Akkara, Francis; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Pavaskar, Rajdeep
The aim was to evaluate treatment outcomes after apicoectomy and apexification in adjacent non-vital maxillary central incisors with large periapical radiolucencies, in a 10-year-old boy. The patient had complained of tenderness in the upper central incisors on mastication and gave a history of trauma to those teeth three years ago. On examination, there were found to be non-vital. Apexification (using Metapex) and apicoectomy (obturation with gutta percha) were performed on 11 and 21, respectively. Radiographical observations were made six months, one year and two years, post-operatively. Apical repair was found to be more favorable after apicoectomy than apexification, for a non-vital maxillary central incisor with an open apex and large periapical radiolucency. PMID:25859529
Chalakkal, Paul; Akkara, Francis; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Pavaskar, Rajdeep
The aim was to evaluate treatment outcomes after apicoectomy and apexification in adjacent non-vital maxillary central incisors with large periapical radiolucencies, in a 10-year-old boy. The patient had complained of tenderness in the upper central incisors on mastication and gave a history of trauma to those teeth three years ago. On examination, there were found to be non-vital. Apexification (using Metapex) and apicoectomy (obturation with gutta percha) were performed on 11 and 21, respectively. Radiographical observations were made six months, one year and two years, post-operatively. Apical repair was found to be more favorable after apicoectomy than apexification, for a non-vital maxillary central incisor with an open apex and large periapical radiolucency.
Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro; Giardino, Luciano
Since the invention of laser, various applications for lasers in endodontics have been proposed, such as disinfection of the root canal system, canal shaping, pulp diagnosis, and apico-ectomy. One of the major applications of laser in endodontics is apicoectomy. The aim of this article is to review the benefits and drawbacks of laser applications in apicoectomy, including effect on apical seal, effect on dentin permeability, effect on postsurgery pain, effect on crack formation, effect on root-end morphology, effect on treatment outcome, and connective tissue response to laser-treated dentin.
Freedman, A; Horowitz, I
This study was designed to enumerate the number of perforations to the maxillary sinus while performing apicoectomy on maxillary premolar and molar teeth and to evaluate possible complications as a result of these perforations. A total of 472 apicoectomies were performed in 440 patients; perforations occurred in 10.4% of teeth, 23% in molars, 13% in second premolars and 2% in first premolars. No cases of acute or chronic sinusitis were recorded. It was concluded that apicoectomy, carried out using a meticulous surgical technique and proper postoperative care, should be considered as a treatment option before contemplating extraction.
In this study, the treatment results of apicoectomy with orthograde filling were compared with those of apicoectomy with retrograde gutta-percha filling and retrograde sponge gold filling. The long-term follow-up results of the teeth treated by apicoectomy are presented, and the possible prognostic factors are discussed. The healing process of the apical bone cavity was analyzed with standard X-ray techniques and image analysis system. One hundred nineteen teeth were apicoectomized with orthograde filling, 196 teeth with retrograde gutta-percha root filling and 42 teeth with sponge gold filling. There was no significant correlation between the treatment results and the sex or age of the patients, kinds of teeth, preoperative radiolucent areas, the number of operations or histopathological diagnosis of apical lesion. The success rate of apicoectomy with orthograde filling or apicoectomy with retrograde gutta-percha root filling was significantly higher than that with retrograde sponge gold filling. The filling materials and the operation method were considered to be the most important factors for a successful outcome. Bone reconstruction was found to start from the periphery of the bone cavity and the bone defect became gradually reduced in a star-like pattern. At 4 months after operation, in the successful cases, the area of bone cavity decreased 46-64% compared with before operation, but in the unsuccessful cases, the area did not change or increased 75-120%. Thus at 4 months after operation, it is possible to determine whether or not apicoectomy is successful.
van der Meer, W J; Stegenga, B
Failure of root canal therapy is usually due to re-infection of the root canal system. In most of these cases, an endodontic retreatment is indicated. Patients with persisting apical periodontitis frequently are referred to an oral surgeon for apical surgery, although endodontic retreatment would have been possible in a majority of these cases. When endodontic retreatment is not possible or does not resolve the patient's problems, surgical apicoectomy or extraction might be the only possibilities left. Apical surgery is usually performed by an oral sugeon or by a specially trained dentist. In most surgical clinics beveled resection, followed by an preparation and restoration is performed. New developments, such as microscopic sugery, ultrasonic preparation and newly developed restorative materials are described in this article. Since there is a lack of well-designed comparative clinical studies, no definite conclusions can be drawn with regard to the clinical value of these modern techniques.
Steenkamp, Gerhard; Venter, Leon; Crossley, David; Buss, Peter
A 52-month-old Canadian beaver was presented for treatment of lip trauma resulting from overgrowth of the right mandibular incisor tooth following earlier loss of the right maxillary incisor tooth. Extraction of the affected tooth was considered, but rejected due to the length of the embedded portion of rodent mandibular incisor teeth. The lip injury was managed by crown reduction (odontoplasty) of the overgrowing incisor tooth pending a more permanent treatment plan. A 2-cm apicoectomy of the right mandibular incisor tooth was performed to arrest growth of the tooth when the beaver was 82-months-old. The remainder of the tooth continued to erupt and was completely expelled during a 9-month period with one additional odontoplasty being required. The beaver continued to feed normally with just the left maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth until its death at 118-months, with odontoplasty performed twice on the remaining incisor teeth during the 30-months following exfoliation.
Samaranayake, L P; Stassen, L F; Still, D M
There is little information on the microbiology of periapical lesions, and no data on the residual microbial flora in the periapex, if any, after apicoectomy procedures. Hence, 64 patients treated by apicoectomy procedures were prospectively studied to assess the bacterial flora in the periapex and to evaluate the residual bacteria in postoperative apicoectomy sites. Of the 64 lesions studied, 14 (22%) were sterile and 50 (78%) yielded bacteria preoperatively. Bacteria could be recovered from 28 (56%) of the latter lesions after apicoectomy and curettage. A total of 105 bacterial strains was isolated from 50 lesions, yielding a range of 1-4 (mean 2.1) species per sample. The isolates comprised 84 (80%) facultative anaerobes and 21 (20%) strict anaerobes. A polymicrobial growth was obtained from 39 lesions whilst 11 lesions yielded pure cultures. On detailed microbiological analyses of 29 lesions, 40% of the isolates were identified as alpha-haemolytic streptococci, half of which were Streptococcus sanguis; anaerobic streptococci were the predominant anaerobes. None of the organisms or group(s) of organisms emerged as recalcitrant colonisers which were difficult to dislodge after surgical debridement. These data indicate that the majority of periapical lesions harbour a variety of flora which cannot be eradicated despite thorough apicoectomy procedures.
Komori, T; Yokoyama, K; Takato, T; Matsumoto, K
Recently, an Er:YAG laser has attracted attention because of the possibility of cutting hard tissues with extremely small thermal effects. In this article, we report 8 cases (13 teeth) of apicoectomy using Er:YAG laser. All procedures were performed without using an air turbine or an electric drill. Although the cutting speed of this laser was slightly slower than ordinary methods, its clinical application for apicoectomy has many advantages including absence of discomfort and vibration, less chance for contamination of the surgical site, and reduced risk of trauma to adjacent tissue.
Marais, J T
The optimal way to address endodontic failures is to retreat the root canal system first and only then to consider apical surgery. Unfortunately, in practice, it is often not done in this way. Patients are subjected to apical surgery, without any attempts at retreatment. A series of cases is presented illustrating failures of apicoectomy and successful endodontic retreatment.
Grossman, I; Abu el Naag, A; Peled, M
An integral component of apicoectomy procedure is the placement of a root end filling material. In this 20 years literature review we identified at least 19 different materials that have been used as root end filling materials. Unfortunately, the ideal material for this purpose is yet to be found. Amalgam is the most frequently used material in apicoectomy procedure and can lead to satisfying results in many cases. IRM, super EBA and MTA are more suitable materials, and give better results in apicoectomy procedures than Amalgam. IRM and super EBA are both ZOE cements. Super EBA is less cytotoxic than IRM, suggesting that the decreased eugenol in Super EBA allows it to be less irritating. MTA gives better results when tested for leakage and biocompatibility than IRM and Super EBA, and has the ability of induction of hard tissue. A possible disadvantage that prevents MTA from being acceptable as "the ideal root-end filling material" is a long setting time that may lead to dislodgment or deformation from root end preparation. Yet, in most cases MTA serves as the best choice for a root end filling material.
Uematsu, Setsuko; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi; Deguchi, Toshio; Kurihara, Saburo
The impacted incisor was moved into its proper position with surgical exposure and orthodontic traction. Although apicoectomy was performed during the orthodontic treatment, the incisor showed good stability after the long retention period.
Zerbinati, Lívia Prates Soares; Tonietto, Leonardo; de Moraes, João Feliz Duarte; de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt
Recurrent periapical disease poses a substantial challenge to the dental practitioner. However, the use of novel methods and materials in periapical surgery has increased the success rates of treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) retrofilling and apical sealing with Nd:YAG laser (at 10 Hz, 150 mJ, 1.5 W, in 60 sec pulses) as adjuncts to apicoectomy. Perpendicular root end resection was performed with diamond-coated burs on 40 canine teeth previously subjected to endodontic treatment. Teeth were randomly allocated into four groups: group A, apicoectomy alone; group B, apicoectomy+Nd:YAG laser; group C, apicoectomy+MTA retrofilling; group D, apicoectomy+MTA retrofilling+Nd:YAG laser. Specimens were embedded in epoxy resin and sliced lengthwise and crosswise. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed more homogeneous and canaliculi-free apical surfaces in groups B and D (p<0.01). Marginal gaps between the dentin surface and filling material were observed in decreasing order of gap size in groups B, A, D, and C (p<0.01) for cross-sectional analysis. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed greater phosphorus (p<0.01) and lower calcium (p<0.01) ion content in the Nd:YAG-irradiated groups. In this study, Nd:YAG laser irradiation had a positive effect on dentin surface sealing, despite an untoward dimensional effect when associated with MTA retrofilling.
Costa, Bernardo Cesar; de Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes; Chaves, Maria das Graças Afonso Miranda; da Costa, Renan Roberto; Gabrielli, Mário Francisco Real; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário
This case report describes the surgical removal of cementoblastoma associated with apicoectomy and endodontic therapy. The patient, an 18-year-old man, presented pain in the region of the mandibular body on the right side. On clinical exam, bone expansion was observed in the region at the bottom of the vestibular sulcus, pain on palpation, slight extrusion of tooth 46 with presence of pulp vitality. Radiographic exams demonstrated the presence of a radiopaque area and discrete radiolucent halo associated with the root of tooth 46, suggesting the diagnosis of cementoblastoma. Endodontic treatment of tooth 46 was performed and exeresis of the lesion by apicoectomy. Twelve months after the first surgery, recurrence of the lesion was observed, and a new apicoectomy was necessary, this time up to the middle third of the root. Clinical radiographic control 12 mo after the second surgical intervention demonstrated absence of signs and symptoms, radiographic repair, with tooth 46 shown to be fully functional. PMID:27672646
Costa, Bernardo Cesar; de Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes; Chaves, Maria das Graças Afonso Miranda; da Costa, Renan Roberto; Gabrielli, Mário Francisco Real; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário
This case report describes the surgical removal of cementoblastoma associated with apicoectomy and endodontic therapy. The patient, an 18-year-old man, presented pain in the region of the mandibular body on the right side. On clinical exam, bone expansion was observed in the region at the bottom of the vestibular sulcus, pain on palpation, slight extrusion of tooth 46 with presence of pulp vitality. Radiographic exams demonstrated the presence of a radiopaque area and discrete radiolucent halo associated with the root of tooth 46, suggesting the diagnosis of cementoblastoma. Endodontic treatment of tooth 46 was performed and exeresis of the lesion by apicoectomy. Twelve months after the first surgery, recurrence of the lesion was observed, and a new apicoectomy was necessary, this time up to the middle third of the root. Clinical radiographic control 12 mo after the second surgical intervention demonstrated absence of signs and symptoms, radiographic repair, with tooth 46 shown to be fully functional.
An eight-year-old Victorian koala was presented with a discharging mandibular sinus of at least one month duration. On examination, a dental abscess of the right mandibular incisor tooth was found. During the course of endodontic treatment, a size 2 Gates Glidden bur separated from the shank and was lodged in the canal. Due to the anatomy of the tooth the bur could not be removed and an apicoectomy was performed. Following the apicoectomy (follow-up period two years), the periapical pathology resolved.
