Science.gov

Sample records for apoptosis related genes

  1. Apoptosis and apoptosis related gene expression in normal conjunctiva and pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Tan, D.; Tang, W. Y.; Liu, Y. P.; Goh, H.; Smith, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Pterygium is a relatively common eye disease in the tropics whose aetiology and pathogenesis remain uncertain. As such, interest has focused on understanding the underlying mechanism of pterygia development.
METHODS—15 specimens of pterygia from 15 eyes were examined, together with normal conjunctival tissue from the same eyes for the pattern of gene expression of genes associated with the induction or repression of apoptosis (p53, bcl-2, and bax). In addition, the samples directly for apoptotic cells were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase (TdT) mediated nick end labelling (TUNEL) methodology.
RESULTS—In pterygia specimens apoptotic cells were found mainly confined to the basal layer of cells of the epithelial layer, situated immediately adjacent to the fibrovascular support layer. These cells were shown to express significant levels of p53 and bax, as well as the apoptosis inhibiting protein bcl-2. In contrast, normal conjunctival specimens displayed no bcl-2 expression and apoptotic cells were seen throughout the entire width of the epithelial layer, coupled with high levels of bax expression.
CONCLUSION—These results support a model whereby pterygia development is a result of disruption of the normal process of apoptosis occurring in the conjunctiva.

 PMID:10655200

  2. Identifying Novel Candidate Genes Related to Apoptosis from a Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoman; Yuan, Fei; Kong, Xiangyin; Hu, Lan-Dian; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs in multicellular organisms. This process of normal cell death is required to maintain the balance of homeostasis. In addition, some diseases, such as obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, can be cured through apoptosis, which produces few side effects. An effective comprehension of the mechanisms underlying apoptosis will be helpful to prevent and treat some diseases. The identification of genes related to apoptosis is essential to uncover its underlying mechanisms. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify novel candidate genes related to apoptosis. First, protein-protein interaction information was used to construct a weighted graph. Second, a shortest path algorithm was applied to the graph to search for new candidate genes. Finally, the obtained genes were filtered by a permutation test. As a result, 26 genes were obtained, and we discuss their likelihood of being novel apoptosis-related genes by collecting evidence from published literature. PMID:26543496

  3. Apoptosis-related genes change their expression with age and hearing loss in the mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Sherif F.; D’Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    To understand possible causative roles of apoptosis gene regulation in age-related hearing loss (presbycusis), apoptotic gene expression patterns in the CBA mouse cochlea of four different age and hearing loss groups were compared, using GeneChip and real-time (qPCR) microarrays. GeneChip transcriptional expression patterns of 318 apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. Thirty eight probes (35 genes) showed significant differences in expression. The significant gene families include Caspases, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2 family, P53, Cal-pains, Mitogen activated protein kinase family, Jun oncogene, Nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-related and tumor necrosis factor-related genes. The GeneChip results of 31 genes were validated using the new TaqMan® Low Density Array (TLDA). Eight genes showed highly correlated results with the GeneChip data. These genes are: activating transcription factor3, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2, Bcl2-like1, caspase4 apoptosis-related cysteine protease 4, Calpain2, dual specificity phosphatase9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member12a, and Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member13b, suggesting they may play critical roles in inner ear aging. PMID:18839313

  4. Dynamic changes in the expression of apoptosis-related genes in differentiating gonocytes and in seminomas.

    PubMed

    Manku, Gurpreet; Culty, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an integral part of the spermatogenic process, necessary to maintain a proper ratio of Sertoli to germ cell numbers and provide an adequate microenvironment to germ cells. Apoptosis may also represent a protective mechanism mediating the elimination of abnormal germ cells. Extensive apoptosis occurs between the first and second postnatal weeks, at the point when gonocytes, precursors of spermatogonial stem cells, should have migrated toward the basement membrane of the tubules and differentiated into spermatogonia. The mechanisms regulating this process are not well-understood. Gonocytes undergo phases of proliferation, migration, and differentiation which occur in a timely and closely regulated manner. Gonocytes failing to migrate and differentiate properly undergo apoptosis. Inadequate gonocyte differentiation has been suggested to lead to testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) formation. Here, we examined the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes during gonocyte differentiation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, identifying 48 pro- and anti-apoptotic genes increased by at least two-fold in rat gonocytes induced to differentiate by retinoic acid, when compared to untreated gonocytes. Further analysis of the most highly expressed genes identified the pro-apoptotic genes Gadd45a and Cycs as upregulated in differentiating gonocytes and in spermatogonia compared with gonocytes. These genes were also significantly downregulated in seminomas, the most common type of TGCT, compared with normal human testicular tissues. These results indicate that apoptosis-related genes are actively regulated during gonocyte differentiation. Moreover, the down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes in seminomas suggests that they could represent new therapeutic targets in the treatment of TGCTs.

  5. Novel functional roles of caspase-related genes in the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, cleave substrates and play significant roles in apoptosis, autophagy, and development. Recently, our group identified 72 genes that interact with Death Caspase-1 (DCP-1) proteins in Drosophila by genetic screening of 15,000 EP lines. However, the cellular functions and molecular mechanisms of the screened genes, such as their involvement in apoptosis and autophagy, are poorly understood in mammalian cells. In order to study the functional characterizations of the genes in human cells, we investigated 16 full-length human genes in mammalian expression vectors and tested their effects on apoptosis and autophagy in human cell lines. Our studies revealed that ALFY, BIRC4, and TAK1 induced autophagy, while SEC61A2, N-PAC, BIRC4, WIPI1, and FALZ increased apoptotic cell death. BIRC4 was involved in both autophagy and apoptosis. Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter activity indicated that ALFY, BIRC4, PDGFA, and TAK1 act in a p53-dependent manner, whereas CPSF1, SEC61A2, N-PAC, and WIPI1 appear to be p53-independent. Overexpression of BIRC4 and TAK1 caused upregulation of p53 and accumulation of its target proteins as well as an increase in p53 mRNA levels, suggesting that these genes are involved in p53 transcription and expression of its target genes followed by p53 protein accumulation. In conclusion, apoptosis and/or autophagy mediated by BIRC4 and TAK1 may be regulated by p53 and caspase activity. These novel findings may provide valuable information that will aid in a better understanding of the roles of caspase-related genes in human cell lines and be useful for the process of drug discovery. PMID:27847434

  6. Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression in an Adult Cohort with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Guler, Nil; Eroglu, Cafer; Yilmaz, Hava; Karadag, Adil; Alacam, Hasan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Fletcher, Tom E; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life threatening acute viral infection characterized by fever, bleeding, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. It is a major emerging infectious diseases threat, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood and few data exist for the role of apoptosis in acute infection. We aimed to assess apoptotic gene expression in leukocytes in a cross-sectional cohort study of adults with CCHF. Twenty participants with CCHF and 10 healthy controls were recruited at a tertiary CCHF unit in Turkey; at admission baseline blood tests were collected and total RNA was isolated. The RealTime ready Human Apoptosis Panel was used for real-time PCR, detecting differences in gene expression. Participants had CCHF severity grading scores (SGS) with low risk score (10 out of 20) and intermediate or high risk scores (10 out of 20) for mortality. Five of 20 participants had a fatal outcome. Gene expression analysis showed modulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes that facilitate apoptosis in the CCHF patient group. Dominant extrinsic pathway activation, mostly related with TNF family members was observed. Severe and fatal cases suggest additional intrinsic pathway activation. The clinical significance of relative gene expression is not clear, and larger longitudinal studies with simultaneous measurement of host and viral factors are recommended.

  7. Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression in an Adult Cohort with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Nil; Eroglu, Cafer; Yilmaz, Hava; Karadag, Adil; Alacam, Hasan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Fletcher, Tom E.; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life threatening acute viral infection characterized by fever, bleeding, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. It is a major emerging infectious diseases threat, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood and few data exist for the role of apoptosis in acute infection. We aimed to assess apoptotic gene expression in leukocytes in a cross-sectional cohort study of adults with CCHF. Twenty participants with CCHF and 10 healthy controls were recruited at a tertiary CCHF unit in Turkey; at admission baseline blood tests were collected and total RNA was isolated. The RealTime ready Human Apoptosis Panel was used for real-time PCR, detecting differences in gene expression. Participants had CCHF severity grading scores (SGS) with low risk score (10 out of 20) and intermediate or high risk scores (10 out of 20) for mortality. Five of 20 participants had a fatal outcome. Gene expression analysis showed modulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes that facilitate apoptosis in the CCHF patient group. Dominant extrinsic pathway activation, mostly related with TNF family members was observed. Severe and fatal cases suggest additional intrinsic pathway activation. The clinical significance of relative gene expression is not clear, and larger longitudinal studies with simultaneous measurement of host and viral factors are recommended. PMID:27304063

  8. Cloning of apoptosis-related genes by representational difference analysis of cDNA.

    PubMed

    Hubank, Michael; Bryntesson, Fredrik; Regan, Jennifer; Schatz, David G

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis is frequently triggered by events that alter the expression of key target genes. Under these circumstances, the genes involved can be identified by techniques that analyze gene expression. Researchers now have a choice of reliable and effective methods for differential gene expression analysis. Comparative approaches, including gene microarray analysis, serial analysis of gene expression, and differential display provide global information about expression levels. Subtractive approaches like complementary DNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA) and suppression subtraction polymerase chain reaction identify a focused set of differentially expressed genes. The most suitable technique to apply depends on individual circumstances. cDNA RDA is particularly useful in nonstandard model organisms for which comprehensive gene microarrays are not available and is best used for the identification of genes with a large difference in expression levels between two populations. The technique involves the generation of amplified mixtures of cDNA fragments that are typically smaller than 1000 base pairs and represent >86% of mRNA species from each starting population. Transcriptional differences between two populations can then be identified by subtraction of cDNA amplicons followed by further polymerase chain reaction amplification. The technique is capable of detecting differences for genes expressed at less than one copy per cell and is achievable using standard laboratory apparatus. cDNA RDA can identify genes not previously described in the database, can detect low abundance transcripts (e.g., from mixed cell populations), and is best applied in experiments where relatively few differentially expressed genes are expected. Here, we describe the application of cDNA RDA to the identification of apoptosis-related genes.

  9. Apoptosis-associated genes related to photodynamic therapy in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Silva, J C; Ferreira-Strixino, J; Fontana, L C; Paula, L M; Raniero, L; Martin, A A; Canevari, R A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find the apoptosis molecular markers involved in the cell death that might be related to photodynamic therapy (PDT) mechanisms in breast cancer. The mammary tumors were induced in 25 Sprague-Dawley female rats by a single, oral gavage of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA; 70 mg/kg body weight). Animals were divided into four groups: G1 (normal, without DMBA), G2 (control, without PDT treatment), G3 (euthanized 48 h after PDT), and G4 (euthanized 24 h after PDT). For PDT experiments, the photosensitizer used was Photodithazine, and 100 J/cm of light at a fluence rate of 100 mW/cm was delivered to treat lesions. A sample of each animal was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR using Rat Apoptosis RT2 Profiler™ PCR Array platform. The results showed 20 genes with differential expression between PDT and control groups. A significant upregulation was observed for pro-apoptotic genes CASP4, CASP12, CIDEA, GADD45A, and FAS and downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes MAPK8IP1, TNFRSF11B, and NAIP2 in PDT-treated tumors. These results indicate that these genes are more directly involved in cell apoptosis induced by PDT.

  10. Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression Profiling in Hematopoietic Cell Fractions of MDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Langemeijer, Saskia MC; Knops, Ruth; Gilissen, Christian; Woestenenk, Rob; de Witte, Theo; Huls, Gerwin; van der Reijden, Bert A; Jansen, Joop H

    2016-01-01

    Although the vast majority of patients with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) suffer from cytopenias, the bone marrow is usually normocellular or hypercellular. Apoptosis of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow has been implicated in this phenomenon. However, in MDS it remains only partially elucidated which genes are involved in this process and which hematopoietic cells are mainly affected. We employed sensitive real-time PCR technology to study 93 apoptosis-related genes and gene families in sorted immature CD34+ and the differentiating erythroid (CD71+) and monomyeloid (CD13/33+) bone marrow cells. Unsupervised cluster analysis of the expression signature readily distinguished the different cellular bone marrow fractions (CD34+, CD71+ and CD13/33+) from each other, but did not discriminate patients from healthy controls. When individual genes were regarded, several were found to be differentially expressed between patients and controls. Particularly, strong over-expression of BIK (BCL2-interacting killer) was observed in erythroid progenitor cells of low- and high-risk MDS patients (both p = 0.001) and TNFRSF4 (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 4) was down-regulated in immature hematopoietic cells (p = 0.0023) of low-risk MDS patients compared to healthy bone marrow. PMID:27902785

  11. Identification of Aadnr1, a novel gene related to innate immunity and apoptosis in Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomei; Meng, Kun; Qiao, Jialu; Liu, Hao; Zhong, Chunyan; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-08-01

    Innate immunity and apoptosis play critical roles in defending pathogens in insects. In Drosophila, Dnr1 was reported as a negative regulator of apoptosis and immune deficiency (Imd) pathway which belongs to innate immunity. Aedes albopictus is an important kind of arbovirus vector and becoming a significant threat to public health due to its rapid global expansion. Here we identified an ortholog of dnr1 from A. albopictus, named as Aadnr1. Aadnr1 encoded a putative protein containing an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal RING domain. AaDnr1 shared high identity with dipteran insects Dnr1 orthologs. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the closest relative of AaDnr1 was Aedes aegypti Dnr1. Real-time PCR proved that Aadnr1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously during developmental and adult stages. Transcriptional levels of Aadnr1 were decreased drastically in C6/36 cells underwent apoptosis induced by Actinomycin D (Act D) treatment. Partial silence of Aadnr1 enhanced Act D-induced caspase activity. When challenged by heat-inactivated E. coli, transcriptional level of Aadnr1 was also decreased dramatically in C6/36 cells. While when C6/36 cells were infected with Sindbis virus TE/GFP, transcriptional level of Aadnr1 was reduced and recovered repeatedly, with an overall decreasing trend. It was also shown in this study that similar to Drosophila Dnr1, RING domain destabilized AaDnr1 protein. Taken together, the study identified an innate immunity and apoptosis related gene Aadnr1 in A. albopictus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Apoptosis-related genes confer resistance to Fusarium wilt in transgenic 'Lady Finger' bananas.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Becker, Douglas K; Dickman, Martin B; Harding, Robert M; Khanna, Harjeet K; Dale, James L

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Apart from resistant cultivars, there are no effective control measures for the disease. We investigated whether the transgenic expression of apoptosis-inhibition-related genes in banana could be used to confer disease resistance. Embryogenic cell suspensions of the banana cultivar, 'Lady Finger', were stably transformed with animal genes that negatively regulate apoptosis, namely Bcl-xL, Ced-9 and Bcl-2 3' UTR, and independently transformed plant lines were regenerated for testing. Following a 12-week exposure to Foc race 1 in small-plant glasshouse bioassays, seven transgenic lines (2 × Bcl-xL, 3 × Ced-9 and 2 × Bcl-2 3' UTR) showed significantly less internal and external disease symptoms than the wild-type susceptible 'Lady Finger' banana plants used as positive controls. Of these, one Bcl-2 3' UTR line showed resistance that was equivalent to that of wild-type Cavendish bananas that were included as resistant negative controls. Further, the resistance of this line continued for 23-week postinoculation at which time the experiment was terminated. Using TUNEL assays, Foc race 1 was shown to induce apoptosis-like features in the roots of wild-type 'Lady Finger' plants consistent with a necrotrophic phase in the life cycle of this pathogen. This was further supported by the observed reduction in these effects in the roots of the resistant Bcl-2 3' UTR-transgenic line. This is the first report on the generation of transgenic banana plants with resistance to Fusarium wilt. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Expression of apoptosis-related genes in liver-specific growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice is sex dependent.

    PubMed

    Gesing, Adam; Wang, Feiya; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Masternak, Michal M; Lewinski, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process that affects life span and health. Mice with liver-specific disruption of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene (ie, Ghr gene) liver-specific growth hormone receptor knockout [LiGHRKO] mice), as opposed to mice with global deletion of the Ghr gene (GHRKO; Ghr-/-), are characterized by severe hepatic steatosis and lack of improved insulin sensitivity. We have previously shown that levels of proapoptotic factors are decreased in long-lived and insulin-sensitive GHRKO mice. In the current study, expression of specific apoptosis-related genes was assessed in brains, kidneys, and livers of male and female LiGHRKO and wild-type mice using real-time PCR. In the brain, expression of Caspase 3, Caspase 9, Smac/DIABLO, and p53 was decreased in females compared with males. Renal expression of Caspase 3 and Noxa also decreased in female mice. In the liver, no differences were seen between males and females. Also, no significant genotype effects were detected in the examined organs. Lack of significant genotype effect in kidneys contrasts with previous observations in GHRKO mice. Apparently, global GHR deletion induces beneficial changes in apoptotic factors, whereas liver-specific GHR disruption does not. Furthermore, sexual dimorphism may play an important role in regulating apoptosis during liver-specific suppression of the somatotrophic signaling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Dendrosomal curcumin nanoformulation modulate apoptosis-related genes and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Maryam; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Zarghami, Faraz; Khodi, Samaneh; Mohaghegh, Mina; Sadeghzadeh, Hadi; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-07-25

    The side-effects observed in conventional therapies have made them unpromising in curing Hepatocellular carcinoma; therefore, developing novel treatments can be an overwhelming significance. One of such novel agents is curcumin which can induce apoptosis in various cancerous cells, however, its poor solubility is restricted its application. To overcome this issue, this paper employed dendrosomal curcumin (DNC) was employed to in prevent hepatocarcinoma in both RNA and protein levels. Hepatocarcinoma cells, p53 wild-type HepG2 and p53 mutant Huh7, were treated with DNC and investigated for toxicity study using MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed using Flow-cytometry and Annexin-V-FLUOS/PI staining. Real-time PCR and Western blot were employed to analyze p53, BAX, Bcl-2, p21 and Noxa in DNC-treated cells. DNC inhibited the growth in the form of time-dependent manner, while the carrier alone was not toxic to the cell. Flow-cytometry data showed the constant concentration of 20μM DNC during the time significantly increases cell population in SubG1 phase. Annexin-V-PI test showed curcumin-induced apoptosis was enhanced in Huh7 as well as HepG2, compared to untreated cells. Followed by treatment, mRNA expression of p21, BAX, and Noxa increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 decreased, and unlike HepG2, Huh7 showed down-regulation of p53. In summary, DNC-treated hepatocellular carcinoma cells undergo apoptosis by changing the expression of genes involved in the apoptosis and proliferation processes. These findings suggest that DNC, as a plant-originated therapeutic agent, could be applied in cancer treatment.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of viability- and apoptosis-related genes in Ascaris suum eggs under different culture-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Man; Cho, You-Hang; Youn, Young-Nam; Quan, Juan Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2012-09-01

    Ascaris suum eggs are inactivated by composting conditions; however, it is difficult to find functional changes in heat-treated A. suum eggs. Here, unembryonated A. suum eggs were incubated at 20°C, 50°C, and 70°C in vitro, and the gene expression levels related to viability, such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (IF4E), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and to apoptosis, such as apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) and cell death protein 6 (CDP6), were evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. No prominent morphological alterations were noted in the eggs at 20°C until day 10. In contrast, the eggs developed rapidly, and embryonated eggs and hatched larvae began to die, starting on day 2 at 50°C and day 1 at 70°C. At 20°C, IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was significantly increased from days 2-4; however, AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was not changed significantly. IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was markedly decreased from day 2 at 50° and 70°C, whereas AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was significantly increased. The expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 were detected for 9-10 days at 20°C, for 3-5 days at 50°C, and for 2 days at 70°C. Taken together, incremental heat increases were associated with the rapid development of A. suum eggs, decreased expression of genes related to viability, and earlier expression of apoptosis-related genes, and finally these changes of viability- and apoptosis-related genes of A. suum eggs were associated with survival of the eggs under temperature stress.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Viability- and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Ascaris suum Eggs under Different Culture-Temperature Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong-Man; Cho, You-Hang; Youn, Young-Nam; Quan, Juan Hua; Choi, In-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris suum eggs are inactivated by composting conditions; however, it is difficult to find functional changes in heat-treated A. suum eggs. Here, unembryonated A. suum eggs were incubated at 20℃, 50℃, and 70℃ in vitro, and the gene expression levels related to viability, such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (IF4E), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and to apoptosis, such as apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) and cell death protein 6 (CDP6), were evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. No prominent morphological alterations were noted in the eggs at 20℃ until day 10. In contrast, the eggs developed rapidly, and embryonated eggs and hatched larvae began to die, starting on day 2 at 50℃ and day 1 at 70℃. At 20℃, IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was significantly increased from days 2-4; however, AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was not changed significantly. IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was markedly decreased from day 2 at 50℃ and 70℃, whereas AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was significantly increased. The expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 were detected for 9-10 days at 20℃, for 3-5 days at 50℃, and for 2 days at 70℃. Taken together, incremental heat increases were associated with the rapid development of A. suum eggs, decreased expression of genes related to viability, and earlier expression of apoptosis-related genes, and finally these changes of viability- and apoptosis-related genes of A. suum eggs were associated with survival of the eggs under temperature stress. PMID:22949754

  17. Chlorogenic acid regulates apoptosis and stem cell marker-related gene expression in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Izawa, Yuri; Onodera, Daiki; Tagami, Motoki

    2017-09-05

    Previous studies indicated that chlorogenic acid, a compound present in many fruits and vegetables, has anti-cancer activities. We report that chlorogenic acid regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes and self-renewal-related stem cell markers in cancer cells. The lung cancer cell line A549 was cultured with or without chlorogenic acid. The presence of chlorogenic acid decreased cell proliferation as measured by MTT activity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that treatment of cells with chlorogenic acid reduced the expression of BCL2 but increased that of both BAX and CASP3. Chlorogenic acid enhanced annexin V expression as measured using fluorescently labeled annexin V. Chlorogenic acid also induced p38 MAPK and JNK gene expression. Meanwhile, several agents, including SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant inhibitor), dipyridamole (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), and apocynin (NADPH-oxidase inhibitor) blocked chlorogenic acid-induced BAX gene expression. Chlorogenic acid reduced gene expression levels of stem cell-associated markers NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2. Together these results indicate that chlorogenic acid affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes that are part of oxidative stress and p38 MAP-dependent pathways, as well as genes encoding stem cell markers. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid may contribute to the polyphenolic anti-cancer effect associated with consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  18. Effect of UVB radiation exposure in the expression of genes and proteins related to apoptosis in freshwater prawn embryos.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Heloísa; Jaramillo, Michael L; Quadros, Thaline de; Zeni, Eliane C; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2017-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation exhibited DNA damage, excessive ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased hsp70 expression, which are able, independently or together, to induce apoptosis. Thus, we attempted to elucidate some key apoptosis-related genes (ARG) and apoptosis-related proteins (ARP) and their expression during different stages of embryonic development, as well as to characterize the chronology of ARG expression and ARP contents after UVB radiation insult. We demonstrate that p53, Bax and Caspase3 genes are active in the embryonic cells at early embryonic developmental stages, and that the Bcl2 gene is active from the mid-embryonic stage. After UVB radiation exposure, we found an increase in ARP such as p53 and Bak after 3h of exposure. Moreover, an increase in ARG transcript levels for p53, Bax, Bcl2 and Caspase3 was observed at 6h after UVB exposure. Then, after 12h of UVB radiation exposure, an increase in Caspase3 gene expression and protein was observed, concomitantly with an increased number of apoptotic cells. Our data reveal that ARG and ARP are developmentally regulated in embryonic cells of M. olfersii and that UVB radiation causes apoptosis after 12h of exposure. Overall, we demonstrate that embryonic cells of M. olfersii are able to active the cell machinery against environmental changes, such as increased incidence of UVB radiation in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of serum TRAIL level and TRAIL apoptosis gene expression in multiple sclerosis and relation to brain atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tawdy, Mohamed H; Abd El Nasser, Maged M; Abd El Shafy, Sanaa S; Nada, Mona A F; El Sirafy, Mohamed Nasr I; Magd, Amany Hussien Abol

    2014-09-01

    One of the presumed pathological mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the failure of apoptosis of autoreactive T lymphocytes. This study aimed to determine the relationship of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA gene expression ratio and serum TRAIL levels with MS and brain atrophy. This study was conducted on 53 relapsing-remitting Egyptian MS patients and 25 matched healthy volunteers. The expression of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, serum levels of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and brain MRI measured "black holes" and the bicaudate ratio as a measure of brain atrophy in all patients. The serum TRAIL level was lower in MS patients compared to controls but no difference was seen in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio. No significant correlation was detected between the serum TRAIL level and the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio in either group. No statistically significant correlation was found between serum TRAIL levels or the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio with the number of black holes or the bicaudate ratio on MRI. Apoptosis of T lymphocytes is decreased in MS patients, which could be useful when designing treatments. There was no difference in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio between MS patients and controls.

  20. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on apoptosis of brain tissues in rats with acute cerebral infarction and related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Zhao, X; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Zhao, H; Chen, Y

    2015-06-11

    We investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on apoptosis of brain tissues in rats with acute cerebral infarction and apoptosis-related gene expression. Rat models of acute cerebral infarction were constructed using the suture method, and randomly divided into the control group, model, and treatment groups. In the treatment group, 4 mg/kg G. biloba extract was intravenously injected into the rat tail vein. Phosphate-buffered saline solution was injected in the model group. Seventy-two hours after treatment, rats were euthanized, and brain tissues were removed to analyze the changes in caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) mRNA and protein levels, and variation in brain tissue cells' apoptosis indices was measured. Compared with the control group, the model and treatment groups showed significantly upregulated caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax mRNA and protein levels in brain tissues, but remarkably downregulated Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05). After treatment, in treatment group brain tissues, caspase-3 and Bax mRNA and protein levels were significantly lower than those in the model group, while Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels were higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05). The model and treatment groups showed increased cell apoptosis indices of brain tissues compared to the control group; after treatment, the apoptosis index in the treatment group was significantly downregulated compared with that in the model group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, G. biloba extract significantly reduced apoptosis in rat brain tissue cells with acute cerebral infarction and thus protected brain tissues.

  1. Effect of thermal stress on expression profile of apoptosis related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal cow

    PubMed Central

    Somal, A; Aggarwal, A; Upadhyay, R.C

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of thermal stress on expression profile of genes related to apoptosis in peripartum Sahiwal cows. For this, twelve pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were selected from Livestock Research Centre at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The cows were divided into two groups consisting of six Sahiwal cows each. Cows of group I calved during thermoneutral temperature conditions (THI=67.3) and cows of group II calved in summer season (THI=79.9). Blood samples were collected on -15, 0 and +15 days with respect to calving where day ‘0’ represents the day of calving. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and total RNA was isolated for the BCL-2 (B-Cell Lymphoma-2), BAX (BCL-2 antagonist killer-1), BAK (Bcl-2-associated X protein), CASP-3 (cysteine-aspartic proteases-3) and P53 (tumour protien-53) mRNAs expression. It was found that there was up regulation of CASP-3 on the day of calving during both temperature conditions. Comparison between the two temperature conditions showed that expression of CASP-3, BCL-2, BAK, P53 and ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in PBMC increased during summer as compared to thermoneutral condition suggesting the susceptibility of these cells to apoptosis. Based on the above findings it can be concluded that during calving PBMC are more susceptible to apoptosis, and summer being more stressful potentiates the apoptosis of PBMC in Sahiwal cows. PMID:27175165

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand gene on human colorectal cancer cell line HT29

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang-Ming; He, Chao; Hu, Xiao-Tong; Fang, Bing-Liang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) gene on human colorectal cancer cell line HT29. METHODS: Human embryonal kidney cells transformed by introducing sheared fragments of Ad5 DNA (293 cell) were used for amplification of adenoviral vectors: Ad/GT-TRAIL, Ad/GT-Bax, Ad/GT-LacZ and Ad/PGK-GV16. Human colorectal cancer cell line HT29 was transfected with binary adenovirus-mediated TRAIL gene. Bax gene was used as positive control, LacZ gene was used as the vector control, and cells treated with PBS only were used as a mock control. The morphological changes, cell growth and apoptosis were measured by reversmicroscope, MTT method and flow cytometry. RESULTS: All adenoviral vectors titer determined by optical absorbency at A260nm were 1 × 1010 viral particle/ml(vp/ml). Obviously morphological changes of HT29 cells were observed when infected with Ad/GT-TRAIL, and these changes were much more obviously when Ad/PGK-GV16 was coinfected. The cell suppression percentage and the percentage of apoptotic cells were 52.5% and 16.5% respectively when infected with Ad/GT-TRAIL alone, while combining with Ad/PGK-GV16, the growth of HT29 was suppressed by 85.2% and the percentage of apoptotic cells was 35.9%. It showed a significantly enhanced therapeutic efficiency with binary system (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A binary adenoviral vector system provides an effective approach to amplify viral vectors that express potentially toxic gene, TRAIL. Ad/GT-TRAIL showed a significantly enhanced therapeutic efficiency for HT29 when coinfected with Ad/PGK-GV16. Ad/GT-TRAIL could induce apoptosis of HT29 and inhibit its growth. PMID:12717839

  3. Apoptosis-related genes control autophagy and influence DENV-2 infection in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Eng, Matthew W; van Zuylen, Madeleine N; Severson, David W

    2016-09-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary urban vector for dengue virus (DENV) worldwide. Insight into interactions occurring between host and pathogen is important in understanding what factors contribute to vector competence. However, many of the molecular mechanisms for vector competence remain unknown. Our previous global transcriptional analysis suggested that differential expression of apoptotic proteins is involved in determining refractoriness vs susceptibility to DENV-2 infection in Ae. aegypti females following a DENV-infected blood meal. To determine whether DENV-refractory Ae. aegypti showed more robust apoptosis upon infection, we compared numbers of apoptotic cells from midguts of refractory and susceptible strains and observed increased numbers of apoptotic cells in only the refractory strain upon DENV-2 infection. Thereafter, we manipulated apoptosis through dsRNA interference of the initiator caspase, Aedronc. Unexpectedly, dsAedronc-treated females showed both decreased frequency of disseminated infection and decreased virus titer in infected individuals. Insect caspases have also previously been identified as regulators of the cellular recycling process known as autophagy. We observed activation of autophagy in midgut and fat body tissues following a blood meal, as well as programmed activation of several apoptosis-related genes, including the effector caspase, Casps7. To determine whether autophagy was affected by caspase knockdown, we silenced Aedronc and Casps7, and observed reduced activation of autophagy upon silencing. Our results provide evidence that apoptosis-related genes are also involved in regulating autophagy, and that Aedronc may play an important role in DENV-2 infection success in Ae. aegypti, possibly through its regulation of autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Markers of apoptosis and proliferation related gene products as predictors of treatment outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mohammad; Al-Tonbary, Youssef; El-Bayoumi, Mohammed A; Hatem, Nadia; Hawas, Samia; Mansour, Ahmed; Marzouk, Iman; Hafez, Mona M; Yahia, Sohier; Farahat, Nahla

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study is to characterize markers of apoptosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in relation to treatment outcome of the disease. The study was performed on 34 children with ALL and 39 healthy children as a control group. Apoptosis was assessed by cell morphology; DNA fragmentation; ELISA and RT-PCR for CD95, CD95L, BcL-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB); and flow cytometry for CD95, CD40, CD49d and CD11a. Apoptosis was significantly lower in patients than controls. Apoptosis detected by CD95 ligand was significantly lower in cases with no remission after treatment than those who achieved remission. Anti-apoptotic factors: CD40, BcL-2, and NF-kappaB were all found to be higher in cases than controls and in cases with no remission than those achieved remission. CD49d was significantly lower in cases than controls, and significantly lower in cases with who did not achieve remission. CD11a levels were similar in the various groups. Delayed apoptosis of ALL cells is genetically controlled either directly or indirectly by a network of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. CD40 appeared to stimulate both T and B lineage and is considered the most potent influencer and predictor of resistance to therapy. Inhibitors for the activity of CD40, Bcl-2 and NF-kappaB as well as stimulants to CD95 could have a potential therapeutic benefit.

  5. Differential Expression of Apoptosis Related Genes in Selected Strains of Aedes aegypti with Different Susceptibilities to Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Clara B.; Caicedo, Paola A.; Jaramillo, Gloria; Ursic Bedoya, Raul; Baron, Olga; Serrato, Idalba M.; Cooper, Dawn M.; Lowenberger, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of Dengue viruses worldwide. We identified field collected insects with differential susceptibility to Dengue-2 virus (DENv-2) and used isofemale selection to establish susceptible and refractory strains based on midgut infection barriers. Previous experiments had identified higher expression of apoptosis-related genes in the refractory strain. To identify potential molecular mechanisms associated with DENv susceptibility, we evaluated the differential expression of Caspase-16, Aedronc, Aedredd, Inhibitor of apoptosis (AeIAP1) and one member of the RNAi pathway, Argonaute-2 in the midguts and fat body tissues of the selected strains at specific times post blood feeding or infection with DENv-2. In the refractory strain there was significantly increased expression of caspases in midgut and fatbody tissues in the presence of DENv-2, compared to exposure to blood alone, and significantly higher caspase expression in the refractory strain compared with the susceptible strain at timepoints when DENv was establishing in these tissues. We used RNAi to knockdown gene expression; knockdown of AeIAP1 was lethal to the insects. In the refractory strain, knockdown of the pro-apoptotic gene Aedronc increased the susceptibility of refractory insects to DENv-2 from 53% to 78% suggesting a contributing role of this gene in the innate immune response of the refractory strain. PMID:23593426

  6. Parental exposure to natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) induced changes in transcription of apoptosis-related genes in offspring zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Grześ, Irena M; Karlsson, Camilla; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Aleström, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is an integral element of development that may also be initiated by environmental contaminants. The aim of the present study was to assess potential changes in the regulation of apoptotic genes in zebrafish embryos following parental exposure to two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP). The mixture from Lake Mjøsa contained exceptionally high concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as relatively high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The mixture from Lake Losna contained background concentrations of POP. Genes involved in the apoptotic machinery were screened for their expression profile at four time points during embryonic development. Thirteen and 15 genes involved in apoptosis were found to be significantly upregulated in the high-exposure and background exposure groups, respectively, compared with controls. Modulation of apoptotic genes was restricted only to the first time point, which corresponds with the blastula stage. Although there were substantial differences in POP concentrations between mixtures, genes underlying the apoptosis process showed almost similar responses to the two mixtures. In both exposure groups the main executors of apoptosis p53, casp 2, casp 6, cassp 8, and BAX displayed upregulation compared to controls, suggesting that these POP induce apoptosis via a p53-dependent mechanism. Upregulation of genes that play a critical role in apoptosis suggests that disturbance of normal apoptotic signaling during gametogenesis and embryogenesis may be one of the central mechanisms involved in adverse reproductive effects produced by POP in zebrafish.

  7. Effect of bovine follicular fluid on reactive oxygen species and glutathione in oocytes, apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression of in vitro-produced blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Park, S-H; Cho, H-S; Yu, I-J

    2014-06-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during the in vitro maturation of oocytes affect oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development. Bovine follicular fluid (bFF) has an effective antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing oocyte maturation media with bFF from different size classes (3-8 and 9-13 mm) on the glutathione (GSH) and ROS levels of oocytes. Embryonic development and apoptosis, as well as the relative abundance of INFτ, BAX, BCL2 and HSP70 transcripts in blastocysts, were also monitored. Oocytes collected from ovaries were matured in TCM-199 with FBS (control) and 10% 3-8 mm (M), 9-13 mm (L) or a mixture of 3-8 mm and 9-13 mm (M + L) bFF. Glutathione and ROS levels in oocytes after 24 h were assessed by Cell Tracker Blue CMF2HC and DCHFDA staining, respectively. Apoptosis in day-8 blastocysts was assessed by TUNEL staining. The relative abundance of BAX, BCL2, HSP70 and INFτ transcripts was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GSH level was significantly higher in the L group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05), while the ROS levels in the M group were significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05). The apoptosis levels of blastocysts in the FBS group were significantly higher than those in the M + L group (p < 0.05), although the embryonic development did not differ between the groups. The HSP70 and INFτ expression levels in group M were significantly greater than in the controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in BAX expression between the groups. Supplementation with bFF from various sizes of follicles into the maturation medium was capable of supporting oocyte cytoplasmic maturation by decreasing the ROS. Moreover, bFF subsequently affected antioxidative gene expression, increasing HSP70 and INFτ expressions.

  8. Polymorphisms of the apoptosis-related FAS and FAS ligand genes in keratoconus and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Synowiec, Ewelina; Wojcik, Katarzyna A; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P

    2014-09-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a non-inflammatory eye disease characterized by progressive corneal thinning and asymmetrical conical protrusion of the cornea. Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a degenerative, slowly progressive disease of the corneal endothelium that is characterized by alteration in corneal endothelial cell morphology and progressive loss of these cells. They are unrelated eye diseases that may ultimately lead to vision loss. Their pathogenesis is largely unknown, although impaired apoptosis has been suggested to be responsible for both diseases. Therefore, we studied the frequency of the c.-671A>G polymorphism of the apoptosis-related FAS gene and the c.-844T>C polymorphism of the FAS ligand (FASLG) gene in patients with FECD (221 individuals) or KC (264) and controls (300). Each polymorphism is located within the putative cis-acting element of the respective promoter. Risk of KC or FECD was estimated with unconditional multiple logistic regression with adjustment for various factors, including age, sex, allergies, and family history. The T/T genotype and the T allele of the c.-844T>C polymorphism were associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the C allele was associated with decreased KC occurrence. The G allele of the c.-671A>G polymorphism was associated with increased occurrence of FECD, while the A allele was associated with decreased FECD occurrence. The C/C-A/A combined genotype was associated with reduced risk of FECD, whereas the T/T-G/A combined genotype increased risk of KC. In conclusion, variability in the expression of the FAS and FASLG genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of KC and FECD.

  9. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M; Ortega-Villaizán, María Del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1(-/-)) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1(+/+) ), rag1(-/-) acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1(-/-) fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1(-/-) zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1(-/-) zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies, it might

  11. Global effects of anchorage on gene expression during mammary carcinoma cell growth reveal role of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in anoikis.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, G S; Jin, Z; Ichikawa, H; Naito, A; Ohki, M; El-Deiry, W S; Tsuda, H

    2001-02-15

    Anchorage-independent growth is a hallmark of tumor cells. We compared gene expression profiles of anchored and nonanchored human mammary carcinoma cells to study this phenomenon. In this study, we show that anchorage had striking effects on cell growth and morphology but altered transcript levels from a limited number of genes. Only about 1% of mRNA transcripts detected in these cells was altered by anchorage. These include genes related to amino acid and polyamine metabolism, apoptosis, ion channels, cytoskeletal and stress proteins, transcription factors, and growth factors. Some of these may be crucial for the survival of transformed cells. For example, clusterin and the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) were suppressed by anchorage, which could help prevent programmed cell death of these tumor cells. In addition to suppressing TRAIL expression, anchorage also decreased the susceptibility of these tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis as determined by poly(ADP-ribose) phosphorylase cleavage, annexin-V binding (P < 0.01), and cell cycle analysis (P < 0.0001). These data may help explain mechanisms by which anchorage prevents apoptosis of cells that would otherwise experience anoikis. Thus, genes found to be altered by this analysis could serve as potential targets for anticancer therapy. These findings suggest that TRAIL may be used as a means to target circulating epithelial tumor cells before their attachment and colonization at new sites.

  12. Combination of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and canstatin gene suppression therapy on breast tumor xenograft growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Yu-Lin; Heng, De-Feng; Miao, Chuan-Hui; Cao, Ying-Lin

    2008-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene therapy and canstatin gene therapy have been investigated extensively in human xenograft tumor models established in immunocompromised nude mice. However, combination antitumor activity of these two agents and the safety of such gene constructs driven by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in nude mice have not been well documented. We hypothesized that TRAIL and canstatin gene therapy driven by the hTERT promoter might overcome the problem of liver toxicity and still effectively induce apoptosis on tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of TRAIL in human breast cancer cell lines and the antiangiogenic effects of canstatin on ECV204 cells. We also analyzed the effects of combined gene therapy using both TRAIL and canstatin in a human breast cancer nude mouse model. Tumor growth, tumor inhibition rate of each group, and toxicity were evaluated after gene therapy. Our results demonstrate that treatment using the canstatin- or TRAIL-expressing vector alone significantly suppresses tumor growth, compared to PBS or a vector control. We also found that combining these two therapies had greater antitumor activity than either treatment alone in the mouse model. Moreover, induction of apoptosis was not detected in normal mouse tissues after intratumoral injection of vectors and liver toxicity did not occur with either treatment. Thus, the combination of TRAIL and canstatin appears to be a promising approach for the gene therapy of breast tumors.

  13. Influences of CCK-8 on expressions of apoptosis-related genes in prefrontal cortex neurons of morphine-relapse rats.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guanghua; Tao, Luyang; Ma, Chunling; Wen, Di; Yu, Linsheng; Fan, Yanyan; Hu, Haiyan; Chen, Xiping; Chu, Yang; Gao, Yuan; Gao, Cheng; Wang, Haochen

    2016-09-19

    In order to elucidate the influences of CCK-8 on expressions of apoptosis-related genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3, of prefrontal cortex neurons in morphine-relapse rats, an effective, successful morphine-relapse-rat model using the conditioned place preference (CPP) under CCK-8 (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0μg, i.c.v) intervention was established. The prefrontal cortexes were made into slices with the cellular plasmas immunohistochemically stained. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 of neurons were evaluated through their scores, and each corresponding ratio of Bax and Bcl-2 (Bax/Bcl-2) was also computed. The results showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was very weak and those of Bax and Caspase-3 were hardly seen in group normal saline; the expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 were strong and that of Bcl-2 was weak in group morphine and compared to group normal saline, there were significant differences (P<0.05); the expressions of Bax, Caspase-3 and the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 have a gradually-decreased trend in the sequence of group 0.01μg, group 0.1μg and group 1.0μg, but the expression of Bcl-2 has an opposite trend in the same sequence, and compared to group morphine, there were significant differences (P<0.05) excluding group 0.01μg. So we draw a conclusion that CCK-8 (0.1 and 1.0μg, i.c.v) could protect neurons of prefrontal cortex through up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2, down-regulating those of Bax and Caspase-3 and reducing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the model of morphine-relapse rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M.; Ortega-Villaizán, María del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1−/−) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1+/+), rag1−/− acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1−/− zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1−/− zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1−/− fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1−/− zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1−/− zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies

  15. Changes in apoptosis-related gene expression and cytokine release in breast cancer cells treated with CpG-loaded magnetic PAMAM nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Taghavi Pourianazar, Negar; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-12-30

    CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) can function as an immune adjuvant. Previously, we showed that stimulation of breast cancer cells with CpG-ODN conjugated with PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNPs) has induced apoptosis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the expression levels of some apoptosis-regulating genes in several human breast cancer cells treated with CpG/DcMNPs. Treated MDA-MB231 cells showed an increase in Noxa and Bax gene expression levels, whereas the expression level of Survivin decreased. Similarly, Noxa gene was overexpressed in treated MCF7 cells. In treated SKBR3 cells, a decline in the c-Flip mRNA level was determined. Furthermore, release of cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, was determined in cell culture supernatants. CpG/DcMNP treatment leads to an increase in the release of IL-6 in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells, whereas release of IL-10 and TNF-α did not change significantly. It is indicated that CpG-ODN may show its cytotoxic effect by regulating the expression of apoptosis-related genes and the release of cytokine in breast cancer cells.

