-99) for MARR (p = 0.06). The main reason for re-revision in the TM group was dislocation (n = 10), followed by loosening (n = 3), whereas the main reason for re-revision in the MARR group was aseptic loosening (n = 8). Duration of the index procedure and perioperative blood loss were lower in the TM group. Interpretation - Both TM and MARR lead to good 6-year results in acetabular revision surgery. The methods differ in their respective failure mechanisms. We conclude that TM cups are a valuable treatment option in acetabular revision surgery, but the reasons underlying dislocations after the use of TM cups must be analyzed further.

  2. Mode-bifurcation upon pouring water into a cup that depends on the shape of the cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Yamada, Akiko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki

    2005-05-01

    Mode-bifurcation that included hysteresis was investigated when water was poured into a cup via a water faucet. Three modes, i.e., accumulation flow (mode I), scattering flow (mode II), and open and shut oscillatory flow (mode III), could be produced by laterally changing the distance between the center of the cup and the landing point of water poured at a constant flow rate. Hysteresis in mode-bifurcation was observed when the distance was changed depending on the initial location of the water poured into the cup. Pendulum flow was also observed when water was poured into a shallow cell. The essential features of this mode-switching were reproduced by a numerical calculation as a function of the landing point of the poured water using two-variable (the size of the water hollow and the pressure on the water surface) differential equations that included the nature of reversed flow.

  3. The Neurospora crassa exocyst complex tethers Spitzenkörper vesicles to the apical plasma membrane during polarized growth

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Callejas-Negrete, Olga; Roberson, Robert W.; Ludwig, Sarah; Beltrán-Aguilar, Alejandro; Seiler, Stephan; Novick, Peter; Freitag, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fungal hyphae are among the most highly polarized cells. Hyphal polarized growth is supported by tip-directed transport of secretory vesicles, which accumulate temporarily in a stratified manner in an apical vesicle cluster, the Spitzenkörper. The exocyst complex is required for tethering of secretory vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. We determined that the presence of an octameric exocyst complex is required for the formation of a functional Spitzenkörper and maintenance of regular hyphal growth in Neurospora crassa. Two distinct localization patterns of exocyst subunits at the hyphal tip suggest the dynamic formation of two assemblies. The EXO-70/EXO-84 subunits are found at the peripheral part of the Spitzenkörper, which partially coincides with the outer macrovesicular layer, whereas exocyst components SEC-5, -6, -8, and -15 form a delimited crescent at the apical plasma membrane. Localization of SEC-6 and EXO-70 to the plasma membrane and the Spitzenkörper, respectively, depends on actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The apical region of exocyst-mediated vesicle fusion, elucidated by the plasma membrane–associated exocyst subunits, indicates the presence of an exocytotic gradient with a tip-high maximum that dissipates gradually toward the subapex, confirming the earlier predictions of the vesicle supply center model for hyphal morphogenesis. PMID:24523289

  4. A Case of Persistent Apical Ballooning Complicated by Apical Thrombus in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient

    PubMed Central

    Shim, In Kyoung; Kim, Bong-Joon; Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Jae-Woo; Cha, Tae-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which is also known as "transient apical ballooning", is a cardiac syndrome associated with emotional and physical stress that occurs in postmenopausal women. It may mimic acute coronary syndrome but coronary angiography reveals normal epicardial coronary arteries. The prognosis is favorable with the normalization of wall motion abnormalities within weeks. We report a case of persistent apical ballooning complicated by an apical thrombus in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy of systemic lupus erythematous patient. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may not be always transient and left ventricular thrombus can occur in the disease course as our patient. PMID:24198920

  5. Surgery for women with apical vaginal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Maher, Christopher; Feiner, Benjamin; Baessler, Kaven; Christmann-Schmid, Corina; Haya, Nir; Brown, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Apical vaginal prolapse is a descent of the uterus or vaginal vault (post-hysterectomy). Various surgical treatments are available and there are no guidelines to recommend which is the best. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of any surgical intervention compared to another intervention for the management of apical vaginal prolapse. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group's Specialised Register of controlled trials, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched July 2015) and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched January 2016). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We used Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were awareness of prolapse, repeat surgery and recurrent prolapse (any site). We included 30 RCTs (3414 women) comparing surgical procedures for apical vaginal prolapse. Evidence quality ranged from low to moderate. Limitations included imprecision, poor methodological reporting and inconsistency. Vaginal procedures versus sacral colpopexy (six RCTs, n = 583; one to four-year review). Awareness of prolapse was more common after vaginal procedures (risk ratio (RR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 4.21, 3 RCTs, n = 277, I(2) = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). If 7% of women are aware of prolapse after sacral colpopexy, 14% (7% to 27%) are likely to be aware after vaginal procedures. Repeat surgery for prolapse was more common after vaginal procedures (RR 2.28, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.32; 4 RCTs, n = 383, I(2) = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). The confidence interval suggests that if 4% of women require repeat prolapse surgery after sacral colpopexy, between 5% and 18% would require it after vaginal procedures.We found no conclusive evidence that vaginal procedures increaserepeat surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (RR 1.87, 95% CI 0.72 to 4.86; 4 RCTs, n = 395; I(2) = 0%, moderate

  6. 33 CFR 165.T11-0551 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sailing Events. 165.T11-0551 Section 165.T11-0551 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.T11-0551 Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events. (a) Definitions—(1) America's Cup Racing... 34th America's Cup sailing events. (2) Patrol Commander. As used in this section, “Patrol Commander”...

  7. 78 FR 37712 - Safety Zone; Chicago Match Cup Race; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Chicago Match Cup Race; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL AGENCY... safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois for the 2013 AWMRT Chicago Match Cup Race. This zone... Chicago Match Cup. During the aforementioned periods, the Coast Guard will enforce restrictions upon, and...

  8. Cup Stacking: Does It Deserve a Place in Physical Education Curricula?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udermann, Brian E.; Murray, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Cup stacking has become commonplace in today's physical education nomenclature. Proponents make claims that cup stacking improves cognitive, affective, and psychomotor abilities. At physical education conferences, scores of professional physical educators eagerly watch cup stacking representatives construct and deconstruct a variety of pyramids…

  9. 77 FR 7025 - Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage... Bay, Rhode Island, during the America's Cup World Series sailing vessel racing event. This safety zone... and spectators involved with the America's Cup World Series in the vicinity of Newport, RI. Discussion...

  10. 77 FR 28253 - Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage... the America's Cup World Series (ACWS) sailing vessel racing event. DATES: This rule is effective June..., we published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zones; America's Cup World...

  11. 77 FR 54815 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Regattas, San Francisco Bay; San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Regattas, San... Alcatraz Island. This rule will regulate the on-water activities associated with 2012 America's Cup World... Cup World Series regattas as part of a circuit of sailing events being conducted at other U.S. and...

  12. 77 FR 60897 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San... support of the 2012 America's Cup World Series sailing events. This safety zone is established to ensure..., through Sunday, October 7, 2012, for the 2012 America's Cup World Series. The Coast Guard intends to...

  13. 78 FR 40396 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ...,'' ``Red Bull Youth America's Cup,'' and ``America's Cup Finals Match'' scheduled to occur in July, August... associated with the viewing of the America's Cup in vicinity of buoys ``1'' and ``2'', marking the deep water... will not retaliate against small entities that question or complain about this rule or any policy...

  14. A novel method to assess primary stability of press-fit acetabular cups.

    PubMed

    Crosnier, Emilie A; Keogh, Patrick S; Miles, Anthony W

    2014-11-01

    Initial stability is an essential prerequisite to achieve osseointegration of press-fit acetabular cups in total hip replacements. Most in vitro methods that assess cup stability do not reproduce physiological loading conditions and use simplified acetabular models with a spherical cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bone density and acetabular geometry on cup stability using a novel method for measuring acetabular cup micromotion. A press-fit cup was inserted into Sawbones(®) foam blocks having different densities to simulate normal and osteoporotic bone variations and different acetabular geometries. The stability of the cup was assessed in two ways: (a) measurement of micromotion of the cup in 6 degrees of freedom under physiological loading and (b) uniaxial push-out tests. The results indicate that changes in bone substrate density and acetabular geometry affect the stability of press-fit acetabular cups. They also suggest that cups implanted into weaker, for example, osteoporotic, bone are subjected to higher levels of micromotion and are therefore more prone to loosening. The decrease in stability of the cup in the physiological model suggests that using simplified spherical cavities to model the acetabulum over-estimates the initial stability of press-fit cups. This novel testing method should provide the basis for a more representative protocol for future pre-clinical evaluation of new acetabular cup designs.

  15. Plastic Straining of Iridium Alloy DOP-26 During Cup Sizing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith; Ulrich, George B; Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-09-01

    DOP-26 iridium alloy cups are used for fuel cladding for radioisotope power systems. The cups are deep drawn and recrystallized prior to final fabrication operations. This study characterizes the plastic deformation of cups during a sizing operation following the recrystallization heat treatment. The purpose of the sizing operation is to achieve the specified roundness, diameter, and radius dimensions of the cup. The operation introduces various levels of plastic strain in the cup. Plastic strain can be a cause of inhomogeneous or abnormal grain growth during subsequent exposure to elevated temperature during the service life of the fueled clad. This is particularly true in the case of cups which have irregularities in the cup walls from the deep drawing operations. Diameter and roundness measurements were made on two cups both before and after sizing. Plastic strain levels were calculated using the ABAQUSTM finite element software. The calculated plastic strain levels in both cups were below 0.025, a value shown to be below the critical strain for abnormal grain growth during a simulated service exposure. The calculated maximum plastic strain was found to increase with increased applied sizing load and was not sensitive to the input value for the clearance between the cup and the sizing die. The calculated geometry of the sized cups was in good agreement with the measurements on the finished cups.

  16. 77 FR 22706 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... the ``America's Cup World Series,'' the ``Louis Vuitton Cup'' challenger selection series, and the ``America's Cup Finals Match'' sailing regattas that may be conducted in the waters of San Francisco Bay... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's...

  17. 77 FR 46285 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... associated with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regatta scheduled for August 21-26, 2012, on the... zone regulate the on-water activities associated with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regatta... published in association with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series'' regattas. This program calendar...

  18. 75 FR 39448 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... Detroit River during the Detroit APBA Gold Cup. This special local regulation is necessary to protect... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI in...

  19. 75 FR 21191 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Detroit APBA Gold Cup. This special local regulation..., testing and race in conjunction with the Detroit APBA Gold Cup. The powerboat race and associated...

  20. Vacuolar protein in apical and flower-petal cells.

    PubMed

    Shumway, L K; Cheng, V; Ryan, C A

    1972-12-01

    Vegetative apices, floral apices and flower petals of five Solanaceae (potato, tomato, tobacco, petunia and nightshade) and of corn and Nigella were examined with an electron microscope for the presence of protein bodies in the cell vacuoles. Electron-dense bodies were found in vacuoles of all plants investigated but not in every tissue examined. The bodies observed in the apices are similar to the protein bodies previously found in tomato leaves where they appear to be related to the presence of chymotrypsin inhibitor I protein (Shumway et al., 1970). The bodies appeared in very young cells in small vacuoles, disappearing as the cell matured. They are apparently related to the growth and development of the new cells. The results suggest that plants may regulate specific proteins within the apical region through selective synthesis and degradation of proteins accompanied by compartmentalization in the vacuole.

  1. Vacuolar processing enzyme activates programmed cell death in the apical meristem inducing loss of apical dominance.

    PubMed

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Buskila, Yossi; Belausov, Eduard; Wolf, Dalia; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2017-10-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber is a swollen underground stem that can sprout in an apical dominance (AD) pattern. Bromoethane (BE) induces loss of AD and the accumulation of vegetative vacuolar processing enzyme (S. tuberosum vacuolar processing enzyme [StVPE]) in the tuber apical meristem (TAM). Vacuolar processing enzyme activity, induced by BE, is followed by programmed cell death in the TAM. In this study, we found that the mature StVPE1 (mVPE) protein exhibits specific activity for caspase 1, but not caspase 3 substrates. Optimal activity of mVPE was achieved at acidic pH, consistent with localization of StVPE1 to the vacuole, at the edge of the TAM. Downregulation of StVPE1 by RNA interference resulted in reduced stem branching and retained AD in tubers treated with BE. Overexpression of StVPE1 fused to green fluorescent protein showed enhanced stem branching after BE treatment. Our data suggest that, following stress, induction of StVPE1 in the TAM induces AD loss and stem branching. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of Apical Microleakage in Open Apex Teeth Using MTA Apical Plug in Different Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Yazdizadeh, Mohammad; Bouzarjomehri, Zeinab; Khalighinejad, Navid; Sadri, Leyli

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To compare microleakage of apexification using MTA in one or two sessions. Materials and Methods. 88 single rooted teeth were prepared and divided into two groups then received MTA apical plug. In the first group, the teeth were immersed in normal saline for 24 hours and then backfilled with guttapercha and AH26 sealer. In the second group, the teeth were obturated immediately after receiving apical plug. Four positive and four negative controls were selected. All specimens were placed in 1% methylene blue and decalcified in 5% nitric acid and finally were placed in methyl salicylate until getting transparent. All teeth were visualized for assessment of dye penetration under stereo dissecting microscope. Results. 36 and 35 teeth showed dye leakage in the first and second groups. Dye penetration into the entire canal length was confirmed in the positive control group, and in the negative control group no dye penetration was seen. Mean dye penetration in the first and second group was 5813 and 9152 μm. t-test revealed a significant difference between dye penetrations of two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. MTA requires adequate time for setting in the presence of the moisture, and final obturation should be delayed until final setting of MTA. PMID:24282642

  3. Leidos Reclaims Defelice Cup at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Leidos Biomedical Research reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from NCI at the eighth annual Ronald H. Defelice golf tournament, held October 14. The final score was 15–7, with Leidos Biomed tying the series 4 to 4. Fourteen players on each team battled it out at Rattlewood golf course in Mount Airy, Md.

  4. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-01-01

    Coffee consumption has spread worldwide and differences in the raw bean consumption, in roasting conditions and in the extraction procedures used to prepare coffee brews result in a great diversity of chemical composition in the final product, the cup of coffee. Hence, beverage preparation is a fundamental step for enjoying the benefits of this…

  5. NASCAR Winston Cup Race Results for 1975-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Stock car racing has seen tremendous growth in popularity in recent years. We introduce two datasets containing results from all Winston Cup races between 1975 and 2003, inclusive. Students can use any number of statistical methods and applications of basic probability on the data to answer a wide range of practical questions. Instructors and…

  6. Teaching Transport Phenomena around a Cup of Coffee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean Stephane

    2007-01-01

    The very common situation of waiting for the cooling of a cup of coffee is addressed through a conventional engineering approach, where several important concepts of heat and mass transfer are used. A numerical and analytical solution of the differential equations of the problem are proposed, and assessed by comparing to simple experiments.…

  7. Leidos Reclaims Defelice Cup at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Leidos Biomedical Research reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from NCI at the eighth annual Ronald H. Defelice golf tournament, held October 14. The final score was 15–7, with Leidos Biomed tying the series 4 to 4. Fourteen players on each team battled it out at Rattlewood golf course in Mount Airy, Md.

  8. Infant Nutrition: Drinking from a Cup, Eating from a Spoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the developmental stages of infants' and children's eating habits. Provides directions for introducing cup and spoon to babies and for making homemade infant foods. Includes information on breast feeding and how child caregivers can support breast-feeding mothers. (HTH)

  9. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-01-01

    Coffee consumption has spread worldwide and differences in the raw bean consumption, in roasting conditions and in the extraction procedures used to prepare coffee brews result in a great diversity of chemical composition in the final product, the cup of coffee. Hence, beverage preparation is a fundamental step for enjoying the benefits of this…

  10. Teaching Transport Phenomena around a Cup of Coffee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean Stephane

    2007-01-01

    The very common situation of waiting for the cooling of a cup of coffee is addressed through a conventional engineering approach, where several important concepts of heat and mass transfer are used. A numerical and analytical solution of the differential equations of the problem are proposed, and assessed by comparing to simple experiments.…

  11. Technology. The Hot Cup Caper. Probing for Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramondetta, June

    1994-01-01

    Students can explore temperature and heat conductivity by examining materials that make good cups for hot cocoa. Using temperature probes from computer-based science packages, students can measure gradual change in the liquid's temperature, watch as data are plotted on the computer, and explain why they chose a specific material. (SM)

  12. NASCAR Winston Cup Race Results for 1975-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Stock car racing has seen tremendous growth in popularity in recent years. We introduce two datasets containing results from all Winston Cup races between 1975 and 2003, inclusive. Students can use any number of statistical methods and applications of basic probability on the data to answer a wide range of practical questions. Instructors and…

  13. Injuries among World Cup ski and snowboard athletes.

    PubMed

    Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

    2012-02-01

    There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports.

  14. Long-term Radiographic Assessment of Cemented Polyethylene Acetabular Cups

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Graham; Porter, Neil; Fisher, John; Older, John

    2008-01-01

    In vitro studies demonstrating excessive wear in polyethylene cups sterilized using gamma irradiation and stored in air led to the abandonment of this sterilization technique. We evaluated the clinical wear performance of a metal femoral component on a polyethylene cup in a hip prosthesis from a selected subset of implants in a group of patients followed for at least 20 years and assessed the time dependency of variation in penetration rates. We measured penetration in 33 polyethylene cups in 25 patients who had a Charnley low-friction arthroplasty between 1982 and 1984. All patients had Charnley Ogee® cups implanted for more than 20 years and sterilized using the gamma irradiation in air technique. If degradation occurred over time in vivo, it was not reflected by an increased penetration rate with increasing time in vivo; even after 20 years of implantation, the degree of wear remained low. This suggests gamma irradiation affects wear on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene by reducing wear secondary to the crosslinking, by increasing wear as shown through in vitro studies of heavily oxidized samples, or by oxidation resulting from prolonged shelf life. The effect of progressive oxidation in vivo does not appear to affect wear in vivo. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196419

  15. The Brazilian World Cup: too hot for soccer?

    PubMed

    Lucena, Rebecca Luna; Steinke, Ercília Torres; Pacheco, Christina; Vieira, Lucas Lima; Betancour, Maribel Olaya; Steinke, Valdir Adilson

    2017-08-25

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the climate data for the host cities of the soccer World Cup held in Brazil in June and July 2014. A great deal of criticism was expressed about the Brazilian climate in the national and international press and media in the run-up to the competition, suggesting that the air temperature and relative air humidity would be the main adversaries of the soccer teams, especially those from Europe, during the competition. An analysis of the weather was done at the places and times of each of the 64 matches held. A human thermal comfort index was calculated (discomfort index (DI)) for each of the matches in order to discover the real climatic conditions in the host cities during the 2014 World Cup and their potential influence on the teams and human comfort in general. During the 2014 World Cup, only two matches were played at temperatures above 30 °C, representing a negligible percentage of the total number of matches. The air temperature for over half the matches (53%) was 20-25 °C. The results showed the air temperature and relative humidity data analyzed here both individually and in the form of an index indicate that the World Cup held in Brazil in 2014 did not put any of the players at risk due to extreme heat.

  16. Technology. The Hot Cup Caper. Probing for Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramondetta, June

    1994-01-01

    Students can explore temperature and heat conductivity by examining materials that make good cups for hot cocoa. Using temperature probes from computer-based science packages, students can measure gradual change in the liquid's temperature, watch as data are plotted on the computer, and explain why they chose a specific material. (SM)

  17. The Brazilian World Cup: too hot for soccer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena, Rebecca Luna; Steinke, Ercília Torres; Pacheco, Christina; Vieira, Lucas Lima; Betancour, Maribel Olaya; Steinke, Valdir Adilson

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the climate data for the host cities of the soccer World Cup held in Brazil in June and July 2014. A great deal of criticism was expressed about the Brazilian climate in the national and international press and media in the run-up to the competition, suggesting that the air temperature and relative air humidity would be the main adversaries of the soccer teams, especially those from Europe, during the competition. An analysis of the weather was done at the places and times of each of the 64 matches held. A human thermal comfort index was calculated (discomfort index (DI)) for each of the matches in order to discover the real climatic conditions in the host cities during the 2014 World Cup and their potential influence on the teams and human comfort in general. During the 2014 World Cup, only two matches were played at temperatures above 30 °C, representing a negligible percentage of the total number of matches. The air temperature for over half the matches (53%) was 20-25 °C. The results showed the air temperature and relative humidity data analyzed here both individually and in the form of an index indicate that the World Cup held in Brazil in 2014 did not put any of the players at risk due to extreme heat.

  18. Failure of dual radius hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Fabio; Molina, Mauro; Riva, Giacomo; Zatti, Giovanni; Cherubino, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Many kind of hydroxyapatite-coated cups were used, with favorable results in short term studies; it was supposed that its use could improve osteointegration of the cup, enhancing thus stability and survivorship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long term behavior of the hemispheric HA coated, Dual Radius Osteonics cup and to discuss the way of failure through the exam of the revised components and of both periacetabular and osteolysis tissue. Materials and Methods Between 1994 and 1997, at the Department of Orthopedic Sciences of the Insubria University, using the posterolateral approach, were implanted 276 Dual Radius Osteonics® in 256 patients, with mean age of 63 years. Results At a mean follow-up of 10 years (range 8–12 years), 183 cups in 165 patients, were available for clinical and radiographical evaluation. 22 Cups among the 183 were revised (11%). The cause of revision was aseptic loosening in 17 cases, septic loosening in one case, periprosthetic fracture in another case, osteolysis and polyethylene wear in two cases and, finally, recurrent dislocations in the last one. In the remaining patients, mean HHS increased from a preoperative value of 50,15 to a postoperative value of 92,69. The mean polyethylene wear was 1,25 mm (min. 0,08, max. 3,9 mm), with a mean annual wear of 0,17 mm. The mean acetabular migration on the two axis was 1,6 mm and 1,8 mm. Peri-acetabular osteolysis were recorded in 89% of the implants (163 cases). The cumulative survivorship (revision as endpoint) at the time was 88,9%. Conclusion Our study confirms the bad behavior of this type of cup probably related to the design, to the method of HA fixation. The observations carried out on the revised cup confirm these hypotheses but did not clarify if the third body wear could be a further problem. Another interesting aspect is the high incidence of osteolysis, which are often asymptomatic becoming a problem for the surgeon as the patient refuses the

  19. Failure of dual radius hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Fabio; Molina, Mauro; Riva, Giacomo; Zatti, Giovanni; Cherubino, Paolo

    2008-08-07

    Many kind of hydroxyapatite-coated cups were used, with favorable results in short term studies; it was supposed that its use could improve osteointegration of the cup, enhancing thus stability and survivorship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long term behavior of the hemispheric HA coated, Dual Radius Osteonics cup and to discuss the way of failure through the exam of the revised components and of both periacetabular and osteolysis tissue. Between 1994 and 1997, at the Department of Orthopedic Sciences of the Insubria University, using the posterolateral approach, were implanted 276 Dual Radius Osteonics in 256 patients, with mean age of 63 years. At a mean follow-up of 10 years (range 8-12 years), 183 cups in 165 patients, were available for clinical and radiographical evaluation. 22 Cups among the 183 were revised (11%). The cause of revision was aseptic loosening in 17 cases, septic loosening in one case, periprosthetic fracture in another case, osteolysis and polyethylene wear in two cases and, finally, recurrent dislocations in the last one. In the remaining patients, mean HHS increased from a preoperative value of 50.15 to a postoperative value of 92.69. The mean polyethylene wear was 1.25 mm (min. 0.08, max 3.9 mm), with a mean annual wear of 0.17 mm. The mean acetabular migration on the two axis was 1.6 mm and 1.8 mm. Peri-acetabular osteolysis were recorded in 89% of the implants (163 cases). The cumulative survivorship (revision as endpoint) at the time was 88,9%. Our study confirms the bad behavior of this type of cup probably related to the design, to the method of HA fixation. The observations carried out on the revised cup confirm these hypotheses but did not clarify if the third body wear could be a further problem. Another interesting aspect is the high incidence of osteolysis, which are often asymptomatic becoming a problem for the surgeon as the patient refuses the possibility of a revision.

  20. Haemostatic agents in apical surgery. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Clé-Ovejero, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood presence in apical surgery can prevent the correct vision of the surgical field, change the physical properties of filling materials and reduce their sealing ability. Objetive To describe which are the most effective and safest haemostatic agents to control bleeding in patients undergoing apical surgery. Material and Methods TWe carried out a systematic review, using Medline and Cochrane Library databases, of human clinical studies published in the last 10 years. Results The agents that proved more effective in bleeding control were calcium sulphate (100%) and collagen plus epinephrine (92.9%) followed by ferric sulphate (60%), gauze packing (30%) and collagen (16.7%). When using aluminium chloride (Expasyl®), over 90% of the apical lesions improved, but this agent seemed to increase swelling. Epinephrine with collagen did not significantly raise either blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusions Despite the use of several haemostatic materials in apical surgery, there is little evidence on their effectiveness and safety. The most effective haemostatic agents were calcium sulphate and epinephrine plus collagen. Epinephrine plus collagen did not seem to significantly raise blood pressure or heart rate during surgery. Aluminium chloride did not increase postoperative pain but could slightly increase postoperative swelling. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the haemostatic effectiveness and adverse effects of haemostatic materials in apical surgery. Key words:Haemostasis, apical surgery. PMID:27475689

  1. Acetabular revision using a press-fit dual mobility cup.

    PubMed

    Massin, P; Besnier, L

    2010-02-01

    Dual mobility cups are especially indicated in total hip replacement revision, the risk of recurrent instability being greater than in primary surgery. In revision, however, primary cup fixation is uncertain without routine anchoring screws. The stability of dual mobility cups impacted without cement, supplementary screw(s) or anchoring pegs fixation is satisfactory in total hip arthroplasty acetabular component revision, and prevents instability accidents. Twenty three patients were operated on by the same surgeon between January 1999 and December 2006 and prospectively followed up to a mean 4 1/2 years (range,2-10 yrs). A Collégia cup (Wright Medical France, Créteil, France) was impacted in 23 total hip arthroplasty acetabular component revisions, including 17 cases of SOFCOT grade-1 bone-stock loss and six of grade 2. There were six clinically poor results on the Merle D'Aubigné scale. One case of early migration occurred, in a multioperated acetabulum. There was one isolated dislocation and one recurrent dislocation associated with loose greater trochanter nonunion, but tolerated as it was infrequent. This option simplifies revision surgery and limits the risk of dislocation if the abductor muscles unit is continuous. It is indicated when local bone-site compromise encompass a wall-contained cavitary defect at most. A medial wall defect, if moderate, does not in our view preclude using a primary cup, impacted with a certain degree of protrusion. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to confirm these medium-term findings. Level IV. Prospective non comparative therapeutic study. Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Importance of nuclear medicine diagnostics in CUP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Winter, M C; Haberkorn, U; Kratochwil, C

    2014-02-01

    The diagnostic work-up in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) syndrome is extensive, highly time-consuming and cost-intensive and ultimately often fails to detect a primary site. In this context chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) have been used as standard imaging modalities in CUP syndrome. Since the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of tumor vitality has become possible. Furthermore, PET-CT hybrid scanners allow the combination of functional and morphological imaging. Several meta-analyses have reported an additional overall detection rate between 24.5 % and 44 % by either PET or PET-CT. Metastatic localization (cervical versus extracervical) did not influence the performance. The sensitivity was usually high (> 80 %) but specificity was moderate ranging from 68 % to 88 % at best. If mentioned, the results obtained by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET significantly changed the clinical management in approximately one third of the patients studied. In a direct comparison with PET alone, PET-CT did not depict significantly more primary tumors but was able to reduce false positive findings. To determine the real additional value of PET-CT in the diagnosis of CUP syndrome large prospective studies with more uniform inclusion criteria are needed. Despite the capabilities of FDG-PET-CT there is as yet no evidence that a potentially improved diagnostic algorithm is translated into a better patient outcome. Nevertheless, FDG-PET-CT should be performed in all CUP patients where conventional imaging failed to detect a primary site or the results are equivocal. In CUP patients with cervical lymph node metastases PET-CT should be carried out prior to panendoscopy to reduce the number of false negative biopsies.

  3. Football injuries during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Astrid; Dvořák, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Background FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of match injuries incurred during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in comparison to previous FIFA World Cups. Methods The chief physicians of the participating teams reported all newly incurred injuries of their players after the match on a standardised report form. 124 (97%) forms were returned. Results A total of 104 injuries were reported, equivalent to an incidence of 1.68 injuries per match (95% CI 1.36 to 2.00). 64 (63.4%) injuries were caused by contact with another player. Thigh (26; 25%) and head (19; 18%) were the most frequently injured body parts. The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (n=18). Five concussions and three fractures to the head were reported. While most thigh strains (15/17; 88.2%) occurred without contact, almost all head injuries (18/19; 94.7%) were caused by contact. 0.97 injuries per match (95% CI 0.72 to 1.22) were expected to result in absence from training or match. Eight injuries were classified as severe. The incidence of match injuries in the 2014 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than the average of the four preceding FIFA World Cups, both for all injuries (2.34; 95% CI 2.15 to 2.53) and time-loss injuries (1.51; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.65). Conclusions The overall incidence of injury during the FIFA World Cups decreased from 2002 to 2014 by 37%. A detailed analysis of the injury mechanism is recommended to further improve prevention strategies. PMID:25878077

  4. [Mountainbike injuries in world-cup and recreational athletes].

    PubMed

    Himmelreich, H; Pralle, H; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the incidence and frequency of injuries in mountainbike sports among competitive and recreational athletes. In a retrospective study design mountain-bike athletes were interviewed by means of a standardized questionnaire with regard to sports injuries and damages within the previous two years. The evaluation of time relative injury-rate was carried out under consideration of class and competition discipline. 75 % of the distributed questionnaires returned completed by 106 World-Cup (39 female symbol 67 male symbol, 23.1 y) and 134 recreational athletes (17 female symbol 117 male symbol, 27.4 y). Approximately 80 % of the World-Cup and about 50 % of the recreational athletes reported about at least one severe injury. World-Cup downhill athletes (1.08 injuries/ 1000 h) show a more than doubled time-related injury-rate in comparison with Cross-Country athletes (0.39 injuries/ 1000 h). Injuries of the lower (47 vs. 35 %) and upper extremity (40 vs. 41 %) show comparable prevalence for competitive and recreational cyclists. In the group of recreational athletes open wounds dominate, competitive athletes demonstrate a significant higher fracture-rate (p < 0.01). Within the World-Cup athletes head injuries stand out (n = 40). Although World-Cup participation does not result in essential injury-increase, the downhill discipline is characterized by a higher injury risk. Presumably in view of the performance orientation, there is a higher degree of risk readiness. Despite the riding performance and the obligatory safety equipment a remarkable number of bone and head injuries results.

  5. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Amitabha; Dey, Bibhas; Dhar, Reema; Sardar, Prabir

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors has been plugged using modified white Portland cement. 3 to 6 months follow up revealed absence of clinical symptoms and disappearance of peri-apical rarefactions. The positive clinical outcome may encourage the future use of white Portland cement as an apical plug material in case of non vital open apex tooth as much cheaper substitute of MTA. PMID:23230357

  6. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described. PMID:26361491

  7. Disc photography and Heidelberg retinal tomography documentation of reversal of cupping following trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Darana; Buys, Yvonne M

    2010-11-01

    Reversal of cupping is a widely recognized phenomenon. However, whether or not functional improvement is associated with reversal of cupping is controversial. There has not been any documentation in the literature of reversal of cupping with accompanying Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) images and visual field (VF) changes at each time point. Case report based on one patient. Reversible cupping was seen following a dramatic reduction of IOP post-trabeculectomy, which was associated with an improved HRT but unchanged VF. This case documents reversal of cupping with VF and HRT testing accompanying the disc photos at each time point. Despite improvement in disc appearance and on structural testing, functional testing was unchanged.