Lietzau, Markus; Smeets, Ralf; Hanken, Henning; Heiland, Max; Apel, Christian
This retrospective clinical investigation intends to examine the effectiveness of an Er:YAG laser used in conjunction with a dental operation microscope for apicoectomy, in comparison with the traditional surgical procedure. The Er-YAG laser has shown great potential in application to periapical surgery; however, clinical data are rare. To this end, 78 patients who had undergone apicoectomy in a private dental office were selected; 41 patients were treated by the traditional surgical technique for apicoectomy and 37 patients were treated using an Er:YAG laser under microscopic control. The five cardinal symptoms of inflammation were taken as clinical parameters/examination criteria and evaluated after postoperative days 1, 7, and 180, where days 7 and 180 after the operation can be regarded as the customary times for follow-up controls at the private dental office. Microscopically guided, laser-assisted treatment seems to favor a better healing process overall. After the first postoperative day, redness and swelling of the operation area were significantly reduced (p<0.001 and p=0.0048). Seven days after the operation, all inflammation parameters were statistically significantly lower in the laser-treated group (p<0.05). On day 180, 6 out of 41 patients in the control group still displayed a disturbed function of the treated teeth, whereas none of the patients in the laser group experienced further complaints. As a result, it can be ascertained that the use of an Er:YAG laser as an adjuvant tool in periapical surgery, with additional control by an operation microscope, displays significantly better results in terms of postoperative healing, in comparison with the conventional surgical treatment of apicoectomy.
Angiero, Francesca; Benedicenti, Stefano; Signore, Antonio; Parker, Steven; Crippa, Rolando
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of erbium lasers for retrograde endodontic treatment, in terms of clinical outcome and therapeutic success. Apicoectomy with retrograde filling is a well-established surgical procedure to treat teeth affected by persistent periapical lesions. The apical root end is generally removed with burs, and the adjacent periapical tissue curetted, or alternatively treated with ultrasound or laser. Between 2000 and 2010, 65 apicoectomies were performed on necrotic teeth that presented apical lesions (29 men, 36 women). The lasers used in the study were the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser, wavelength 2940 nm, and the erbium,chromium-doped:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser, wavelength 2780 nm. Of the 65 teeth in the study, failure only occurred in 9 CASES, MANIFESTING AFTER DIFFERENT TIMES. THE REMAINING PATIENTS, 86.15%, experienced no complications, and their treatment followed a positive course. Laser-assisted surgery increases the range of therapeutic approaches in the sphere of retrograde endodontic treatment. The results of this study show that the erbium laser, used for apicoectomy, results in a high success rate with considerable benefit in terms of clinical outcome and therapeutic success.
Mente, Johannes; Leo, Meltem; Michel, Annemarie; Gehrig, Holger; Saure, Daniel; Pfefferle, Thorsten
This controlled, single-center historic cohort study project evaluates treatment outcomes of a nonsurgical treatment approach after failed apicoectomy. The treatment outcomes of nonsurgical retreatment after a failed apicoectomy were evaluated clinically and radiographically. The study cohort consisted of teeth that had received primary root canal treatment and subsequent apicoectomy elsewhere before the patients presented with post-treatment disease. Orthograde retreatment and obturation using an apical mineral trioxide aggregate plug was performed by postgraduate students and endodontic specialists in 25 cases between 2004 and 2012. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative information and the potential effect on the retreatment outcome were evaluated and statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Twenty-two patients with 23 teeth attended the follow-up examinations (recall rate = 92%). The follow-up periods ranged from 12 to 102 months (median = 35 months). Twenty teeth (87%) were classified as "success," and 3 teeth were considered (17%) "failure." The chi-square test confirmed that the preoperative factor "number of roots" had a statistically significant effect on treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.08; 95% confidence interval, 0-1.76; P = .03). The factor "tooth location" was of borderline significance (odds ratio = 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0-2.14; P = .05). The results of the present study suggest that orthograde retreatment combined with orthograde placement of an apical mineral trioxide aggregate plug is a promising long-term treatment option for teeth with postsurgical pathosis. The success rates were higher for single-rooted teeth. The use of cone-beam computed tomographic imaging in cases of inconclusive periapical radiographs is recommended to minimize the risk of misinterpretation when assessing treatment outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, S; Guttmacher, Z; Steif, M; Braun, R
Apical root end resection is becoming popular procedure as a treatment option in cases of ortho-grade endodontic failure. In this case report it has been shown that root end resection (Apicoectomy) had succeed to preserve a tooth after dental trauma with root fractured in the apical third. Any other conservative endodontic treatment failed. One-year follow-up revealed complete healing of the area. Apical root end resection might serve as a viable treatment option in cases of dental trauma in young patient in carefully selected patients.
Gutmann, James L
In 1921, Dr. Thomas R Hinman of Atlanta, Georgia read a paper before the First district Dental Society in New York City that dealt with the management of infected teeth. Adherents of the theories of focal infection and elective localization advocated the extraction of teeth with necrotic pulps and particularly those with periapical lesions. In his presentation, Dr. Hinman overlooked the procedures of root amputation or apicoectomy (terms that were was synonymous at that time), stating that the technique had been abandoned as a failure by oral surgeons. Dr. Hinman later claimed that he had been misunderstood, and that what he really meant was that apicoectomy is only rarely successful. Out of this incident there appeared a lengthy symposium, with contributions from across the United States. While this debate ensued, the techniques of this procedure were being applied and evaluated in the European sector, with a number of treatises expounding on their versatility, acceptability, and applicability far beyond what was being addressed in the United States. This paper will focus on some of the unique historical perspectives from all parties, and clarify these perspectives relative to contemporary philosophies and rationales.
Otani, Kaori; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Tomita, Mahito; Hasegawa, Yukiko; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Tenkumo, Taichi; Tanaka, Saori; Motoki, Youji; Takanawa, Yasuhiro; Kawanami, Masamitsu
This study evaluated apical periodontal healing after root-end sealing using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (SB), and root-end filling using reinforced zinc oxide eugenol cement (EBA) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) when root canal infection persisted. Apical periodontitis was induced in mandibular premolars of beagles by contaminating the root canals with dental plaque. After 1 month, in the SB group, SB was applied to the resected surface following apicoectomy. In the EBA and MTA groups, a root-end cavity was prepared and filled with EBA or MTA. In the control group, the root-end was not filled. Fourteen weeks after surgery, histological and radiographic analyses in a beagle model were performed. The bone defect area in the SB, EBA and MTA groups was significantly smaller than that in the control group. The result indicated that root-end sealing using SB and root-end filling using EBA or MTA are significantly better than control.
Gulses, Aydin; Bayar, Gurkan Rasit; Aydin, Cumhur; Sencimen, Metin
Cementoblastoma is a rare, benign, odontogenic neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, representing less than 6% of all odontogenic tumors. Despite its well-known typical features, there are still controversies regarding the management of the condition. This article presents the case of a benign cementoblastoma in a 17-year-old girl. The lesion was typical and associated with the mandibular right first molar. Endodontic treatment of the involved tooth, enucleation of the cementoblastoma, and apicoectomy of the affected roots were performed. Removal of the tumor while preserving the associated tooth resulted in normal osseous healing and no evidence of recurrence after one year. Based on the findings of the current report, it can be suggested that, in properly selected cases, it is possible to remove cementoblastomas that affect molars without extracting the involved teeth.
Winik, Renata; Araki, Angela Toshie; Negrão, José Augusto Alves; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Lage-Marques, José Luiz
Apicoectomy failure is generally related to inappropriate marginal sealing of the retrocavity, which allows percolation of microorganisms and their products from root canal system to periapex. This study evaluated tubular penetration of canal sealers and marginal permeability after retrocavity irradiation with Er;Cr:YSGG laser and retrofilling with MTA or cyanoacrylate. Twenty-two single-rooted teeth were decoronated and endodontically treated, their apical 3 mm were resected and the root ends were retroprepared with a low-speed bur. Twenty roots were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=5): GI and GII--retrofilling with MTA and cyanoacrylate, respectively; GIII and GIV--retrocavity irradiation with Er;Cr:YSGG laser (2.78 microm, 4 W, 20 Hz, 70.8 J/cm(2)) and retrofilling with MTA and cyanoacrylate, respectively. The remaining 2 roots served as positive and negative controls. The analysis of rhodamine B dye infiltration (p=0.05) demonstrated that laser irradiation and MTA retrofilling presented significantly higher permeability rates (p<0.05). Retrofilling with cyanoacrylate showed significantly lower permeability, either when laser was used or not on retrocavity. SEM analysis depicted more cyanoacrylate penetration through dentinal tubules when compared to MTA, suggesting a more efficient marginal sealing. Based on these results, it may be concluded that cyanoacrylate provided a less permeable retrofilling regardless of the retropreparation method, suggesting a more favorable condition to the establishment of the periapical healing.
Careli de Castro, Fabiana; Gariba Silva, Ricardo; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.
Apicoectomy is a surgical procedure that consists of radicular apex resection, eliminating periapical lesion. This study evaluated the effect of CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers on root dentine permeability after apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser. Forty-four single-rooted teeth, obtained from the Endodontic Laboratory stock from the Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, were used. The teeth were instrumented with the step-back technique, irrigated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite and sealed with Sealer 26 (Dentsply, Brazil; lateral condensation. The samples were divided into four groups of 11 teeth each that had the root sectioned 2mm from the apex: G1 - roots were sectioned with a 4138 diamond bur with cooling; G2 - roots were sectioned with pulsed Er:YAG laser at the following parameters: 15 Hz and 250 mJ; G3 - roots were sectioned with pulsed Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser (10 Hz, 100 mJ, and 1 W) was app0lied on the sectioned surface; G4 - roots were sectioned with pulsed Er:YAG laser and CO2 laser (5 W, 10 seconds ON and 20 seconds OFF) was applied to the sectioned surface. The teeth were then impermeabilized with cyanoacrylate and placed in 0.5% methylene blue for 7 days. The proximal surface of the samples was removed for exposure of the sealed root canal and dye penetration was measured by means of microscopic evaluation. The results showed a statistically significant difference at the level of 1%. We conclude that all treatments presented microleakage and can placed in increasing order: Er:YAG (G2), Bur (G1), Er:YAG + Nd:YAG (G3); Er:YAG laser presented the lowest microleakage values, showing its viability for clinical use in apicoectomies.
Kilgallon, Conor P; Bicknese, Beth; Fagan, David A
Although necrobacillosis remains a common condition of captive macropods, there have been limited reports of successful treatment modalities by which it can be treated. Comprehensive endodontic therapy with apicoectomy has been used reliably in human and domestic animal dentistry. This report describes a case of periapical osteomyelitis involving a mandibular incisor in a Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) that was successfully treated using these techniques in conjunction with low-level laser therapy at 810 nm, which was used for decontamination of the pulp cavity, anti-inflammatory, and biostimulatory effects.
Stefopoulos, Spyridon; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G
Root-end resected teeth with persistent apical periodontitis are usually retreated surgically or a combination of non-surgical and surgical retreatment is employed. However, patients are sometimes unwilling to be subjected to a second surgical procedure. The apical barrier technique that is used for apical closure of immature teeth with necrotic pulps may be an alternative to non-surgically retreat a failed apicoectomy. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has become the material of choice in such cases because of its excellent biocompatibility, sealing ability and osseoinductive properties. This case report describes the non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy with no attempt at retrofilling of a maxillary central incisor. White MTA was used to induce apical closure of the wide resected apical area. Four-year follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic, fully functional tooth with a satisfactory healing of the apical lesion. White MTA apical barrier may constitute a reliable and efficient technique to non-surgically retreat teeth with failed root-end resection. The predictability of such a treatment is of great benefit for the patient who is unwilling to be submitted to a second surgical procedure.
Simhofer, Hubert; Stoian, Camil; Zetner, Karl
The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of apicoectomy and retrograde endodontic treatment in 12 horses with apical cheek teeth infections. The affected apices were removed using a diamond bur mounted on a dental drill, and after pulp removal the root canals were filed with Hedstrøm files and then alternately flushed with sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and alcohol. The pulp canals were dried and filled with endodontic cement and gutta-percha points. An undercut was made in the apical aspect of the root canals that were then sealed with self-curing glass ionomer cement. Follow up information was obtained 38-67 months following treatment and indicated that the treatment had been successful in 7/12 horses (58%), partially successful in 2 horses (17%) and unsuccessful in 3 (25%). With good case selection, apicoectomy can preserve a proportion of apically infected cheek teeth. The use of advanced imaging techniques and improved surgical techniques could increase the success rate.