  16. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  17. Effects of nitrite stress on mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, immune-related genes and apoptosis-related proteins in Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinbin; Mao, Yong; Su, Yongquan; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Nitrite accumulation in aquaculture systems is a potential risk factor that may trigger stress responses in aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms regulating the responses of shrimp to nitrite stress remain unclear. In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of two apoptosis-related genes, caspase-3 and defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1), were cloned from Marsupenaeus japonicus for the first time, and their expression levels and tissue distribution were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The full lengths of Mjcaspase-3 and MjDAD-1 were 1203 bp and 640 bp respectively, with deduced amino acid (AA) sequences of 321 and 114 AA. Mjcaspase-3 was predominantly expressed in haemocytes and weakly expressed in the seven other tissues tested. MjDAD-1 was mainly expressed in the defense and digestive tissues, especially in the hepatopancreas and hemocytes. To explore the influence of nitrite stress on the genetic response of antioxidant enzymes, immune-related genes and apoptosis-related proteins, the mRNA expression profiles of MjCAT, MjMnSOD, Mj-ilys, Mj-sty, Mjcaspase-3 and MjDAD-1 in response to nitrite stress were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The mRNA levels of MjCAT, MjMnSOD, Mj-ilys, Mj-sty, Mjcaspase-3 and MjDAD-1 show both time- and dose-dependent changes in response to nitrite stress. The mRNA expression levels of MjCAT and MjSOD peaked at 6 h for all nitrite concentrations tested (p < 0.05) and the up-regulated of MjCAT and MjSOD exhibited a positive correlation with the nitrite concentration. The mRNA expression levels of Mj-ilys and Mj-sty gradually decreased during the experiment period. Mjcaspase-3 mRNA level reached a maximum at 6 h (p < 0.05), and MjDAD-1 reached its peak at 12 h and 48 h in 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L nitrite, respectively. In addition, CAT and SOD activity showed changes in response to nitrite stress that mirrored the induced expression of MjCAT and MjMnSOD, and prolonged nitrite exposure reduced the activity of CAT. This

  18. Gene Expression Profile of Colon Mucosa after Cytotoxic Insult in wt and Apc-Mutated Pirc Rats: Possible Relation to Resistance to Apoptosis during Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luceri, Cristina; Lodovici, Maura; Crucitta, Stefania; Caderni, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Apc-mutated Pirc rats, spontaneously developing intestinal tumours, are resistant to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- (DMH-) induced colon apoptosis. To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed the expression of genotoxic stress-related genes Mgmt, Gsta1, and Gstp1 in the colon of wt and Pirc rats in basal conditions and 24 h after DMH; plasmatic oxidant/antioxidant status was also evaluated. After DMH, Mgmt expression was increased in both genotypes but significantly only in wt rats; Gsta1 expression was significantly increased in both genotypes. Gstp1 expression did not vary after DMH but was lower in Pirc rats. Moreover, for each genotype, we studied by microarray technique whole gene expression profile after DMH. By unsupervised cluster analysis, 28 genes were differentially modulated between the two genotypes. Among them were interferon-induced genes Irf7, Oas1a, Oasl2, and Isg15 and the transcription factor Taf6l, overexpressed in DMH-treated wt rats and unchanged in Pirc rats. RT-PCR confirmed their overexpression in DMH-treated wt rats and showed a slighter variation in DMH-treated Pirc rats. Taken together, despite a blunted induction of Irf7, Oas1a, and Mgmt, defective apoptosis in Pirc rats 24 h after DMH is not mirrored by major differences in gene expression compared with wt rats. PMID:27840820

  19. Gene Expression Profile of Colon Mucosa after Cytotoxic Insult in wt and Apc-Mutated Pirc Rats: Possible Relation to Resistance to Apoptosis during Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Lodovici, Maura; Crucitta, Stefania; Caderni, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Apc-mutated Pirc rats, spontaneously developing intestinal tumours, are resistant to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- (DMH-) induced colon apoptosis. To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed the expression of genotoxic stress-related genes Mgmt, Gsta1, and Gstp1 in the colon of wt and Pirc rats in basal conditions and 24 h after DMH; plasmatic oxidant/antioxidant status was also evaluated. After DMH, Mgmt expression was increased in both genotypes but significantly only in wt rats; Gsta1 expression was significantly increased in both genotypes. Gstp1 expression did not vary after DMH but was lower in Pirc rats. Moreover, for each genotype, we studied by microarray technique whole gene expression profile after DMH. By unsupervised cluster analysis, 28 genes were differentially modulated between the two genotypes. Among them were interferon-induced genes Irf7, Oas1a, Oasl2, and Isg15 and the transcription factor Taf6l, overexpressed in DMH-treated wt rats and unchanged in Pirc rats. RT-PCR confirmed their overexpression in DMH-treated wt rats and showed a slighter variation in DMH-treated Pirc rats. Taken together, despite a blunted induction of Irf7, Oas1a, and Mgmt, defective apoptosis in Pirc rats 24 h after DMH is not mirrored by major differences in gene expression compared with wt rats.

  20. Scriptaid Upregulates Expression of Development-Related Genes, Inhibits Apoptosis, and Improves the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mini-Pig Embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Huang, Yuemeng; Wu, Yanjun; Si, Jinglei; Huang, Yanna; Jiang, Qinyang; Lan, Ganqiu; Guo, Yafen; Jiang, Hesheng

    2017-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms by which Scriptaid treatment improves the developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) mini-pig embryos in vitro. We found that treatment with 500 nmol/L Scriptaid for 15 hours significantly improved the development of mini-pig SCNT embryos. Compared with the control group, the blastocyst rate was higher (18.3% vs. 10.7%; p < 0.05). The acetylation level on H3K14 of the Scriptaid-treated group was higher compared with the control group in SCNT embryos at two-cell, four-cell, and blastocyst stages (p < 0.05). After Scriptaid treatment, histone deacetylase gene HDAC5 expression level was significantly decreased in four-cell embryos and blastocysts, while the expression levels of the embryos' development-related genes AKT, Oct4, and apoptosis inhibited gene PGC-1α were significantly increased in blastocysts (p < 0.05). The number of apoptotic cells per blastocyst in the Scriptaid-treated group was lower compared with the control group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that Scriptaid repressed HDCA5 gene expression, increased the acetylation level of H3K14, upregulated the expression of AKT, Oct4, and PGC-1α genes, improved embryos' development, and reduced apoptosis, which favors development of the SCNT mini-pig embryos to blastocysts.

  1. Genetic analysis of interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT): evidence for a key role for MHC and apoptosis related genes and pathways.

    PubMed

    Hasham, Alia; Zhang, Weijia; Lotay, Vaneet; Haggerty, Shannon; Stefan, Mihaela; Concepcion, Erlinda; Dieterich, Douglas T; Tomer, Yaron

    2013-08-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) have become increasingly recognized as a complication of interferon-alpha (IFNα) therapy in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Interferon-induced thyroiditis (IIT) can manifest as clinical thyroiditis in approximately 15% of HCV patients receiving IFNα and subclinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of patients, possibly resulting in either dose reduction or discontinuation of IFNα treatment. However, the exact mechanisms that lead to the development of IIT are unknown and may include IFNα-mediated immune-recruitment as well as direct toxic effects on thyroid follicular cells. We hypothesized that IIT develops in genetically predisposed individuals whose threshold for developing thyroiditis is lowered by IFNα. Therefore, our aim was to identify the susceptibility genes for IIT. We used a genomic convergence approach combining genetic association data with transcriptome analysis of genes upregulated by IFNα. Integrating results of genetic association, transcriptome data, pathway, and haplotype analyses enabled the identification of 3 putative loci, SP100/110/140 (2q37.1), HLA (6p21.3), and TAP1 (6p21.3) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of IIT. Immune-regulation and apoptosis emerged as the predominant mechanisms underlying the etiology of IIT.

  2. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF INTERFERON INDUCED THYROIDITIS (IIT): EVIDENCE FOR A KEY ROLE FOR MHC AND APOPTOSIS RELATED GENES AND PATHWAYS

    PubMed Central

    Hasham, Alia; Zhang, Weijia; Lotay, Vaneet; Haggerty, Shannon; Stefan, Mihaela; Concepcion, Erlinda; Dieterich, Douglas T.; Tomer, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) have become increasingly recognized as a complication of interferon-alpha (IFNα) therapy in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Interferon-induced thyroiditis (IIT) can manifest as clinical thyroiditis in approximately 15% of HCV patients receiving IFNα and subclinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of patients, possibly resulting in either dose reduction or discontinuation of IFNα treatment. However, the exact mechanisms that lead to the development of IIT are unknown and may include IFNα-mediated immune-recruitment as well as direct toxic effects on thyroid follicular cells. We hypothesized that IIT develops in genetically predisposed individuals whose threshold for developing thyroiditis is lowered by IFNα. Therefore, our aim was to identify the susceptibility genes for IIT. We used a genomic convergence approach combining genetic association data with transcriptome analysis of genes upregulated by IFNα. Integrating results of genetic association, transcriptome data, pathway, and haplotype analyses enabled the identification of 3 putative loci, SP100/110/140 (2q37.1), HLA (6p21.3), and TAP1 (6p21.3) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of IIT. Immune-regulation and apoptosis emerged as the predominant mechanisms underlying the etiology of IIT. PMID:23683877

  3. Brahma-related gene 1 induces apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hongli; Xing, Weipeng; Li, Wuyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Blocked apoptosis and aggressive inflammatory responses occur in fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Although Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) is considered as a tumor suppressor, few research covers its role in RA. This study aims to reveal effects and potential mechanisms of BRG1 in human FLS cell line MH7A. BRG1 expression in MH7A cells was altered by transfection of overexpression vectors or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry after transfection. Factors involved in inflammation and apoptosis were quantified by qPCR and Western blot. The interaction between BRG1 and p53 was assessed by immunoprecipitation (IP). Results showed that BRG1 overexpression significantly suppressed MH7A cell viability and induced apoptosis (P < 0.01), and its knockdown had opposite effects. BRG1 reduced mRNA levels of matrix metallopeptidase 3, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2, cyclooxygenase 2, and interleukin 6, implying its suppressive effects on inflammation. BRG1 interacted with and promoted p53 (P < 0.05). B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 was suppressed (P < 0.05), while cytochrome c, caspase 3 (CASP3) and CASP9 were activated (P < 0.01) by BRG1. However, the regulation on these factors was abrogated by p53 knockdown (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that BRG1 may induce apoptosis and suppress inflammation in MH7A cells. Potential functional mechanisms involve the regulation of apoptotic factors by BRG1, which may depend on the recruitment and promotion of p53. This study provides the essential proof for applying BRG1 to the molecular therapy of RA. PMID:28002318

  4. H3N2 canine influenza virus causes severe morbidity in dogs with induction of genes related to inflammation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are companion animals that live in close proximity with humans. Canine H3N2 influenza virus has been isolated from pet dogs that showed severe respiratory signs and other clinical symptoms such as fever, reduced body weight, and interstitial pneumonia. The canine H3N2 influenza virus can be highly transmissible among dogs via aerosols. When we analyzed global gene expression in the lungs of infected dogs, the genes associated with the immune response and cell death were greatly elevated. Taken together, our results suggest that canine H3N2 influenza virus can be easily transmitted among dogs, and that severe pneumonia in the infected dogs may be partially due to the elevated expression of genes related to inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:24090140

  5. Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.-C.; Pan, M.-H.; Li, L.-A.; Chen, C.-J.; Tsai, S.-S.; Guo, Y.L. . E-mail: leonguo@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-05-15

    Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification.

  6. Ketoconazole Treatment Decreases the Viability of Immortalized Pituitary Cell Lines Associated with an Increased Expression of Apoptosis-Related Genes and Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, M F; Carvalho, L R; Bronstein, M D

    2015-07-01

    Ketoconazole, which was initially developed as an antifungal agent, is a potent inhibitor of adrenal steroidogenesis and has therefore been used in the management of Cushing's disease. Surprisingly, the reduction of cortisol levels during ketoconazole treatment is not accompanied by the expected elevation in plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) at the loss of negative cortisol feedback from corticotrophic cells, suggesting a direct effect of ketoconazole on these cells. To characterize the direct effects of ketoconazole, we evaluated its in vitro effect on cell viability using the pituitary tumoural cell lines AtT-20 (which secretes ACTH), GH3 (which secretes growth hormone and prolactin) and αT3.1 (which secretes α-subunit) and we also determined the expression levels of genes involved in apoptosis and DNA replication by the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We also evaluated ACTH levels in AtT-20 cells during ketoconazole treatment. We observed a ketoconazole concentration-dependent decrease in pituitary cell viability and reduced ACTH levels in AtT-20 cells after removal of the drug. We also observed increased expression of cell death receptors (e.g. Fas, tumour necrosis factor receptor) and caspases (e.g., caspase-6, caspase-7, caspase-9), suggesting activation of the apoptosis pathway. In addition, we observed increased gene expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 in GH3 cells and increased expression of p21 in αT3.1 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ketoconazole significantly reduces cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner in pituitary tumour cell lines and is associated with an increase in apoptosis- and cell cycle regulation-related gene expression.

  7. Impact of broiler egg storage on the relative expression of selected blastoderm genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bakst, M R; Welch, G R; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2016-06-01

    Cool temperature storage of eggs prior to incubation is a frequent practice by commercial broiler hatcheries. However, continued storage beyond 7 d leads to a progressive increase in the rate of early embryonic mortality. In this study, we examined the relative expression of 31 genes associated with fatty acid metabolism (8), apoptosis (7), and oxidative stress (16) pathways to better understand the basis of embryo mortality during egg storage. A total of 642 broiler eggs in 2 separate trials were subjected to the following egg treatments: stored 4 d (Control 1, C1); stored 21 d but subjected to short periods of incubation during egg storage (SPIDES); stored un-manipulated 21 d (NonSPIDES, NS); and stored 4 d then incubated for 10 h to advance the embryos to the same developmental stages as the SPIDES embryos (Control 2, C2). Hatchability trials (277 eggs) confirmed the efficacy of SPIDES compared to NS treatments in both trials. To determine relative expression of 31 selected genes, 365 blastoderms were isolated, staged, and flash frozen in batches of 5 to 10 blastoderms per vial (7 vials per egg treatment) prior to RNA extractions. Analysis of gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR and the results presented as relative expression normalized to C1. The relative expression of genes in which the SPIDES and C2 treatments were significantly up- or down-regulated in tandem indicated that the stage-specific expression of those genes was maintained by the SPIDES treatment. This study provides the relative gene expressions of blastodermal cells before and after prolonged egg storage as well as insight as to how SPIDES impacts blastodermal cell gene expression.

  8. Cancer gene therapy targeting cellular apoptosis machinery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin-Tao; Chen, Si-Yi; Yang, An-Gang

    2012-11-01

    The unraveling of cellular apoptosis machinery provides novel targets for cancer treatment, and gene therapy targeting this suicidal system has been corroborated to cause inflammation-free autonomous elimination of neoplastic cells. The apoptotic machinery can be targeted by introduction of a gene encoding an inducer, mediator or executioner of apoptotic cell death or by inhibition of anti-apoptotic gene expression. Strategies targeting cancer cells, which are achieved by selective gene delivery, specific gene expression or secretion of target proteins via genetic modification of autologous cells, dictate the outcome of apoptosis-based cancer gene therapy. Despite so far limited clinical success, gene therapy targeting the apoptotic machinery has great potential to benefit patients with threatening malignancies provided the availability of efficient and specific gene delivery and administration systems.

  9. Methoxychlor and triclosan stimulates ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Young; Yi, Bo-Rim; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2014-05-01

    Methoxychlor and triclosan are emergent or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methoxychlor [MXC; 1,1,1-trichlor-2,2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl) ethane] is an organochlorine pesticide that has been primarily used since dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was banned. In addition, triclosan (TCS) is used as a common component of soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, and other hygiene products at concentrations up to 0.3%. In the present study, the potential impact of MXC and TCS on ovarian cancer cell growth and underlying mechanism(s) was examined following their treatments in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. As results, MXC and TCS induced BG-1 cell growth via regulating cyclin D1, p21 and Bax genes related with cell cycle and apoptosis. A methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay confirmed that the proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells was stimulated by MXC (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M) or TCS (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M). Treatment of BG-1 cells with MXC or TCS resulted in the upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of p21 and Bax transcriptions. In addition, the protein level of cyclin D1 was increased by MXC or TCS while p21 and Bax protein levels appeared to be reduced in these cells. Furthermore, MXC- or TCS-induced alterations of these genes were reversed in the presence of ICI 182,780 (10(-7)M), suggesting that the changes in these gene expressions may be regulated by an ER-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results of our investigation indicate that two potential EDCs, MXC and TCS, may stimulate ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an ER-dependent pathway.

  10. Apoptosis-, proliferation, immune function-, and drug resistance- related genes in ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolacinska, A; Chalubinska, J; Zawlik, I; Szymanska, B; Borowska-Garganisz, E; Nowik, M; Fendler, W; Kubiak, R; Pawlowska, Z; Morawiec, Z; Szemraj, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine an association between gene expression assessed using a 23-gene microarray and receptor status of breast cancer samples categorized as ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative subtypes. The ER positive cohort was subsequently divided into Luminal A, Luminal B HER2 negative and Luminal B HER2 positive subtypes. Core- needle biopsies were collected from 78 female patients with inoperable locally advanced breast cancer or resectable tumors suitable for downstaging, before any treatment. Expressions of 23 genes were determined by means of TagMan Low Density Arrays. Analysis of variance was used to select genes with discriminatory potential between receptor subtypes. We introduced a correction for false discovery rates (presented as q values) due to testing multiple hypothesis. Pairwise post-hoc comparisons of receptor subtypes were performed using Tukey 's HSD test. Five genes out of a 23-gene microarray differed significantly in relation to breast cancer receptor-based subtypes. Among these five genes, we identified: BCL2 (p=0.0002, q=0.0009), MKI67 (p=0.0037, q=0.0064), IGF1R (p=0.0040, q=0.0064), FOXC1 (p=0.0113, q=0.0135) and IRF1 (p=0.0435, q=0.0416) as ones showing ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative -subtype specific expression profiles. When incorporating Luminal A, Luminal B HER2 negative, Luminal B HER2 positive subtypes into analysis, four genes: BCL2 (p=0.0006, q=0.0034), MKI67 (p=0.0078, q=0.0198), FOXC1 (p=0.0102, q=0.0198) and IGF1R (p=0.0174, q=0.0254) were selected. Elevated levels of IGF1R and BCL2 were significantly linked with Luminal A subtype. Triple negative breast cancer subtype was associated with higher expression of IRF1, FOXC1 and MKI67. In HER2 positive cohort lower expression of all five analyzed genes was noted.

  11. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of apoptosis-related genes and pathways regulated by H2AX in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chengrong; Xiong, Min; Luo, Yuan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanjun; Dong, Yaqiong; Zhu, Yanjun; Niu, Tianhui; Wang, Zhe; Duan, Lianning

    2013-09-01

    Histone H2AX is a novel tumor suppressor protein and plays an important role in apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the role of H2AX in lung cancer cells is unclear. The detailed mechanism and epigenetic regulation by H2AX remain elusive in cancer cells. We showed that H2AX was involved in apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells as in other tumor cells. Knockdown of H2AX strongly suppressed apoptosis of A549 cells. We clarified the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis regulated by H2AX based on genome-wide transcriptional analysis. Microarray data analysis demonstrated that H2AX knockdown in A549 cells affected expression of 3,461 genes, including upregulation of 1,435 and downregulation of 2,026. These differentially expressed genes were subjected to bioinformatic analysis for exploring biological processes regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Gene ontology analysis showed that H2AX affected expression of many genes, through which, many important functions including response to stimuli, gene expression, and apoptosis were involved in apoptotic regulation of lung cancer cells. Pathway analysis identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and apoptosis as the most important pathways targeted by H2AX. Signal transduction pathway networks analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that two core genes, NFKB1 and JUN, were involved in apoptosis regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Taken together, these data provide compelling clues for further exploration of H2AX function in cancer cells.

  12. Effect of leptin during in vitro maturation of prepubertal calf oocytes: embryonic development and relative mRNA abundances of genes involved in apoptosis and oocyte competence.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Bladimir; Morató, Roser; de Frutos, Celia; Bermejo-Álvarez, Pablo; Paramio, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Mogas, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    During the in vitro maturation of adult bovine oocytes, leptin has beneficial effects on blastocyst development, apoptosis and transcription levels of developmentally important genes. The present study analyzes the differential effects of leptin on prepubertal bovine oocytes and cumulus cells. Effects were determined of leptin treatment during oocyte maturation on their developmental capacity after fertilization (Exp. 1), incidence of apoptosis in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) (Exp. 2) or on relative mRNA abundances of genes in cumulus cells and oocytes (Exp. 3). COCs were matured in serum-free medium containing 1 mg/mL polyvinyl alcohol and 0, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL leptin (L0, L10, L100, and L1000, respectively), or in medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) as a positive control. Addition of leptin during oocyte maturation had no effect on cleavage rates after fertilization (FCS, 68.6%; L0, 62.9%; L10, 66.9%; L100, 63.4%; L1000, 60.9%). Similarly, no significant differences in blastocyst rates were observed when oocytes were matured in the presence of L0 (8.4%), L10 (9.3%), L100 (6.7%), L1000 (8.2%), compared to control FCS (9.4%). In Experiment 2, maturation in the presence of 1000 ng/mL of leptin increased the proportion of TUNEL-positive cumulus cell (6.9%) with respect to those matured in the presence of FCS (4.96%), but not at the lower leptin doses. When relative mRNA abundances were examined for seven genes by qRT-PCR, five (TP53, BAX, DNMT3A, PGTS2 and LEPR) showed differences among groups. LEPR expression was significantly higher in the oocytes matured with FCS compared with the other groups and in those matured with PVA (L0) without leptin compared with the three groups of oocytes matured in the presence of leptin. In conclusion, the addition of leptin to the in vitro maturation medium used for prepubertal bovine oocytes does not increase the development potential of the oocytes or reduce the percentage of apoptosis in cumulus cells

  13. Effects of FGF10 on bovine oocyte meiosis progression, apoptosis, embryo development and relative abundance of developmentally important genes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pomini Pinto, R F; Fontes, P K; Loureiro, B; Sousa Castilho, A C; Sousa Ticianelli, J; Montanari Razza, E; Satrapa, R A; Buratini, J; Moraes Barros, C

    2015-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) acts at the cumulus oocyte complex, increasing the expression of cumulus cell expansion-related genes and oocyte competency genes. We tested the hypothesis that addition of FGF10 to the maturation medium improves oocyte maturation, decreases the percentage of apoptotic oocytes and increases development to the blastocyst stage while increasing the relative abundance of developmentally important genes (COX2, CDX2 and PLAC8). In all experiments, oocytes were matured for 22 h in TCM-199 supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10 or 50 ng/ml FGF10. In Experiment 1, after maturation, oocytes were stained with Hoechst to evaluate meiosis progression (metaphase I, intermediary phases and extrusion of the first polar body) and submitted to the TUNEL assay to evaluate apoptosis. In Experiment 2, oocytes were fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts were frozen for analysis of COX2, CDX2 and PLAC8 relative abundance. In Experiment 1, 2.5 ng/ml FGF10 increased (p < 0.05) the percentage of oocytes with extrusion of the first polar body (35%) compared to 0, 10 and 50 ng/ml FGF10 (21, 14 and 12%, respectively) and FGF10 decreased the percentage of oocytes that were TUNEL positive in all doses studied. In Experiment 2, there was no difference in the percentage of oocytes becoming blastocysts between treatments and control. Real-time RT-PCR showed a tendency of 50 ng/ml FGF10 to increase the relative abundance of COX2 and PLAC8 and of 10 ng/ml FGF10 to increase CDX2. In conclusion, the addition of FGF10 to the oocyte maturation medium improves oocyte maturation in vitro, decreases the percentage of apoptotic oocytes and tends to increase the relative abundance of developmentally important genes.

  14. DECREASED EXPRESSION LEVEL OF APOPTOSIS-RELATED GENES AND/OR PROTEINS IN SKELETAL MUSCLES, BUT NOT IN HEARTS, OF GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Gesing, Adam; Masternak, Michal M.; Wang, Feiya; Lewinski, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Bartke, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The long-lived growth hormone (GH) receptor knockout (GHRKO; KO) mice are GH resistant due to targeted disruption of the GH receptor (Ghr) gene. Apoptosis is a physiological process in which cells play an active role in their own death and is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Aging is associated with the progressive loss of strength of skeletal and heart muscles. Calorie restriction (CR) is a well known experimental model to delay aging and increase lifespan. The aim of the study was to examine the expression of the following apoptosis-related genes: caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, bax, bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, p53 and cytochrome c1 (cyc1) in the skeletal muscles and hearts of female normal and GHRKO mice, fed ad libitum or subjected to 40% CR for 6 months, starting at 2 months of age. Moreover, skeletal muscle caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, bax, bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Apaf-1, bad, phospho-bad (pbad), phospho-p53 (pp53) and cytochrome c (cyc) protein expression levels were assessed. Results Expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, bax and Smac/DIABLO genes and proteins was decreased in GHRKO’s skeletal muscles. The Apaf-1 protein expression also was diminished in this tissue. In contrast, bcl-2 and pbad protein levels were increased in skeletal muscles in knockouts. No changes were demonstrated for the examined genes expression in GHRKO’s hearts except for the increased level of cyc1 mRNA. CR did not alter the expression of the examined genes and proteins in skeletal muscles of knockouts vs. normal (N) mice. In heart homogenates, CR increased caspase-3 mRNA level as compared to ad libitum (AL) mice. Conclusion decreased expression of certain pro-apoptotic genes and/or proteins may constitute the potential mechanism of prolonged longevity in GHRKO mice, protecting these animals from aging; this potential beneficial mechanism is not affected by calorie restriction. PMID:21321312

  15. Correlation between preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma and tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand gene expression in different types of leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhui; Chi, Kaikai; Zhang, Yin; Ma, Baogen; Shi, Jie; Chen, Yuqing; Lei, Pingchong; Li, Yulong; Sun, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) down-regulation by preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) is a general phenomenon in different types of solid tumours, but research on the correlation between PRAME and TRAIL gene expression in leukaemia patients is rare. PRAME and TRAIL expression was detected in bone marrow samples from 80 newly diagnosed acute leukaemia (AL) patients and 40 chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients using TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR methods, and a linear correlation analysis was performed on their levels of expression. A total of 15 normal bone marrow samples from individuals with non-malignant haematological diseases served as normal controls. PRAME expression was higher in both AL and CML patients compared to controls (both p < 0.001). CML patients in both blast crisis (BC) and the accelerated phase (AP) had significantly higher PRAME levels than CML patients in the chronic phase (CP) (p = 0.006 and 0.0461, respectively). TRAIL expression was higher in both the acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) group and the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) group than in the controls (p = 0.039 and 0.047, respectively). In contrast, CML patients had lower TRAIL levels than controls (p = 0.043), and TRAIL expression in CML patients in the advanced phases (BC and AP) was significantly lower than in CML-CP patients (p = 0.006). In CML patients, there was a significant inverse correlation (Spearman's R = -0.6669, p < 0.0001) between PRAME and TRAIL gene expression, while a greater significant inverse correlation was found in patients in the advanced phases (BC and AP) (R = -0.6764). In addition, no correlation was observed in AML and ALL patients. The simultaneous detection of PRAME and TRAIL gene expression may be helpful to monitor condition changes in leukaemia patients and evaluate therapeutic effects in clinical practice, particularly in CML patients. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Interferon Stimulated Gene 54 Promotes Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Stawowczyk, Marcin; Van Scoy, Sarah; Kumar, K. Prasanna; Reich, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of interferons (IFNs) to inhibit viral replication and cellular proliferation is well established, but the specific contribution of each IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) to these biological responses remains to be completely understood. In this report we demonstrate that ISG54, also known as IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (IFIT2), is a mediator of apoptosis. Expression of ISG54, independent of IFN stimulation, elicits apoptotic cell death. Cell death and apoptosis were quantified by propidium iodide uptake and annexin-V staining, respectively. The activation of caspase-3, a key mediator of the execution phase of apoptosis, was clearly apparent in cells expressing ISG54. The anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-xl (Bcl-xl) protein inhibited the apoptotic effects of ISG54 as did the anti-apoptotic adenoviral E1B-19K protein. In addition, ISG54 was not able to promote cell death in the absence of pro-apoptotic Bcl family members, Bax and Bak. Analyses of binding partners of ISG54 revealed association with two homologous proteins, ISG56/IFIT1 and ISG60/IFIT3. In addition, ISG60 binding negatively regulates the apoptotic effects of ISG54. The results reveal a previously unidentified role of ISG54 in the induction of apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and shed new light on the mechanism by which IFN elicits anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. PMID:21190939

  17. Apoptosis Induction by Polygonum minus is related to antioxidant capacity, alterations in expression of apoptotic-related genes, and S-phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ghazali, Mohd Alfazari; Al-Naqeb, Ghanya; Krishnan Selvarajan, Kesavanarayanan; Hazizul Hasan, Mizaton; Adam, Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae) is a medicinal herb distributed throughout eastern Asia. The present study investigated antiproliferative effect of P. minus and its possible mechanisms. Four extracts (petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) were prepared by cold maceration. Extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antiproliferative assays; the most bioactive was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography into seven fractions (F1-F7). Antioxidant activity was measured via total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most active fraction was tested for apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Apoptotic-related gene expression was studied by RT-PCR. Ethyl acetate extract was bioactive in initial assays. Its fraction, F7, exhibited highest antioxidant capacity (TPC; 113.16 ± 6.2 mg GAE/g extract, DPPH; EC50: 30.5 ± 3.2 μg/mL, FRAP; 1169 ± 20.3 μmol Fe (II)/mg extract) and selective antiproliferative effect (IC50: 25.75 ± 1.5 μg/mL). F7 induced apoptosis in concentration- and time-dependent manner and caused cell cycle arrest at S-phase. Upregulation of proapoptotic genes (Bax, p53, and caspase-3) and downregulation of antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, were observed. In conclusion, F7 was antiproliferative to HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and via antioxidative effects.

  18. Apoptosis Induction by Polygonum minus Is Related to Antioxidant Capacity, Alterations in Expression of Apoptotic-Related Genes, and S-Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in HepG2 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ghazali, Mohd Alfazari; Al-Naqeb, Ghanya; Krishnan Selvarajan, Kesavanarayanan; Hazizul Hasan, Mizaton; Adam, Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae) is a medicinal herb distributed throughout eastern Asia. The present study investigated antiproliferative effect of P. minus and its possible mechanisms. Four extracts (petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) were prepared by cold maceration. Extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antiproliferative assays; the most bioactive was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography into seven fractions (F1–F7). Antioxidant activity was measured via total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most active fraction was tested for apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Apoptotic-related gene expression was studied by RT-PCR. Ethyl acetate extract was bioactive in initial assays. Its fraction, F7, exhibited highest antioxidant capacity (TPC; 113.16 ± 6.2 mg GAE/g extract, DPPH; EC50: 30.5 ± 3.2 μg/mL, FRAP; 1169 ± 20.3 μmol Fe (II)/mg extract) and selective antiproliferative effect (IC50: 25.75 ± 1.5 μg/mL). F7 induced apoptosis in concentration- and time-dependent manner and caused cell cycle arrest at S-phase. Upregulation of proapoptotic genes (Bax, p53, and caspase-3) and downregulation of antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, were observed. In conclusion, F7 was antiproliferative to HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and via antioxidative effects. PMID:24955361

  19. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  20. Expression of the apoptosis gene reaper in homeotic, segmentation and other mutants in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Stein, M A Sokrates; Lohmann, Ingrid

    2009-06-01

    Apoptosis is an essential process required for development and morphogenesis in metazoan organisms. The apoptosis pathway and cell death machinery have been extensively studied, but little is known how apoptosis genes are regulated in the course of development . In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper (rpr) by performing whole-mount in situ hybridization in embryos mutant for a number of transcription factor genes in Drosophila melanogaster. In sum, our data show that all factors studied have very specific temporal and spatial effects on rpr transcription . Thus, our results reinforce the concept that apoptosis is an essential process for morphogenesis and that apoptosis related genes very tight developmental factors identified in sculpting the morphology of various embryonic structures by modulating the apoptosis pathway.

  1. A preliminary investigation demonstrating the effect of quercetin on the expression of genes related to cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and xenobiotic metabolism in human CO115 colon-adenocarcinoma cells using DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Imtiyaz; Marra, Giancarlo; Schlapbach, Ralph; Patrignani, Andrea; Künzli, Marzana; Wagner, Ulrich; Sabates, Jacob; Dutt, Amit

    2006-07-01

    The role of the natural dietary flavonoid chemical quercetin (an antioxidant) in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer is receiving a great deal of attention. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of action of this flavonoid. In the present study, whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the effect of quercetin on gene expression in the CO115 colon-adenocarcinoma cell line with the completely deleted chromosome 18 harbouring the SMAD4 tumour-suppressor gene related to colon carcinogenesis. The study demonstrated that quercetin, widely present in fruit and vegetables, inhibited the growth of CO115 cells at 100 microM concentration in both the G(1)/S and the G(2)/M phases by modulating cell-cycle and apoptosis-related genes. Differential changes in accumulation of transcripts analysed for cells treated with 100 microM quercetin for 24 and 48 h in three independent repeated experiments revealed 5060-7000 differentially expressed genes. This means that quercetin probably does have a broad modulatory effect on gene expression in colon cancer. Out of these differentially expressed genes, the expression of 35 and 23 unique set of genes involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis and xenobiotic metabolism were significantly altered after 24 and 48 h quercetin treatment respectively. Our results represent a novel aspect of the biological profile of quercetin that induces cell-cycle arrest through modulation of cell-cycle-related and apoptosis genes. The present study demonstrates a new step in elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of the antitumour action of quercetin, which could become a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  2. Transcriptional modulation of apoptosis regulators by roscovitine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Garrofé-Ochoa, Xènia; Cosialls, Ana M; Ribas, Judit; Gil, Joan; Boix, Jacint

    2011-07-01

    Chemical inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), like roscovitine, are promising drugs in the context of new cancer therapies. Roscovitine and related compounds, like seliciclib and olomoucine, are effective inducers of apoptosis in many proliferating cells in culture. These compounds are known to activate the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In order to better characterize this intrinsic pathway, a transcriptional analysis was performed using the reverse transcriptase-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification procedure (RT-MLPA). In five cell lines, we detected an early and marked reduction of most transcripts, which is consistent with the disruption of transcription that results from the inhibition of CDK7 and CDK9. However, the mRNA of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) gene escaped from this transcription inhibition in neuroblastoma cells with a functional p53 protein. The increase of PUMA mRNA was not found in roscovitine-treated cell lines defective in p53, which underwent apoptosis like their p53 proficient counterparts. In addition, in SH-SY5Y cells, sublethal and lethal concentrations of roscovitine produced equivalent increases of PUMA mRNA and protein. In conclusion, the increased expression of PUMA was not associated with apoptosis induction. On the contrary, mRNA and protein depletion of MCL-1 gene correlated the best with cell demise. Moreover, NOXA protein suffered a far minor decrease than MCL-1. Because of the selective neutralization of NOXA by MCL-1, we hypothesize that the disruption of this balance is a critical event in apoptosis induction by roscovitine and related compounds.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E/selenium against malathion-induced injuries on the antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; El-Desoky, Gaber E; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Yusuf, Kareem; Ahmad, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2011-06-01

    The present study is undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and selenium (Se) against malathion (MTN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries in experimental rats. Male rats were randomly divided into eight groups comprised of 10 rats each. The 1(st) group served as a negative control (C(N)), whereas the 2(nd) was supplemented with a combination of α-tocopherol (100 mg kg(-1) body weight, b.w.)/Se (0.1 mg kg(-1) bw). The 3(rd), 4(th) and 5(th) groups were respectively administered with increasing doses of MTN equivalent to (1/50 )LD(50) (M(1/50)), (1/25) LD(50) (M(1/25)) and (1/10) LD(50) (M(1/10)), respectively. The 6(th), 7(th) and 8(th) groups were administered the same doses of MTN as in the 3(rd), 4(th) and 5(th) groups with a concomitant supplementation with α-tocopherol/Se. Subchronic exposure of rats to MTN for 45 days resulted in statistical dose-dependent decrease in acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity, increase in oxidative stress marker lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Moreover, the levels of glutathione persoxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly decline in response to MTN exposure in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, histopathological studies of liver in the rats which received MTN exhibited, moderate to severe degenerative and necrotic changes in the hepatocytes. Notably, the administration of α-tocopherol/Se protected the liver of rats exposed to MTN as evidenced by the appearance of normal histological structures, significant attenuation of the decline in all antioxidant enzymes tested (i.e. GPx, SOD and CAT), significant recovery in the GSH level and statistical reduction in LPO, as compared to the experimental rat. The effect of α-tocopherol/Se supplementation on transcriptional activity of three key stress and apoptosis-related genes (i.e., Tp53, CASP3 and CASP9), in response to MTN exposure in rats, was

  4. Light induced apoptosis is accelerated in transgenic retina overexpressing human EAT/mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 related gene

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Matsushita, K.; Shimoda, K.; Okita, H.; Fukuma, M.; Yamada, T.; Ohde, H.; Oguchi, Y.; Hata, J.; Umezawa, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM—EAT/mcl-1 (EAT), an immediate early gene, functions in a similar way to bcl-2 in neutralising Bax mediated cytotoxicity, suggesting that EAT is a blocker of cell death. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of overexpression of the human EAT gene on light induced retinal cell apoptosis.
METHODS—EAT transgenic mice incorporating the EF-1α promoter were utilised, and expression of human EAT was detected by RT-PCR. Light damage was induced by raising mice under constant illumination. Two groups of animals, EAT transgenic mice (n=14) and littermates (n=13), were examined by ERG testing and histopathology at regular time points up to 20 weeks of constant light stimulation. Electrophysiological and histopathological findings were evaluated by established systems of arbitrary scoring as scores 0-2 and scores 0-3, respectively.
RESULTS—The mean score (SD) of ERG response was significantly lower in EAT transgenic mice (0.79 (0.89)) than in littermates (1.69 (0.48)) (p<0.01). Although the differences between the two survival curves did not reach statistical significance (p=0.1156), the estimated incidence of electrophysiological retinal damage was higher in EAT mice (0.0495/mouse/week; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.0347-0.0500) than in littermates (0. 0199/mouse/week; 95% CI 0.0035-0.0364). The mean scores (SD) for histopathological retinal degeneration were 2.31 (0.63) in littermates and 1.43 (1.22) in EAT transgenic mice (p=0.065). However, Kaplan-Meier curves for histopathological failure in two groups of mice showed that retinal photoreceptor cells were preserved significantly against constant light in the littermate compared with transgenic mice (p=0.0241). The estimated incidence of histopathological retinal damage was 0.0042/mouse/week in the littermates (95% CI 0-0.0120) and 0.0419/mouse/week in the EAT mice (95% CI 0.0286-0.0500).
CONCLUSION—Retinal photoreceptor cell apoptosis under constant light stimulation is

  5. Impact of broiler egg storage on the relative expression of selected blastoderm genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cool temperature storage of eggs prior to incubation is a frequent practice by commercial broiler hatcheries. However, continued storage beyond 7 days leads to a progressively increase in the rate of early embryonic mortality. In this study, we examined the relative expression of 31 genes associat...

  6. Dietary intervention of cow ghee and soybean oil on expression of cell cycle and apoptosis related genes in normal and carcinogen treated rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod Kumar; Kaushal, Deepti; De, Sachinandan

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cow ghee (clarified butter fat) versus soybean oil on the expression of cyclins A and D1, and apoptosis regulating Bax, Bcl-2 and PKC-α genes in mammary gland of normal and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treated rats. Two groups of 21 days old female rats were fed for 44 weeks diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). The animals were given DMBA (30 mg/kg body weight) through oral intubation after 5 weeks feeding. Another two groups fed similarly but not given DMBA served as respective controls. In control groups, the expression of cyclin A was similar on both cow ghee and soybean oil, but that of cyclin D1 was more on soybean oil diet. However, in DMBA treated groups, the expression levels of cyclins A and D1 were significantly greater on soybean oil than on cow ghee. The expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PKC-α were similar in two control groups. However, in tumor tissue expression levels of Bcl-2 and PKC-α were significantly lower in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed ones, but Bax was similarly expressed in both DMBA treated groups. The pro-apoptotic ratio Bax/Bcl-2 increased and the anti-apoptotic ratio PKC-α(Bcl-2/Bax) decreased in cow ghee group compared to soybean oil group in DMBA treated rats. Hence, the decreased expressions of cyclins A and D1, Bcl-2 and PKC-α mediate the mechanism by which cow ghee protects from mammary carcinogenesis.

  7. Autophagy induced by deficiency of sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase 1 is switched to apoptosis by calpain-mediated autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Sandrine; Allegood, Jeremy C; Edmonds, Yvette; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah

    2011-12-30

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide have been implicated in both autophagy and apoptosis. However, the roles of these sphingolipid metabolites in the links between these two processes are not completely understood. Depletion of S1P phosphohydrolase-1 (SPP1), which degrades intracellular S1P, induces the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy (Lépine, S., Allegood, J. C., Park, M., Dent, P., Milstien, S., and Spiegel, S. (2011) Cell Death Differ. 18, 350-361). Surprisingly, however, treatment with doxorubicin, which by itself also induced autophagy, markedly reduced the extent of autophagy mediated by depletion of SPP1. Concomitantly, doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was greatly enhanced by down-regulation of SPP1. Autophagy and apoptosis seemed to be sequentially linked because inhibiting autophagy with 3-methyladenine also markedly attenuated apoptosis. Moreover, silencing Atg5 or the three sensors of the unfolded protein response, IRE1α, ATF6, and PKR-like eIF2α kinase (PERK), significantly decreased both autophagy and apoptosis. Doxorubicin stimulated calpain activity and Atg5 cleavage, which were significantly enhanced in SPP1-depleted cells. Inhibition or depletion of calpain not only suppressed Atg5 cleavage, it also markedly decreased the robust apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in SPP1-deficient cells. Importantly, doxorubicin also increased de novo synthesis of the pro-apoptotic sphingolipid metabolite ceramide. Elevation of ceramide in turn stimulated calpain; conversely, inhibiting ceramide formation suppressed Atg5 cleavage and apoptosis. Hence, doxorubicin switches protective autophagy in SPP1-depleted cells to apoptosis by calpain-mediated Atg5 cleavage.