  8. [Evaluation of acetabular cup placement precision in Stryker computer-assisted navigated total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Shang, Peng; Bai, Xueling; Shi, Dufang

    2012-09-01

    To contrast the methodology of measuring cup placement precision utilizing Mimics and Matlab programming, based on clinical CT images of primary THA cases with computer assisted navigated surgery (CANS) and with the traditional manual method (MANS). The method was applied and analyzed to measure cup anteversion, cup abduction of 50 clinical cases with CANS and MANSThe results show that, cup placement precision differences exits between primary THA cases with CANS and MANS; more cases with CANS are within the safe zone contrasting MANS, and there was less variation and less placement error in CANS cases. CANS can improve cup placement precision and reduce the chance of dislocation efficiently.

  9. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described.

  10. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Pandey, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the established working length. Group II (ACT, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater than the MAF that was followed by dry reaming. Root canal therapy was accomplished in single-visit for all the teeth. They were pursued radiographically at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Pre- and post-treatment PAI scores were compared. To ascertain the proportion of healed teeth between the two groups, McNemar Chi-square test was applied. Results: At 3, 6, and 9 months’ time interval the proportion of healed teeth for Group II (ACT) was greater in comparison to Group I (CAP) (P < 0.05). However, at 12 months follow-up period this difference was not significant (P = 0.08). Conclusion: ACT enhanced the healing kinetics. However, the long-term (12 months) radiographic outcome was similar for either technique. PMID:27656054

  11. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  12. Morphogenesis of the mouse neural plate depends on distinct roles of cofilin 1 in apical and basal epithelial domains

    PubMed Central

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Hildebrand, Jeffrey; Anderson, Kathryn V.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic control of mammalian epithelial polarity and dynamics can be studied in vivo at cellular resolution during morphogenesis of the mouse neural tube. The mouse neural plate is a simple epithelium that is transformed into a columnar pseudostratified tube over the course of ∼24 h. Apical F-actin is known to be important for neural tube closure, but the precise roles of actin dynamics in the neural epithelium are not known. To determine how the organization of the neural epithelium and neural tube closure are affected when actin dynamics are blocked, we examined the cellular basis of the neural tube closure defect in mouse mutants that lack the actin-severing protein cofilin 1 (CFL1). Although apical localization of the adherens junctions, the Par complex, the Crumbs complex and SHROOM3 is normal in the mutants, CFL1 has at least two distinct functions in the apical and basal domains of the neural plate. Apically, in the absence of CFL1 myosin light chain does not become phosphorylated, indicating that CFL1 is required for the activation of apical actomyosin required for neural tube closure. On the basal side of the neural plate, loss of CFL1 has the opposite effect on myosin: excess F-actin and myosin accumulate and the ectopic myosin light chain is phosphorylated. The basal accumulation of F-actin is associated with the assembly of ectopic basal tight junctions and focal disruptions of the basement membrane, which eventually lead to a breakdown of epithelial organization. PMID:25742799

  13. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  14. Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it. This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. Methods We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping and type of diseases treated. Results 550 clinical studies were identified published between 1959 and 2008, including 73 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 22 clinical controlled trials, 373 case series, and 82 case reports. Number of RCTs obviously increased during past decades, but the quality of the RCTs was generally poor according to the risk of bias of the Cochrane standard for important outcome within each trials. The diseases in which cupping was commonly employed included pain conditions, herpes zoster, cough or asthma, etc. Wet cupping was used in majority studies, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, medicinal cupping, etc. 38 studies used combination of two types of cupping therapies. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. Conclusions According to the above results, quality and quantity of RCTs on cupping therapy appears to be improved during the past 50 years in China, and majority of studies show potential benefit on pain conditions, herpes zoster and other diseases. However, further rigorous designed trials in relevant conditions are warranted to support their use in practice. PMID:21078197

  15. Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huijuan; Han, Mei; Li, Xun; Dong, Shangjuan; Shang, Yongmei; Wang, Qian; Xu, Shu; Liu, Jianping

    2010-11-16

    Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it.This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping and type of diseases treated. 550 clinical studies were identified published between 1959 and 2008, including 73 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 22 clinical controlled trials, 373 case series, and 82 case reports. Number of RCTs obviously increased during past decades, but the quality of the RCTs was generally poor according to the risk of bias of the Cochrane standard for important outcome within each trials. The diseases in which cupping was commonly employed included pain conditions, herpes zoster, cough or asthma, etc. Wet cupping was used in majority studies, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, medicinal cupping, etc. 38 studies used combination of two types of cupping therapies. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. According to the above results, quality and quantity of RCTs on cupping therapy appears to be improved during the past 50 years in China, and majority of studies show potential benefit on pain conditions, herpes zoster and other diseases. However, further rigorous designed trials in relevant conditions are warranted to support their use in practice.

  16. [Osteosynthesis and cup revision in periprosthetic acetabulum fractures using a Kocher-Langenbeck approach].

    PubMed

    Schwabe, P; Märdian, S; Perka, C; Schaser, K-D

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction/stable fixation of the acetabular columns to create an adequate periacetabular requirement for the implantation of a revision cup. Displaced/nondisplaced fractures with involvement of the posterior column. Resulting instability of the cup in an adequate bone stock situation. Periprosthetic acetabulum fractures with inadequate bone stock. Extended periacetabular defects with loss of anchorage options. Isolated periprosthetic fractures of the anterior column. Septic loosening. Dorsal approach. Dislocation of hip. Mechanical testing of inlaying acetabular cup. With unstable cup situation explantation of the cup, fracture fixation of acetabulum with dorsal double plate osteosynthesis along the posterior column. Cup revision. Hip joint reposition. Early mobilization; partial weight bearing for 12 weeks. Thrombosis prophylaxis. Clinical and radiological follow-ups. Periprosthetic acetabular fracture in 17 patients with 9 fractures after primary total hip replacement (THR), 8 after revision THR. Fractures: 12 due to trauma, 5 spontaneously; 7 anterior column fractures, 5 transverse fractures, 4 posterior column fractures, 1 two column fracture after hemiendoprosthesis. 5 type 1 fractures and 12 type 2 fractures. Operatively treated cases (10/17) received 3 reinforcement ring, 2 pedestal cup, 1 standard revision cup, cup-1 cage construct, 1 ventral plate osteosynthesis, 1 dorsal plate osteosynthesis, and 1 dorsal plate osteosynthesis plus cup revision (10-month Harris Hip Score 78 points). Radiological follow-up for 10 patients: consolidation of fractures without dislocation and a fixed acetabular cup. No revision surgeries during follow-up; 2 hip dislocations, 1 transient sciatic nerve palsy.

  17. GLUT2 Accumulation in Enterocyte Apical and Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Omar, Amal; Monteiro-Sepulveda, Milena; Poitou, Christine; Le Gall, Maude; Cotillard, Aurélie; Gilet, Jules; Garbin, Kevin; Houllier, Anne; Château, Danièle; Lacombe, Amélie; Veyrie, Nicolas; Hugol, Danielle; Tordjman, Joan; Magnan, Christophe; Serradas, Patricia; Clément, Karine; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In healthy rodents, intestinal sugar absorption in response to sugar-rich meals and insulin is regulated by GLUT2 in enterocyte plasma membranes. Loss of insulin action maintains apical GLUT2 location. In human enterocytes, apical GLUT2 location has not been reported but may be revealed under conditions of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subcellular location of GLUT2 in jejunal enterocytes was analyzed by confocal and electron microscopy imaging and Western blot in 62 well-phenotyped morbidly obese subjects and 7 lean human subjects. GLUT2 locations were assayed in ob/ob and ob/+ mice receiving oral metformin or in high-fat low-carbohydrate diet–fed C57Bl/6 mice. Glucose absorption and secretion were respectively estimated by oral glucose tolerance test and secretion of [U-14C]-3-O-methyl glucose into lumen. RESULTS In human enterocytes, GLUT2 was consistently located in basolateral membranes. Apical GLUT2 location was absent in lean subjects but was observed in 76% of obese subjects and correlated with insulin resistance and glycemia. In addition, intracellular accumulation of GLUT2 with early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) was associated with reduced MGAT4a activity (glycosylation) in 39% of obese subjects on a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Mice on a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet for 12 months also exhibited endosomal GLUT2 accumulation and reduced glucose absorption. In ob/ob mice, metformin promoted apical GLUT2 and improved glucose homeostasis. Apical GLUT2 in fasting hyperglycemic ob/ob mice tripled glucose release into intestinal lumen. CONCLUSIONS In morbidly obese insulin-resistant subjects, GLUT2 was accumulated in apical and/or endosomal membranes of enterocytes. Functionally, apical GLUT2 favored and endosomal GLUT2 reduced glucose transepithelial exchanges. Thus, altered GLUT2 locations in enterocytes are a sign of intestinal adaptations to human metabolic pathology. PMID:21852673

  18. Treatment decisions in 330 cases referred for apical surgery.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Thomas; Roux, Eliane; Bürgin, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with postendodontic apical periodontitis. However, little information is available regarding treatment planning in cases referred for apical surgery. This study evaluated the decisions made in such cases and analyzed the variables influencing the decision-making process. The study retrospectively assessed clinical and radiographic data of 330 teeth that had been referred to a specialist in apical surgery with regard to the treatment decisions made in those teeth. The clinical and radiographic variables were divided into subcategories to analyze which factors influenced the decision-making process. The treatment decisions included apical surgery (59.1%), tooth extraction (25.8%), no treatment (9.1%), and nonsurgical endodontic retreatment (6.1%). Variables that showed statistically significant differences comparing treatment decisions among subcategories included probing depth (P = .001), clinical attachment level (P = .0001), tooth mobility (P = .012), pain (P = .014), clinical signs (P = .0001), length (P = .041) and quality (P = .026) of the root canal filling, and size (P = .0001) and location (P = .0001) of the periapical lesion. This study shows that apical surgery was the most frequently made treatment decision in teeth referred to a specialist in apical surgery, but every fourth tooth was considered nonretainable and was scheduled for extraction. The data showed that the most common variables that influenced the decision to extract teeth were teeth with an increased probing depth and tooth mobility and teeth presenting with lesions not located at the apex. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Retinal and anterior eye compartments derive from a common progenitor pool in the avian optic cup

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Sara J.; Cuenca, Paulina D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The optic cup is created through invagination of the optic vesicle. The morphogenetic rearrangement creates a double-layered cup, with a hinge (the Optic Cup Lip) where the epithelium bends back upon itself. Shortly after the optic cup forms, it is thought to be sub-divided into separate lineages: i) pigmented epithelium in the outer layer; ii) presumptive iris and ciliary body at the most anterior aspect of the inner layer; and iii) presumptive neural retina in the remainder of the inner layer. We test the native developmental potential of the anterior cup to determine if it normally contributes to the retina. Methods Vital dye and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing replication-incompetent retroviral vectors were used to label cells in the nascent optic cup and follow their direct progeny throughout development. Label was applied to either the optic cup lip (n=40), or to the domain just posterior to the lip (n=20). Retroviral labeling is a permanent lineage marker and enabled the analysis of advanced stages of development. Results Labeling within the optic cup gave rise to labeled progeny in the posterior optic cup that differentiated as neural retina (20 of 20). In contrast, labeling cells in the optic cup lip gave rise to progeny of labeled cells arrayed in a linear progression, from the lip into the neural retina (36 of 40). Label was retained in cells at the optic cup lip, regardless of age at examination. In older embryos, labeled progeny delaminated from the optic cup lip to differentiate as muscle of the pupillary margin. Conclusions The data show that the cells at the optic cup lip are a common progenitor population for pigmented epithelium, anterior eye tissues (ciliary body, iris, and pupillary muscle) and retinal neurons. The findings are supportive of an interpretation where the optic cup lip is a specialized niche containing a multipotent progenitor population. PMID:22219630

  20. Cup Implant Planning Based on 2-D/3-D Radiographic Pelvis Reconstruction-First Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Steffen; Sato, Yoshinobu; Nakanishi, Yuki; Yokota, Futoshi; Takao, Masaki; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-11-01

    In the following, we will present a newly developed X-ray calibration phantom and its integration for 2-D/3-D pelvis reconstruction and subsequent automatic cup planning. Two different planning strategies were applied and evaluated with clinical data. Two different cup planning methods were investigated: The first planning strategy is based on a combined pelvis and cup statistical atlas. Thereby, the pelvis part of the combined atlas is matched to the reconstructed pelvis model, resulting in an optimized cup planning. The second planning strategy analyzes the morphology of the reconstructed pelvis model to determine the best fitting cup implant. The first planning strategy was compared to 3-D CT-based planning. Digitally reconstructed radiographs of THA patients with differently severe pathologies were used to evaluate the accuracy of predicting the cup size and position. Within a discrepancy of one cup size, the size was correctly identified in 100% of the cases for Crowe type I datasets and in 77.8% of the cases for Crowe type II, III, and IV datasets. The second planning strategy was analyzed with respect to the eventually implanted cup size. In seven patients, the estimated cup diameter was correct within one cup size, while the estimation for the remaining five patients differed by two cup sizes. While both planning strategies showed the same prediction rate with a discrepancy of one cup size (87.5%), the prediction of the exact cup size was increased for the statistical atlas-based strategy (56%) in contrast to the anatomically driven approach (37.5%). The proposed approach demonstrated the clinical validity of using 2-D/3-D reconstruction technique for cup planning.

  1. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes.

    PubMed

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C M; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P

    2011-06-01

    The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164.

  2. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes

    PubMed Central

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C. M.; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. Methods We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Key Results Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. Conclusions The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164. PMID:21320879

  3. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250

  4. [Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) a success story in apical surgery].

    PubMed

    von Arx, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of apical surgery is to retain teeth with persistent apical pathosis following orthograde root canal treatment if endodontic non-surgical revision is difficult or associated with risks, or is even declined by the patient. Since the most frequent cause of recurrent apical disease is bacterial reinfection from the (remaining) root canal system, the bacteria-tight root-end filling is the most important step in apical surgery. In the early 1990s, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed at the Loma Linda University in California/USA. Preclinical studies clearly showed that MTA has a high sealing capability, a good material stability and an excellent biocompatbility. Multiple experimental studies in animals highlighted the mild tissue reactions observed adjacent to this material. Furthermore, histological analysis of the periapical regions demonstrated a frequent deposition of new cementum not only onto the resection plane (cut dentinal surface), but also directly onto MTA. For these reasons, MTA is considered a bioactive material. In 1997 MTA was cleared for clinical use in patients. Multiple prospective clinical and randomized studies have documented high and constant success rates of MTA-treated teeth in apical surgery. A recently published longitudinal study showed that MTA-treated teeth remained stable over five years; hence the high healed rates documented after one year are maintained during long-term observation.

  5. Characterization of rat apical tissues in different root development stage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Yang, Zhenhua; Jin, Fang; Duan, Yinzhong; Jin, Yan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we try to compare the histological characteristics and the odontogenic capability of apical tissues (AT) at different root development stages of rat molar teeth. AT of mandibular first molars from 8-day-old, 21-day-old, and 35-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were selected as being representative of root-initiating, root-forming, and root-completing stages, respectively. Cell counting, flow cytometry assays, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to assess the proliferation and mineralization potential of apical tissue cells at different stages of root development in vitro. In vivo transplantation of apical tissue cells combined with ceramic bovine bone was used to characterize the differentiation capacity. It was shown that there was a structurally and functionally dynamic change in the apical tissue of developing tooth root of rats, of which the unique developmental potential will reduce gradually with the ending up of root development. The AT of root-initiating and root-forming stage exhibited much higher proliferation and tissue-regenerative capacity than those of root-completing stage. Our present results indicate that the apical tissue, with the sustainable developmental ability throughout almost the whole process of tooth development, can yet be regarded as a competent candidate source for root/periodontal tissues regeneration.

  6. Coronal and apical sealing ability of a new endodontic cement

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Morvarid; Iravani, Maryam; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study aims to evaluate the coronal and apical sealing ability of gutta-percha (GP) root filling used with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), new endodontic cement (NEC) or AH26 as filler/sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty eight single-rooted extracted teeth were selected, decoronated and then instrumented. Samples were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and two control groups (n=6). In group 1, root canals were filled using lateral condensation technique (L); while single cone technique (S) was used for groups 2 and 3. AH26, MTA and NEC were the root canal sealer/fillers in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Samples were immersed in 1% methylene-blue dye and then independently centrifuged apically and coronally. The roots were split longitudinally and linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope from apical and coronal directions. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and T-test. RESULTS: No statistical differences in mean apical dye penetration between groups LGP/AH26, SGP/MTA and SGP/NEC were found; SGP/NEC group showed significantly less coronal dye penetration (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Considering the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the simple single cone technique with NEC can provide favorable coronal and apical seal. PMID:23864871

  7. Total and Specific Bacterial Levels in the Apical Root Canal System of Teeth with Post-treatment Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Henrique S; Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Siqueira, José F

    2015-07-01

    Most studies of the microbiota in root canal-treated teeth focused only on the main canal, not distinguishing regions nor incorporating the intricate anatomy in the analysis. Moreover, most of them provided only prevalence data. This study was designed to evaluate the total bacterial counts and the presence, levels, and relative abundance of candidate endodontic pathogens exclusively in the apical root canal system associated with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of 27 adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground. DNA was extracted from the powder, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the total bacteria and 7 bacterial taxa. Samples from 21 teeth were positive for bacteria. Streptococcus species were the most prevalent (76%) followed by members of the Actinobacteria phylum (52%) and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus (19%). The mean total bacterial load in the apical root segments was 5.7 × 10(4) cell equivalents per root apex (or 2.1 × 10(4)/100 mg root powder). Streptococci comprised from 0.02%-99.9% of the total bacterial counts, Actinobacteria from 0.02%-84.7%, and P. alactolyticus from 67.9%-99%. Although Enterococcus faecalis was found in only 3 (14%) cases, it was dominant in 2. Streptococcus species, members of the Actinobacteria phylum, and P. alactolyticus were the most prevalent taxa in the apical canal system and dominated the bacterial populations in many cases of post-treatment apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [The role of pathology in the diagnostics of CUP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, A; Kriegsmann, M; Weichert, W

    2014-02-01

    Cancers of unknown primary (CUP) origin account for 2-3 % of all malignancies in Germany and represent a heterogeneous, often aggressive and clinically challenging group of tumors with early metastatic dissemination for which a standardized diagnostic work-up initially fails to identify the primary site of origin at the time of diagnosis. This article reviews the options and challenges of tissue-based conventional as well as molecular diagnostic procedures to categorize this heterogeneous group of neoplasms. The role of pathology in the diagnostics of CUP syndrome is described as part of a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons and radiologists with the ultimate goal of assisting clinical reasoning and decision-making.

  9. RNG1 is a Late Marker of the Apical Polar Ring in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Johnson Q.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S.

    2010-01-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe the characteristics of a novel protein that localizes to the APR of Toxoplasma gondii which we have named ring-1 (RNG1). There are related RNG1 proteins in Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona but no obvious homologs in Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp. or Babesia spp. RNG1 is a small, low-complexity, detergent-insoluble protein that assembles at the APR very late in the process of daughter parasite replication. We were unable to knock-out the RNG1 gene, suggesting that its gene product is essential. Tagged RNG1 lines have also allowed us to visualize the APR during growth of Toxoplasma in the microtubule-disrupting drug oryzalin. Oryzalin inhibits nuclear division and cytokinesis although Toxoplasma growth continues, and similar to earlier observations of unchecked centriole duplication in oryzalin-treated parasites, the APR continues to duplicate during aberrant parasite growth. PMID:20658557

  10. NMII forms a contractile transcellular sarcomeric network to regulate apical cell junctions and tissue geometry.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Seham; Fujita, Tomoki; Millis, Bryan A; Kozin, Elliott; Ma, Xuefei; Kawamoto, Sachiyo; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hisa, Yasuo; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Kachar, Bechara

    2013-04-22

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is thought to be the master integrator of force within epithelial apical junctions, mediating epithelial tissue morphogenesis and tensional homeostasis. Mutations in NMII are associated with a number of diseases due to failures in cell-cell adhesion. However, the organization and the precise mechanism by which NMII generates and responds to tension along the intercellular junctional line are still not known. We discovered that periodic assemblies of bipolar NMII filaments interlace with perijunctional actin and α-actinin to form a continuous belt of muscle-like sarcomeric units (∼400-600 nm) around each epithelial cell. Remarkably, the sarcomeres of adjacent cells are precisely paired across the junctional line, forming an integrated, transcellular contractile network. The contraction/relaxation of paired sarcomeres concomitantly impacts changes in apical cell shape and tissue geometry. We show differential distribution of NMII isoforms across heterotypic junctions and evidence for compensation between isoforms. Our results provide a model for how NMII force generation is effected along the junctional perimeter of each cell and communicated across neighboring cells in the epithelial organization. The sarcomeric network also provides a well-defined target to investigate the multiple roles of NMII in junctional homeostasis as well as in development and disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in America's Cup yacht racing

    PubMed Central

    Neville, V J; Molloy, J; Brooks, J H M; Speedy, D B; Atkinson, G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence and severity of injuries and illnesses incurred by a professional America's Cup yacht racing crew during the preparation for and participation in the challenge for the 2003 America's Cup. Methods A prospective study design was used over 74 weeks of sailing and training. All injuries and illnesses sustained by the 35 professional male crew members requiring medical treatment were recorded, including the diagnosis, nature, location, and mechanism of injury. The volume of sailing and training were recorded, and the severity of incidents were determined by the number of days absent from both sailing and training. Results In total, 220 injuries and 119 illnesses were recorded, with an overall incidence of 8.8 incidents/1000 sailing and training hours (injuries, 5.7; illnesses, 3.1). The upper limb was the most commonly injured body segment (40%), followed by the spine and neck (30%). The most common injuries were joint/ligament sprains (27%) and tendinopathies (20%). The incidence of injury was significantly higher in training (8.6) than sailing (2.2). The most common activity or mechanism of injury was non‐specific overuse (24%), followed by impact with boat hardware (15%) and weight training (13%). “Grinders” had the highest overall injury incidence (7.7), and “bowmen” had the highest incidence of sailing injuries (3.2). Most of the illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections (40%). Conclusions The data from this study suggest that America's Cup crew members are at a similar risk of injury to athletes in other non‐collision team sports. Prudent allocation of preventive and therapeutic resources, such as comprehensive health and medical care, well designed conditioning and nutritional programmes, and appropriate management of recovery should be adopted by America's Cup teams in order to reduce the risk of injury and illness. PMID:16556783

  12. Sphere anemometer - a faster alternative solution to cup anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölling, M.; Schulte, B.; Barth, S.; Peinke, J.

    2007-07-01

    We present an anemometer technique characterized by an instrument in a sealed enclosure without moving parts. Measurements taken with our improved sphere anemometer in comparison to cup anemometer and hot-wire anemometer data subjected to wind gusts are discussed. The hot-wire anemometer serves as a reference with high temporal and spacial resolution. A manually driven "gust generator" produced gusts at low frequencies of about 1Hz. All measurements were carried out in the wind tunnel at the University of Oldenburg.

  13. A new approach for miniaturization of multiple faraday cup collectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Banar, J. C.; Chamberlin, E. P.; Poths, J.; Perrin, R. E.; Chastagner, P.

    2002-01-01

    The mass spectrometry section in CST-7 has been working for several years on a novel so0lution to overcome the size and placement restrictions of multiple Faraday cup collectors. Use of simultaneous collection of multiple isotopes both increases precision in the isotopic measurements and shortens the data collection time. Our application is for the measurement of the isotopic composition of Xe, ionized in a source that produces a large (10{sup -11} amp) but variable ion beam.

  14. Bacteriophage assembly.

    PubMed

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  15. Development and first experimental tests of Faraday cup array.

    PubMed

    Prokůpek, J; Kaufman, J; Margarone, D; Krůs, M; Velyhan, A; Krása, J; Burris-Mog, T; Busold, S; Deppert, O; Cowan, T E; Korn, G

    2014-01-01

    A new type of Faraday cup, capable of detecting high energy charged particles produced in a high intensity laser-matter interaction environment, has recently been developed and demonstrated as a real-time detector based on the time-of-flight technique. An array of these Faraday cups was designed and constructed to cover different observation angles with respect to the target normal direction. Thus, it allows reconstruction of the spatial distribution of ion current density in the subcritical plasma region and the ability to visualise its time evolution through time-of-flight measurements, which cannot be achieved with standard laser optical interferometry. This is a unique method for two-dimensional visualisation of ion currents from laser-generated plasmas. A technical description of the new type of Faraday cup is introduced along with an ad hoc data analysis procedure. Experimental results obtained during campaigns at the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Heavy Ion Experiments (GSI, Darmstadt) and at the Prague Asterix Laser System (AS CR) are presented. Advantages and limitations of the used diagnostic system are discussed.

  16. Optic nerve cupping and the neuro-ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Clare L; White, Andrew J R; Plant, Gordon T; Martin, Keith R

    2013-12-01

    While glaucoma is the most common cause of optic disc cupping, it can also be seen in a number of congenital and acquired optic neuropathies. It behooves both glaucoma and neuro-ophthalmic specialists to be able to differentiate glaucoma from neurological conditions, which give a similar ophthalmoscopic appearance to the optic disc. This review is a combination of the authors' clinical experience from tertiary glaucoma and neuro-ophthalmology referral centers, combined with a literature review using PubMed. Even for experienced observers, differentiation between glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous cupping can be difficult. In the majority of cases, this distinction can be made following a careful clinical examination combined with a variety of imaging techniques. Possible mechanisms, which lead to changes in optic disc morphology, are reviewed. Differentiating glaucomatous from nonglaucomatous optic disc cupping can be a formidable challenge for the clinician. Examination of the patient combined with imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer and optic disc topography provides a basis to resolve this clinical conundrum.

  17. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures.

  18. Hemispheric cups do not reproduce acetabular rim morphology.

    PubMed

    Vandenbussche, Eric; Saffarini, Mohammed; Delogé, Nicolas; Moctezuma, José-Luis; Nogler, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Iliopsoas impingement is a recurrent complication following THA, caused by muscle friction against a protrusive prosthetic cup.This study was designed to quantify the dimensional variations in acetabular rim profiles, with particular regard to the iliopubic valley, in order to suggest means to prevent iliopsoas impingement. 34 cadaver pelvises were analyzed using a hip navigation system. The morphometric data were processed to plot profiles of all acetabular rims with particular regard to the shape and depth of the psoas valley. The acetabular rim is an asymmetric succession of 3 peaks and 3 troughs. The psoas valley is a salient feature in most pelvises and there is only a weak correlation between its depth (mean 3.8 mm, SD 2.0) and acetabular diameter, anteversion, or inclination. It would be difficult to obviate the anterior overlap of the acetabulum using a hemispheric cup, a fortiori in certain morphotypes, without compromising range of motion or risk of dislocation. The solution for prevention of iliopsoas impingement would be to adapt cup design to acetabular anatomy, which may require different implants for the right and left sides, and hence a doubled inventory.

  19. Oxidative unzipping of stacked nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haifeng; Zhao, Yong; Tang, Yifan; Burkert, Seth C; Star, Alexander

    2015-05-27

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of different nanostructures by oxidative unzipping of stacked nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups (NCNCs). Depending on the initial number of stacked-cup segments, this method can yield graphene nanosheets (GNSs) or hybrid nanostructures comprised of graphene nanoribbons partially unzipped from a central nanotube core. Due to the stacked-cup structure of as-synthesized NCNCs, preventing complete exposure of graphitic planes, the unzipping mechanism is hindered, resulting in incomplete unzipping; however, individual, separated NCNCs are completely unzipped, yielding individual nitrogen-doped GNSs. Graphene-based materials have been employed as electrocatalysts for many important chemical reactions, and it has been proposed that increasing the reactive edges results in more efficient electrocatalysis. In this paper, we apply these graphene conjugates as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to determine how the increase in reactive edges affects the electrocatalytic activity. This investigation introduces a new method for the improvement of ORR electrocatalysts by using nitrogen dopants more effectively, allowing for enhanced ORR performance with lower overall nitrogen content. Additionally, the GNSs were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs), resulting in a GNS/GNP hybrid, which shows efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering and expands the scope of its application in advanced device fabrication and biosensing.

  20. From Tonic-cups to Bitter-cups: Kwasi bita beker from Suriname Determination, past and present use of an ancient galenic artefact.

    PubMed

    Odonne, G; Bourdy, G; Beauchêne, J; Houël, E; Stien, D; Chevolot, L; Deharo, E

    2007-03-21

    In the main markets of Paramaribo (Suriname), many stands offer what is locally called "Bitter-cups", or "Kwasi bita beker", small footed-cups, roughly carved from a whitish wood. The use of these cups is strictly medicinal and it seems to be restricted to Suriname, as they are not found in neighbouring countries (Guyana, French Guiana). The aim of this study was to identify the botanical origin of Bitter-cups still in use in the Saramaka traditional medicine (as information from field people was controversial), and document the ethnopharmacology of this original galenical artefact. Microscopic and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were carried out on Bitter-cup, and anatomical criteria (marginal parenchyma band, size of intervessel and vessel-ray pits, rays width and rays composition, vessels clustering, frequency and size of parenchyma pits) together with HPLC profiles of the macerates showed that the wood cup was similar to Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) wood. Ethnopharmacological investigation indicates that the use of these cups is simply due to the pharmacological properties attributed to "bitters", and is strongly linked to tradition and cultural attitudes. This study also emphasizes the long lasting use of these cups, now restricted to Suriname only, with almost no variation over one century.

  1. Apical oscillations in amnioserosa cells: basolateral coupling and mechanical autonomy.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Aroshan K; Crews, Sarah M; Mashburn, David N; Hutson, M Shane

    2013-07-02

    Holographic laser microsurgery is used to isolate single amnioserosa cells in vivo during early dorsal closure. During this stage of Drosophila embryogenesis, amnioserosa cells undergo oscillations in apical surface area. The postisolation behavior of individual cells depends on their preisolation phase in these contraction/expansion cycles: cells that were contracting tend to collapse quickly after isolation; cells that were expanding do not immediately collapse, but instead pause or even continue to expand for ∼40 s. In either case, the postisolation apical collapse can be prevented by prior anesthetization of the embryos with CO2. These results suggest that although the amnioserosa is under tension, its cells are subjected to only small elastic strains. Furthermore, their postisolation apical collapse is not a passive elastic relaxation, and both the contraction and expansion phases of their oscillations are driven by intracellular forces. All of the above require significant changes to existing computational models.

  2. Apical Oscillations in Amnioserosa Cells: Basolateral Coupling and Mechanical Autonomy

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Aroshan K.; Crews, Sarah M.; Mashburn, David N.; Hutson, M. Shane

    2013-01-01

    Holographic laser microsurgery is used to isolate single amnioserosa cells in vivo during early dorsal closure. During this stage of Drosophila embryogenesis, amnioserosa cells undergo oscillations in apical surface area. The postisolation behavior of individual cells depends on their preisolation phase in these contraction/expansion cycles: cells that were contracting tend to collapse quickly after isolation; cells that were expanding do not immediately collapse, but instead pause or even continue to expand for ∼40 s. In either case, the postisolation apical collapse can be prevented by prior anesthetization of the embryos with CO2. These results suggest that although the amnioserosa is under tension, its cells are subjected to only small elastic strains. Furthermore, their postisolation apical collapse is not a passive elastic relaxation, and both the contraction and expansion phases of their oscillations are driven by intracellular forces. All of the above require significant changes to existing computational models. PMID:23823245

  3. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    There is continuing controversy regarding the potential for inflammatory apical cysts to heal after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Molecular cell biology may provide answers to a series of related questions. How are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez stimulated to proliferate? How are the apical cysts formed? How does the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after endodontic therapy? Epithelial cell rests are induced to divide and proliferate by inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors released from host cells during periradicular inflammation. Quiescent epithelial cell rests can behave like restricted-potential stem cells if stimulated to proliferate. Formation of apical cysts is most likely caused by the merging of proliferating epithelial strands from all directions to form a three-dimensional ball mass. After endodontic therapy, epithelial cells in epithelial strands of periapical granulomas and the lining epithelium of apical cysts may stop proliferating because of a reduction in inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing.