Zesis, A; Lin, S; Fuss, Z
The main cause of root canal treatment failure is presence of bacteria in the root canal. Surgical endodontic retreatment is indicated as a valuable treatment choice for failed endodontic treatment. The aim of the article is to describe the advantages of a new technique for apicoectomy using dental operating microscope and ultrasonic tips in comparison to the traditional technique. Precise root end resection with minimal or no bevel and accurate preparation of the root end cavity to the depth of 3-4 mm allows minimal bone removal and reduces procedural accidents such as perforation of the lingual canal wall. Zink oxide eugenol based materials allow sealing of the retrograde preparation adequately to prevent bacteria and toxins to penetrate the periradicular tissues. Literature review demonstrates success rate to above 90% when employing dental operating microscope and ultrasonic tips for retrograde cavity preparation.
Ayangco, L; Sheridan, P J
Osseointegrated implants provide predictable restorative support for crowns, restorations, prosthesis abutments, and removable dentures. Their widespread use in recent years has produced different types of complications. Retrograde peri-implantitis, a lesion occurring at the periapical area of an osseointegrated implant, has recently been described. This paper presents a series of reports describing the occurrence and management of retrograde peri-implantitis involving implants replacing teeth with histories of failed endodontic and apicoectomy procedures.
Bucchi, Cristina; Gimeno-Sandig, Alvaro; Manzanares-Céspedes, Cristina
In the last few years there have been attempts to revascularize mature necrotic teeth instead of performing a standard root canal treatment. Apical foramen enlargement (AFE) would be necessary for regenerative treatments of mature teeth. In the literature, AFE has been made through apicoectomy and instrumentation. However, no standardized methods have been described yet, which may affect the success of the therapy. Our aim was to describe the effectiveness and damage to dental structures of five methods for AFE. Two hundred and ten human teeth were assigned to one control group (n = 10) and four treatment groups (n = 50 each): instrumentation was up to file #80 0.5 mm coronal to the apex (I), at apex level (II), 0.5 mm beyond the apex (III) and apicoectomy at 2 and 4 mm from the apex (IV). The apical foramen diameter was measured before and after treatment. The formation of clinically visible fractures (CVF) and microcracks was analysed clinically and with ESEM, respectively. Thirty-two in situ sheep's teeth were also instrumented, to compare damage in in situ and ex vivo teeth. The foramen diameter was augmented by 0.15, 0.47, 0.54 0.06 and 0.32 mm in human teeth of groups I, II, III, apicoectomy at 2 and 4 mm, respectively. CVF were more frequent as the working length was augmented. No statistical differences were found for microcrack formation. In situ teeth showed significantly less damage. Instrumentation at apex level seems to be the most effective and least harmful technique for AFE, while apicoectomy is not a useful method.
Oliveira, R G; Gouw-Soares, S; Baldochi, S L; Eduardo, C P
This study evaluated the dentinal and marginal permeability of the cut surface after apicoectomy, treatment and retrocavity preparation with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysed the morphological alteration of dentin caused by laser irradiation through an optical fiber. Numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of laser treatment upon sealing dental apex, avoiding the changes of organic fluids, microorganisms and their by-products between the root canal system and periapex. Twenty-four extracted and endodontically treated teeth were divided into three groups: GI, apices were resected with Er:YAG laser (350 mJ; 4 Hz) treatment of cut dentinal surface and retrocavity were lased with this same laser (120 mJ; 4 Hz; bur 2051) using the optical fiber 50/10; GII, apicoectomy was performed similar to GI, however the cut dentinal surface was treated with Nd:YAG laser through optical fiber, as well as the retrocavity preparation (100 mJ; 15 Hz; 1.5 W); and GIII (control group), high speed burs were used. Analysis of methylene blue dye penetration into dentin demonstrated that the specimens of the groups irradiated with laser showed to have lower infiltration indices than the control group. These results were compatible with structural and morphological injuries, evidenced by SEM. Under the conditions of the present study, apicoectomy using Er:YAG laser, followed by dentinal surface irradiation and retrocavity preparation with Nd:YAG laser, showed to be an alternative clinical tool able to reduce the dentinal permeability.
Hirsch, Viola; Kim, Syngcuk
Two case reports describing a new technique of creating a repositionable piezoelectric bony window osteotomy during apicoectomy in order to preserve bone and act as an autologous graft for the surgical site are described. Endodontic microsurgery of anterior teeth with an intact cortical plate and large periapical lesion generally involves removal of a significant amount of healthy bone in order to enucleate the diseased tissue and manage root ends. In the reported cases, apicoectomy was performed on the lateral incisors of two patients. A piezoelectric device was used to create and elevate a bony window at the surgical site, instead of drilling and destroying bone while making an osteotomy with conventional burs. Routine microsurgical procedures - lesion enucleation, root-end resection, and filling - were carried out through this window preparation. The bony window was repositioned to the original site and the soft tissue sutured. The cases were re-evaluated clinically and radiographically after a period of 12 - 24 months. At follow-up, radiographic healing was observed. No additional grafting material was needed despite the extent of the lesions. The indication for this procedure is when teeth present with an intact or near-intact buccal cortical plate and a large apical lesion to preserve the bone and use it as an autologous graft. PMID:27847753
Hirsch, Viola; Kohli, Meetu R; Kim, Syngcuk
Two case reports describing a new technique of creating a repositionable piezoelectric bony window osteotomy during apicoectomy in order to preserve bone and act as an autologous graft for the surgical site are described. Endodontic microsurgery of anterior teeth with an intact cortical plate and large periapical lesion generally involves removal of a significant amount of healthy bone in order to enucleate the diseased tissue and manage root ends. In the reported cases, apicoectomy was performed on the lateral incisors of two patients. A piezoelectric device was used to create and elevate a bony window at the surgical site, instead of drilling and destroying bone while making an osteotomy with conventional burs. Routine microsurgical procedures - lesion enucleation, root-end resection, and filling - were carried out through this window preparation. The bony window was repositioned to the original site and the soft tissue sutured. The cases were re-evaluated clinically and radiographically after a period of 12 - 24 months. At follow-up, radiographic healing was observed. No additional grafting material was needed despite the extent of the lesions. The indication for this procedure is when teeth present with an intact or near-intact buccal cortical plate and a large apical lesion to preserve the bone and use it as an autologous graft.
von Arx, T; Kurt, B
This study evaluated the outcome of periradicular surgery using a new set of retrotips for root-end cavity preparation. Forty-three patients who had 50 consecutively treated teeth with periradicular pathology were enrolled in this prospective study. After apicoectomy, root-end cavity preparation was performed, using diamond-surfaced retrotips driven by a sonic handpiece; EBA-cement was used as the root-end filling material. Healing assessment was based on clinical and radiographic criteria. At the 1-year follow-up, 82% of the reexamined surgical cases presented with successful healing. Fourteen percent of the treated teeth were deemed as improved (partial healing), and 4% were classified as failures. The new retrotips were found to be ideal for root-end cavity preparation. They simplify the surgical approach to root ends where the working space is limited by restricted access. Root-ends prepared with this new sonoabrasive technique yielded excellent results at the 1-year follow-up examination.
Camargo, Selma C. C.; Gavini, Giulio; Eduardo, Carlos d. P.; Aun, Carlos E.; Ribeiro, Luciano W.; Coil, Jeffrey M.
The aim of this research was to evaluate dentin permeability effects at the apical cut surface prepared with Er:YAG laser and irradiated with Nd:YAG laser compared to conventional techniques. 62 extracted human teeth were divided into four groups of 7 teeth each. For Group 1 apicoectomy was performed using high speed handpiece and diamond burs. Group 2 was prepared as group 1 and lased with Nd:YAG (1W,15Hz of energy before retrograde cavity filling). For group 3 Er:YAG* laser irradiation (wavelength of 2.94μm, pulse width of 250-500μs)was used in 400mJ of energy, frequency of 6Hz, on focus mode under distilled water refrigeration and group 4 was performed as group 3 and lased with Nd:YAG (1W, 15Hz of energy before retrograde cavity filling). Permeability was evaluated by the extent of methylene blue dye penetration into the tubules. There were statistically significant differences in permeability between groups. Nd:YAG laser irradiation significantly reduced apical dentin permeability when compared to unlased groups. Er:YAG laser by itself showed higher percentage of dye penetration.
Camargo, Selma C. C.; Gavini, Giulio; Eduardo, Carlos d. P.; Aun, Carlos E.; Coil, Jeffrey M.
The aim of this research was to evaluate under SEM observation, the apical cut surface and retrofilling cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and two other conventional techniques. Thirty extracted human teeth were divided into two groups of 15 teeth each. For Group 1 apicoectomy was performed using high speed handpiece and diamond burs. For Group 2 Er:YAG* laser irradiation (wavelength of 2.94 micrometer, pulse width of 250 - 500 microseconds) was used in 400 mJ of energy, frequency of 6 Hz, on focus mode under destiled water refrigeration. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups. For groups G1A and G2A, retrofilling cavity preparations were performed using low speed handpiece and burs, for groups G1B and G2B Enac technique was indicated. Groups G1C and G2C Er:YAG laser irradiation was used under same energy level previously described. All specimens were prepared for SEM observations. Pictures were taken under 30x and 600x magnification. Two different observers analyzed the smoothness and morphological appearance of those preparations. Data's were collected showing a smoothness surface, no debries or smear layer on group 2 (Laser irradiation) compared to group 1. Differences were also noted when retrofiling cavities were analyzed.
Ultrasonic chemical vapor deposition-coated tip versus high- and low-speed carbide burs for apicoectomy: time required for resection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the root-end surfaces.
Bernardes, Ricardo Affonso; de Souza Junior, José Villela; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro
This study compared ultrasonic chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-coated tip (CVDentus #8.1117-1; Clorovale Diamantes Ind. e Com. Ltda Epp, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil) versus high-speed (#FG700L) and low-speed (#699) carbide burs for apicoectomy, evaluating the time required for resection and analyzing the root-end surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. Thirty extracted human premolars had the canals instrumented and obturated and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10), according to the instrument used for root-end resection. The time required for resection of the apical 2 mm of each root was recorded. The resected apical segments were dried, sputter coated with gold, and examined with a scanning electron microscope at x350 magnification. A four-point (0-3) scoring system was used to evaluate the apical surface smoothness. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, and two-by-two comparisons analyses were performed using the Miller test. The significance level was set at 5%. Root-end resection with the high-speed bur was significantly faster (p < 0.05) compared with the low-speed bur and CVD tip. The carbide burs produced significantly smoother root-end surfaces than the CVD tip (p < 0.05). The low-speed bur produced the smoothest root-end surfaces, whereas the roughest and most irregular root ends (p < 0.05) were obtained with the CVD tip. However, no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between the high- and low-speed burs regarding the surface roughness of the resected root ends (p > 0.05). In conclusion, under the tested conditions, ultrasonic root-end resection took a longer time and resulted in rougher surfaces compared with the use of carbide burs at both high and low speed.
Hrusztics, Aminett; Bogdán, Sándor; Fellegi, Veronika; Szabó, György
The term of apicectomy has been well-known for more than 200 years, nevertheless it is not performed frequently on molars. As a result of this a lot of molars became extracted. The aim of the authors was to present the new surgical technique which is described in detail. The radicular cyst localised on the palatal root of the first maxillary molar was operated on. Uneventful healing was obtained. This surgical technique is recommended in some special cases.