  8. [Effect of shenmai injection and aminophylline on small airway smooth muscle cell apoptosis and related gene expression in rats with emphysema].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ru-ji; Fu, Juan; Liu, Hui-guo

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Shenmai Injection (SMI) and aminophylline on small airway smooth muscle cell (SASMC) apoptosis and the Fas/FasL expression in the papain induced emphysema model rats. Emphysema model in rat was established by a single intratracheal instillation of papain. Apoptosis and Fas/FasL expression of SASMC were examined by immunohistochemical SABC and TUNEL assay at 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 30 days after modelling, and the effect of SMI and aminophylline on them were observed. Fas, FasL expressions in normal SASMC were very low with a positive rate of (2.31 +/- 0.05)% and (1.28 +/- 0.47)% respectively. After papain instillation, the positive rates increased along with the prolonging of instillation time. SMI showed an inhibition on SASMC Fas and FasL expression but aminophylline didn't show. SASMC apoptosis was very low in normal rats with a rate of (0.87 +/- 0.32)%, it also raised after papain instillation and increased progressively along with the instillation time. SMI treatment could lower the apoptosis rate but aminophylline couldn't. Fas and FasL participated the SASMC apoptosis modulation in emphysema formation. SMI shows a definite treatment effect on emphysema by influencing the Fas and FasL protein expression and reducing SASMC apoptosis through inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediator.

  9. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Posada, Olga M.; Gilmour, Denise; Tate, Rothwelle J.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  10. Copy number loss or silencing of apoptosis-effector genes in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mauro, James A; Butler, Shanitra N; Ramsamooj, Michael; Blanck, George

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo a variety of DNA copy number gains and losses (CNV), raising two important questions related to cancer development: (i) Which genes are affected? (ii) And how do CNVs, that do not represent complete deletions but do represent gene-dosage alterations, impact cancer cell functions? Recent studies have indicated that CNVs in cancer can impact genes for regulatory proteins long known to be associated with cancer development, but less is understood about CNVs affecting effector genes. Also, we have recently indicated the likely importance of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) copies in effector genes, in regulating the transition from a proliferative to an apoptotic state. Here we report data-mining analyses that indicate that copies of apoptosis-effector genes are commonly lost in cancer development, in comparison to proliferation-effector genes, and when not, apoptosis effector genes have silenced chromatin structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Urtica dioica Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Related Gene Expression of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Baradaran, Pooneh Chokhachi; Khaze, Vahid; Aghapour, Mahyar; Farhadi, Mehrdad; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-04-21

    Currently, because the prevalence of breast cancer and its consequent mortality has increased enormously in the female population, a number of studies have been designed to identify natural products with special antitumor properties. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Urtica dioica on triggering apoptosis and diminishing growth, size, and weight of the tumor in an allograft model of BALB/c mice. In the present study, a BALB/c mouse model of breast cancer (4T1) was used. After emergence of tumor, 2 groups of mice received the extract, 1 group at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 1 group at a dose of 20 mg/kg, by intraperitoneal injection for 28 days. During the test and after removal of the tumor mass, the size and weight of the tumor were measured. To assess the induction of apoptosis in the cancer cells, the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) assay was performed. The Ki-67 test was used to evaluate tumor proliferation. The results showed that the tumor size in the mice treated with the extract decreased significantly. The weight of the tumor mass in the treated mice after resection was less than that in the control group. The TUNEL assay findings revealed that apoptosis occurred in the treated group. The Ki-67 test findings also demonstrated that administration of the extract suppressed the growth of tumor cells. These results suggest that U. dioica extract can decrease the growth of breast tumors and induce apoptosis in tumor cells; thus, it might represent an ideal therapeutic tool for breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effect of Shen-Mai injection and aminophylline on diaphragmatic muscle cell apoptosis and related gene expression in rats with chronic hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-min; Xiong, Sheng-dao; Niu, Ru-ji; Xu, Yong-jian; Zhang, Zhen-xiang

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the effect of Shen-Mai injection (SMI) and aminophylline on diaphragmatic muscle cell apoptosis and the Fas/FasL expression in chronic hypoxic rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups, control group (A group), SMI group (B group) and aminophylline group (C group). Then each group was further divided into five subgroups of pre-hypoxia, hypoxia 1 w, 2 w, 3 w and 4 w groups (5 rats each). The concentration of oxygen was (10 +/- 3)%, 7 d/w, 8 h/d for all groups, but only B group and C group received SMI (2 ml/d) and aminophylline (10 mg/kg) respectively. Apoptosis and Fas/FasL expression of diaphragmatic muscle cells were examined by the streptavidin biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) immunohistochemistry techniques and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and Dunnett-t test was employed to compare the effects of SMI and aminophylline. (1) Fas, FasL expression in normal diaphragmatic muscle cells was very low with a positive rate of (2.77 +/- 0.45)% and (2.32 +/- 0.61)%. After hypoxia, the positive rates increased with the time of hypoxia time. SMI showed an inhibition on diaphragmatic muscle cell Fas and FasL expression;after hypoxia 1 w, 2 w, 3 w and 4 w, Fas expression [(6.36 +/- 4.17)%, (9.77 +/- 4.12)%, (18.02 +/- 6.91)% and (21.09 +/- 8.09)%] and FasL expression [(5.32 +/- 6.16)%, (9.58 +/- 3.79)%, (12.01 +/- 8.71)%, (19.43 +/- 10.31)%] in B group were different from those in A group respectively (all P < 0.05). But aminophylline did not show such an effect, the expression of Fas [(10.87 +/- 3.62)%, (24.13 +/- 3.79)%, (35.39 +/- 9.02)%, (39.56 +/- 10.12)%] and FasL [(9.37 +/- 4.07)%, (20.16 +/- 4.88)%, (31.81 +/- 7.07)%, (35.51 +/- 9.13)%] were not significantly different from those in A group respectively (all P > 0.05). (2) Diaphragmatic muscle cell apoptosis was very low in normal rats with a rate of (0.93 +/- 0.29)%, which also increased after hypoxia

  13. Effects of Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract on cell apoptosis and related gene expression in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Goldar, S; Shanehbandi, D; Khaze, V; Mohammadnejad, L; Baghbani, E; Baradaran, B

    2016-02-29

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, a large number of anticancer agents with herbal origins have been reported against this deadly disease. This study is the first to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Urtica dioica in MDA-MB-468, human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylethiazol-2 yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction and trypan-blue exclusion assay were performed in MDA-MB-468 cells as well as control cell line L929 to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the dichloromethane extract. In addition, Apoptosis induction of Urtica dioica on the MDA-MB-468 cells was assessed using TUNEL (terminal deoxy transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick- end labeling) assay and DNA fragmentation analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that the extract significantly inhibited cell growth and viability without inducing damage to normal control cells. Nuclei Staining in TUNEL and DNA fragments in DNA fragmentation assay and increase in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, decrease in the bcl2 and no significant change in the caspase-8 mRNA expression level, showed that the induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of cell death that induce by Urtica dioica extract. Our results suggest that urtica dioica dichloromethane extract may contain potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of breast adenocarcinoma.

  14. A caspase-related protease regulates apoptosis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Frank; Herker, Eva; Maldener, Corinna; Wissing, Silke; Lächelt, Stephan; Herlan, Mark; Fehr, Markus; Lauber, Kirsten; Sigrist, Stephan J; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Fröhlich, Kai Uwe

    2002-04-01

    Yeast can undergo cell death accompanied by cellular markers of apoptosis. However, orthologs of classical mammalian apoptosis regulators appeared to be missing from the yeast genome, challenging a common mechanism of yeast and mammalian apoptosis. Here we investigate Yor197w, a yeast protein with structural homology to mammalian caspases, and demonstrate caspase-like processing of the protein. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces apoptosis together with a caspase-like enzymatic activity in yeast. This response is completely abrogated after disruption and strongly stimulated after overexpression of Yor197w. Yor197w also mediates the death process within chronologically aged cultures, pointing to a physiological role in elimination of overaged cells. We conclude that Yor197w indeed functions as a bona fide caspase in yeast and propose the name Yeast Caspase-1 (YCA1, gene YCA1).

  15. Association of Genetic Markers in the BCL-2 Family of Apoptosis-Related Genes with Endometrial Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Long, Jirong; Shi, Jiajun; Deming, Sandra; Xu, Wang-Hong; Cai, Hui; Cheng, Jiarong; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro studies have demonstrated the role of the BCL-2 family of genes in endometrial carcinogenesis. The role of genetic variants in BCL-2 genes and their interactions with non-genetic factors in the development of endometrial cancer has not been investigated in epidemiological studies. Patients and Methods We examined the relationship between BCL-2 gene family variants and endometrial cancer risk among 1,028 patients and 1,922 age-matched community controls from Shanghai, China. We also investigated possible interactions between genetic variants and established risk factors (demographic, lifestyle and clinical). Individuals were genotyped for 86 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BCL2, BAX, BAD and BAK1 genes. Results Significant associations with endometrial cancer risk were found for 9 SNPs in the BCL2 gene (P trend<0.05 for all). For SNPs rs17759659 and rs7243091 (minor allele for both: G), the associations were independent. The odds ratio was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.04–1.53) for women with AG genotype for the SNP rs17759659 and 1.82 (95% CI: 1.21–2.73) for women with the GG genotype for the SNP rs7243091. No interaction between these two SNPs and established non-genetic risk factors of endometrial cancer was noticed. Conclusion Genetic polymorphisms in the BCL2 gene may be associated with the risk of endometrial cancer in Chinese women. PMID:23637776

  16. Effect of Stress from Cadmium Combined with Different Levels of Molybdenum on Serum Free Radical and Expression of Related Apoptosis Genes in Goat Livers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huabin; Xing, Chenghong; Zhuang, Yu; Gu, Xiaolong; Luo, Junrong; Guo, Xiaoquan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Caiying; Hu, Guoliang

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential element for human beings and animals; however, high dietary intake of Mo can lead to adverse reactions. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals which have toxic effects in animals. The toxicity of simple Cd or Mo has been researched frequently. However, the toxicity of Mo combined with Cd was rarely studied. To investigate the toxicity of Mo combined with Cd in liver of goats, 36 Boer goats were randomly divided into four groups and assigned with one of the three oral treatments of CdCl2 (0.5 mg kg(-1) Cd) and [(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O] (15 mg kg(-1) Mo, group I; 30 mg kg(-1) Mo, group II; 45 mg kg(-1) Mo, group III), while the control group received deionized water. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 to determine antioxidant indices in serum. In addition, liver tissues were collected on days 0, 25, and 50 for detecting the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax. Moreover, liver tissues at 50 days were subjected to histopathological analysis with the optical microscope. The results revealed a significant increase (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA), and the activity of nitrix oxide synthase (NOS) and a significant decline (P < 0.05) in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC). The mRNA expression level of Bcl-2 was suppressed (P < 0.05), while the expression of Bax was increased (P < 0.05) in liver. The histopathological changes were observed in the liver of goats including a small amount of erythrocyte, the unclear structure of hepatic cord and hepatic sinusoid, granular degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, and steatosis. In conclusion, combined chronic toxicity of Cd with different levels of Mo might induce goat liver cell apoptosis and cause oxidative stress in serum, and it showed a possible synergistic relationship between the two elements.

  17. Expression of the apoptosis-related genes BCL-2 and BAD in human breast carcinoma and their associated relationship with chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Sun, Xin; Shen, Hong-yan; Gao, Feng; Fan, Yuan-ming; Sun, Zhi-jun

    2010-08-07

    To evaluate the expression of BCL-2 and BAD genes in tissues of breast carcinoma and investigate the relationship between the expression of BCL-2 and BAD in breast cancer cells with chemosensitivity. Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of BCL-2, BAD in 10 normal breast tissues, 10 breast fibroadenoma tissues, 40 youth human breast carcinoma tissues, 40 menopause human breast carcinoma tissues. And to detect the expression of ER, PR in 80 human breast carcinoma tissues. 20 Surgical samples of breast cancer, diagnosed by pathology, were obtained from The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. The cancer sample cells were cultured separately in the incubator at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 in vitro. The rate of inhibition of cancer cells in 4 kinds of anticancer drugs-- Epirubicin Adriamycin (EADM),5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), Navelbine(NVB) and Diaminedichloroplatinum (DDP), were assayed by MTT method. The expression of BCL-2, BAD genes in young human breast carcinoma tissues were lower than that in menopause human breast carcinoma tissues (P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between the positive expression rate of BCL-2 and histologic grade or the lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the expression rates of BCL-2 and of ER, PR (P < 0.05). The expression of BAD had no relationship with the expression of ER, PR, histologic grade and the lymph node metastasis(P = NS). Sensitivity rates of 20 breast cancer cells in 0.1 x PPC within 48 h in vitro were 30% EADM,20% 5-Fu,45% NVB and 25% DDP. Respectively, the rate of inhibition of EADM,5- Fu, NVB and DDP were significantly higher in the BCL-2 negative cancer cells than in the BCL-2 positive cancer cells. A negative correlation was found between expression of BCL-2 and chemosensitivity for all the 4 anticancer drugs. The inhibition rates of EADM and NVB were significantly lower in the BAD negative cancer cells than in the BAD positive cancer

  18. Genes regulated in neurons undergoing transcription-dependent apoptosis belong to signaling pathways rather than the apoptotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Desagher, Solange; Severac, Dany; Lipkin, Alexey; Bernis, Cyril; Ritchie, William; Le Digarcher, Anne; Journot, Laurent

    2005-02-18

    Neuronal apoptosis has been shown to require de novo RNA/protein synthesis. However, very few genes whose expression is necessary for inducing apoptosis have been identified so far. To systematically identify such genes, we have used genome-scale, long oligonucleotide microarrays and characterized the gene expression profile of cerebellar granule neurons in the early phase of apoptosis elicited by KCl deprivation. We identified 368 significantly differentially expressed genes, including most of the genes previously reported to be transcriptionally regulated in this paradigm. In addition, we identified several hundreds of genes whose transcriptional regulation has never been associated with neuronal apoptosis. We used automated Gene Ontology annotation, analysis of promoter sequences, and statistical tools to characterize these regulations. Although differentially expressed genes included some components of the apoptotic machinery, this functional category was not significantly over-represented among regulated genes. On the other hand, categories related to signal transduction were the most significantly over-represented group. This indicates that the apoptotic machinery is mainly constitutive, whereas molecular pathways that lead to the activation of apoptotic components are transcriptionally regulated. In particular, we show for the first time that signaling pathways known to be involved in the control of neuronal survival are regulated at the transcriptional level and not only by post-translational mechanisms. Moreover, our approach provides insights into novel transcription factors and novel mechanisms, such as the unfolded protein response and cell adhesion, that may contribute to the induction of neuronal apoptosis.

  19. Stratifying melanoma and breast cancer TCGA datasets on the basis of the CNV of transcription factor binding sites common to proliferation- and apoptosis-effector genes.

    PubMed

    Mauro, James A; Yavorski, John M; Blanck, George

    2017-02-28

    Transcription factors that activate both proliferation- and apoptosis-effector genes, along with a number of related observations, have led to a proposal for a feed forward mechanism of activating the two gene classes, whereby a certain concentration of a transcription factor activates the proliferation-effector genes and a higher concentration of the transcription factor activates the apoptosis-effector genes. We reasoned that this paradigm of regulation could lead to, in the cancer setting, a selection for relatively reduced copy numbers of apoptosis-effector gene, transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Thus, the aim of this investigation was to examine the DNA sequencing read depths of TFBS for a set of proliferation- and apoptosis-effector genes, normalized to the read depths found in matching blood samples, as provided by the cancer genome atlas (TCGA); and thereby document copy number differences among these TFBS. We determined that the melanoma and breast cancer, TCGA datasets could be divided into three categories: (i) no detectable copy number variation for the proliferation- and apoptosis-effector, shared TFBS; (ii) a relative increase in the copy number of proliferation-effector gene TFBS, compared with the copy number of the apoptosis-effector gene TFBS; and (iii) a relative decrease in the number of proliferation-effector gene TFBS. Thus, we conclude that changes in the relative copies of the shared TFBS, for proliferation- and apoptosis-effector genes, have the potential of impacting tumor cell proliferative and apoptotic capacities.

  20. Chromatin status of apoptosis genes correlates with sensitivity to chemo-, immune- and radiation therapy in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Benard, Anne; Janssen, Connie M; van den Elsen, Peter J; van Eggermond, Marja C J A; Hoon, Dave S B; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2014-12-01

    The apoptosis pathway of programmed cell death is frequently deregulated in cancer. An intact apoptosis pathway is required for proper response to anti-cancer treatment. We investigated the chromatin status of key apoptosis genes in the apoptosis pathway in colorectal cancer cell lines in relation to apoptosis induced by chemo-, immune- or radiation therapy. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we measured the presence of transcription-activating histone modifications H3Ac and H3K4me3 and silencing modifications H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 at the gene promoter regions of key apoptosis genes Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-9, Fas (CD95) and p53. Cell lines DLD1, SW620, Colo320, Caco2, Lovo and HT29 were treated with cisplatin, anti-Fas or radiation. The apoptotic response was measured by flow cytometry using propidium iodide and annexin V-FITC. The chromatin status of the apoptosis genes reflected the activation status of the intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-9 and p53) and extrinsic (Fas) pathways. An active intrinsic apoptotic pathway corresponded to sensitivity to cisplatin and radiation treatment of cell lines DLD1, SW620 and Colo320. An active Fas promoter corresponded to an active extrinsic apoptotic pathway in cell line DLD1. mRNA expression data correlated with the chromatin status of the apoptosis genes as measured by ChIP. In conclusion, the results presented in this study indicate that the balance between activating and silencing histone modifications, reflecting the chromatin status of apoptosis genes, can be used to predict the response of tumor cells to different anti-cancer therapies and could provide a novel target to sensitize tumors to obtain adequate treatment responses.

  1. Differential apoptosis gene expressions of rhabdomyosarcoma cells in response to enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can induce the apoptosis of infected cells. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of EV71 infection on apoptosis mechanisms in virus-infected human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Methods The apoptosis of RD cells was examined using annexin V-FITC/PI by flow cytometry and cytokines were detected by ELISA. Cellular RNA was extracted and transcribed to cDNA. PCR array was employed to analyze the expressions of 84 apoptotic genes from EV71-infected RD cells at 8 and 20 h postinfection, respectively. In addition, the expressions of FasL, caspase, AKT2, JNK1/2, c-Jun and NF-κB proteins were detected by western blotting. Results Flow cytometry demonstrated that the apoptosis or death of EV71-infected RD cells was increased by 37.1% with a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5 at 20 h postinfection. The production of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-α was enhanced by the subsequent EV71 infection. PCR array revealed significant changes in the expressions of apoptotic genes. Among 84 genes, 42 genes were down-regulated after EV71 infection at 8 h, whereas 32 genes were up-regulated at 20 h postinfection. Moreover, the ligands of TNF superfamily such as FasL, CD40L and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated and enhanced the expressions of apoptosis-related cysteine peptidases, including caspase-10, -8, -7 and -3. In addition, EV71 infection induces the phosphorylation of AKT2, JNK1/2, c-Jun and NF-κB at 20 h postinfection. Conclusion PCR array for the determination of apoptosis gene expressions is an informative assay in elucidating biological pathways. During the early stage of EV71 infection, the apoptotic process of RD cells is significantly delayed. EV71 infection can also induce the expressions of FasL, TNF-α and CD40L, which contribute to the apoptosis of RD cells. PMID:23191987

  2. Effects of Copper on Hemocyte Apoptosis, ROS Production, and Gene Expression in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Li, Kexu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chenggui; Shen, Yuchun

    2017-02-25

    Copper, a common chemical contaminant in aquatic environment, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at high concentrations. In the present study, we evaluated the apoptotic cell ratio and ROS production in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to 1 or 5 mg L(-1) Cu for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. The expression changes of antioxidant biomarker genes, i.e., copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT), apoptosis-related genes, i.e., caspase-3 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), and a specific biomarker gene of heavy metal pollution, i.e., metallothionein (MT), were also determined in hemocytes. Significant increases in ROS production were observed in both treatment groups at each time points. The apoptotic cell ratios were significantly increased at 6-48 h among shrimp exposed to 1 mg L(-1) Cu and at each time points in 5 mg L(-1) Cu group. These results indicated that Cu would induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hemocyte of L. vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the relative expression levels of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, caspase-3, IAP, and MT were upregulated in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of these genes in stress response against Cu exposure.

  3. Pattern of expression of apoptosis and inflammatory genes in humans exposed to arsenic and/or fluoride.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; Ortiz-Pérez, María D; Calderón-Aranda, Emma; Estrada-Capetillo, Lizbeth; Niño-Moreno, Perla; González-Amaro, Roberto; Portales-Pérez, Diana

    2010-01-15

    We have assessed whether the combined exposure to arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) exerts a different effect than the exposure to As alone on the pattern of expression of apoptosis and inflammatory genes by immune cells. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from twenty individuals exposed or not to As or F or both. Then, cDNA was isolated, and the expression of 180 genes related to apoptosis and inflammation was tested by a cDNA array test. We found significant differences in the expression of 9 apoptosis and 15 inflammation genes in the three exposed groups compared to non-exposed individuals. In addition, subjects exposed to As or F or both showed different patterns of expression of at least 19 genes. Our data indicate that the combined exposure to As and F has a different effect on gene expression than the exposure to As or F alone.

  4. Gene expression profiling in MOLT-4 cells during gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Theres; Stigbrand, Torgny; Riklund, Katrine; Johansson, Lennart; Eriksson, David

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to identify the temporal changes in gene expression in MOLT-4, a leukemia cell line, in response to radiation and to present a comprehensive description of the pathways and processes that most significantly relate to the cellular biological responses. A global gene expression profile of 24,500 genes was performed on MOLT-4 tumor cells following exposure to 5 Gy of ionizing radiation ((60)Co) using a bead chip array (Illumina). Signaling pathways and processes significantly altered following irradiation were explored using MetaCore. Cellular viability [3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], activation of cell cycle checkpoints [fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)], and induction of apoptosis (FACS, caspase assays) were evaluated to correlate these biological responses to the gene expression changes. Totally, 698 different genes displayed a significantly altered expression following radiation, and out of these transcripts, all but one showed increased expression. One hour following irradiation, the expression was changed only for a few genes. Striking changes appeared at later time-points. From 3 to 24 h post-irradiation, a significant fraction of the genes with altered expression were found to be involved in cell cycle checkpoints and their regulation (CDKN1A), DNA repair (GADD45A, DDB2, XPC), apoptosis induction (DR5, FasR, Apo-2L, Bax), and T-cell activation/proliferation (CD70, OX40L). Irradiated MOLT-4 cells were arrested at the G2-checkpoint, followed by a decrease in cell viability, most pronounced 48 h after exposure. The cell death was executed by induced apoptosis and was visualized by an increase in subG1 cells and an increased activation of initiator (caspase-8 and caspase-9) and execution (caspase-3) caspases. Activation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis correlated well in time with the changes in gene expression of those genes important for these biological processes. Activation of the apoptotic signaling

  5. Contribution of Apoptosis and Apoptosis-Related Proteins to the Malformation of the Primitive Intrahepatic Biliary System in Meckel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sergi, Consolato; Kahl, Philip; Otto, Herwart F.

    2000-01-01

    In the developing liver, the complete or partial persistence of the primitive double-layered cylinder of biliary-type cells that surrounds the branches of portal vein and its mesenchyme gives origin to portal tracts with an increased number of bile duct structures. The term “ductal plate malformation of the liver” was coined to label the insufficient remodeling of the primitive intrahepatic biliary system. Meckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by occipital encephalocele, postaxial polydactyly, diffuse cystic renal dysplasia, and malformation of the ductal plate of the liver. We studied 52 fetuses with Meckel syndrome from five German centers (Berlin, Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mainz, and Marburg). Analysis of apoptosis and cell proliferation (Ki-67) was performed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemistry in the liver of 24 normal fetuses of different gestational ages (14–38 weeks of gestation) and in 14 fetuses with Meckel syndrome (17–38 weeks of gestation). The expression of two apoptosis-related proteins, Fas (a transmembrane cell surface protein involved in the apoptosis) and Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic protein), was studied by immunohistochemistry in the liver of 11 normal fetuses of different gestational ages (14–40 weeks of gestation) and in 40 fetuses with Meckel syndrome (16–38 weeks of gestation). In control fetuses, apoptosis rate and cell proliferation were high in the remodeling ductal plate and moderate in the ductal plate and in remodeled bile ducts. During gestation, expression of Fas and Bcl-2 decreased and increased, respectively. The malformed ductal plates in the fetal livers with Meckel syndrome showed a marked decrease in the apoptotic rate and Fas expression and an increase in proliferative activity and Bcl-2 expression in comparison with control fetuses. Furthermore, by linear regression analysis, we found that both proliferation activity

  6. Contribution of apoptosis and apoptosis-related proteins to the malformation of the primitive intrahepatic biliary system in Meckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sergi, C; Kahl, P; Otto, H F

    2000-05-01

    In the developing liver, the complete or partial persistence of the primitive double-layered cylinder of biliary-type cells that surrounds the branches of portal vein and its mesenchyme gives origin to portal tracts with an increased number of bile duct structures. The term "ductal plate malformation of the liver" was coined to label the insufficient remodeling of the primitive intrahepatic biliary system. Meckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by occipital encephalocele, postaxial polydactyly, diffuse cystic renal dysplasia, and malformation of the ductal plate of the liver. We studied 52 fetuses with Meckel syndrome from five German centers (Berlin, Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mainz, and Marburg). Analysis of apoptosis and cell proliferation (Ki-67) was performed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemistry in the liver of 24 normal fetuses of different gestational ages (14-38 weeks of gestation) and in 14 fetuses with Meckel syndrome (17-38 weeks of gestation). The expression of two apoptosis-related proteins, Fas (a transmembrane cell surface protein involved in the apoptosis) and Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic protein), was studied by immunohistochemistry in the liver of 11 normal fetuses of different gestational ages (14-40 weeks of gestation) and in 40 fetuses with Meckel syndrome (16-38 weeks of gestation). In control fetuses, apoptosis rate and cell proliferation were high in the remodeling ductal plate and moderate in the ductal plate and in remodeled bile ducts. During gestation, expression of Fas and Bcl-2 decreased and increased, respectively. The malformed ductal plates in the fetal livers with Meckel syndrome showed a marked decrease in the apoptotic rate and Fas expression and an increase in proliferative activity and Bcl-2 expression in comparison with control fetuses. Furthermore, by linear regression analysis, we found that both proliferation activity and apoptosis

  7. Aortic valvular interstitial cells apoptosis and calcification are mediated by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    PubMed

    Galeone, Antonella; Brunetti, Giacomina; Oranger, Angela; Greco, Giovanni; Di Benedetto, Adriana; Mori, Giorgio; Colucci, Silvia; Zallone, Alberta; Paparella, Domenico; Grano, Maria

    2013-11-15

    Calcific aortic valvular disease (CAVD) is an actively regulated process characterized by the activation of specific osteogenic signaling pathways and apoptosis. We evaluated the involvement in CAVD of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), an apoptotic molecule which induces apoptosis by interacting with the death receptor (DR)-4 and DR5, and whose activity is modulated by the decoy receptor (DcR)-1 and DcR2. Sections of calcific and normal aortic valves, obtained at surgery time, were subjected to immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy for TRAIL immunostaining. Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from calcific (C-VICs) and normal (N-VICs) aortic valves were investigated for the gene and protein expression of TRAIL receptors. Cell viability was assayed by MTT. Von Kossa staining was performed to verify C-VIC ability to produce mineralized nodules. TRAIL serum levels were detected by ELISA. Higher levels of TRAIL were detected in calcific aortic valves and in sera from the same patients respect to controls. C-VICs express significantly higher mRNA and protein levels of DR4, DR5, DcR1, DcR2 and Runx2 compared to N-VICs. C-VICs and N-VICs, cultured in osteogenic medium, express significantly higher mRNA levels of DR4, Runx2 and Osteocalcin compared to baseline. C-VICs and N-VICs were sensitive to TRAIL-apoptotic effect at baseline and after osteogenic differentiation, as demonstrated by MTT assay and caspase-3 activation. TRAIL enhanced mineralized matrix nodule synthesis by C-VICs cultured in osteogenic medium. TRAIL is characteristically present within calcific aortic valves, and mediates the calcification of aortic valve interstitial cells in culture through mechanism involving apoptosis. © 2013.

  8. Combined gene expression and proteomic analysis of EGF induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggests multiple pathways trigger apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Ibrahim; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L

    2013-11-01

    A431 cells, derived from epidermoid carcinoma, overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and when treated with a high dose of EGF will undergo apoptosis. We exploited microarray and proteomics techniques and network prediction to study the regulatory mechanisms of EGF-induced apoptosis in A431 cells. We observed significant changes in gene expression in 162 genes, approximately evenly split between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes and identified 30 proteins from the proteomic data that had either pro or anti-apoptotic annotation. Our correlation analysis of gene expression and proteome modeled a number of distinct sub-networks that are associated with the onset of apoptosis, allowing us to identify specific pathways and components. These include components of the interferon signalling pathway, and down stream components, including cytokines and suppressors of cytokine signalling. A central component of almost all gene expression sub-networks identified was TP53, which is mutated in A431 cells, and was down regulated. This down regulation of TP53 appeared to be correlated with proteomic sub-networks of cytoskeletal or cell adhesion components that might induce apoptosis by triggering cytochrome C release. Of the only three genes also differentially expressed as proteins, only serpinb1 had a known association with apoptosis. We confirmed that up regulation and cleavage of serpinb1 into L-DNAaseII was correlated with the induction of apoptosis. It is unlikely that a single pathway, but more likely a combination of pathways is needed to trigger EGF induced apoptosis in A431cells.

  9. A rabbitpox virus serpin gene controls host range by inhibiting apoptosis in restrictive cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, M A; Ali, A N; Turner, P C; Moyer, R W

    1995-01-01

    Poxviruses are unique among viruses in encoding members of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. Orthopoxviruses contain three serpins, designated SPI-1, SPI-2, and SPI-3. SPI-1 encodes a 40-kDa protein that is required for the replication of rabbitpox virus (RPV) in PK-15 or A549 cells in culture (A. N. Ali, P. C. Turner, M. A. Brooks, and R. W. Moyer, Virology 202:305-314, 1994). Examination of nonpermissive human A549 cells infected with an RPV mutant disrupted in the SPI-1 gene (RPV delta SPI-1) suggests there are no gross defects in protein or DNA synthesis. The proteolytic processing of late viral structural proteins, a feature of orthopoxvirus infections associated with the maturation of virus particles, also appears relatively normal. However, very few mature virus particles of any kind are produced compared with the level found in infections with wild-type RPV. Morphological examination of RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells, together with an observed fragmentation of cellular DNA, suggests that the host range defect is associated with the onset of apoptosis. Apoptosis is seen only in RPV delta SPI-1 infection of nonpermissive (A549 or PK-15) cells and is absent in all wild-type RPV infections and RPV delta SPI-2 mutant infections examined to date. Although the SPI-1 gene is expressed early, before DNA replication, the triggering apoptotic event occurs late in the infection, as RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells do not undergo apoptosis when infections are carried out in the presence of cytosine arabinoside. While the SPI-2 (crmA) gene, when transfected into cells, has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, our experiments provide the first indication that a poxvirus serpin protein can inhibit apoptosis during a poxvirus infection. PMID:7494278

  10. Effects of A.marina-Derived Isoquercitrin on TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptor (TRAIL-R) Expression and Apoptosis Induction in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sathishkumar; Bandil, Kapil; Proksch, Peter; Murugiyan, Kalaiselvam; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2016-12-24

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an anticancer agent, which has greater apoptosis inducing capacity, but most of the cancer cells become resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combined treatment of TRAIL with natural products could restore the cancer cell sensitivity to recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) protein and might enhance the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R) expression. This investigation was aimed to isolate flavonoids from leaves of Avicennia marina and evaluate their potential for sensitization of rhTRAIL in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa). The methanolic extract of A.marina leaves were purified and structure was elucidated as isoquercitrin by NMR and LC-MS analysis. Isolated isoquercitrin showed cytotoxicity against SiHa cell line at IC50 of 980 μM. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TRAIL-Rs was quantified by qRT-PCR, combination of isoquercitrin, and/or rhTRAIL increased TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 gene expression by 7 folds and 4 folds, respectively. Also, FACS assay revealed that combined treatment has increased the early apoptosis up to 7.24%. In the present study, we found that isoquercitrin enhances the mRNA expression of TRAIL-Rs, but the percentage of apoptosis was meager, possibly due to the influence of other anti-apoptotic proteins.

  11. BAX gene over-expression via nucleofection to induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanwen; Mo, Xiaofen; Luo, Yi; Lu, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Despite significant advances in cataract surgery techniques, posterior capsule opacification (PCO) remains a common complication. In PCO, remaining epithelial cells cloud the lens capsule and impair postoperative vision. This in vitro study was designed to investigate the potential of a gene-based approach, specifically over-expression of the proapoptotic BAX gene, to prevent PCO. Human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) were transfected by nucleofection with a plasmid encoding a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein and human BAX. The expression levels of BAX and its antiapoptotic counterpart BCL2 were determined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. BAX over-expression-induced cell death was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using the Annexin V antibody. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to assess changes in morphology and ultrastructure. Differential expression of the downstream apoptosis-related factor, caspase 3, was detected by Western blotting. Nucleofection efficiency was high (nearly 80%). BAX-transfected HLECs showed remarkably enhanced BAX gene expression and BAX:BCL2 ratio, but relatively little change in endogenous BCL2 expression. BAX over-expression also led to significant cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis-related characteristics and activation of caspase 3. In conclusion, our results indicate that BAX gene over-expression can trigger cell death in HLECs via an apoptotic pathway. Thus, BAX may be a promising candidate for human gene therapy to treat PCO.

  12. Kallistatin protects against sepsis-related acute lung injury via inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Chang-Wen; Huang, Yu-Wen; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2015-07-22

    Kallistatin, an endogenous plasma protein, exhibits pleiotropic properties in inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, as evidenced in various animal models and cultured cells. Here, we demonstrate that kallistatin levels were positively correlated with the concentration of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from patients with sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), indicating a compensatory mechanism. Lower ratio of kallistatin to total protein in BALF showed a significant trend toward elevated neutrophil counts (P = 0.002) in BALF and increased mortality (P = 0.046). In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice, expression of human kallistatin in lung by gene transfer with human kallistatin-encoding plasmid ameliorated acute lung injury (ALI) and reduced cytokine/chemokine levels in BALF. These mice exhibited attenuated lung epithelial apoptosis and decreased Fas/FasL expression compared to the control mice. Mouse survival was improved by kallistatin gene transfer or recombinant human kallistatin treatment after LPS challenge. In LPS-stimulated A549 human lung epithelial cells, kallistatin attenuated apoptosis, down-regulated Fas/FasL signaling, suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited ROS-mediated NF-κB activation and inflammation. Furthermore, LPS-induced apoptosis was blocked by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or NF-κB inhibitor via down-regulating Fas expression. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of kallistatin for sepsis-related ALI/ARDS.

  13. Deficiency of the Bax gene attenuates denervation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Siu, P. M.; Alway, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has been implicated in mediating denervation-induced muscle wasting. In this study we determined the effect of interference of apoptosis on muscle wasting during denervation by using mice genetically deficient in pro-apoptotic Bax. After denervation, muscle wasting was evident in both wild-type and Bax−/− muscles but reduction of muscle weight was attenuated in Bax−/− mice. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation increased in wild-type denervated muscles whereas there was no statistical increase in DNA fragmentation in denervated muscles from Bax−/− mice. Mitochondrial AIF and Smac/DIABLO releases and Bcl-2, p53 and HSP27 increased whereas XIAP and MnSOD decreased to a similar extent in muscles from wild-type and Bax−/− mice following denervation. Mitochondrial cytochrome c release was elevated in denervated muscles from wild-type mice but the increase was suppressed in muscles from Bax−/− mice. Increases in caspase-3 and -9 activities and oxidative stress markers H2O2, MDA/4-HAE and nitrotyrosine were all evident in denervated muscles from wild-type mice but these changes were absent in muscles from Bax−/− mice. Moreover, ARC increased exclusively in denervated Bax−/− muscle. Our data indicate that under conditions of denervation, pro-apoptotic signalling is suppressed and muscle wasting is attenuated when the Bax gene is lacking. These findings suggest that interventions targeting apoptosis may be valuable in ameliorating denervation-associated pathologic muscle wasting in certain neuromuscular disorders that involve partial or full denervation. PMID:16763784

  14. Differential gene expression profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during induction of primary alveolar macrophage apoptosis in piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Ruidong, Zhai; Liu, Shiting; Zhang, Hu; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease that causes serious problems for the swine industry. Successful infection by this bacterium requires breaking the first line of defence in the lungs, the primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Therefore, exploring A. pleuropneumoniae-PAM interactions will provide vital groundwork for the scientific control of this infectious disease, which has been little studied up to now. In this work, PAMs were isolated from piglets and co-incubated with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 5b strain L20 in vitro, and their interaction, PAM cell death, and differential gene expression of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to PAM cell death were observed and analysed using confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry and the use of a gene expression profile chip. A. pleuropneumoniae quickly adhered to and invaded PAMs, inducing apoptosis, which was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest percentage of apoptosis in cells was confirmed using flow cytometry when the cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 and incubated for 5 h, with higher expression of activated caspase-3 as measured by Western blot. Using microarray gene chips with 2868 probes containing nearly all of the genomic sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b strain L20, a total of 185 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed (including 92 up-regulated and 93 down-regulated genes) and involved in the process of apoptosis, as compared with the expression of control bacteria cultured without PAMs in BHI medium (mean expression ratios >1.5-fold, p < 0.05). The up-regulated genes are involved in energy metabolism, gene transcription and translation, virulence related gene such as LPS, Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin, RTX and similar genes. The down-regulated genes are

  15. Marine Drugs Regulating Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)

    PubMed Central

    Elmallah, Mohammed I. Y.; Micheau, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine biomass diversity is a tremendous source of potential anticancer compounds. Several natural marine products have been described to restore tumor cell sensitivity to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced cell death. TRAIL is involved during tumor immune surveillance. Its selectivity for cancer cells has attracted much attention in oncology. This review aims at discussing the main mechanisms by which TRAIL signaling is regulated and presenting how marine bioactive compounds have been found, so far, to overcome TRAIL resistance in tumor cells. PMID:26580630

  16. Proposed megakaryocytic regulon of p53: the genes engaged to control cell cycle and apoptosis during megakaryocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, Pani A; Lindsey, Stephan; Miller, William M; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2012-06-15

    During endomitosis, megakaryocytes undergo several rounds of DNA synthesis without division leading to polyploidization. In primary megakaryocytes and in the megakaryocytic cell line CHRF, loss or knock-down of p53 enhances cell cycling and inhibits apoptosis, leading to increased polyploidization. To support the hypothesis that p53 suppresses megakaryocytic polyploidization, we show that stable expression of wild-type p53 in K562 cells (a p53-null cell line) attenuates the cells' ability to undergo polyploidization during megakaryocytic differentiation due to diminished DNA synthesis and greater apoptosis. This suggested that p53's effects during megakaryopoiesis are mediated through cell cycle- and apoptosis-related target genes, possibly by arresting DNA synthesis and promoting apoptosis. To identify candidate genes through which p53 mediates these effects, gene expression was compared between p53 knock-down (p53-KD) and control CHRF cells induced to undergo terminal megakaryocytic differentiation using microarray analysis. Among substantially downregulated p53 targets in p53-KD megakaryocytes were cell cycle regulators CDKN1A (p21) and PLK2, proapoptotic FAS, TNFRSF10B, CASP8, NOTCH1, TP53INP1, TP53I3, DRAM1, ZMAT3 and PHLDA3, DNA-damage-related RRM2B and SESN1, and actin component ACTA2, while antiapoptotic CKS1B, BCL2, GTSE1, and p53 family member TP63 were upregulated in p53-KD cells. Additionally, a number of cell cycle-related, proapoptotic, and cytoskeleton-related genes with known functions in megakaryocytes but not known to carry p53-responsive elements were differentially expressed between p53-KD and control CHRF cells. Our data support a model whereby p53 expression during megakaryopoiesis serves to control polyploidization and the transition from endomitosis to apoptosis by impeding cell cycling and promoting apoptosis. Furthermore, we identify a putative p53 regulon that is proposed to orchestrate these effects.

  17. Halocynthiaxanthin and peridinin sensitize colon cancer cell lines to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsushi; Maoka, Takashi; Das, Swadesh K; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Horinaka, Mano; Wakada, Miki; Satomi, Yoshiko; Nishino, Hoyoku; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2007-06-01

    Carotenoids are compounds contained in foods and possess anticarcinogenic activity. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics due to its ability to induce apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. However, some tumors remain tolerant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, it is important to develop agents that overcome this resistance. We show, for the first time, that certain carotenoids sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Combined treatment with halocynthiaxanthin, a dietary carotenoid contained in oysters and sea squirts, and TRAIL drastically induced apoptosis in colon cancer DLD-1 cells, whereas each agent alone only slightly induced apoptosis. The combination induced nuclear condensation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, which are major features of apoptosis. Various caspase inhibitors could attenuate the apoptosis induced by this combination. Furthermore, the dominant-negative form of a TRAIL receptor could block the apoptosis, suggesting that halocynthiaxanthin specifically facilitated the TRAIL signaling pathway. To examine the molecular mechanism of the synergistic effect of the combined treatment, we did an RNase protection assay. Halocynthiaxanthin markedly up-regulated a TRAIL receptor, death receptor 5 (DR5), among the death receptor-related genes, suggesting a possible mechanism for the combined effects. Moreover, we examined whether other carotenoids also possess the same effects. Peridinin, but not alloxanthin, diadinochrome, and pyrrhoxanthin, induced DR5 expression and sensitized DLD-1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that the combination of certain carotenoids and TRAIL is a new strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance in cancer cells.