  4. Mineral trioxide aggregate as apical plug in teeth with necrotic pulp and immature apices: a 10-year case series.

    PubMed

    Pace, Riccardo; Giuliani, Valentina; Nieri, Michele; Di Nasso, Luca; Pagavino, Gabriella

    2014-08-01

    This 10-year study evaluated the clinical and radiologic outcomes of teeth with necrotic pulp, immature apices, and periapical lesions treated with the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plug technique. Seventeen single-rooted immature teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesion from 17 patients treated between January 2001 and December 2001 were included in this study. Apical obturation on all teeth included in the study was completed in 2 visits: first using calcium hydroxide as an interappointment intracanal medication and a second visit for the creation of the artificial apical barrier with MTA. The outcome, based on clinical and radiographic criteria, was assessed by 2 calibrated investigators using the periapical index (PAI). The Friedman test was used to verify the differences between baseline and the 1-, 5-, and 10-year PAI scores. Of the 17 patients treated, 1 patient dropped out at 5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, 15 teeth were healed (PAI ≤2), and 1 tooth had been extracted because of the presence of a longitudinal root fracture. The PAI score exhibited a significant decrease between baseline and 1 year and between 1 and 5 years. The difference between 5 and 10 years was not significant. The apical plug with MTA was a successful and effective technique for long-term management of this group of teeth with necrotic pulps with immature root development and periapical lesions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel mitochondrial ATP8 gene mutation in a patient with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jonckheere, An I; Hogeveen, Marije; Nijtmans, Leo; van den Brand, Mariel; Janssen, Antoon; Diepstra, Heleen; van den Brandt, Frans; van den Heuvel, Bert; Hol, Frans; Hofste, Tom; Kapusta, Livia; Dillmann, U; Shamdeen, M; Smeitink, J; Smeitink, J; Rodenburg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    To identify the biochemical and molecular genetic defect in a 16-year-old patient presenting with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy suspected for a mitochondrial disorder. Measurement of the mitochondrial energy-generating system (MEGS) capacity in muscle and enzyme analysis in muscle and fibroblasts were performed. Relevant parts of the mitochondrial DNA were analysed by sequencing. A homoplasmic nonsense mutation m.8529G→A (p.Trp55X) was found in the mitochondrial ATP8 gene in the patient’s fibroblasts and muscle tissue. Reduced complex V activity was measured in the patient’s fibroblasts and muscle tissue, and was confirmed in cybrid clones containing patient-derived mitochondrial DNA We describe the first pathogenic mutation in the mitochondrial ATP8 gene, resulting in an improper assembly and reduced activity of the complex V holoenzyme. PMID:21686774

  6. Central X-ray beam correction of radiographic acetabular cup measurement after THA: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, T; Weber, M; Wörner, M; Renkawitz, T; Grifka, J; Craiovan, B

    2017-05-01

    Accurate assessment of cup orientation on postoperative radiographs is essential for evaluating outcome after THA. However, accuracy is impeded by the deviation of the central X-ray beam in relation to the cup and the impossibility of measuring retroversion on standard pelvic radiographs. In an experimental trial, we built an artificial cup holder enabling the setting of different angles of anatomical anteversion and inclination. Twelve different cup orientations were investigated by three examiners. After comparing the two methods for radiographic measurement of the cup position developed by Lewinnek and Widmer, we showed how to differentiate between anteversion and retroversion in each cup position by using a second plane. To show the effect of the central beam offset on the cup, we X-rayed a defined cup position using a multidirectional central beam offset. According to Murray's definition of anteversion and inclination, we created a novel corrective procedure to balance measurement errors caused by deviation of the central beam. Measurement of the 12 different cup positions with the Lewinnek's method yielded a mean deviation of [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 1.3-2.3) from the original cup anteversion. The respective deviation with the Widmer/Liaw's method was [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 2.4-4.0). In each case, retroversion could be differentiated from anteversion with a second radiograph. Because of the multidirectional central beam offset ([Formula: see text] cm) from the acetabular cup in the cup holder ([Formula: see text] anteversion and [Formula: see text] inclination), the mean absolute difference for anteversion was [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for inclination. The application of our novel mathematical correction of the central beam offset reduced deviation to a mean difference of [Formula: see text] for anteversion and [Formula: see text

  7. Acetabular cup position and risk of dislocation in primary total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Kurt G; Troelsen, Anders; Malchau, Henrik; Husted, Henrik; Gromov, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Hip dislocation is one of the most common complications following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Several factors that affect dislocation have been identified, including acetabular cup positioning. Optimal values for cup inclination and anteversion are debatable. We performed a systematic review to describe the different methods for measuring cup placement, target zones for cup positioning, and the association between cup positioning and dislocation following primary THA. Methods — A systematic search of literature in the PubMed database was performed (January and February 2016) to identify articles that compared acetabular cup positioning and the risk of dislocation. Surgical approach and methods for measurement of cup angles were also considered. Results— 28 articles were determined to be relevant to our research question. Some articles demonstrated that cup positioning influenced postoperative dislocation whereas others did not. The majority of articles could not identify a statistically significant difference between dislocating and non-dislocating THA with regard to mean angles of cup anteversion and inclination. Most of the articles that assessed cup placement within the Lewinnek safe zone did not show a statistically significant reduction in dislocation rate. Alternative target ranges have been proposed by several authors. Interpretation— The Lewinnek safe zone could not be justified. It is difficult to draw broad conclusions regarding a definitive target zone for cup positioning in THA, due to variability between studies and the likely multifactorial nature of THA dislocation. Future studies comparing cup positioning and dislocation rate should investigate surgical approach separately. Standardized tools for measurement of cup positioning should be implemented to allow comparison between studies. PMID:27879150

  8. Rectal sensation test helps avoid pain of apical prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jones, J Stephen; Zippe, Craig D

    2003-12-01

    Apical cores obtained during transrectal prostate biopsy are associated with greater pain than cores obtained from the remainder of the gland. We present a method to minimize this pain. During 30 consecutive apical biopsies the needle was purposefully placed above all rectal pain fibers, which are anatomically present only below the dentate line. All patients received a periprostatic nerve block prior to biopsy. The patient was asked if he felt the sharp sensation of the needle as it was placed lightly against the rectal mucosa when the needle was aimed at apex (the rectal sensation test). If so, the needle was advanced cranially 2 to 3 mm or until he could no longer detect its light touch. The probe handle was then rotated dorsally, pulling the rectal mucosa downward until the needle was again aimed at the apex. Patients were asked to report a visual analog pain score for each biopsy. These results were compared to those obtained when doing 30 consecutive apical biopsies without the rectal sensation test. The average visual analog pain score for apical biopsy was 1.25 (range 0 to 2.2) for patients in whom the rectal sensation test was used to bypass rectal pain sensory fibers. The average score in control patients in whom the rectal sensation test was not used was higher at 2.28 (range 0.3-6.2). These results were statistically significant (p > 0.0005). Increased sensitivity to apical prostate biopsy is due to rectal pain fibers located below the dentate line. These fibers and the associated pain may be safely avoided by passing through the rectal wall above the dentate line. The rectal sensation test easily identifies the sensate area below the dentate line. Painless apical biopsy can then be achieved by rotating the ultrasound probe to aim the biopsy needle in the desired path.

  9. Dental Apical Papilla as Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    De Berdt, P; Vanacker, J; Ucakar, B; Elens, L; Diogenes, A; Leprince, J G; Deumens, R; des Rieux, A

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) represent great promise regarding treatment of neural tissue damage, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). They derive from the neural crest, express numerous neurogenic markers, and mediate neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. The goal of the present work was to investigate for the first time their potential to promote motor recovery after SCI in a rat hemisection model when delivered in their original stem cell niche-that is, by transplantation of the human apical papilla tissue itself into the lesion. Control groups consisted of animals subjected to laminectomy only (shams) and to lesion either untreated or injected with a fibrin hydrogel with or without human SCAP. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scores at 1 and 3 d postsurgery confirmed early functional decline in all SCI groups. This significant impairment was reversed, as seen in CatWalk analyses, after transplantation of apical papilla into the injured spinal cord wound, whereas the other groups demonstrated persistent functional impairment. Moreover, tactile allodynia did not develop as an unwanted side effect in any of the groups, even though the SCAP hydrogel group showed higher expression of the microglial marker Iba-1, which has been frequently associated with allodynia. Notably, the apical papilla transplant group presented with reduced Iba-1 expression level. Masson trichrome and human mitochondria staining showed the preservation of the apical papilla integrity and the presence of numerous human cells, while human cells could no longer be detected in the SCAP hydrogel group at the 6-wk postsurgery time point. Altogether, our data suggest that the transplantation of a human apical papilla at the lesion site improves gait in spinally injured rats and reduces glial reactivity. It also underlines the potential interest for the application of delivering SCAP in their original niche, as compared with use of a fibrin hydrogel.

  10. Multiple idiopathic external apical root resorption: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Kapur, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Multiple idiopathic external apical root resorption (MIEARR) is a relatively rare condition affecting multiple teeth in a dentition. As the condition is nonsymptomatic, a case is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases. It is sometimes self-limiting or sometimes may progress to tooth loss. This paper presents a case of external apical root resorption involving multiple teeth in which etiology was not identified, so idiopathic root resorption was considered as a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:25657532

  11. Complex Polarity: Building Multicellular Tissues Through Apical Membrane Traffic.

    PubMed

    Román-Fernández, Alvaro; Bryant, David M

    2016-12-01

    The formation of distinct subdomains of the cell surface is crucial for multicellular organism development. The most striking example of this is apical-basal polarization. What is much less appreciated is that underpinning an asymmetric cell surface is an equally dramatic intracellular endosome rearrangement. Here, we review the interplay between classical cell polarity proteins and membrane trafficking pathways, and discuss how this marriage gives rise to cell polarization. We focus on those mechanisms that regulate apical polarization, as this is providing a number of insights into how membrane traffic and polarity are regulated at the tissue level.

  12. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  13. Developmental regulation of CUP gene expression through DNA methylation in Mucor spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Canchola, C; Sosa, L; Fonzi, W; Sypherd, P; Ruiz-Herrera, J

    1992-01-01

    Inserts which carried the CUP gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Mucor racemosus were used as hybridization probes to measure the methylation state and expression of the CUP gene from Mucor rouxii at different stages of growth. It was observed that the fungus contains a CUP multigene family. All the CUP genes were present in a hypermethylated DNA region in nongrowing and isodiametrically growing spores and were not transcribed at these stages. After germ tube emergence, CUP genes became demethylated and transcriptionally active. Development, demethylation, and transcription of CUP genes were blocked by the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor 1,4-diaminobutanone. These results suggest that genes that are activated during development became demethylated in this fungus. Images PMID:1729231

  14. Investigation of a cup-shaped ultrasonic transducer operated in the full-wave vibrational mode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long

    2015-05-01

    Cup-shaped horn has significant applications in ultrasonic machining, such as continuous bonding of plastic sheet or strips. Generally, it is excited by a sandwich piezoelectric transducer and both together constitute a cup-shaped ultrasound transducer (CUT). To provide a concise theoretical model for its engineering applications, the equivalent circuit of the cup-shaped ultrasonic transducer is deduced and the resonance/anti-resonance frequency equations are obtained. Meanwhile, the vibrational characteristics of the cup-shaped ultrasonic transducer have been investigated by using the analytical and numerical methods, and then confirmed by the experiment. The results show that the cup-shaped horn has a distinctive equivalent circuit, and the cup-shaped ultrasonic transducer has a good vibrational performance.

  15. Zonula occludens-1 and -2 regulate apical cell structure and the zonula adherens cytoskeleton in polarized epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, Alan S.; Van Itallie, Christina M.; Anderson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and function of both adherens (AJ) and tight (TJ) junctions are dependent on the cortical actin cytoskeleton. The zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and -2 proteins have context-dependent interactions with both junction types and bind directly to F-actin and other cytoskeletal proteins, suggesting ZO-1 and -2 might regulate cytoskeletal activity at cell junctions. To address this hypothesis, we generated stable Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines depleted of both ZO-1 and -2. Both paracellular permeability and the localization of TJ proteins are disrupted in ZO-1/-2–depleted cells. In addition, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy revealed a significant expansion of the perijunctional actomyosin ring associated with the AJ. These structural changes are accompanied by a recruitment of 1-phosphomyosin light chain and Rho kinase 1, contraction of the actomyosin ring, and expansion of the apical domain. Despite these changes in the apical cytoskeleton, there are no detectable changes in cell polarity, localization of AJ proteins, or the organization of the basal and lateral actin cytoskeleton. We conclude that ZO proteins are required not only for TJ assembly but also for regulating the organization and functional activity of the apical cytoskeleton, particularly the perijunctional actomyosin ring, and we speculate that these activities are relevant both to cellular organization and epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:22190737

  16. Pod Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An improved pod assembly for positively securing the equipment contained therein to the wingtip of an aircraft and having a readily removable...podshell for in situ service and repair. The pod assembly includes a strongback assembly of an acurate saddle and support beam secured to the outboard ends...of the aircraft wing beams, to which a satellite communications antenna array is mounted. A fiberglass reinforced laminated thin wall plastic pod

  17. World cup soccer players tend to be born with sun and moon in adjacent zodiacal signs

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, J

    2000-01-01

    The ecliptic elongation of the moon with respect to the sun does not show uniform distribution on the birth dates of the 704 soccer players selected for the 1998 World Cup. However, a uniform distribution is expected on astronomical grounds. The World Cup players show a very pronounced tendency (p = 0.00001) to be born on days when the sun and moon are in adjacent zodiacal signs. Key Words: soccer; World Cup; astrology; moon PMID:11131239

  18. Multiple data sets and modelling choices in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2014-10-01

    This study used multiple data sets and modelling choices in an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare typical disposable beverage cups made from polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (PLA; bioplastic) and paper lined with bioplastic (biopaper). Incineration and recycling were considered as waste processing options, and for the PLA and biopaper cup also composting and anaerobic digestion. Multiple data sets and modelling choices were systematically used to calculate average results and the spread in results for each disposable cup in eleven impact categories. The LCA results of all combinations of data sets and modelling choices consistently identify three processes that dominate the environmental impact: (1) production of the cup's basic material (PS, PLA, biopaper), (2) cup manufacturing, and (3) waste processing. The large spread in results for impact categories strongly overlaps among the cups, however, and therefore does not allow a preference for one type of cup material. Comparison of the individual waste treatment options suggests some cautious preferences. The average waste treatment results indicate that recycling is the preferred option for PLA cups, followed by anaerobic digestion and incineration. Recycling is slightly preferred over incineration for the biopaper cups. There is no preferred waste treatment option for the PS cups. Taking into account the spread in waste treatment results for all cups, however, none of these preferences for waste processing options can be justified. The only exception is composting, which is least preferred for both PLA and biopaper cups. Our study illustrates that using multiple data sets and modelling choices can lead to considerable spread in LCA results. This makes comparing products more complex, but the outcomes more robust.

  19. Equally good fixation of cemented and uncemented cups in total trapeziometacarpal joint prostheses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Cup failure is a recognized problem in total trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint prostheses; it may be related to poor fixation, which can be revealed by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). We compared the early implant migration of cemented trapezium cups to that of uncemented screw cups. Patients and methods In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized patient-blinded clinical trial, we included 32 hands in 28 patients (5 males) with a mean age of 58 (40–77) years and with Eaton stage-2 or -3 osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Patients were randomized to surgery with a cemented DLC all-polyethylene cup (C) (n = 16) or an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated chrome-cobalt Elektra screw cup (UC) (n = 16). Uncemented cups were inserted without threading of the bone. Stereoradiographs for evaluation of cup migration (primary effect size) and DASH and pain scores were obtained during 2 years of follow-up. Results The 2-year total translation (TT) was similar (p = 0.2): 0.24 mm (SD 0.10) for the C (n = 11) and 0.19 mm (SD 0.16) for the UC (n = 11). Variances were similar (p = 0.4). Judged by RSA, 2 UC cups and 1 C cup became loose (TT > 1 mm). Both UC cups were found to be loose at revision. Grip strength, pain, and DASH scores were similar between groups at all measurement points. Interpretation Early implant fixation and clinical outcome were equally good with both cup designs. This is the first clinical RSA study on trapezium cups, and the method appears to be clinically useful for detection of loose implants. PMID:23343372

  20. The Cup'ik People of the Western Tundra: A Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingayak, John

    The Cup'ik people are a group of Yup'ik Eskimos who live in southwest Alaska. This curriculum aims to enhance Cup'ik students' interest in their own culture by making that culture a part of their daily activities; to teach students to practice the traditional Cup'ik respect for elders, fellow students, and others in the community; and to teach…

  1. Chapter Four - Shoot apical meristem form and function. In:

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates above-ground aerial organs throughout the lifespan of higher plants. In order to fulfill this function, the meristem must maintain a balance between the self-renewal of a reservoir of central stem cells and organ initiation from peripheral cells. The activit...

  2. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    PubMed

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  3. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  4. Theory of Electric Resonance in the Neocortical Apical Dendrite

    PubMed Central

    Kasevich, Ray S.; LaBerge, David

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex display a wide range of synchronous EEG rhythms, which arise from electric activity along the apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Here we present a theoretical description of oscillation frequency profiles along apical dendrites which exhibit resonance frequencies in the range of 10 to 100 Hz. The apical dendrite is modeled as a leaky coaxial cable coated with a dielectric, in which a series of compartments act as coupled electric circuits that gradually narrow the resonance profile. The tuning of the peak frequency is assumed to be controlled by the average amplitude of voltage-gated outward currents, which in turn are regulated by the subthreshold noise in the thousands of synaptic spines that are continuously bombarded by local circuits. The results of simulations confirmed the ability of the model both to tune the peak frequency in the 10–100 Hz range and to gradually narrow the resonance profile. Considerable additional narrowing of the resonance profile is provided by repeated looping through the apical dendrite via the corticothalamocortical circuit, which reduced the width of each resonance curve (at half-maximum) to approximately 1 Hz. Synaptic noise in the neural circuit is discussed in relation to the ways it can influence the narrowing process. PMID:21853129

  5. Unilateral apical infiltrate as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tice, A W

    1981-11-01

    A unilateral, apical, pulmonary infiltrate was seen in an Air Force weapon systems officer stationed in the Philippines as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The most obvious diagnosis for that geographic area is tuberculosis. Diagnosis must be pursued to evaluate all differential possibilities, with resort to open-lung or bronchoscopic biopsy, if necessary.

  6. Apical Constriction: A Cell Shape Change that Can Drive Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Jacob M; Harrell, Jessica R; Shemer, Gidi; Sullivan-Brown, Jessica; Roh-Johnson, Minna; Goldstein, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Biologists have long recognized that dramatic bending of a cell sheet may be driven by even modest shrinking of the apical sides of cells. Cell shape changes and tissue movements like these are at the core of many of the morphogenetic movements that shape animal form during development, driving processes such as gastrulation, tube formation and neurulation. The mechanisms of such cell shape changes must integrate developmental patterning information in order to spatially and temporally control force production -- issues that touch on fundamental aspects of both cell and developmental biology and on birth defects research. How does developmental patterning regulate force-producing mechanisms, and what roles do such mechanisms play in development? Work on apical constriction from multiple systems including Drosophila, C. elegans, sea urchin, Xenopus, chick and mouse has begun to illuminate these issues. Here, we review this effort to explore the diversity of mechanisms of apical constriction, the diversity of roles that apical constriction plays in development, and the common themes that emerge from comparing systems. PMID:19751720

  7. Theory of electric resonance in the neocortical apical dendrite.

    PubMed

    Kasevich, Ray S; LaBerge, David

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex display a wide range of synchronous EEG rhythms, which arise from electric activity along the apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Here we present a theoretical description of oscillation frequency profiles along apical dendrites which exhibit resonance frequencies in the range of 10 to 100 Hz. The apical dendrite is modeled as a leaky coaxial cable coated with a dielectric, in which a series of compartments act as coupled electric circuits that gradually narrow the resonance profile. The tuning of the peak frequency is assumed to be controlled by the average amplitude of voltage-gated outward currents, which in turn are regulated by the subthreshold noise in the thousands of synaptic spines that are continuously bombarded by local circuits. The results of simulations confirmed the ability of the model both to tune the peak frequency in the 10-100 Hz range and to gradually narrow the resonance profile. Considerable additional narrowing of the resonance profile is provided by repeated looping through the apical dendrite via the corticothalamocortical circuit, which reduced the width of each resonance curve (at half-maximum) to approximately 1 Hz. Synaptic noise in the neural circuit is discussed in relation to the ways it can influence the narrowing process.

  8. Performance of Porous Tantalum vs. Titanium Cup in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Randomized Trial with Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Julien; Kaufman, Kenton R; Hanssen, Arlen D; Lewallen, David G

    2015-06-01

    Porous tantalum monoblock cups have been proposed to improve survivorship of cementless primary THA. However, there are few direct comparative trials to established implants such as porous-coated titanium cups. 113 patients were randomized into two groups according to the cup: a porous tantalum monoblock cup (TM) or a porous-coated titanium monoblock cup (control). At a mean of 12 years after THA, no implants migrated in both groups. Two TM patients (4%) and 13 control patients (33%) presented with radiolucency around the cup (P<0.001). In the control group, 1 cup (2%) was revised for aseptic loosening. At 12 years post-implantation, porous tantalum monoblock cups demonstrated 100% survivorship, and significantly less radiolucency as compared to porous-coated titanium monoblock cups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of the ciliary body: morphological changes in the distal portion of the optic cup in the human.

    PubMed

    Peces-Peña, M D; de la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Vicente, A; Mérida-Velasco, J R

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the main events that occur in the development of the ciliary body (CB) in the 5-14th week of development. The CB develops from the distal portion of the optic cup (OC) and the neighboring mesenchyme. During the 5th week of development, 4 zones were observed in the distal portion of the OC: in zone 1, the epithelia of the outer and inner layers of the OC came into contact. This contact coincided with the appearance of mainly apical granule pigments. This zone corresponded to the anlage of the epithelial layers of the CB. In zone 2, the cells surrounded the marginal sinus and contained scarce pigment granules and nuclei in the basal position. This zone corresponded to the anlage of the iris. Zone 3 was triangular in shape and its vertex ran towards the marginal sinus and corresponded to common cell progenitors. Zone 4 corresponded to the retinal pigment epithelium anlage and the neural retina anlage. We determined the onset of the stroma and the ciliary muscle anlage at the end of the 7th week. In the 13-14th week, we observed the anlage of the orbicularis ciliaris (pars plana of the CB) and corona ciliaris (pars plicata of the CB), in addition to the anlage of the ciliary muscle. Our study, therefore, establishes a precise timetable of the development of the CB. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Efficacy of cupping therapy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome-a randomised placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lauche, Romy; Spitzer, Julia; Schwahn, Barbara; Ostermann, Thomas; Bernardy, Kathrin; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to test the efficacy of cupping therapy to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the fibromyalgia syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to cupping therapy, sham or usual care. Cupping was administered five times at twice weekly intervals on the upper and lower back. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity at day 18. Secondary outcomes included functional disability, quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality as well as pressure pain sensitivity, satisfaction and safety at day 18 and 6 months. Altogether 141 patients were included in this study (139 females, 55.8 ± 9.1 years). After 18 days patients reported significant less pain after cupping compared to usual care (difference −12.4; 95% CI: −18.9; −5.9, p < 0.001) but not compared to sham (difference −3.0; 95% CI: −9.9, 3.9, p = 0.396). Further effects were found for quality of life compared to usual care. Patients were mildly satisfied with cupping and sham cupping; and only minor side effects were observed. Despite cupping therapy being more effective than usual care to improve pain intensity and quality of life, effects of cupping therapy were small and comparable to those of a sham treatment, and as such cupping cannot be recommended for fibromyalgia at the current time. PMID:27853272

  11. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [A retrospective study of 180 cases of apical microsurgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanguo; Li, Dan; Tian, Yu; Yu, Qing

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome and the potential prognostic factors of apical microsurgery. The teeth with persistent periapical diseases were treated by microsurgery using micro instruments, ultrasonic retrotips and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) under dental operate microscope. The procedure includes incision and flap retraction, osteotomy, apicoectomy, retro- preparation and retro- filling of root canal. Patients were recalled at 1, 3, 6, and 12- month intervals. The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examinations, and the potential prognostic factors were analyzed. One hundred and eighty cases (240 teeth), including 132 upper anterior teeth, 22 lower anterior teeth, 31 upper premolars, 18 lower premolars, 19 upper molars and 18 lower molars, were treated by microsurgery between July 2010 and December 2012. A total of 152 cases (207 teeth) were recalled. The application of the apical microsurgery included failure of previous endodontic treatment, periapical lesion with post, periapical cyst, calcified canals, separated instruments, overfilling, open apex, root facture, failure of previous apical surgery, apical fenestration, and special root canal system. The success rate was 90.8% (188/207). Age, sex, tooth position, type of periapical radiolucency, fistula and clinical application type appeared to have a negative effect on the outcome. Endo-perio lesion was a significant factor. Eighteen cases (19 teeth) failed mainly because of periodontally involved lesion and vertical root fracture. Apical microsurgery, which combines the magnification and illumination provided by the microscope with the proper use of micro instruments, can treat the teeth with persistent periapical diseases precisely and less traumatically with high success rate. Case selection and standardized operations play a key role for success.

  13. Babesia divergens and Neospora caninum apical membrane antigen 1 structures reveal selectivity and plasticity in apicomplexan parasite host cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Michelle L; Crawford, Joanna; Lebrun, Maryse L; Boulanger, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Host cell invasion by the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium (malaria) and Toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis), requires a step-wise mechanism unique among known host–pathogen interactions. A key step is the formation of the moving junction (MJ) complex, a circumferential constriction between the apical tip of the parasite and the host cell membrane that traverses in a posterior direction to enclose the parasite in a protective vacuole essential for intracellular survival. The leading model of MJ assembly proposes that Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 (RON2) is secreted into the host cell and integrated into the membrane where it serves as the receptor for apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) on the parasite surface. We have previously demonstrated that the AMA1-RON2 interaction is an effective target for inhibiting apicomplexan invasion. To better understand the AMA1-dependant molecular recognition events that promote invasion, including the significant AMA1-RON2 interaction, we present the structural characterization of AMA1 from the apicomplexan parasites Babesia divergens (BdAMA1) and Neospora caninum (NcAMA1) by X-ray crystallography. These studies offer intriguing structural insight into the RON2-binding surface groove in the AMA1 apical domain, which shows clear evidence for receptor–ligand co-evolution, and the hyper variability of the membrane proximal domain, which in Plasmodium is responsible for direct binding to erythrocytes. By incorporating the structural analysis of BdAMA1 and NcAMA1 with existing AMA1 structures and complexes we were able to define conserved pockets in the AMA1 apical groove that could be targeted for the design of broadly reactive therapeutics. PMID:23169033

  14. The DHL EuroCup: shots on goal.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Deutsche Post World Net, the German postal monopoly, faced significant challenges as it began the process of integrating three businesses: Deutsche Post Euro Express, its own ground-based parcel delivery service, and two companies it had acquired-DHL, the worldwide express delivery service, and Danzas, a worldwide air and ocean freight company. The cultural differences alone were imposing. For example, DHL was a privately held, entrepreneurial company in which most managers had international experience; Deutsche Post was until recently a state-owned monopoly in which few managers had worked outside their home country. Enter EuroCup. For 20 years, DHL employees had held a soccer tournament to strengthen company culture across national boundaries. Canceled the previous year due to budget constraints, the EuroCup tournament was revived in 2003-in part to help with the postmerger integration. But did the event really help? HBR senior editor Paul Hemp attended EuroCup 2003, joining nearly 2,500 DHL employees--about 600 of them players, the rest cheerleaders and other supporters--in the small Belgian town of Lommel. He set out to answer a number of questions relevant to any company staging an ambitious off-site intended to encourage teamwork and boost morale. How does a company determine whether such a large-scale event, even one that generates goodwill, is worth the investment? Does the team building extend to those back home who don't get to attend? Can intense competition between teams begin to overshadow the spirit of cooperation that such an event is meant to engender? In short, can a soccer tournament help a company achieve its corporate goal of creating a strong common culture?

  15. Wellhead assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. D.; Szymczak, E. J.

    1985-05-07

    A wellhead assembly with an increased through bore for passing slightly oversized drill bits therethrough with a substantially reduced landing shoulder, and an improved landing assembly which transfers a portion of the stresses through the energizing ring and support ring into the wellhead body along the straight bore above said landing shoulder.

  16. Radial left ventricular dyssynchrony by speckle tracking in apical versus non apical right ventricular pacing- evidence of dyssynchrony on medium term follow up.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Chaurasia, Amit Kumar; Kumar, S Mahesh; Arulkumar, Ajeet; Thajudeen, Anees; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Sanjay, G; Abhilash, S P; Ajitkumar, V K; Ja, Tharakan

    2016-01-01

    To study effects of various sites of right ventricular pacing lead implantation on left ventricular function by 2-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking for radial strain and LV dyssynchrony. This was retrospective prospective study. Fifteen patients each with right ventricular (RV) apical (RV apex and apical septum) and non-apical (mid septal and low right ventricular outflow tract [RVOT]) were programmed to obtain 100% ventricular pacing for evaluation by echo. Location and orientation of lead tip was noted and archived by fluoroscopy. Electrocardiography (ECG) was archived and 2D echo radial dyssynchrony was calculated. The baseline data was similar between two groups. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was significantly more in apical location as compared to non-apical location (radial dyssynchrony: 108.2 ± 50.2 vs. 50.5 ± 24, P < 0.001; septal to posterior wall delay [SLWD] 63.5 ± 27.5 vs. 34 ± 10.7, P < 0.001, SPWD 112.5 ± 58.1 vs. 62.7 ± 12.1, P = 0.003). The left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased more in apical location than non apical location. Interventricular dyssynchrony was more in apical group but was not statistically significant. The QRS duration, QTc and lead thresholds were higher in apical group but not statistically significant. Pacing in non apical location (RV mid septum or low RVOT) is associated with less dyssynchrony by specific measures like 2D radial strain and correlates with better ventricular function in long term.

  17. Bacterial flora and extraradicular biofilm associated with the apical segment of teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Jiang, Yuntao; Chen, Wu; Zhu, Cailian; Liang, Jingping

    2012-07-01

    Microorganisms are able to survive and cause persistent infection in the extraradicular area. The aims of this study were to investigate the primary bacterial flora and the localization of extraradicular biofilm in persistent apical periodontitis lesions. Apical root samples from root-end surgery were collected from 23 root-filled teeth with apical periodontitis. Five samples were examined for the presence of biofilm by scanning electron microscopy. Another 5 samples were examined for the presence of biofilm by Brown and Brenn-modified Gram staining. The DNA from 13 samples was processed for amplification via polymerase chain reaction and separated with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Selected bands were excised from the gel and sequenced for identification. The extraradicular biofilm present on the external root surface of treated teeth consisted of abundant, amorphous extracellular material and multiple bacterial species. The following species were detected in the microbial community from the apical samples: Actinomyces sp. oral, Propionibacterium, Prevotella sp. oral, Streptococcus, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Burkholderia. The prevalence of Actinomyces sp. oral and Propionibacterium were highest (84.6% and 61.5%, respectively). Extraradicular biofilm was present on the external root surface of treated teeth with persistent periapical lesions. Actinomyces sp. oral and Propionibacterium are likely important contributors to extraradicular biofilm formation and persistent periapical infection. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Faraday cup: absolute dosimetry for ELIMED beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A. G.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2017-03-01

    The scientific community has shown a growing interest towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams. In this framework, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline will be the first transport beamline dedicated to the medical and multidisciplinary studies with laser-accelerated ion beams. Detectors for dosimetry represent one of key-element of the ELIMED beamline, allowing a dose delivering with good result as required in the clinical applications. In this contribution, a Faraday Cup for absolute dosimetry, designed and realized at INFN-LNS, is described.