Furusawa, Masahiro; Asai, Yasuhiro
The purpose of this study was to examine the apical foramen of root apices extracted during apicotomies. A total of 25 teeth extracted from 25 patients admitted to the Department of Conservative Dentistry at Tokyo Dental College's Chiba Hospital were used for the study. All patients were between 22 to 56 years of age at the time of the study, and each of the 25 cases was determined clinically on radiographs to be chronic apical suppurative periodontitis. Microsurgery was performed on all cases, and the extracted root apices were then observed using SEM. The results demonstrated a wide opening, greater than 350 microns as measured along the major axis, of the apical foramen in 80% of the cases. Various characteristics indicative of resorption were observed around the apical foramen. These features included those believed to have been caused by overinstrumentation during root canal treatment as well as irregularly shaped areas presumed to be apical lesions that had enlarged and eroded. We observed a high frequency of manifestations of cementum resorption surrounding the root apices of teeth with apical lesions. Furthermore, we concluded that in the majority of cases in the present study, due to the fact that the apical foramen exceeded normal opening dimensions as a result of overinstrumentation during root canal treatment or resorption around the root apex, prolongation of the lesions had occurred in response to direct contact of microbial infectious matter and tissues surrounding the root apex over a large area. The above finding suggested that, in cases in which the apical foramen is destroyed through overinstrumentation larger than #35 or in which the apical foramen opens up to dimensions greater than 350 microns due to pathologic resorption, surgical intervention may be indicated. On the other hand, in 64% of the cases, an accessory canal was observed in the root apical lesion. Based on this observation, the presence of an accessory canal in the root apex may contribute to some degree to the prolongation of the lesion.
von Arx, T; Walker, W A
Root-end cavities have traditionally been prepared by means of small round or inverted cone burs in a micro-handpiece. Since sonically or ultrasonically driven microsurgical retrotips became commercially available in the early 1990s, this new technique of retrograde root canal instrumentation has been established as an essential adjunct in periradicular surgery. At first glance, the most relevant clinical advantages are the enhanced access to root ends in limited working space and the smaller osteotomy required for surgical access because of the various angled designs and small size of the retrotips. However, a number of experimental studies comparing root-end preparations made with microsurgical tips to those made with burs have demonstrated other advantages of this new technique, such as deeper cavities that follow the original path of the root canal more closely. The more centered root-end preparation also lessens the risk of lateral perforation. In addition, the geometry of the retrotip design does not require a beveled root-end resection for surgical access thus decreasing the number of exposed dentinal tubules. A controversial issue of sonic or ultrasonic root-end preparation is the formation of cracks or microfractures, and its implication on healing success. The present paper reviews experimental and clinical studies about the use of microsurgical retrotips in periradicular surgery and discusses many issues raised in previous papers.
Raedel, Michael; Hartmann, Andrea; Bohm, Steffen; Walter, Michael H
The outcome of apicectomy in clinical reality is supposed to be different compared to outcomes reported from clinical trials. The objective of this study was to measure the outcome of apicectomies under practice conditions by mining an insurance data base. This retrospective study was based on claims data of a major German national health insurance company (BARMER GEK). Through the company's data warehouse fee codes and treatment dates were accessible and allowed the tracing of clinical courses. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses for the target event 'extraction' were conducted for all teeth that underwent apicectomies within a 3 year period. Testing for differences among survival rates across groups was performed with the Log-Rank-test. A total of 93,797 teeth in 77,636 patients could be traced after apicectomy. The cumulative 3-year survival rate was 81.6%. Anterior teeth showed a significantly higher survival rate of 84.0% compared to premolars (80.4%) and molars (80.2%). The survival rate in men (83.5%) was significantly higher than in women (80.6%). Analysis of survival by age revealed continuously declining survival rates with age (93.3% for subjects under 18 years of age to 75.6% for subjects over 84 years of age). The 3-year outcomes of apicectomy were still acceptable for an intervention that is mostly conducted as a retreatment after failure of a preceding measure. However at a population level, the question remains to be answered whether other treatment options would potentially be more effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Conto, F; Ericson Flores, M; Cucco, C; Prates Soares Zerbinati, L; Dedavid, B A; Gerhardt De Oliveira, M
Periradicular surgery is a procedure that includes surgical exposure of the diseased apex, root-end cavity preparation, and retrofilling of the root canal. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of periradicular surgery in vitro using different dental materials and storage methods for human teeth specimens. The sample comprised 60 human single-rooted teeth, divided into two groups according to mode of storage (hydrated or non-hydrated); each group was then subdivided by retrofilling material (mineral trioxide aggregate or resin-modified glass ionomer cement). Each specimen was analyzed by digital radiography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative assessment of the gap between the retrofilling material and dentin surface was conducted by observation of apical views (2000x magnification) of four areas of each specimen. The gap between retrofilling material and the internal dentin surface of the root was found to be significantly wider in hydrated teeth (P=0.002). Comparison of the two retrofilling materials showed that, regardless of tooth storage method, use of glass ionomer cement was associated with significantly wider gaps between the filling material and dentin surface (P=0.001). Comparisons of tooth storage mode versus retrofilling material showed a statistical interaction (P=0.009) between these factors. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA®) provided the best apical sealing, regardless of storage medium. Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer®) was associated with substantially larger mean gap values when used in hydrated teeth.
Schultz, Christoph B; Westhauser, Patrick; Nideröst, Beatrice; Klaus, W Grätz
The present in vitro study investigated the sealing of retrograde fillings compounded of two different cements in consideration of cracking after root-end preparation of resected dental roots using diamond-coated ultrasonic retrotips. Root-end cavities were prepared in 32 resected roots using diamond-coated ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were divided into two groups. The first group was filled using zinc-oxide cement (Super-EBA-Cement), the second with mineral-trioxide-aggregate (Pro Root MTA). After resection, root-end preparation and retrograde filling, the samples were analysed using macro-zoom photography and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing quality of the filling materials was detected through dye penetration test. The average degree of penetration of the samples filled with Super-EBA-Cement was 2.19 and of the samples filled with Pro Root MTA 0.44 respectively. Accordingly the sealing of Pro Root MTA in vitro is superior to the sealing of Super-EBA-Cement. Retrograde conditioning of resected roots with ultrasonic retrotips represents an efficient and sparing alternative to conventional root-end preparation techniques.
Kahn, Sergio; Egreja, Andre Medina Coeli; Barceleiro, Marcos de Oliveira
Periodontal reconstructive surgery procedures seek to correct mucogingival defects, including gingival recession. This case report describes the use of a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) associated with root-end fillings using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for the treatment of Miller Class II recession with root apex exposure. A partial-thickness double pedicle flap was made, followed by root preparation with curette and bur finishing. The exposed root apex was removed and the canal was filled with MTA. An SCTG taken from the palate was placed over the root surface and covered with the double pedicle flap. Twelve months after treatment, a reduction from 11 mm to 1 mm in gingival recession was achieved, covering 91% of the root. Repair in the periapical region was determined with radiographs. A 1.0-mm probing depth was measured, and no bleeding was observed on probing. There was an adequate keratinized tissue band, along with esthetic tissue contour and coloration. This case report serves as an example of how the grafting of subepithelial connective tissue can be successfully accomplished in tandem with MTA for the treatment of isolated Miller Class II gingival recession with root apex exposure. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:445-449.).
Pozza, Daniel Humberto; Fregapani, Patrícia Wehmeyer; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Weber, João Batista Blessmann; de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt
Objectives: CO2, Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers have been used in endodontic surgery. This in vitro study evaluated 1% Rhodamine B dye penetration using computer-assisted morphometry (ImageTool Software®) of 108 endodontically treated human permanent canines. Material and methods: Teeth were divided into 9 groups according to the technique used: A: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity preparation with ultrasound and filled with MTA; B: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA, and treatment of apical surface with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW); C: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz); D: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW); E: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; F: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz) and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10Hz); G: apicoectomy with CO2 laser (5W, CW/SP), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; H: irradiation of apical end with CO2 laser (1 W, CW/CW); I: irradiation of apical end with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz). Results: Dye penetration was found in all specimens at different rates, the lowest penetration occurring in groups C (16.20%), B (17.24%) and F (17.84%). Conclusions: Groups B, C and F represent the best technical sequences to perform endodontic surgery. PMID:20027433
Pozza, Daniel Humberto; Fregapani, Patrícia Wehmeyer; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Weber, João Batista Blessmann; Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt de
CO(2), Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers have been used in endodontic surgery. This in vitro study evaluated 1% Rhodamine B dye penetration using computer-assisted morphometry (ImageTool Software) of 108 endodontically treated human permanent canines. Teeth were divided into 9 groups according to the technique used: A: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity preparation with ultrasound and filled with MTA; B: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA, and treatment of apical surface with CO(2) laser (1 W, CW/CW); C: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz); D: 90-degree apicoectomy with bur, and treatment of apical surface with CO(2) laser,(1 W, CW/CW); E: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; F: apicoectomy with Er:YAG laser (400 mJ, 10 Hz) and treatment of apical surface with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10Hz); G: apicoectomy with CO(2) laser (5W, CW/SP), root-end cavity prepared with ultrasound and filled with MTA; H: irradiation of apical end with CO(2) laser (1 W, CW/CW); I: irradiation of apical end with Nd:YAG laser (150 mJ, 10 Hz). Dye penetration was found in all specimens at different rates, the lowest penetration occurring in groups C (16.20%), B (17.24%) and F (17.84%). Groups B, C and F represent the best technical sequences to perform endodontic surgery.
Post, Letícia Kirst; Lima, Fábio Garcia; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Gerhardt-Oliveira, Marília
This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different apicoectomy angles, instruments used in root-end preparation, and dental materials used in retrofilling on apical sealing. Root ends were resected at 45 or 90 degrees in 80 single-rooted teeth. For each type of apicoectomy, root-end cavities were prepared with either a round carbide #2 bur or an S12/90D ultrasonic tip. The root-end cavities in each subgroup (apicoectomy + root-end preparation) were filled with silver amalgam without zinc (Am) or with gray mineral trioxide aggregate -Angelus (MTA), and the specimens were immediately immersed in 0.2% rhodamine B for 24 h. Sealing was evaluated based on the dyed cross-sectional dentin area. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. No group showed complete sealing of root-end areas. The only significant factor affecting microleakage was dental material, with MTA exhibiting less leakage.
Tortorici, Silvia; Difalco, Paolo; Caradonna, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano
In this study, we compared outcomes of traditional apicoectomy versus modern apicoectomy, by means of a controlled clinical trial with a 5-year follow-up. The study investigated 938 teeth in 843 patients. On the basis of the procedure performed, the teeth were grouped in 3 groups. Differences between the groups were the method of osteotomy (type of instruments used), type of preparation of retrograde cavity (different apicoectomy angles and instruments used for root-end preparation), and root-end filling material used (gray mineral trioxide aggregate or silver amalgam). Outcome (tooth healing) was estimated after 1 and 5 years, postoperatively. Clinical success rates after 1 year were 67% (306 teeth), 90% (186 teeth), and 94% (256 teeth) according to traditional apicoectomy (group 1), modern microsurgical apicoectomy using burns for osteotomy (group 2) or using piezo-osteotomy (group 3), respectively. After 1 year, group comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Linear trend test was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001), pointing out larger healing from group 1 to group 3. After 5 years, teeth were classified into 2 groups on the basis of root-end filling material used. Clinical success was 90.8% (197 teeth) in the silver amalgam group versus 96% (309 teeth) in the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < 0.00214). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that surgical technique was independently associated to tooth healing. In conclusion, modern apicoectomy resulted in a probability of success more than 5 times higher (odds ratio, 5.20 [95% confidence interval, 3.94-6.92]; P < 0.001) compared with the traditional technique.
Yura, Shinya; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Izumiyama, Yuri
When a tooth with an apical lesion is identified, an apicoectomy is frequently performed when nonsurgical treatment is considered unfeasible or has previously failed. However, the treatment is usually difficult in molars. This article describes a minimally invasive procedure for removing a gutta-percha point under the maxillary sinus mucosa using an ultrathin arthroscope and a visualization approach in apicoectomy using an intranasal endoscope. These surgical techniques using endoscopes are minimally invasive and reliable procedures that provide limited incision and bone removal and respect the integrity of the maxillary sinus.
Mello, Guilherme P. S.; Paradella, Thais C.; Munin, Egberto; Mello, Jose B.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.
An apical filling material should establish, as perfect as possible, the hermetic sealing of an apical cavity. However, a gap is formed between the filling material (gutta-percha) and the root canal wall. The egress of irritants into the root canal system to the periapical tissues is considered the principal cause of fails in apicoectomy and retro-filling, being assumed that irritants penetrate mainly through the gap located between the gutta-percha and the dentin. In this paper, we report the observation of an enlargement of the apical gap, after laser apicoectomy, comparing to conventional apicoectomy. The samples were divided into groups, and the conventional apicoectomy group, together with the Er:YAG laser group (400 mJ/10 Hz) produced both similar results, being the gap unaltered. On the other hand, the samples that were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser, followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1.5 W/10 Hz) presented a larger gap, conclusions that were drawn from Scanning Electronic Microscope analysis. The enlargement of the gap was due to the fusion of the dentin on the border, close to the gutta-percha. This pronounced behavior might have been caused by the surface discontinuity, imposing a non-homogeneous condition, in relation to heat propagation, existing many clinical applications of these observations.