  18. The Evaluation and Comparison of Transcriptionally Targeted Noxa and Puma Killer Genes to Initiate Apoptosis Under Cancer-Specific Promoter CXCR1 in Hepatocarcinoma Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Shahryar; Heydarzadeh, Hedieh; Ranjbar, Saeed; Salimi, Fatemeh; Aghaeifard, Masoud; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Reshadmanesh, Azadeh

    2016-10-01

    Cancerous cells proliferate as fast as possible without a proper surveillance system. This rapid cell division leads to enormous mutation rates, which help a tumor establish. This study evaluated the potential of inducing apoptosis using Noxa and Puma in a hepatocarcinoma cell line. The current study generated two recombinant lentiviruses, pLEX-GCN and pLEX-GCP, bearing Noxa and Puma, respectively. Transduction of both genes to hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) was verified using fluorescent microscopic analysis, western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To evaluate the potential of Noxa and Puma to initiate apoptosis, a caspase-9 real-time, MTT assay, and a 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) reagent were performed to stain apoptotic cells. The data verified successful transduction to HepG2 and HEK293T. Higher relative expression of Noxa and Puma rather than the untransduced cell line showed these genes are expressed more in HepG2 in comparison to HEK293T. The results of the real-time PCR, MTT assay, and DAPI reagent illustrated that higher cells initiated apoptosis following Puma transduction rather than Noxa. In this approach, the suicide gene was transferred to transformed cells and ignited apoptosis to exterminate them. Puma is a more potent killer gene and has higher capabilities to start intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

  19. The metastasis suppressor gene KISS-1 regulates osteosarcoma apoptosis and autophagy processes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yiran; Tang, Lian; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The expression of the metastasis suppressor gene KISS-1 in osteosarcoma cells during apoptosis and autophagy was evaluated. MG-63 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with either KISS-1 overexpression or KISS-1 knockdown expression vector in vitro, and compared with cell lines transfected with empty vector. After 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of cell culture, the cell proliferation was examined. The MTT method was used to detect apoptosis by flow cytometry, and the mRNA levels of apoptosis and autophagy markers caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, LC3 and Beclin1 were assessed by RT-PCR. Our results showed that cells in the control and low expression group kept proliferating during the cell culture period of 72 h, while the cells in the overexpression group progressively decreased in number. Also, the proliferation rate of the low expression group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The relative mRNA expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA in the control and low expression group showed no change (the expression was lowest in the low expression group). Moreover, the mRNA level of Bcl-2 increased in both cell groups. The mRNA expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax in the overexpression group were increased, and the level of Bcl-2 was reduced significantly. At the same time, the relative expression level of LC3 and Beclin1 mRNA in the control and low expression groups remained the same, and that of the overexpression group increased. The mRNA levels of LC3 and Beclin1 in the overexpression group were the highest, and that of the low expression group the lowest. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Based on these results, we showed that KISS-1 inhibited the proliferation of osteosarcoma in vitro, probably by accelerating the processes of apoptosis and autophagy in the cells. PMID:28075440

  20. Effects of a restricted fetal growth environment on human kidney morphology, cell apoptosis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Zhi-Kun; Cui, Hong-Yan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Kidney development is key to the onset of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in adults, and in the fetal stage will be impaired by a lack of nutrients in utero in animal models. However, few human studies have been performed. Kidney samples from fetuses in a fetal growth restriction (FGR) environment were collected and the morphological characteristics were observed. Potentially molecular mechanisms were explored by analyzing apoptosis and kidney-development related gene expression. The results indicated that no malformations were observed in the kidney samples of the FGR group, but the mean kidney weight and volume were significantly decreased. Moreover, the ratio of apoptotic cells and Bax-positive cells was increased and the ratio of Bcl-2-positive cells was decreased in the FGR group, indicating potential apoptosis induction under an in utero FGR environment. Finally, aberrant expression of renin and angiotensinogen indicated potential kidney functional abnormalities in the FGR group. Our study suggested increased apoptosis and decreased renin and angiotensinogen expression during human kidney development in an FGR environment. The current results will be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of FGR and facilitate future studies of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases and the establishment of preventive methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Atrazine Causes Autophagy- and Apoptosis-Related Neurodegenerative Effects in Dopaminergic Neurons in the Rat Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yao; Li, Jia-Nan; Wu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is widely used as a broad-spectrum herbicide. Animal studies have demonstrated that ATR exposure can cause cell death in dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATR-induced neuronal cell death, however, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the autophagy and apoptosis induced by ATR in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Wistar rats were administered with ATR at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for three months. In terms of histopathology, the expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related genes as well as proteins related to the Beclin-1/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) autophagy and apoptosis pathways were examined in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. We observed degenerative micromorphology indicative of neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial autophagy by electron microscopy in ATR-exposed rat striatum. The rat ventral mesencephalon in the ATR-exposed groups also showed increased expression of Beclin-1, LC3-II, Bax and Caspase-9, and decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Bcl-xl and Bcl-2. These findings indicate that ATR may induce autophagy- and apoptosis-related changes in doparminergic neurons. Furthermore, this induction may be regulated by the Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this may help to better understand the mechanism underlying the neurotoxicity of ATR. PMID:26075868

  2. [Expression of apoptosis genes in the brain of rats with genetically defined fear-induced aggression].

    PubMed

    Ilchibaeva, T V; Tsybko, A S; Kozhemyakina, R V; Naumenko, V S

    2016-01-01

    The programmed cell death (or apoptosis) plays an important role both in developing and mature brains. Multiple data indicate the involvement of processes of apoptosis in mechanisms of different psychopathologies. At the same time, nothing is known about the role of apoptosis in the regulation of genetically defined aggression. In the present work, the expression of the genes that encode main pro- and antiapoptotic BAX and BCL-XL proteins, as well as caspase 3 (the main effector of apoptosis), in different brain structures of rats that were selected on a high aggression towards human (or its absence) was studied. A significant increase in the expression of the gene encoding caspase 3 was detected in the hypothalamus. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the expression of proapoptotic Bax gene in the hippocampus and increase in mRNA level of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene in the raphe nuclei area of midbrain in highly aggressive rats. An increase in the ratio Bcl-xl: Bax was found in the midbrain and amygdala; a trend towards an increase in the ratio was also found in hippocampus of aggressive animals compared to tame animals. Thus, we demonstrated that genetically defined fear-induced aggression is associated with significant changes in the genetic control of apoptosis in the brain. It is assumed that an increase in the Bcl-xl gene expression (accompanied by a decrease in the Bax gene expression) can indicate an increase in the threshold of neuronal apoptosis in highly aggressive rats.

  3. Apoptosis and the target genes of microRNA-21.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Lindsey E Becker; Li, Yong

    2011-06-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is frequently up-regulated in cancer and the majority of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Through functional suppression, miR-21 is implicated in practically every walk of oncogenic life: the promotion of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, genome instability and mutation, inflammation, replicative immortalization, abnormal metabolism, angiogenesis, and evading apoptosis, immune destruction, and growth suppressors. In particular, miR-21 is strongly involved in apoptosis. In this article, we reviewed the experimentally validated targets of miR-21 and found that two thirds are linked to intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways of cellular apoptosis. This suggests that miR-21 is an oncogene which plays a key role in resisting programmed cell death in cancer cells and that targeting apoptosis is a viable therapeutic option against cancers expressing miR-21.

  4. Apoptosis and the target genes of microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Buscaglia, Lindsey E. Becker; Li, Yong

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is frequently up-regulated in cancer and the majority of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Through functional suppression, miR-21 is implicated in practically every walk of oncogenic life: the promotion of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, genome instability and mutation, inflammation, replicative immortalization, abnormal metabolism, angiogenesis, and evading apoptosis, immune destruction, and growth suppressors. In particular, miR-21 is strongly involved in apoptosis. In this article, we reviewed the experimentally validated targets of miR-21 and found that two thirds are linked to intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways of cellular apoptosis. This suggests that miR-21 is an Oncogene which plays a key role in resisting programmed cell death in cancer cells and that targeting apoptosis is a viable therapeutic option against cancers expressing miR-21. PMID:21627859

  5. MicroRNA-322 protects hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via BDNF gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liguo; Song, Shigang; Lv, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiomyocytes apoptosis under hypoxia condition contributes significantly to various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNA-322 (miR-322) in regulating hypoxia-induced apoptosis in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes in vitro. Method: Cardiomyocytes of C57BL/6J mice were treated with hypoxia condition in vitro. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. Gene expression pattern of miR-322 was measured by qRT-PCR. Stable downregulation of miR-322 in cardiomyocytes were achieved by lentiviral transduction, and the effect of miR-322 downregulation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis was investigated. Possible regulation of miR-322 on its downstream target gene, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated in cardiomyocytes. BDNF was then genetically silenced by siRNA to evaluate its role in miR-137 mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis protection under hypoxia condition. Results: Under hypoxia condition, significant apoptosis was induced and miR-322 was significantly upregulated in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Through lentiviral transduction, miR-322 was efficiently knocked down in cardiomyocytes. Downregulation of miR-322 protected hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Luciferase assay showed BDNF was the target gene of miR-322. QRT-PCR showed BDNF expression was associated with miR-322 regulation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Silencing BDNF in cardiomyocyte through siRNA transfection reversed the protective effect of miR-322 downregulation on hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Our study revealed that miR-322, in association with BDNF, played important role in regulating hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocyte. PMID:27398164

  6. Identification of a Novel Apoptosis Suppressor Gene from the Baculovirus Lymantria dispar Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hayato; Shibuya, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Ikeda, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    Ld652Y cells from Lymantria dispar readily undergo apoptosis upon infection with a variety of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), while L. dispar multicapsid NPV (LdMNPV) infection of Ld652Y cells results in the production of a high titer of progeny viruses. Here, we identify a novel LdMNPV apoptosis suppressor gene, apsup, which functions to suppress apoptosis induced in Ld652Y cells by infection with vAcΔp35, a p35-defective recombinant Autographa californica MNPV. apsup also suppresses apoptosis of Ld652Y cells induced by actinomycin D and UV exposure. Apsup is expressed in LdMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells late in infection, and RNA interference-mediated apsup ablation induces apoptosis of LdMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells. PMID:21411519

  7. RUNX3 gene promoter demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR induces apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hua-Feng; Dai, Zhi-Jun; Bai, He-Ping; Lu, Wang-Feng; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Bao, Xing; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Xi-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a tumor suppressor gene, its inactivation due to hypermethylation related to carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on cell proliferation and apoptosis by demethylation of the promoter region and restoring the expression of RUNX3 in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. MCF-7 cells were cultured with different concentrations (0.4-102.4 μmol/L) of 5-Aza-CdR in vitro. MTT assay was used to determine the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used for analyzing cell apoptosis. The methylation status and expression of RUNX3 in mRNA and protein levels were measured by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR [MSP]), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and Western blot. It was shown that the RUNX3 gene downregulated and hypermethylated in MCF-7 cells. 5-Aza-CdR induced demethylation, upregulated the expression of RUNX3 on both mRNA and protein levels in cancer cells, and induced growth suppression and apoptosis in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that RUNX3 downregulation in breast cancer is frequently due to hypermethylation, and that 5-Aza-CdR can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis by eliminating the methylation status of RUNX3 promoter and restoring its expression.

  8. Induction of apoptosis by paramyxovirus simian virus 5 lacking a small hydrophobic gene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Bright, Angela C; Rothermel, Terri A; He, Biao

    2003-03-01

    Simian virus 5 (SV5) is a member of the paramyxovirus family, which includes emerging viruses such as Hendra virus and Nipah virus as well as many important human and animal pathogens that have been known for years. SV5 encodes eight known viral proteins, including a small hydrophobic integral membrane protein (SH) of 44 amino acids. SV5 without the SH gene (rSV5deltaSH) is viable, and growth of rSV5deltaSH in tissue culture cells and viral protein and mRNA production in rSV5deltaSH-infected cells are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type SV5 virus. However, rSV5deltaSH causes increased cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in MDBK cells and is attenuated in vivo, suggesting the SH protein plays an important role in SV5 pathogenesis. How rSV5deltaSH induces apoptosis in infected cells has been examined in this report. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, was detected in culture media of rSV5deltaSH-infected cells. Apoptosis induced by rSV5deltaSH was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies against TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha receptor 1 (TNF-R1), suggesting that TNF-alpha played an essential role in rSV5deltaSH-induced apoptosis in a TNF-R1-dependent manner. Examination of important proteins in the TNF-alpha signaling pathway showed that p65, a major NF-kappaB subunit whose activation can lead to transcription of TNF-alpha, was first translocated to the nucleus and was capable of binding to DNA and then was targeted for degradation in rSV5deltaSH-infected cells while expression levels of TNF-R1 remained relatively constant. Thus, rSV5deltaSH induced cell death by activating TNF-alpha expression, possibly through activation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 and then targeting p65 for degradation, leading to apoptosis.

  9. MicroRNA-138 enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through interferon-stimulated gene 15 downregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chaohui; Sheng, Xinyi; Liu, Zhuo; Ma, Min; Xiong, Shuhan; Deng, Hongyu; Li, Sha; Yang, Darong; Wang, Xiaohong; Xiao, Hua; Quan, Hu; Xia, Man

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a potential target for cancer therapy. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and its mechanism is not well understood. In this study, to identify potential therapeutic targets for TRAIL-resistant cancer cells, we compared the expression levels of interferon-stimulated gene 15 in TRAIL-sensitive and TRAIL-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that interferon-stimulated gene 15 expression levels were significantly higher in resistant HLCZ01and Huh7 cells than in sensitive LH86 and SMMC-7721 cells. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 knockdown in resistance cells led to TRAIL sensitivity. Conversely, interferon-stimulated gene 15 overexpression in sensitive cells resulted in TRAIL resistance. Our bioinformatics search detected a putative target sequence for microRNA miR-138 in the 3' untranslated region of the interferon-stimulated gene 15. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that miR-138 was significantly downregulated in TRAIL-resistant cells compared to TRAIL-sensitive cells. Forced expression of miR-138 in resistant cells decreased both messenger RNA and protein levels of interferon-stimulated gene 15, and when exposed to TRAIL, activated poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, indicating sensitization to TRAIL. The results suggested that miR-138 regulates the interferon-stimulated gene 15 expression by directly targeting the 3' untranslated region of interferon-stimulated gene 15 and modulates the sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. MiR-138 may be a target for therapeutic intervention in TRAIL-based drug treatments of resistant hepatocellular carcinoma or could be a biomarker to select patients who may benefit from the treatment.

  10. Tumor suppressor genes are larger than apoptosis-effector genes and have more regions of active chromatin: Connection to a stochastic paradigm for sequential gene expression programs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marlene; Mauro, James A; Ramsamooj, Michael; Blanck, George

    2015-08-03

    Apoptosis- and proliferation-effector genes are substantially regulated by the same transactivators, with E2F-1 and Oct-1 being notable examples. The larger proliferation-effector genes have more binding sites for the transactivators that regulate both sets of genes, and proliferation-effector genes have more regions of active chromatin, i.e, DNase I hypersensitive and histone 3, lysine-4 trimethylation sites. Thus, the size differences between the 2 classes of genes suggest a transcriptional regulation paradigm whereby the accumulation of transcription factors that regulate both sets of genes, merely as an aspect of stochastic behavior, accumulate first on the larger proliferation-effector gene "traps," and then accumulate on the apoptosis effector genes, thereby effecting sequential activation of the 2 different gene sets. As IRF-1 and p53 levels increase, tumor suppressor proteins are first activated, followed by the activation of apoptosis-effector genes, for example during S-phase pausing for DNA repair. Tumor suppressor genes are larger than apoptosis-effector genes and have more IRF-1 and p53 binding sites, thereby likewise suggesting a paradigm for transcription sequencing based on stochastic interactions of transcription factors with different gene classes. In this report, using the ENCODE database, we determined that tumor suppressor genes have a greater number of open chromatin regions and histone 3 lysine-4 trimethylation sites, consistent with the idea that a larger gene size can facilitate earlier transcriptional activation via the inclusion of more transactivator binding sites.

  11. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  12. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  13. Discovery of gene networks regulating cytokine-induced dysfunction and apoptosis in insulin-producing INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Burak; Cardozo, Alessandra K; Darville, Martine I; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Magnusson, Nils; Ørntoft, Torben; Eizirik, Décio L

    2003-11-01

    Locally released cytokines contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in type 1 diabetes. In vitro exposure of insulin-producing INS-1E cells to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta + interferon (IFN)-gamma leads to a significant increase in apoptosis. To characterize the genetic networks implicated in beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis and its dependence on nitric oxide (NO) production, we performed a time-course microarray analysis of cytokine-induced genes in insulin-producing INS-1E cells. INS-1E cells were exposed in duplicate to IL-1beta + IFN-gamma for six different time points (1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) with or without the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) blocker N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA). The microarray analysis identified 698 genes as cytokine modified (>or=2.5-fold change compared with control) in at least one time point. Based on their temporal pattern of variation, the cytokine-regulated genes were classified into 15 clusters by the k-means method. These genes were further classified into 14 different groups according to their putative function. Changes in the expression of genes related to metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription factors at all time points studied indicate beta-cell attempts to adapt to the effects of continuous cytokine exposure. Notably, several apoptosis-related genes were modified at early time points (2-4 h) preceding iNOS expression. On the other hand, 46% of the genes modified by cytokines after 8-24 h were NO dependent, indicating the important role of this radical for the late effects of cytokines. The present results increase by more than twofold the number of known cytokine-modified genes in insulin-producing cells and yield comprehensive information on the role of NO for these modifications in gene expression. These data provide novel and detailed insights into the gene networks activated in beta-cells facing a prolonged immune assault.

  14. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng

    2015-12-04

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. - Highlights: • TLX overexpression in MIN6 cell causes significant expression changes of 225 genes. • TLX overexpression promotes MIN6 cell proliferation and decreases cell apoptosis. • TLX overexpression does not cause impairment of insulin secretion.

  15. The effect of HBx gene on the apoptosis of hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lu; Qi, Junying; Li, Gaopeng; Tao, Deding; Song, Shihui

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of HBx gene on the apoptosis of the cell lines (L02, HepG2) and the interaction between HBx and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the apoptosis of pcDNA3.1-HBx transiently transfected cell lines (L02, HepG2) was detected by flow cytometry and the mRNA expression of XIAP was assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Our study showed (1) the morphology of L02/pcDNA3.1-HBx was changed and the appearance of the cells mimicked that of HepG2 cells; (2) HBx gene could be detected in L02/pcDNA3.1-HBx and HepG2/ pcDNA3.1-HBx; (3) the apoptosis rate of L02/pcDNA 3.1-HBx was higher than that of L02 cells (P<0.01) and the apoptosis rate of HepG2/pcDNA3.1-HBx was lower than that of HepG2 cells (P<0.05); (4) the XIAP expression in L02 was about 3 times that in L02/pcDNA3.1-HBx cells (P<0.01), and the expression of XIAP in HepG2/pcDNA3.1-HBx was about 4 times that in HepG2 (P<0.01). It is concluded that HBx gene may promote the apoptosis of normal hepatocytes and inhibit the apoptosis of cells of hepatic carcinoma by regulating the expression of XIAP.

  16. Ets-1 as an early response gene against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, N; Xu, C; Zhu, Y-X; Cao, Y; Liu, D-C; Han, X

    2015-02-19

    Hypoxia complicates islet isolation for transplantation and may contribute to pancreatic β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cells are susceptible to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Severe hypoxic conditions during the immediate post-transplantation period are a main non-immune factor leading to β-cell death and islet graft failure. In this study, we identified the transcription factor Ets-1 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1) as an early response gene against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Hypoxia regulates Ets-1 at multiple levels according to the degree of β-cell oxygen deprivation. Moderate hypoxia promotes Ets-1 gene transcription, whereas severe hypoxia promotes its transactivation activity, as well as its ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation. This degradation causes a relative insufficiency of Ets-1 activity, and limits the transactivation effect of Ets-1 on downstream hypoxic-inducible genes and its anti-apoptotic function. Overexpression of ectopic Ets-1 in MIN6 and INS-1 cells protects them from severe hypoxia-induced apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner, confirming that a sufficient amount of Ets-1 activity is critical for protection of pancreatic β-cells against hypoxic injury. Targeting Ets-1 expression may be a useful strategy for islet graft protection during the immediate post-transplantation period.

  17. Ets-1 as an early response gene against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, N; Xu, C; Zhu, Y-X; Cao, Y; Liu, D-C; Han, X

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia complicates islet isolation for transplantation and may contribute to pancreatic β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cells are susceptible to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Severe hypoxic conditions during the immediate post-transplantation period are a main non-immune factor leading to β-cell death and islet graft failure. In this study, we identified the transcription factor Ets-1 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1) as an early response gene against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Hypoxia regulates Ets-1 at multiple levels according to the degree of β-cell oxygen deprivation. Moderate hypoxia promotes Ets-1 gene transcription, whereas severe hypoxia promotes its transactivation activity, as well as its ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation. This degradation causes a relative insufficiency of Ets-1 activity, and limits the transactivation effect of Ets-1 on downstream hypoxic-inducible genes and its anti-apoptotic function. Overexpression of ectopic Ets-1 in MIN6 and INS-1 cells protects them from severe hypoxia-induced apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner, confirming that a sufficient amount of Ets-1 activity is critical for protection of pancreatic β-cells against hypoxic injury. Targeting Ets-1 expression may be a useful strategy for islet graft protection during the immediate post-transplantation period. PMID:25695603

  18. Establishment and characterization of bortezomib-resistant U266 cell line: constitutive activation of NF-κB-mediated cell signals and/or alterations of ubiquitylation-related genes reduce bortezomib-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Juwon; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Chansu; Choi, Jee-Hye; Jung, Woo June; Ahn, Kwang-Sung; Yoon, Sung-Soo

    2014-05-01

    Bortezomib has been known as the most promising anti-cancer drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies reported that not all MM patients respond to bortezomib. To overcome such a stumbling-block, studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of bortezomib resistance. In this study, we established a bortezomib-resistant cell line (U266/velR), and explored its biological characteristics. The U266/velR showed reduced sensitivity to bortezomib, and also showed crossresistance to the chemically unrelated drug thalidomide. U266/velR cells had a higher proportion of CD138 negative subpopulation, known as stem-like feature, compared to parental U266 cells. U266/velR showed relatively less inhibitory effect of prosurvival NF-κB signaling by bortezomib. Further analysis of RNA microarray identified genes related to ubiquitination that were differentially regulated in U266/velR. Moreover, the expression level of CD52 in U266 cells was associated with bortezomib response. Our findings provide the basis for developing therapeutic strategies in bortezomib-resistant relapsed and refractory MM patients.

  19. Antiaging Gene Klotho Attenuates Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Sun, Zhongjie

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis is the major cause of death of insulin-producing β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. We found that the Klotho gene is expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Interestingly, halplodeficiency of Klotho (KL(+/-)) exacerbated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (a model of T1DM), including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, diminished islet insulin storage, and increased apoptotic β-cells. Conversely, in vivo β-cell-specific expression of mouse Klotho gene (mKL) attenuated β-cell apoptosis and prevented STZ-induced diabetes. mKL promoted cell adhesion to collagen IV, increased FAK and Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited caspase 3 cleavage in cultured MIN6 β-cells. mKL abolished STZ- and TNFα-induced inhibition of FAK and Akt phosphorylation, caspase 3 cleavage, and β-cell apoptosis. These promoting effects of Klotho can be abolished by blocking integrin β1. Therefore, these cell-based studies indicated that Klotho protected β-cells by inhibiting β-cell apoptosis through activation of the integrin β1-FAK/Akt pathway, leading to inhibition of caspase 3 cleavage. In an autoimmune T1DM model (NOD), we showed that in vivo β-cell-specific expression of mKL improved glucose tolerance, attenuated β-cell apoptosis, enhanced insulin storage in β-cells, and increased plasma insulin levels. The beneficial effect of Klotho gene delivery is likely due to attenuation of T-cell infiltration in pancreatic islets in NOD mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that Klotho protected β-cells in T1DM via attenuating apoptosis. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Evaluation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and dna-repair genes as potential biomarkers for ethanol-induced cns alterations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS) architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs) produced as a consequence of ethanol-induced effects on the expression of genes related to p53-signaling. This study tests the hypothesis that changes in the expression of p53-signaling genes represent biomarkers of ethanol abuse which can be identified in the peripheral blood of rat drinking models and human AUD subjects and posits that specific changes may be correlated with differences in neuropsychological measures and CNS structure. Results Remarkably, microarray analysis of 350 genes related to p53-signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of binge-drinking rats revealed 190 genes that were significantly altered after correcting for multiple testing. Moreover, 40 of these genes overlapped with those that we had previously observed to be changed in ethanol-exposed mouse NSCs. Expression changes in nine of these genes were tested for independent confirmation by a custom QuantiGene Plex (QGP) assay for a subset of p53-signaling genes, where a consistent trend for decreased expression of mitosis-related genes was observed. One mitosis-related gene (Pttg1) was also changed in human lymphoblasts cultured with ethanol. In PBLs of human AUD subjects seven p53-signaling genes were changed compared with non-drinking controls. Correlation and principal components analysis were then used to identify significant relationships between the expression of these seven genes and a set of medical, demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures that distinguished AUD and control subjects. Two genes (Ercc1 and Mcm5) showed a highly significant correlation with AUD-induced decreases in the volume of the left parietal supramarginal

  1. Evaluation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair genes as potential biomarkers for ethanol-induced CNS alterations.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Steven D; Lewis, Lambert; Ritchie, Julie; Burke, Patrick; Abdul-Malak, Ynesse; Adackapara, Nyssa; Canfield, Kelly; Shwarts, Erik; Gentile, Karen; Meszaros, Zsuzsa Szombathyne; Middleton, Frank A

    2012-10-25

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS) architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs) produced as a consequence of ethanol-induced effects on the expression of genes related to p53-signaling. This study tests the hypothesis that changes in the expression of p53-signaling genes represent biomarkers of ethanol abuse which can be identified in the peripheral blood of rat drinking models and human AUD subjects and posits that specific changes may be correlated with differences in neuropsychological measures and CNS structure. Remarkably, microarray analysis of 350 genes related to p53-signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of binge-drinking rats revealed 190 genes that were significantly altered after correcting for multiple testing. Moreover, 40 of these genes overlapped with those that we had previously observed to be changed in ethanol-exposed mouse NSCs. Expression changes in nine of these genes were tested for independent confirmation by a custom QuantiGene Plex (QGP) assay for a subset of p53-signaling genes, where a consistent trend for decreased expression of mitosis-related genes was observed. One mitosis-related gene (Pttg1) was also changed in human lymphoblasts cultured with ethanol. In PBLs of human AUD subjects seven p53-signaling genes were changed compared with non-drinking controls. Correlation and principal components analysis were then used to identify significant relationships between the expression of these seven genes and a set of medical, demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures that distinguished AUD and control subjects. Two genes (Ercc1 and Mcm5) showed a highly significant correlation with AUD-induced decreases in the volume of the left parietal supramarginal gyrus and

  2. The gene BRAF is underexpressed in bipolar subject olfactory neuroepithelial progenitor cells undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Emily; Gao, Yonglin; Lei, Zhenmin; Roisen, Fred; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2016-02-28

    Bipolar disorder is a devastating psychiatric condition that frequently results in various degrees of brain tissue loss, cognitive decline, and premature death. The documentation of brain tissue loss implicates apoptosis as the likely underlying degenerative process, but direct experimental demonstration is lacking. Olfactory neuroepithelial biopsies from individuals with and without bipolar I disorder yielded olfactory neuroepithelial progenitor cells (ONPs), which spontaneously differentiate into neurons and glia. Glutamate, 0.1M, for 3 and 6h was used to induce apoptosis. Genes involved in the apoptotic pathway were interrogated with micro-array analysis before and after glutamate treatment for 6h. Confirmation was accomplished with real-time PCR. Total and phospho-B-Raf protein levels were measured using Western blot analysis. ONPs from bipolar individuals demonstrated significantly greater apoptosis than cells from non-bipolar subjects. Microarray results revealed 12 differentially expressed genes. Five genes were further examined. BRAF mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in bipolar ONPs. ONPs with the genetic heritage of bipolar I disorder were more sensitive to glutamate induced apoptosis. Under expression of the BRAF gene and protein, which plays a role in regulating the pro-survival MEK/ERK signaling pathway, may contribute to this apoptotic sensitivity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  4. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  5. Tissue Specific Expression Levels of Apoptosis Involved Genes Have Correlations with Codon and Amino Acid Usage

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Iman; Salavaty, Abbas; Nasiri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Different mechanisms, including transcriptional and post transcriptional processes, regulate tissue specific expression of genes. In this study, we report differences in gene/protein compositional features between apoptosis involved genes selectively expressed in human tissues. We found some correlations between codon/amino acid usage and tissue specific expression level of genes. The findings can be significant for understanding the translational selection on these features. The selection may play an important role in the differentiation of human tissues and can be considered for future studies in diagnosis of some diseases such as cancer. PMID:28154517

  6. Tnfaip8 is an essential gene for the regulation of glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis of thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Woodward, M J; de Boer, J; Heidorn, S; Hubank, M; Kioussis, D; Williams, O; Brady, H J M

    2010-02-01

    Glucocorticoids have significant immunoregulatory actions on thymocytes and T cells and act by binding and activating cytosolic glucocorticoid receptors, which translocate to the nucleus and control gene expression through binding to specific response elements in target genes. Glucocorticoids promote cell death by activating an apoptotic program that requires transcriptional regulation. We set out to identify genes that are crucial to the process of glucocorticoid-mediated thymocyte apoptosis. Freshly isolated murine primary thymocytes were treated with dexamethasone, mRNA isolated and used to screen DNA microarrays. A set of candidate genes with upregulated expression was identified and selected members assayed in reconstituted fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC). Fetal liver-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were infected with retroviruses expressing individual genes then used to repopulate depleted fetal thymic lobes. Reconstituted FTOCs expressing the gene Tnfaip8 were treated with dexamethasone and shown to be greatly sensitized to dexamethasone. Retrovirus-mediated RNA interference was applied to knock down Tnfaip8 expression in HPCs and these were used to reconstitute FTOCs. We observed that downregulating the expression of Tnfaip8 alone was sufficient to effectively protect thymocytes against glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. We propose that Tnfaip8 is crucial in regulating glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis of thymocytes.

  7. Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Up-Regulates Apoptosis Genes in Primary Cultures of Neurons and Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2007-01-01

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900 MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2 hrs. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Upregulation occurred in both “on” and “stand-by” modes in neurons, but only in “on” mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons and astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes. PMID:17187929

  8. Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E

    2007-01-22

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2h. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Up-regulation occurred in both "on" and "stand-by" modes in neurons, but only in "on" mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons or astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes.

  9. Copper nanoparticle-induced ovarian injury, follicular atresia, apoptosis, and gene expression alterations in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Meng; Hu, Lixia; Lei, Hui; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Yingying; Ke, Dandan; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-hong

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the accumulation of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) in organs and the corresponding damage, although whether Cu NPs can be translocated to the ovaries and their ovarian toxicity are still unknown. In this study, three groups of female rats were injected with 3.12, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/kg Cu NPs for 14 consecutive days. The pathological changes, hormone levels, apoptosis and apoptotic proteins, oxidative stress, and gene expression characteristics in the ovaries were then investigated. The results demonstrated that the Cu NPs exhibited obvious accumulation in the rat ovaries, leading to ovarian injury, an imbalance of sex hormones, and ovarian cell apoptosis. Cu NP exposure activated caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, and tBid, decreased the protein levels of Bcl-2, increased the expression levels of the proteins Bax and cytochrome c, and promoted malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduction. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that Cu NPs (12.5 mg/kg/d) caused 321 differentially expressed genes. Of these, 180 and 141 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Hsd17b1, Hsd3b1, Hsd3b6, and Hsd3b were involved in steroid and hormone metabolism, whereas Mt3 and Cebpb were associated with apoptosis. Overall, these findings provide strong evidence that Cu NPs trigger both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and regulate key ovarian genes in oxidative stress-mediated ovarian dysfunction. PMID:28860760

  10. TAF6δ Controls Apoptosis and Gene Expression in the Absence of p53

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Pellay, François-Xavier; Benecke, Arndt; Bell, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    Background Life and death decisions of metazoan cells hinge on the balance between the expression of pro- versus anti-apoptotic gene products. The general RNA polymerase II transcription factor, TFIID, plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression through its core promoter recognition and co-activator functions. The core TFIID subunit TAF6 acts in vitro as an essential co-activator of transcription for the p53 tumor suppressor protein. We previously identified a splice variant of TAF6, termed TAF6δ that can be induced during apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate the impact of TAF6δ on cell death and gene expression, we have employed modified antisense oligonucleotides to enforce expression of endogenous TAF6δ. The induction of endogenous TAF6δ triggered apoptosis in tumor cell lines, including cells devoid of p53. Microarray experiments revealed that TAF6δ activates gene expression independently of cellular p53 status. Conclusions Our data define TAF6δ as a pivotal node in a signaling pathway that controls gene expression programs and apoptosis in the absence of p53. PMID:18628956

  11. Changes in expression of genes involved in apoptosis in activated human T-cells in response to modeled microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Nancy E.; Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diana; Risin, Semyon A.; Liu, Wenbin

    2006-09-01

    Space flights result in remarkable effects on various physiological systems, including a decline in cellular immune functions. Previous studies have shown that exposure to microgravity, both true and modeled, can cause significant changes in numerous lymphocyte functions. The purpose of this study was to search for microgravity-sensitive genes, and specifically for apoptotic genes influenced by the microgravity environment and other genes related to immune response. The experiments were performed on anti-CD3 and IL-2 activated human T cells. To model microgravity conditions we have utilized the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor. Control lymphocytes were cultured in static 1g conditions. To assess gene expression we used DNA microarray chip technology. We had shown that multiple genes (approximately 3-8% of tested genes) respond to microgravity conditions by 1.5 and more fold change in expression. There is a significant variability in the response. However, a certain reproducible pattern in gene response could be identified. Among the genes showing reproducible changes in expression in modeled microgravity, several genes involved in apoptosis as well as in immune response were identified. These are IL-7 receptor, Granzyme B, Beta-3-endonexin, Apo2 ligand and STAT1. Possible functional consequences of these changes are discussed.

  12. RBM10 Modulates Apoptosis and Influences TNF-α Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Bacon, Mackensey L.; Tessier, Julie J.; Rintala-Maki, Nina D.; Tang, Vanessa; Sutherland, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that protein encoded by the RNA Binding Motif 10 (RBM10) gene has the ability to modulate apoptosis. The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis by manipulating RBM10 expression levels and examining the downstream consequences. The results showed that transient overexpression of RBM10 correlated with significantly elevated levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA and soluble TNF-α (sTNF-α) protein, and increased apoptosis (phosphatidyl serine exposure on the outer cell membrane and nuclear condensation). Stable RNA interference-mediated RBM10 knockdown clones were less susceptible to TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and had decreased sTNF-α protein levels. Elevated levels of TNF-α associated with RBM10 overexpression resulted from increased TNF-α transcription, not TNF-α mRNA stabilization. These results suggest that RBM10 has the ability to modulate apoptosis, and that it does so via a mechanism involving alterations to TNFR super family-mediated signaling. These data provide the first direct evidence that human RBM10 can function as an apoptosis modulator and cytokine expression regulator. PMID:26446321

  13. Thiamine deficiency caused by thiamine antagonists triggers upregulation of apoptosis inducing factor gene expression and leads to caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in neuronally differentiated rat PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chornyy, Sergiy; Parkhomenko, Julia; Chorna, Nataliya

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that alterations in oxidative metabolism induced by thiamine deficiency lead to neuronal cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still under extensive investigation. Here, we report that rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells differentiated in the presence of NGF into neurons undergo apoptosis due to thiamine deficiency caused by antagonists of thiamine - amprolium, pyrithiamine and oxythiamine. Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy revealed that annexin V binds to PC-12 cells in presence of thiamine antagonists after 72 h incubation. Results also show that thiamine antagonists trigger upregulation of gene expression of mitochondrial-derived apoptosis inducing factor, DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and translocation of active product to the nucleus. We therefore propose that apoptosis induced by amprolium, pyrithiamine or oxythiamine occurs via the mitochondria-dependent caspase 3-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, our data indicate that pyrithiamine and oxythiamine are more potent inducers of apoptosis than amprolium.

  14. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes.

  15. Gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum resident selenoproteins correlates with apoptosis in various muscles of se-deficient chicks.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hai-Dong; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Li, Shu; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Long; Lei, Xin Gen

    2013-05-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency causes muscular dystrophy in various species, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our objectives were to investigate: 1) if dietary Se deficiency induced different amounts of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cell apoptosis in 3 skeletal muscles; and 2) if the distribution and expression of 4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein genes (Sepn1, Selk, Sels, and Selt) were related to oxidative damages in these muscles. Two groups of day-old layer chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (33 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or the diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.15 mg/kg for 55 d. Dietary Se deficiency resulted in accelerated (P < 0.05) cell apoptosis that was associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and elevated lipid peroxidation in these muscles. All these responses were stronger in the pectoral muscle than in the thigh and wing muscles (P < 0.05). Relative distribution of the 4 ER resident selenoprotein gene mRNA amounts and their responses to dietary Se deficiency were consistent with the resultant oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the 3 muscles. Expression of Sepn1, Sels, and Selt in these muscles was correlated with (r > 0.72; P < 0.05) that of Sepsecs encoding a key enzyme for biosynthesis of selenocysteine (selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase). In conclusion, the pectoral muscle demonstrated unique expression patterns of the ER resident selenoprotein genes and GPx activity, along with elevated susceptibility to oxidative cell death, compared with the other skeletal muscles. These features might help explain why it is a primary target of Se deficiency diseases in chicks.

  16. Fatty Acid Esters of Phloridzin Induce Apoptosis of Human Liver Cancer Cells through Altered Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Phloridzin (phlorizin or phloretin 2′-O-glucoside) is known for blocking intestinal glucose absorption. We have investigated the anticarcinogenic effect of phloridzin and its novel derivatives using human cancer cell lines. We have synthesised novel acylated derivatives of phloridzin with six different long chain fatty acids by regioselective enzymatic acylation using Candida Antarctica lipase B. The antiproliferative effects of the new compounds were investigated in comparison with the parent compounds, phloridzin, aglycone phloretin, the six free fatty acids and chemotherapeutic drugs (sorafenib, doxorubicin and daunorubicin) using human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells along with normal human and rat hepatocytes. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited significantly the growth of the two carcinoma and leukemia cells while similar treatment doses were not toxic to normal human or rat hepatocytes. The antiproliferative potency of fatty esters of phloridzin was comparable to the potency of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited DNA topoisomerases IIα activity that might induce G0/G1 phase arrest, induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, and decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Based on the high selectivity on cancer cells, decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of phloridzin was selected for gene expression analysis using RT2PCR human cancer drug target array. Antiproliferative effect of DHA ester of phloridzin could be related to the down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2), growth factor receptors (EBFR family, IGF1R/IGF2, PDGFR) and its downstream signalling partners (PI3k/AKT/mTOR, Ras/Raf/MAPK), cell cycle machinery (CDKs, TERT, TOP2A, TOP2B) as well as epigenetics regulators (HDACs). These results suggest that fatty esters of phloridzin have potential chemotherapeutic effects mediated

  17. Altered hepatic mRNA expression of immune response and apoptosis-associated genes after acute and chronic psychological stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Depke, Maren; Steil, Leif; Domanska, Grazyna; Völker, Uwe; Schütt, Christine; Kiank, Cornelia

    2009-09-01

    Using a combination of transcriptional profiling and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, www.ingenuity.com) we investigated acute and chronic psychological stress induced alterations of hepatic gene expression of BALB/c mice. Already after a 2-h single stress session, up-regulation of several LPS and glucocorticoid-sensitive immune response genes and markers related to oxidative stress and apoptotic processes were observed. Support for the existence of oxidative stress was gained by measuring increased protein carbonylation, but no alterations of immune responsiveness or cell death were measured in mice after acute stress compared to the control group. When animals were repeatedly stressed during 4.5-days, we found reduced transcription of antigen presentation molecules, altered mRNA levels of immune cell signaling mediators and persisting high expression of apoptosis-related genes. These alterations were associated with a measurable immune suppression characterized by a reduced ability to clear experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection from the liver and a heightened hepatocyte apoptosis. Moreover, genes associated with anti-oxidative functions and regenerative processes were induced in the hepatic tissue of chronically stressed mice. These findings indicate that modulation of the immune response and of apoptosis-related genes is initiated already during a single acute stress exposure. However, immune suppression will only manifest in repeatedly stressed mice which additionally show induction of protective and liver regenerative genes to prevent further hepatocyte damage.

  18. Differential gene expression and apoptosis markers in presymptomatic scrapie affected sheep.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Lyahyai, Jaber; Filali, Hicham; Marín, Belén; Serrano, Carmen; Monleón, Eva; Moreno, Bernardino; Zaragoza, Pilar; Badiola, Juan José; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Bolea, Rosa

    2012-09-14

    Neuronal loss is one of the characteristics of scrapie neuropathology. Previous analysis of brains from sheep naturally infected with scrapie that were in a terminal stage did not detect a clear induction of apoptosis, although molecular changes were evidenced. As neuronal death could be occurring early in scrapie, we developed a neuropathological and gene expression study of sheep infected with scrapie in a presymptomatic stage. The histopathology, immunolabelling of PrP(Sc), Bax and activated caspase-3, and the analysis of the expression of 7 genes involved in the regulation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis were investigated in the following 4 central nervous system areas: medulla oblongata, diencephalon, frontal cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, TUNEL and NeuN immunolabelling was performed in the medulla oblongata. The PrP(Sc) immunolabelling in the four areas, as well as a neuropil spongiform change, were more evident in the terminal stage than in presymptomatic animals. Cytoplasmic Bax immunostaining was observed in the presymptomatic medulla oblongata. In contrast to symptomatic animals, the immunostaining was not extended to the hypothalamus, indicating the progression of Bax induction during the course of the disease. Although neither caspase-3 immunostaining nor the TUNEL technique detected neurons with apoptosis, NeuN-immunolabelled cell counting determined that presymptomatic animals have already suffered neuronal loss in a lower or equal degree than symptomatic animals. Finally, the gene expression profiles indicated that the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis was activated with higher intensity in presymptomatic animals than in symptomatic sheep and confirmed the implication of genes such as BAX or AIF in the disease.

  19. Methioninase gene therapy with selenomethionine induces apoptosis in bcl-2-overproducing lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norio; Gupta, Anshu; Xu, Mingxu; Miki, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuro; Moossa, A R; Hoffman, R M

    2003-06-01

    We have previously shown that the toxic pro-oxidant methylselenol is released from selenomethionine (SeMET) by cancer cells transformed with the adenoviral methionine alpha,gamma-lyase (methioninase, MET) gene cloned from Pseudomonas putida. Methylselenol damaged the mitochondria via oxidative stress, and caused cytochrome c release into the cytosol thereby activating caspase enzymes and thereby apoptosis. However, gene therapy strategies are less effective if tumor cells overexpress the antiapoptotic mitochondrial protein bcl-2. In this study, we investigated whether rAdMET/SeMET was effective against bcl-2-overproducing A549 lung cancer cells. We established two clones of the human lung cancer A549 cell line that show moderate and high expression levels of bcl-2, respectively, compared to the parent cell line, which has very low bcl-2 expression. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was inhibited in the bcl-2-overproducing clones as well as in the parental cell line. In contrast to staurosporine, apoptosis was induced in the bcl-2-overproducing clones as well as the parental cell line by AdMET/SeMET. Apoptosis in the rAdMET-SeMET-treated cells was determined by fragmentation of nuclei, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. A strong bystander effect of AdMET/SeMET was observed on A549 cells as well as the bcl-2-overproducing clones. rAdMET/SeMET prodrug gene therapy is therefore a promising novel strategy effective against bcl-2 overexpression, which has blocked other gene therapy strategies.