  19. Self-eating from an ER-associated cup.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Anne; Stenmark, Harald

    2008-08-25

    Since the first morphological description of autophagosomes in the early 1960s, two critical questions have been a matter of intense investigation and debate: what is the origin of the autophagosomal membrane and how is it formed? A study by Axe et al. (E.L. Axe, S.A. Walker, M. Manifava, P. Chandra, H.L. Roderick, A. Habermann, G. Griffiths, and N.T. Ktistakis. 2008. J. Cell Biol. 182:685-701) provides evidence that cup-shaped protrusions from the endoplasmic reticulum, named omegasomes, serve as platforms for autophagosome biogenesis in mammalian cells.

  20. An unusual ST-segment elevation: apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy shows the ace up its sleeve.

    PubMed

    de Santis, Francesco; Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Pero, Gaetano; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Minardi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is part of the broad clinical and morphologic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report a patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities in whom acute coronary syndrome was excluded and apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was demonstrated by careful differential diagnosis.

  1. Release of apical dominance in potato tuber is accompanied by programmed cell death in the apical bud meristem.

    PubMed

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Buskila, Yossi; Lopesco, Yael; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Saad, Inbal; Holdengreber, Vered; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Ori, Naomi; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2012-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber, a swollen underground stem, is used as a model system for the study of dormancy release and sprouting. Natural dormancy release, at room temperature, is initiated by tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem) sprouting characterized by apical dominance (AD). Dormancy is shortened by treatments such as bromoethane (BE), which mimics the phenotype of dormancy release in cold storage by inducing early sprouting of several buds simultaneously. We studied the mechanisms governing TAB-meristem dominance release. TAB-meristem decapitation resulted in the development of increasing numbers of axillary buds with time in storage, suggesting the need for autonomous dormancy release of each bud prior to control by the apical bud. Hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified in the TAB-meristems during normal growth, and these were more extensive when AD was lost following either extended cold storage or BE treatment. Hallmarks included DNA fragmentation, induced gene expression of vacuolar processing enzyme1 (VPE1), and elevated VPE activity. VPE1 protein was semipurified from BE-treated apical buds, and its endogenous activity was fully inhibited by a cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1-specific inhibitor N-Acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO (Ac-YVAD-CHO). Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the TAB-meristem of BE-treated tubers: a knob-like body in the vacuole, development of cytoplasmic vesicles, and budding-like nuclear segmentations. Treatment of tubers with BE and then VPE inhibitor induced faster growth and recovered AD in detached and nondetached apical buds, respectively. We hypothesize that PCD occurrence is associated with the weakening of tuber AD, allowing early sprouting of mature lateral buds.

  2. Wear of gamma-crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cups against roughened femoral balls.

    PubMed

    McKellop, H; Shen, F W; DiMaio, W; Lancaster, J G

    1999-12-01

    Crosslinking of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene has been shown to markedly improve its wear resistance in clinical studies and laboratory tests using hip joint simulators. However, because most of the laboratory studies have been done under clean conditions using prosthesis-quality, highly polished counterfaces, there is concern regarding how well an intentionally crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cup will resist abrasion by a femoral ball that has been damaged by third-body abrasion in vivo. To investigate this, conventional and radiation crosslinked-remelted acetabular cups of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene were tested in a hip joint simulator bearing against smooth femoral balls and against balls with moderate and severe roughening. Cups were tested with and without aging to accelerate any oxidative degradation. The crosslinked cups were produced by exposing extruded GUR 4150 bar stock of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene to 5 Mrad gamma radiation under a partial vacuum and then the bars were remelted to extinguish residual free radicals. Artificial aging at 70 degrees C under 5 atm oxygen for 14 days induced negligible oxidation in the crosslinked and remelted material. Against smooth balls, the wear of the crosslinked cups, with or without aging, averaged approximately 15% of that of the conventional cups. Against the moderately rough balls, the wear rate of the conventional cups was unchanged, whereas the wear rate increased slightly for the nonaged and aged crosslinked cups, but was still only 26% and 20% of that of the conventional cups, respectively. Against extremely rough balls, the mean wear rates increased markedly for each material such that during the final 1 million cycle interval, the average wear rates of the nonaged and the aged crosslinked cups were 72% and 47% of that of the conventional cups, respectively. That is, the crosslinked polyethylene showed substantially better wear resistance than conventional polyethylene

  3. Basolateral to apical transcytosis in polarized cells is indirect and involves BFA and trimeric G protein sensitive passage through the apical endosome

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have used temperature and nocodazole blocks in an in vivo basolateral to apical transcytosis assay to dissociate the early transcytotic steps occurring during the formation of transcytotic vesicles and their microtubule-dependent translocation into the apical region, from the late steps when transcytotic cargo is delivered into the apical media. We found that polarized MDCK cells transfected with rabbit polymeric IgA receptor (pIgA-R) internalize basolaterally added pIgA-R ligand ([Fab]2 fragment of IgG against the receptor's ectodomain) at 17 degrees C but do not deliver it to the apical PM. Instead, the ligand accumulates in an apically localized transcytotic compartment, distal to the basolateral endosome and the microtubule- requiring translocation step. We have characterized this compartment and show that it is distinct from basolateral transferrin recycling endosomes, basolateral early endosomes or late endosomes or lysosomes. The apical transcytotic compartment colocalizes with the compartment containing apically recycling membrane markers (ricin and apically internalized pIgA-R ligand) but is distinct from the compartment receiving apically internalized fluid phase marker (BSA). This compartment is an intermediate station of the overall pathway since transcytotic ligand can exit the compartment and be released into the apical medium when cells preloaded at 17 degrees C are subsequently incubated at 37 degrees C. We have used this system to examine the effect of Brefeldin A (BFA) and the involvement of trimeric GTPases in the late (post apical transcytotic compartment) steps of the transcytotic pathway. We found that addition of BFA or cholera toxin, a known activator of Gs alpha, to cells preloaded with transcytotic ligand at 17 degrees C significantly inhibits the exit of ligand from the apical transcytotic compartment. General structure and function of the apical endosome are not affected since neither BFA nor cholera toxin inhibit the recycling of

  4. Design of Faraday cup ion detectors built by thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalkowski, G. A.; Darrow, D. S.; Cecil, F. E.

    2017-03-01

    Thin film Faraday cup detectors can provide measurements of fast ion loss from magnetically confined fusion plasmas. These multilayer detectors can resolve the energy distribution of the lost ions in addition to giving the total loss rate. Prior detectors were assembled from discrete foils and insulating sheets. Outlined here is a design methodology for creating detectors using thin film deposition that are suited to particular scientific goals. The intention is to use detectors created by this method on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The detectors will consist of alternating layers of aluminum and silicon dioxide, with layer thicknesses chosen to isolate energies of interest. Thin film deposition offers the advantage of relatively simple and more mechanically robust construction compared to other methods, as well as allowing precise control of film thickness. Furthermore, this depositional fabrication technique places the layers in intimate thermal contact, providing for three-dimensional conduction and dissipation of the ion-produced heating in the layers, rather than the essentially two-dimensional heat conduction in the discrete foil stack implementation.

  5. Apical organs in echinoderm larvae: insights into larval evolution in the Ambulacraria.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Nakajima, Yoko; Chee, Francis C; Burke, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    The anatomy and cellular organization of serotonergic neurons in the echinoderm apical organ exhibits class-specific features in dipleurula-type (auricularia, bipinnaria) and pluteus-type (ophiopluteus, echinopluteus) larvae. The apical organ forms in association with anterior ciliary structures. Apical organs in dipleurula-type larvae are more similar to each other than to those in either of the pluteus forms. In asteroid bipinnaria and holothuroid auricularia the apical organ spans ciliary band sectors that traverse the anterior-most end of the larvae. The asteroid apical organ also has prominent bilateral ganglia that connect with an apical network of neurites. The simple apical organ of the auricularia is similar to that in the hemichordate tornaria larva. Apical organs in pluteus forms differ markedly. The echinopluteus apical organ is a single structure on the oral hood between the larval arms comprised of two groups of cells joined by a commissure and its cell bodies do not reside in the ciliary band. Ophioplutei have a pair of lateral ganglia associated with the ciliary band of larval arms that may be the ophiuroid apical organ. Comparative anatomy of the serotonergic nervous systems in the dipleurula-type larvae of the Ambulacraria (Echinodermata+Hemichordata) suggests that the apical organ of this deuterostome clade originated as a simple bilaterally symmetric nerve plexus spanning ciliary band sectors at the anterior end of the larva. From this structure, the apical organ has been independently modified in association with the evolution of class-specific larval forms.

  6. Effects of hydroxyapatite coating of cups used in hip revision arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Coating of acetabular revision implants with hydroxyapatite (HA) has been proposed to improve ingrowth and stability. We investigated whether HA coating of revision cups can reduce the risk of any subsequent re-revision. Methods We studied uncemented cups either with or without HA coating that were used at a primary acetabular revision and registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR). 2 such cup designs were identified: Harris-Galante and Trilogy, both available either with or without HA coating. These cups had been used as revision components in 1,780 revisions of total hip arthroplasties (THA) between 1986 and 2009. A Cox proportional hazards model including the type of coating, age at index revision, sex, cause of cup revision, cup design, the use of bone graft at the revision procedure, and the type of cup fixation at primary THA were used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RRs with 95% CI) for re-revision for any reason or due to aseptic loosening. Results 71% of the cups were coated with HA and 29% were uncoated. At a mean follow-up time of 6.9 (0–24) years, 159 (9%) of all 1,780 cups had been re-revised, mostly due to aseptic loosening (5%), dislocation (2%), or deep infection (1%). HA coating had no significant influence on the risk of re-revision of the cup for any reason (RR = 1.4, CI: 0.9–2.0) or due to aseptic loosening (RR = 1.1, 0.6–1.9). In contrast, HA coating was found to be a risk factor for isolated liner re-revision for any reason (RR = 1.8, CI: 1.01–3.3). Age below 60 years at the index cup revision, dislocation as the cause of the index cup revision, uncemented cup fixation at primary THA, and use of the Harris-Galante cup also increased the risk of re-revision of the cup. In separate analyses in which isolated liner revisions were excluded, bone grafting was found to be a risk factor for re-revision of the metal shell due to aseptic loosening (RR = 2.1, CI: 1.05–4.2). Interpretation We found no

  7. Extended higher cup-product Chern-Simons theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Domenico; Sati, Hisham; Schreiber, Urs

    2013-12-01

    The proper action functional of (4k+3)-dimensional U(1)-Chern-Simons theory including the instanton sectors has a well known description: it is given on the moduli space of fields by the fiber integration of the cup product square of classes in degree-(2k+2) differential cohomology. We first refine this statement from the moduli space to the full higher smooth moduli stack of fields, to which the higher-order-ghost BRST complex is the infinitesimal approximation. Then we generalize the refined formulation to cup product Chern-Simons theories of nonabelian and higher nonabelian gauge fields, such as the nonabelian String-2-connections appearing in quantum-corrected 11-dimensional supergravity and M-branes. We discuss aspects of the off-shell extended geometric prequantization (in the sense of extended or multi-tiered QFT) of these theories, where there is a prequantum U(1)-k-bundle (equivalently: a U(1)-(k - 1)-bundle gerbe) in each codimension k. Examples we find include moduli stacks for differential T-duality structures as well as the anomaly line bundles of higher electric/magnetic charges, such as the 5-brane charges appearing in heterotic supergravity, appearing as line bundles with connection on the smooth higher moduli stacks of field configurations.

  8. Viscosity Measurements of Industrial Alloys Using the Oscillating Cup Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, P.; Overfelt, R. A.

    1999-11-01

    Molten metal processing can be effectively simulated using state-of-the-art computer algorithms, and manufacturers increasingly rely upon these tools to optimize the design of their operations. Reliable thermophysical properties of the solid, solid + liquid, and liquid phases are essential for effective computer simulation. Commercially available instruments can measure many of the required properties of molten metals (e.g., transformation temperatures, thermal conductivity, specific heat, latent heat, and density). However, there are no commercially available instruments to characterize several important thermophysical properties (e.g., emissivity, electrical resistivity, surface tension, and viscosity). Although the literature has numerous examples of measurements of surface tension using the sessile drop and the oscillating drop techniques, literature references are sparse with regard to measurements of emissivity, electrical resistivity, and viscosity. The present paper discusses the development of an oscillating cup viscometer and its application to characterizing the viscosity of fully molten industrial alloys. The theory behind the oscillating cup technique is reviewed, and the design details of the current instrument are discussed. In addition, experimental data of the viscosity of several nickel-based superalloys are presented.

  9. Apical root canal microbiota as determined by reverse-capture checkerboard analysis of cryogenically ground root samples from teeth with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Santos, Adriana L; Rosado, Alexandre S; Siqueira, José F

    2010-10-01

    Bacteria located in the apical root canal system potentially participate in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. Detection and identification of apical bacteria can be compromised because of limitations in conventional sampling and identification procedures. This study identified several bacterial taxa in the apical and middle/coronal segments of primarily infected root canal system by using pulverized root segments and a culture-independent molecular method. Seventeen extracted teeth with attached apical periodontitis lesions were sectioned to obtain 2 root fragments (apical and middle/coronal segments). Root fragments were cryogenically ground, and DNA was extracted from samples. After multiple displacement amplification, DNA from samples was used as template in a reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay targeting 28 bacterial taxa. Bacterial DNA was detected in all samples. The most prevalent taxa in the apical root canal system were Olsenella uli (76.5%), Prevotella baroniae (71%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (65%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (53%), and Tannerella forsythia (47%). O. uli, P. endodontalis, and Propionibacterium acnes were as frequently detected in apical samples as they were in middle/coronal samples. P. baroniae, T. forsythia, and F. nucleatum were found more frequently in the apical part of the canal as compared with matched coronal segments. Streptococcus species were more prevalent in middle/coronal samples. The median and mean of shared bacterial taxa between matched apical and middle/coronal segments were 27% and 41%, respectively. Several candidate endodontic pathogens were very prevalent in the apical root canal system. The apical microbiota was usually complex and differed in species composition when compared with the microbiota of middle/coronal samples from the same tooth. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A level set method for cupping artifact correction in cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shipeng; Li, Haibo; Ge, Qi; Li, Chunming

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: To reduce cupping artifacts and improve the contrast-to-noise ratio in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: A level set method is proposed to reduce cupping artifacts in the reconstructed image of CBCT. The authors derive a local intensity clustering property of the CBCT image and define a local clustering criterion function of the image intensities in a neighborhood of each point. This criterion function defines an energy in terms of the level set functions, which represent a segmentation result and the cupping artifacts. The cupping artifacts are estimated as a result of minimizing this energy. Results: The cupping artifacts in CBCT are reduced by an average of 90%. The results indicate that the level set-based algorithm is practical and effective for reducing the cupping artifacts and preserving the quality of the reconstructed image. Conclusions: The proposed method focuses on the reconstructed image without requiring any additional physical equipment, is easily implemented, and provides cupping correction through a single-scan acquisition. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully reduces the cupping artifacts.

  11. Athletic Departments' Operating Expenses as a Predictor of Their Directors' Cup Standing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The NACDA Directors' Cup is a competition utilizing an unbiased scoring system that encourages a broad based athletic department as the standard for defining intercollegiate athletic success. Therefore, for NCAA DI athletic administrators the Directors' Cup should be the standard for defining intercollegiate athletic success. The purpose of this…

  12. Faraday cup with nanosecond response and adjustable impedance for fast electron beam characterization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Rovey, Joshua L

    2011-07-01

    A movable Faraday cup design with simple structure and adjustable impedance is described in this work. This Faraday cup has external adjustable shunt resistance for self-biased measurement setup and 50 Ω characteristic impedance to match with 50 Ω standard BNC coaxial cable and vacuum feedthroughs for nanosecond-level pulse signal measurements. Adjustable shunt resistance allows self-biased measurements to be quickly acquired to determine the electron energy distribution function. The performance of the Faraday cup is validated by tests of response time and amplitude of output signal. When compared with a reference source, the percent difference of the Faraday cup signal fall time is less than 10% for fall times greater than 10 ns. The percent difference of the Faraday cup signal pulse width is below 6.7% for pulse widths greater than 10 ns. A pseudospark-generated electron beam is used to compare the amplitude of the Faraday cup signal with a calibrated F-70 commercial current transformer. The error of the Faraday cup output amplitude is below 10% for the 4-14 kV tested pseudospark voltages. The main benefit of this Faraday cup is demonstrated by adjusting the external shunt resistance and performing the self-biased method for obtaining the electron energy distribution function. Results from a 4 kV pseudospark discharge indicate a "double-humped" energy distribution.

  13. 78 FR 21260 - Safety Zone; Lubbers Cup Regatta; Spring Lake, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR PART 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lubbers Cup Regatta; Spring Lake, MI AGENCY... safety zone on Spring Lake in Spring Lake, Michigan. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Spring Lake due to the Lubbers Cup Regatta. This temporary safety zone is necessary...

  14. Acquisition of cup drinking using previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W; Oberdorff, Amanda J

    2003-01-01

    We used previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement in the acquisition of cup drinking. Cup drinking increased with positive and negative reinforcement, both alone and in combination (without escape extinction), indicating that treatment of food refusal can establish some foods as appetitive stimuli whereas others remain aversive.

  15. Athletic Departments' Operating Expenses as a Predictor of Their Directors' Cup Standing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The NACDA Directors' Cup is a competition utilizing an unbiased scoring system that encourages a broad based athletic department as the standard for defining intercollegiate athletic success. Therefore, for NCAA DI athletic administrators the Directors' Cup should be the standard for defining intercollegiate athletic success. The purpose of this…

  16. 77 FR 20846 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof... behalf of Fabri-Kal Corporation of Kalamazoo, Michigan. A supplement to the complaint was filed on March... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof by...

  17. Effect of cup inclination on predicted contact stress-induced volumetric wear in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Rijavec, B; Košak, R; Daniel, M; Kralj-Iglič, V; Dolinar, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the lifetime of the total hip endoprosthesis, it is necessary to understand mechanisms leading to its failure. In this work, we address volumetric wear of the artificial cup, in particular the effect of its inclination with respect to the vertical. Volumetric wear was calculated by using mathematical models for resultant hip force, contact stress and penetration of the prosthesis head into the cup. Relevance of the dependence of volumetric wear on inclination of the cup (its abduction angle ϑA) was assessed by the results of 95 hips with implanted endoprosthesis. Geometrical parameters obtained from standard antero-posterior radiographs were taken as input data. Volumetric wear decreases with increasing cup abduction angle ϑA. The correlation within the population of 95 hips was statistically significant (P = 0.006). Large cup abduction angle minimises predicted volumetric wear but may increase the risk for dislocation of the artificial head from the cup in the one-legged stance. Cup abduction angle and direction of the resultant hip force may compensate each other to achieve optimal position of the cup with respect to wear and dislocation in the one-legged stance for a particular patient.

  18. Sector-based optic cup segmentation with intensity and blood vessel priors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fengshou; Liu, Jiang; Wong, Damon W K; Tan, Ngan Meng; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Tham, Yih Chung; Wong, Tien Yin

    2012-01-01

    The optic cup segmentation is critical for automated cup-to-disk ratio measurement, and hence computer-aided diagnosis of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a novel sector-based method for optic cup segmentation. The method comprises two parts: intensity-based cup segmentation with shape constraints and blood vessel-based refinement. The initial estimation of the cup is obtained by applying a statistical deformable model on the vessel free image. At the same time, blood vessels within the optic disk are extracted, after which vessel bendings and vessel boundaries in the nasal side are located. Subsequently, these key points in the blood vessels are used to fine tune the cup. The algorithm is evaluated on 650 fundus images from the ORIGA(-light) database. Experimental results show that the Dice coefficient for the optic cup segmentation can be as high as 0.83, which outperforms other existing methods. The results demonstrate good potential for the proposed method to be used in automated optic cup segmentation and glaucoma diagnosis.

  19. 76 FR 39289 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit... waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Detroit APBA Gold Cup boat race. This.... Basis and Purpose This interim rule will amend the entry found in 33 CFR 100.918, Detroit APBA Gold...

  20. A Homemade Instrument for Collecting Soil Water From Porous Ceramic Cups

    Treesearch

    M. Dean Knighton; Dwight E. Streblow

    1981-01-01

    An efficient Ceramic-Cup Water Collection Instrument (CCWCI, "quickie") is described. Soil water collection from ceramic-cup samplers may require compositing by equal volume from distantly spaced samplers, or simultaneous water collection spaced samplers, or simultaneous water collection from closely spaced samplers without compositing. All collection must...

  1. [Pulmonary hydatid cyst: unusual double apical location. About a case].

    PubMed

    Sajiai, Hafsa; Rachidi, Mariam; Aitbatahar, Salma; Serhane, Hind; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (KH) is still endemic in several areas of Morocco. Pulmonary involvement is a consequence of liver disease. Hydatid cyst is characterized by diverse anatomical and clinical presentations and by the possibility of multiple locations within the lung parenchyma, predominantly involving pulmonary bases. We report the case of Mr J. M, 54 years old, admitted with suspected pulmonary hydatid cyst based on chest pain lasting for six months and an episode of hydatidoptysis. Chest x-ray objectified a double apical location suggesting different stages of evolution for pulmonary hydatid cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed by thoracic CTscan and hydatid serology. Multiple pulmonary hydatid cyst is not rare in areas in which hydatid disease is highly endemic. Our study reports an unusual double apical location of hydatid cyst at various stages of evolution.

  2. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    PubMed

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  3. Transient apical dyskinesia with a pacemaker: Electrocardiographic features.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Feltes, Gisela I; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Biagioni, Corina; De Agustín, J Alberto; Vivas, David; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Transient apical dyskinesia syndromes present features similar to acute coronary syndromes, but with normal coronary arteries and rapid complete resolution of wall motion alterations. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of typical chest pain at rest after her brother's death. She had had a pacemaker implanted in 2001. Troponin levels were elevated and apical hypokinesia was shown by ventriculography and echocardiography, with normal coronary arteries. Evolving ECG alterations were observed in spite of the continued pacing rhythm. All these alterations were fully resolved after discharge. This case shows that, even in the presence of a pacemaker, evolving ECG alterations can be observed in Takotsubo syndrome.

  4. [An endodontic ultrasonic system for apical endodontic surgery].

    PubMed

    de Lange, I; Putters, T; Baas, E M; van Ingen, J M

    2009-09-01

    Apical endodontic surgery is applied frequently following a failed conventional endodontic treatment. The apical preparation can be carried out conventionally using a round bur or using an endodontic ultrasonic system. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of the 2 treatment options by a randomized prospective clinical study. Patients (n=399) were at random allocated to treatment using a conventional round bur or using an ultrasonic system (P-max Newtron) according to a for the rest similar treatment protocol. One year post treatment, the treatment outcomes were determined by 2 oral and maxillofacial surgeons, blinded for the treatment option. Adequate follow-up data were obtained from 290 patients. The overall success rate was 71% in the patients treated conventionally and 81% in the patients treated using the ultrasonic system. In molar teeth, the difference in success rate was statistically significant.

  5. Crew Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Train to improve your dexterity and hand-eye coordination by assembling a puzzle.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to set goals, practice ...

  6. SAS6-like protein in Plasmodium indicates that conoid-associated apical complex proteins persist in invasive stages within the mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Richard J.; Roques, Magali; Katris, Nicholas J.; Koreny, Ludek; Stanway, Rebecca R.; Brady, Declan; Waller, Ross F.; Tewari, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The SAS6-like (SAS6L) protein, a truncated paralogue of the ubiquitous basal body/centriole protein SAS6, has been characterised recently as a flagellum protein in trypanosomatids, but associated with the conoid in apicomplexan Toxoplasma. The conoid has been suggested to derive from flagella parts, but is thought to have been lost from some apicomplexans including the malaria-causing genus Plasmodium. Presence of SAS6L in Plasmodium, therefore, suggested a possible role in flagella assembly in male gametes, the only flagellated stage. Here, we have studied the expression and role of SAS6L throughout the Plasmodium life cycle using the rodent malaria model P. berghei. Contrary to a hypothesised role in flagella, SAS6L was absent during gamete flagellum formation. Instead, SAS6L was restricted to the apical complex in ookinetes and sporozoites, the extracellular invasive stages that develop within the mosquito vector. In these stages SAS6L forms an apical ring, as we show is also the case in Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The SAS6L ring was not apparent in blood-stage invasive merozoites, indicating that the apical complex is differentiated between the different invasive forms. Overall this study indicates that a conoid-associated apical complex protein and ring structure is persistent in Plasmodium in a stage-specific manner. PMID:27339728

  7. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L

    The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.

  8. Apical ABC transporters and cancer chemotherapeutic drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Selvi; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane efflux transporters that mediate cellular extrusion of a broad range of substrates ranging from amino acids, lipids, and ions to xenobiotics including many anticancer drugs. ABCB1 (P-GP) and ABCG2 (BCRP) are the most extensively studied apical ABC drug efflux transporters. They are highly expressed in apical membranes of many pharmacokinetically relevant tissues such as epithelial cells of the small intestine and endothelial cells of the blood capillaries in brain and testis, and in the placental maternal-fetal barrier. In these tissues, they have a protective function as they efflux their substrates back to the intestinal lumen or blood and thus restrict the intestinal uptake and tissue disposition of many compounds. This presents a major challenge for the use of many (anticancer) drugs, as most currently used anticancer drugs are substrates of these transporters. Herein, we review the latest findings on the role of apical ABC transporters in the disposition of anticancer drugs. We discuss that many new, rationally designed anticancer drugs are substrates of these transporters and that their oral availability and/or brain disposition are affected by this interaction. We also summarize studies that investigate the improvement of oral availability and brain disposition of many cytotoxic (e.g., taxanes) and rationally designed (e.g., tyrosine kinase inhibitor) anticancer drugs, using chemical inhibitors of these transporters. These findings provide a better understanding of the importance of apical ABC transporters in chemotherapy and may therefore advance translation of promising preclinical insights and approaches to clinical studies. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Apically Extruded Sealers: Fate and Influence on Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of unintentional overfillings for the fate of the extruded sealers and their influence on treatment outcome. One hundred five teeth treated by a single operator and exhibiting overfillings in the postobturation radiograph were included in the study. Seventy-five teeth exhibited apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment. Sealers included Pulp Canal Sealer (Sybron Dental, Orange, CA), PCS Extended Working Time-EWT (Sybron Dental), Tubli-Seal (Sybron Endo), Endomethasone (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), AH Plus (DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), and Apexit (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein). Recall radiographs were compared with immediate postobturation films for removal of the extruded material and status of the periradicular tissues. Data were grouped as 1-, 2- and >4-year recall and statistically analyzed using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. As for the sealers' fate, the only statistically significant differences at the 1-year recall were observed when comparing Tubli-Seal with AH Plus, Apexit, and Endomethasone (P < .05). At both the 2- and 4-year recalls, frequency of complete removal of AH Plus and Apexit was significantly lower when compared with all the other sealers (P < .05). No other significant differences were observed between groups. As for the influence on treatment outcome, there were no statistically significant differences between sealers at all follow-up periods (P > .05). Data from the >4-year recall revealed that 79% of the teeth with apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment had healed in comparison with 100% of the teeth with no apical periodontitis (P < .01). Not all extruded sealers were predictably removed from the periradicular tissues. Treatment outcome was not significantly affected by the type of extruded sealer. A significantly better outcome was observed for teeth with no lesion in comparison with teeth with apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2016

  11. [Clinical application of moving cupping therapy based on skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Bo; Chen, Ze-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic evidence on clinical diseases and theoretic basis of moving cupping therapy were ex- plored in the paper. By the observation of the local reaction, such as skin appearance and color, the affected location, duration of sickness and nature of disease were judged. Different moving cupping methods were selected for different disorders. It was discovered that the property of syndromes should be recognized by the palpation on skin and muscle in the moving cupping therapy so that the pathogenesis and treating principle could be carefully determined. The moving cupping therapy is the important component of body surface therapy. Skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation is the essential guidance of the moving cupping therapy.

  12. Research on the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technology of arc-diamond grinding wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, X. L.; Wu, H. Y.; Peng, Y. F.

    2014-08-01

    The precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel is very hard, expensive and time-consuming because of the super-hard diamond particles and complicated geometrical shape. This paper aims to investigate the cup-wheel dressing technology to realize the high-efficiency regeneration of the arc-diamond wheel. A two-axis cup-wheel dressing technique for precision dressing arc-diamond wheel was suggested and tested. The dressing mechanism of 2-axis cup-wheel was studied. The dressing algorithm and error compensation method were further investigated to improve the dressing precision and efficiency. The experimental results show that the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technique is valid and applicable to realize the precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel. The machined optical surface condition was apparently improved with the cup-wheel dressed diamond wheel and even became much better when the error compensation algorithm was performed on the arc-diamond wheel.

  13. Ascus apical apparatus and ascospore characters in Xylariaceae.

    PubMed

    Suwannasai, Nuttika; Whalley, Margaret A; Whalley, Anthony J S; Thienhirun, Surang; Sihanonth, Prakitsin

    2012-12-01

    Members of Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) are recognized and classified mainly on the morphological features of their sexual state. In a number of genera high morphological variation of stromatal characters has made confident recognition of generic and specific boundaries difficult. There are, however, a range of microscopical characteristics which can in most cases make distinctions, especially at generic level, even in the absence of molecular data. These include details of the apical apparatus in the ascus (e.g. disc-shaped, inverted hat-shaped, rhomboid, composed of rings, amyloid, non-amyloid); position and length of the germ slit; and presence and type of ascospore wall ornamentation as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unfortunately many of the classical studies on xylariaceous genera omitted these features and were undertaken long before the development of scanning electron microscopy. More recent studies have, however, demonstrated their value as diagnostic characters in the family. Camillea is for example, instantly recognizable by its rhomboid or diamond shaped apical apparatus, and the distinctive inverted hat or urniform type is usually prominent in Xylaria, Rosellinia, Kretzschmaria, and Nemania. At least six categories of apical apparatus based on shape and size can be recognized. Ascospore ornamentation as seen by SEM has been exceptionally useful and provided the basis for separating Camillea from Biscogniauxia and other xylariaceous genera.