Arias de Luxan, A
A case report is presented of an upper central incisor with incomplete endodontic procedure evidencing a radiolucent image that was treated by apicoectomy and retroamalgam. A year later the periapical lesion had healed completely but a new lateral radiolucency is observed. A reentry of the canal is performed eliminating the old obturating material, biomechanical preparation and obturation with sealer and thermo gutta-percha. The lesion was cured in nine months.
Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika
The success of an apicoectomy with a retrofilling is dependent upon obtaining an acceptable apical seal. The placement of the variously approved retrograde materials requires adequate access, visibility, lighting, and a sterile dry environment. There are instances, however, in which it is difficult to use the rubber dam. One such instance is during retrograde filling. This case report highlights an innovative technique for rubber dam isolation of root end retrograde filling. PMID:26069419
Kirschner, H; Bolz, U; Enomoto, S; Hüttemann, R W; Meinel, W; Sturm, J
The operative procedure for partially replacing the root with A12O3 ceramic represents a good possibility for preserving teeth in which the pulpa is devitalized. The method used in connection with the well known autoplastic reimplantation not only presents an alternative to the traditional apicoectomy but also provides additional stabilization of the tooth by lengthing the root with cocotostabile and biocompatible A1203 ceramic. The method was tested in humans and monkeys. Argumentation was based on histological examination via light microscopy.
Taschieri, S; Weinstein, T; Rosano, G; Del Fabbro, M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the root apex of the upper incisors and neighbouring anatomical structures as well as the morphology of the root-end foramen after apicoectomy. Fifty-seven patients requiring endodontic surgical treatment for a maxillary anterior root were enrolled. A preoperative diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan was analysed to determine: the distance between the anterior wall of the nasopalatine duct and the central (CI-ND) incisor root 4mm from the apex; and the distance between the floor of the nasal cavity and the tip of either the central (CI-NF) or the lateral (LI-NF) incisor root. After apicoectomy, root-end foramen endoscopic pictures were taken in order to characterize their morphology. Fifty-nine central and 26 lateral incisors were evaluated. The average CI-ND was 4.71 ± 1.26 (SD) mm. The average CI-NF was 10.62 ± 2.25 mm. The average LI-NF was 13.05 ± 2.43 mm. The foramen shape after apicoectomy was ovoid to circular in about 90% of cases in both central and lateral incisors. A sound knowledge of the anatomical relationships at the surgical site is essential for the clinician to perform a safe endodontic surgical procedure. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Staribratova-Reister, K; Reister, J P; Attin, T; Martus, P; Kielbassa, A M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability in orthogradely filled, apicoectomised and retrogradely filled maxillary premolars with two canals and two separate apical foramina. The root canals of 51 extracted maxillary premolars of type IV were uniformly shaped and filled by means of lateral condensation and subsequently randomly divided into three groups of 17 teeth each. The teeth of groups II and III received an apicoectomy. In group III an additional retrograde seal (Ketac Fil) was applied. Group I served as control. All specimens were immersed in a methylene blue solution for 24 h. The teeth were cross-sectioned and the maximal dye-penetration was measured. The significantly least dye-penetration was observed in group II (apicoectomy only), followed by group I and group III. The differences among all groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). Most of the retrograde restorations in group III revealed circular colouration around the retrograde fillings extending to the gutta percha. Although the teeth of group II revealed the least dye-penetration, an apicoectomy cannot be favoured against an endodontic retreatment in maxillary premolars of type IV. The application of retrograde fillings using Ketac Fil must be considered critically.
Wada, M; Takase, T; Nakanuma, K; Arisue, K; Nagahama, F; Yamazaki, M
The morphology of the root apex was analysed by observation of the anatomy of specimens obtained by apicoectomy in cases of refractory apical periodontitis that did not respond to nonsurgical root canal treatment. Apical ramifications were present in 19 (70%) of the roots, while one were found in the remaining eight (3%) roots. This frequency is far higher than that reported by other investigators, suggesting that there is a close relationship between the anatomical complexity of the root canal and the occurrence of refractory apical periodontitis.
Fagan, David A; Oosterhuis, James E; Benirschke, Kurt
"Lumpy jaw" of artiodactyls and macropods, although often considered a manifestation of actinomycosis, is actually an osteomyelitis, perhaps commencing with a dental root abscess or trauma to the jaw. Anaerobes may be cultured from the lesions, and vegetable matter may be impacted in them. It is a chronic disease and difficult to treat. Successful treatment may include draining the abscess, cleaning the cavity with saline and antibiotics, flushing with a combination of hydrogen peroxide-sodium hypochlorite and Betadine, and apicoectomy and endodontic filling when active inflammation has subsided.
Hasselgren, Gunnar; Patel, Pratik; Alhassany, Hashim; Kunzel, Carol
Endodontic retreatment often involves remaking restorations. The total cost may steer the treatment towards surgery. The aim of this study was to retrospectively record the reasons for performing apical surgery in an economically deprived patient population. The clinical reasons (59%) for apical surgery were most common, but the nonclinical (financial) reasons (41%) emerged as a major cause. The finding that 41% of the apicoectomies were performed because of nonclinical constraints is a high figure and may not reflect the situation generally. Still, economic factors potentially play a major role in the selection of surgical versus nonsurgical endodontic retreatment.
Mairgünther, R H
Due to a new removable and compatible mass storage media, the ultimate model of the RadioVisioGraphy (RVG) system for X-ray recording without films offers an adequate possibility to store images as well as an easy way to transfer these data to other personal computers for digital image processing. By experiment we demonstrated a digital image subtraction procedure with public domain software, simulating a situation before and after apicoectomy. The result shows a good quality with a favourable relation between signal and noise.
Furusawa, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Hiroki; Ida, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Tatsuya
We report a case of apical fenestration misdiagnosed as persistent apical periodontitis. The patient was a 55-year-old woman who presented with persistent tooth pain at the right maxillary canine, despite repeated root canal treatment by a general practitioner. When the patient visited Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital, a CT examination was performed and apical fenestration diagnosed. The patient received an apicoectomy after which the symptoms disappeared. This suggests that dentists should consider the possibility of apical fenestration when examining patients with persistent tooth pain after repeated root canal treatment.
This paper describes the application of ropivacaine, local, amid, long-acting anesthetic in oral surgery. For infiltrative anesthesia, 0.75% of Naropin (ropivacaine) was used in eight patients undergoing various operations (maxillary sinus with oro-antral communication, extraction of upper and lower impacted wisdom teeth, cystectomy, apicoectomy and tooth extraction). The achieved anesthesia in all patients enabled analgesia in the course of the operation, and the expected intraoperative and postoperative bleeding, whereas postoperative analgesia lasted long enough (up to 380 minutes) to prevent the intake of analgesics. Side effects or local reaction on ropivacaine were not detected.
Pelka, Matthias; Petschelt, Anselm
Sodium hypochlorite is often used as an irrigation solution during routine endodontic treatment. Before recementation of a post-retained crown on the upper left lateral incisor, the root canal was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite. There was no root filling in the root canal, and the apex was open after an earlier apicoectomy. Sudden pain with swelling of the left face side occurred during root canal rinsing. Three years later, a paraesthesia still remained in the affected region and a paralysis of some mimic muscles in this region was observed. There were no signs of improvement.
Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Martorelli, Sergio B. F.
There is a need for further improvement on the level of apical sealing. The use of lasers on apical surgery is still not fully understood, however some good results have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the use of the CO2 laser following conventional apicoectomy and retrofilling with glass ionomer using different combinations of power and types of emission 'In Vitro.' Seventy extracted human upper anterior teeth were used on this study. The teeth after conventional apicoectomy were retrofilled with VitremerTM. The samples were randomized into seven groups of 10, Group I acted as negative control. Groups II, III and IV were lased on defocused mode with superpulsed CO2 laser on CW with power output of 0,5; 3 and 7 Watts during 5 seconds respectively. Groups V, VI e VII were lased on defocused mode with continuous emission on CW mode with power output of 1, 10 and 20 Watts during 5 seconds respectively. All specimens were immersed on 2% Methylene Blue solution during 48 h, washed in running tap water and longitudinally sectioned. Three calibrated examiners regarding apical infiltration graded the samples. The results showed difference between groups, where Group II showed smaller level of apical infiltration. It is concluded that improving on apical sealing is better achieved by using 0.5 W on superpulsed on CW.
Sabeti, Mohammad; Kermani, Vali; Sabeti, Sara; Simon, James H
Because herpesviruses might be etiologically involved in periapical pathosis of endodontic origin, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the expression of mRNA transcripts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, γ-interferon (IFN), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 in periapical granulomatous lesions collected in conjunction with apicoectomy. A total of 9 symptomatic and 6 asymptomatic teeth with periapical lesions were studied. Periapical samples were collected in conjunction with apicoectomy, which was being performed because of radiographic evidence of incomplete periapical healing after conventional root canal therapy. By using established polymerase chain reaction primers and procedures, polymerase chain reaction assays were used to identify herpesvirus and cytokine gene expression. The difference in occurrence of HCMV, EBV, and cytokines between symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions was statistically significant: HCMV (P = .048), EBV (P = .002), IFN (P = .001), IL-1 (P = .012), IL-6 (P = .026), IL-10 (P = .026), IL-12 (P = .012), and TNF (P < .001) (Mann-Whitney U test). There was a significant correlation between EBV, HCMV, and TNF, γ-IFN, IL-1, and IL-12 in symptomatic periapical lesions (Spearman test). The present findings provide evidence of a putative role of HCMV and EBV in the pathogenesis of symptomatic periapical pathosis. The release of tissue-destructive cytokines might be of pathogenetic significance. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berman, L H
Endodontics has gone through many changes in the past several years. Electronic apex locators and surgical microscopes have taken a lot of the guess work out of doing root canal. Digital radiograpy has expanded our diagnostic abilities. Ultrasonic intrumentation and the advent of new filing systems have increased the efficacy of canal cleaning. There have also been some major refinements in how we can now obturate canals. Apicoectomies can now be performed with refined ultrasonic root end preparations, and we have increased our ability to better seal root ends with new filling materials. The result is that endodontic procedures can now be performed more expediently and with a more predictable outcome. This article is written from the perspective of a full-time practicing endodontist, and describes the various changes occurring within the specialty of endodontics.
Huh, Jong-Ki; Shin, Su-Jung
This case report demonstrates an unnecessary endodontic treatment of teeth with florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) due to a misdiagnosis as periapical pathosis and emphasizes the importance of correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary treatment. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our institution for apicoectomies of the mandibular left canine and both the lateral incisors. The periapical lesions associated with these teeth had failed to resolve after root canal treatment over a 3-year period. Radiographic examinations revealed multiple lesions on the right canine, the second premolar, and both first molars as well as the anterior region of the mandible. Based on clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations, the patient condition was diagnosed as FCOD. The patient has been monitored for 2 years. To avoid unnecessary invasive treatment, accurate diagnosis is essential before treatment is carried out in managing FCOD.
This case report demonstrates an unnecessary endodontic treatment of teeth with florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) due to a misdiagnosis as periapical pathosis and emphasizes the importance of correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary treatment. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our institution for apicoectomies of the mandibular left canine and both the lateral incisors. The periapical lesions associated with these teeth had failed to resolve after root canal treatment over a 3-year period. Radiographic examinations revealed multiple lesions on the right canine, the second premolar, and both first molars as well as the anterior region of the mandible. Based on clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations, the patient condition was diagnosed as FCOD. The patient has been monitored for 2 years. To avoid unnecessary invasive treatment, accurate diagnosis is essential before treatment is carried out in managing FCOD. PMID:24010083
Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B; da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; Assaf, Jamal Hassan; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S
This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vidhale, Gaurav; Jain, Deepali; Jain, Sourabh; Pawar, Ganesh R.