  20. Tissue transglutaminase-dependent posttranslational modification of the retinoblastoma gene product in promonocytic cells undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Oliverio, S; Amendola, A; Di Sano, F; Farrace, M G; Fesus, L; Nemes, Z; Piredda, L; Spinedi, A; Piacentini, M

    1997-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) plays an important role in controlling both cell release from the G1 phase and apoptosis. We show here that in the early phases of apoptosis, pRB is posttranslationally modified by a tissue transglutaminase (tTG)-catalyzed reaction. In fact, by employing a novel haptenized lysis synthetic substrate which allows the isolation of glutaminyl-tTG substrates in vivo, we identified pRB as a potential tTG substrate in U937 cells undergoing apoptosis. In keeping with this finding, we showed that apoptosis of U937 cells is characterized by the rapid disappearance of the 105,000- to 110,000-molecular-weight pRB forms concomitantly with the appearance of a smear of immunoreactive products with a molecular weight of greater than 250,000. The shift in pRB molecular weight was reproduced by adding exogenous purified tTG to extracts obtained from viable U937 cells and was prevented by dansylcadaverine, a potent enzyme inhibitor. The effect of the pRB posttranslational modification during apoptosis was investigated by determining the E2F-1 levels and by isolating and characterizing pRB-null clones from U937 cells. Notably, the lack of pRB in these U937-derived clones renders these p53-null cells highly resistant to apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal, calphostin C, and ceramide. Taken together, these data suggest that tTG, acting on the pRB protein, might play an important role in the cell progression through the death program. PMID:9315663

  1. Defective expression of apoptosis-related molecules in multiple sclerosis patients is normalized early after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, G L V; Ferreira, A F; Gasparotto, E P L; Kashima, S; Covas, D T; Guerreiro, C T; Brum, D G; Barreira, A A; Voltarelli, J C; Simões, B P; Oliveira, M C; de Castro, F A; Malmegrim, K C R

    2017-03-01

    Defective apoptosis might be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated apoptosis-related molecules in MS patients before and after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) using BCNU, Etoposide, AraC and Melphalan (BEAM) or cyclophosphamide (CY)-based conditioning regimens. Patients were followed for clinical and immunological parameters for 2 years after AHSCT. At baseline, MS patients had decreased proapoptotic BAD, BAX and FASL and increased A1 gene expression when compared with healthy counterparts. In the BEAM group, BAK, BIK, BIMEL , FAS, FASL, A1, BCL2, BCLXL , CFLIPL and CIAP2 genes were up-regulated after AHSCT. With the exception of BIK, BIMEL and A1, all genes reached levels similar to controls at day + 720 post-transplantation. Furthermore, in these patients, we observed increased CD8(+) Fas(+) T cell frequencies after AHSCT when compared to baseline. In the CY group, we observed increased BAX, BCLW, CFLIPL and CIAP1 and decreased BIK and BID gene expressions after transplantation. At day + 720 post-AHSCT, the expression of BAX, FAS, FASL, BCL2, BCLXL and CIAP1 was similar to that of controls. Protein analyses showed increased Bcl-2 expression before transplantation. At 1 year post-AHSCT, expression of Bak, Bim, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and cFlip-L was decreased when compared to baseline values. In summary, our findings suggest that normalization of apoptosis-related molecules is associated with the early therapeutic effects of AHSCT in MS patients. These mechanisms may be involved in the re-establishment of immune tolerance during the first 2 years post-transplantation.

  2. Daunorubicin-induced variations in gene transcription: commitment to proliferation arrest, senescence and apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Sylvia; Piña, Benjamin; Portugal, José

    2003-01-01

    We used a human cDNA macroarray containing various oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes to assess gene expression profiles in early-passage Jurkat T lymphocytes treated with clinically relevant concentrations of the antitumour antibiotic daunorubicin. Several oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes were either up- or down-regulated depending on the daunorubicin concentration used. The expression levels of some of these genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. We also compared the changes in cell-cycle distribution and the apoptotic morphological characteristics of the cells treated with daunorubicin, using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Exposure to 182 nM daunorubicin (its IC(75) in Jurkat T cells: where IC(75) is the drug concentration that inhibits growth by 75%) resulted in cell-cycle arrest in G(1) and almost immediate apoptosis. In contrast, decreasing the drug concentration to 91 nM (close to the IC(50)) caused G(2) arrest and cell senescence-like growth arrest, whereas features of apoptosis and necrosis appeared only after longer incubation times. Gene expression profiles, cell-cycle distribution, the presence of DNA damage and the time-dependent response of Jurkat T cells to cell death were correlated clearly. The general behaviour of the genes suggests that cell-cycle arrest and cell death follow distinct pathways depending on drug concentration. PMID:12656675

  3. The extent to which immunity, apoptosis and detoxification gene expression interact with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Abo-Al-Ela, Haitham G; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Mahmoud, Shawky; Ibrahim, Essam M

    2017-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defence against invasion by foreign pathogens. One widely used synthetic androgen for the production of all-male fish, particularly commercially valuable Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT). The present study investigates the effect of MT on innate immunity, cellular apoptosis and detoxification and the mortality rate, during and after the feeding of fry with 0-, 40-and 60-mg MT/kg. Expression analysis was completed on interleukin 1 beta (il1β), interleukin 8 (il8), tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfα), CXC2- and CC-chemokines, interferon (ifn), myxovirus resistance (mx), toll-like receptor 7 (tlr7), immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgM heavy chain), vitellogenin (vtg), cellular apoptosis susceptibility (cas) and glutathione S-transferase α1 (gstα1). Expression analysis revealed that MT had a significant impact on these genes, and this impact varied from induction to repression during and after the treatment. Linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the majority of the tested gene transcript levels and mortality rates on the 7(th) and 21(st) days of hormonal treatment and 2 weeks following hormonal cessation. The results are thoroughly discussed in this article. This is the first report concerning the hazardous effect of MT on a series of genes involved in immunity, apoptosis and detoxification in the Nile tilapia fry.

  4. Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Chicken Cardiomyocytes during Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunyun; Xiang, Jinmei; Li, Youwen; Guo, Dingzong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is both an exogenous and endogenous cytotoxic agent that can reliably induce apoptosis in numerous cell types for studies on apoptosis signaling pathways. However, little is known of these apoptotic processes in myocardial cells of chicken, a species prone to progressive heart failure. Sequencing of mRNA transcripts (RNA-Seq) allows for the identification of differentially expressed genes under various physiological and pathological conditions to elucidate the molecular pathways involved, including cellular responses to exogenous and endogenous toxins. We used RNA-seq to examine genes differentially expressed during H2O2-induced apoptosis in primary cultures of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes. Following control or H2O2 treatment, RNA was extracted and sequencing performed to identify novel transcripts up- or downregulated in the H2O2 treatment group and construct protein-protein interaction networks. Of the 19,268 known and 2,160 novel transcripts identified in both control and H2O2 treatment groups, 4,650 showed significant differential expression. Among them, 55.63% were upregulated and 44.37% downregulated. Initiation of apoptosis by H2O2 was associated with upregulation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes API5 and TRIA1. Many other differentially expressed genes were associated with metabolic pathways (including 'Fatty acid metabolism', 'Alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism', and 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids') and cell signaling pathways (including 'PPAR signaling pathway', 'Adipocytokine signaling pathway', 'TGF-beta signaling pathway', 'MAPK signaling pathway', and 'p53 signaling pathway'). In chicken cardiomyocytes, H2O2 alters the expression of numerous genes linked to cell signaling and metabolism as well as genes directly associated with apoptosis. In particular, H2O2 also affects the biosynthesis and processing of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids. These

  5. E2F-1 gene therapy induces apoptosis and increases chemosensitivity in human pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mary Jane; Farmer, Michael R; Atienza, Cesar; Stilwell, Ariel; Dong, Yan Bin; Yang, Hai Liang; Wong, Sandra L; McMasters, Kelly M

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. In this study, we examined the role of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of E2F-1 in inducing apoptosis and increasing the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic head exocrine adenocarcinoma cells (mutant p53) were treated by mock infection or adenoviruses expressing beta-galactosidase or E2F-1 (Ad-E2F-1) alone or in combination with sublethal concentrations of each chemotherapeutic drug. Cell growth and viability were assessed at selected time points. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, characteristic changes in cell morphology and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of E2F-1 and Bcl-2 family member proteins and PARP cleavage. Western blot analysis revealed marked overexpression of E2F-1 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 20 and 70. By 3 days after infection, Ad-E2F-1 treatment at an MOI of 70 resulted in approximately a 20-fold reduction in cell growth and 60% reduction in cell viability as compared to mock-infected cells. Cell cycle analysis, PARP cleavage and changes in cell morphology supported apoptosis as the mechanism of cell death in response to E2F-1. In order to test the efficacy of treatment with a combination of gene therapy and chemotherapy, we utilized concentrations of Ad-E2F-1 which reduced viability to 50% in combination with each chemotherapeutic agent. Cotreatment of the cells with E2F-1 virus and roscovitine (ROS) or etoposide resulted in an additive effect on cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, 5-fluorouracil did not cooperate with Ad-E2F-1 in the mediation of tumor death or inhibition of cell growth. Immunoblotting for Bcl-2 family members revealed no significant changes in the expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl X(L), Bax or Bak following gene or 'chemogene' therapy with E2F-1. However, a Bax cleavage product was noted

  6. Apoptosis and cancer mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pan, H; Yin, C; Van Dyke, T

    1997-01-01

    For nearly two decades, studies in the cancer research field focussed on identifying genes that act as positive and negative regulators of cell growth. Only relatively recently was it recognized that the regulation of cell death (apoptosis) is also an important modulator of tumorigenesis. At least two genes linked to human cancers, BCL2 and TP53, have been shown to regulate apoptosis. The correlation between apoptosis modulating genes and human tumours raises an important question as to how dysregulation of apoptosis contributes to neoplastic transformation and malignant cell growth. Cell culture studies have clearly demonstrated that TP53 can induce and BCL2 can suppress apoptosis in response to various stimuli. Studies of mammalian viruses, which possess mechanisms for both inducing and evading apoptosis, have also extended our understanding of this process. On the basis of such findings, several animal models have been developed which begin to address the role of apoptosis regulation in tumorigenesis. This chapter discusses those animal models, focussing on bcl-2 (and its relatives) and p53.

  7. Lonidamine induces apoptosis in drug-resistant cells independently of the p53 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Del Bufalo, D; Biroccio, A; Soddu, S; Laudonio, N; D'Angelo, C; Sacchi, A; Zupi, G

    1996-01-01

    Lonidamine, a dichlorinated derivative of indazole-3-carboxylic acid, was shown to play a significant role in reversing or overcoming multidrug resistance. Here, we show that exposure to 50 microg/ml of lonidamine induces apoptosis in adriamycin and nitrosourea-resistant cells (MCF-7 ADR(r) human breast cancer cell line, and LB9 glioblastoma multiform cell line), as demonstrated by sub-G1 peaks in DNA content histograms, condensation of nuclear chromatin, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we find that apoptosis is preceded by accumulation of the cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, lonidamine fails to activate the apoptotic program in the corresponding sensitive parental cell lines (ADR-sensitive MCF-7 WT, and nitrosourea-sensitive LI cells) even after long exposure times. The evaluation of bcl-2 protein expression suggests that this different effect of lonidamine treatment in drug-resistant and -sensitive cell lines might not simply be due to dissimilar expression levels of bcl-2 protein. To determine whether the lonidamine-induced apoptosis is mediated by p53 protein, we used cells lacking endogenous p53 and overexpressing either wild-type p53 or dominant-negative p53 mutant. We find that apoptosis by lonidamine is independent of the p53 gene. PMID:8787680

  8. [Toxic effect of nodularin on the apoptosis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) lymphocytes and related mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang-Jun; Wu, Yu-Huan; Zhao, Jing; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2013-10-01

    Nodularin is a new kind of cyanobacterial toxins found in water blooms worldwide, and fish is very easily to suffer from the negative effects induced by this toxin. This study found that nodularin could induce the apoptosis of Ctenopharyngodon idellus lymphocytes in vitro. The observation of transmission electron microscopy showed that under the impacts of nodularin, the lymphocytes presented typical apoptosis features, such as obvious cytoplasm condensation and nuclear chromatin agglutination and marginalization. The DNA ladder fragmentation further confirmed the occurrence of the apoptosis of the lymphocytes. After incubated with 1, 10, and 100 microg x L(-1) of nodularin for 12 h, the percentages of apoptotic lymphocytes reached 19.4%, 31.6%, and 71.6%, respectively, suggesting a dose-dependent manner. The nodularin-induced apoptosis was related to the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decline of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, up-regulation of intracellular Ca2+, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax. Meanwhile, the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were involved in the process of apoptosis. These results strongly indicated that nodularin could induce the apoptosis of fish lymphocytes via mitochondria pathway.

  9. Age-Related Susceptibility to Apoptosis in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Is Triggered by Disruption of p53–Mdm2 Association

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Chaum, Edward; Johnson, Dianna A.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Relatively little is known about the contribution of p53/Mdm2 pathway in apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells or its possible link to dysfunction of aging RPE or to related blinding disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Age-associated changes in p53 activation were evaluated in primary RPE cultures from human donor eyes of various ages. Apoptosis was evaluated by activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation. Gene-specific small interfering RNA was used to knock down expression of p53. Results. We observed that the basal rate of p53-dependent apoptosis increased in an age-dependent manner in human RPE. The age-dependent increase in apoptosis was linked to alterations in several aspects of the p53 pathway. p53 phosphorylation Ser15 was increased through the stimulation of ATM-Ser1981. p53 acetylation Lys379 was increased through the inhibition of SIRT1/2. These two posttranslational modifications of p53 blocked the sequestration of p53 by Mdm2, thus resulting in an increase in free p53 and of p53 stimulation of apoptosis through increased expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and activation of caspase-3. Aged RPE also had reduced expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, which contributed to the increase in apoptosis. Of particular interest in these studies was that pharmacologic treatments to block p53 phosphorylation, acetylation, or expression were able to protect RPE cells from apoptosis. Conclusions. Our studies suggest that aging in the RPE leads to alterations of specific checkpoints in the apoptotic pathway, which may represent important molecular targets for the treatment of RPE-related aging disorders such as AMD. PMID:23139272

  10. Possible mechanism for hepatitis B virus X gene to induce apoptosis of hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Chen, Hong-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism for HBV X gene to induce apoptosis of hepatocyte HL-7702 cells. METHODS: HBV X gene eukaryon expression vector pcDNA3-X was established and transfected into HL-7702 cells by lipid-mediated transfection, including transient and stable transfection. Positive clones were screened by incubating in the selective medium with 600 mg/mL G418 and named HL-7702/HBV-encoded X protein (HBx) cells. The expressions of Fas/FasL, Bax/Bcl-2, and c-myc mRNA were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in HL-7702/HBx and control group, respectively. RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis confirmed that HBV X gene was transfected into HL-7702 cells successfully. By semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, Bax and c-myc mRNA levels in HL-7702/HBx cells of transient transfection were significantly higher than those in control, FasL and c-myc mRNA levels in HL-7702/HBx cells of stable transfection were significantly higher than those in control, whereas the Bcl-2 mRNA levels in HL-7702/HBx cells of transient and stable transfection were significantly lower than those in control. CONCLUSION: HBV X gene may promote the apoptosis of hepatocytes by regulating the expressions of Fas/FasL, Bax/Bcl-2, and c-myc gene in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:16038033

  11. TNF-α Gene Knockout in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Line Induces Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pileczki, Valentina; Braicu, Cornelia; Gherman, Claudia D.; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the promotion and progression of cancer, including triple negative breast cancer cells. Thus, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular signaling pathways that connect TNF-α with the survival of tumor cells. In our experiments, we used as an in vitro model for triple negative breast cancer the cell line Hs578T. The purpose of this study is to determine the gene expression profiling of apoptotic signaling networks after blocking TNF-α formation by using specially designed siRNA molecules to target TNF-α messenger RNA. Knockdown of TNF-α gene was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, as observed by monitoring the cell index using the xCELLigence RTCA System and flow cytometry. PCR array technology was used to examine the transcript levels of 84 genes involved in apoptosis. 15 genes were found to be relevant after comparing the treated group with the untreated one of which 3 were down-regulated and 12 up-regulated. The down-regulated genes are all involved in cell survival, whereas the up-regulated ones are involved in and interact with pro-apoptotic pathways. The results described here indicate that the direct target of TNF-α in the Hs578T breast cancer cell line increases the level of certain pro-apoptotic factors that modulate different cellular networks that direct the cells towards death. PMID:23263670

  12. α-blockade, apoptosis, and prostate shrinkage: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Chłosta, Piotr; Drewa, Tomasz; Kaplan, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The α1-adrenoreceptor antagonists, such as terazosin and doxazosin, induce prostate programmed cell death (apoptosis) within prostate epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. This treatment should cause prostate volume decrease, However, this has never been observed in clinical conditions. The aim of this paper is to review the disconnect between these two processes. PubMed and DOAJ were searched for papers related to prostate, apoptosis, and stem cell death. The following key words were used: prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, programmed cell death, apoptosis, cell death, α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, α-blockade, prostate epithelium, prostate stroma, stem cells, progenitors, and in vitro models. We have shown how discoveries related to stem cells can influence our understanding of α-blockade treatment for BPH patients. Prostate epithelial and mesenchymal compartments have stem (progenitors) and differentiating cells. These compartments are described in relation to experimental in vitro and in vivo settings. Apoptosis is observed within prostate tissue, but this effect has no clinical significance and cannot lead to prostate shrinkage. In part, this is due to stem cells that are responsible for prostate tissue regeneration and are resistant to apoptosis triggered by α1-receptor antagonists.

  13. Disruption of Smad5 gene induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yanxun; Zhou Jiang; Liao Xudong; Lue Yaxin; Deng Chuxia; Huang Peitang; Chen Quan; Yang Xiao . E-mail: yangx@nic.bmi.ac.cn

    2005-05-15

    Our previous studies have shown that SMAD5, an important intracellular mediator of transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) family, is required for normal development of the cardiovascular system in vivo. In the current study, we reported that the lack of the Smad5 gene resulted in apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in vivo. To further investigate the mechanism of the Smad5 gene in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, the embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation system was employed. We found that the myotubes that differentiated from the homozygous Smad5 {sup ex6/ex6} mutant ES cells underwent collapse and degeneration during the late stages of in vitro differentiation, mimicking the in vivo observation. By electron microscopy, abnormal swollen mitochondria were observed in cardiomyocytes both from Smad5-deficient embryos and from ES-differentiated cells. There was also a significant reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi} {sub m}) and a leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol of myocytes differentiated from Smad5 mutant ES cells. The expression of p53 and p21 was found to be elevated in the differentiated Smad5 mutant myocytes, and this was accompanied by an up-regulation in caspase 3 expression. These results suggest that the Smad5-mediated TGF-{beta} signals may protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis by maintaining the integrity of the mitochondria, probably through suppression of p53 mediated pathways.

  14. Photodynamically induced cell cycle and gene expression changes: precursors of apoptosis introduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krammer, Barbara E.; Verwanger, Thomas; Schnitzhofer, Gerlinde

    1997-12-01

    Photodynamic tumor therapy is able to induce apoptosis with many photosensitizers. Apoptosis is based on changes in gene expression and correlated to cell cycle activities. In this study, therefore, quantitative determination of the expression of the (proto)oncoges c-myc and bcl-2 in normal and transformed fibroblasts following PDT with ALA and low dose irradiation was connected with cell cycle analysis in order to investigate, if a risk for occurrence of secondary tumors by irreversibly increased oncogene expression can be found, if phases of the cell cycle show selective sensitivity to the therapy, and if changes in one of the two or both parameters may either precede or prepare an introduction of apoptosis. The results show (1) no mutagenic risk by timely limited overexpression of c-myc and bcl-2, (2) no selective cell cycle sensitivity to the therapy; but, in contrary, sustained increase of the proliferative activity of the transformed cells by the interaction of bcl-2 and c-myc, indicating a risk of promotion of tumor regrowth in sublethally damaged areas, (3) the introduction of apoptotic processes by low dose PDT in the cytoplasm/mitochondria and less in the nucleus. Transformed cells show higher constitutive gene expression and proliferative activities than normal cells.

  15. Bcl-2 inhibitors sensitize tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis by uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration in human leukemic CEM cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ji-Hui; Yu, Ming; Liu, Feng-Ting; Newland, Adrian C; Jia, Li

    2004-05-15

    Previous studies have shown that the lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cell line is resistant to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis because of a low expression of caspase-8. Bcl-2 inhibitors, BH3I-2' and HA14-1, are small cell-permeable nonpeptide compounds, are able to induce apoptosis by mediating cytochrome c release, and also lead to dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). This study aimed to use the Bcl-2 inhibitors to sensitize CEM cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by switching on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. We found that a low dose of BH3I-2' or HA14-1, which did not induce cytochrome c release, greatly sensitized CEM cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In a similar manner to the classical uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), both BH3I-2' and HA14-1 induced a reduction in DeltaPsim, a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an increased mitochondrial respiration, and a decreased ATP synthesis. This uncoupling function of the Bcl-2 inhibitors was responsible for the synergy with TRAIL-induced apoptosis. CCCP per se did not induce apoptosis but again sensitized CEM cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by uncoupling mitochondrial respiration. The uncoupling effect facilitated TRAIL-induced Bax conformational change and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Inhibition of caspases failed to block TRAIL-mediated cell death when mitochondrial respiration was uncoupled. We observed that BH3I-2', HA14-1, or CCCP can overcome resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant cell lines, such as CEM, HL-60, and U937. Our results suggest that the uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration can sensitize leukemic cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, caspase activation per se does not represent an irreversible point of commitment to TRAIL-induced cell death when mitochondrial respiration is uncoupled.

  16. Apoptosis and gene expression in the developing mouse brain of fusarenon-X-treated pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Sutjarit, Samak; Nakayama, Shota M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Banlunara, Wijit; Rerkamnuaychoke, Worawut; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2014-08-17

    Fusarenon-X (FX), a type B trichothecene mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium crookwellense, which occurs naturally in agricultural commodities, such as wheat and barley. FX has been shown to exert a variety of toxic effects on multiple targets in vitro. However, the embryonic toxicity of FX in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated FX-induced apoptosis and the relationship between the genetic regulatory mechanisms and FX-induced apoptosis in the developing mouse brain of FX-treated pregnant mice. Pregnant mice were orally administered FX (3.5 mg/kg b.w.) and were assessed at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h after treatment (HAT). Apoptosis in the fetal brain was determined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TUNEL method, immunohistochemistry for PCNA and electron microscopy. Gene expressions were evaluated using microarray and real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Histopathological changes showed that the number of apoptotic cells in the telencephalon of the mouse fetus peaked at 12 HAT and decreased at 24 and 48 HAT. FX induced the up-regulation of Bax, Trp53 and Casp9 and down-regulated Bcl2 but the expression levels of Fas and Casp8 mRNA remained unchanged. These data suggested that FX induces apoptosis in the developing mouse brain in FX-treated dams. Moreover, the genetic regulatory mechanisms of FX-induced apoptosis are regulated by Bax, Bcl2, Trp53 and Casp9 or can be defined via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  17. Apoptosis in neural crest cells by functional loss of APC tumor suppressor gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Sato, Tomoyuki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Ito, Masaki; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Katsuki, Motoya; Yamauchi, Yasutaka; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Katamine, Shigeru; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    Apc is a gene associated with familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) and its inactivation is a critical step in colorectal tumor formation. The protein product, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), acts to down-regulate intracellular levels of -catenin, a key signal transducer in the Wnt signaling. Conditional targeting of Apc in the neural crest of mice caused massive apoptosis of cephalic and cardiac neural crest cells at about 11.5 days post coitum, resulting in craniofacial and cardiac anomalies at birth. Notably, the apoptotic cells localized in the regions where -catenin had accumulated. In contrast to its role in colorectal epithelial cells, inactivation of APC leads to dysregulation of -catenin/Wnt signaling with resultant apoptosis in certain tissues including neural crest cells.

  18. Effect of Thymoquinone on P53 Gene Expression and Consequence Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Mehdi Nikbakht; Mehdiabady, Ebrahim Momeni; Iranpour, Farhad Golshan; Bahramian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa has been a nutritional flavoring factor and natural treatment for many ailments for so many years in medical science. Earlier studies have been reported that thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound of its seed, contains anticancer properties. Previous studies have shown that TQ induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells but it is unclear the role of P53 in the apoptotic pathway. Hereby, this study reports the potency of TQ on expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). Methods: MCF-7 cell line was cultured and treated with TQ, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was carried out for evaluating the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values after 24 h of treatment. The percentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to estimate the messenger RNA expression of P53 in MCF-7 cell line at different times. Results: The IC50 value for the TQ in MCF-7 cells was 25 μM that determined using MTT assay. The flow cytometry and real-time PCR results showed that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, and the P53 gene expression was dramatically up-regulated by ascending time, respectively. Hence, there was significant difference in 48 and 72 h. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through up-regulation of P53 expression in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) by time-dependent manner. PMID:27141285

  19. A whole-genome RNAi screen identifies an 8q22 gene cluster that inhibits death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dompe, Nicholas; Rivers, Celina Sanchez; Li, Li; Cordes, Shaun; Schwickart, Martin; Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Amler, Lukas; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Tang, Jerry; Modrusan, Zora; Davis, David P

    2011-10-25

    Deregulation of apoptosis is a common occurrence in cancer, for which emerging oncology therapeutic agents designed to engage this pathway are undergoing clinical trials. With the aim of uncovering strategies to activate apoptosis in cancer cells, we used a pooled shRNA screen to interrogate death receptor signaling. This screening approach identified 16 genes that modulate the sensitivity to ligand induced apoptosis, with several genes exhibiting frequent overexpression and/or copy number gain in cancer. Interestingly, two of the top hits, EDD1 and GRHL2, are found 50 kb apart on chromosome 8q22, a region that is frequently amplified in many cancers. By using a series of silencing and overexpression studies, we show that EDD1 and GRHL2 suppress death-receptor expression, and that EDD1 expression is elevated in breast, pancreas, and lung cancer cell lines resistant to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Supporting the relevance of EDD1 and GRHL2 as therapeutic candidates to engage apoptosis in cancer cells, silencing the expression of either gene sensitizes 8q22-amplified breast cancer cell lines to death receptor induced apoptosis. Our findings highlight a mechanism by which cancer cells may evade apoptosis, and therefore provide insight in the search for new targets and functional biomarkers for this pathway.

  20. Visualizing spatiotemporal dynamics of apoptosis after G1 arrest by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax and insights into gene expression changes using microarray-based gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is a potent activator of viral and cellular gene expression that interacts with a number of cellular proteins. Many reports show that Tax is capable of regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis both positively and negatively. However, it still remains to understand why the Tax oncoprotein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, or whether Tax-induced apoptosis is dependent upon its ability to induce G1 arrest. The present study used time-lapse imaging to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of cell cycle dynamics in Tax-expressing HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator, Fucci2. A large-scale host cell gene profiling approach was also used to identify the genes involved in Tax-mediated cell signaling events related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Results Tax-expressing apoptotic cells showed a rounded morphology and detached from the culture dish after cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Thus, it appears that Tax induces apoptosis through pathways identical to those involved in G1 arrest. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which Tax induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, regulation of host cellular genes by Tax was analyzed using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts. Seventeen genes related to cell cycle regulation were identified as being up or downregulated > 2.0-fold in Tax-expressing cells. Several genes, including SMAD3, JUN, GADD45B, DUSP1 and IL8, were involved in cellular proliferation, responses to cellular stress and DNA damage, or inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, 23 pro- and anti-apoptotic genes were deregulated by Tax, including TNFAIP3, TNFRS9, BIRC3 and IL6. Furthermore, the kinetics of IL8, SMAD3, CDKN1A, GADD45A, GADD45B and IL6 expression were altered following the induction of Tax, and correlated closely with the morphological changes observed by time-lapse imaging. Conclusions Taken

  1. Allicin induces anti-human liver cancer cells through the p53 gene modulating apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chung, Jing-Gung; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lo, Yi-Chen; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-10-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent type of liver cancer globally and ranks first among the cancer-related mortalities in Taiwan. This study aims to understand the modes of cell death mechanism induced by allicin, a major phytochemical of crushed garlic, in human hepatoma cells. Our earlier study indicated that allicin induced autophagic cell death in human HCC Hep G2 (p53(wild type)) cells, whereas in the present study, allicin induced apoptotic cell death through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in human HCC Hep 3B (p53(mutation)) cells. To gain insight into the cell death mechanism in p53 knocked down Hep G2, we silenced the p53 gene using siRNA-mediated silencing. Allicin treatment induced apoptotic cell death in p53 knocked down Hep G2 cells similar to that of Hep 3B cells. These results suggest that allicin induced cell death in human hepatoma cells through either autophagy or apoptosis and might be a potential novel complementary gene therapeutic agent for the treatment of apoptosis-resistant cancer cells.

  2. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  3. T lymphocytes from chronic HCV-infected patients are primed for activation-induced apoptosis and express unique pro-apoptotic gene signature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin-Bin; Zheng, Su-Jun; Gong, Lu-Lu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Cai-Feng; Jin, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Ding; Yuan, Xiao-Hui; Guo, Jian; Duan, Zhong-Ping; He, You-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Although extensive studies have demonstrated the functional impairment of antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the functional status of global CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells remains unclear. In this report, we recruited 42 long-term (~20 years) treatment-naïve chronic HCV (CHC) patients and 15 healthy donors (HDs) to investigate differences in global CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells function. We show that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from CHC patients underwent increased apoptosis after TCR stimulation. Furthermore, IFN-γ, IL-9 and IP-10 were elevated in CHC patients' plasma and promoted activation-induced T-cells death. Global CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells also showed unique transcriptional profiles in the expression of apoptosis-related genes. We identified BCL2, PMAIP1, and CASP1 in CD4(+) T-cells and IER3 and BCL2A1 in CD8(+) T-cells from CHC patients as HCV-specific gene signatures. Importantly, the gene expression patterns of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from CHC patients differ from those in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected individuals. Our results indicate that chronic HCV infection causes a systemic change in cytokine levels that primes T-cells for activation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, HCV infection programs unique apoptosis-related gene expression profiles in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, leading to their enhanced activation-induced apoptosis. These results provide novel insights to the pathogenesis of chronic HCV infection.

  4. Calcium imaging in gentamicin ototoxicity: increased intracellular calcium relates to oxidative stress and late apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiwon; Yang, Ji Yun; Choi, June; Jung, Hak Hyun; Im, Gi Jung

    2011-12-01

    To estimate intracellular calcium changes in gentamicin (GM) ototoxicity using calcium imaging. To investigate GM-induced physiologic changes in auditory cells including cell viability, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Varying concentrations of GM were applied to the HEI-OC1 cochlear cell line. Calcium imaging tracked changes in intracellular calcium concentration during GM cytotoxicity. Cell viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels also were measured. Little change in calcium levels occurred in HEI-OC1 cells exposed to less than 35 mM GM. However, calcium rose continuously in cells exposed to more than 60 mM GM. With administration of intermediate concentrations of 40 or 50 mM GM, calcium increased variably in different cells, returning to baseline in some cases, or rising continuously in others. Upon increase of GM concentration, intracellular calcium concentration and ROS were increased, and cell viability was decreased due to late apoptosis. This study shows that GM increased intracellular calcium, ROS, and late apoptosis of HEI-OC1 cells derived from cochlear tissue. Increase of intracellular calcium is related to GM-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Calcium imaging can be used to determine change of intracellular calcium concentrations and apoptosis in GM ototoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative biological effectiveness of 280 keV neutrons for apoptosis in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L A; Wilkins, R C; McFarlane, N M; Sung, M M; McNamee, J P; Boreham, D R

    2006-07-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons varies from unity to greater than ten depending upon neutron energy and the biological endpoint measured. In our study, we examined apoptosis in human lymphocytes to assess the RBE of low energy 280 keV neutrons compared to Cs gamma radiation and found the RBE to be approximately one. Similar results have been observed for high energy neutrons using the same endpoint. As apoptosis is a major process that influences the consequences of radiation exposure, our results indicate that biological effect and the corresponding weighting factors for 280 keV neutrons may be lower in some cell types and tissues.

  6. RIP-1/c-FLIPL Induce Hepatic Cancer Cell Apoptosis Through Regulating Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jichun; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Changfa; Yu, Can; Li, Zhiqiang; Nie, Wanpin; Xu, Xundi; Miao, Xiongying; Jin, Xiaoxin

    2017-01-01

    Background Almost all hepatic cancer cells have resistance to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. c-FLIPL and RIP-1 are apoptotic negative regulatory factors. This study investigated the role of c-FLIPL and RIP-1 in hepatic cancer cell resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Material/Methods HepG2 cells were treated by TRAIL, RIP-1 siRNA, and/or BY11-7082. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was tested by flow cytometry. DISC component proteins, RIP-1, and p-p65 were measured by Western blot. Caspase-8 and caspase-3 were determined by spectrophotometry. Results Single TRAIL treatment showed no significant impact on cell proliferation and apoptosis. HepG2 cells expressed high levels of RIP1 and c-FLIPL, while a high concentration of TRAIL upregulated RIP-1 and c-FLIPL expression but not DR4 and DR5. Single TRAIL treatment did not obviously activate caspase-8 and caspase-3. RIP-1 or c-FLIPL siRNA markedly induced cell apoptosis and enhanced caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities. Combined transfection obviously increased apoptotic cells. TRAIL markedly upregulated RIP-1 expression and enhanced p-p65 protein. Downregulating RIP-1 and/or BAY11-7082 significantly reduced NF-κB transcriptional activity, blocked cells in G0/G1 phase, weakened proliferation, elevated caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities, and promoted cell apoptosis. Conclusions TRAIL can enhance RIP1 and c-FLIPL expression in HepG2 cells. High expression of RIP1 and c-FLIPL is an important reason for TRAIL resistance. Downregulation of RIP1 and c-FLIPL can relieve caspase-8 suppression, activate caspase-3, and promote cell apoptosis. TRAIL mediates apoptosis resistance through upregulating RIP-1 expression, enhancing NF-κB transcriptional activity, and weakening caspase activity. PMID:28270653

  7. Changes of Gene Expression in the Apoptosis Pathway in Lncap and PC3 Cells Exposed to X-Rays or Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Radio-resistant or recurrent prostate cancer represents a serious health risk for approximately 20%-30% of patients treated with primary radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. In our current studies, we investigated the expressions of apoptosis related gene expression profile (84 genes) in two distinct prostate cell lines Lncap (P53+ and AR+) and PC3 (P53- and AR-) before and after exposure to X-rays or protons, using cDNA PCR arrays. In Lncap cells, 10Gy X-ray radiation significantly induced the expression of 19 out of 84 genes at 4h after irradiation. The changed genes were mostly in death and death receptor domain families, TNF ligand and receptor families, and apoptotic group of the BCL2 family, especially in P53 related genes, such as FAS, BAX, BAK1 and GADD45A. In PC3, X-rays only induced the expression of 3 genes, including an increased expression of BIRC3. There was no difference of the X-ray mediated cell killing in both cell lines using the cell cycle analysis. However, these X-ray-induced gene expression differences between PC3 and Lncap may explain the phenotype of PC3 cells that shows more tolerant not only to radiation, but also to other apoptosis inducing and sensitizing reagents. To compare the effectiveness of cell killing with X-rays, we also exposed PC3 cells to 10Gy protons at the Bragg peak region. Protons did not induce more apoptosis than X-rays for the same dose. In comparison to X-rays, protons significantly altered expressions of 13 genes in PC3, which included decreased expressions of anti-apoptosis genes (BCL2 and BCL2L2), and increased expressions of death and death receptor domain family genes, TNF ligand and receptor family and several kinases (FAS, DAPK1 and RIPK2). These data suggest that proton treatment is more effective in influencing the apoptosis pathways in PC3 cells than X-rays, thus protons may be more effective in the treatment of specific prostate tumor.

  8. Changes of Gene Expression in the Apoptosis Pathway in Lncap and PC3 Cells Exposed to X-Rays or Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Radio-resistant or recurrent prostate cancer represents a serious health risk for approximately 20%-30% of patients treated with primary radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. In our current studies, we investigated the expressions of apoptosis related gene expression profile (84 genes) in two distinct prostate cell lines Lncap (P53+ and AR+) and PC3 (P53- and AR-) before and after exposure to X-rays or protons, using cDNA PCR arrays. In Lncap cells, 10Gy X-ray radiation significantly induced the expression of 19 out of 84 genes at 4h after irradiation. The changed genes were mostly in death and death receptor domain families, TNF ligand and receptor families, and apoptotic group of the BCL2 family, especially in P53 related genes, such as FAS, BAX, BAK1 and GADD45A. In PC3, X-rays only induced the expression of 3 genes, including an increased expression of BIRC3. There was no difference of the X-ray mediated cell killing in both cell lines using the cell cycle analysis. However, these X-ray-induced gene expression differences between PC3 and Lncap may explain the phenotype of PC3 cells that shows more tolerant not only to radiation, but also to other apoptosis inducing and sensitizing reagents. To compare the effectiveness of cell killing with X-rays, we also exposed PC3 cells to 10Gy protons at the Bragg peak region. Protons did not induce more apoptosis than X-rays for the same dose. In comparison to X-rays, protons significantly altered expressions of 13 genes in PC3, which included decreased expressions of anti-apoptosis genes (BCL2 and BCL2L2), and increased expressions of death and death receptor domain family genes, TNF ligand and receptor family and several kinases (FAS, DAPK1 and RIPK2). These data suggest that proton treatment is more effective in influencing the apoptosis pathways in PC3 cells than X-rays, thus protons may be more effective in the treatment of specific prostate tumor.

  9. Roles of plant hormones and anti-apoptosis genes during drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ubaidillah, Mohammad; Safitri, Fika Ayu; Jo, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Chung, Il Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-12-01

    We previously identified the rice (Oryza sativa) senescence-associated gene OsSAP which encodes a highly conserved protein involved in anti-apoptotic activity. This novel Bax suppressor-related gene regulates tolerance to multiple stresses in yeast. Here, we show the effects of drought stress on leaf and root tissues of plants over-expressing OsSAP in relation to the levels of phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and zeatin. Results showed that rice plants over-expressing SAP were tolerant to drought stress compared to wild type and the plants over-expressing AtBI-1, which is a homolog of the human Bax inhibitor-1 in Arabidopsis. ABA and JA levels in OsSAP and AtBI-1 transgenic plants consistently increased up to at least 3 days after drought treatment, whereas lower GA3 levels were recorded during early drought period. Comparison between control and transgenic plants overexpressing anti-apoptosis genes OsSAP and AtBI-1 resulted in different patterns of hormone levels, indicating that these genes are involved in the plant responses to drought stress and present an opportunity for further study on drought stress tolerance in rice and other plant species.

  10. In vivo and in vitro maturation of rabbit oocytes differently affects the gene expression profile, mitochondrial distribution, apoptosis and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Arias-Álvarez, M; García-García, R M; López-Tello, J; Rebollar, P G; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Lorenzo, P L

    2016-09-28

    In vivo-matured cumulus-oocyte complexes are valuable models in which to assess potential biomarkers of rabbit oocyte quality that contribute to enhanced IVM systems. In the present study we compared some gene markers of oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from immature, in vivo-matured and IVM oocytes. Moreover, apoptosis in CCs, nuclear maturation, mitochondrial reallocation and the developmental potential of oocytes after IVF were assessed. In relation to cumulus expansion, gene expression of gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43 kDa (Gja1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2) was significantly lower in CCs after in vivo maturation than IVM. In addition, there were differences in gene expression after in vivo maturation versus IVM in both oocytes and CCs for genes related to cell cycle regulation and apoptosis (V-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1 (Akt1), tumour protein 53 (Tp53), caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine protease (Casp3)), oxidative response (superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (Sod2)) and metabolism (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh)). In vivo-matured CCs had a lower apoptosis rate than IVM and immature CCs. Meiotic progression, mitochondrial migration to the periphery and developmental competence were higher for in vivo-matured than IVM oocytes. In conclusion, differences in oocyte developmental capacity after IVM or in vivo maturation are accompanied by significant changes in transcript abundance in oocytes and their surrounding CCs, meiotic rate, mitochondrial distribution and apoptotic index. Some of the genes investigated, such as Gja1, could be potential biomarkers for oocyte developmental competence in the rabbit model, helping improve in vitro culture systems in these species.

  11. TR4 orphan nuclear receptor functions as an apoptosis modulator via regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eungseok; Ma, Wen-Lung; Lin, Din-Lii; Inui, Shigeki; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Chang, Chawnshang . E-mail: chang@urmc.rochester.edu

    2007-09-21

    While Bcl-2 plays an important role in cell apoptosis, its relationship to the orphan nuclear receptors remains unclear. Here we report that mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells prepared from TR4-deficient (TR4{sup -} {sup /-}) mice are more susceptible to UV-irradiation mediated apoptosis compared to TR4-Wildtype (TR4 {sup +/+}) littermates. Substantial increasing TR4{sup -} {sup /-} MEF apoptosis to UV-irradiation was correlated to the down-regulation of Bcl-2 RNA and protein expression and collaterally increased caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, this TR4-induced Bcl-2 gene expression can be suppressed by co-transfection with TR4 coregulators, such as androgen receptor (AR) and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our results demonstrate that TR4 might function as an apoptosis modulator through induction of Bcl-2 gene expression.

  12. [Influence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the expression of genes of biomarkers of inflammatory responses and apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Baranova, L A; Zhornik, E V; Volotovski, I D

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the toxic effect of silver (AgNP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles their influence on the expression of genes of biomarkers of inflammatory responses and apoptosis in human lymphocytes was studied. An increase in the IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and p53 genes expression in the concentration range of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles of 10-40 μk g/ml was found. Increased expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and p53 genes under the nanoparticles action indicates the stimulation of the immune system and of apoptosis, respectively.