  14. Ontogenetic contingency of tolerance mechanisms in response to apical damage

    PubMed Central

    Gruntman, Michal; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are able to tolerate tissue loss through vigorous branching which is often triggered by release from apical dominance and activation of lateral meristems. However, damage-induced branching might not be a mere physiological outcome of released apical dominance, but an adaptive response to environmental signals, such as damage timing and intensity. Here, branching responses to both factors were examined in the annual plant Medicago truncatula. Methods Branching patterns and allocation to reproductive traits were examined in response to variable clipping intensities and timings in M. truncatula plants from two populations that vary in the onset of reproduction. Phenotypic selection analysis was used to evaluate the strength and direction of selection on branching under the damage treatments. Key Results Plants of both populations exhibited an ontogenetic shift in tolerance mechanisms: while early damage induced greater meristem activation, late damage elicited investment in late-determined traits, including mean pod and seed biomass, and supported greater germination rates. Severe damage mostly elicited simultaneous development of multiple-order lateral branches, but this response was limited to early damage. Selection analyses revealed positive directional selection on branching in plants under early- compared with late- or no-damage treatments. Conclusions The results demonstrate that damage-induced meristem activation is an adaptive response that could be modified according to the plant's developmental stage, severity of tissue loss and their interaction, stressing the importance of considering these effects when studying plastic responses to apical damage. PMID:21873259

  15. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  16. Apical Periodontitis - Is It Accountable for Cardiovascular Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Chandrakar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the relationship between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases and the predictive factors regarding this association. Cross sectional and observational studies have been included, which are mostly retrospective. A comprehensive search was performed in the Systematic Electronic Databases, PUBMED and MEDLINE from 1919 till September 2014. Articles were also hand searched. From 86 studies identified, all were read and 58 articles which were relevant were included in the text. Some articles were excluded because they were pertaining to periodontology and other systemic disorders. Some were solely animal studies and were thus excluded. Our results suggest an independent association between cardiovascular diseases and apical periodontitis. A causal relationship could not be established since weak parameters of risk have been assessed in the studies, population taken is difficult to compare and other confounding factors have not been ruled out. Only a more focused and better instituted scientific research can determine this association. Establishing a cause and effect relationship between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases can affect the course of treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It is not only of interest from the scientific point of view but also from public health perspective. PMID:27656588

  17. Apical Periodontitis - Is It Accountable for Cardiovascular Diseases?

    PubMed

    Garg, Paridhi; Chaman, Chandrakar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the relationship between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases and the predictive factors regarding this association. Cross sectional and observational studies have been included, which are mostly retrospective. A comprehensive search was performed in the Systematic Electronic Databases, PUBMED and MEDLINE from 1919 till September 2014. Articles were also hand searched. From 86 studies identified, all were read and 58 articles which were relevant were included in the text. Some articles were excluded because they were pertaining to periodontology and other systemic disorders. Some were solely animal studies and were thus excluded. Our results suggest an independent association between cardiovascular diseases and apical periodontitis. A causal relationship could not be established since weak parameters of risk have been assessed in the studies, population taken is difficult to compare and other confounding factors have not been ruled out. Only a more focused and better instituted scientific research can determine this association. Establishing a cause and effect relationship between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases can affect the course of treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It is not only of interest from the scientific point of view but also from public health perspective.

  18. Apical involvement with fibrous dysplasia: implications for vision.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio Augusto V; Constanzi, Marcio; de Castro, Flavia A Attié; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos

    2007-01-01

    To describe the ophthalmic findings of fibrous dysplasia of the orbit. Prospective case series. Twenty-one patients with fibrous dysplasia with orbital involvement underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and orbital imaging by CT. Four of the 21 patients had McCune-Albright syndrome and 1 had tuberous sclerosis. In 17 patients (81%), the disease was restricted to the craniofacial region. Facial distortion, proptosis, and eye dystopia were detected in 62% of the patients. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction and strabismus were detected in only 1 and 2 patients, respectively. Of the 34 orbits affected, the roof was affected in 67.6%. The floor was the least affected wall. For most orbits, the disease was seen in more than 1 wall, and in 9 orbits (26.5%) all 4 walls were involved. Twelve orbits (35.2%) showed cysts on CT within the affected bones. In 19 orbits (55.9%), the optic canal was circumferentially narrowed. Blindness was detected in only 1 patient who had undergone optic canal decompression. The main consequences of orbital involvement in fibrous dysplasia are eye dystopia and proptosis. Apical involvement is a common feature. Optic canal narrowing does not necessarily induce vision loss. We believe that patients with apical involvement should be carefully followed and have their apices decompressed only when their vision is clearly deteriorating. Our data do not support prophylactic optic canal decompression as a therapeutic measure.

  19. Enlargement of the apical gap after laser root resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Guilherme P. S.; Paradella, Thais C.; Munin, Egberto; Mello, Jose B.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2000-11-01

    An apical filling material should establish, as perfect as possible, the hermetic sealing of an apical cavity. However, a gap is formed between the filling material (gutta-percha) and the root canal wall. The egress of irritants into the root canal system to the periapical tissues is considered the principal cause of fails in apicoectomy and retro-filling, being assumed that irritants penetrate mainly through the gap located between the gutta-percha and the dentin. In this paper, we report the observation of an enlargement of the apical gap, after laser apicoectomy, comparing to conventional apicoectomy. The samples were divided into groups, and the conventional apicoectomy group, together with the Er:YAG laser group (400 mJ/10 Hz) produced both similar results, being the gap unaltered. On the other hand, the samples that were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser, followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1.5 W/10 Hz) presented a larger gap, conclusions that were drawn from Scanning Electronic Microscope analysis. The enlargement of the gap was due to the fusion of the dentin on the border, close to the gutta-percha. This pronounced behavior might have been caused by the surface discontinuity, imposing a non-homogeneous condition, in relation to heat propagation, existing many clinical applications of these observations.

  20. Root Canal Microbiota of Teeth with Chronic Apical Periodontitis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, I. N.; Siqueira, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Samples from infected root canals of 43 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were analyzed for the presence and relative levels of 83 oral bacterial species and/or phylotypes using a reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay. Associations between the most frequently detected taxa were also recorded. The most prevalent taxa were Olsenella uli (74%), Eikenella corrodens (63%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (56%), Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (54%), and Bacteroidetes oral clone X083 (51%). When prevalence was considered only for bacteria present at levels >105, Bacteroidetes clone X083 was the most frequently isolated bacterium (37%), followed by Parvimonas micra (28%), E. corrodens (23%), and Tannerella forsythia (19%). The number of target taxa per canal was directly proportional to the size of the apical periodontitis lesion, with lesions >10 mm in diameter harboring a mean number of approximately 20 taxa. Several positive associations for the most prevalent taxa were disclosed for the first time and may have important ecological and pathogenic implications. In addition to strengthening the association of several cultivable named species with chronic apical periodontitis, the present findings using a large-scale analysis allowed the inclusion of some newly named species and as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes in the set of candidate pathogens associated with this disease. PMID:18768651

  1. Automatic detection of apical roots in oral radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi; Xie, Fangfang; Yang, Jie; Cheng, Erkang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Ling, Haibin

    2012-03-01

    The apical root regions play an important role in analysis and diagnosis of many oral diseases. Automatic detection of such regions is consequently the first step toward computer-aided diagnosis of these diseases. In this paper we propose an automatic method for periapical root region detection by using the state-of-theart machine learning approaches. Specifically, we have adapted the AdaBoost classifier for apical root detection. One challenge in the task is the lack of training cases especially for diseased ones. To handle this problem, we boost the training set by including more root regions that are close to the annotated ones and decompose the original images to randomly generate negative samples. Based on these training samples, the Adaboost algorithm in combination with Haar wavelets is utilized in this task to train an apical root detector. The learned detector usually generates a large amount of true and false positives. In order to reduce the number of false positives, a confidence score for each candidate detection result is calculated for further purification. We first merge the detected regions by combining tightly overlapped detected candidate regions and then we use the confidence scores from the Adaboost detector to eliminate the false positives. The proposed method is evaluated on a dataset containing 39 annotated digitized oral X-Ray images from 21 patients. The experimental results show that our approach can achieve promising detection accuracy.

  2. An ion-transporting ATPase encodes multiple apical localization signals

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial cells accumulate distinct populations of membrane proteins at their two plasmalemmal domains. We have examined the molecular signals which specify the differential subcellular distributions of two closely related ion pumps. The Na,K-ATPase is normally restricted to the basolateral membranes of numerous epithelial cell types, whereas the H,K-ATPase is a component of the apical surfaces of the parietal cells of the gastric epithelium. We have expressed full length and chimeric H,K-ATPase/Na,K-ATPase cDNAs in polarized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). We find that both the alpha and beta subunits of the H,K-ATPase encode independent signals that specify apical localization. Furthermore, the H,K-ATPase beta-subunit possesses a sequence which mediates its participation in the endocytic pathway. The interrelationship between epithelial sorting and endocytosis signals suggested by these studies supports the redefinition of apical and basolateral as functional, rather than simply topographic domains. PMID:8385670

  3. Seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  4. Quality of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Hanne; Tellefsen, Siri Birgitte Geiner; Dahl, Annette Veberg

    2009-10-01

    In this study, photooxidation of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties was investigated. The sour cream was light exposed for 36 h with a standard fluorescent light tube, simulating storage conditions in many Norwegian grocery stores. Three different cups were evaluated: a white cup, a cup with medium light barrier (LB), and a cup with high LB. The quality of the sour cream was evaluated by sensory analysis and front face fluorescence spectroscopy. The sour cream stored in white cups became very rancid during the light exposure, with a rancid flavor score of 7.8 on a scale from 1 to 9, where 9 is the highest intensity. Cups with high LB gave best protection against the light. The sensory assessors could not distinguish between sour cream stored in cups with high LB and sour cream stored in the dark. The rancid flavor intensity for the cups with medium LB was significantly different (P < 0.05) from both the white cup and the cup with high LB. The sensory flavor intensities indicated that with 36 h of light exposure, only a cup with high LB will protect the sour cream sufficiently. The fluorescence measurements corresponded well with the sensory analysis as the photosensitizers were somewhat degraded for sour cream stored in cups with medium LB and most degraded in the white cups. For the cups with high LB, the fluorescence peaks that originated from the photosensitizers were all intact. Dairy products such as sour cream will develop off-odor and taste faults ("sunlight taste") in a few hours if exposed to sufficient fluorescent lightning in the grocery stores. A light barrier can be incorporated in the packaging material to protect the dairy products from the light. Our experiment showed that the incorporation of a black pigment into 1 of the 3 plastic layers in the cup for packaging of sour cream protected the sour cream from degradation when exposed to light.

  5. Germline genetics of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) and its specific subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang; Kumar, Abhishek; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Göran; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Ohlsson, Claes; Folprecht, Gunnar; Löffler, Harald; Krämer, Alwin; Försti, Asta

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is a fatal cancer diagnosed through metastases at various organs. Little is known about germline genetics of CUP which appears worth of a search in view of reported familial associations in CUP. In the present study, samples from CUP patients were identified from 2 Swedish biobanks and a German clinical trial, totaling 578 CUP patients and 7628 regionally matched controls. Diagnostic data specified the organ where metastases were diagnosed. We carried out a genome-wide association study on CUP cases and controls. In the whole sample set, 6 loci reached an allelic p-value in the range of 10−7 and were supported by data from the three centers. Three associations were located next to non-coding RNA genes. rs2660852 flanked 5′UTR of LTA4H (leukotriene A4 hydrolase), rs477145 was intronic to TIAM1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastases) and rs2835931 was intronic to KCNJ6 (potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 6). In analysis of subgroups of CUP patients (smokers, non-smokers and CUP with liver metastases) genome-wide significant associations were noted. For patients with liver metastases associations on chromosome 6 and 11, the latter including a cluster of genes DHCR7 and NADSYN1, encoding key enzymes in cholesterol and NAD synthesis, and KRTAP5-7, encoding a keratin associated protein. This first GWAS on CUP provide preliminary evidence that germline genes relating to inflammation (LTA4H), metastatic promotion (TIAM1) in association with lipid metabolic disturbance (chromosome 11 cluster) may contribute to the risk of CUP. PMID:26959888

  6. Thermoregulatory demands of elite professional America's Cup yacht racing.

    PubMed

    Neville, V; Gant, N; Folland, J P

    2010-06-01

    America's Cup yacht racing predominantly occurs during the summer months under hot and humid conditions, with athletes exposed to the environment for prolonged periods, and yet the thermoregulatory responses to competitive sailing are largely unappreciated. This study aimed to assess the thermoregulatory responses to elite professional big-boat yacht racing, according to crew position and upwind and downwind sailing. Intestinal (T(core)) and skin temperature, fluid balance and regional sweat compositions were measured in two America's Cup crews (n=32) during 100 min of racing. The environmental conditions were as follows: 32 degrees C, 52% RH and 5 m/s wind speed. Subjective race intensity was moderate. Bowmen recorded the greatest elevation in the heart rate (184 +/- 10 beats/min) and T(core) (39.2 degrees C, P<0.01). Both heart rate and T(core) were higher during downwind sailing (P<0.001). Regional skin temperatures were significantly different according to site (P=0.05), with tibia being the lowest (33.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C). The mean sweat loss during racing was 1.34 +/- 0.58 L/h (range: 0.44-2.40 L/h), with bowmen experiencing the greatest loss of sweat (3.7 +/- 0.9% of body mass). The mean fluid intake was highly correlated to sweat loss (r=0.74, P<0.001), with 72 +/- 41% of sweat losses replaced. The mean sodium concentration of sweat was 27.2 +/- 9.2 mmol/L (range: 12.0-43.5 mmol/L) and the total NaCl loss during sailing was 3.8 +/- 2.4 g (range 0.7-10.0 g). America's Cup sailing is a demanding sport that presents considerable challenges to thermoregulation, fluid and electrolyte balance. Certain crew roles (bowmen) present an increased risk of developing exertional heat illness, and for the majority of crew downwind sailing results in greater thermal strain than upwind sailing - which may have implications for clothing selection and boat design.

  7. POST-TRAUMATIC APICAL LEFT VENTRICULAR ANEURYSM IN A PATIENT WITH LEFT VENTRICULAR APICAL-ABDOMINAL AORTIC CONDUIT: CASE PRESENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Ugorji, Clement C.; Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.

    1979-01-01

    A patient with a small aortic annulus had an apico-aortic conduit implanted for aortic stenosis approximately three years before being admitted to our institution. Four months after sustaining a steering wheel injury to the chest, he developed chest pain and palpitations. X-ray films and left ventriculograms revealed a large apical aneurysm of unknown duration. At surgery, it was noted that the proximal portion of the conduit had been sewn directly to the myocardium without the use of a rigid or soft apical outlet prosthesis incorporating a sewing ring. The aneurysm was resected along with a small proximal segment of the conduit graft. A polished Pyrolite® rigid inlet tube with a sewing ring and graft extension was inserted into the residual left ventricular apex, and continuity was reestablished with the abdominal segment of the conduit. It is postulated that the aneurysm was caused by either the direct anastomosis of the fabric graft to the apical myocardium at the original operation (with subsequent disruption and aneurysm formation prior to the steering wheel injury), or was the result of fixation of the heart at the diaphragm by the conduit, with increased vulnerability to deceleration injury at the direct left ventricular apex myocardium-fabric graft site. Images PMID:15216296

  8. Cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J. (Inventor); Kory, Carol (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT for simultaneously communicating left and right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is adjustable to obtain efficient propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. The antenna includes a circular waveguide having an orthomode transducer utilizing first and second pins longitudinally spaced apart and oriented orthogonally with respect to each other. Six radially-oriented adjustable polarizer screws extend from the exterior to the interior of the waveguide. A septum intermediate the first and second pins is aligned with the first pin. Adjustment of the polarizer screws enables maximized propagation of and/or response to left hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the first pin while simultaneously enabling maximized propagation of and/or response to right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the second pin.

  9. Domestic science: making chemistry your cup of tea.

    PubMed

    Keene, Melanie

    2008-03-01

    In the early Victorian home, there were plenty of scientific lessons to be uncovered. With the appropriate interrogation, everyday objects could transform seemingly mundane activities such as eating breakfast, washing clothes or reading by candle-light into household lectures that gave children a familiar base from which to explore the hidden properties and marvellous histories of common commodities. Responding to an unprecedented hunger for scientific knowledge, a profusion of introductory texts appeared in the mid-nineteenth century that directed lessons into homes across Britain and beyond. In particular, the science of chemistry found its way into this domestic setting, as writers promoted its practice and practitioners as a source of authoritative expertise on everyday life. One of the most compelling illustrations of this encounter between the public and chemistry took place over a simple cup of tea.

  10. The Sphere Anemometer - A Fast Alternative to Cup Anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heißelmann, Hendrik; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    The main problem of cup anemometry is the different response time for increasing and decreasing wind velocities due to its moment of inertia. This results in an overestimation of wind speed under turbulent wind conditions, the so-called over-speeding. Additionally, routine calibrations are necessary due to the wear of bearings. Motivated by these problems the sphere anemometer, a new simple and robust sensor for wind velocity measurements without moving parts, was developed at the University of Oldenburg. In contrast to other known thrust-based sensors, the sphere anemometer uses the light pointer principle to detect the deflection of a bending tube caused by the drag force acting on a sphere mounted at its top. This technique allows the simultaneous determination of wind speed and direction via a two-dimensional position sensitive detector.

  11. Silastic cup vacuum extractor or forceps: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Svigos, J M; Cave, D G; Vigneswaran, R; Resch, A; Christiansen, J

    1990-12-01

    A retrospective analysis over a 2-year period was carried out to compare the limitations in the use of the Silastic Cup vacuum extractor and forceps as the preferred instrument for operative vaginal delivery. Whilst the use of the vacuum extractor was associated with less maternal morbidity (54.9% episiotomy rate; 20.9% nil analgesia) and comparable neonatal problems, an increased failure rate (6.5%) was demonstrated in comparison to forceps delivery (0.7% failed vaginal delivery rate). A comparison of their use for rotational vaginal delivery failed to reveal any significant difference in maternal or neonatal outcome apart from an increased failure rate (30%) to complete vaginal delivery after application of the vacuum extractor. It is concluded that the vacuum extractor is a comparable instrument for midcavity or lift-out instrumental delivery but Kielland's forceps may still be a more appropriate instrument for rotational vaginal delivery.

  12. Color Doppler imaging in glaucoma patients with asymmetric optic cups.

    PubMed

    Costa, V P; Sergott, R C; Smith, M; Spaeth, G L; Wilson, R P; Moster, M R; Katz, L J; Schmidt, C M

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the color Doppler imaging (CDI) parameters of the retrobulbar circulation, we performed color Doppler imaging in both eyes of 29 glaucomatous patients with asymmetric cups [asymmetry >0.3 cup/disc ratio (C/D)] and asymmetric visual field loss. We used the QAD-1 Color Doppler unit (Quantum Medical Systems Inc.) with a 7.5-MHz linear-phased transducer to calculate the pulsatility index, and the peak systolic, end diastolic, and average blood-flow velocities in the ophthalmic, central retinal, nasal, and temporal short posterior ciliary arteries of each eye. In a second analysis, we compared the results of a randomly selected eye of age- and sex-matched controls. Paired t tests did not show any significant difference between the blood-flow velocities of the more damaged and less damaged eyes when the entire 29-patient group was considered together. The power was adequate to detect a 1.0 cm/s difference in most of the analyzed vessels. Thirteen of the 29 patients had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and the remaining eyes had pseudoexfoliation and low tension, pigmentary, and chronic angle-closure glaucoma. When compared to age- and sex-matched controls, the less damaged eyes of patients with POAG displayed reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean velocities (p < 0.05) in the ophthalmic artery. In comparison, the more damaged eyes revealed statistically reduced velocities in the ophthalmic artery, temporal short posterior ciliary artery, and in all the parameters for the mean values of the short posterior ciliary arteries (p < 0.05). More advanced optic nerve damage in patients with POAG correlated with more severe reductions of CDI parameters of the retrobulbar circulation of patients with asymmetric disease. Further clinical color Doppler correlations are now mandatory to determine whether these vascular changes are pathogenetically important or epiphenomena.

  13. Fire Suppression in Low Gravity Using a Cup Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2004-01-01

    Longer duration missions to the moon, to Mars, and on the International Space Station increase the likelihood of accidental fires. The goal of the present investigation is to: (1) understand the physical and chemical processes of fire suppression in various gravity and O2 levels simulating spacecraft, Mars, and moon missions; (2) provide rigorous testing of numerical models, which include detailed combustion suppression chemistry and radiation sub-models; and (3) provide basic research results useful for advances in space fire safety technology, including new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches. The structure and extinguishment of enclosed, laminar, methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner have been studied experimentally and numerically using various fire-extinguishing agents (CO2, N2, He, Ar, CF3H, and Fe(CO)5). The experiments involve both 1g laboratory testing and low-g testing (in drop towers and the KC-135 aircraft). The computation uses a direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and radiative heat-loss models. An agent was introduced into a low-speed coflowing oxidizing stream until extinguishment occurred under a fixed minimal fuel velocity, and thus, the extinguishing agent concentrations were determined. The extinguishment of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in which the flame base drifted downstream) rather than the global extinction phenomenon typical of counterflow diffusion flames. The computation revealed that the peak reactivity spot (the reaction kernel) formed in the flame base was responsible for attachment and blowoff of the trailing diffusion flame. Furthermore, the buoyancy-induced flame flickering in 1g and thermal and transport properties of the agents affected the flame extinguishment limits.

  14. Fire Suppression in Low Gravity Using a Cup Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2004-01-01

    Longer duration missions to the moon, to Mars, and on the International Space Station increase the likelihood of accidental fires. The goal of the present investigation is to: (1) understand the physical and chemical processes of fire suppression in various gravity and O2 levels simulating spacecraft, Mars, and moon missions; (2) provide rigorous testing of numerical models, which include detailed combustion-suppression chemistry and radiation sub-models; and (3) provide basic research results useful for advances in space fire safety technology, including new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches.The structure and extinguishment of enclosed, laminar, methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner have been studied experimentally and numerically using various fire-extinguishing agents (CO2, N2, He, Ar, CF3H, and Fe(CO)5). The experiments involve both 1g laboratory testing and low-g testing (in drop towers and the KC-135 aircraft). The computation uses a direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and radiative heat-loss models. An agent was introduced into a low-speed coflowing oxidizing stream until extinguishment occurred under a fixed minimal fuel velocity, and thus, the extinguishing agent concentrations were determined. The extinguishment of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in which the flame base drifted downstream) rather than the global extinction phenomenon typical of counterflow diffusion flames. The computation revealed that the peak reactivity spot (the reaction kernel) formed in the flame base was responsible for attachment and blowoff of the trailing diffusion flame. Furthermore, the buoyancy-induced flame flickering in 1g and thermal and transport properties of the agents affected the flame extinguishment limits.

  15. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  16. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, David Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  17. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  18. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  19. Sabot assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz

    2016-11-08

    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  20. Nitrogenase assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogenase contains two unique metalloclusters: the P-cluster and the M-cluster. The assembly processes of P- and M-clusters are arguably the most complicated processes in bioinorganic chemistry. There is considerable interest in decoding the biosynthetic mechanisms of the P- and M-clusters, because these clusters are not only biologically important, but also chemically unprecedented. Understanding the assembly mechanisms of these unique metalloclusters is crucial for understanding the structure-function relationship of nitrogenase. Here, we review the recent advances in this research area, with an emphasis on our work that provide important insights into the biosynthetic pathways of these high-nuclearity metal centers. PMID:23232096

  1. CUP-1 Is a Novel Protein Involved in Dietary Cholesterol Uptake in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Victor J.; Athie, Alejandro; Salinas, Laura S.; Navarro, Rosa E.; Vaca, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Sterols transport and distribution are essential processes in all multicellular organisms. Survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans depends on dietary absorption of sterols present in the environment. However the general mechanisms associated to sterol uptake in nematodes are poorly understood. In the present work we provide evidence showing that a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein, designated Cholesterol Uptake Protein-1 (CUP-1), is involved in dietary cholesterol uptake in C. elegans. Animals lacking CUP-1 showed hypersensitivity to cholesterol limitation and were unable to uptake cholesterol. A CUP-1-GFP fusion protein colocalized with cholesterol-rich vesicles, endosomes and lysosomes as well as the plasma membrane. Additionally, by FRET imaging, a direct interaction was found between the cholesterol analog DHE and the transmembrane “cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus” (CRAC) motif present in C. elegans CUP-1. In-silico analysis identified two mammalian homologues of CUP-1. Most interestingly, CRAC motifs are conserved in mammalian CUP-1 homologous. Our results suggest a role of CUP-1 in cholesterol uptake in C. elegans and open up the possibility for the existence of a new class of proteins involved in sterol absorption in mammals. PMID:22479487

  2. Laparoscopic kidney biopsy in dogs: Comparison of cup forceps and core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jeong, Seong Mok

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic kidney biopsy with cup biopsy forceps in dogs (CupBF), and to compare to the use of a core biopsy needle (CoreBN). Experimental; randomized, controlled design. Eight healthy, adult Beagle dogs. Dogs were randomized to undergo laparoscopic biopsy of the right kidney using either 5 mm CupBF or a 16 gauge CoreBN. Intraoperative hemorrhage of the biopsy site was monitored. Biopsy quality was evaluated for tissue fragmentation and crushing, presence of renal cortex with or without medulla, and number of glomeruli. Postoperative packed cell volume, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic appearance of the biopsy site were evaluated. Biopsy specimens were obtained by both techniques and reliable hemostasis was achieved with direct compression in all dogs. The histologic score for CupBF biopsies was not significantly different from CoreBN biopsies. One CoreBN biopsy contained both renal cortex and medullar, while all CupBF biopsies contained cortex only. The mean (SD) number of glomeruli was significantly higher in CupBF biopsies [60 (9.1)] than CoreBN biopsies [26 (4.3)]. There was no gross hematuria, perirenal hematoma, or hydronephrosis in any dog postoperative. Laparoscopic kidney biopsy in dogs using 5 mm cup biopsy forceps is feasible with minimal risk and more glomeruli obtained compared to laparoscopic kidney biopsy using 16 gauge core biopsy needles. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Evaluation of the NexScreen and DrugCheck Waive RT urine drug detection cups.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ni; Nelson, Gordon J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2013-01-01

    Urine drug testing is an important tool that is commonly used to assess patient compliance with prescription regimens. Point-of-collection immunoassay devices allow for timely availability of laboratory test results to guide therapy during the same office visit. Two waived immunoassay-based urine drug screen cups were evaluated in this study. The NexScreen cup and the DrugCheck Waive RT cup claim to detect 10-12 drug classes of commonly used and/or abused drugs. This study included a sensitivity and precision challenge with 4-6 replicates at concentrations 0-150% of the manufacture's claimed cutoff, using drug-free urine spiked with purified reference standards. The stability of test results was evaluated by reading the results at intervals between five and 1,440 min. Specificity was evaluated by parallel comparison of pooled patients' specimens, representing 56 patients and 41 known drug compounds. When comparing results to validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results, false positives were observed in the NexScreen cups for benzodiazepine, methamphetamine, methadone, opiates and tricyclic antidepressant tests, but there were no false negatives. The DrugCheck Waive RT cups showed false negative results for barbiturates and opiates, but no false positives. Overall, the NexScreen cup demonstrated better sensitivity than claimed, whereas the sensitivity of the DrugCheck Waive RT cup did not meet claims.

  4. Uncertainties in pesticide monitoring using suction cups: Evidences from numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermüller, L.; Kasteel, R.; Vanderborght, J.; Šimůnek, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-04-01

    Risk assessment of pesticide leaching towards the groundwater becomes more and more prescribed by the authorities. Various methods are available to monitor transport and leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. For experiments at the field scale, soil coring or in-situ sampling using capillary wicks, porous plates, and suction cups are used. The advantage of the in-situ sampling systems resides in the high temporal resolution of solute extraction at different depths or horizons. Especially suction cups seem to play an important role in pesticide monitoring due to their easy installation and low costs. In literature, most studies analyzing suction cup behavior focused on conservative substances, steady state infiltration, and homogeneous soils. In our numerical study, we analyzed breakthrough curves from suction cups in heterogeneous soils under atmospheric conditions. To account for reactive transport, two pesticides were also simulated, whereby each one represents a different physico-chemical behavior. Finally, we simulated two different operation modes of the suction cups: i) permanent suction according to a measured reference tensiometer plus additional offset, and ii) weekly operation with constant suction of -600 cm. The results show that the breakthrough as well as the mass recovery and the mean concentration depends on the physico-chemical properties of the substance and location of the suction cup within the heterogeneous flow field. Second, the total mass as well as the mean concentration depends on the operation mode of the suction cup system.

  5. [Acetabular Osteolysis in Total Hip Replacement - When to Retain the Cup?].

    PubMed

    Lutz, B; Faschingbauer, M; Bieger, R; Reichel, H; Kappe, T

    2016-08-01

    Periacetabular osteolysis is a frequent long-term complication of cementless total hip arthroplasty. The decision whether to retain or to revise a cup in the presence of osteolysis remains a challenge. The options are regular clinical and radiological check-ups, isolated liner exchange with and without bone grafting, and complete cup revision. Thorough preoperative diagnostics, including a medical history, examination and imaging, are mandatory for correct decision making. In most patients, computed tomography is useful to assess periacetabular osteolysis. If the cup is well-fixed and positioned in an asymptomatic patient without progressive osteolysis and no implant defect or higher grade polyethylene wear and no signs of infection, continuous clinical and radiological monitoring is preferred. If imaging reveals cup loosening, malposition, osteolysis localised in a weight-bearing area, imminent or present periprosthetic fractures, rapid progressive osteolysis, implant defects or massive inlay wear, surgical treatment may be preferred. Cup revision is usually performed in such patients. If the cup is well-positioned and well-fixed in the X-ray, the procedure has to be discussed with the patient individually. Apart from patient-specific risk factors, the risk of further progression has to be assessed. Isolated liner exchange can be performed if the patient is asymptomatic and the cup proves to be stable intraoperatively. It is still unclear whether filling osteolyses through screw holes or osseous windows is of long-term benefit. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Aires, Lina; Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Ig-epitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help decipher how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events.

  7. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Igepitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help deciphering how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events. PMID:26301768

  8. Comparative evaluation of the apical sealing ability of a ceramic based sealer and MTA as root-end filling materials - An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Bhavana; Halebathi-Gowdra, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the apical sealing ability of two endodontic root-end filling materials namely, iRoot SP (ceramic based) and ProRoot MTA using the bacterial leakage system. A total of fifty recently extracted, single rooted teeth with a single straight canal were selected for the study. The teeth were chemo mechanically prepared. The apical 3mm of the root was resected and root end cavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of twenty teeth each for the experimental root end filling materials namely, iRoot SP and ProRoot MTA. A two-chamber model was constructed using pippeter tips and plastic vials. The pipetter tips with the teeth were suspended in these caps and the entire assembly was reattached to the vial. The upper chamber was seeded withEnterococcus faecalis. An Enterococci-selective broth was used in the lower chamber. Leakage was assessed for 90 days and compared using survival statistics. The ProRoot MTA filled root end samples leaked within 30-72 days. The iRoot SP filled root end samples leaked within 51-69 days. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that all the tested materials showed significant apical sealing ability as root-end filling materials over a period of 90 days. iRoot SP exhibited the most effective apical sealing ability as compared to ProRoot MTA. Key words:Apical sealing ability, Bacterial leakage, iRoot SP, ProRoot MTA, Root-end filling.