Radicular cyst is one of the most commonly occurring cyst in the oral cavity it is usually preceded by trauma or an infectious condition which is followed by enlargement. In recent times there are several treatment procedures that are being applied in order to improve the postoperative condition and to accelerate the process of healing and regeneration in the affected site. A 22-year-old patient reported to our OPD with the chief complaint of swelling on the left side of the face since 2-3 months, on investigating it was diagnosed as Radicular cyst which was initially treated by endodontic treatment of the involved tooth followed by enucleation of the cyst further an apicoectomy was done. Finally a PRF and iliac crest graft was placed for aesthetic rehabilitation with 21. PMID:26266233
Surej Kumar, L.K.; Manuel, Suvy; Nair, Bindu J.; Nair S, Vinod
Introduction Glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare and recently recognized type of developmental odontogenic cyst. Being odontogenic in origin, because of the pluripotentiality of the odontogenic epithelium it can show glandular or salivary features. Presentation of a case A 46 year old female patient was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department with chief complaint of painless swelling in the right anterior region of maxilla, radiographically associated with teeth 12, 13. Mucosa over the swelling was slightly bluish in colour and no associated palatal swelling was seen. No incidence of trauma was reported and involved teeth were not mobile. Discussion Although we have many differential diagnoses, our working diagnosis was a periapical cyst, so conventional treatment of root canal treatment, cyst enucleation, and apicoectomy was planned. Conclusion Here we present a case which was initially misdiagnosed and mismanaged but on subsequent histopathologic examination revealed the final diagnosis. PMID:27093689
The purpose of this case report is to describe the usefulness of Periosteal Pedicle Graft (PPG) as a barrier membrane and Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA) for bone regeneration in periradicular bone defect. A patient with intraoral discharging sinus due to carious exposed pulp involvement was treated by PPG and DFDBA. Clinical and radiological evaluations were done immediately prior to surgery, three months, six months and one year after surgery. Patient was treated using split-thickness flap, PPG, apicoectomy, defect fill with DFDBA and lateral displacement along with suturing of the PPG prior to suturing the flap, in order to close the communication between the oral and the periapical surroundings through sinus tract opening. After one year, successful healing of periradicular bone defect was achieved. Thus, PPG as a barrier membrane and DFDBA have been shown to have the potential to stimulate bone formation when used in periradicular bone defect. PMID:28274066
Debevc, David; Hitij, Tomaž; Kansky, Andrej
Osteosclerotic lesions are a common finding on dental radiographs. They are considered developmental variants of a normal bone architecture and they usually do not need any treatment. The purpose of this article is to present a rare case of osteosclerotic lesion of the mandible causing trigeminal neuropathy by compression of the alveolar nerve. The pain started with dental hypersensitivity of the mandibular right first molar. Later on, signs of irreversible molar tooth pulpitis developed. Endodontic therapy and apicoectomy did not resolve the pain, which later intensified, and painful neuropathy localized to inferior alveolar nerve developed; therefore, surgical decompression was indicated. Treating a dental patient with neuralgic pain is always a challenge, especially if there is no obvious source or reason for this type of pain. A clear evaluation and treatment protocol are important to minimize the patient's morbidity and avoid unnecessary overtreatment.
Brito-Junior, Manoel; Faria-e-Silva, Andre Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; Moreira-Junior, Gil; Geber, Mauro; Camilo, Carla Cristina; Soares, Janir Alves
Absence of periapical healing after orthograde retreatment using an apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can require surgical intervention. A patient with a root-filled maxillary central incisor with chronic apical periodontitis and sinus tract was referred for endodontic retreatment. Excessive apical enlargement was verified, indicating an MTA apical plug placement; however, an unintentional extrusion of MTA occurred during this step. The root canal was filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and periodic recalls were scheduled. The sinus tract was observed after six months and the lesion remained unaltered, although the extruded MTA had resorbed; therefore, an apicoectomy and retrograde root-end filling with MTA were performed. Absence of sinus tract, normal clinical aspect, and complete repair of the lesion were observed at the two-year follow-up.
de Castro, José Carlos Monteiro; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Pedrini, Denise; Tiveron, Adelisa Rodolfo Ferreira; Brandini, Daniela Atili; de Castro, Mara Antônio Monteiro
Crown-root fractures in permanent teeth cause esthetic and functional problems. This paper reports the case of a complicated crown-root fracture in the maxillary right central incisor of a young patient who was treated with a multidisciplinary approach in two phases. A modified Widman flap, root canal therapy, glass fiber post cementation, and adhesive tooth fragment reattachment were performed shortly after an accident. Satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes were obtained. However, the patient did not attend follow-up visits and returned after 7 years. During this second phase, the clinical and radiographic examination showed stability and adaptation of the fragment and good periodontal health conditions, but crown darkening and a radiolucent image associated with the root apex of the fractured tooth were also observed. The periapical lesion was surgically removed by apicoectomy, and the esthetics were recovered with a direct composite resin veneer on the traumatized tooth.
Valladares Neto, José; de Pinho Costa, Sérgio; Estrela, Carlos
Root dilaceration refers to a dental anomaly characterized by an abrupt deviation in the longitudinal axis of the tooth. It can be localized in the crown, between the crown and the root, or, most frequently, in the root. This report describes a horizontally unerupted maxillary central incisor with distoangular root dilacerations most likely caused by a traumatic dental injury to its primary predecessor. Surgical-orthodontic traction was applied after the redistribution of the space in the anterior maxillary region. Root dilaceration of the tractioned tooth was evident and did not allow the alignment of the tooth into proper position in the dental arch. Root canal filling and apicoectomy were performed. This procedure restored the normal appearance of the anterior maxillary teeth. Long-term follow-up (8 years) by periapical radiography indicated stable periodontal health without the presence of root resorption. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Favia, G; Maiorano, E; Orsini, G; Piattelli, A
Primary intraosseous salivary gland tumors are rare, with mucopidermoid carcinoma being the most frequent histotype. The authors present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma, located in the mandibular incisor region, associated with pain. Endodontic treatment resulted in increased pain and progressive mandibular expansion. An apicoectomy was conducted, and an intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma was diagnosed at histological examination. The patient was treated by wide surgical resection, and is alive and well without recurrences or distant metastases 14 yr after the original diagnosis. The case presented herein calls attention to the preoperative clinical diagnosis of periapical lesions. Radiologically, focal sclerosing osteitis, cementoblastoma, cementifying and ossifying fibroma, periapical cemental dysplasia, complex odontoma, and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In addition the unusual occurrence of salivary gland tumors in intraosseous location stresses the importance of systematic histological examination of any tissue sample obtained after endodontic procedures.
Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin
Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kanumuru, Narasimha Reddy; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Sidharthan, A; Kumar, T S Sampath; Prasad, L Krishna
Background: Since ancient times, use of graft materials to promote healing of defects of bone is wellknown. Traditionally, missing bone is replaced with material from either patient or donor. Multiple sources of bone grafts have been used to graft bone defects to stimulate bone healing. Hydroxyapatite is naturally occurring mineral component of bone, which is osteoconductive. This versatile biomaterial is derived from many sources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of eggshell derived hydroxyapatite (EHA) in the bone regeneration of human maxillary cystic bone defects secondary to cystic removal/apicoectomy and compare the material properties of EHA in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of eight maxillary bone defects were grafted after cystic enucleation and/or apicoectomy in the year 2008 and completed the study at 1 year. The patients were followed-up 2 weeks after surgery for signs and symptoms of infection or any other complications that may have been related to surgical procedure. Follow-up radiographs were obtained immediately after surgery followed by 1, 2, and 3 months to assess the efficacy of EHA in bone healing. Physicochemical characterization of the EHA was carried out in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA), also compared the biocompatibility of EHA using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Results: By the end of the 8th week, the defects grafted with EHA showed complete bone formation. However, bone formation in non-grafted sites was insignificant. The values of density measurements were equal or more than that of surrounding normal bone. These results indicate that the osseous regeneration of the bone defect filled with EHA is significant. EHA showed the superior material properties in comparison with SHA. Conclusion: EHA is a versatile novel bone graft substitute that yielded promising results. Because of its biocompatibility, lack of disease transfer risks, ease of use and unlimited availability, EHA remains a viable choice
Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor
Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P < 0.001) and intraoral incisions (P < 0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P < 0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246
MOHR, BARBARA; WINTER, JOCHEN; WAHL, GERHARD; JANSKA, EMILIA
Squamous odontogenic tumors (SOTs) are benign, locally infiltrative neoplasms that localize to the periodontium. In total, <50 cases have been reported since the first description of SOTs in 1975. Although the exact etiology of SOTs is unknown, the tumors are considered to derive from the epithelial cell rests of Malassez. SOTs are characterized by radiological and clinical signs and symptoms, including pain with increased sensitivity in the affected area, bone expansion and increased tooth mobility. The present study describes the case of a patient that experienced numerous SOT recurrences and also discusses recommendations for treatment. A locally invasive mandibular SOT was identified in a Caucasian 41-year-old female patient. The treatment involved recommended conservative surgery, including local curettage. In addition, 49 cases published in the literature were reviewed to assess the treatment strategies. The present patient experienced two recurrences of the tumor during the 6-year follow-up period. Ultimately, the vitality of the adjacent teeth was compromised. An apicoectomy with a small amount of resection of the marginal bone was necessary. In >50% of the reported cases of SOT in the literature the adjacent teeth were extracted. The present case of SOT and the associated literature were also discussed. It was concluded that the treatment of choice appears to be a conservative surgical removal, but the successful management of SOTs often requires the removal of the adjacent teeth. PMID:26722231
McCauley, Mark C.
This presentation will demonstrate and discuss any surgical applications of the Argon dental laser. This presentation will also increase the awareness and basic understanding of the physical principals of the Argon laser. The wavelength of the Argon laser is specifically absorbed by red pigments such a hemoglobin which is abundant in oral soft tissue. The result is a sharp clean incision with minimal thermal damage to adjacent healthy tissue. Preprosthetic procedures such as full arch vestibuloplasty, labial and lingual frenectomy, and epulis fissuratum removal will be demonstrated. Other soft tissue management procedures such as minor periodontal pocket elimination surgery (gingivectomy), removal of hyperplastic granulation tissue from around poorly maintained implants, and the removal of granulation and/or cystic tissue from the apex of teeth undergoing endodontic (apicoec-tomy) surgery will also be demonstrated and discussed. Provided basic oral surgery protocol is followed, surgical procedures utilizing the Argon laser can be accomplished with minimal bleeding, minimal trauma and with minimal post-operative discomfort.
Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.
The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.
Siddiqi, Allauddin; Payne, Alan G T; Zafar, Sobia
Bisphosphonates are used for the standard of care of patients with skeletal metastases and hypocalcemia of malignancy. Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis (BION) is a serious complication. Clinically, BION presents as an area of exposed alveolar bone that occurs spontaneously or becomes evident following an invasive surgical procedure such as extraction of a tooth, periodontal surgery, apicoectomy, or oral implant placement. The mechanism by which bisphosphonates cause osteonecrosis is uncertain. There are no controlled trials to show a direct cause-effect relationship between bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bisphosphonate-induced necrosis is a rare clinical entity, less frequent, less aggressive, more predictable, and more responsive to treatment than IV forms of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. However, there have been reports of this complication with the less potent oral forms of bisphosphonates (0.007% to 0.01%). The morbidity of osteonecrosis of the jaw induced by IV bisphosphonates is significant, so prevention should receive prime importance. Patients should receive prophylactic dental examinations, and any necessary dental treatment before starting bisphosphonate therapy. Good communication among dentists, oral surgeons, physicians, and oncologists is of vital importance in providing care of these patients.
Koskela, Sanna; Suomalainen, Anni; Apajalahti, Satu; Ventä, Irja
The aim of this study was to analyze malpractice claims related to tooth extractions in order to identify areas requiring emphasis and eventually to reduce the number of complications. We compiled a file of all malpractice claims related to tooth extractions (EBA code) between 1997 and 2010 from the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre. We then examined the data with respect to date, tooth, surgery, injury diagnosis, and the authority's decision on the case. The material consisted of 852 completed patient cases. Most of the teeth were third molars (66 %), followed by first molars (8 %), and second molars (7 %). The majority of claims were related to operative extraction (71 %) followed by ordinary extraction (17 %) and apicoectomy of a single-rooted tooth (7 %) or multi-rooted tooth (2 %). The most common diagnosis was injury of the lingual or inferior alveolar nerve. According to the authority's decision, the patient received compensation more often in cases involving a third molar than other teeth (56 vs. 46 %, P < 0.05). The removal of a mandibular third molar was the basis for the majority of malpractice claims. To reduce the numbers of lingual and inferior alveolar nerve injuries, the removal of mandibular third molars necessitates recent and high-quality panoramic radiograph, preoperative assessment of the difficulty of removal, and consciousness of the variable anatomical course of the lingual nerve.