  13. MYC-induced apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells is associated with repression of lineage-specific gene signatures

    PubMed Central

    Haikala, Heidi M.; Klefström, Juha; Eilers, Martin; Wiese, Katrin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apoptosis caused by deregulated MYC expression is a prototype example of intrinsic tumor suppression. However, it is still unclear how supraphysiological MYC expression levels engage specific sets of target genes to promote apoptosis. Recently, we demonstrated that repression of SRF target genes by MYC/MIZ1 complexes limits AKT-dependent survival signaling and contributes to apoptosis induction. Here we report that supraphysiological levels of MYC repress gene sets that include markers of basal-like breast cancer cells, but not luminal cancer cells, in a MIZ1-dependent manner. Furthermore, repressed genes are part of a conserved gene signature characterizing the basal subpopulation of both murine and human mammary gland. These repressed genes play a role in epithelium and mammary gland development and overlap with genes mediating cell adhesion and extracellular matrix organization. Strikingly, acute activation of oncogenic MYC in basal mammary epithelial cells is sufficient to induce luminal cell identity markers. We propose that supraphysiological MYC expression impacts on mammary epithelial cell identity by repressing lineage-specific target genes. Such abrupt cell identity switch could interfere with adhesion-dependent survival signaling and thus promote apoptosis in pre-malignant epithelial tissue. PMID:26873145

  14. Brg1 Enables Rapid Growth of the Early Embryo by Suppressing Genes That Regulate Apoptosis and Cell Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet P.; Foley, Julie F.; Rubino, Mark; Boyle, Michael C.; Tandon, Arpit; Shah, Ruchir

    2016-01-01

    SWI/SNF (switching/sucrose nonfermenting)-dependent chromatin remodeling establishes coordinated gene expression programs during development, yet important functional details remain to be elucidated. We show that the Brg1 (Brahma-related gene 1; Smarca4) ATPase is globally expressed at high levels during postimplantation development and its conditional ablation, beginning at gastrulation, results in increased apoptosis, growth retardation, and, ultimately, embryonic death. Global gene expression analysis revealed that genes upregulated in Rosa26CreERT2; Brg1flox/flox embryos (here referred to as Brg1d/d embryos to describe embryos with deletion of the Brg1flox/flox alleles) negatively regulate cell cycle progression and cell growth. In addition, the p53 (Trp53) protein, which is virtually undetectable in early wild-type embryos, accumulated in the Brg1d/d embryos and activated the p53-dependent pathways. Using P19 cells, we show that Brg1 and CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4) coordinate to control target gene expression. Both proteins physically interact and show a substantial overlap of binding sites at chromatin-accessible regions adjacent to genes differentially expressed in the Brg1d/d embryos. Specifically, Brg1 deficiency results in reduced levels of the repressive histone H3 lysine K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) histone mark and an increase in the amount of open chromatin at the regulatory region of the p53 and p21 (Cdkn1a) genes. These results provide insights into the mechanisms by which Brg1 functions, which is in part via the p53 program, to constrain gene expression and facilitate rapid embryonic growth. PMID:27185875

  15. VMP1 related autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells: VMP1 regulates cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Qinyi; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Yan; Shen, Chenglong; He, Songbing; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Liang; Wan, Daiwei; Gu, Wen

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •This research confirmed VMP1 as a regulator of autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We proved the pro-survival role of VMP1-mediated autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We found the interaction between VMP1 and BECLIN1 also existing in colorectal cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is an autophagy-related protein and identified as a key regulator of autophagy in recent years. In pancreatic cell lines, VMP1-dependent autophagy has been linked to positive regulation of apoptosis. However, there are no published reports on the role of VMP1 in autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancers. Therefore, to address this gap of knowledge, we decided to interrogate regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by VMP1. We have studied the induction of autophagy by starvation and rapamycin treatment in colorectal cell lines using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. We found that starvation-induced autophagy correlated with an increase in VMP1 expression, that VMP1 interacted with BECLIN1, and that siRNA mediated down-regulation of VMP1-reduced autophagy. Next, we examined the relationship between VMP1-dependent autophagy and apoptosis and found that VMP1 down-regulation sensitizes cells to apoptosis and that agents that induce apoptosis down-regulate VMP1. In conclusion, similar to its reported role in other cell types, VMP1 is an important regulator of autophagy in colorectal cell lines. However, in contrast to its role in pancreatic cell lines, in colorectal cancer cells, VMP1-dependent autophagy appears to be pro-survival rather than pro-cell death.

  16. Folic acid rivals methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene-silencing effect on MEPM cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen-Lin; Wu, Min; Shi, Bing

    2006-11-01

    It's clear that environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of orofacial clefting (OFC) and an important area of future research will be to unravel interactions that occur between candidate genes and environmental factors during early development of the embryo. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation may reduce the risk of OFC. Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene reduce availability of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, the predominant circulating form of folic acid. To determine the effect of MTHFR gene mutation on murine embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM) cells and the interaction with folic acid supplement, we used RNAi study in the primary cultures of MEPM cells. The cells of MTHFR gene silencing grew slower and the apoptosis cell number was more than the cells of control. Supplement with 20 microg/ml folic acid was the best to preventing teratogenic effect of MTHFR gene silencing. By flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle, results were shown that the MEPM cells were retarded in G(0)/G(1) after MTHFR gene silencing. While using 20 microg/ml folic acid supplements could make cell transit the G(1)/S restriction point and the cells growth was close to normal level.

  17. Type 1 Diabetes Candidate Genes Linked to Pancreatic Islet Cell Inflammation and Beta-Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Størling, Joachim; Pociot, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic immune-mediated disease resulting from the selective destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. Susceptibility to the disease is the result of complex interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 50 genetic regions that affect the risk of developing T1D. Most of these susceptibility loci, however, harbor several genes, and the causal variant(s) and gene(s) for most of the loci remain to be established. A significant part of the genes located in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human islets and β cells and mounting evidence suggests that some of these genes modulate the β-cell response to the immune system and viral infection and regulate apoptotic β-cell death. Here, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on pancreatic islet cell inflammation and β-cell apoptosis. PMID:28212332

  18. Large-scale inference of gene function through phylogenetic annotation of Gene Ontology terms: case study of the apoptosis and autophagy cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Feuermann, Marc; Gaudet, Pascale; Mi, Huaiyu; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Thomas, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a paradigm for large-scale phylogenomic analysis of gene families that takes advantage of the large corpus of experimentally supported Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. This ‘GO Phylogenetic Annotation’ approach integrates GO annotations from evolutionarily related genes across ∼100 different organisms in the context of a gene family tree, in which curators build an explicit model of the evolution of gene functions. GO Phylogenetic Annotation models the gain and loss of functions in a gene family tree, which is used to infer the functions of uncharacterized (or incompletely characterized) gene products, even for human proteins that are relatively well studied. Here, we report our results from applying this paradigm to two well-characterized cellular processes, apoptosis and autophagy. This revealed several important observations with respect to GO annotations and how they can be used for function inference. Notably, we applied only a small fraction of the experimentally supported GO annotations to infer function in other family members. The majority of other annotations describe indirect effects, phenotypes or results from high throughput experiments. In addition, we show here how feedback from phylogenetic annotation leads to significant improvements in the PANTHER trees, the GO annotations and GO itself. Thus GO phylogenetic annotation both increases the quantity and improves the accuracy of the GO annotations provided to the research community. We expect these phylogenetically based annotations to be of broad use in gene enrichment analysis as well as other applications of GO annotations. Database URL: http://amigo.geneontology.org/amigo PMID:28025345

  19. Role of apoptosis in pathogenesis and treatment of bone-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Samaneh; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-28

    In this article, bone cells and their intercellular communications have been reviewed. Gap junctions and hemichannels are the main routes of interactions in bone tissue. They play a substantial role in survival and cell death, since pro-apoptotic signals can propagate through them. Different adhesion molecules are required for apoptosis, particularly caspase family as well as noncaspase proteases. The disruption outcome of apoptosis could result in bone-related diseases such as osteonecrosis. Anti-apoptotic strategies include inhibition of caspase, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP), and Bcl-2 proteins as well as induction of the PKB/Akt pathway and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins. Thus, understanding the mechanism of apoptosis gives detailed insights of anti-apoptotic molecular targets. Based on these targets, different treatments were designed and produced such as estrogen replacement therapy, administration of different bisphosphonates, raloxifene, calcitonin, sodium fluoride, calcium, and vitamin D. As a result, new applicable drugs for treatment of related bone problems can be proposed for clinical approach especially in the early stage of diseases.

  20. The relation between doses or post-plasma time points and apoptosis of leukemia cells induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Haixia; Xue, Zhixiao; Yin, Huijuan; Niu, Qing; Chen, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was applied to induce apoptosis of LT-12 leukemia cells. Plasma effects on cell death was evaluated by MTT assay and FCM apoptosis assay with Annexin V/PI double staining, suggesting that plasma killing cells rate and inducing cell apoptosis rate both positively were related to the plasma doses or the post-plasma time points. The cell death rates increased from 15.2% to 33.1% and the apoptosis rate raise from 23.8% to 28% when the dose raise from 60s to 120 s at 8 h post-plasma, while they increased from 15.4% to 34.9% and from 48% to 55.3% respectively at the same doses at 12 h post-plasma. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members were measured for exploring the related apoptotic mechanisms phenomenon. We found ROS immediately increased to 1.24 times of the original amount, then increasing to 5.39-fold at 20 h after treatment. The gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members are very active at 8-12 h post-plasma. Our results demonstrate that DBD plasma can effectively induce tumor cell death through primarily related apoptotic mechanisms.

  1. Effect of the WWOX gene on the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Tong, Jianye; Lin, Xiaoman; Han, Qiuyu; Huang, Hongxiang

    2015-08-01

    In order to examine new ideas for gene therapy in ovarian cancer, the specific mechanism underlying the effects of the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene on cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer stem cells was investigated. Ovarian cancer stem cells were transfected with a eukaryotic expression vector carrying the WWOX gene in vitro (recombinant plasmid) and cells transfected with the empty plasmid (empty plasmid) or untransfected cells were used as controls. Stably transfected cells were screened and amplified in culture and the WWOX protein was detected by western blot analysis in the three groups of cells. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, CDK4 and apoptosis-related protein Wnt-5α and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect alterations in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3. The results demonstrated that the WWOX protein was stably expressed in cells of the recombinant plasmid group, but was not detected in cells of the empty plasmid group and the control group. Cell proliferation at each time point decreased significantly in the recombinant plasmid group compared with the empty plasmid group and the control group. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher than that of cells in the empty plasmid group and the control group. The rate of apoptosis in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher than that of cells in the empty plasmid group and the control group. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of cyclin E, CDK2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 in the recombinant plasmid group were significantly lower than those in the empty plasmid group and the control group; however, the expression levels of Wnt-5α and JNK were significantly higher

  2. Requiem: a novel zinc finger gene essential for apoptosis in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Mantel, P L; Rosli, R; Crean, C D

    1994-11-25

    To identify genes mediating programmed cell death triggered by interleukin 3 (IL-3)-deprivation of myeloid cells, the IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell line FDCP-1 was used to screen a mammalian cell expression library for cDNAs that would promote survival following withdrawal of IL-3. A unique 892-base pair cDNA was cloned that prevented the programmed cell death response following IL-3 deprivation by causing antisense suppression of an endogenous 2.4-kilobase (kb) mRNA. A 2.3-kb cDNA containing the identical 892-base pair over-lapping sequence was cloned that encoded a deduced 371-amino acid protein containing a single Kruppel-type zinc finger and a cluster of 4 cysteine/histidine-rich repeats resembling atypical zinc fingers. The 2.4-kb mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed in murine tissues and its abundance in FDCP-1 cells was not altered in response to IL-3 deprivation. Since expression of this 2.4-kb mRNA was a prerequisite for the apoptosis response following IL-3 deprivation, the gene encoding it was named requiem. Requiem is likely to encode a transcription factor required for the apoptosis response following survival factor withdrawal from myeloid cells.

  3. Phosphoprotein Gene Contributes to the Enhanced Apoptosis Induced by Wild-Type Rabies Virus GD-SH-01 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Qiong; Luo, Jun; Jiang, He; Zhang, Boyue; Mei, Mingzhu; Wu, Fan; Wu, Yuting; Peng, Jiaojiao; Long, Teng; Luo, Yongwen; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Previous research demonstrated that the matrix protein (M) and glycoprotein (G) of attenuated rabies virus (RABV) strains are involved in the induction of host cell apoptosis. In this work, we show that wild-type (wt) RABV GD-SH-01 induces significantly greater apoptosis than the attenuated strain HEP-Flury. In order to identify the gene(s) accounting for this phenotype, five recombinant RABVs (rRABVs) were constructed by replacing each single gene of HEP-Flury with the corresponding gene of GD-SH-01. By using these rRABVs, we found that not only M and G, but also the phosphoprotein (P) plays an important role in inducing apoptosis. In order to figure out the different role of P gene in inducing apoptosis from the highly divergent background, another rRABV rGDSH-P, which carries the P gene of HEP-Flury in the background of the GD-SH-01 was generated. It was found that infection of NA cells with GD-SH-01 or the recombinant strain rHEP-shP, which carries P gene of GD-SH-01, induced significantly greater apoptosis than HEP-Flury or rGDSH-P in a caspase-dependent pathway that ultimately leads to the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is well characterized with the downregulation of bcl-2, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and finally the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Our results imply that wt P from GD-SH-01 mediates this effect may partly by facilitating viral RNA synthesis but not by viral replication. In sum, we demonstrate a wt RABV strain GD-SH-01 to induce stronger apoptosis than an attenuated RABV HEP-Flury and propose that wt P from GD-SH-01 is involved in this process. PMID:28928726

  4. Phosphoprotein Gene Contributes to the Enhanced Apoptosis Induced by Wild-Type Rabies Virus GD-SH-01 In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Qiong; Luo, Jun; Jiang, He; Zhang, Boyue; Mei, Mingzhu; Wu, Fan; Wu, Yuting; Peng, Jiaojiao; Long, Teng; Luo, Yongwen; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Previous research demonstrated that the matrix protein (M) and glycoprotein (G) of attenuated rabies virus (RABV) strains are involved in the induction of host cell apoptosis. In this work, we show that wild-type (wt) RABV GD-SH-01 induces significantly greater apoptosis than the attenuated strain HEP-Flury. In order to identify the gene(s) accounting for this phenotype, five recombinant RABVs (rRABVs) were constructed by replacing each single gene of HEP-Flury with the corresponding gene of GD-SH-01. By using these rRABVs, we found that not only M and G, but also the phosphoprotein (P) plays an important role in inducing apoptosis. In order to figure out the different role of P gene in inducing apoptosis from the highly divergent background, another rRABV rGDSH-P, which carries the P gene of HEP-Flury in the background of the GD-SH-01 was generated. It was found that infection of NA cells with GD-SH-01 or the recombinant strain rHEP-shP, which carries P gene of GD-SH-01, induced significantly greater apoptosis than HEP-Flury or rGDSH-P in a caspase-dependent pathway that ultimately leads to the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is well characterized with the downregulation of bcl-2, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and finally the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Our results imply that wt P from GD-SH-01 mediates this effect may partly by facilitating viral RNA synthesis but not by viral replication. In sum, we demonstrate a wt RABV strain GD-SH-01 to induce stronger apoptosis than an attenuated RABV HEP-Flury and propose that wt P from GD-SH-01 is involved in this process.

  5. Roscovitine sensitizes leukemia and lymphoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Molinsky, Jan; Klanova, Magdalena; Koc, Michal; Beranova, Lenka; Andera, Ladislav; Ludvikova, Zdenka; Bohmova, Martina; Gasova, Zdenka; Strnad, Miroslav; Ivanek, Robert; Trneny, Marek; Necas, Emanuel; Zivny, Jan; Klener, Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand with selective antitumor activity. However, many primary tumors are TRAIL resistant. Previous studies reported that roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, sensitized various solid cancer cells to TRAIL. We show that roscovitine and TRAIL demonstrate synergistic cytotoxicity in hematologic malignant cell lines and primary cells. Pretreatment of TRAIL-resistant leukemia cells with roscovitine induced enhanced cleavage of death-inducing signaling complex-bound proximal caspases after exposure to TRAIL. We observed increased levels of both pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins at the mitochondria following exposure to roscovitine. These results suggest that roscovitine induces priming of cancer cells for death by binding antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins to proapoptotic BH3-only proteins at the mitochondria, thereby decreasing the threshold for diverse proapoptotic stimuli. We propose that the mitochondrial priming and enhanced processing of apical caspases represent major molecular mechanisms of roscovitine-induced sensitization to TRAIL in leukemia/lymphoma cells.

  6. Resveratrol induces apoptosis and alters gene expression in human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Harati, Kamran; Slodnik, Pawel; Chromik, Ansgar Michael; Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Kapalschinski, Nikolai; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Uhl, Waldemar; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien

    2015-02-01

    Metastatic fibrosarcomas still represent a therapeutic dilemma. Commonly used chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin have been proven effective in fewer than 30% of all cases disseminated of fibrosarcoma. Elderly patients with cardiac disease are not suitable for systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin. We therefore tested the apoptotic effects of the natural and well-tolerated compound resveratrol on human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080). Vital, apoptotic and necrotic cells were quantified using flow cytometric analysis. Gene expression was analyzed by RNA microarrays. Application of resveratrol induced apoptotic cell death and significantly reduced proliferation of HT1080 cells. Correspondingly, expression of apoptosis-associated genes was altered in microarray analysis. This in vitro study demonstrates the anticancer activity of resveratrol against human fibrosarcoma cells. These results provide experimental support for in vivo trials assessing the effect of the natural polyphenol resveratrol. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Altered apoptosis regulation in Kufor–Rakeb syndrome patients with mutations in the ATP13A2 gene

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Elena; Formichi, Patrizia; Maio, Giuseppe Di; Battisti, Carla; Federico, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract ATP13A2 gene encodes for a protein of the group 5 P-type ATPase family. ATP13A2 mutations are responsible for Kufor–Rakeb syndrome (KRS), a rare autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism characterized by the subacute onset of extrapyramidal, pyramidal and cognitive dysfunction with secondary nonresponsiveness to levodopa. FBXO7 protein is an F-box-containing protein. Recessive FBXO7 mutations are responsible for PARK15, a rare juvenile parkinsonism characterized by progressive neurodegeneration with extrapyramidal and pyramidal system involvement. Our aim was to evaluate apoptosis in cells from two KRS siblings carrying a homozygous ATP13A2 mutation and a heterozygous FBXO7 mutation. We also analysed apoptosis in the patients’ healthy parents. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from the KRS patients and parents were exposed to 2-deoxy-D-ribose; apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis was much higher in lymphocytes from the KRS patients and parents than in controls, both in standard conditions and after induction with a pro-apoptotic stimulus. The lack of correlation between increased apoptosis and the presence of the mutated FBXO7 gene rules out the involvement of FBXO7 in apoptosis regulation. The altered apoptotic pattern of subjects with mutated ATP13A2 suggests a correlation between apoptosis alteration and the mutated ATP13A2 protein. We hypothesize that ATP13A2 mutations may compromise protein function, disrupting cell cation balance and rendering cells prone to apoptosis. However, the deregulation of apoptosis in KRS patients displaying different disease severity suggested that the altered apoptotic pathway probably does not have a pathogenetic role in KRS by itself. PMID:22117566

  8. Tumor suppressor gene OSCP1/NOR1 regulates apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and ROS generation during eye development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Huu, Nguyen Tho; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2015-12-01

    OSCP1/NOR1 (organic solute carrier partner 1/oxidored nitrodomain-containing protein 1) is a known tumor suppressor protein. OSCP1 has been reported to mediate transport of various organic solutes into cells; however, its role during development has not yet been addressed. Here we report the results of studies on dOSCP1 (the Drosophila ortholog of hOSCP1) to elucidate the role of OSCP1/NOR1 during development. Knockdown of dOSCP1 in the eye imaginal discs induced a rough-eye phenotype in adult flies. This phenotype resulted from induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis followed by a compensatory cell proliferation and generation of reactive oxygen species in eye imaginal discs. The induction of apoptosis appears to be associated with down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Buffy gene and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Debcl gene. These effects of knockdown of dOSCP1 lead to mitochondrial fragmentation, degradation, and a shortfall in ATP production. We also found that knockdown of dOSCP1 causes a defect in cone cell and pigment cell differentiation in pupal retinae. Moreover, mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor pathway-related genes, such as Spitz and Drk, enhanced the rough-eye phenotype induced by dOSCP1 knockdown. These results suggest that dOSCP1 positively regulates the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Overall, our findings indicate that dOSCP1 plays multiple roles during eye development in Drosophila. © 2015 FEBS.

  9. Bufalin alters gene expressions associated DNA damage, cell cycle, and apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Hwar; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Chen, Jaw-Chyum; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Yang, Su-Tso; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death and there is no effective treatment to date. Bufalin has been shown effective in inducing apoptosis and DNA damage in lung cancer cells. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying these actions have not been elucidated yet. Cultured NCI-H460 cells were treated with or without 2 μM of bufalin for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted from each treatment for cDNA synthesis and labeling, microarray hybridization, and then followed by flour-labeled cDNA hybridized on chip. The localized concentrations of fluorescent molecules were detected and quantitated and analyzed by Expression Console software (Affymetrix) with default RMA parameters. The key genes involved and their possible interaction pathways were mapped by GeneGo software. About 165 apoptosis-related genes were affected. CASP9 was up-regulated by 5.51 fold and THAP1 by 2.75-fold while CCAR1 was down-regulated by 2.24 fold. 107 genes related to DNA damage/repair were affected. MDC1 was down-regulated by 2.22-fold, DDIT4 by 2.52 fold while GADD45B up-regulated by 3.72 fold. 201 genes related to cell cycles were affected. CCPG1 was down-regulated by 2.11 fold and CDCA7L by 2.71 fold. Many genes about apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair are changed significantly following bufalin treatment in NCI-H460 cells. These changes provide an in depth understanding of cytotoxic mechanism of bufalin in genetic level and also offer many potentially useful biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer in future.

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, fibroblast apoptosis resistance, and aging-related susceptibility to lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Tan; Akhter, Hasina; Jiang, Chunsun; MacEwen, Mark; Ding, Qiang; Antony, Veena; Thannickal, Victor John; Liu, Rui-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disorder with unknown cause and no effective treatment. The incidence of and mortality from IPF increase with age, suggesting that advanced age is a major risk factor for IPF. The mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility of the elderly to IPF, however, is unknown. In this study, we show for the first time that the protein level of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a protease inhibitor which plays an essential role in the control of fibrinolysis, was significantly increased with age in mouse lung homogenate and lung fibroblasts. Upon bleomycin challenge, old mice experienced augmented PAI-1 induction and lung fibrosis as compared to young mice. Most interestingly, we show that fewer (myo)fibroblasts underwent apoptosis and more (myo)fibroblasts with increased level of PAI-1 accumulated in the lung of old than in young mice after bleomycin challenge. In vitro studies further demonstrate that fibroblasts isolated from lungs of old mice were resistant to H2O2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and had augmented fibrotic responses to TGF-β1, compared to fibroblasts isolated from young mice. Inhibition of PAI-1 activity with a PAI-1 inhibitor, on the other hand, eliminated the aging-related apoptosis resistance and TGF-β1 sensitivity in isolated fibroblasts. Moreover, we show that knocking down PAI-1 in human lung fibroblasts with PAI-1 siRNA significantly increased their sensitivity to apoptosis and inhibited their responses to TGF-β1. Together, the results suggest that increased PAI-1 expression may underlie the aging-related sensitivity to lung fibrosis in part by protecting fibroblasts from apoptosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. JNK inhibition reduces apoptosis and neovascularization in a murine model of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongjun; Sun, Xufang; Guma, Monica; Luo, Jing; Ouyang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zeng, Jing; Quach, John; Nguyen, Duy H.; Shaw, Peter X.; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registered blindness among the elderly and affects over 30 million people worldwide. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in pathogenesis of AMD. In advanced wet AMD, although, most of the severe vision loss is due to bleeding and exudation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and it is well known that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the growth of the abnormal blood vessels. VEGF suppression therapy improves visual acuity in AMD patients. However, there are unresolved issues, including safety and cost. Here we show that mice lacking c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) exhibit decreased inflammation, reduced CNV, lower levels of choroidal VEGF, and impaired choroidal macrophage recruitment in a murine model of wet AMD (laser-induced CNV). Interestingly, we also detected a substantial reduction in choroidal apoptosis of JNK1-deficient mice. Intravitreal injection of a pan-caspase inhibitor reduced neovascularization in the laser-induced CNV model, suggesting that apoptosis plays a role in laser-induced pathological angiogenesis. Intravitreal injection of a specific JNK inhibitor decreased choroidal VEGF expression and reduced pathological CNV. These results suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in linking oxidative stress, inflammation, macrophage recruitment apoptosis, and VEGF production in wet AMD and pharmacological JNK inhibition offers a unique and alternative avenue for prevention and treatment of AMD. PMID:23341606

  12. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons in a multiorgan assay for apoptosis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong-Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2008-04-01

    This study compared the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) fast neutrons on the induction of apoptosis in several tissue types (hair follicle, intestine crypt, testis) of ICR mouse exposed to low LET 60Co gamma-rays. The changes that occurred from 0 to 24 h after exposing the mice to either 2 Gy of gamma-rays (2 Gy/min) or 0.8 Gy of neutrons (94 mGy/min, 35 MeV) were examined. The maximum frequency of apoptosis was observed at 8 or 12 h after irradiation. The mice that had received 0-8 Gy of gamma-rays or 0-1.6 Gy of neutrons were examined 8 h after irradiation. The best-fitting dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, and there was a significant relationship between the number of apoptotic cells and the dose. The stained products in the TUNEL-positive cells or bodies correlated with the typical morphologic characteristics of apoptosis observed by optical microscopy. In the follicles showing an apoptosis frequency between 2 and 14 per hair follicle, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons in the small and large follicles was 2.09 +/- 0.31 and 2.15 +/- 0.18, respectively. In the intestine crypts showing an apoptosis frequency between 1 and 3 per crypt, the RBE of the neutrons was 4.03 +/- 0.06 and 3.87 +/- 0.04 in the base and total crypts, respectively. The RBE of the neutrons in the seminiferous tubule showing an apoptosis frequency between 0.5 and 2 per tubule was 5.18 +/- 0.06. The results determined the time-response relations and the RBE for fast neutron-induced apoptosis in several organs at the same time. The differences in RBE observed between the high and low LET radiation and it is believed that the difference in the DSB repair capacity in hair follicle, intestine crypt, and seminiferous tubule cells plays a role in determining the RBE of the high-LET radiation for the induced apoptotic cell formation.

  13. Ceramides promote apoptosis for virus-infected lymphoma cells through induction of ceramide synthases and viral lytic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lu; Trillo-Tinoco, Jimena; Bai, Aiping; Chen, Yihan; Bielawski, Jacek; Del Valle, Luis; Smith, Charles D.; Ochoa, Augusto C.; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a rapidly progressive malignancy arising preferentially in immunocompromised patients. With conventional chemotherapy, PEL continues to portend high mortality, dictating the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) represents a key gatekeeper for sphingolipid metabolism, responsible for conversion of ceramides to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). We have previously demonstrated that targeting SphK2 using a novel selective inhibitor, ABC294640, leads to intracellular accumulation of ceramides and induces apoptosis for KSHV-infected PEL cells, while suppressing tumor progression in vivo. In the current study, we sought to determine whether specific ceramide/dh-ceramide species and related ceramide synthases (CerS) impact viability for KSHV-infected PEL cells during targeting of SphK2. We found that several specific ceramide and dihydro(dh)-ceramide species and their associated CerS reduce PEL survival and tumor expansion in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that dhC16-Cer induces PEL apoptosis in part through activation of KSHV lytic gene expression. These data further implicate bioactive sphingolipids in regulation of PEL survival, and provide justification for future studies evaluating clinically relevant ceramide analogs or mimetics for their potential as therapeutic agents for PEL. PMID:26327294

  14. Demethoxycurcumin alters gene expression associated with DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yang-Ching; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Hsia, Te-Chun; Yang, Su-Tso; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and new lung cancer cases are continuously emerging around the globe; however, treatment of lung cancer remains unsatisfactory. Demethoxycurcumin (DMC) has been shown to exert cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells via induction of apoptosis. However, the effects of DMC on genetic mechanisms associated with these actions have not been yet elucidated. Human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells were incubated with or without 35 μM of DMC for 24 h and total RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis labeling and microarray hybridization, followed by fluor-labeled cDNA hybridization on chip. Expression Console software with default Robust Multichip Analysis (RMA) parameters were used for detecting and quantitating the localized concentrations of fluorescent molecules. The GeneGo software was used for investigating key genes involved and their possible interaction pathways. Genes associated with DNA damage and repair, cell-cycle check point and apoptosis could be altered by DMC; in particular, 144 genes were found up-regulated and 179 genes down-regulated in NCI-H460 cells after exposure to DMC. In general, DMC-altered genes may offer information to understand the cytotoxic mechanism of this agent at the genetic level since gene alterations can be useful biomarkers or targets for the diagnosis and treatment of human lung cancer in the future.

  15. Adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transduction inhibits telomerase activity independent of its effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, M; Ogawa, T; Mizumoto, K; Ueno, H; Niiyama, H; Sato, N; Nakamura, M; Tanaka, M

    1999-08-01

    Evidence for a relationship between overexpression of wild-type p53 and telomerase activity remains controversial. We investigated whether p53 gene transduction could cause telomerase inhibition in pancreatic cancer cell lines, focusing on the relation of transduction to growth arrest, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic cell death. The cells were infected with recombinant adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 or p21WAF1 at a multiplicity of infection of 100 or were continuously exposed to 10 microM VP-16, which is well known to induce apoptosis. Adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transduction caused G1 cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and resultant growth inhibition in MIA PaCa-2 cells; the cell number 2 days after infection was 50% of preinfection value, and 13% of the cells were dead. Moreover, the transduction resulted in complete depression of telomerase activity through down-regulation of hTERT mRNA expression. In contrast, p21WAF1 gene transduction only arrested cell growth and cell cycle at G1 phase, and VP-16 treatment inhibited cell growth with G2-M arrest and apoptosis; after treatment, the cell number was 73% of pretreatment, and 12% of the cells were dead. Neither p21WAF1 gene transduction nor VP-16 treatment caused telomerase inhibition. Similar results were obtained in two other pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and AsPC-1. Thus, our results demonstrate that the p53 gene transduction directly inhibits telomerase activity, independent of its effects on cell growth arrest, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis.

  16. WHO grade related expression of TRAIL-receptors and apoptosis regulators in meningioma.

    PubMed

    Koschny, Ronald; Krupp, Wolfgang; Xu, Li-Xin; Mueller, Wolf C; Bauer, Manfred; Sinn, Peter; Keller, Marius; Koschny, Thomas; Walczak, Henning; Bruckner, Thomas; Ganten, Tom M; Holland, Heidrun

    2015-02-01

    The expression of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors and key regulators of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway correlate with clinical features and the WHO grade of malignancy in some tumor entities. Expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptors and executioners of apoptosis are a prerequisite for TRAIL-based therapies as a promising future targeted therapy. Human meningioma tissues (n=24 WHO grade I, n=7 WHO grade II, n=6 WHO grade III) were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, TRAIL-R3, TRAIL-R4, caspase-8, cFLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, Bax, and Bak. Staining intensities were quantified by an automated software-based algorithm. While TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R3 were nearly absent in meningiomas, TRAIL-R2 and TRAIL-R4 were abundantly expressed. However, only TRAIL-R4 expression correlated with the WHO grade of malignancy. Bcl-2 showed a non-significant upregulation in WHO grade III meningiomas. Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 expression was significantly higher in WHO grade II compared to grade I. Bcl-XL and TRAIL-R4 expression correlated with the mitotic activity (Ki67) of the tumor. Furthermore, TRAIL-R2 expression correlated with TRAIL-R4. Bak expression correlated with both, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 expression. The expression patterns did neither correlate with the progression-free nor with the overall survival of the meningioma patients. Apoptosis-inducing TRAIL-R2 and all key executioners of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway are abundantly expressed in meningioma. For some regulators of apoptosis with opposite functions, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein significantly correlated with the expression level of the respective anti-apoptotic binding partner, possibly resulting in a steady-state of apoptosis. TRAIL-R2 might serve as a novel therapeutic target in meningioma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of oxycodone and morphine on the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of related molecules in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mi; Jin, Li; Li, Renqi; Zhu, Sihai; Ji, Muhuo; Li, Weiyan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of oxycodone and morphine hydrochloride on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of A549 lung cancer cells. A549 human lung cancer cells were cultured in vitro and treated with oxycodone or morphine at various concentrations (10, 20 and 40 µg/ml). Cell migration was determined using a wound healing assay, whereas apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to assess the apoptosis-related gene expression levels, including p53, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were determined by immunofluorescence. In the present study, oxycodone and morphine induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells with similar potency; however, >20 µg/ml oxycodone was more effective at inhibiting cell proliferation (P<0.05) and migration (P<0.05), as compared with morphine at the same concentration. Oxycodone induced a dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of p53 and Bax apoptosis-related genes, whereas it decreased the gene expression levels of Bcl-2. Furthermore, oxycodone decreased, whereas morphine increased, the expression levels of ICAM-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, at 40 µg/ml, the expression levels of VEGF and uPA in the morphine group were significantly higher than those demonstrated in the oxycodone group (P<0.05). In conclusion, oxycodone was more effective in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of A549 lung cancer cells, as compared with morphine. PMID:27446244

  18. Apoptosis-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and the Risk of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Women

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anand; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Hyland, Paula L.; Cote, Michele L.; Keele, Greg R.; Land, Susan; Boulton, Matthew L.; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Germline apoptosis-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to contribute to the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, very few studies have looked specifically at apoptosis-related SNPs in a racially-stratified analysis of white and African-American women. Methods We examined the risk of developing NSCLC associated with 98 germline SNPs in 32 apoptosis-related genes among women in a population-based case-control study from the Detroit metropolitan area. We examined 453 cases of NSCLC and 478 control subjects. We used an unconditional logistic regression with a dominant model, stratified by race, and adjusted for age, pack-years smoked, ever/never smoking status, family history of lung cancer, history of COPD, BMI and education. Results Our logistic regression identified 3 significant apoptosis-related SNPs in whites (APAF-1, rs1007573; CD40 rs3765459, and CD40 rs1535045), and 7 significant SNPs (ATM, rs1801516; BAK1, rs513349; TNF, rs1800629; TP63, rs6790167; TP63, rs7613791, TP63, rs35592567 and TP63, rs3856775) in African-Americans. In a downstream analysis, these SNPs were further prioritized utilizing the False Positive Report Percentage (FPRP) methodology and backwards elimination. In whites, APAF-1 (rs1007573), CD40 (rs3765459) and CD40 (rs1535045) were all found to be significant by FPRP. In African-Americans, TP63 SNPs rs6790167 and rs7613791 were found to have a significant FPRP. In parallel, a backward elimination procedure was used on the 3 significant SNPs in whites and 7 significant SNPs in African-Americans. This procedure identified APAF-1 rs1007573 (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.17-2.95) and CD40 rs1535045 (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40-0.84) as significant independent predictors of risk among whites, and ATM rs1801516 (OR=24.15, 95% CI: 3.50-166.55), TNF rs1800629 (OR= 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99) and TP63 rs6790167 (OR: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.33-6.09) as significant, independent predictors in African

  19. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori in immune pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hwei-Fang; Hsu, Ping-Ning

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Apoptosis induced by microbial infections is implicated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Enhanced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis during H. pylori infection was suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and gastric pathology. In addition to directly triggering apoptosis, H. pylori induces sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. Human gastric epithelial cells sensitized to H. pylori confer susceptibility to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via modulation of death-receptor signaling. The induction of TRAIL sensitivity by H. pylori is dependent upon the activation of caspase-8 and its downstream pathway. H. pylori induces caspase-8 activation via enhanced assembly of the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex through downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. Moreover, H. pylori infection induces infiltration of T lymphocytes and triggers inflammation to augment apoptosis. In H. pylori infection, significant increases in CCR6(+) CD3(+) T cell infiltration in the gastric mucosa was observed, and the CCR6 ligand, CCL20 chemokine, was selectively expressed in inflamed gastric tissues. These mechanisms initiate chemokine-mediated T lymphocyte trafficking into inflamed epithelium and induce mucosal injury during Helicobacter infection. This article will review recent findings on the interactions of H. pylori with host-epithelial signaling pathways and events involved in the initiation of gastric pathology, including gastric inflammation and mucosal damage.

  20. Linarin sensitizes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis (TRAIL)-induced ligand-triggered apoptosis in human glioma cells and in xenograft nude mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zan-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Ke; Lan, Ying; Han, Chao; Zhang, Yong-Dong; Chen, Gang

    2017-09-22

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) is reported as a promising anti-cancer therapeutic agent. Nevertheless, a variety of cancer cells, including human malignant glioma cells, are resistant to TRAIL treatment, indicating that it is necessary to find effective strategies to overcome the TRAIL resistance. Linarin (LIN), a natural flavonoid compound in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici (FCI), has been exhibited to exert various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer. Here in our study, we found that non-cytotoxic doses of LIN (5μM) dramatically potentiated TRAIL (80ng/ml)-induced cytotoxicity (52.36±1.58%) and apoptosis (68.50±1.23%) using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively, in human glioma cells of U87MG. Apoptosis was evidenced by enhanced cleavage of Caspase-8/-9/-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and reduced anti-apoptotic proteins, including B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), mantle cell lymphoma (Mcl)-1, and Survivin. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways were included in apoptosis induced by LIN and TRAIL co-treatment, along with high release of Cyto-c into cytoplasm and enhancement of fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), death receptor 4 (DR) 4 and DR5, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, up to 39.86±2.32%, was also highly triggered by TRAIL and LIN combinational treatment, which was accompanied with high phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). In vivo, TRAIL and LIN double treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth using xenograft tumor model through inducing apoptosis. We demonstrated that combining LIN with TRAIL treatments might be effective against TRAIL-resistant glioma cells through inducing apoptosis regulated by ROS generation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. [Effect of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on proliferation, apoptosis and SHIP gene expression in K562 cells].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Yu-Tao; Li, Ai-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Yong

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on proliferation, apoptosis and the SHIP expression of K562 cells. K562 cells were treated with bortezomib of different concentrations. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and SHIP mRNA expression was assayed by RT-PCR.The results showed that after being treated with 10, 20, 50 and 100 nmol/L bortezomib for 24 h, the inhibitory rates of K562 cells were (5.76 ± 1.47)%, (10.55 ± 1.59)%, (17.14 ± 2.05)% and (27.69 ± 3.57)% respectively, and were higher than that in control (1.30 ± 0.10); when K562 cells were treated with 20 nmol/L bortezomib for 24, 48 and 72 h, the inhibitory rates of cell proliferation were (10.55 ± 1.59)%, (16.33 ± 2.53)% and (19.78 ± 1.56)% respectively, there was statistic difference of cell proliferation rate between 24 h group and 48 h group (P < 0.05). After being treated with 10,20,50,100 nmol/L bortezomib for 24 h, the apoptotic rates of K562 cells were (12.7 ± 0.6)%, (26.9 ± 0.9)%, (32.6 ± 1.2)% and (72.5 ± 1.5)% respectively,and all higher than that in control (1.0 ± 0.5)% (P < 0.05). According to results of RT-PCR detection, the expression level of SHIP mRNA was obviously up-regulated after treatment with bortezomib, and showed statistical difference in comparison with control. It is concluded that bortezomib inhibits proliferation of K562 cells in time and concentration-dependent manner and induces apoptosis through up-regulation of SHIP gene.

  2. Apoptosis, proliferation and p53 gene expression of H. pylori associated gastric epithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Hua; Dong, Ming; Wang, Lan; Gong, Yue-Hua

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gastric carcinoma and its possible pathogenesis by H. pylori. METHODS: DNEL technique and immunohistochemical technique were used to study the state of apoptosis, proliferation and p53 gene expression. A total of 100 gastric mucosal biopsy specimens, including 20 normal mucosa, 30 H. pylori-negative and 30 H. pylori-positive gastric precancerous lesions along with 20 gastric carcinomas were studied. RESULTS: There were several apoptotic cells in the superficial epithelium and a few proliferative cells within the neck of gastric glands, and no p53 protein expression in normal mucosa. In gastric carcinoma, there were few apoptotic cells, while there were a large number of proliferative cells, and expression of p53 protein significantly was increased. In the phase of metaplasia, the apoptotic index (AI, 4.36% ± 1.95%), proliferative index (PI, 19.11% ± 6. 79%) and positivity of p53 expression (46.7%) in H. pylori-positive group were higher than those in normal mucosa (P < 0.01). AI in H. pylori-positive group was higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (3.81% ± 1.76%), PI in H. pylori-positive group was higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (12.25% ± 5.63%, P < 0.01). In the phase of dysplasia, AI (2.31% ± 1.10%) in H. pylori-positive group was lower (3.05% ± 1.29%) than that in H. pylori-negative group, but PI (33.89% ± 11.65%) was significantly higher (22.09% ± 80.18%, P < 0.01). In phases of metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric cancer in the H. pylori-positive group, AIs had an evidently graduall decreasing trend (P < 0.01), while PIs had an evidently gradual increasing trend (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and there was also a trend of gradual increase in the expression of p53 gene. CONCLUSION: In the course of the formation of gastric carcinoma, proliferation of gastric mucosa can be greatly increased by H. pylori, and H. pylori can induce apoptosis in the phase of metaplasia, but

  3. Reproductive Toxicity of Endosulfan: Implication From Germ Cell Apoptosis Modulated by Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Genotoxic Response Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hua; Wang, Meimei; Wang, Lei; Dai, Hui; Wang, Min; Hong, Wei; Nie, Xinxin; Wu, Lijun; Xu, An

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan as a new member of persistent organic pollutants has been shown to induce reproductive dysfunction in various animal models. However, the action mechanism of endosulfan-produced reproductive toxicity remains largely unknown. This study was focused on investigating the reproductive toxicity induced by α-endosulfan and clarifying the role of mitochondria and genotoxic response genes in germ cell apoptosis of Caenorhabditis elegans. Our data showed that endosulfan induced a dose-dependent decrease of life span, fecundity, and hatchability, whereas the germ cell apoptosis was dose-dependently increased. The mitochondria membrane potential was disrupted by endosulfan, leading to a significant increase of germ cell apoptosis in mev-1(kn-1) mutant. However, the apoptotic effects of endosulfan were blocked in mutants of cep-1(w40), egl-1(n487), and hus-1(op241), indicating conserved genotoxic response genes played an essential role in endosulfan-induced germ cell apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure to endosulfan induced the accumulation of HUS-1::GFP foci and the germ cell cycle arrest. These findings provided clear evidence that endosulfan caused significant adverse effects on the reproduction system of C. elegans and increased germ cell apoptosis, which was regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage response genes. This study may help to understand the signal transduction pathways involved in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:25666835

  4. The interferon-inducible HIN-200 gene family in apoptosis and inflammation: implication for autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Mondini, Michele; Costa, Silvia; Sponza, Simone; Gugliesi, Francesca; Gariglio, Marisa; Landolfo, Santo

    2010-04-01

    The Ifi-200/HIN-200 gene family encodes highly homologous human (IFI16, myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen, absent in melanoma 2, and IFIX) and murine proteins (Ifi202a, Ifi202b, Ifi203, Ifi204, Ifi205, and Ifi206), which are induced by type I and II interferons (IFN). These proteins have been described as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation and, more recently, several reports have suggested their involvement in both apoptotic and inflammatory processes. The relevance of HIN-200 proteins in human disease is beginning to be clarified, and emerging experimental data indicate their role in autoimmunity. Autoimmune disorders are sustained by perpetual activation of inflammatory process and a link between autoimmunity and apoptosis has been clearly established. Moreover, the interferon system is now considered as a key player in autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythemathosus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjögren's syndrome, and it is therefore conceivable to hypothesize that HIN-200 may be among the pivotal mediators of IFN activity in autoimmune disease. In particular, the participation of HIN-200 proteins in apoptosis and inflammation could support their potential role in autoimmunity.