  9. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential effects of tamoxifen and anastrozole on optic cup size in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Maureen D.; Falardeau, Julie; Samples, John R.; Vetto, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the optic cups of tamoxifen users and anastrozole users differ in size, with the cups of the tamoxifen users being smaller. Methods Optic nerve head (ONH) topography was measured using a commercially available, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for three populations of amenorrheic women ages 40–69 years: subjects using (1) tamoxifen (20 mg/day) or (2) anastrozole (1 mg/day) for ≤ 2 years as adjuvant therapy after successful primary treatment for breast cancer, and (3) control subjects with no breast cancer histories and not using any hormonal medication. All subjects had excellent visual acuity and healthy eyes, based on conventional photographic assessment. Results The cup volumes of the tamoxifen users were shown to be significantly smaller than the cup volumes of the anastrozole users, which were indistinguishable from normal. Because the cup volumes of the tamoxifen users decreased markedly with age at about 50 years and because anastrozole is indicated only for post-menopausal women, comparisons were reassessed for subjects older than 50 years. For these subjects, the cup volumes of the tamoxifen users averaged less than half of the volumes for each of the other two subject groups, and significant between-group differences existed in both the lateral (cup area) and axial (cup depth) directions. In contrast, any between-group differences at the ONH margin were small and not significant. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the ONH be assessed biomorphometrically for tamoxifen users reporting visual change that cannot be attributed to non-tamoxifen causes. The ability of modern intraocular imaging techniques to reveal anatomic change on the order of tens of microns may be useful for assessing tamoxifen-induced effects occurring simultaneously elsewhere in the brain, particularly since the presence of small cups is consistent with the possibility of tamoxifen

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Apical Debris Extrusion and Intracanal Debris in the Apical Third, Using Hand Instrumentation and Three Rotary Instrumentation Systems

    PubMed Central

    H.K., Sowmya; T.S., Subhash; Goel, Beena Rani; T.N., Nandini; Bhandi, Shilpa H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Decreased apical extrusion of debris and apical one third debris have strong implications for decreased incidence of postoperative inflammation and pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the apical extrusion of debris and intracanal debris in the apical third during root canal instrumentation using hand and three different types of rotary instruments. Methodology: Sixty freshly extracted single rooted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Canal preparation was done using step-back with hand instrumentation, crown-down technique with respect to ProTaper and K3, and hybrid technique with LightSpeed LSX. Irrigation was done with NaOCl, EDTA, and normal saline and for final irrigation, EndoVac system was used. The apically extruded debris was collected on the pre-weighed Millipore plastic filter disk and weighed using microbalance. The teeth were submitted to the histological processing. Sections from the apical third were analyzed by a trinocular research microscope that was coupled to a computer where the images were captured and analyzed using image proplus V4.1.0.0 software. The mean weight of extruded debris for each group and intracanal debris in the root canal was statistically analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The result showed that, hand instrumentation using K files showed the highest amount of debris extrusion apically when compared to ProTaper, K3 and LightSpeed LSX. The result also showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third. Conclusion: Based on the results, all instrumentation techniques produced debris extrusion. The engine driven Ni-Ti systems extruded significantly less apical debris than hand instrumentation. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one

  12. Radial left ventricular dyssynchrony by speckle tracking in apical versus non apical right ventricular pacing- evidence of dyssynchrony on medium term follow up

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Chaurasia, Amit Kumar; Kumar, S Mahesh; Arulkumar, Ajeet; Thajudeen, Anees; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Sanjay, G; Abhilash, SP; Ajitkumar, VK; JA, Tharakan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To study effects of various sites of right ventricular pacing lead implantation on left ventricular function by 2-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking for radial strain and LV dyssynchrony. Methods: This was retrospective prospective study. Fifteen patients each with right ventricular (RV) apical (RV apex and apical septum) and non-apical (mid septal and low right ventricular outflow tract [RVOT]) were programmed to obtain 100% ventricular pacing for evaluation by echo. Location and orientation of lead tip was noted and archived by fluoroscopy. Electrocardiography (ECG) was archived and 2D echo radial dyssynchrony was calculated. Results: The baseline data was similar between two groups. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was significantly more in apical location as compared to non-apical location (radial dyssynchrony: 108.2 ± 50.2 vs. 50.5 ± 24, P < 0.001; septal to posterior wall delay [SLWD] 63.5 ± 27.5 vs. 34 ± 10.7, P < 0.001, SPWD 112.5 ± 58.1 vs. 62.7 ± 12.1, P = 0.003). The left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased more in apical location than non apical location. Interventricular dyssynchrony was more in apical group but was not statistically significant. The QRS duration, QTc and lead thresholds were higher in apical group but not statistically significant. Conclusion: Pacing in non apical location (RV mid septum or low RVOT) is associated with less dyssynchrony by specific measures like 2D radial strain and correlates with better ventricular function in long term. PMID:27069563

  13. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  14. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    PubMed Central

    Dingsdag, Simon; Nelson, Stephen; Coleman, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples) and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples). T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049) than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004), Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes)] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008)] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5) relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3). Conclusion Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes) were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies. PMID:27834171

  15. Operational experience using the novel FixCup collecting main valve

    SciTech Connect

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Spitz, J.

    1996-12-31

    On the occasion of the 1995 AIME conference the new PROven (Pressure Regulated Oven) process to control the pressure in coke ovens individually was introduced. This process was made feasible with a new collecting main valve, termed FixCup, with the aid of this valve a variable flow resistance to the raw gas discharge can be realized using a water immersion system. However, just the application of the FixCup system alone--without any pressure regulation--is very advantageous and cost saving. Thyssen has equipped 30 ovens with the new valve. The special constructive features as well as the operational experience using the FixCup valve are treated.

  16. Formation and atomic structure of boron nitride nanotubes with a cup-stacked structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, Takeo; Koi, Naruhiro; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Belosludov, Rodion V.; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2007-08-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanotubes were synthesized by annealing Fe 4N/B powder at 1000 ∘C for 1 h in a nitrogen gas atmosphere, and large amounts of BN nanotubes with a cup-stacked structure were obtained after a purification process. The atomic structures of the cup-stacked BN nanotubes were investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy as well as molecular mechanics calculations, and compared with double walled BN nanotubes. The present results indicate that the cup-stacked structure with a cone angle of 20 ∘ is more stable than the structure with an angle of 38 ∘ and ordinary nanotube structures.

  17. Perceptual elements in Penn & Teller’s “Cups and Balls” magic trick

    PubMed Central

    Rieiro, Hector; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Magic illusions provide the perceptual and cognitive scientist with a toolbox of experimental manipulations and testable hypotheses about the building blocks of conscious experience. Here we studied several sleight-of-hand manipulations in the performance of the classic “Cups and Balls” magic trick (where balls appear and disappear inside upside-down opaque cups). We examined a version inspired by the entertainment duo Penn & Teller, conducted with three opaque and subsequently with three transparent cups. Magician Teller used his right hand to load (i.e. introduce surreptitiously) a small ball inside each of two upside-down cups, one at a time, while using his left hand to remove a different ball from the upside-down bottom of the cup. The sleight at the third cup involved one of six manipulations: (a) standard maneuver, (b) standard maneuver without a third ball, (c) ball placed on the table, (d) ball lifted, (e) ball dropped to the floor, and (f) ball stuck to the cup. Seven subjects watched the videos of the performances while reporting, via button press, whenever balls were removed from the cups/table (button “1”) or placed inside the cups/on the table (button “2”). Subjects’ perception was more accurate with transparent than with opaque cups. Perceptual performance was worse for the conditions where the ball was placed on the table, or stuck to the cup, than for the standard maneuver. The condition in which the ball was lifted displaced the subjects’ gaze position the most, whereas the condition in which there was no ball caused the smallest gaze displacement. Training improved the subjects’ perceptual performance. Occlusion of the magician’s face did not affect the subjects’ perception, suggesting that gaze misdirection does not play a strong role in the Cups and Balls illusion. Our results have implications for how to optimize the performance of this classic magic trick, and for the types of hand and object motion that maximize magic

  18. Incorporating Yup'ik and Cup'ik Eskimo traditions into behavioral health treatment.

    PubMed

    Mills, Phoebe A

    2003-01-01

    The Yup'ik and Cup'ik Eskimo of Southwest Alaska have developed programs to provide healing from historical trauma. The Village Sobriety Project, a Center for Substance Abuse Treatment-funded project administered by the Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation from 1999 to 2002, is an effort to incorporate the local Yup'ik and Cup'ik peoples' ways into treatment services for mental health and substance abuse. Activities such as tundra walks and time with elders are supported in treatment, and Medicaid reimbursement was successfully obtained for such activities. Documentation of treatment showed that it incorporated cultural elements of the Yup'ik and Cup'ik people.

  19. RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server: A Progressing Testbed for AI Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darab, Mohammad Ali Darvish; Ebrahimi, Mosalam

    RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation is a growing domain that makes a wide variety of AI and Multi-Agent researches possible. The RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server is a Multi-Agent environment that supports 22 independent agents to play a soccer match within a real-time and complex environment. Many researchers from all over the world have been using this simulator to pursue their researches in a wide variety of areas such as multiagent learning, cooperative actions and multiagent planning. This paper illustrates the current organization of RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server.

  20. Does osteoporosis reduce the primary tilting stability of cementless acetabular cups?

    PubMed

    von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; von Engelhardt, Lars V; Wegener, Bernd; Müller, Peter E; Fottner, Andreas; Weber, Patrick; Ackermann, Ole; Lahner, Matthias; Teske, Wolfram

    2015-04-21

    Cementless hip cups need sufficient primary tilting stability to achieve osseointegration. The aim of the study was to assess differences of the primary implant stability in osteoporotic bone and in bone with normal bone density. To assess the influence of different cup designs, two types of threaded and two types of press-fit cups were tested. The maximum tilting moment for two different cementless threaded cups and two different cementless press-fit cups was determined in macerated human hip acetabuli with reduced (n=20) and normal bone density (n=20), determined using Q-CT. The tilting moments for each cup were determined five times in the group with reduced bone density and five times in the group with normal bone density, and the respective average values were calculated. The mean maximum extrusion force of the threaded cup Zintra was 5670.5 N (max. tilting moment 141.8 Nm) in bone with normal density and.5748.3 N (max. tilting moment 143.7 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. For the Hofer Imhof (HI) threaded cup it was 7681.5 N (192.0 Nm) in bone with normal density and 6828.9 N (max. tilting moment 170.7 Nm) in the group with osteoporotic bone. The mean maximum extrusion force of the macro-textured press-fit cup Metallsockel CL was 3824.6 N (max. tilting moment 95.6 Nm) in bone with normal and 2246.2 N (max. tilting moment 56.2 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. For the Monoblock it was 1303.8 N (max. tilting moment 32.6 Nm) in normal and 1317 N (max. tilting moment 32.9 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. There was no significance. A reduction of the maximum tilting moment in osteoporotic bone of the ESKA press-fit cup Metallsockel CL was noticed. Results on macerated bone specimens showed no statistically significant reduction of the maximum tilting moment in specimens with osteoporotic bone density compared to normal bone, neither for threaded nor for the press-fit cups. With the limitation that the results were obtained using macerated bone, we could not detect any restrictions for

  1. Influence of participation in a cup-stacking unit on timing tasks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Melanie A; Smith, Lori A; DeChant, Ann

    2005-12-01

    Cup stacking is a relatively new activity which has been promoted at conferences for physical educators as having many direct and indirect benefits, such as improved quickness. This study examined the influence of a cup-stacking instructional unit on reaction and anticipation times of 69 children in Grades 2 and 4. Within each grade participants were assigned to an experimental or a control group. The former received a 3-wk. instructional unit following the lesson plans provided by the promoters of cup stacking. The control groups received a standard physical education curriculum. Analysis indicated no significant differences in reaction and anticipation times between the groups before and after practicing the instructional unit.

  2. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  3. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  4. Cell differentiation and organ initiation at the shoot apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Nicola; Peaucelle, Alexis; Laufs, Patrick; Traas, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Plants continuously generate organs at the flanks of their shoot apical meristems (SAMs). The patterns in which these organs are initiated, also called patterns of phyllotaxis, are highly stereotypic and characteristic for a particular species or developmental stage. This stable, predictable behaviour of the meristem has led to the idea that organ initiation must be based on simple and robust mechanisms. This conclusion is less evident, however, if we consider the very dynamic behaviour of the individual cells. How dynamic cellular events are coordinated and how they are linked to the regular patterns of organ initiation is a major issue in plant developmental biology.

  5. Apical Membrane Potassium Conductance in Guinea Pig Gallbladder Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    30, 1983. Ca-activated K’ channels in cultured medullary thick ascending 23. MARUYAMA. Y., H . MATSUNAGA, AND T. HOSHI . Ca-"- and voltage limb cells. Am...potential dence of disease before use. They were housed in groups in stainless steel cages, maintained in rooms at 21’C, 50% rh, 12- h light-dark cycle (no...that a voltage-dependent K’ conductance resides in the FIG. 9. V. vs. current required to clamp V. ( h ) before and after apical membrane of guinea

  6. Effect of head contact on the rim of the cup on the offset loading and torque in hip joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Williams, Sophie; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2013-11-01

    Head contact on the rim of the cup causes stress concentration and consequently increased wear. The head contact on the rim of the cup may in addition cause an offset load and torque on the cup. The head-rim contact resulting from microseparation or subluxation has been investigated. An analytical model has been developed to calculate the offset loading and resultant torque on the cup as a function of the translational displacement of the head under simplified loading condition of the hip joint at heel strike during a walking cycle. The magnitude of the torque on the cup was found to increase with the increasing translational displacement, larger diameter heads, eccentric cups, and the coefficient of friction of the contact. The effects of cup inclination, cup rim radius, and cup coverage angle on the magnitude of the torque were found to be relatively small with a maximum variation in the torque magnitude being lower than 20%. This study has shown an increased torque due to the head loading on the rim of the cup, and this may contribute to the incidence of cup loosening. Particularly, metal-on-metal hip joints with larger head diameters may produce the highest offset loading torque.

  7. Larval body patterning and apical organs are conserved in animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Planktonic ciliated larvae are characteristic for the life cycle of marine invertebrates. Their most prominent feature is the apical organ harboring sensory cells and neurons of largely undetermined function. An elucidation of the relationships between various forms of primary larvae and apical organs is key to understanding the evolution of animal life cycles. These relationships have remained enigmatic due to the scarcity of comparative molecular data. Results To compare apical organs and larval body patterning, we have studied regionalization of the episphere, the upper hemisphere of the trochophore larva of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We examined the spatial distribution of transcription factors and of Wnt signaling components previously implicated in anterior neural development. Pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling with Gsk3β antagonists abolishes expression of apical markers, consistent with a repressive role of Wnt signaling in the specification of apical tissue. We refer to this Wnt-sensitive, six3- and foxq2-expressing part of the episphere as the ‘apical plate’. We also unraveled a molecular signature of the apical organ - devoid of six3 but expressing foxj, irx, nkx3 and hox - that is shared with other marine phyla including cnidarians. Finally, we characterized the cell types that form part of the apical organ by profiling by image registration, which allows parallel expression profiling of multiple cells. Besides the hox-expressing apical tuft cells, this revealed the presence of putative light- and mechanosensory as well as multiple peptidergic cell types that we compared to apical organ cell types of other animal phyla. Conclusions The similar formation of a six3+, foxq2+ apical plate, sensitive to Wnt activity and with an apical tuft in its six3-free center, is most parsimoniously explained by evolutionary conservation. We propose that a simple apical organ - comprising an apical tuft and a basal plexus

  8. Adherens junctions determine the apical position of the midbody during follicular epithelial cell division.

    PubMed

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Sunkel, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    Cytokinesis is asymmetric along the apical-basal axis of epithelial cells, positioning the midbody near the apical domain. However, little is known about the mechanism and purpose of this asymmetry. We use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cell division to show that asymmetric cytokinesis does not result from intrinsic polarization of the main contractile ring components. We show that adherens junctions (AJs) maintain close contact with the apical side of the contractile ring during cytokinesis. Asymmetric distribution of AJ components within follicle cells and in the otherwise unpolarized S2 cells is sufficient to recruit the midbody, revealing that asymmetric cytokinesis is determined by apical AJs in the epithelia. We further show that ectopic midbody localization induces epithelial invaginations, shifting the position of the apical interface between daughter cells relative to the AB axis of the tissue. Thus, apical midbody localization is essential to maintain epithelial tissue architecture during proliferation.

  9. Apical Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling: Regulation of Stretch-dependent Exocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balestreire, Elena M.

    2007-01-01

    The apical surface of polarized epithelial cells receives input from mediators, growth factors, and mechanical stimuli. How these stimuli are coordinated to regulate complex cellular functions such as polarized membrane traffic is not understood. We analyzed the requirement for growth factor signaling and mechanical stimuli in umbrella cells, which line the mucosal surface of the bladder and dynamically insert and remove apical membrane in response to stretch. We observed that stretch-stimulated exocytosis required apical epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activation and that activation occurred in an autocrine manner downstream of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor cleavage. Long-term changes in apical exocytosis depended on protein synthesis, which occurred upon EGF receptor-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Our results indicate a novel physiological role for the EGF receptor that couples upstream mechanical stimuli to downstream apical EGF receptor activation that may regulate apical surface area changes during bladder filling. PMID:17287395

  10. Pulp revascularization of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Blayne; Teixeira, Fabricio; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Caplan, Daniel J; Trope, Martin

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the ability of a collagen solution to aid revascularization of necrotic-infected root canals in immature dog teeth. Sixty immature teeth from 6 dogs were infected, disinfected, and randomized into experimental groups: 1: no further treatment; 2: blood in canal; 3: collagen solution in canal, 4: collagen solution + blood, and 5: negative controls (left for natural development). Uncorrected chi-square analysis of radiographic results showed no statistical differences (p >or= 0.05) between experimental groups regarding healing of radiolucencies but a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.058) for group 1 versus group 4 for radicular thickening. Group 2 showed significantly more apical closure than group 1 (p = 0.03) and a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.051) for group 3 versus group 1. Uncorrected chi-square analysis revealed that there were no statistical differences between experimental groups for histological results. However, some roots in each of groups 1 to 4 (previously infected) showed positive histologic outcomes (thickened walls in 43.9%, apical closure in 54.9%, and new luminal tissue in 29.3%). Revascularization of disinfected immature dog root canal systems is possible.

  11. Apical sealing ability of metal versus plastic carrier Thermafil obturators.

    PubMed

    Clark, D S; ElDeeb, M E

    1993-01-01

    Sixty straight maxillary canines, 40 straight mandibular incisors, and 40 curved mesial canals of 27 mandibular molars were instrumented and randomly assigned to one of seven groups of 20 canals. Experimental groups were obturated with metal or plastic carrier Thermafil obturators. Control groups were obturated using the lateral condensation technique. An additional group of 20 unobturated curved molar canals served as positive controls. Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer was used in all obturation groups. The presence or absence of apical extrusion of gutta-percha was recorded. Teeth were suspended in black India ink for 2 wk, cleared, and then examined under a dissecting microscope at x20 magnification. No leakage was found in any of the obturated canals, whereas unobturated controls showed total dye penetration. Plastic carrier Thermafil and metal carrier Thermafil groups produced a significantly greater incidence of apical extrusion of gutta-percha compared with lateral condensation groups (p < 0.001). Extrusion for Thermafil groups occurred significantly more frequently in straight compared with curved canals (p = 0.002). The Thermafil groups showed a higher frequency of filled lateral and accessory canals than in the lateral condensation group; however, this was statistically insignificant (p = 0.48).

  12. Reticulated lipid probe fluorescence reveals MDCK cell apical membrane topography.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Pina; Spring, Kenneth R

    2002-02-01

    High spatial resolution confocal microscopy of young MDCK cells stained with the lipophilic probe 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'- tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC(16)) revealed a reticulated fluorescence pattern on the apical membrane. DiIC(16) was delivered as crystals to live cells to minimize possible solvent perturbations of the membrane lipids. The ratio of the integrated fluorescence intensities in the bright versus dim regions was 1.6 +/- 0.1 (n = 13). Deconvolved images of the cells were consistent with exclusive plasma membrane staining. Multi-spectral and fluorescence anisotropy microscopy did not reveal differences between bright and dim regions. Bright regions coincided with microvilli and microridges observed by differential interference contrast microscopy and were stable for several minutes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yielded similar diffusion coefficients (pooled D = 1.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s, n = 40) for both bright and dim regions. Line fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed that the reticulated pattern was maintained as the fluorescence recovered in the bleached areas. Cytochalasin D did not affect the staining pattern, but the pattern was eliminated by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. We conclude that the reticulated fluorescence pattern was caused by increased optical path lengths through the microvilli and microridges compared with the flat areas on the apical membrane.

  13. Reticulated lipid probe fluorescence reveals MDCK cell apical membrane topography.

    PubMed Central

    Colarusso, Pina; Spring, Kenneth R

    2002-01-01

    High spatial resolution confocal microscopy of young MDCK cells stained with the lipophilic probe 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'- tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC(16)) revealed a reticulated fluorescence pattern on the apical membrane. DiIC(16) was delivered as crystals to live cells to minimize possible solvent perturbations of the membrane lipids. The ratio of the integrated fluorescence intensities in the bright versus dim regions was 1.6 +/- 0.1 (n = 13). Deconvolved images of the cells were consistent with exclusive plasma membrane staining. Multi-spectral and fluorescence anisotropy microscopy did not reveal differences between bright and dim regions. Bright regions coincided with microvilli and microridges observed by differential interference contrast microscopy and were stable for several minutes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yielded similar diffusion coefficients (pooled D = 1.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s, n = 40) for both bright and dim regions. Line fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed that the reticulated pattern was maintained as the fluorescence recovered in the bleached areas. Cytochalasin D did not affect the staining pattern, but the pattern was eliminated by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. We conclude that the reticulated fluorescence pattern was caused by increased optical path lengths through the microvilli and microridges compared with the flat areas on the apical membrane. PMID:11806917

  14. Organization of the root apical meristem in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Heimsch, Charles; Seago, James L

    2008-01-01

    Although flowers, leaves, and stems of the angiosperms have understandably received more attention than roots, the growing root tips, or root apical meristems (RAMs), are organs that could provide insight into angiosperm evolution. We studied RAM organization across a broad spectrum of angiosperms (45 orders and 132 families of basal angiosperms, monocots, and eudicots) to characterize angiosperm RAMs and cortex development related to RAMs. Types of RAM organization in root tips of flowering plants include open RAMs without boundaries between some tissues in the growing tip and closed RAMs with distinct boundaries between apical regions. Epidermis origin is associated with the cortex in some basal angiosperms and monocots and with the lateral rootcap in eudicots and other basal angiosperms. In most angiosperm RAMs, initials for the central region of the rootcap, or columella, are distinct from the lateral rootcap and its initials. Slightly more angiosperm families have exclusively closed RAMs than exclusively open RAMs, but many families have representatives with both open and closed RAMs. Root tips with open RAMs are generally found in angiosperm families considered sister to other families; certain open RAMs may be ancestral in angiosperms.

  15. Ontogeny of the Maize Shoot Apical Meristem[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize. PMID:22911570

  16. Demands of World Cup Competitions in Elite Women Road Cycling.

    PubMed

    Menaspà, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Bates, Gene; La Torre, Antonio

    2017-03-02

    Describing the demand of recent World Cup (WC) races comparing Top 10 (T10) and non-Top 10 (N-T10) performances using power data. Race data were collected in 1-day World Cup races during the 2012-2015 road cycling seasons. Seven female cyclists completed 49 WC races, finishing 25 times in T10 and 24 times N-T10. Peak power (1 s) and Maximal Mean Power (MMP) for durations of 5, 10, 20 and 30 s and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min expressed as power to weight ratio were analysed in T10 and N-T10. The percentage of total race time spent at different power bands was compared between T10 and N-T10 using 0.75 W˖kg(-1) power bands, ranging from <0.75 to >7.50 W˖kg(-1). The number of efforts in which the power output remained above 7.50 W˖kg(-1) for at least 10 seconds were recorded. MMP were significantly higher in T10 than in N-Top 10, with a large effect size for durations between 10 seconds and 5 minutes. N-T10 spent more time in the 3.01-3.75 W·kg(-1) power band when compared to T10 (P=0.011); conversely, T10 spent more time in the 6.75-7.50 and >7.50 W·kg(-1) power bands (P=0.009 and 0.005, respectively) than N-T10. A significantly higher number of short and high intensity efforts (≥10s, >7.5 W·kg(-1)) was ridden by T10, compared to N-T10 (P=0.002). Specifically, 46±20 and 30±15 efforts for T10 and N-T10, respectively. The ability to ride at high intensity was determinant for successful road cycling performances in WC races.

  17. Injuries among elite snowboarders (FIS Snowboard World Cup)

    PubMed Central

    Torjussen, J; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Background Although snowboarding is already established as an Olympic sport, it is still a developing sport, with new disciplines, more demanding snow installations, and spectacular tricks. A recent study on subjects at Norwegian national elite level showed that injury risk is high and that injuries among competitive snowboarders differ from those seen in recreational snowboarders, with fewer wrist injuries and more knee and back injuries. Objective To describe the incidence and type of injuries among female and male snowboarders at international elite level. Method At the last race of the Fédération Internationale de Ski Snowboard World Cup, acute injuries resulting in missed participation and overuse injuries influencing performance, were recorded during a retrospective interview (91% response rate). The registration period was from April 2002 (end of season) until March 2003. Exposure was recorded as the number of runs in all disciplines, and the incidence was calculated as number of injuries per 1000 runs. Results The 258 athletes interviewed reported 3193 competition days (n = 46 879 runs) in all disciplines. In total, 135 acute injuries were recorded; 62 (46%) during competition in the official disciplines. Of the 135 acute injuries, the most common injury locations were knee (n = 24; 18%), shoulder (n = 18; 13%), back (n = 17; 13%), and wrist (n = 11; 8%). The overall incidence during competition was 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.7) injuries per 1000 runs; 2.3 (0.9 to 3.8) for big air (n = 10), 1.9 (1.1 to 2.8) for halfpipe (n = 21), 2.1 (1.2 to 3.0) for snowboard cross (n = 20), 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0) for parallel giant slalom (n = 8), and 0.3 (0.0 to 0.7) for parallel slalom (n = 3). The severity of injuries was graded based on time loss (27% lost >21 days) and score on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (38% AIS 1, 61% AIS 2 and 1% AIS 3). There were 122 overuse injuries, 38 (31%) of these to the knee

  18. Magi Is Associated with the Par Complex and Functions Antagonistically with Bazooka to Regulate the Apical Polarity Complex.

    PubMed

    Padash Barmchi, Mojgan; Samarasekera, Gayathri; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa J; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian MAGI proteins play important roles in the maintenance of adherens and tight junctions. The MAGI family of proteins contains modular domains such as WW and PDZ domains necessary for scaffolding of membrane receptors and intracellular signaling components. Loss of MAGI leads to reduced junction stability while overexpression of MAGI can lead to increased adhesion and stabilization of epithelial morphology. However, how Magi regulates junction assembly in epithelia is largely unknown. We investigated the single Drosophila homologue of Magi to study the in vivo role of Magi in epithelial development. Magi is localized at the adherens junction and forms a complex with the polarity proteins, Par3/Bazooka and aPKC. We generated a Magi null mutant and found that Magi null mutants were viable with no detectable morphological defects even though the Magi protein is highly conserved with vertebrate Magi homologues. However, overexpression of Magi resulted in the displacement of Baz/Par3 and aPKC and lead to an increase in the level of PIP3. Interestingly, we found that Magi and Baz functioned in an antagonistic manner to regulate the localization of the apical polarity complex. Maintaining the balance between the level of Magi and Baz is an important determinant of the levels and localization of apical polarity complex.

  19. [Giant negative T waves in idiopathic apical diverticulum of the left ventricle in adults].

    PubMed

    Barboteu, M; Desnos, M; Hagège, A; Dufour, M; Chauvaud, S; Junes, G; Baleynaud, S; Bruneval, P; Guérot, C

    1995-10-01

    Left ventricular diverticula, congenital or acquired, with normal coronary arteries are rare. Apical diverticula are exceptionally rare in the adult. The authors present the clinical, paraclinical, anatomopathological pre- and postoperative data in a case of apical diverticulum of the left ventricle presenting with giant negative T waves. The differential diagnosis of these electrocardiographic changes is discussed, in particular apical cardiomyopathy, especially as the two conditions may be associated.

  20. Modulation of endocytic trafficking and apical stability of CFTR in primary human airway epithelial cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cholon, Deborah M.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Randell, Scott H.; Riordan, John R.

    2010-01-01

    CFTR is a highly regulated apical chloride channel of epithelial cells that is mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we characterized the apical stability and intracellular trafficking of wild-type and mutant CFTR in its native environment, i.e., highly differentiated primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. We labeled the apical pool of CFTR and subsequently visualized the protein in intracellular compartments. CFTR moved from the apical surface to endosomes and then efficiently recycled back to the surface. CFTR endocytosis occurred more slowly in polarized than in nonpolarized HAE cells or in a polarized epithelial cell line. The most common mutation in CF, ΔF508 CFTR, was rescued from endoplasmic reticulum retention by low-temperature incubation but transited from the apical membrane to endocytic compartments more rapidly and recycled less efficiently than wild-type CFTR. Incubation with small-molecule correctors resulted in ΔF508 CFTR at the apical membrane but did not restore apical stability. To stabilize the mutant protein at the apical membrane, we found that the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore and the cholesterol-extracting agent cyclodextrin dramatically reduced internalization of ΔF508, whereas the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 completely blocked endocytosis of ΔF508. On examination of intrinsic properties of CFTR that may affect its apical stability, we found that N-linked oligosaccharides were not necessary for transport to the apical membrane but were required for efficient apical recycling and, therefore, influenced the turnover of surface CFTR. Thus apical stability of CFTR in its native environment is affected by properties of the protein and modulation of endocytic trafficking. PMID:20008117

  1. Use of jumbo cups for revision of acetabulae with large bony defects.

    PubMed

    Gustke, Kenneth A; Levering, Melissa F; Miranda, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of treatment are available for acetabular revision associated with bone loss. Jumbo cups (minimum diameter of 62 mm in women, 66 mm in men, or 10 mm larger than the normal contralateral acetabulum) are often useful for large defects. The purpose of this study is to report a large jumbo cup series with an average 10-year follow-up. A total of 196 jumbo cups in 186 patients with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were available for review. Harris hip score improved from 44 preoperatively to 72 postoperatively. Survivorship was 98% at 4 years and 96% at 16 years. Five revisions and two resection arthroplasties were performed for failure. In conclusion, porous jumbo cup acetabular revision with supplemental screw fixation provides good to excellent intermediate- and long-term outcomes.

  2. Mechanistic Based DEM Simulation of Particle Attrition in a Jet Cup

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; DeCroix, David; Sun, Xin

    2014-02-01

    The attrition of particles is a major industrial concern in many fluidization systems as it can have undesired effects on the product quality and on the reliable operation of process equipment. Therefore, to accomodate the screening and selection of catalysts for a specific process in fluidized beds, risers, or cyclone applications, their attrition propensity is usually estimated through jet cup attrition testing, where the test material is subjected to high gas velocities in a jet cup. However, this method is far from perfect despite its popularity, largely due to its inconsistency in different testing set-ups. In order to better understand the jet cup testing results as well as their sensitivity to different operating conditions, a coupled computational fluid dynamic (CFD) - discrete element method (DEM) model has been developed in the current study to investigate the particle attrition in a jet cup and its dependence on various factors, e.g. jet velocity, initial particle size, particle density, and apparatus geometry.

  3. Optic disc and cup segmentation from color fundus photograph using graph cut with priors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Stambolian, Dwight; O'Brien, Joan; Gee, James C

    2013-01-01

    For automatic segmentation of optic disc and cup from color fundus photograph, we describe a fairly general energy function that can naturally fit into a global optimization framework with graph cut. Distinguished from most previous work, our energy function includes priors on the shape & location of disc & cup, the rim thickness and the geometric interaction of "disc contains cup". These priors together with the effective optimization of graph cut enable our algorithm to generate reliable and robust solutions. Our approach is able to outperform several state-of-the-art segmentation methods, as shown by a set of experimental comparisons with manual delineations and a series of results of correlations with the assessments of a merchant-provided software from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) regarding several cup and disc parameters.

  4. Forecasting a winner for Malaysian Cup 2013 using soccer simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Fauzee, Mohd Soffian Omar; Latif, Rozita Abdul

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates through soccer simulation the calculation of the probability for each team winning Malaysia Cup 2013. Our methodology used here is we predict the outcomes of individual matches and then we simulate the Malaysia Cup 2013 tournament 5000 times. As match outcomes are always a matter of uncertainty, statistical model, in particular a double Poisson model is used to predict the number of goals scored and conceded for each team. Maximum likelihood estimation is use to measure the attacking strength and defensive weakness for each team. Based on our simulation result, LionXII has a higher probability in becoming the winner, followed by Selangor, ATM, JDT and Kelantan. Meanwhile, T-Team, Negeri Sembilan and Felda United have lower probabilities to win Malaysia Cup 2013. In summary, we find that the probability for each team becominga winner is small, indicating that the level of competitive balance in Malaysia Cup 2013 is quite high.