Tanaka, Saori; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Toshiki; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuko; Ikeda, Takatsumi; Sano, Hidehiko; Sidhu, Sharanbir K
Although 4-META/MMA-TBB resin has adhesive properties to dentin, and has been clinically used for the bonding treatment of vertically fractured roots and apicoectomy, there has not been any investigation on the adhesion of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to cementum. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding and the sealing ability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to cementum. Bovine root cementum and dentin surfaces were treated with a citric acid and ferric chloride solution, and the 4-META/MMA-TBB resin was applied on the treated surfaces before testing. The microtensile bond strength and the leakage levels obtained for the cementum were almost equal to those for the dentin. In SEM and TEM observations, a hybrid layer approximately 2-3 microm in thickness was observed at the interface between the resin and the cementum. It is concluded that 4-META/MMA-TBB resin adhered to cementum via a hybrid layer on cementum, as previously reported for dentin.
Travassos, Rafael; Soares, Bruno; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Silva, Monica Barros da; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; Mouchrek, José Carlos Elias; Silva, Vanessa Camila da; Benatti, Bruno Braga
The case report aimed at treating a fenestration-type defect with multidisciplinary conventional and advanced surgical techniques. Fenestrations are isolated areas in which the exposed root surface is covered only by the periosteum and gingiva, but the remaining cortical bone remains intact. Root coverage is indicated in cases of root hypersensitivity, treatment of shallow caries lesions, cervical abrasions, and esthetic and cosmetic needs. In this case report, after proper hygiene instruction and dental biofilm control, a fenestration-type defect was treated using guided tissue regeneration (anorganic bovine matrix and resorbable membrane) and a connective tissue grafts, associated to an endodontic apicoectomy. After reevaluation, the remaining gingival recession was treated with a second gingival connective tissue graft covered with q double papillae type in order to reconstruct the periodontal tissues of the involved tooth. In this clinical case, the interaction between the different areas of dentistry has made it possible to correct a fenestration-type defect, following procedures based on scientific evidence, restoring periodontal health, esthetics, self-esteem, and meeting the patient's expectations regarding her initial complaint. This case report shows the important role of interdisciplinary approach to treating a patient with a complex periodontal defect that required different types of knowledge and abilities to achieve the best results based on the current status of dentistry possibilities.
Alsalleeh, Fahd; Keippel, Jeffery; Adams, Lyde; Bavitz, Bruce
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well-known complication caused by amino-bisphosphonate therapy. We document one case of BRONJ associated with oral administration of methotrexate, a known immunosuppressive drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. A 66-year-old woman was referred for evaluation and endodontic surgery of recently re-treated tooth 13. Tooth 14 was extracted 3 months prior, and the extraction site had not completely healed. Her medical history revealed rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. She had been taking Fosamax (alendronate) 70 mg daily. Because of adequate root canal therapy of tooth 13, endodontic surgery was performed. Five months after apicoectomy, her symptoms had not changed. Tooth 13 was extracted, and the socket healed without complications. The socket of extracted tooth 14 was also healing. At the 3-month recall visit, bone exposure and purulent discharge at the site of extracted tooth 14 were noted. The patient had recently received methotrexate. The methotrexate was discontinued, and she was given course of amoxicillin. At the 18-month follow-up, the healing progressed, and the wound was closed. A medication that suppresses the immune system such as methotrexate may complicate the management of BRONJ. Once a diagnosis of BRONJ is made, a closely monitored conservative approach is recommended. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Bajantai, Nivedita V; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Rao, V K Prabhakar; Desai, Priti D
The aim is to radiographically quantify the bone density and relate the same with observer strategy in the bone healing. To assess pattern of bone regeneration following grafting of defects with hydroxyapatite after apicoectomy/cystic enucleation. An observer strategy involving trained and experienced examiners used in large series of cases, evaluated radiographically over a period of 1 year with intervals. The cases were grouped into different categories depending on (1) surgical site outline merging with material margin, (2) internal portion of surgical site (i.e. bone formation characteristics) and (3) density of surgical site. The radiographs examined by blind process and the findings were tabulated. Operating surgeon (oral surgeon) has done the interpretation of data to create observer strategy of grafting cases. The outline of the defect was changed, partly reduced and completely absent along with remodeling, which showed ground glass, specular or trabecular pattern of bone over a time with increasing density correlating bone regeneration within a short duration. The applied strategy and classification are recommended for follow-up studies. In this study the characteristics of the new bone formation were also delineated. This strategy is helpful for follow-up studies; implant procedures and so; to know quality and condition of bone after treatment.
Aydemir, Seda; Cimilli, Hale; Mumcu, Gonca; Chandler, Nicholas; Kartal, Nevin
The aim of this study was to evaluate cracks on root ends following resection and cavity preparation with a laser and two established techniques. If root canal treatment of a tooth fails, an apicoectomy operation may be indicated. Three millimeters of the root tip is resected and a cavity of similar depth with parallel walls is cut to receive a root-end filling. Sixty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were used. Their root canals were prepared with rotary instruments, and they were filled with gutta-percha. Twenty teeth were resected with tungsten carbide fissure burs, and their root-end cavities cut with tungsten carbide round burs at a slow speed (Group 1). The other 40 teeth were resected with an Er:YAG laser, and root-end cavities were made with the same laser (Group 2), or with an ultrasonically-powered zirconium nitride coated retrotip (Group 3). The number and types of cracks on the resected surfaces were assessed using a stereomicroscope before and after cavity preparation. Cracking was not significantly different between the more conventional group and the laser groups after resections (p>0.05) or following cavity preparation (p>0.05). In this in vitro study, the laser resection and root-end preparation technique did not influence the number or type of cracks formed on the root surfaces.
This study aimed to investigate the incidence of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) associated with endodontic procedures during 2009 in South Korea and to retrospectively evaluate information from CBCT with large field of view (FOV), which is popular in South Korea. The Health Insurance Review and Assessment agency, which reviews all medical and dental expenses covered under the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system, was queried for data on the nationwide number of CBCTs associated with some treatment procedures. To compare digital periapical radiography and CBCT retrospectively, 470 roots of 257 root canal-infected teeth were enrolled. In total, 13,209 cases of NHI-covered CBCT were performed in South Korea during 2009, excluding cases for implant restoration and orthodontics. In total, 1253 and 95 CBCT cases were combined with root canal length measuring and apicoectomy, respectively. In a retrospective comparison, CBCT with large FOV provided more information about the presence of apical periodontitis, distortion of cortical bone, and identification of root compared with digital periapical radiography. CBCT with large FOV is useful in nonsurgical endodontic treatment and provides more information compared with digital periapical radiography. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Jr, Eloi; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo
Despite the excellent properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the condensation technique may have some influence in its sealing ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of sonic and ultrasonic setting of MTA. Thirty-four extracted human teeth had their canals prepared and filled with Sealapex sealer and gutta-percha using the active lateral condensation technique. The teeth were rendered waterproof and apicoectomy performed at 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities (3.0 mm deep and 1.4 mm diameter) were prepared with diamond ultrasonic tips. The root-end cavities were filled with Pro-Root MTA® with ultrasonic vibration, sonic vibration or no vibration. The positive control group did not receive any material while the negative control group was totally rendered waterproof. After material set, the specimens were immersed in Rodhamine B for 24 h, under vacuum in the first 15 min, then washed, dried and split longitudinally for evaluating the infiltration at the dentin/material interface. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Sonic vibration promoted the lowest infiltration values (p<0.05). It was concluded that sonic vibration could be considered an efficient aid to improve the sealing ability of MTA when used as root-end filling material.
Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.
Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.
Ebihara, Arata; Iino, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Toshihiko; Hanada, Takahiro; Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Suda, Hideaki
Apicoectomy is performed for the management of apical periodontitis when orthograde root canal treatment is not possible or is ineffective. Prior to the surgery, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination is often performed to evaluate the lesion and the adjacent tissues. During the surgical procedure, the root apex is resected and the resected surface is usually observed under dental operating microscope (DOM). However, it is difficult to evaluate the details and the subsurface structure of the root using CBCT and DOM. A new diagnostic system, swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), has been developed to observe the subsurface anatomical structure. The aim of this study was to observe resected apical root canals of human maxillary premolars using SS-OCT and compare the findings with those observed using CBCT and DOM. Six extracted human maxillary premolars were used. After microfocus computed tomography (Micro CT; for gold standard) and CBCT scanning of the root, 1 mm of the apex was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Each resected surface was treated with EDTA, irrigated with saline solution, and stained with methylene blue dye. The resected surface was observed with DOM and SS-OCT. This sequence was repeated three times. The number of root canals was counted and statistically evaluated. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of detecting root canals among CBCT, DOM and SS-OCT (p > 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Because SS-OCT can be used in real time during surgery, it would be a useful tool for observing resected apical root canals.
Laureys, Wim G M; Cuvelier, Claude A; Dermaut, Luc R; De Pauw, Guy A M
Regeneration of pulp-like tissue in the pulp chamber after tooth transplantation, replantation, or in regenerative endodontic treatment is only possible if the apical foramen is open. According to the literature, the success of regeneration decreases considerably if the foramen is smaller than 1 mm when measured on radiographs. The aim of this study was to study histologically the relation between the width of the apical foramen and regeneration of tissue in the pulp chamber after autotransplantation. Fifteen single-rooted mature teeth of 3 adult beagle dogs were used. All experimental teeth were extracted and underwent apicoectomy. The teeth were photographed from the apical side, and the width of the foramen was calculated. The foramen width ranged from 0.24-1.09 mm. All teeth were replanted in infraocclusion. The observation period was 90 days after transplantation. The 10 teeth with the smallest apical diameter, ranging between 0.24 and 0.53 mm, showed vital tissue in at least one third of the pulp chamber. The 6 most successful teeth showing vital tissue in the entire pulp chamber had an apical diameter between 0.32 and 0.65 mm, and 80% of the experimental teeth with a diameter varying between 1.09 and 0.31 mm showed vital tissue in at least one third of the pulp chamber 90 days after transplantation. The size of the apical foramen seems not to be the all decisive factor for successful revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue after transplantation. The minimum width of the apical foramen has not been determined, but a size smaller than 1 mm does not prevent revascularization and ingrowth of vital tissue. In this animal study an apical foramen of 0.32 mm did not prevent ingrowth of new tissue in two-thirds of the pulp chamber 90 days after transplantation. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pitcher, Brandon; Alaqla, Ali; Noujeim, Marcel; Wealleans, James A; Kotsakis, Georgios; Chrepa, Vanessa
Cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis allows for 3-dimensional assessment of periradicular lesions and may facilitate preoperative periapical cyst screening. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the predictive validity of a cyst screening method based on CBCT volumetric analysis alone or combined with designated radiologic criteria. Three independent examiners evaluated 118 presurgical CBCT scans from cases that underwent apicoectomies and had an accompanying gold standard histopathological diagnosis of either a cyst or granuloma. Lesion volume, density, and specific radiologic characteristics were assessed using specialized software. Logistic regression models with histopathological diagnosis as the dependent variable were constructed for cyst prediction, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the predictive validity of the models. A conditional inference binary decision tree based on a recursive partitioning algorithm was constructed to facilitate preoperative screening. Interobserver agreement was excellent for volume and density, but it varied from poor to good for the radiologic criteria. Volume and root displacement were strong predictors for cyst screening in all analyses. The binary decision tree classifier determined that if the volume of the lesion was >247 mm(3), there was 80% probability of a cyst. If volume was <247 mm(3) and root displacement was present, cyst probability was 60% (78% accuracy). The good accuracy and high specificity of the decision tree classifier renders it a useful preoperative cyst screening tool that can aid in clinical decision making but not a substitute for definitive histopathological diagnosis after biopsy. Confirmatory studies are required to validate the present findings. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Guo, Jing; Simon, James H; Sedghizadeh, Parish; Soliman, Osman N; Chapman, Travis; Enciso, Reyes
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging against the histopathologic diagnosis for the differential diagnosis of periapical cysts (cavitated lesions) from (solid) granulomas. Thirty-six periapical lesions were imaged using CBCT scans. Apicoectomy surgeries were conducted for histopathological examination. Evaluator 1 examined each CBCT scan for the presence of 6 radiologic characteristics of a cyst (ie, location, periphery, shape, internal structure, effects on surrounding structure, and perforation of the cortical plate). Not every cyst showed all radiologic features (eg, not all cysts perforate the cortical plate). For the purpose of finding the minimum number of diagnostic criteria present in a scan to diagnose a lesion as a cyst, we conducted 6 receiver operating characteristic curve analyses comparing CBCT diagnoses with the histopathologic diagnosis. Two other independent evaluators examined the CBCT lesions. Statistical tests were conducted to examine the accuracy, inter-rater reliability, and intrarater reliability of CBCT images. Findings showed that a score of ≥4 positive findings was the optimal scoring system. The accuracies of differential diagnoses of 3 evaluators were moderate (area under the curve = 0.76, 0.70, and 0.69 for evaluators 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The inter-rater agreement of the 3 evaluators was excellent (α = 0.87). The intrarater agreement was good to excellent (κ = 0.71, 0.76, and 0.77). CBCT images can provide a moderately accurate diagnosis between cysts and granulomas. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Shuai; Sun, Yue; Fu, Yu; Chang, Datong; Fu, Cuicui; Wang, Gaonan; Liu, Yan; Tay, Franklin R; Zhou, Yanheng
Natural bone has a complex hierarchical nanostructure composed of well-organized collagen fibrils embedded with apatite crystallites. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds with structural properties and functionality similar to the natural bone. Inspired by bone, a collagen-apatite (Col-Ap) nanocomposite was fabricated with bonelike subfibrillar nanostructures using a modified bottom-up biomimetic approach and has a potential role in the healing of large bone defects in unresolved apical periodontitis. The bone regeneration potential of the Col-Ap nanocomposite was investigated by comparing it with inorganic beta-tricalcium phosphate and organic pure collagen using a critical-sized rodent mandibular defect model. Micro-computed tomographic imaging and histologic staining were used to evaluate new bone formation in vivo. When compared with the beta-tricalcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds, the Col-Ap nanocomposite scaffold exhibited superior regeneration properties characterized by profuse deposition of new bony structures and vascularization at the defect center. Immunohistochemistry showed that the transcription factor osterix and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 were highly expressed in the Col-Ap group. The results indicate that the Col-Ap nanocomposite activates more bone-forming cells and stimulates more vascular tissue ingrowth. Furthermore, the Col-Ap nanocomposite induces extracellular matrix secretion and mineralization of rat bone marrow stem cells. The increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 may contribute to the formation of a mineralized extracellular matrix. The present study lays the foundation for the development of Col-Ap nanocomposite-based bone grafts for future clinical applications in bone regeneration of large periapical lesions after apical curettage or apicoectomy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Martos, Ramón; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Serrera-Figallo, María A.; Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose L.