  5. Identification of immune response-related genes in the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Dai, Li-Shang; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Sun, Yu; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Fu, Wei-Wei; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Insects possess an innate immune system that responds to invading microorganisms. In this study, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed to screen for immune response-related genes in the fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) pupa challenged with Escherichia coli. Four hundred putative EST clones were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), including 50 immune response-related genes, three cytoskeleton genes, eight cell cycle and apoptosis genes, five respiration and energy metabolism genes, five transport genes, 40 metabolism genes, ten stress response genes, four transcription and translation regulation genes and 77 unknown genes. To verify the reliability of the SSH data, the transcription of a set of randomly selected immune response-related genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). These identified immune response-related genes provide insight into understanding the innate immunity in A. pernyi.

  6. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of acetylcholinesterase gene expression induces progenitor cell expansion and suppresses hematopoietic apoptosis ex vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, H; Patinkin, D; Lev-Lehman, E; Grifman, M; Ginzberg, D; Eckstein, F; Zakut, H

    1994-01-01

    To examine the role of acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) in hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation, we administered a 15-mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, antisense to the corresponding ACHE gene (AS-ACHE), to primary mouse bone marrow cultures. Within 2 hr of AS-ACHE addition to the culture, ACHE mRNA levels dropped by approximately 90%, as compared with those in cells treated with the "sense" oligomer, S-ACHE. Four days after AS-ACHE treatment, ACHE mRNA increased to levels 10-fold higher than in S-ACHE cultures or in fresh bone marrow. At this later time point, differential PCR display revealed significant differences between cellular mRNA transcripts in bone marrow and those in AS-ACHE- or S-ACHE-treated cultures. These oligonucleotide-triggered effects underlay considerable alterations at the cellular level: AS-ACHE but not S-ACHE increased cell counts, reflecting enhanced proliferation. In the presence of erythropoietin it also enhanced colony counts, reflecting expansion of progenitors. AS-ACHE further suppressed apoptosis-related fragmentation of cellular DNA in the progeny cells, and it diverted hematopoiesis toward production of primitive blasts and macrophages in a dose-dependent manner promoted by erythropoietin. These findings suggest that the hematopoietic role of acetylcholinesterase, anticipated to be inverse to the observed antisense effects, is to reduce proliferation of the multipotent stem cells committed to erythropoiesis and megakaryocytopoiesis and macrophage production and to promote apoptosis in their progeny. Moreover, these findings may explain the tumorigenic association of perturbations in ACHE gene expression with leukemia. Images PMID:8058733

  7. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of acetylcholinesterase gene expression induces progenitor cell expansion and suppresses hematopoietic apoptosis ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Soreq, H; Patinkin, D; Lev-Lehman, E; Grifman, M; Ginzberg, D; Eckstein, F; Zakut, H

    1994-08-16

    To examine the role of acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) in hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation, we administered a 15-mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, antisense to the corresponding ACHE gene (AS-ACHE), to primary mouse bone marrow cultures. Within 2 hr of AS-ACHE addition to the culture, ACHE mRNA levels dropped by approximately 90%, as compared with those in cells treated with the "sense" oligomer, S-ACHE. Four days after AS-ACHE treatment, ACHE mRNA increased to levels 10-fold higher than in S-ACHE cultures or in fresh bone marrow. At this later time point, differential PCR display revealed significant differences between cellular mRNA transcripts in bone marrow and those in AS-ACHE- or S-ACHE-treated cultures. These oligonucleotide-triggered effects underlay considerable alterations at the cellular level: AS-ACHE but not S-ACHE increased cell counts, reflecting enhanced proliferation. In the presence of erythropoietin it also enhanced colony counts, reflecting expansion of progenitors. AS-ACHE further suppressed apoptosis-related fragmentation of cellular DNA in the progeny cells, and it diverted hematopoiesis toward production of primitive blasts and macrophages in a dose-dependent manner promoted by erythropoietin. These findings suggest that the hematopoietic role of acetylcholinesterase, anticipated to be inverse to the observed antisense effects, is to reduce proliferation of the multipotent stem cells committed to erythropoiesis and megakaryocytopoiesis and macrophage production and to promote apoptosis in their progeny. Moreover, these findings may explain the tumorigenic association of perturbations in ACHE gene expression with leukemia.

  8. Association of apoptosis-related microsatellite polymorphisms on chromosome 1q in Taiwanese systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J-Y; Wang, C-M; Lu, S-C; Chou, Y-H; Luo, S-F

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is important in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several genome-wide scan studies have suggested chromosome 1q as a genetic susceptibility locus for SLE. This study investigated the association of apoptosis-related genes on chromosome 1q, Fas ligand (FasL), interleukin (IL)-10 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), promoter microsatellite multi-allelic polymorphisms with SLE susceptibility and clinical characteristics in Taiwan. This study recruited 237 SLE patients and 304 healthy controls. FasL, IL-10 and PARP promoter microsatellite polymorphisms were genotyped employing gene scan. IL-10, located on 1q31–32, emerged as a significant susceptibility gene locus in Taiwanese SLE (T4 statistic = 0·01). IL-10 CA21 allele was the most common allele of 15 identified in Taiwanese, displaying skewed distribution of susceptibility in Taiwanese SLE patients. Conversely, the IL-10 CA20 allele showed a protective effect of SLE susceptibility. Additionally, the IL-10 CA26 allele displayed a negative significant association with ascites and IL-10 CA25 allele increased the occurrence of the anti-cardiolipin IgM antibody. This study identified five alleles of FasL and nine alleles of PARP of microsatellite polymorphisms in Taiwanese patients. FasL and PARP alleles displayed no skewing distribution between Taiwanese SLE patients and controls. However, FasL GT15 and PARP CA17 allele demonstrated a high discoid rash presentation (T4 statistic 0·01 and 0·03, respectively) and PARP CA12 allele displayed a significant association with anti-cardiolipin IgM antibody production (T4 statistic 0·02). IL-10, FasL and PARP microsatellite polymorphisms exhibited significant associations with SLE susceptibility and/or clinical characteristics in Taiwanese patients. Thus, SLE is a complex and multiple genetics determined autoimmune disease. Chromosome 1q23–42 is an important genetic locus for further SLE subphenotype susceptibility study. PMID:16412052

  9. Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Translocates from the Cytosol to Mitochondria during UV-Induced Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Shengnan; Feng, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic structures that frequently divide and fuse with one another to form interconnecting network. This network disintegrates into punctiform organelles during apoptosis. However, the mechanisms involved in these processes are still not well characterized. In this study, we investigate the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a large GTPase that mediates outer mitochondrial membrane fission, in mitochondrial dynamics in response to UV irradiation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-α-1) and HeLa cells. Using time-lapse fluorescent imaging, we find that Drp1 primarily distributes in cytosol under physiological conditions. After UV treatment, Drp1 translocates from cytosol to mitochondria, indicating the enhancement of Drp1 mitochondrial accumulation. Our results suggest that Drp1 is involved in the regulation of transition from an interconnecting network to a punctiform mitochondrial phenotype during UV-induced apoptosis.

  10. IgD cross-linking induces gene expression profiling changes and enhances apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Tavolaro, Simona; Peragine, Nadia; Chiaretti, Sabina; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Raponi, Sara; Messina, Monica; Santangelo, Simona; Marinelli, Marilisa; Di Maio, Valeria; Mauro, Francesca Romana; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Foà, Robin; Guarini, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Gene profile and functional changes upon IgD cross-linking were evaluated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Microarrays highlighted responsiveness to IgD in all cases, independently of clinico-biological characteristics. Stimulated samples exhibited the down-regulation of transcripts of B-cell receptor signaling and cell-adhesion at 24h and the up-modulation of differentiation and apoptosis genes at 48 h. A significant increase in apoptosis upon ligation was also documented. Furthermore, comparison between IgD and IgM stimulation displayed a differential transcriptional/functional response. In conclusion, CLL respond to IgD displaying expression changes and cell-death enhancement, indicating the apoptosis induction via-IgD as an alternative approach for CLL management.

  11. Growth hormone and melatonin prevent age-related alteration in apoptosis processes in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Kireev, R A; Vara, E; Tresguerres, J A F

    2013-08-01

    It has been suggested that the age-related decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus that leads to alterations in brain function, may be associated with an increase in apoptosis due to the reduced secretion of growth hormone (GH) and/or melatonin in old animals. In order to investigate this possibility, male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (hGH) for 10 weeks (2 mg/kg/d sc) and the third was subjected to melatonin treatment (1 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water for the same time. A group of 2-months-old male rats was used as young controls. All rats were killed by decapitation at more than 24 month of age and dentate gyri of the hippocampi were collected. Aging in the dentate gyrus was associated with an increase in apoptosis promoting markers (Bax, Bad and AIF) and with the reduction of some anti-apoptotic ones (XIAP, NIAP, Mcl-1). Expressions of sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1 and 2) as well as levels of HSP 70 were decreased in the dentate gyrus of old rats. GH treatment was able to reduce the pro/anti-apoptotic ratio to levels observed in young animals and also to increase SIRT2. Melatonin reduced also expression of pro-apoptotic genes and proteins (Bax, Bad and AIF), and increased levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 proteins and SIRT1. Both treatments were able to reduce apoptosis and to enhance survival markers in this part of the hippocampus.

  12. Synergistic effect of ponatinib and epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells through altering expressions of cell cycle regulatory genes.

    PubMed

    Goker, Bakiye; Caliskan, Cansu; Onur Caglar, Hasan; Kayabasi, Cagla; Balci, Tugce; Erbaykent Tepedelen, Burcu; Aygunes, Duygu; Yilmaz Susluer, Sunde; Mutlu, Zeynep; Selvi Gunel, Nur; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Saydam, Guray; Gunduz, Cumhur; Biray Avci, Cigir

    2014-01-01

    Ponatinib (P) has been used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and it is known that inhibition of BCR-ABL fusion protein by ponatinib induces apoptosis of CML cells. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is a polyphenol in green tea, induces apoptosis in different types of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of ponatinib and EGCG combination in K562 CML cell line. This study also aimed to detect alterations of the expression levels of cell cycle-regulation related genes after ponatinib and EGCG combination in K562 CML cell line. The cytotoxic effects of the compounds on K562 cells were determined in a time-and dose-dependent manner by using WST-1 analysis. The combination index (CI) isobologram was used to analyze the data. Apoptotic effects of P-EGCG were defined by flow cytometry and gene expressions were detected by RT-qPCR. IC50values of ponatinib and EGCG were 87.13 nM and 50μM, respectively. CI value of the P-EGCG was 0.658 and the combination showed synergistic effect (ED90 value: 28.39 nM ponatinib, 117.12 μg/ml EGCG). Ponatinib, EGCG and P-EGCG induced apoptosis compared to control cells. CyclinD1 and CDC25A were downregulated by P-EGCG by 2.49 and 2.63-fold, respectively. TGF-β2 was upregulated by 4.57-fold. EGCG possesses cytotoxic and apoptotic properties and may cooperate with the growth inhibiting activity of ponatinib synergistically against CML cells. P-EGCG mediated apoptosis might be associated with upregulation of TGF-β2 gene and downregulation of cyclinD1 and CDC25A genes.

  13. Distinct spatial activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in natural scrapie: association with prion-related lesions

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Carmen; Lyahyai, Jaber; Bolea, Rosa; Varona, Luis; Monleón, Eva; Badiola, Juan J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    Neurodegeneration and gliosis are the main neuropathological features of prion diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes remain unclear. Several studies have demonstrated changes in the expression of apoptotic factors and inflammatory cytokines in animals with experimental infection. Here we present the expression profiles of 15 genes implicated in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in the central nervous systems of sheep naturally infected with scrapie. Expression changes obtained by real-time RT-PCR were also compared with the extent of classical scrapie lesions, such as prion deposition, neuronal vacuolisation, spongiosis, and astrogliosis as well as with the activation of caspase-3, using a stepwise regression. The results suggest that the factors assessed participate in apoptotic or inflammatory functions, depending on the affected area. The mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was associated with prion deposition in the prefrontal cortex (the less affected area), and with activation of caspase-3-mediated cell death via over-expression of BAK. In addition to its known association with astroglial activation, the extrinsic apoptosis pathway was also related to cell death and neuronal vacuolisation. PMID:19401142

  14. Cystatin B-deficient mice have increased expression of apoptosis and glial activation genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lieuallen, Kimberly; Pennacchio, Len A.; Park, Morgan; Myers, Richard M.; Lennon, Gregory G.

    2001-07-05

    Loss-of-function mutations in the cystatin B (Cstb) gene cause a neurological disorder known as Unverricht Lundborg disease (EPM1) in human patients. Mice that lack Cstb provide a mammalian model for EPM1 by displaying progressive ataxia and myoclonic seizures. We analyzed RNAs from brains of Cstb-deficient mice by using modified differential display, oligonucleotide microarray hybridization and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to examine the molecular consequences of the lack of Cstb. We identified seven genes that have consistently increased transcript levels in neurological tissues from the knockout mice. These genes are cathepsin S, C1q B-chain of complement (C1qB), beta-2-microglobulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), apolipoprotein D, fibronectin 1 and metallothionein II, which are expected to be involved in increased proteolysis, apoptosis and glial activation. The molecular changes in Cstb-deficient mice are consistent with the pathology found in the mouse model and may provide clues towards the identification of therapeutic points of intervention for EPM1 patients.

  15. Expression of apoptosis related proteins: RAIDD, ZIP kinase, Bim/BOD, p21, Bax, Bcl-2 and NF-kappaB in brains of patients with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Engidawork, E; Gulesserian, T; Seidl, R; Cairns, N; Lubec, G

    2001-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disease that exhibits significant neuropathological parallels with Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the features of DS, neuronal loss, has been hypothesized to occur as a result of apoptosis. An increasing number of proteins are implicated in apoptosis and several of them were shown to be altered in AD, however, the knowledge in DS is far from complete. To further substantiate the hypothesis that apoptosis is the underlying mechanism for neuronal loss and contribute towards the current knowledge of apoptosis in DS, we analyzed the expression of apoptosis related proteins in frontal cortex and cerebellum of DS by western blot and ELISA techniques. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant increase in DS frontal (P < 0.0001) and cerebellar (P < 0.05) Bim/BOD (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death/Bcl-2 related ovarian death gene), cerebellar Bcl-2 (P < 0.01) as well as p21 (P < 0.05) levels compared to controls. No significant change was detected in Bax, RAIDD (receptor interacting protein (RIP)-associated ICH-1/CED-3-homologus protein with death domain), ZIP (Zipper interacting protein) kinase and NF-kappaB p65 levels in both regions, although frontal cortex levels of RAIDD, Bcl-2 and p21 levels tended to increase. In addition, a 45 kDa truncated form of NF-kappaB p65 displayed a significant elevation (P < 0.05) in DS cerebellum. No significant correlation had been obtained between postmortem interval and level of the proteins analyzed. With regard to age, it was only NF-kappaB p65 that showed significant correlation (r = -0.8964, P = 0.0155, n = 9) in frontal cortex of controls. These findings provide further evidence that apoptosis indeed accounts for the neuronal loss in DS but Bax and RAIDD do not appear to take part in this process.

  16. Two splicing variants of a new inhibitor of apoptosis gene with different biological properties and tissue distribution pattern.

    PubMed

    Ashhab, Y; Alian, A; Polliack, A; Panet, A; Ben Yehuda, D

    2001-04-20

    Using homology searches, we identified a novel human inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene. This gene has two splicing variants that contain open reading frames of 298 and 280 amino acids and both contained a single copy of baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) and RING domain. We refer here to the longer and shorter variants as Livin alpha and beta, respectively. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a tissue-specific and non-correlated expression pattern in both adult and fetal tissues. Both mRNA variants were detected in various transformed cell lines. Despite their very close similarity, the two isoforms have different antiapoptotic properties. Both isoforms have a significant antiapoptotic activity in the Jurkat T cell line after triggering apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor and CD95 receptors. The Livin alpha but not beta protects cells from apoptosis induced by staurosporine, but in contrast, apoptosis initiated by etoposide was blocked only by the beta isoform. This difference in biological activities may indicate the presence of critical amino acids outside the BIR and RING domains. These functional and tissue distribution differences of Livin alpha and beta suggest that Livin may play a complex role in the regulation of apoptosis.

  17. Cytometric assessment of DNA damage in relation to cell cycle phase and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Halicka, H Dorota; Traganos, Frank; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kurose, Akira; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2005-08-01

    Reviewed are the methods aimed to detect DNA damage in individual cells, estimate its extent and relate it to cell cycle phase and induction of apoptosis. They include the assays that reveal DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, as well as DNA damage induced by genotoxic agents. DNA fragmentation that occurs in the course of apoptosis is detected by selective extraction of degraded DNA. DNA in chromatin of apoptotic cells shows also increased propensity to undergo denaturation. The most common assay of DNA fragmentation relies on labelling DNA strand breaks with fluorochrome-tagged deoxynucleotides. The induction of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) by genotoxic agents provides a signal for histone H2AX phosphorylation on Ser139; the phosphorylated H2AX is named gammaH2AX. Also, ATM-kinase is activated through its autophosphorylation on Ser1981. Immunocytochemical detection of gammaH2AX and/or ATM-Ser1981(P) are sensitive probes to reveal induction of DSBs. When used concurrently with analysis of cellular DNA content and caspase-3 activation, they allow one to correlate the extent of DNA damage with the cell cycle phase and with activation of the apoptotic pathway. The presented data reveal cell cycle phase-specific patterns of H2AX phosphorylation and ATM autophosphorylation in response to induction of DSBs by ionizing radiation, topoisomerase I and II inhibitors and carcinogens. Detection of DNA damage in tumour cells during radio- or chemotherapy may provide an early marker predictive of response to treatment.

  18. Intrahepatic CD4 T-Cell apoptosis is related to METAVIR score in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Roger, P-M; Chaillou, S; Breittmayer, J-P; Dahman, M; St Paul, M-C; Chevallier, P; Benzaken, S; Ticchioni, M; Bernard, A; Dellamonica, P; Tran, A

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to liver injury, which is thought to be immune-mediated. Apoptosis of hepatic T cells could influence histological damage. We quantified peripheral and intrahepatic T-cell apoptosis in 28 patients with chronic hepatitis C by using cytofluorometric techniques. METAVIR score and HCV plasma viral load were determined. Six liver biopsies, obtained from controls without chronic hepatitis during hepatobiliary surgery, served as controls. In patients, liver T-cell apoptosis was upregulated compared to peripheral T cells: 35 versus 7% for CD4+ and 56 versus 13% for CD8+ T cells (P < 0.001). Liver T-cell apoptosis levels from patients were increased compared to controls for both CD4+ (P = 0.041) and CD8+ T cells (P = 0.007). Nine patients exhibiting METAVIR scores A and F < or = 1 showed higher intrahepatic CD4+ T-cell apoptosis compared to the 19 patients with a higher METAVIR score (P = 0.001) and both histological activity and fibrosis were related to apoptosis level. There was also an inverse relationship between the level of intrahepatic CD8+ T-cell apoptosis and serum transaminase activity (P = 0.023). Our study shows immune compartmentalization, suggesting that the study of peripheral blood lymphocytes may not be fully relevant to the pathophysiology of HCV hepatitis, and that the severity of liver injury is inversely correlated with intrahepatic CD4+ T-cell apoptosis.

  19. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in apoptosis-induced MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Eloise; Cronjé, Marianne J

    2012-02-01

    Apoptosis is induced in MCF-7 breast cancer cells following treatment with salicylic acid (20 mM), either in the presence or absence of a heat shock (42°C for 30 min). In order to study the alterations of apoptotic genes with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), suitable genes with unchanged expression following the treatments is required for normalizing the gene expression levels. In this study, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin (ACTB), Histone H2A (HIST), constitutively expressed heat shock protein 70 (HSC70) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/trytophan 5 monooxygenase activation protein, 14-3-3 (YWHAZ) were evaluated as appropriate reference genes. Analysis of gene expression data with one-way ANOVA, geNorm and NormFinder identified HIST and YWHAZ as the least affected during the induction of apoptosis by the different treatments, and is the most suitable gene-pair for normalization during qPCR analysis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with SA and/or HS.

  20. Effect of silencing HOXA5 gene expression using RNA interference on cell cycle and apoptosis in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Guo, Qu-Lian; Bai, Yong-Qi

    2016-03-01

    Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a common malignant tumor with a high morbidity rate among children, accounting for approximately 80% of leukemia cases. Although there have been improvements in the treatment of patients frequent relapse lead to a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether HOXA5 may be used as a target for gene therapy in leukemia in order to provide a new treatment. Mononuclear cells were extracted from the bone marrow according to the clinical research aims. After testing for ALL in the acute stage, the relative mRNA and protein expression of HOXA5 was detected in the ALL remission groups (n=25 cases per group) and the control group [n=20 cases, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)]. Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) was used to investigate the effect of silencing HOXA5 after small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection to Jurkat cells. The HOXA5-specific siRNA was transfected to Jurkat cells using lipofectamine. The experiment was divided into the experimental group (liposomal transfection of HOXA5 targeting siRNA), the negative control group (liposomal transfection of cells with negative control siRNA) and the control group (plus an equal amount of cells and culture media only). Western blotting and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF‑PCR) were used to detect the relative HOXA5 mRNA expression and protein distribution in each cell group. Cell distribution in the cell cycle and the rate of cells undergoing apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of HOXA5 at the mRNA and protein levels in the acute phase of ALL was significantly higher than that in ALL in the remission and control groups. In cells transfected with HOXA5-specific siRNA, the expression of HOXA5 at the mRNA and protein levels decreased significantly (P<0.05). The distribution of cells in the cell cycle was also altered. Specifically, more cells were present in the G0/G1 phase compared to the S phase (P<0.05). In

  1. Effect of growth hormone treatment on pancreatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis related to aging in SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Sara; Kireev, Roman; García, Cruz; Forman, Katherine; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2011-10-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, aging is accompanied by an alteration of the growth hormone (GH) -insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of these parameters in the pancreas of old mice and how GH treatment could affect this process. Male senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8) and male senescence-accelerated resistant mice (SAMR1) 2 (young) and 10 months old were used (n = 40). Animals were divided into five experimental groups: 1 and 2, SAMP8/R1 young control; 3 and 4, SAMP8/R1 old control (untreated); and 5, SAMP8 old treated with GH. Physiologically equivalent doses of GH were administered for 1 month (2 mg subcutaneously [s.c.]/kg/day) and several parameters were analyzed. Aging was associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (increased tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-β [IL-β], IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP1], IL-2, heme oxygenase [HO-1], inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS], and nitric oxide metabolites [NOx]). The ratio of anti/pro apoptotic mRNA expression-B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) + Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD)-was decreased during aging in SAMP8 mice. X-inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) was decreased during the aging process. Furthermore, no changes were observed in protein expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65 and NF-κBp50-105. However, the protein expression of NF-κB p52-100 and inhibitor kappa B (IκB) alpha was increased with age in the pancreas of SAMP8 mice. On the other hand, the expression of IκB beta was decreased with aging. These results indicate that aging is associated with significant alterations in the relative expression of pancreatic genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. According to our results, GH administration to old SAMP8 mice was able to improve pancreas from

  2. Comparison of Cell Cycle Arrest, Transactivation, and Apoptosis Induced by the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 vpr Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yonghong; Gelbard, Harris A.; Roshal, Mikhail; Pursell, Shannon; Jamieson, Beth D.; Planelles, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    All primate lentiviruses known to date contain one or two open reading frames with homology to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene. HIV-1 vpr encodes a 96-amino-acid protein with multiple functions in the viral life cycle. These functions include modulation of the viral replication kinetics, transactivation of the long terminal repeat, participation in the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, induction of G2 arrest, and induction of apoptosis. The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that infects African green monkeys (SIVagm) contains a vpr homologue, which encodes a 118-amino-acid protein. SIVagm vpr is structurally and functionally related to HIV-1 vpr. The present study focuses on how three specific functions (transactivation, induction of G2 arrest, and induction of apoptosis) are related to one another at a functional level, for HIV-1 and SIVagm vpr. While our study supports previous reports demonstrating a causal relationship between induction of G2 arrest and transactivation for HIV-1 vpr, we demonstrate that the same is not true for SIVagm vpr. Transactivation by SIVagm vpr is independent of cell cycle perturbation. In addition, we show that induction of G2 arrest is necessary for the induction of apoptosis by HIV-1 vpr but that the induction of apoptosis by SIVagm vpr is cell cycle independent. Finally, while SIVagm vpr retains its transactivation function in human cells, it is unable to induce G2 arrest or apoptosis in such cells, suggesting that the cytopathic effects of SIVagm vpr are species specific. Taken together, our results suggest that while the multiple functions of vpr are conserved between HIV-1 and SIVagm, the mechanisms leading to the execution of such functions are divergent. PMID:11264368

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induces cytotoxicity specific to osteosarcoma by microRNA response elements.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Chen, Juwu; Lian, Chuanju; Han, Pengchao; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    As the most common primary bone neoplasm, osteosarcoma is highly aggressive and represents a high risk to human health. Biological agents, including tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), are considered promising therapeutic strategies for osteosarcoma. The current issue limiting the application of TRAIL gene therapy is that normal cells are also affected due to the lack of tumor selectivity. The present study aimed to employ the miRNA response elements (MREs) of microRNA (miR)-34 and miR-122, which are tumor suppressors, to enable the selective expression of TRAIL by adenoviral vectors in osteosarcoma cells. The results revealed that miR-34 and miR-122 were underexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues, compared with normal tissues. The MREs of miR-34 and miR-122 ensured that the luciferase gene was expressed selectively in osteosarcoma cells. Adenovirus (Ad)-TRAIL-34-122, which expressed TRAIL in an miR-34 and miR-122-regulated manner, selectively expressed TRAIL in the osteosarcoma cells assessed, which was detected using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and ELISA. Apoptosis and cytotoxicity were also detected in the osteosarcoma cells, compared with the normal cells. Animal experiments further indicated that Ad-TRAIL-34-122 was able to reduce the growth of osteosarcoma xenografts without toxicity to the liver. In conclusion, the present study identified a novel miRNA-regulated biological cancer therapy against osteosarcoma, which is tumor selective and may be promising for future clinical treatment.

  4. Effects of AFP gene silencing on apoptosis and proliferation of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; He, Tao; Cui, Hong; Wang, Yunjian; Huang, Changshan; Han, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncoembryonal protein that is highly expressed in the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas. Previous studies have shown that AFP may be involved in multiple cell growth regulating, differentiating, and immunosuppressive activities. We investigated the effects of AFP gene silencing by siRNA on apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line EGHC-9901, which highly expresses AFP and may serve as an ideal model for investigation of AFP functions. siRNA expressing plasmid targeting the AFP gene was first established and subsequently transfected into hepatocellular carcinoma cell line EGHC-9901; cells were then divided into three groups: siRNA-afp, transfected with AFP-siRNA; siRNA-beta-actin, transfected with siRNA-beta-actin as the positive group; and vector control, transfected with empty vector as the blank control group. After G418 positive clone selection for a couple of weeks, Western blot and RT (reverse transcription)-PCR assay demonstrated that AFP expression was almost completely inhibited by siRNA-afp, which indicates that siRNA expressing plasmid targeting the AFP gene has been successfully established. Furthermore, MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazelium) assay showed that cells transfected with siRNA-afp proliferated at a significantly lower speed than the other two groups and flat plate clone formation assay also witnessed less clones with diameters of more than 75 μm in siRNA-afp immunofluorescence indicating that the apoptosis rate of cells transfected with siRNA-afp was significantly higher than the other two groups. Furthermore, flow cytometry manifested approximately 20% more cells of siRNA-afp within G1 phase than those of the negative group, indicating that inhibition of AFP expression may cause G1 phase arrest. Finally, Western blot and RT-PCR assay demonstrated that siRNA-afp induced a higher expression of caspase-3 than the other two groups whereas there was no difference in expression of caspase-8

  5. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through N-acetyl-l-leucine-modified polyethylenimine-mediated p53 gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Liu; Li, Quanshun

    2015-11-01

    Herein, N-acetyl-L-leucine-modified polyethylenimine was successfully constructed through the EDC/NHS-mediated coupling reaction and employed as vectors to accomplish p53 gene delivery using HeLa (p53wt) and PC-3 cells (p53null) as models. Compared with PEI25K, the derivatives exhibited lower cytotoxicity, protein adsorption and hemolytic activity, together with satisfactory pDNA condensation capability and gene transfection efficiency. After p53 transfection, MTT analysis confirmed that the cell proliferation was inhibited. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the derivative-mediated p53 delivery could induce stronger early apoptosis than PEI25K and Lipofectamine(2000). Further, PC-3 cells showed higher sensitivity to the exogenous p53 transfection than HeLa cells. The mechanism for inducing apoptosis was determined to be up-regulation of p53 expression at both mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Expression level and activity analysis of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and mitochondrial membrane potential measurement revealed that p53 transfection mediated by these derivatives facilitated early apoptosis of tumor cells via a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Thus, the derivatives showed potential as biocompatible carriers for realizing effective tumor gene therapy.

  6. Gene ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses of genes related to age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Xing, ZhiHao; Ma, Mingming; Wang, Ning; Cai, Yu-Dong; Chen, Lei; Xu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Identifying disease genes is one of the most important topics in biomedicine and may facilitate studies on the mechanisms underlying disease. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a serious eye disease; it typically affects older adults and results in a loss of vision due to retina damage. In this study, we attempt to develop an effective method for distinguishing AMD-related genes. Gene ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses of known AMD-related genes were performed, and a classification system was established. In detail, each gene was encoded into a vector by extracting enrichment scores of the gene set, including it and its direct neighbors in STRING, and gene ontology terms or KEGG pathways. Then certain feature-selection methods, including minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection, were adopted to extract key features for the classification system. As a result, 720 GO terms and 11 KEGG pathways were deemed the most important factors for predicting AMD-related genes.

  7. Depletion of G9a gene induces cell apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolei; Huang, Yiqun; Zou, Yong; Chen, Xingsheng; Ma, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    G9a is a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Evidence suggests that G9a is required to maintain the malignant phenotype, but little documentation show the role of G9a function in mediating tumor growth. We retrospectively analyzed the protein of G9a and monomethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9 me1), and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9 me2) in 175 cases of gastric carcinoma by immunohistochemistry. RNAi-based inhibition of G9a in MGC803 cancer cell line was studied. G9a depletion was done by transient transfection using Lipofectamine 2000. Depletion efficiency of G9a was tested using real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Cell apoptosis and proliferation were detected by TUNEL assay and MTT, respectively. The proteins of H3K9 me1, me2, trimethylation of H3K9 (H3K9 me3), monomethylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27 me1), dimethylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27 me2) and histone acetylated H3, apoptotic proteins were studied by western blot analysis. G9a and H3K9 me2 expression was higher in gastric cancer cells compared to the control (p<0.05). Both G9a and H3K9 me2 were positively correlated with the degree of differentiation, depth of infiltration, lymphatic invasions and tumor-node-metastasis stage in gastric carcinoma, (p<0.05). RNAi-mediated knockdown of G9a induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation. Depletion of G9a reduced the levels of H3K9 me1 and me2, H3K27 me1 and me2. Nonetheless, it did not activate acetylation of H3 and H3K9 me3. These data suggest that G9a is required in tumorigenesis, and correlated with prognosis. Furthermore, G9a plays a critical role in regulating epigenetics. Depletion of G9a inhibits cell growth and induces cells apoptosis in gastric cancer. It might be of therapeutic benefit in gastric cancers.

  8. The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line. Methods Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells. Results The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells. Conclusions It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer. PMID:24444147

  9. The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Hussin, Faridah; Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Rahmat, Asmah; Othman, Fauziah; Akim, Abdah

    2014-01-20

    This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line. Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells. The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells. It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.

  10. Interleukin-2 receptor common gamma-chain signaling cytokines regulate activated T cell apoptosis in response to growth factor withdrawal: selective induction of anti-apoptotic (bcl-2, bcl-xL) but not pro-apoptotic (bax, bcl-xS) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Akbar, A N; Borthwick, N J; Wickremasinghe, R G; Panayoitidis, P; Pilling, D; Bofill, M; Krajewski, S; Reed, J C; Salmon, M

    1996-02-01

    Cytokine deprivation from activated T cells leads to apoptosis associated with down-regulation of the bcl-2 gene product. It is not clear, however, how cytokines other than interleukin-2 (IL-2) may affect this process and regulate the involvement of other apoptosis-modulating genes. We show that a group of cytokines including IL-2 (IL-2R gamma), prevent the apoptosis of IL-2-deprived activated T cells. This rescue involves the induction of the anti-apoptosis genes bcl-2 and bcl-xL), but causes little change in expression of bax and bcl-xS, which promote apoptosis. Furthermore, the prevention of apoptosis and induction of proliferation by the common gamma chain cytokines can be dissociated. Thus, when proliferation is blocked, the common gamma chain cytokines still induce up-regulation of bcl-2 relative to bax and retard apoptosis. These cytokines can thus regulate the persistence or removal of effector T cells by coordinating the balance between genes which promote and those which inhibit apoptosis, events which are probably mediated at least in part by signals through the common gamma chain. These data also implicate inappropriate T cell apoptosis resulting from a dysfunctional common gamma-chain as part of the pathophysiological defect in patients with X-linked severe-combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

  11. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone Enhances the Apoptosis-Inducing Potential of TRAIL in Human Tumor Cells via Regulation of Apoptosis-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Ye, Tingmei; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Lu, Wuguang; Hu, Chunping; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoning; Cao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer, because it preferentially induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cells with little or no effect on normal cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone is a dietary flavonoid commonly found in many plants. Here we show that the combined treatment with 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL at subtoxic concentrations induced strong apoptotic response in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, acute leukemia Jurkat T cells, and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We further investigated the mechanisms by which 5,7-dihydroxyflavone augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, attenuated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and IAPs, and reduced the phosphorylation levels of Akt and STAT3, weakening the anti-apoptotic signals thus facilitating the process of apoptosis. Moreover, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL were well tolerated in mice, and the combination of 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL reduced tumor burden in vivo in a HepG2 tumor xenograft model. Interestingly, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced cell death was not observed in normal human hepatocytes L-O2. These results suggest that the 5,7-dihydroxyflavone in combination with TRAIL might be used for cancer prevention and/or therapy.

  12. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone Enhances the Apoptosis-Inducing Potential of TRAIL in Human Tumor Cells via Regulation of Apoptosis-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Ye, Tingmei; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Lu, Wuguang; Hu, Chunping; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoning; Cao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer, because it preferentially induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cells with little or no effect on normal cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone is a dietary flavonoid commonly found in many plants. Here we show that the combined treatment with 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL at subtoxic concentrations induced strong apoptotic response in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, acute leukemia Jurkat T cells, and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We further investigated the mechanisms by which 5,7-dihydroxyflavone augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, attenuated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and IAPs, and reduced the phosphorylation levels of Akt and STAT3, weakening the anti-apoptotic signals thus facilitating the process of apoptosis. Moreover, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL were well tolerated in mice, and the combination of 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL reduced tumor burden in vivo in a HepG2 tumor xenograft model. Interestingly, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced cell death was not observed in normal human hepatocytes L-O2. These results suggest that the 5,7-dihydroxyflavone in combination with TRAIL might be used for cancer prevention and/or therapy. PMID:23533482

  13. Soy Metabolites, Isoflavones in Cell Growth and Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    causes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis . To fully test our original hypothesis, we proposed three specific aims containing five tasks of which...435 breast cancer cells, regulates the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis -related genes, and induces apoptosis through a p53-independent pathway...These molecular alterations may be the molecular mechanism(s) by which genistein induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cells

  14. VEGF-B inhibits apoptosis via VEGFR-1–mediated suppression of the expression of BH3-only protein genes in mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Nagai, Nobuo; Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Scotney, Pierre; Lennartsson, Johan; Zhu, Chaoyong; Qu, Yi; Fang, Changge; Hua, Jianyuan; Matsuo, Osamu; Fong, Guo-Hua; Ding, Hao; Cao, Yihai; Becker, Kevin G.; Nash, Andrew; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Li, Xuri

    2008-01-01

    Despite its early discovery and high sequence homology to the other VEGF family members, the biological functions of VEGF-B remain poorly understood. We revealed here a novel function for VEGF-B as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. Using gene expression profiling of mouse primary aortic smooth muscle cells, and confirming the results by real-time PCR using mouse and rat cell lines, we showed that VEGF-B inhibited the expression of genes encoding the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins and other apoptosis- and cell death–related proteins, including p53 and members of the caspase family, via activation of VEGFR-1. Consistent with this, VEGF-B treatment rescued neurons from apoptosis in the retina and brain in mouse models of ocular neurodegenerative disorders and stroke, respectively. Interestingly, VEGF-B treatment at the dose effective for neuronal survival did not cause retinal neovascularization, suggesting that VEGF-B is the first member of the VEGF family that has a potent antiapoptotic effect while lacking a general angiogenic activity. These findings indicate that VEGF-B may potentially offer a new therapeutic option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18259607

  15. Apoptosis Induction and Gene Expression Profile Alterations of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Cells following Their Exposure to Bortezomib and Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Kontsioti, Frieda; Konsta, Eugene; Vikentiou, Miriam; Spathis, Aris; Papageorgiou, Sotiris; Vasilatou, Diamantina; Gkontopoulos, Konstantinos; Mpazani, Efthimia; Karakitsos, Petros; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George

    2017-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) and its leukemic variant Sézary syndrome (SS) comprise the majority of CTCL, a heterogenous group of non-Hodgkins lymphomas involving the skin. The CTCL’s resistance to chemotherapy and the lack of full understanding of their pathogenesis request further investigation. With the view of a more targeted therapy, we evaluated in vitro the effectiveness of bortezomib and methotrexate, as well as their combination in CTCL cell lines, regarding apoptosis induction. Our data are of clinical value and indicate that the bortezomib/methotrexate combinational therapy has an inferior impact on the apoptosis of CTCL compared to monotherapy, with bortezomib presenting as the most efficient treatment option for SS and methotrexate for MF. Using PCR arrays technology, we also investigated the alterations in the expression profile of genes related to DNA repair pathways in CTCL cell lines after treatment with bortezomib or methotrexate. We found that both agents, but mostly bortezomib, significantly deregulate a large number of genes in SS and MF cell lines, suggesting another pathway through which these agents could induce apoptosis in CTCL. Finally, we show that SS and MF respond differently to treatment, verifying their distinct nature and further emphasizing the need for discrete treatment approaches. PMID:28107479

  16. Expression of genes involved in initiation, regulation, and execution of apoptosis in human neutrophils and during neutrophil differentiation of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Santos-Beneit, A M; Mollinedo, F

    2000-05-01

    Neutrophils possess a very short lifespan, dying by apoptosis. HL-60 cells undergo apoptosis after neutrophil differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We have found that the onset of apoptosis in neutrophil-differentiating HL-60 cells correlates with the achievement of an apoptosis-related gene expression pattern similar to that of peripheral blood mature neutrophils. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing techniques, we have found that HL-60 cells express bak, bik, bax, bad, bcl-2, bcl-xL, bcl-w, bfl-1, fas, and caspases 1-4 and 7-10. After DMSO treatment, bak, bcl-w, bfl-1, fas, and caspases 1 and 9 were up-regulated, whereas bik, bcl-2, and caspases 2, 3, and 10 were down-regulated at different degrees, achieving mRNA expression levels that correlated with those detected in peripheral blood neutrophils. Caspase-2 mRNA and protein expression was drastically reduced after HL-60 cell differentiation, being absent in both HL-60-differentiated neutrophils and mature neutrophils, whereas caspase-3 and -10 mRNA and protein expression were diminished upon HL-60 cell differentiation until achieving the respective levels found in mature neutrophils. Bak and bfl-1 mRNA levels were largely increased during DMSO-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells, and these genes were the bcl-2 family members that were expressed most abundantly in mature neutrophils. Bcl-2 overexpression or caspase inhibition prevented differentiation-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells, but not their differentiation capability. Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis was also blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-Asp-2,6-dichlorobenzoyloxymethylketone. Peripheral blood neutrophils expressed bak, bad, bcl-w, bfl-1, fas, and caspases 1, 3, 4, and 7-10, but hardly expressed bcl-2, bcl-xL, bik, bax, and caspase-2. These results suggest that the above gene expression changes in neutrophil-differentiating HL-60 cells may play a role in the acquisition of the neutrophil

  17. Regulation of multilineage gene expression and apoptosis during in vitro expansion of human bone marrow stromal cells with different cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huiyong; Miosge, Nicolai; Schulz, Jutta; Schliephake, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of 3 different expansion media on the expression of marker genes of mesenchymal differentiation (bone, cartilage, fat) as well as apoptosis and senescence during repeated passaging in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in order to identify potential expansion strategies for the use of these cells into tissue-engineered growth of bone. Medium 1 (EGF, PDGF, low Glc, 2% FCS) was associated with the highest proliferation rate compared to medium 2 (β-mercaptoethanol, high Glc DMEM, 15% FCS) and medium 3 (low Glc DMEM, 10% FCS). Real time RT-PCR indicated the lowest levels of expression of osteonectin, core binding factor-α 1, lipoprotein lipase and cartilage oligo matrix protein in medium-1 cultures as compared to media 2 and 3. Early passages expressed higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-γ2 in medium 1 than in media 2 and 3, whereas no difference of Sox-9 expression was noticed among the 3 media. Expression of apoptosis- and senescence-related genes (Bax, BCL-2 and P16INK4a) exhibited the lowest level of Bax/BCL-2 ratio and P16INK4a gene expression of hBMSC in medium 1. In conclusion, the replacement of FCS by recombinant EGF and PDGF promoted rapid proliferation of hBMSCs without inducing differentiation of hBMSCs. It also inhibited expression of apoptosis-related genes and limited replicative senescence during repeated passaging. Media with the lowest possible FCS content and replacement by EGF and PDGF thus should be used for 2D culturing during expansion of hBMSCs, whereas β-mercaptoethanol and high concentrations of FCS can help to commence osteogenic differentiation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. CCN1/CYR61 overexpression in hepatic stellate cells induces ER stress-related apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Steffen, Bettina T; Van de Leur, Eddy; Haas, Ute; Tihaa, Lidia; Friedman, Scott L; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    CCN1/CYR61 is a matricellular protein of the CCN family, comprising six secreted proteins specifically associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM). CCN1 acts as an enhancer of the cutaneous wound healing process by preventing hypertrophic scar formation through induction of myofibroblast senescence. In liver fibrosis, the senescent cells are primarily derived from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) that initially proliferate in response to liver damage and are the major source of ECM. We investigate here the possible use of CCN1 as a senescence inducer to attenuate liver fibrogenesis by means of adenoviral gene transfer in primary HSC, myofibroblasts (MFB) and immortalized HSC lines (i.e. LX-2, CFSC-2G). Infection with Ad5-CMV-CCN1 induced large amounts of CCN1 protein in all these cells, resulting in an overload of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in a compensatory unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR resulted in upregulation of ER chaperones including BIP/Grp78, Grp94 and led to an activation of IRE1α as evidenced by spliced XBP1 mRNA with IRE1α-induced JNK phosphorylation. The UPR arm PERK and eIF2a was phosphorylated, combined with significant CHOP upregulation. Ad5-CMV-CCN1 induced HSC apoptosis that was evident by proteolytic cleavage of caspase-12, caspase-9 and the executor caspase-3 and positive TUNEL stain. Remarkably, Ad5-CMV-CCN1 effectively reduced collagen type I mRNA expression and protein. We conclude that the matricellular protein CCN1 gene transfer induces HSC apoptosis through ER stress and UPR.