  5. Improving acetabular cup orientation in total hip arthroplasty by using smartphone technology.

    PubMed

    Peters, Frank M; Greeff, Richard; Goldstein, Neal; Frey, Chris T

    2012-08-01

    Acetabular cup placement in total hip arthroplasty is often difficult to assess, especially in the lateral position and using the posterior approach. Conventional techniques and computer-assisted surgery are the 2 most popular methods for proper placement of the acetabular cup in Lewinnek's safe zone of orientation (anteversion 15° ± 10° and lateral inclination 40° ± 10°). We developed a system that uses the accelerometer and camera function of the iPhone. A level indicator application and protractor application were downloaded to the iPhone and used to improve acetabular cup placement. This system has proven to be accurate and quick. Our series of 50 prospective cases showed good results with all our acetabular cups being placed within a narrow range in the safe zone and with less than 5% difference between the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative acetabular inclinations.

  6. Corking Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Cups with Gold Nanoparticles for Biodegradable Drug Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Seth C; Star, Alexander

    2015-12-02

    Carbon nanomaterials have been proposed as effective drug delivery devices; however their perceived biopersistence and toxicological profile may hinder their applications in medical therapeutics. Nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes results in a unique "stacked-cup" structure, with cups held together through van der Waals forces. Disrupting these weak interactions yields individual and short-stacked nanocups that can subsequently be corked with gold nanoparticles, resulting in sealed containers for delivery of cargo. Peroxidase-catalyzed reactions can effectively uncork these containers, followed by complete degradation of the graphitic capsule, resulting in effective release of therapeutic cargo while minimizing harmful side effects. The protocols reported herein describe the synthesis of stacked nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups followed by effective separation into individual cups and gold nanoparticle cork formation resulting in loaded and sealed containers.

  7. Twin study on cup/disc ratio of the optic nerve head.

    PubMed Central

    Teikari, J. M.; Airaksinen, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Seventeen healthy twin pairs (10 monozygotic and seven dizygotic) from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study were examined to study the impact of heredity v environment in the determination of cup-to-disc area ratio. These twins were free from any known eye disease. The cup/disc ratio was determined using stereo photography and a computer assisted analysis technique. The zygosity of all twin pairs was confirmed with the DNA 'fingerprint' technique. The intrapair correlations were high among monozygotic pairs compared with those among dizygotic twin pairs. The difference of cup/disc area ratios between the right eyes of members of monozygotic twin pairs was statistically significantly smaller than that of dizygotic twin pairs (p < 0.001). The same was true for left eyes (p < 0.01). This result confirms a genetic determination in cup/disc area ratio in normal eyes. Images PMID:1390488

  8. Convex hull based neuro-retinal optic cup ellipse optimization in glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Liu, Jiang; Cherian, Neetu Sara; Sun, Ying; Lim, Joo Hwee; Wong, Wing Kee; Tan, Ngan Meng; Lu, Shijian; Li, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Ying

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness. Glaucoma can be diagnosed through measurement of neuro-retinal optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). Automatic calculation of optic cup boundary is challenging due to the interweavement of blood vessels with the surrounding tissues around the cup. A Convex Hull based Neuro-Retinal Optic Cup Ellipse Optimization algorithm improves the accuracy of the boundary estimation. The algorithm's effectiveness is demonstrated on 70 clinical patient's data set collected from Singapore Eye Research Institute. The root mean squared error of the new algorithm is 43% better than the ARGALI system which is the state-of-the-art. This further leads to a large clinical evaluation of the algorithm involving 15 thousand patients from Australia and Singapore.

  9. Tungsten insulated susceptor cup for high temperature induction furnace eliminates contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geringer, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    METILUR /Materials Experimental Tungsten Induction Laboratory Unit Replacement/ is an improved, unitized design of a susceptor cup and shielding that uses only one type of construction material /tungsten/ which eliminates contamination. Cycling runs can be accomplished with METILUR.

  10. FIFA World Cup 2006 in Germany: enhanced surveillance improved timeliness and detection.

    PubMed

    Williams, C J; Schenkel, K; Eckmanns, T; Altmann, D; Krause, G

    2009-04-01

    Enhanced surveillance for infectious disease events, with accelerated routine reporting and daily supplementary reports, was undertaken during the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany. We evaluated the surveillance outputs, reporting intervals and detection of World Cup-relevant events for the enhanced system. Outbreak numbers for measles, Norovirus and Campylobacter were significantly higher than in previous years, but all increases were explained by prior trends. The median interval (disease onset to receipt at national centre) fell from 17 days in 2005 to 12 days in 2006. Detection of World Cup-relevant events was 44% (8/18) in the routine system and 77% (14/18) in supplementary reports. We did not identify any significant effect on infectious disease epidemiology relating to the FIFA 2006 World Cup. Daily reporting improved timeliness, and supplementary reporting improved relevant event detection. Enhancing existing systems, without the addition of syndromic surveillance, can be an effective approach to mass-event surveillance.

  11. Region-based multi-step optic disk and cup segmentation from color fundus image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Lock, Jane; Manresa, Javier Moreno; Vignarajan, Janardhan; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2013-02-01

    Retinal optic cup-disk-ratio (CDR) is a one of important indicators of glaucomatous neuropathy. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-step 4-quadrant thresholding method for optic disk segmentation and a multi-step temporal-nasal segmenting method for optic cup segmentation based on blood vessel inpainted HSL lightness images and green images. The performance of the proposed methods was evaluated on a group of color fundus images and compared with the manual outlining results from two experts. Dice scores of detected disk and cup regions between the auto and manual results were computed and compared. Vertical CDRs were also compared among the three results. The preliminary experiment has demonstrated the robustness of the method for automatic optic disk and cup segmentation and its potential value for clinical application.

  12. Early failure of a polyethylene acetabular liner cemented into a metal cup.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David A J; Corkum, Joseph P; Teeter, Matthew G; Holdsworth, David W; Dunbar, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    In 2002, a patient underwent revision total hip arthroplasty for polyethylene wear. The acetabular cup was well fixed, and it was decided to cement a new polyethylene liner into the existing cup. In 2006, the patient presented with inability to weight bear and easy subluxation of the hip. Revision surgery was performed, and all components were examined postoperatively. Investigation with microcomputed tomography revealed that the liner had plastically deformed at the superior pole resulting in the hip instability. The reasons for this are suspected to be related to the abducted nature of the original cup and an uneven cement mantle. This report suggests that cementation of polyethylene liners into metal cups has limitations and is not appropriate in all circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coordinated waves of actomyosin flow and apical cell constriction immediately after wounding

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Marco; Pereira, Telmo; Cordeiro, João V.; Almeida, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial wound healing relies on tissue movements and cell shape changes. Our work shows that, immediately after wounding, there was a dramatic cytoskeleton remodeling consisting of a pulse of actomyosin filaments that assembled in cells around the wound edge and flowed from cell to cell toward the margin of the wound. We show that this actomyosin flow was regulated by Diaphanous and ROCK and that it elicited a wave of apical cell constriction that culminated in the formation of the leading edge actomyosin cable, a structure that is essential for wound closure. Calcium signaling played an important role in this process, as its intracellular concentration increased dramatically immediately after wounding, and down-regulation of transient receptor potential channel M, a stress-activated calcium channel, also impaired the actomyosin flow. Lowering the activity of Gelsolin, a known calcium-activated actin filament–severing protein, also impaired the wound response, indicating that cleaving the existing actin filament network is an important part of the cytoskeleton remodeling process. PMID:23878279

  14. Crb apical polarity proteins maintain zebrafish retinal cone mosaics via intercellular binding of their extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei; Wei, Xiangyun

    2012-06-12

    Cone photoreceptors are assembled by unknown mechanisms into geometrically regular mosaics in many vertebrate species. The formation and maintenance of photoreceptor mosaics are speculated to require differential cell-cell adhesion. However, the molecular basis for this theory has yet to be identified. The retina and many other tissues express Crumbs (Crb) polarity proteins. The functions of the extracellular domains of Crb proteins remain to be understood. Here we report cell-type-specific expression of the crb2a and crb2b genes at the cell membranes of photoreceptor inner segments and Müller cell apical processes in the zebrafish retina. We demonstrate that the extracellular domains of Crb2a and Crb2b mediate a cell-cell adhesion function, which plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of photoreceptor layer and cone mosaics. Because Crb proteins are expressed in many types of epithelia, the Crb-based cell-cell adhesion may underlie cellular patterning in other epithelium-derived tissues as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  16. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  17. Use of small volume cups in XRF analysis of treated wood retention

    Treesearch

    Rene Stelzer; Adam Taylor; Patricia Lebow

    2017-01-01

    Efforts are underway in the United States to improve the conformance of commercially-treated wood with the applicable retention standards. As part of an effort to devise a practical method for on-site assessment of within-charge retention variation, we investigated whether small-volume x-ray fluorescence (XRF) sample cups could be used with treated wood. A range of cup...

  18. [Clinical observation of post-herpetic neuralgia treated with TCM herbal cupping therapy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Hu, Hui; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui

    2013-02-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy on post-herpetic neuralgia among TCM herbal cupping therapy, Chinese medicine thermal compressing therapy and mecobalamine. Fifty-seven cases were randomized into a TCM herbal cupping group, a thermal compressing group and a western medicine group, 19 cases in each one. The oral administration of ibuprofen was applied in every group. In the herbal cupping group, the bamboo cups soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction were sucked on the most significant painful area. In the thermal compressing group, the towel soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction was compressed on the most significant painful area. In the medication group, the muscular injection of mecobalamine was adopted. The treatment was given once a day, for 2 weeks totally in each group. SF-MPQ score and clinical efficacy before and after treatment were observed in each group. The remarkable effective rates were 78.9% (15/19), 36.8% (7/19) and 5.3% (1/19) in the TCM herbal cupping group, thermal compressing group and western medicine group separately. The efficacy in the TCM herbal cupping group was significantly superior to the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P < 0.05), and that in the thermal compressing group was superior to the western medicine group (P < 0.05). After treatment, SF-MPQ score was reduced significantly in each group (P < 0.001, P < 0.01). The score in the herbal cupping group was reduced more significantly as compared with the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P < 0.01). The improvement in pain in the thermal compressing group was superior to the western medicine group (P < 0.01). TCM herbal cupping therapy achieves the superior efficacy for post-herpetic neuralgia and relieves pain effectively of the patients, which is more advantageous than CM herbal thermal compressing therapy and Mecobalamine.

  19. Effect of Cup Length on Film Profiles in Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    cup. If the liquid film is not completely broken up within the cup then a secondary, hollow , outer cone will form. This cone contains many droplets...is difficult to measure and costly three-dimensional CFD simulations would be needed to accurately model it. Its effect on atomization/design...This difficulty was recognized early in the US development of GCSC injectors and models specific to GCSC injectors were sought. 2 Further

  20. World cup soccer players tend to be born with sun and moon in adjacent zodiacal signs.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, J

    2000-12-01

    The ecliptic elongation of the moon with respect to the sun does not show uniform distribution on the birth dates of the 704 soccer players selected for the 1998 World Cup. However, a uniform distribution is expected on astronomical grounds. The World Cup players show a very pronounced tendency (p = 0.00001) to be born on days when the sun and moon are in adjacent zodiacal signs.

  1. Numerical Study of Two-Phase Flow Field in a Simplified Swirl Cup Combustor (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-24

    Article 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Numerical Study of Two-Phase Flow Field in a Simplified Swirl Cup...swirl provides a recirculation zone which enhances mixing and flame stability. Some high-performance aircraft engines such as in GE/SNECMA CFM56 ...downstream of a GE/SNECMA CFM56 engine combustor swirl cup in which the primary and secondary swirlers provide co-axial, counter-swirling airstreams

  2. [Electrical excitability of the apical dendrites of mammalian cortical pyramidal neurons].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shih-Fang

    2012-12-25

    The electrical excitability of the dendrites of the cortical neurons was first studied on the apical dendrites of the pyramidal neurons. Professor ZHANG Xiang-Tong (H-T Chang) made important contributions in the fifties of last century on this topic. Through numerous studies later on, it has been established that the electrical excitability of dendrites of different types of neurons, even different dendrites in the same neuron is different. For the apical dendrites of the cortical pyramidal neurons, neither a single nor a train of repetitive action potentials with constant frequency can reach its terminal portion. However, some of the burst repetitive responses with non-constant frequency of the apical dendrite elicited by direct current injected into the soma may reach the terminal portion. This may be due to: (1) the calcium ion concentration in the apical dendrite is increased by the burst activities, which, in turn, increases the electrical excitability of the apical dendrite and /or (2) some retrograde collaterals of axon of the activated soma reach the apical dendrite and release neurotransmitter glutamate, which changes the properties of the voltage-gated ion channels in the apical dendrite. Low electrical excitability of the apical dendrites seems to be essential for the processing of numerous income signals to the terminal portion of the apical dendrites.

  3. Micro-CT evaluation of apical delta morphologies in human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xianhua; Tay, Franklin R.; Gutmann, James L.; Fan, Wei; Xu, Ting; Fan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The apical delta is an intricate system within the root canal and incompletely debridement may affect the long-term prognosis of root canal therapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphologic features of apical deltas in human teeth with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) using a centreline-fitting algorithm. One hundred and thirty-six apical deltas were detected in 1400 teeth. Molars had more apical deltas (15.8%) than anterior teeth (6.3%). In maxillary molars, the mesiobuccal root had a significantly higher prevalence of apical delta than the palatal root or the distobuccal root. The median vertical distance of the apical delta was 1.87 mm with 13% more than 3 mm. The median diameter and length of the apical delta branches were 132.3 and 934.5 μm. Apical delta branches were not straight with cross-sectional shapes being non-circular. These morphological features of apical delta may complicate debridement of the infected root canal system. PMID:27819309

  4. MRCK-1 drives apical constriction in C. elegans by linking developmental patterning to force generation

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Daniel J.; Higgins, Christopher D.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Cupp, Timothy D.; Dickinson, Daniel J.; Pani, Ariel M.; Moore, Regan P.; Cox, Amanda H.; Kiehart, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Summary Apical constriction is a change in cell shape that drives key morphogenetic events including gastrulation and neural tube formation. Apical force-producing actomyosin networks drive apical constriction by contracting while connected to cell-cell junctions. The mechanisms by which developmental patterning regulates these actomyosin networks and associated junctions with spatial precision are not fully understood. Here, we identify a myosin light chain kinase MRCK-1 as a key regulator of C. elegans gastrulation that integrates spatial and developmental patterning information. We show that MRCK-1 is required for activation of contractile actomyosin dynamics and elevated cortical tension in the apical cell cortex of endodermal precursor cells. MRCK-1 is apically localized by active Cdc42 at the external, cell-cell contact-free surfaces of apically constricting cells, downstream of cell fate determination mechanisms. We establish that the junctional components α-catenin, β-catenin, and cadherin become highly enriched at the apical junctions of apically-constricting cells, and that MRCK-1 and myosin activity are required in vivo for this enrichment. Taken together, our results define mechanisms that position a myosin activator to a specific cell surface where it both locally increases cortical tension and locally enriches junctional components to facilitate apical constriction. These results reveal crucial links that can tie spatial information to local force generation to drive morphogenesis. PMID:27451898

  5. Conversion of proteins from a non-polarized to an apical secretory pattern in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Lotte K. . E-mail: vogel@imbg.ku.dk; Larsen, Jakob E.; Hansen, Martin; Truffer, Renato

    2005-05-13

    Previously it was shown that fusion proteins containing the amino terminus of an apical targeted member of the serpin family fused to the corresponding carboxyl terminus of the non-polarized secreted serpin, antithrombin, are secreted mainly to the apical side of MDCK cells. The present study shows that this is neither due to the transfer of an apical sorting signal from the apically expressed proteins, since a sequence of random amino acids acts the same, nor is it due to the deletion of a conserved signal for correct targeting from the non-polarized secreted protein. Our results suggest that the polarity of secretion is determined by conformational sensitive sorting signals.

  6. Evidence for apical secretion in the subcommissural organ of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Biosca, A; Azcoitia, I

    1989-01-01

    The apical surface and apical cytoplasm of the ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ (SCO) of the chicken, Gallus gallus were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of "secretory elements" formed by dilated and irregularly shaped RER cisternae in the proximity of the apical plasma membrane and located into ventricular protusions of apical cytoplasm, evidence an ependymal secretion towards the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is responsible of the Reissner's fibre (RF) by means of an apocrine mechanism. The observed ependymal lysosomal population has been related with an endocytotic mechanism from the ventricular CSF which could also suggest an absorptive role for the SCO.

  7. Definitions of apical vaginal support loss: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meister, Melanie R L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Lowder, Jerry L

    2017-03-01

    We sought to identify and summarize definitions of apical support loss utilized for inclusion, success, and failure in surgical trials for treatment of apical vaginal prolapse. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition affecting more than 3 million women in the US, and the prevalence is increasing. Prolapse may occur in the anterior compartment, posterior compartment or at the apex. Apical support is considered paramount to overall female pelvic organ support, yet apical support loss is often underrecognized and there are no guidelines for when an apical support procedure should be performed or incorporated into a procedure designed to address prolapse. A systematic literature search was performed in 8 search engines: PubMed 1946-, Embase 1947-, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Review Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, and FirstSearch Proceedings, using key words for apical pelvic organ prolapse and apical suspension procedures through April 2016. Searches were limited to human beings using human filters and articles published in English. Study authors (M.R.L.M., J.L.L.) independently reviewed publications for inclusion based on predefined variables. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they satisfied any of the following criteria: (1) apical support loss was an inclusion criterion in the original study, (2) apical support loss was a surgical indication, or (3) an apical support procedure was performed as part of the primary surgery. A total of 4469 publications were identified. After review, 35 articles were included in the analysis. Prolapse-related inclusion criteria were: (1) apical prolapse (n = 20, 57.1%); (2) overall prolapse (n = 8, 22.8%); or (3) both (n = 6, 17.1%). Definitions of apical prolapse (relative to the hymen) included: (1) apical prolapse >-1 cm (n = 13, 50.0%); (2) apical prolapse >+1 cm (n = 7, 26.9%); (3) apical

  8. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-08-01

    Coffee beverages are so popular all over the world that there is hardly any need to describe them. But underlying this seemingly commonplace beverage there is a whole realm worth serious scientific study. The complexity of the raw seed matrix, made even more intricate when roasted, requires a deep understanding of its chemical nature. While coffee is not consumed for nutritional purposes, it is appreciated for its taste appeal along with its stimulating effects on mental and physical activity. The attention to quality is of paramount importance to both of these aspects to supply the customers with a pleasant and wholesome product. The chemical approach to the sensory sphere has seen the development of increasingly sophisticated analytical methods where the parts per billion of volatile aromas are not the ultimate frontier of detection limits. In spite of the progress of instrumental techniques, the cup-testing approach still remains the final assessment tool to obtain the approval for choosing the right plant and for conveying the product to the market. This is even truer when espresso, the fashionable type of coffee brewing methods, is considered.

  9. The RoboCup Mixed Reality League - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerndt, Reinhard; Bohnen, Matthias; da Silva Guerra, Rodrigo; Asada, Minoru

    In typical mixed reality systems there is only a one-way interaction from real to virtual. A human user or the physics of a real object may influence the behavior of virtual objects, but real objects usually cannot be influenced by the virtual world. By introducing real robots into the mixed reality system, we allow a true two-way interaction between virtual and real worlds. Our system has been used since 2007 to implement the RoboCup mixed reality soccer games and other applications for research and edutainment. Our framework system is freely programmable to generate any virtual environment, which may then be further supplemented with virtual and real objects. The system allows for control of any real object based on differential drive robots. The robots may be adapted for different applications, e.g., with markers for identification or with covers to change shape and appearance. They may also be “equipped” with virtual tools. In this chapter we present the hardware and software architecture of our system and some applications. The authors believe this can be seen as a first implementation of Ivan Sutherland’s 1965 idea of the ultimate display: “The ultimate display would, of course, be a room within which the computer can control the existence of matter …” (Sutherland, 1965, Proceedings of IFIPS Congress 2:506-508).

  10. Orthopedic Effect of Chin Cup during Mixed Dentition Stage.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalifa, Hussein N; Hashem, Mohamed I; Alanazi, Khalid J; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-05-01

    Chin cup (CC) therapy has been used as the traditional appliance for treating class III malocclusion during mixed dentition period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CC on the improvement of skeletal and dentoalveo-lar skeletal changes in class III patients during mixed dentition stage. A total of 30 patients (7-9 years old) with skeletal class III malocclusion were selected based on clinical and cephalometric examination. Out of 30 patients, 20 underwent CC therapy. All orthodontic records and measurements were taken before and after treatment. Similar records were collected from the control group. The lateral cephalometric films were traced before and after treatment and analyzed. There was a significant improvement in maxillary and the mandibular skeletal measurements after CC therapy. Improvement of ANB angle and an increase in Wits appraisal have been detected in the treated group according to intermaxillary skeletal variables. The study concluded that the CC therapy is effective for correcting skeletal class III malocclusion along with positive changes in the dentoskeletal variables during the mixed dentition stage.

  11. [Structured diagnostics and therapy of the CUP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Löffler, H; Neben, K; Krämer, A

    2014-02-01

    In the majority of cases, patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) have a poor prognosis with no prospect of being cured. Hence, a reasonable focus of diagnostics on its essential targets seems appropriate. Particularly important is the identification of all patients who can be assigned to subgroups with a favorable prognosis and who might benefit from a specific therapy. For all other patients, platinum-based combination therapy is the standard cytostatic therapy. In addition to platinum derivatives, taxanes, gemcitabine and irinotecan can also be used. Promising innovative approaches include targeted therapies, in particular bevacizumab and erlotinib, and identification of the tissue origin with micro-RNA or gene expression analyses which can help identify the most suitable organ-specific therapy for individual patients. It would be desirable if the group of patients treated with unspecific therapy could be reduced by improved diagnostics so that these patients could be treated with organ-specific therapy or with molecularly targeted approaches. Micro-RNA and gene expression analyses appear to be interesting for this purpose. Another complementary approach is to improve the treatment results of patients receiving an unspecific standard combination therapy by additional administration of new targeted substances.

  12. Self-organizing actin waves that simulate phagocytic cup structures.

    PubMed

    Gerisch, Günther

    2010-03-18

    This report deals with actin waves that are spontaneously generated on the planar, substrate-attached surface of Dictyostelium cells. These waves have the following characteristics. (1) They are circular structures of varying shape, capable of changing the direction of propagation. (2) The waves propagate by treadmilling with a recovery of actin incorporation after photobleaching of less than 10 seconds. (3) The waves are associated with actin-binding proteins in an ordered 3-dimensional organization: with myosin-IB at the front and close to the membrane, the Arp2/3 complex throughout the wave, and coronin at the cytoplasmic face and back of the wave. Coronin is a marker of disassembling actin structures. (4) The waves separate two areas of the cell cortex that differ in actin structure and phosphoinositide composition of the membrane. The waves arise at the border of membrane areas rich in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate (PIP3). The inhibition of PIP3 synthesis reversibly inhibits wave formation. (5) The actin wave and PIP3 patterns resemble 2-dimensional projections of phagocytic cups, suggesting that they are involved in the scanning of surfaces for particles to be taken up.PACS Codes: 87.16.Ln, 87.19.lp, 89.75.Fb.

  13. Enhanced modified faraday cup for determination of power density distribution of electron beams

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2001-01-01

    An improved tomographic technique for determining the power distribution of an electron or ion beam using electron beam profile data acquired by an enhanced modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power ion or electron beams. A refractory metal disk with a number of radially extending slits, one slit being about twice the width of the other slits, is placed above a Faraday cup. The electron or ion beam is swept in a circular pattern so that its path crosses each slit in a perpendicular manner, thus acquiring all the data needed for a reconstruction in one circular sweep. The enlarged slit enables orientation of the beam profile with respect to the coordinates of the welding chamber. A second disk having slits therein is positioned below the first slit disk and inside of the Faraday cup and provides a shield to eliminate the majority of secondary electrons and ions from leaving the Faraday cup. Also, a ring is located below the second slit disk to help minimize the amount of secondary electrons and ions from being produced. In addition, a beam trap is located in the Faraday cup to provide even more containment of the electron or ion beam when full beam current is being examined through the center hole of the modified Faraday cup.

  14. Cup positioning in total hip arthoplasty: spatial alignment of the acetabular entry plane.

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, David; Radetzki, Florian; Noser, Hansrudi; Mendel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Correct cup positioning is one of the keys for successful total hip replacement. There are mechanical and computer assistant guides for correct cup positioning in the market. To optimize the cup positioning, the use of navigation systems is recommended. The aim of this study was to compare spatial orientation of the acetabulary entry plane in relation to tables plane which is used by mechanical guides as well as anterior pelvic plane used for cup orientation by navigation systems. CT raw data of 80 Caucasians (160 acetabuli) (done in supine position) with osteoartritic hips were collected. 3-D pelvic reconstruction was generated using Amira software (Visage Imaging Berlin, Germany). Anterior pelvic plane and acetabulary entry plane were defined by reliable anatomical landmarks. Spatial orientation were calculated by a custom made program code for the Amira software. There were no differences between anterior pelvic plane and table's plane as well as spatial orientation of acetabulary entry plane of both acetabuli in relation to anterior pelvic plane or table's plane. Furthermore, there was no correlation between age, sex or body mass index and spatial orientation of the acetabulary entry plane as well. The use of mechanical alignment guides for cup orientation during total hip arthroplasty based on table's plane in patient's supine position is a successful method to achieve proper cup orientation.

  15. dlx and sp6-9 Control Optic Cup Regeneration in a Prototypic Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lapan, Sylvain W.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation and regeneration. We identified two genes encoding transcription factors, sp6-9 and dlx, that were expressed in the eye specifically in the optic cup and not the photoreceptor neurons. RNAi of these genes prevented formation of visible optic cups during regeneration. Planarian regeneration requires an adult proliferative cell population with stem cell-like properties called the neoblasts. We found that optic cup formation occurred only after migration of progressively differentiating progenitor cells from the neoblast population. The eye regeneration defect caused by dlx and sp6-9 RNAi can be explained by a failure to generate these early optic cup progenitors. Dlx and Sp6-9 genes function as a module during the development of diverse animal appendages, including vertebrate and insect limbs. Our work reveals a novel function for this gene pair in the development of a fundamental eye component, and it utilizes these genes to demonstrate a mechanism for total organ regeneration in which extensive cell movement separates new cell specification from organ morphogenesis. PMID:21852957

  16. Vertical cup-to-disc ratio measurement for diagnosis of glaucoma on fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Noudo, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Sawada, Akira; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of permanent blindness. Retinal fundus image examination is useful for early detection of glaucoma. In order to evaluate the presence of glaucoma, the ophthalmologists determine the cup and disc areas and they diagnose glaucoma using a vertical cup-to-disc ratio. However, determination of the cup area is very difficult, thus we propose a method to measure the cup-to-disc ratio using a vertical profile on the optic disc. First, the blood vessels were erased from the image and then the edge of optic disc was then detected by use of a canny edge detection filter. Twenty profiles were then obtained around the center of the optic disc in the vertical direction on blue channel of the color image, and the profile was smoothed by averaging these profiles. After that, the edge of the cup area on the vertical profile was determined by thresholding technique. Lastly, the vertical cup-to-disc ratio was calculated. Using seventy nine images, including twenty five glaucoma images, the sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 85% were achieved with this method. These results indicated that this method can be useful for the analysis of the optic disc in glaucoma examinations.

  17. Coming into focus: the role of extracellular matrix in vertebrate optic cup morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Kristen M

    2014-10-01

    The vertebrate eye acquires its basic form during the process of optic cup morphogenesis, during which the optic vesicle emerges from the brain neuroepithelium and, through a series of cell and tissue movements, transforms itself into the multilayered optic cup, containing neural retina (comprised of retinal progenitors), retinal pigmented epithelium, and the lens, which is derived from the overlying ectoderm. While great strides have been made to understand the developmental signals controlling specification, patterning, and differentiation of the optic cup, only in recent years have the cellular and molecular bases of optic cup morphogenesis begun to be unraveled. One critical component of the morphogenetic process is the extracellular matrix: the complex, glycoprotein-rich layer that surrounds the optic vesicle and lens. Though the extracellular matrix has long been visualized by classical histological techniques and postulated to play various roles in optic cup development, its functional role was uncertain. This is now beginning to change, as live imaging techniques, quantitative image analyses, molecular genetics and in vitro models yield new insights into the process of optic cup morphogenesis and the specific influences of particular extracellular matrix components and their associated signaling pathways.

  18. dlx and sp6-9 Control optic cup regeneration in a prototypic eye.

    PubMed

    Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation and regeneration. We identified two genes encoding transcription factors, sp6-9 and dlx, that were expressed in the eye specifically in the optic cup and not the photoreceptor neurons. RNAi of these genes prevented formation of visible optic cups during regeneration. Planarian regeneration requires an adult proliferative cell population with stem cell-like properties called the neoblasts. We found that optic cup formation occurred only after migration of progressively differentiating progenitor cells from the neoblast population. The eye regeneration defect caused by dlx and sp6-9 RNAi can be explained by a failure to generate these early optic cup progenitors. Dlx and Sp6-9 genes function as a module during the development of diverse animal appendages, including vertebrate and insect limbs. Our work reveals a novel function for this gene pair in the development of a fundamental eye component, and it utilizes these genes to demonstrate a mechanism for total organ regeneration in which extensive cell movement separates new cell specification from organ morphogenesis.

  19. A mathematical method for precisely calculating the radiographic angles of the cup after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Xin; Su, Xiu-Yun; Xiao, Ruo-Xiu; Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Li-Hai; Zhang, Li-Cheng; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2016-11-01

    We established a mathematical method to precisely calculate the radiographic anteversion (RA) and radiographic inclination (RI) angles of the acetabular cup based on anterior-posterior (AP) pelvic radiographs after total hip arthroplasty. Using Mathematica software, a mathematical model for an oblique cone was established to simulate how AP pelvic radiographs are obtained and to address the relationship between the two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry of the opening circle of the cup. In this model, the vertex was the X-ray beam source, and the generatrix was the ellipse in radiographs projected from the opening circle of the acetabular cup. Using this model, we established a series of mathematical formulas to reveal the differences between the true RA and RI cup angles and the measurements results achieved using traditional methods and AP pelvic radiographs and to precisely calculate the RA and RI cup angles based on post-operative AP pelvic radiographs. Statistical analysis indicated that traditional methods should be used with caution if traditional measurements methods are used to calculate the RA and RI cup angles with AP pelvic radiograph. The entire calculation process could be performed by an orthopedic surgeon with mathematical knowledge of basic matrix and vector equations. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of elevated die temperature on deformation of deep drawn round metal cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basril, M. A. M.; Hafsyam, Y. M.; Azuddin, M.; Choudhury, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    One of the major considerations in the current deep drawing practice is the product quality. In this research, the effect of heating temperature on the drawability of the round metal cup has been investigated. Firstly, round metal cups of aluminium and mild steel were drawn from the blank diameters of 60 mm, 65 mm and 70 mm. The experiment conducted at room temperature first, then at 50°C and 100°C. The elongation of the major and minor strains along the cup profile after the process is measured and analysed. On the other hand, the defects from the experiment output and ABAQUS/CAE simulation are compared. The result from experiment shows that the highest major elongation is 11.64 mm and it is happened to a deep drawn aluminium round cup with LDR of 1.69 at temperature of 100°C. On the other hand, for deep drawn mild steel round cup, shows highest major elongation of 12.44 mm for a cup with LDR of 1.56 at 100°C. Both of these statements indicates that the higher temperature could improve the formability of the deep drawn parts besides reducing the probability of the defect to be happened.