Objective: The objective of our study is to analyse (with the help of scanning electron microscopes) the quality of the dental root surface and the appearance of dental cracks after performing apical preparations using two diffe-rent types of ultrasonic tips. Study design: We used 32 single-rooted teeth that underwent a root canal and apical resection. Afterwards, the teeth were divided into 4 groups of 8 teeth each, with preparations of the apical cavities in the following manner: Group 1: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 33KHz. Group 2: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 30KHz. Group 3: diamond ultrasonic tip at 30KHz. Group 4: diamond ultrasonic tip at 33 KHz. The quality of the root surface and the presence of cracks were evaluated by one single observer using a scanning electron microscope. Results: All of the teeth in our study had cracks after the apical preparations. The mean number of cracks per tooth ranged between 6.1±1.9 (group 1) and 3.5±2.4 (group 4), with a significantly higher number found in the groups that used stainless steel tips (P=.03). The types of cracks produced involved: 8 complete cracks (4.5%), 167 incomplete cracks (94.4%), and 2 intradentinal cracks (1.1%), with no significant differences observed between the different frequencies used for each group. Conclusions: Stainless steel ultrasonic tips provoked a larger number of cracks than diamond tips. The frequency of vibration used did not have any effect on the number of cracks found. Key words:Apicoectomy, scanning electron microscope, therapeutic ultrasound, endodontic surgery, dentinal crack. PMID:22926471
Reister, Jan Philip; Staribratova-Reister, Kamelia; Kielbassa, Andrej M
The objective of this study was to compare the apical leakage in root canal filled, apicectomised and retrogradely filled maxillary single rooted premolars with two canals of type II configuration. For this purpose the root canals of 51 maxillary type II premolars were shaped to size ISO #55, followed by a step-back preparation to size ISO #80. Subsequently, all teeth were obturated by means of lateral condensation and randomly divided into three groups, 17 teeth each. Group I was used as a control, whereas in group II and III an apicoectomy was performed. Retrograde glass ionomer restorations (Ketac Fil) were placed additionally in group III. The specimens were exposed to methylene blue for 24 hours, then cross-sectioned, and the deepness of dye penetration was measured. Data were analyzed and tested for significant differences between the various groups (Mann-Whitney test; alpha = 0.05). The teeth in group II showed the lowest mean dye penetration. The differences were statistically significant, if compared to group I (p < 0.001) and group III (p < 0.001). The dye penetration in group I was significantly lower than in group III (p = 0.024). In teeth with lateral canals, the mean dye penetration was higher (3,557 microns +/- 1,337 microns) than in teeth without lateral canals (3,096 microns +/- 1,931 microns). The teeth in group III showed a circular dye penetration in nearly all cases. For clinical purposes, the application of retrograde glass ionomer fillings must be considered very critically.
Götz, Carolin; Reinhart, Edeltraud; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas
Intraoral soft tissue infections (OSTI) are a common problem in dentistry and oral surgery. These abscesses are mostly exacerbated dental infections (OIDC), and some emerge as postoperative infections (POI) after tooth extraction (OITR) or apicoectomy (OIRR). The main aim of this study was to compare OIDC with POI, especially looking at the bacteria involved. An additional question was, therefore, if different antibiotic treatments should be used with OSTI of differing aetiologies. The impact of third molars on OSTI was evaluated and also the rates of POI after removal of third molars were specified. Patient data was collected from the patients' medical records and the results were statistically evaluated with SPSS (SPSS version 21.0; SPSS, IBM; Chicago, IL, USA). The inclusion criterion was the outpatient treatment of a patient with an exacerbated oral infection; the exclusion criteria were an early stage of infiltration without abscess formation; and a need for inpatient treatment. Periapical exacerbated infections, especially in the molar region were the commonest cause of OIDC. In the OITR group, mandibular tooth removal was the commonest factor (p=0.016). Remarkably, retained lower wisdom teeth led to significant number of cases in the OITR group (p=0.022). In our study we could not define differences between the causal bacteria found in patients with OIDC and POI. Due to resistance rates we conclude that amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid seems to be the antibiotic standard for exacerbated intraoral infections independent of their aetiology. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel
Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation . Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area . Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.
Britain, Steven K; Arx, Thomas von; Schenk, Robert K; Buser, Daniel; Nummikoski, Pirkka; Cochran, David L
Chronic periodontic-endodontic lesions are not uncommon in clinical practice and their regenerative capacity has long been questioned. However, there are no published studies investigating the application of guided tissue regeneration techniques in combination with endodontic surgery using an induced perio-endo defect model. This study evaluated the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcomes of three surgical procedures used to treat induced perio-endo lesions. Pulpal necrosis was induced in foxhounds along with surgical removal of radicular buccal bone. After 4 weeks, chronic lesions were clinically and radiographically assessed. Treatment surgery consisted of apicoectomy, root canal instrumentation, and retrofilling with mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth were then assigned to one of the following treatment groups: open flap debridement only (OFD), OFD with bioabsorbable porcine-derived collagen membrane (BG), or OFD with BG and anorganic bovine bone matrix (BO/BG). Clinical parameters and standardized radiographs were assessed at defect creation; treatment surgery; and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Animals were sacrificed at 6 months and specimens prepared for histometric analysis. Clinical and radiographic conditions improved during the study period. Mean epithelial attachment was similar between all groups. Mean connective tissue attachment for groups OFD, BG, and BO/BG was 3.79 mm, 2.63 mm, and 1.75 mm, respectively, and mean radicular bone height was 2.16 mm, 3.24 mm, and 3.45 mm, respectively. Statistically significant increases in the amount of new cementum were observed in groups BG and BO/BG when compared with OFD (P <0.05). Treatment of combined induced perio-endo lesions using bioabsorbable collagen membranes alone or in combination with anorganic bovine bone matrix resulted in increased amounts of bone, periodontal ligament, and significant increases in the amount of new cementum when compared to open flap debridement in a canine model.
Wang, Hanguo; Li, Dan; Tian, Yu; Yu, Qing
To evaluate the outcome and the potential prognostic factors of apical microsurgery. The teeth with persistent periapical diseases were treated by microsurgery using micro instruments, ultrasonic retrotips and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) under dental operate microscope. The procedure includes incision and flap retraction, osteotomy, apicoectomy, retro- preparation and retro- filling of root canal. Patients were recalled at 1, 3, 6, and 12- month intervals. The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examinations, and the potential prognostic factors were analyzed. One hundred and eighty cases (240 teeth), including 132 upper anterior teeth, 22 lower anterior teeth, 31 upper premolars, 18 lower premolars, 19 upper molars and 18 lower molars, were treated by microsurgery between July 2010 and December 2012. A total of 152 cases (207 teeth) were recalled. The application of the apical microsurgery included failure of previous endodontic treatment, periapical lesion with post, periapical cyst, calcified canals, separated instruments, overfilling, open apex, root facture, failure of previous apical surgery, apical fenestration, and special root canal system. The success rate was 90.8% (188/207). Age, sex, tooth position, type of periapical radiolucency, fistula and clinical application type appeared to have a negative effect on the outcome. Endo-perio lesion was a significant factor. Eighteen cases (19 teeth) failed mainly because of periodontally involved lesion and vertical root fracture. Apical microsurgery, which combines the magnification and illumination provided by the microscope with the proper use of micro instruments, can treat the teeth with persistent periapical diseases precisely and less traumatically with high success rate. Case selection and standardized operations play a key role for success.
Rosa, R A; Santini, M F; Heiden, K; Só, B B; Kuga, M C; Pereira, J R; Só, M V R
The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the presence of gaps at the interface between filling material and three root-end filling materials. Thirty human upper molars disto-buccal roots were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and eugenol-based sealer. The apicoectomy was performed 2 mm from the apex and retrograde cavities were prepared with ultrasonic points (3 mm in deep). The samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 10): Group I-white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); Group II-Super EBA; and Group III-Portland cement. The root-end filling materials were inserted into the retocavities using a MTA carrier. After 48 h, the roots were transversally sectioned in order to obtain the apical 5 mm. Next, each specimen was prepared longitudinally with crescent granulation of abrasives water-wet sandpapers in order to expose the filling and root-end filling materials. Then, the specimens were subjected to slow dehydration with silica gel, mounted onto specific stubs and coated with paladium coverage for SEM analysis of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials. The percentage of gaps at the interfacial area was calculated by using Image Tool 3.0 software. Super EBA presented the higher percentage of gaps (1.5 ± 0.67%), whereas MTA presented the lowest values (0.33 ± 0.20%; p = 0.0004). Despite the statistical differences observed between Super EBA and MTA, all the root-end filling materials presented great adaptation to the filling material, presenting small amount of gaps. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Frank, Wilhelm; Madaus, Theresa
Background/Objective Progress in endodontic techniques and methodological advances have altered root canal therapy over the last decades. These techniques and methods need periodical documentation. This observational study determined the current prevalence of endodontic treatments, and investigated the relationship of various factors with the periapical status in a Lower Austrian subpopulation. Methodology One thousand orthopantomograms of first-time university adult patients radiographed at an outpatient clinic were evaluated. For each tooth, the presence of periradicular pathosis and/or endodontic treatment was recorded, as was the quality of (post-)endodontic treatment (homogeneity and length of root canal fillings; preparation failures; posts/screws; apicoectomies; coronal restorations). Two evaluators, blinded to each other, scored all teeth. In cases of disagreement, they joined for a consensus score. Results In all, 22,586 teeth were counted. Of these, 2,907 teeth (12.9%) had periapical pathosis, while 2,504 teeth had undergone root canal treatment. Of the endodontically treated teeth, 52% showed no radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, while 44.9% had overt apical lesions, and 3,1% revealed widened periodontal ligament space. The majority of the root canal fillings was inhomogeneous (70.4%); 75.4% were rated too short, and 3.8% too long. The presence of apical pathosis was significantly correlated (odds ratio (OR) 2.556 [confidence interval (CI) 2.076–3.146]; P<0.0001) with poor root canal fillings (length and homogeneity). Posts or screws positively affected periapical status (OR 1.853 [CI 1.219–2.819]; P = 0.004), but endodontically treated posterior teeth were infrequently restored (posts, 7.5%; screws, 2.7%). Best results were found for teeth with both appropriate endodontic treatment and adequate coronal restoration. Conclusion A high prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies was observed with root canal filled teeth, along with high numbers