  1. TNSA Heavy Ion Measurements using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnane, M. K.; Kousar, B.; Slish, J.; Palmisano, K.; Mandanas, S.; Padalino, S. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Regan, S.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    The MTW Laser at LLE utilizes an ultra-intense laser to produce high-energy heavy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). Using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) the total number of heavy ions produced by TNSA can be determined, which is needed for stellar nuclear reaction cross section measurements. TNSA heavy ions stop within the thin walled front cup, while light ions pass through it and deposit their remaining charge in the back cup. A two channel storage scope measures voltages produced by the beam currents collected in the cups, respectively. The charge state fraction of plasma ions is modified by passing the heavy ions through a charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance. While passing through the foil, ions equilibrate to known charge states based on their velocities. Using time of flight, the total heavy ion current can be normalized to the correct charge state fraction. A pair of dipole magnets deflect relativistic TNSA electrons from the cup's entrance. They also prevent secondary electrons from escaping the front and back cups. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  2. [Development of the ceramic sandwich cup used for the hip joint prosthesis.].

    PubMed

    Konvicková, S; Cech, O

    1995-01-01

    The abrasion of the polyethylene seems to be the most important factor participating on the endoprosthesis loosening. From this reason, the ceramics (AI2O3) was introduced for the both parts of the prosthesis, i. e. the head and the cup. It appears that the friction resistance is an important factor for the comparison of the hitherto applied endoprosthesis designs with the new developed type. The frictional resistance in the hip joint total prosthesis was measured by means of a testing device which allowed a swinging motion of the ceramic ball in the tested cup in the range of +/-25 degrees . This measurement was carried out at the loading levels being 0; 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 N. For the comparison of the frictional resistance of single measured couples "cup-head", the energy consumed was ascertained which was necessary for including a swinging motion over the time interval of 35 sec. Ceramic cups manufactured by a. s. DIAS Turnov were used for the measurement. Altogether eight couples "ceramics-ceramics" having the diameter differences ranging from 0,022 mm to 0,137 mm and one friction couple "polyethylene cup-ceramics ball" were measured. The research of influence of different lubricants was also done. Key words: sandwich cup, total prosthesis, ceramics--ceramics, bioceramics, frictional resistance.

  3. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Burman, Ritambhar; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio) is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed. PMID:26688751

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy study of the oxidation of Hylamer UHMWPE explanted acetabular cups sterilized differently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, Matteo; Tinti, Anna; Visentin, Manuela; Stea, Susanna; Erani, Paolo; Fagnano, Concezio

    2007-05-01

    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been used for over 40 years for acetabular cups in total hip joint prosthesis. Hylamer is a hot isostatically pressed material with high crystallinity. Early loosening due to extensive oxidation and phase transformation has been observed for this material. To analyze the reasons for its high tendency to oxidize, we have examined by FT-IR spectroscopy explanted acetabular cups γ-sterilized in different ways. The oxidation and wear rate observed were: Hylamer cups γ-sterilized in air with a long shelf life > Hylamer cups γ-sterilized in air with short shelf life ⩾ Hylamer cups γ-sterilized in nitrogen. Our data indicate the important role of the shelf life on the oxidation of the cups: the samples γ-sterilized in air characterized by a shelf life greater than 3 years showed severe oxidation, a high wear rate, and marked debris production with delamination and the formation of a brittle zone in the more oxidated regions. In these regions we observed an increase in crystallinity, which was probably due to the decrease in the molecular weight of PE. The high oxidation was probably due to the modifications induced by the material treatment.

  5. Influenza Virus Assembly and Budding

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global heath burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multistep process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses. PMID:21237476

  6. Myocardial edema in Takotsubo syndrome mimicking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: An insight into diagnosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Izgi, Cemil; Ray, Sanjoy; Nyktari, Evangelia; Alpendurada, Francisco; Lyon, Alexander R; Rathore, Sudhir; Baksi, Arun John

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial edema is one of the characteristic features in the pathogenesis of Takotsubo syndrome. We report a middle aged man who presented with typical clinical and echocardiographic features of apical variant of Takotsubo syndrome. However, a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study performed 10 days after presentation did not show any apical 'ballooning' but revealed features of an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on cine images. Tissue characterization with T2 weighted images proved severe edema as the cause of significantly increased apical wall thickness. A follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance study was performed 5 months later which showed that edema, wall thickening and the appearance of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy all resolved, confirming Takotsubo syndrome as the cause of the initial appearance. As the affected myocardium most commonly involves the apical segments, an edema induced increase in apical wall thickness may lead to appearances of an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy rather than apical ballooning in the acute to subacute phase of Takotsubo syndrome.

  7. Aluminum Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (I. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices).

    PubMed Central

    Delhaize, E.; Craig, S.; Beaton, C. D.; Bennet, R. J.; Jagadish, V. C.; Randall, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in Al tolerance at a single locus (Alt1: aluminum tolerance). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution that contained 100 [mu]M Al, and the roots were subsequently stained with hematoxylin, a compound that binds Al in vitro to form a colored complex. Root apices of Al-sensitive genotypes stained after short exposures to Al (10 min and 1 h), whereas apices of Al-tolerant seedlings showed less intense staining after equivalent exposures. Differential staining preceded differences observed in either root elongation or total Al concentrations of root apices (terminal 2-3 mm of root). After 4 h of exposure to 100 [mu]M Al in nutrient solution, Al-sensitive genotypes accumulated more total Al in root apices than Al-tolerant genotypes, and the differences became more marked with time. Analysis of freeze-dried root apices by x-ray microanalysis showed that Al entered root apices of Al-sensitive plants and accumulated in the epidermal layer and in the cortical layer immediately below the epidermis. Long-term exposure of sensitive apices to Al (24 h) resulted in a distribution of Al coinciding with the absence of K. Quantitation of Al in the cortical layer showed that sensitive apices accumulated 5- to 10-fold more Al than tolerant apices exposed to Al solutions for equivalent times. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Alt1 encodes a mechanism that excludes Al from root apices. PMID:12231972

  8. Influence of Different Apical Preparations on Root Canal Cleanliness in Human Molars: a SEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Nicola M.; Tocci, Luigi; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To compare the influence of type and dimensions of the apical preparation on the cleanliness of the apical area in molars. Material and Methods A total of 120 root canals (MB and DB root canals from 30 maxillary molars and mesial root canals from 30 mandibular molars) were instrumented with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments to a size 25/0.06 taper and were equally divided into three different experimental groups depending on the subsequently apical root canal preparation: Group 1: no further apical preparation, Group 2: apical preparation with Mtwo files to a size 40/0.04 taper, Group 3: apical preparation with Mtwo Apical Files. All root canals were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Presence of superficial debris and smear layer was evaluated using a score system. Data were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests with a level of significance set at P < 0.05. Results Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no differences among groups in the middle and coronal third (P > 0.05), while at the apical level, there was a significant difference for both residual debris and presence of smear layer between Group 1 and both Group 2 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.014) and 3 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.021), while no difference was present between Group 2 and Group 3 (P = 0.871 and P = 0.923). Conclusions Cleanliness of the apical third in terms of debris and smear layer was statistically better when an apical preparation was performed to a size 40/0.04 taper or with the use of the Mtwo Apical Files. PMID:25089176

  9. Influence of Different Apical Preparations on Root Canal Cleanliness in Human Molars: a SEM Study.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Tocci, Luigi; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-04-01

    To compare the influence of type and dimensions of the apical preparation on the cleanliness of the apical area in molars. A total of 120 root canals (MB and DB root canals from 30 maxillary molars and mesial root canals from 30 mandibular molars) were instrumented with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments to a size 25/0.06 taper and were equally divided into three different experimental groups depending on the subsequently apical root canal preparation: Group 1: no further apical preparation, Group 2: apical preparation with Mtwo files to a size 40/0.04 taper, Group 3: apical preparation with Mtwo Apical Files. All root canals were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Presence of superficial debris and smear layer was evaluated using a score system. Data were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests with a level of significance set at P < 0.05. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no differences among groups in the middle and coronal third (P > 0.05), while at the apical level, there was a significant difference for both residual debris and presence of smear layer between Group 1 and both Group 2 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.014) and 3 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.021), while no difference was present between Group 2 and Group 3 (P = 0.871 and P = 0.923). Cleanliness of the apical third in terms of debris and smear layer was statistically better when an apical preparation was performed to a size 40/0.04 taper or with the use of the Mtwo Apical Files.

  10. Growth and development of the root apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Serena; Di Mambro, Riccardo; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2012-02-01

    A key question in plant developmental biology is how cell division and cell differentiation are balanced to modulate organ growth and shape organ size. In recent years, several advances have been made in understanding how this balance is achieved during root development. In the Arabidopsis root meristem, stem cells in the apical region of the meristem self-renew and produce daughter cells that differentiate in the distal meristem transition zone. Several factors have been implicated in controlling the different functional zones of the root meristem to modulate root growth; among these, plant hormones have been shown to play a main role. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of hormone signaling and transcriptional networks in regulating root development.

  11. [Dissertations 25 years after date 33. Developments in apical surgery].

    PubMed

    van Welsenes, W

    2012-05-01

    Twenty five years ago patients with unsuccessful root canal treatments and complaints about pain were generally referred directly to an oral surgeon for apical surgery. Since then, much has changed in the treatment of these difficult or failed endodontic treatments. First, from 1996 it became financially attractive for the general practitioner to carry out root canal treatments because remuneration for them was more in keeping with their worth after the national health system disappeared in the Netherlands (in 1996). A second important development was the appearance of the dentist-endodontologist as a distinct oral healthcare professional who, due to his greater knowledge and improved technology is able to carry out corrective treatment on unsuccessful root canal treatments in a non-surgical way with a good chance of healing.

  12. Pulsatile dry cupping in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee – a randomized controlled exploratory trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cupping is used in various traditional medicine forms to relieve pain in musculoskeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cupping in relieving the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In a two-group, randomized controlled exploratory pilot study patients with a clinically and radiological confirmed knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale: 2-4) and a pain intensity > 40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) were included. 40 Patients were randomized to either 8 sessions of pulsatile dry cupping within 4 weeks or no intervention (control). Paracetamol was allowed on demand for both groups. Outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score, the pain intensity on a VAS (0 mm = no pain to 100 mm = maximum intensity) and Quality of Life (SF-36) 4 and 12 weeks after randomization. Use of Paracetamol was documented within the 4-week treatment period. Analyses were performed by analysis of covariance adjusting for the baseline value for each outcome. Results 21 patients were allocated to the cupping group (5 male; mean age 68 ± SD 7.2) and 19 to the control group (8 male; 69 ± 6.8). After 4 weeks the WOMAC global score improved significantly more in the cupping group with a mean of 27.7 (95% confidence interval 22.1; 33.3) compared to 42.2 (36.3; 48.1) in the control group (p = 0.001). After 12 weeks the WOMAC global score were still significantly different in favor for cupping (31.0 (24.9; 37.2) vs. 40.8 (34.4; 47.3) p = 0.032), however the WOMAC subscores for pain and stiffness were not significant anymore. Significantly better outcomes in the cupping group were also observed for pain intensity on VAS and for the SF-36 Physical Component Scale compared to the control group after 4 and 12 weeks. No significant difference was observed for the SF-36 Mental Component Scale and the total number of consumed Paracetamol tablets

  13. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  14. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, J.D.

    1984-03-30

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  15. Shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  16. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  17. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  18. To determine whether the first file to bind at the working length corresponds to the apical diameter in roots with apical curvatures both before and after preflaring

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Jaidev Singh; Amita; Gill, Bobbin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the discrepancies between the diameter of the canal and the first file to bind at the working length, before and after preflaring in teeth with apical curvatures. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth with apical curvatures were selected for the study. Following access, the patency file was fixed at the working length, and the apices were ground perpendicular to the canal at this level. Diameters of canal and the first file to bind at the working length were observed for each tooth, both before and after preflaring, under stereomicroscope at 30X magnification. Results: ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests showed significant differences in both groups regarding anatomical diameter at working length and the first file to bind. The area of contact of the file at apical region remained the same in both groups. Conclusion: Using the first file to bind for gauging the diameter of the apical canal was found to be an unreliable method in teeth with apical curvatures, even after preflaring. PMID:23112485

  19. Nectin-2 and N-cadherin interact through extracellular domains and induce apical accumulation of F-actin in apical constriction of Xenopus neural tube morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hitoshi; Nandadasa, Sumeda; Yamamoto, Takamasa S; Terasaka-Iioka, Chie; Wylie, Christopher; Ueno, Naoto

    2010-04-01

    Neural tube formation is one of the most dynamic morphogenetic processes of vertebrate development. However, the molecules regulating its initiation are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that nectin-2, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, is involved in the neurulation of Xenopus embryos in cooperation with N-cadherin. First, we found that, at the beginning of neurulation, nectin-2 was strongly expressed in the superficial cells of neuroepithelium. The knockdown of nectin-2 impaired neural fold formation by attenuating F-actin accumulation and apical constriction, a cell-shape change that is required for neural tube folding. Conversely, the overexpression of nectin-2 in non-neural ectoderm induced ectopic apical constrictions with accumulated F-actin. However, experiments with domain-deleted nectin-2 revealed that the intracellular afadin-binding motif, which links nectin-2 and F-actin, was not required for the generation of the ectopic apical constriction. Furthermore, we found that nectin-2 physically interacts with N-cadherin through extracellular domains, and they cooperatively enhanced apical constriction by driving the accumulation of F-actin at the apical cell surface. Interestingly, the accumulation of N-cadherin at the apical surface of neuroepithelium was dependent on the presence of nectin-2, but that of nectin-2 was not affected by depletion of N-cadherin. We propose a novel mechanism of neural tube morphogenesis regulated by the two types of cell adhesion molecules.

  20. Does apical negative pressure prevent the apical extrusion of debris and irrigant compared with conventional irrigation? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Priscilla Coutinho; de Oliveira, Katharina Morant Holanda; Nemezio, Mariana Alencar; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra

    2017-02-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if apical negative pressure (ANP) irrigation prevents the apical extrusion of debris and irrigant compared with conventional needle irrigation through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A computer search of dental literature was performed using four different databases. A combination of the terms 'apical negative pressure', 'endovac', 'apical extrusion', 'extrusion' and 'endodontics' was used. Studies that used extracted human teeth with a mature apex and that evaluated the apical extrusion of debris and/or irrigating solution were included. After an evaluation of the full studies according to the eligibility criteria, eight studies were critically analysed and subjected to quality assessment and risk of bias. Only four studies that evaluated extrusion of irrigant were considered as having high methodological quality and were subjected to a meta-analysis. Studies evaluating extrusion of debris did not have sufficient methodological quality to be subjected to the meta-analysis. The forest plot indicated that ANP irrigation prevents the risk of irrigant extrusion compared with conventional irrigation (OR 0.07 [95%CI 0.02-0.20]; P < 0.00001). This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that ANP prevents the apical extrusion of irrigant. There is no evidence if this type of irrigation prevents the extrusion of debris.

  1. Significant and sustaining elevation of blood oxygen induced by Chinese cupping therapy as assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Li, Yaoxian; Lin, Yu; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Cupping therapy has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years to relieve muscle pain/tendency/fatigue and to cure or reduce symbols of other diseases. However, its therapeutic effect is sparsely interpreted in the language of modern physiology. To objectively evaluate its therapeutic effect, we focused on dry cupping treatment and utilized near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess the concentration change in oxy-hemoglobin ([HbO2]), deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]), and blood volume in the course of cupping therapy over 13 volunteers on the infraspinatus muscle, where is usually applied for shoulder pains. Both a prominent drop in [Hb] and a significant elevation in [HbO2] in the tissue surrounding the cupping site were observed during both cupping and post-treatment, manifesting the enhancement of oxygen uptake. This resulting promotion indicates potential positive therapeutic effect of cupping therapy in hemodynamics for facilitating muscular functions. PMID:28101413

  2. Arabidopsis FIM5 decorates apical actin filaments and regulates their organization in the pollen tube

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ruihui; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is increasingly recognized as a major regulator of pollen tube growth. Actin filaments have distinct distribution patterns and dynamic properties within different regions of the pollen tube. Apical actin filaments are highly dynamic and crucial for pollen tube growth. However, how apical actin filaments are generated and properly constructed remains an open question. Here we showed that Arabidopsis fimbrin5 (FIM5) decorates filamentous structures throughout the entire tube but is apically concentrated. Apical actin structures are disorganized to different degrees in the pollen tubes of fim5 loss-of-function mutants. Further observations suggest that apical actin structures are not constructed properly because apical actin filaments cannot be maintained at the cortex of fim5 pollen tubes. Actin filaments appeared to be more curved in fim5 pollen tubes and this was confirmed by measurements showing that the convolutedness and the rate of change of convolutedness of actin filaments was significantly increased in fim5 pollen tubes. This suggests that the rigidity of the actin filaments may be compromised in fim5 pollen tubes. Further, the apical cell wall composition is altered, implying that tip-directed vesicle trafficking events are impaired in fim5 pollen tubes. Thus, we found that FIM5 decorates apical actin filaments and regulates their organization in order to drive polarized pollen tube growth. PMID:27117336

  3. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  4. Determination of working length for teeth with wide or immature apices: a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J A; Chandler, N P

    2013-06-01

    Practitioners face several challenges during the root canal treatment of teeth with wide or immature apices, one of which is working length determination. There is relatively little data regarding the value of radiography and electronic apex locator (EAL) use when root formation is incomplete, and supplementary measurement techniques may be helpful. This review considers length determination for canals with wide or completely open apices in permanent and primary teeth. The Ovid Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched individually and in combinations to August 2012 using the subject headings 'working length determination' and 'open apex' and revealed only one article. Further headings, 'tooth apex', 'apical constriction', 'resorption', 'foramen size', 'mature root apex', 'immature root apex', 'working length determination', 'apexification', 'open apices', 'open apex', 'open apical foramina', 'canal length determination', 'immature teeth', 'apical diameters', 'electronic apex locators', 'primary teeth', 'treatment outcome' and 'clinical outcome' were entered. Potentially useful articles were chosen for a manual search of bibliography as well as a forward search of citations. Other investigations revealed case reports and some research related to open apices and laboratory studies evaluating EALs, radiography and tactile methods. Some involved permanent teeth of various apical diameters and primary teeth with and without resorption. There is a need to define the term 'open apex'. Clinicians should be aware of the benefits and limitations of all canal measuring techniques involved in managing this problem.

  5. Apical bud toughness tests and tree sway movements to examine crown abrasion: preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Tyler Brannon; Wayne Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Apical bud toughness differences were examined for several species to determine if crown abrasion affects shoot growth of determinate and indeterminate species during stand development. Determinate buds will set and harden after initial shoot elongation in the spring, while the indeterminate shoots form leaves from the apical meristem continuously based on the...

  6. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae breaches the apical junction of polarized epithelial cells for transmigration by activating EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Vonetta L.; Wang, Liang-Chun; Dawson, Valerie; Stein, Daniel C.; Song, Wenxia

    2017-01-01

    Summary Neisseria gonorrhoeae initiates infection at the apical surface of columnar endocervical epithelial cells in the female reproductive tract. These cells provide a physical barrier against pathogens by forming continuous apical junctional complexes between neighbouring cells. This study examines the interaction of gonococci (GC) with polarized epithelial cells. We show that viable GC preferentially localize at the apical side of the cell–cell junction in polarized endometrial and colonic epithelial cells, HEC-1-B and T84. In GC-infected cells, continuous apical junctional complexes are disrupted, and the junction-associated protein β-catenin is redistributed from the apical junction to the cytoplasm and to GC adherent sites; however, overall cellular levels remain unchanged. This redistribution of junctional proteins is associated with a decrease in the ‘fence’ function of the apical junction but not its ‘gate’ function. Disruption of the apical junction by removing calcium increases GC transmigration across the epithelial monolayer. GC inoculation induces the phosphorylation of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β-catenin, while inhibition of EGFR kinase activity significantly reduces both GC-induced β-catenin redistribution and GC transmigration. Therefore, the gonococcus is capable of weakening the apical junction and polarity of epithelial cells by activating EGFR, which facilitates GC transmigration across the epithelium. PMID:23279089

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae breaches the apical junction of polarized epithelial cells for transmigration by activating EGFR.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Vonetta L; Wang, Liang-Chun; Dawson, Valerie; Stein, Daniel C; Song, Wenxia

    2013-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae initiates infection at the apical surface of columnar endocervical epithelial cells in the female reproductive tract. These cells provide a physical barrier against pathogens by forming continuous apical junctional complexes between neighbouring cells. This study examines the interaction of gonococci (GC) with polarized epithelial cells. We show that viable GC preferentially localize at the apical side of the cell-cell junction in polarized endometrial and colonic epithelial cells, HEC-1-B and T84. In GC-infected cells, continuous apical junctional complexes are disrupted, and the junction-associated protein β-catenin is redistributed from the apical junction to the cytoplasm and to GC adherent sites; however, overall cellular levels remain unchanged. This redistribution of junctional proteins is associated with a decrease in the 'fence' function of the apical junction but not its 'gate' function. Disruption of the apical junction by removing calcium increases GC transmigration across the epithelial monolayer. GC inoculation induces the phosphorylation of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β-catenin, while inhibition of EGFR kinase activity significantly reduces both GC-induced β-catenin redistribution and GC transmigration. Therefore, the gonococcus is capable of weakening the apical junction and polarity of epithelial cells by activating EGFR, which facilitates GC transmigration across the epithelium.

  9. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  10. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Wet cupping therapy for treatment of herpes zoster: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huijuan; Zhu, Chenjun; Liu, Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Wet cupping is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy commonly used in treating herpes zoster in China, and clinical studies have shown that wet cupping may have beneficial effect on herpes zoster compared with Western medication. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on wet cupping for herpes zoster. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2008), China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Fulltext Database VIP, and Wan Fang Database. All searches ended in February 2009. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trials' quality independently. RevMan 5.0.18 software (The Cochrane Collaboration, The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark) was used for data analysis with effect estimate presented as relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Eight RCTs involving 651 patients were included, and the methodological quality of trials was generally fair in terms of randomization, blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. Meta-analyses showed wet cupping was superior to medication in the number of cured patients (RR 2.49, 95% CI 1.91 to 3.24, P < .00001), the number of patients with improved symptoms (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.26, P = .003), and reducing the incidence rate of postherpetic neuralgia (RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.25, P = .0001). Wet cupping plus medication was significantly better than medication alone on number of cured patients (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.04, P = .005) but demonstrated no difference in symptom improvement (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.08, P = .98). There were no serious adverse effects related to wet cupping therapy in the included trials. Wet cupping appears to be effective in the treatment of herpes zoster. However, further large, rigorously designed

  12. Wet cupping therapy for treatment of herpes zoster: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Zhu, Chenjun; Liu, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Background Wet cupping is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy commonly used in treating herpes zoster in China, and clinical studies have shown that wet cupping may have beneficial effect on herpes zoster compared with western medication. Methods We included randomized controlled trials on wet cupping for herpes zoster. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2008), China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wan Fang Database. All searches ended in February 2009. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trials quality independently. RevMan 5.0.18 software was used for data analysis with effect estimate presented as relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results 8 RCTs involving 651 patients were included, and the methodological quality of trials was generally fair in terms of randomization, blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Meta-analyses showed wet cupping was superior to medications regarding the number of cured patients (RR 2.49, 95%CI 1.91 to 3.24, p<0.00001), the number of patients with improved symptoms (RR 1.15, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.26, p=0.003), and reducing the incidence rate of postherpetic neuralgia (RR 0.06, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.25, p=0.0001). Wet cupping plus medications was significantly better than medications alone on number of cured patients (RR 1.93, 95%CI 1.23 to 3.04, p=0.005), but no difference in symptom improvement (RR 1.00, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.08, p=0.98). There were no serious adverse effects with related to wet cupping therapy in the included trials. Conclusions Wet cupping appears to be effective in treatment of herpes zoster. However, further large, rigorous designed trials are warranted. PMID:21280462

  13. Early proximal migration of cups is associated with late revision in THA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The association between excessive early migration of acetabular cups and late aseptic revision has been scantily reported. We therefore performed 2 parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of acetabular cups and late aseptic revision. Methods One review covered early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were classified according the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and the Australian National Joint Replacement Registry: < 5% revision at 10 years. Results Following an elaborate literature search, 26 studies (involving 700 cups) were included in the RSA review and 49 studies (involving 38,013 cups) were included in the survival review. For every mm increase in 2-year proximal migration, there was a 10% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, proximal migration of up to 0.2 mm was considered acceptable and proximal migration of 1.0 mm or more was considered unacceptable. Cups with proximal migration of between 0.2 and 1.0 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years. Interpretation There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of acetabular cups and late revision due to loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased evidence-based introduction, since they allow early detection of high-risk cups while exposing a small number of patients. PMID:23126575

  14. Relative merits of polystyrene foam and paper in hot drink cups: Implications for packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1991-11-01

    An analysis of the overall relative merits of the use of uncoated paper vs molded polystyrene bead foam in single-use 8-oz cups is described here as a manageable example of the use of paper vs plastics in packaging. In raw material requirements the paper cup required about 2.5 times its finished weight of raw wood and about the same hydrocarbon fueling requirement as is needed for the polystyrene foam cup. To process the raw materials about six times as much steam, 13 times as much electric power, and twice as much cooling water are consumed to produce the paper cup as compared to the polystyrene foam cup. Emission rates to air are similar and to water are generally higher for the paper cup. Virtually all primary use factors favor polystyrene foam over paper. Once used both cup types may be recycled. Landfill disposal of the two items under dry conditions will occupy similar landfill volumes after compaction and will confer similarly slow to nonexistent decomposition to either option. Under wet conditions polystyrene foam will not readily degrade, but may help other materials to do so. Paper under wet conditions will biodegrade to produce methane, a significant greenhouse gas, biochemical oxygen demand to any leachate, and instability to the land surface during the process. Both materials can be incinerated cleanly in a municipal waste stream with the option of energy recovery, to yield an ash volume of 2% 5% of the incoming waste volume. Overall this analysis would suggest that polystyrene foam, with an extension to plastics in general, should be given more evenhanded consideration relative to paper in packaging applications than is currently the case.

  15. Preclinical, Clinical, and Over-the-Counter Postmarketing Experience with a New Vaginal Cup: Menstrual Collection

    PubMed Central

    North, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Menstrual cups have been available for decades, but their use is limited by bulky design and the need for multiple sizes. The Softcup® (Instead, Inc., San Diego, CA) is a simple single-size disposable over-the-counter (OTC) menstrual cup that compresses to tampon shape to facilitate insertion and can be worn during coitus. This report describes preclinical evaluation, clinical testing, and postmarketing monitoring of the Softcup. Methods Preclinical testing complied with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and used standard United States Pharmacopoeia methodologies for assessment of potential toxicity. Clinical testing enrolled 406 women in seven U.S. centers. A detailed written questionnaire assessed safety, acceptability, and effectiveness for menstrual collection. Study safety parameters included pelvic examinations, Pap smears, colposcopy, urinalysis, vaginal pH, wet mounts, gram stain, and vaginal microflora cultures. Postmarketing surveillance of over 100 million Softcups has been conducted by the manufacturer and by the FDA Medwatch system. Results No toxicity or mutagenicity was observed in preclinical evaluations. In clinical testing, after three cycles of cup use, 37% of subjects rated the cup as better than, 29% as worse than, and 34% as equal to pads or tampons. The cup was preferred for comfort, dryness, and less odor. Cups received lower ratings for disposal and convenience. Eighty-one percent of enrolled women were able to insert and remove their first cup using only written instructions. Use difficulties resulting in study discontinuations included cramping (1%), leakage (1%), and improper fit (3%). No safety parameters were adversely affected. No significant health risks were reported during postmarketing surveillance. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a single-size vaginal device has no significant health risks and is acceptable to many women without the need for fitting or other medical services. PMID

  16. Sonohysterography: is the hysterosalpingographic vacuum cup a valid alternative device for cannulation of the cervical Os?

    PubMed

    Porfiri, L M; Drudi, F M; Savelli, S; de Felice, C

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether sonohysterography (SHG) should be performed with Plexiglas hysterosalpingographic vacuum cups instead of standard catheters. In a prospective setting, 226 women randomly classified into 2 groups underwent SHG. The method used for cervical cannulation was a two-way catheter in the first group (n = 108) and a Plexiglas hysterosalpingographic vacuum cup in the second one (n = 118). Diagnostic reliability, easy applicability for the physician, discomfort for the patients and cost of the instruments were assessed for both devices. 226/226 (100 %) complete sonohysterographic examinations were performed. As regards uterine cavity distension the same diagnostic reliability was reported for vacuum cups and two-way catheters. The standard catheter obscured the cervical canal because of the dilation of the balloon. Both methods were judged as easy to use, and no statistically significant difference was found as far as the time required for cervical cannulation (p > 0.05). A little more discomfort was recorded by women who underwent sonohysterography with standard balloon catheters but a greater interpersonal variability was noticed in this group (SD 3.65 vs. 1.13 in the vacuum cup group). Vacuum cups were by far the most economical devices (unit cost: 16.70 euro vs. catheter unit cost 46.20 euro). Vacuum cups allow sonohysterography to be correctly performed. As they are inexpensive, easy to use, better tolerated by the patients and more helpful for visualisation of the lower third of the uterine cavity, vacuum cups should be considered a serious alternative to standard catheters in the performance of SHG.

  17. Cytoskeletal Components of an Invasion Machine—The Apical Complex of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ke; Johnson, Jeff; Florens, Laurence; Fraunholz, Martin; Suravajjala, Sapna; DiLullo, Camille; Yates, John; Roos, David S; Murray, John M

    2006-01-01

    The apical complex of Toxoplasma gondii is widely believed to serve essential functions in both invasion of its host cells (including human cells), and in replication of the parasite. The understanding of apical complex function, the basis for its novel structure, and the mechanism for its motility are greatly impeded by lack of knowledge of its molecular composition. We have partially purified the conoid/apical complex, identified ~200 proteins that represent 70% of its cytoskeletal protein components, characterized seven novel proteins, and determined the sequence of recruitment of five of these proteins into the cytoskeleton during cell division. Our results provide new markers for the different subcompartments within the apical complex, and revealed previously unknown cellular compartments, which facilitate our understanding of how the invasion machinery is built. Surprisingly, the extreme apical and extreme basal structures of this highly polarized cell originate in the same location and at the same time very early during parasite replication. PMID:16518471

  18. Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-08-09

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as a novel apical matrix.

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Ambica; Chaudhary, Sarika; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as an apical matrix. Summary : An immature tooth with pulpal necrosis and periapical pathology imposes a great difficulty to the endodontist. Endodontic treatment options for such teeth consist of conventional apexification procedure with and without apical barriers. Biodentine™ is new calcium silicate based cement that exhibits physical and chemical properties similar to those described for certain Portland cement derivatives. This article demonstrates the use of the newer material, Biodentine as an apical matrix barrier in root end apexification procedure. This case reports present apexification and successful healing with the use of Biodentine as an apical barrier matrix. Conclusion : Apexification in one step using an apical plug of Biodentine can be considered a predictable treatment and may be an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate apexification.

  20. Sharp curvature of premolar resulting in external apical root resorption of the neighbouring molar.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ozgür İlke Atasoy

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes an external apical root resorption resulted from the unusual root morphology of the neighbouring tooth. A 28-year-old female was referred to the department of endodontics with a complaint of intense pain in her maxillary second premolar tooth. The clinical and radiographical evaluation revealed an external apical resorption in the mesial root of the maxillary first molar, which shows close proximity to the severely curved root of the premolar. A successful root canal treatment of the premolar was performed using anticurvature filing method. However, molar tooth received no curative treatment. One-year followup of the apical external resorption did not show any progression. External apical root resorption affecting single permanent tooth may be induced from the pressure exerted during the eruption of the adjacent tooth with unusual root morphology. The preferred approach for the management of such apical resorption cases includes long-term observation and no curative treatment.