  19. PUMA gene transfection can enhance the sensitivity of epirubicin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, C-G; Zhuang, J; Teng, W-J; Wang, Z; Du, S-S

    2015-05-29

    We explored whether p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) gene transfection could enhance the sensitivity of epirubicin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The liposome-mediated recombinant eukaryotic expression vector PU-MA-pCDNA3 and empty vector plasmid were stably transfected into MCF-7 cells. Epirubicin (0.01-100 μM) was applied to MCF-7, MCF-7/PUMA, and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells for 72 h. The MTT assay was used to calculate the cell survival rate in each group, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated. The IC50 values of epirubicin in MCF-7, MCF-7/PUMA, and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells were 13 ± 1.4, 1.8 ± 0.2, and 10.7 ± 1.3 μM, respectively. The sensitivity of MCF-7/PUMA cells to epirubicin increased 7.2-fold. Epirubicin induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells dose-dependently, but MCF-7/PUMA cell-induced apoptosis was more significant compared to controls. Low concentrations of epirubicin (0.1 μM) caused low levels of apoptosis of MCF-7/pCDNA3 (1.15 ± 0.26%) and MCF-7 cells (0.9 ± 0.24%), but significantly induced apoptosis of MCF-7/PUMA cells (6.44 ± 1.46%). High epirubicin concentration (1 μM) induced apoptosis in each group, but the epirubicin MCF-7/PUMA apoptosis rate (35.47 ± 9.36%) was significantly higher than that of MCF-7 (12.6 ± 3.73%) and MCF-7/ pCDNA3 (15.2 ± 5.17%) cells (P < 0 01). Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays for apoptosis detection showed similar results. PUMA protein expression in MCF-7/PUMA cells was significantly higher than that in MCF-7 and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells by Western blot analysis. There-fore, stable transfection of PUMA can significantly enhance epirubicin-induced apoptosis sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  20. Evolutionary approach for relative gene expression algorithms.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Marcin; Kretowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify the major variants of relative expression algorithms through EA and introduce weights to the top-scoring pairs. Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space.

  1. Evolutionary Approach for Relative Gene Expression Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify the major variants of relative expression algorithms through EA and introduce weights to the top-scoring pairs. Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space. PMID:24790574

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) triggers apoptosis in normal prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Alexandre; Ivashchenko, Yuri; Kraft, Andrew S

    2002-02-07

    TRAIL is a pro-apoptotic cytokine believed to selectively kill cancer cells without harming normal ones. However, we found that in normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) TRAIL is capable of inducing apoptosis as efficiently as in some tumor cell lines. At the same time, TRAIL did not cause apoptosis in several other human primary cell lines: aorta smooth muscle cells, foreskin fibroblasts, and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Compared to these primary cells, PrEC were found to contain significantly fewer TRAIL receptors DcR1 and DcR2 which are not capable of conducting the apoptotic signal. This result suggests that the unusual sensitivity of PrEC to TRAIL may result from their deficiency in anti-apoptotic decoy receptors. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide significantly enhanced TRAIL toxicity toward PrEC as measured by tetrazolium conversion but had little or no effect on other TRAIL-induced apoptotic responses. Although cycloheximide did not further accelerate the processing of caspases 3 and 8, it significantly enhanced cleavage of the caspase 3 substrate gelsolin, indicating that in PrEC a protein(s) with a short half-life may inhibit the activity of the executioner caspases toward specific substrates. As the majority of prostate cancers are derived from epithelial cells, our data suggest the possibility that TRAIL could be a useful treatment for the early stages of prostate cancer.

  3. Down-regulation apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 gene reduced the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte apoptosis in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Hua; Chen, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is crucial in various cellular responses. In the present study, we identified and characterized an ASK1 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvASK1). The full-length cDNA of LvASK1 was 5400 bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative 1420 amino acid protein. LvASK1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocyte, eyestalk and heart. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the LvASK1 was upregulated during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The knocked-down expression of LvASK1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the apoptotic ratio of the hemocytes collected from WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LvASK1 also decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. These results suggested that down-regulation of LvASK1 decreased the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in WSSV-infected shrimp, and that it could contribute to the reduction of cumulative mortality in WSSV-infected L. vannamei.

  4. Lipocalin 2, a new GADD153 target gene, as an apoptosis inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress in lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsin, I-Lun; Hsiao, Yueh-Chieh; Wu, Ming-Fang; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Lin, Yu-Wen; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2012-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated under severe cellular conditions. GADD153, a member of the C/EBP family, is an unfolded protein response (UPR) responsive transcription factor. Increased levels of lipocalin 2, an acute phase protein, have been found in several epithelial cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of lipocalin 2 in lung cancer cells under ER stress. Treatment with thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, led to increases in cytotoxicity, ER stress, apoptosis, and lipocalin 2 expression in A549 cells. GADD153 silencing decreased lipocalin 2 expression in A549 cells. On chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, ER stress increased GADD153 DNA binding to lipocalin 2 promoter. Furthermore, silencing of lipocalin 2 mitigated ER stress-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that lipocalin 2 is a new GADD153 target gene that mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. Highlights: ► We demonstrate that Lipocalin 2 is a new GADD153 target gene. ► Lipocalin 2 mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. ► ER stress-induced lipocalin 2 expression is calcium-independent in A549 cells. ► Lipocalin 2 dose not play a major role in ER stress-induced autophagy.

  5. Retrovirus-mediated siRNA targeting TRPM7 gene induces apoptosis in RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, N-M; Jiang, S-P; Lv, Z-Q

    2012-09-01

    Calcium signaling is important for both normal physiologic processes and pathology of various diseases. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) gene has been reported to be a potential candidate for calcium influx. The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of TRPM7 channels in apoptosis in rat basophilic leukemia mast cell line (RBL-2H3), which is widely used in mast cell-associated studies. A recombinant retrovirus vector siRNA targeting rat TRPM7 gene was constructed and identified. Cellular survival was assessed by MTT. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and TUNEL-FITC/Hoechst 33258 staining. The transfection efficiency by retrovirus vector was about 60%-70%. Transfection with TRPM7 siRNA significantly reduced TRPM7 expression both at mRNA and protein levels. Suppression of TRPM7 expression by siRNA led to significantly decreased cellular survival rates and increased apoptosis rates in RBL-2H3 cells. This study indicates that TRPM7 is involved in the apoptosis process in RBL-2H3 cells.

  6. The resveratrol attenuates ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis via inhibiting ER-related caspase-12 activation and PDE activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, L Q; Fan, Z Q; Tang, Y F; Ke, Z J

    2014-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in cell apoptosis pathways. Caspase-12, a proapoptotic gene induced by ER stress, is also the key molecule in ER-related apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective activity and possible mechanism of resveratrol (ResV) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced apoptosis in human hepatocyte Chang cell line. The human hepatocyte Chang cell line was used to test the hypothesis that ResV may alleviate the liver cell apoptosis induced by EtOH. ER stress-inducible proteins and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) were assayed by Western blot. Cell viability was studied by MTT assay and apoptosis was measured by Annexin-V and propidium iodide assay. Caspase-12 activation was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH-2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) were measured by polymerase chain reaction amplified product length polymorphism. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity was assayed in cell lysates using a cyclic nucleotide PDE assay. EtOH exposure significantly increased the expression of ER stress markers and activated signaling pathways associated with ER stress. These include GRP78, p-IRE1α, p-eIF2α, p-PERK, ATF4 as well as cleaved caspase-3/12, CHOP/GADD153, and Bax in human hepatocyte Chang cell line. The expression of these proteins were significantly down-regulated by ResV (10 μM) in a SIRT1-dependent manner. ResV can inhibit EtOH-, tunicamycin-, thapsigargin-induced caspase-12 activation. ADH-2 and ALDH-2 activities are lower in this cell line. PDE activity increased by EtOH was inhibited by ResV (10 μM). The results indicate that (i) EtOH-induced activation of caspase-12 could be one of the underlying mechanisms of hepatocyte apoptosis; (ii) EtOH-induced cell apoptosis was alleviated via ResV (10 μM) by inhibiting ER stress and caspase-12 activation in a SIRT1-dependent manner; and (iii) SIRT1 activated indirectly by ResV (10 μM) attenuates

  7. Candidate tumor suppressor LUCA-15/RBM5/H37 modulates expression of apoptosis and cell cycle genes

    SciTech Connect

    Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna . E-mail: bia19@biol.keele.ac.uk; Keen, Jennifer; Clark, Jeremy; Cooper, Colin S.; Williams, Gwyn T. . E-mail: g.t.williams@keele.ac.uk

    2006-06-10

    RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5/LUCA-15/H37) is encoded at the lung cancer tumor suppressor locus 3p21.3 and itself has several important characteristics of a tumor suppressor, including both potentiation of apoptosis and inhibition of the cell cycle. Here, we report the effects of both upregulation and downregulation of LUCA-15/RBM5 on gene expression monitored using cDNA microarrays. Many of the genes modulated by LUCA-15/RBM5 are involved in the control of apoptosis, the cell cycle, or both. These effects were confirmed for the most significant genes using real-time RT-PCR and/or Western blotting. In particular, LUCA-15/RBM5 increased the expression of Stat5b and BMP5 and decreased the expression of AIB1 (Amplified In Breast Cancer 1), proto-oncogene Pim-1, caspase antagonist BIRC3 (cIAP-2, MIHC), and CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2). These effects on multiple genes controlling both apoptosis and proliferation are in line with the functional effects of LUCA-15/RBM5 and indicate that it plays a central role in regulating cell fate consistent with its tumor suppressor activity.

  8. Disruption of the salmon reproductive endocrine axis through prolonged nutritional stress: changes in circulating hormone levels and transcripts for ovarian genes involved in steroidogenesis and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoji; Adam Luckenbach, J; Goetz, Frederick W; Young, Graham; Swanson, Penny

    2011-07-01

    Mechanisms regulating the normal progression of ovarian follicular growth versus onset of atresia in fishes are poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we exposed immature female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to prolonged fasting to induce follicular atresia and monitored body growth, development of the ovarian follicles, changes in reproductive hormones, and transcripts for ovarian genes. Prolonged fasting reduced body and ovary weight and increased the appearance of atretic follicles relative to normally fed controls. Endocrine analyses showed that fasting reduced plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), estradiol-17β (E2), and pituitary, but not plasma, levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Transcripts for ovarian fsh receptor (fshr) and steroidogenesis-related genes, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd3b), and P450 aromatase (cyp19a1a) were significantly lower in fasted fish. Ovarian expression of apoptosis-related genes, such as Fas-associated death domain (fadd), caspase 8 (casp8), caspase 3 (casp3), and caspase 9 (casp9) were significantly elevated in fasted fish compared to fed fish, indicating that apoptosis is involved in the process of atresia in this species. Interestingly, some genes such as fadd, casp8, casp3, and hsd3b, were differentially expressed prior to increases in the number of atretic follicles and reductions in hormone levels induced by fasting, and may therefore have potential as early indicators of atresia. Together these results suggest that prolonged nutritional stress may disrupt the reproductive system and induce follicular atresia in part via reductions in ovarian IGF and FSH signaling, and downstream effects on steroidogenesis-related genes and E2 production.

  9. Sulforaphane and phenylethyl isothiocyanate protect human skin against UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis: role of Nrf2-dependent gene expression and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kleszczyński, Konrad; Ernst, Insa M A; Wagner, Anika E; Kruse, Nathalie; Zillikens, Detlef; Rimbach, Gerald; Fischer, Tobias W

    2013-12-01

    Chronic UVR-exposure may impair the stress response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of human skin. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) orchestrates the expression of genes coding for the stress response and antioxidant proteins. Here, we tested sulforaphane (SFN) and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) for their ability to counteract UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in ex vivo human full-thickness skin combined with in vitro HaCaT keratinocytes. Investigation of Nrf2 transactivation and induction of genes coding for Nrf2-dependent phase II antioxidative enzymes (γ-glutamylcysteine-synthetase (γGCS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)) was performed in HaCaT keratinocytes. Comparative investigations in human ex vivo skin were conducted for analysis of gene expression of above mentioned phase II enzymes and catalase (CAT) as well as hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence (catalase, cleaved Casp-3). UVR exposure of human skin (300mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a significant time-dependent increase of the number of sunburn cells and caspase-3 activation as biomarkers of apoptosis for up to 48h (p<0.001) and induced a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (p<0.001). This was significantly counteracted by the pre-treatment of human skin with SFN and PEITC (5μM and 10μM). Mechanistic cell culture studies revealed SFN and PEITC to increase Nrf2 activity and Nrf2-dependent gene expression (γGCS, HO-1, NQO1); this was paralleled in human full skin mRNA. In conclusion, the induction of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathways seems to be a potential mechanism by which SFN and PEITC protect against UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane technical mixture regulates cell cycle and apoptosis genes through the activation of CAR and ERα in mouse livers

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.

    2013-09-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and a xenoestrogen that promotes rodent hepatomegaly and tumours. A recent study has shown significant correlation between DDT serum concentration and liver cancer incidence in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesised that a mixture of DDT isomers could exert effects on the liver through pathways instead of classical ERs. The acute effects of a DDT mixture containing the two major isomers p,p′-DDT (85%) and o,p′-DDT (15%) on CAR and ERα receptors and their cell cycle and apoptosis target genes were studied in mouse livers. ChIP results demonstrated increased CAR and ERα recruitment to their specific target gene binding sites in response to the DDT mixture. The results of real-time RT-PCR were consistent with the ChIP data and demonstrated that the DDT was able to activate both CAR and ERα in mouse livers, leading to target gene transcriptional increases including Cyp2b10, Gadd45β, cMyc, Mdm2, Ccnd1, cFos and E2f1. Western blot analysis demonstrated increases in cell cycle progression proteins cMyc, Cyclin D1, CDK4 and E2f1 and anti-apoptosis proteins Mdm2 and Gadd45β. In addition, DDT exposure led to Rb phosphorylation. Increases in cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis proteins were accompanied by a decrease in p53 content and its transcriptional activity. However, the DDT was unable to stimulate the β-catenin signalling pathway, which can play an important role in hepatocyte proliferation. Thus, our results indicate that DDT treatment may result in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition through CAR- and ERα-mediated gene activation in mouse livers. These findings suggest that the proliferative and anti-apoptotic conditions induced by CAR and ERα activation may be important contributors to the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis as produced by DDT in rodent livers. - Highlights: • DDT activated both CAR and ERα and their cell

  11. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis by regulating the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Qin, Juan; Li, Dengwen; Zhou, Yunqiang; Xie, Songbo; Du, Xin; Hao, Ziwei; Liu, Ruming; Liu, Xinqi; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2017-01-10

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women. Although it begins as local disease, breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distant organs. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are needed for the management of this disease. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) is a calcium-binding protein crucial for diverse physiological processes and has recently been implicated in cancer development. However, it remains unclear whether this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of ALG-2 is significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and is correlated with clinicopathological characteristics indicative of tumor malignancy. Our data further show that ALG-2 stimulates breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. ALG-2 also promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, and motility in vitro. Mechanistic data reveal that ALG-2 disrupts the localization of centrosome proteins, resulting in spindle multipolarity and chromosome missegregation. In addition, ALG-2 drives the polarization and migration of breast cancer cells by facilitating the rearrangement of microtubules and microfilaments. These findings reveal a critical role for ALG-2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and have important implications for its diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis by regulating the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Juan; Li, Dengwen; Zhou, Yunqiang; Xie, Songbo; Du, Xin; Hao, Ziwei; Liu, Ruming; Liu, Xinqi; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women. Although it begins as local disease, breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distant organs. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are needed for the management of this disease. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) is a calcium-binding protein crucial for diverse physiological processes and has recently been implicated in cancer development. However, it remains unclear whether this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of ALG-2 is significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and is correlated with clinicopathological characteristics indicative of tumor malignancy. Our data further show that ALG-2 stimulates breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. ALG-2 also promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, and motility in vitro. Mechanistic data reveal that ALG-2 disrupts the localization of centrosome proteins, resulting in spindle multipolarity and chromosome missegregation. In addition, ALG-2 drives the polarization and migration of breast cancer cells by facilitating the rearrangement of microtubules and microfilaments. These findings reveal a critical role for ALG-2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and have important implications for its diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27926525

  13. Combination of cold atmospheric plasma and iron nanoparticles in breast cancer: gene expression and apoptosis study

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Azam; Irani, Shiva; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Current cancer treatments have unexpected side effects of which the death of normal cells is one. In some cancers, iron nanoparticles (NPs) can be subjected to diagnosis and passive targeting treatment. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has a proven induction of selective cell death ability. In this study, we have attempted to analyze the synergy between CAP and iron NPs in human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Materials and methods In vitro cytotoxicity of CAP treatment and NPs in cells measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell death was shown by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and annexin V staining. Fluctuations in BAX and BCL-2 gene expression were investigated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results MTT assay results showed that combination of plasma and iron NPs decreased the viability of cancer cells significantly (P<0.05). Real-time analysis showed that the combination therapy induced shifting the BAX/BCL-2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Conclusion Our data indicate that synergy between CAP and iron NPs can be applied in breast cancer treatment selectively. PMID:27729800

  14. Use of microarray analysis to unveil transcription factor and gene networks contributing to Beta cell dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Eizirik, Decio L; Kutlu, Burak; Rasschaert, Joanne; Darville, Martine; Cardozo, Alessandra K

    2003-11-01

    The beta cell fate following immune-mediated damage depends on an intricate pattern of dozens of genes up- or downregulated in parallel and/or sequentially. We are utilizing microarray analysis to clarify the pattern of gene expression in primary rat beta cells exposed to the proapoptotic cytokines, IL-1beta and/or IFN-gamma. The picture emerging from these experiments is that beta cells are not passive bystanders of their own destruction. On the contrary, beta cells respond to damage by activating diverse networks of transcription factors and genes that may either lead to apoptosis or preserve viability. Of note, cytokine-exposed beta cells produce and release chemokines that may contribute to the homing and activation of T cells and macrophages during insulitis. Several of the effects of cytokines depend on the activation of the transcription factor, NF-kappaB. NF-kappaB blocking prevents cytokine-induced beta cell death, and characterization of NF-kappaB-dependent genes by microarray analysis indicated that this transcription factor controls diverse networks of transcription factors and effector genes that are relevant for maintenance of beta cell differentiated status, cytosolic and ER calcium homeostasis, attraction of mononuclear cells, and apoptosis. Identification of this and additional "transcription factor networks" is being pursued by cluster analysis of gene expression in insulin-producing cells exposed to cytokines for different time periods. Identification of complex gene patterns poses a formidable challenge, but is now technically feasible. These accumulating evidences may finally unveil the molecular mechanisms regulating the beta cell "decision" to undergo or not apoptosis in early T1DM.

  15. Immunohistochemical detection of the apoptosis-related proteins FADD, FLICE, and FLIP in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bank, Micha I; Gudbrand, Charlotte; Rengtved, Pia; Carstensen, Henrik; Fadeel, Bengt; Henter, Jan-Inge; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2005-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by an accumulation of dendritic Langerhans cells in granulomatous lesions in various organs. The etiology of LCH remains enigmatic. Fas/APO-1/CD95 belongs to the "death receptor" family of apoptosis regulators and has been implicated in the downregulation of immune responses. The authors examined the expression of three proteins that are engaged in the Fas signaling cascade-FADD/Fas-associated death domain-containing protein, FLICE/FADD-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (both pro-apoptotic), and FLIP/FLICE-inhibitory protein (anti-apoptotic)-in lesions from LCH patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 43 children with LCH. The infiltrates were scored according to the amount of positive pathologic Langerhans cells (pLCs). In all investigated specimens, the majority of the pLCs expressed FADD, active FLICE, and FLIP. The clinical outcome of the disease could not be correlated to the expression of the investigated proteins. This study shows a high expression of the apoptosis-related proteins FADD, active FLICE, and FLIP in pLCs. The authors previously showed that pLCs express Fas and Fas ligand. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Fas signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of LCH.

  16. [Computer databases on cancer-related genes].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, N; Minoshima, S

    2000-06-01

    A database of mutations in various cancer-related genes has been constructed and named as KMcancerDB (Keio Mutation DataBase for cancer-related genes). This KMcancerDB utilizes a database software called MutationView which we designed to compile various mutation data and to provide graphical presentation of data analysis through the network using ordinary internet browser softwares such as Netscape. Currently, the KMcancerDB accommodates 1261 mutation data of different genes for cancers in 9 different organs/tissues (breast, stomach, uterus, liver, prostate, colon, ovary, thymus and retinoblastoma). KMcancerDB is accessible through http:¿mutview.dmb.med.keio.ac.jp. OMIM is an important document database for human Mendelian traits and hereditary diseases. The information from OMIM is also used in MutationView/KMcancerDB. Some display windows of OMIM and KMcancerDB are presented.

  17. Parathyroid hormone-related protein overexpression protects goat mammary gland epithelial cells from calcium-sensing receptor activation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Sun, Yongsen; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Yu, Qian; Yao, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Normal mammary gland epithelial cells and breast cancer cells express the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which is the master regulator of systemic calcium metabolism. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells downregulates parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels in milk and in the circulation, and increases calcium transport into milk. However, very little information is available on the role of CaSR in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs) apoptosis. In this investigation, the full-length cDNA of CaSR from Xinong Saanen dairy goats was cloned, which contains an open-reading frame of 3,258 bp encoding 1,085 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 121.0 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.65. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous with sheep, and the goat CaSR gene is mapped to chromosome 1. Quantitative real-time PCR suggested that CaSR was predominantly expressed in the heart, kidney and mammary gland. Then, we found the stimulation of CaSR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) contributed to increase CaSR mRNA levels in GMECs and simultaneously promoted cell apoptosis, and these effects were abrogated partially by NPS2390 which is an inhibitor of CaSR. We also demonstrated that Ca(2+) increased CaSR mRNA levels and induced GMECs apoptosis and restrained cell proliferation. In contrast, PTHrP overexpression protected GMECs from calcium-induced apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, these results suggest that PTHrP overexpression protects GMECs from CaSR activation-induced apoptosis.

  18. Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation Prevents Radiation-Induced DNA Strand Breaks, Apoptosis and Gene Expression in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Krieger, Stephanie; Feiveson, Alan; Kovach, Annie Marie; Buerkle, Alexander; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Under Earth gravity conditions cellular damage can be counteracted by activation of the physiological defense mechanisms or through medical interventions. The mode of action of both, physiological response and medical interventions can be affected by microgravity leading to failure in repairing the damage. There are many studies reporting the effects of microgravity and/or radiation on cellular functions. However, little is known about the synergistic effects on cellular response to radiation when other endogenous cellular stress-response pathways are previously activated. Here, we investigated whether previous stimulation of the adrenergic receptor, which modulates immune response, affects radiation-induced apoptosis in immune cells under simulated microgravity conditions. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with isoproterenol (a sympathomimetic drug) and exposed to 0.8 or 2Gy gamma-radiation in simulated microgravity versus Earth gravity. Expression of genes involved in adrenergic receptor pathways, DNA repair and apoptosis as well as the number of apoptotic cells and DNA strand breaks were determined. Our results showed that, under simulated microgravity conditions, previous treatment with isoproterenol prevented radiation-induced i) gene down regulation, ii) DNA strand breaks formation and iii) apoptosis induction. Interestedly, we found a radiation-induced increase of adrenergic receptor gene expression, which was also abolished in simulated microgravity. Understanding the mechanisms of isoproterenol-mediated radioprotection in simulated microgravity can help to develop countermeasures for space-associated health risks as well as radio-sensitizers for cancer therapy.

  19. Inflammation, Apoptosis, and Necrosis Induced by Neoadjuvant Fas Ligand Gene Therapy Improves Survival of Dogs With Spontaneous Bone Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Modiano, Jaime F; Bellgrau, Donald; Cutter, Gary R; Lana, Susan E; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ehrhart, EJ; Wilke, Vicki L; Charles, J Brad; Munson, Sibyl; Scott, Milcah C; Pozniak, John; Carlson, Cathy S; Schaack, Jerome; Duke, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) gene therapy for cancer has shown promise in rodents; however, its efficacy in higher mammals remains unknown. Here, we used intratumoral FasL gene therapy delivered in an adenovirus vector (Ad-FasL) as neoadjuvant to standard of care in 56 dogs with osteosarcoma. Tumors from treated dogs had greater inflammation, necrosis, apoptosis, and fibrosis at day 10 (amputation) compared to pretreatment biopsies or to tumors from dogs that did not receive Ad-FasL. Survival improvement was apparent in dogs with inflammation or lymphocyte-infiltration scores >1 (in a 3-point scale), as well as in dogs that had apoptosis scores in the top 50th percentile (determined by cleaved caspase-3). Survival was no different than that expected from standard of care alone in dogs with inflammation scores ≤1 or apoptosis scores in the bottom 50th percentile. Reduced Fas expression by tumor cells was associated with prognostically advantageous inflammation, and this was seen only in dogs that received Ad-FasL. Together, the data suggest that Ad-FasL gene therapy improves survival in a subset of large animals with naturally occurring tumors, and that at least in some tumor types like osteosarcoma, it is most effective when tumor cells fail to express Fas. PMID:22850679

  20. Oncolytic vaccine virus harbouring the IL-24 gene suppresses the growth of lung cancer by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunwei; Su, Qunshu; Liang, Yupei; Hu, Jinqing; Yuan, Sujing

    2016-07-15

    Lung cancer has an especially high incidence rate worldwide, and its resistance to cell death and chemotherapeutic drugs increases its intractability. The vaccinia virus has been shown to destroy neoplasm within a short time and disseminate rapidly and extensively as an enveloped virion throughout the circulatory system, and this virus has also demonstrated a strong ability to overexpress exogenous genes. Interleukin-24 (IL-24/mda-7) is an important cytokine that belongs to the activating caspase family and facilitates the inhibition of STAT3 when a cell enters the apoptosis pathway. In this study, we constructed a cancer-targeted vaccinia virus carrying the IL-24 gene knocked in the region of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene (VV-IL-24). Our results showed that VV-IL-24 efficiently infected and destroyed lung cancer cells via caspase-dependent apoptosis and decreased the expression of STAT3. In vivo, VV-IL-24 expressed IL-24 at a high level in the transplanted tumour, reduced STAT3 activity, and eventually led to apoptosis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that vv-IL-24 has the potential for use as a new human lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of Reg I-induced β-cell apoptosis by IL-6/dexamethasone through activation of HGF gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kei; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Ota, Hiroyo; Yoshimoto, Kiyomi; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo; Miyaoka, Tomoko; Takeda, Maiko; Unno, Michiaki; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Reg (regenerating gene) product, Reg protein, is induced in pancreatic β-cells and acts as autocrine/paracrine growth factor for regeneration via the cell surface Reg receptor. However, high concentrations of Reg I protein induced β-cell apoptosis. In the present study, we found that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) attenuated the β-cell apoptosis induced by the high concentrations of Reg I protein and that the combined stimulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dexamethasone (Dx) induced the accumulation of HGF mRNA as well as Reg I mRNA in β-cells. The accumulation of the HGF mRNA was caused by the activation of the HGF promoter. Deletion analysis revealed that the region of -96 to -92 of the HGF gene was responsible for the promoter activation by IL-6+Dx. The promoters contain a consensus transcription factor binding sequence for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Site-directed mutations of STAT-binding motif in the region markedly attenuated the HGF promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that STAT3 is located at the active HGF promoter in response to IL-6+Dx stimulation. These results strongly suggest that the combined stimulation of IL-6 and glucocorticoids induces the activation of both Reg and HGF genes and that the anti-apoptotic effects of HGF against the Reg I-induced apoptosis may help β-cell regeneration by Reg I protein.

  2. Conditionally replicating oncolytic adenoviral vector expressing arresten and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand experimentally suppresses lung carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Shudong; Qi, Zongli; Li, Huijin; Hu, Jun; Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Xin; Feng, Zhenzhen

    2015-08-01

    Current methods of treatment for lung carcinoma are ineffective for the majority of patients. Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) represent a potential novel treatment for a number of neoplastic diseases, including lung carcinoma. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenesis gene, arresten, and the apoptosis-inducing gene, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), in order to evaluate their therapeutic potential in lung cancer. The two genes were expressed by CRAd, which was confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In vitro analyses demonstrated that CRAd adenoviruses are capable of selectively inhibiting A549 lung cancer cell growth and replication but not in that of healthy cells. In vivo analyses demonstrated that the infection of A549 cell lines using CRAd armed with the two genes (CRAd-arresten-TRAIL) enhanced the tumor inhibition, compared with cells infected with CRAd-arresten, CRAd-TRAIL or CRAd, and with the control group. CRAd-arresten-TRAIL may therefore be useful in the treatment of lung cancer.

  3. Gene Transfers Between Distantly Related Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of numerous microbial genome sequences, reports of individual gene transfers between distantly related prokaryotes have become commonplace. On the other hand, transfers between prokaryotes and eukaryotes still excite the imagination. Many of these claims may be premature, but some are certainly valid. In this chapter, the kinds of supporting data needed to propose transfers between distantly related organisms and cite some interesting examples are considered.

  4. Gene Transfers Between Distantly Related Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of numerous microbial genome sequences, reports of individual gene transfers between distantly related prokaryotes have become commonplace. On the other hand, transfers between prokaryotes and eukaryotes still excite the imagination. Many of these claims may be premature, but some are certainly valid. In this chapter, the kinds of supporting data needed to propose transfers between distantly related organisms and cite some interesting examples are considered.

  5. Generation of apoptosis-resistant HEK293 cells with CRISPR/Cas mediated quadruple gene knockout for improved protein and virus production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Xiao, Dan; Shan, Linlin; Zhao, Junli; Mao, Qinwen; Xia, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Apoptosis has important functions during pathophysiologic processes. However, from a biopharmaceutical point of view, active apoptosis of host cells is undesirable during viral packaging or protein expression, because it decreases the efficiency of viral or protein production. Here we used the CRISPR/Cas technique to knock out four pro-apoptotic genes, Caspase3, Caspase6, Caspase7 and AIF1, in HEK293 cells, and successfully produced an apoptosis-resistant cell line. Furthermore, this cell line showed higher expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins and higher packaging efficiency for the virus carrying these proteins than control HEK293 cells. This study not only produced an apoptosis-resistant cell line that is useful in producing apoptosis-inducing proteins or viruses expressing these proteins, but also provides a methodology to build other apoptosis-resistant cell lines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Toxicity and Apoptosis Related Effects of Benzimidazo [3,2-α] Quinolinium Salts Upon Human Lymphoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Christian; Soto, Jessica; Ríos, Karoline; Silva, Luz; Hernandez, Wigberto; Rivera, Luis A; Ortiz-Colón, Ana I; Cox, Osvaldo; Zayas, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates novel cationic quinoline derivatives known as benzimidazo[3,2-a]quinolinium salts (BQS) named NBQ-48 and ABQ-48 that have structural similarities to known anti-cancer substances such as ellipticine and berberine. Toledo human lymphoma (ATCC CRL2631) cells were treated for 24 to 48 hours. Apoptosis related endpoints such as cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial damage, RNS and ROS generation and the activity of several apoptosis related proteins such as caspases and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were studied using fluorescence staining and western blot respectively. Results indicated a higher toxicity from the amino substituted ABQ-48 versus the NBQ-48 (GI50's of 50uM versus 100uM respectively). Both compounds induced cell death through various apoptosis related endpoints including a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential with an increase in ROS and activation of the effector caspase 3. Interestingly, AIF release was observed on cells treated with the amino substituted ABQ-48 but not on the nitro substituted NBQ-48 samples suggesting a caspase independent mechanism for ABQ-48. The results obtained presents the toxic effects of two novel benzimidazo[3,2-a]quinolinium salts in human lymphoma tumor cells. The identified mechanism of action includes multiple apoptosis related effects. Furthermore the data presents a clear variation in caspase dependent or independent mechanism for each compound.

  7. GVHD-Related, Cytokine-Driven Apoptosis Depends on p73 in Cytokeratin 15-Positive Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qian; Korngold, Robert; Lezcano, Cecilia; McKeon, Frank; Murphy, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, involves cytotoxic soluble and cellular effectors that induce apoptosis selectively in normally apoptosis-resistant, cytokeratin 15 (K15)-expressing epithelial stem cells that reside at tips of rete ridges of human epidermis and in analogous rete-like prominences (RLPs) of murine dorsal lingual epithelium. The mechanism(s) whereby epithelial stem cells are rendered vulnerable to apoptosis during allostimulation is unknown. We hypothesized that GVHD-induced target cell injury may relate to pathways involving the p53 family that are constitutively expressed by epithelial stem cells and designed to trigger physiological apoptosis as a result of environmental danger signals. Among the p53 family members, we found p73 protein and mRNA to be preferentially expressed in K15+ RLPs of murine lingual squamous epithelium. Upon in vitro exposure to recombinant TNF alpha (TNFα) and Il-1 in an organ culture model previously shown to replicate early GVHD-like target cell injury, apoptosis was selectively induced in K15+ stem cell regions and was associated with induction of phosphorylated p73, a marker for p73 activation, and apoptosis was abrogated in target tissue obtained from p73-deficient (p73−/−) mice. Evaluation of early in vivo lesions in experimental murine GVHD disclosed identical patterns of phosphorylated p73 expression that coincided with the onset of effector T cell infiltration and target cell apoptosis within K15+ RLPs. These data for the first time indicate that paradoxical apoptosis in GVHD of physiologically protected K15+ epithelial stem cells is explainable, at least in part, by cytokine-induced activation of suicide pathways designed to eliminate stem cells after exposure to deleterious factors perceived to be harmful to the host. PMID:22469882

  8. Developmentally regulated expression of the novel cancer anti-apoptosis gene survivin in human and mouse differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Adida, C.; Crotty, P. L.; McGrath, J.; Berrebi, D.; Diebold, J.; Altieri, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis) may regulate tissue differentiation and aberrantly promote cell survival in neoplasia. A novel apoptosis inhibitor of the IAP gene family, designated survivin, was recently found in all of the most common human cancers but not in normal, terminally differentiated adult tissues. The expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated strong expression of survivin in several apoptosis-regulated fetal tissues, including the stem cell layer of stratified epithelia, endocrine pancreas, and thymic medulla, with a pattern that did not overlap with that of another apoptosis inhibitor, bcl-2. A sequence-specific antibody to survivin immunoblotted a single approximately 16.5-kd survivin band in human fetal lung, liver, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. In mouse embryo, prominent and nearly ubiquitous distribution of survivin was found at embryonic day (E)11.5, whereas at E15 to -21, survivin expression was restricted to the distal bronchiolar epithelium of the lung and neural-crest-derived cells, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, hypophysis, and the choroid plexus. These data suggest that expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development may contribute to tissue homeostasis and differentiation independently of bcl-2. Aberrations of this developmental pathway may result in prominent re-expression of survivin in neoplasia and abnormally prolonged cell viability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9422522

  9. The role of myocardin-related transcription factor-A in Aβ25-35 induced neuron apoptosis and synapse injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Pan, Hong-Yan; Hu, Xia-Min; Cao, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Jun; Min, Zhen-Li; Xu, Shi-Qiang; Xiao, Wan; Yuan, Qiong; Li, Na; Cheng, Jing; Zhao, Shu-Qi; Hong, Xing

    2016-10-01

    Myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) highly expressed in brain has been demonstrated to promote neuronal survival via regulating the transcription of related target genes as a powerful co-activator of serum response factor (SRF). However, the role of MRTF-A in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unclear. Here, we showed that MRTF-A was significantly downregulated in cortex of the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats, which played a key role in Aβ25-35 induced cerebral neuronal degeneration in vitro. Bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35 caused significantly MRTF-A expression decline in cortex of rats, along with significant neuron apoptosis and plasticity damage. In vitro, transfection of MRTF-A into primary cultured cortical neurons prevented Aβ25-35 induced neuronal apoptosis and synapses injury. And luciferase reporter assay determined that MRTF-A could bind to and enhance the transactivity of the Mcl-1 (Myeloid cell leukemia-1) and Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) promoters by activating the key CArG box element. These data demonstrated that the decreasing of endogenous MRTF-A expression might contribute to the development of AD, whereas the upregulation MRTF-A in neurons could effectively reduce Aβ25-35 induced synapse injury and cell apoptosis. And the underlying mechanism might be partially due to MRTF-A-mediated the transcription and expression of Mcl-1 and Arc by triggering the CArG box.

  10. Study of apoptosis in skin lesions of leprosy in relation to treatment and lepra reactions.

    PubMed

    Ajith, C; Gupta, Sachin; Radotra, Bishan D; Arora, Sunil K; Kumar, Bhushan; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjeet

    2005-12-01

    In leprosy on treatment, one factor contributing to the healing of skin lesions with minimal fibrosis may be apoptosis of inflammatory cells, even though apoptosis is sparse in leprosy as compared to tuberculosis. The degree of apoptosis in skin lesions of leprosy was studied by histopathologic examination (HPE) and by DNA fragmentation and electrophoresis. The effect of various parameters on apoptosis was noted in untreated disease, during treatment at 3 and 6 months, and in lepra reactions in different parts of the spectrum of leprosy. Of the 31 patients, 13 had paucibacillary (PB) and 18 multibacillary (MB) disease. Twenty one patients were in reaction: 16 had type 1 reaction and 5 had type 2 reaction. The controls included patients with non-granulomatous skin diseases; there were no normal controls, and no separate controls for cases with reaction. Apoptosis occurred more frequently in patients with leprosy as compared to the controls. In both PB & MB lesions, apoptosis was observed to increase progressively with treatment at 3 and 6 months, and was more prominent in the MB cases at 6 months of treatment. When lesions in either type 1 or type 2 reaction were compared to lesions not in reaction, a significant increase in apoptosis (p = 0.014) was found only in lesions with type 2 reaction and those which were at 6 months of treatment. The type of treatment regimen, or oral steroids given for reactions, did not significantly alter the degree of apoptosis. Our observations indicate that increased apoptosis is present in leprosy lesions and that in leprosy it progressively increases with anti-leprosy treatment up to 6 months. If the process of apoptosis in skin lesions is followed up for a longer period of time, the degree of apoptosis may be expected to decline. The study of apoptosis may help to understand the mechanism of clearance of bacilli and resolution of granulomas in leprosy patients.

  11. [siRNA silences mdr1 gene expression and reverses apoptosis resistance of K562/ADM cells line].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hu-lai; Gao, Li-ping; Jing, Tao; Zhao, Huai-shun; Yi, Juan; Sun, Jin; Han, Jian

    2007-06-01

    To explore the effect of small interfering RNA(siRNA) on silence of mdr1 gene and reversal of apoptosis resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) human leukemia K562/ADM cell. Human MDR leukemia cell line K562/ADM was used as the target cells. Two siRNAs (mdr1 siRNA-1 and mdr1 siRNA-2) targeted mdr1 gene were chemically synthesized and transfected into K562/ADM cells with liposome. Expression of mdr1 mRNA was determined by real-time PCR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and caspase-3 activity were measured with flow cytometry (FCM), and the cell apoptosis was observed by optical and electronic microscopy for morphology and Annexin V/PI staining. The mdr1 siRNA-1 and mdr1 siRNA-2 could markedly down-regulate the expression of mdr1 gene in K562/ADM cells, the expression of mdr1 mRNA decreased by 91.2% and 82.0% , and the P-gp by 74.1% and 84.4%, respectively. The caspase-3 activity was markedly enhanced, and the active caspase-3 in K562/ADM cells increased by about 40% compared to liposome alone and non-silencing controls. the sensitivity of K562/ADM cells to adriamycin-induced apoptosis was significantly augmented, the apoptotic rate of the cells treated with siRNA plus adriamycin increased by about 60% compared to adriamycin alone. siRNAs silence the expression of mdr1/P-gp to overcome the P-gp-mediated apoptosis resistance in drug-resistant K562/ADM cells.

  12. Construction of p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vectors and its effects on alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis induced by hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Dong, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Shuai; Li, Qing-Ping; Kang, Lan; Lei, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Lin; Zhai, Xue-Song

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to observe the inhibitive effects of p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vectors on the expression of p66Shc, and to explore its effects on alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis induced by hyperoxia. Methods The gene sequences were cloned into the pLenR-GPH-shRNA lentiviral vector, which was selected by Genebank searches. The pLenR-GPH-shRNA and lentiviral vector packaging plasmid mix were cotransfected into 293T cells to package lentiviral particles. Culture virus supernatant was harvested, and then the virus titer was determined by serial dilution assay. A549 cells were transduced with the constructed lentiviral vectors, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to evaluate p66Shc expression. This study is divided into a control group, a hyperoxia group, an A549-p66ShcshRNA hyperoxia group, and a negative lentivirus group. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry after 24 hours; the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and caspase-9 were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. The production of reactive oxygen species and cellular mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined by fluorescence microscopy. Results We successfully established the p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vectors, A549-p66ShcshRNA. The A549-p66ShcshRNA was transfected into alveolar epithelial cells, and the inhibitive effects on the expression of p66Shc were observed. Both RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated downregulation of p66Shc expression in A549 cells. In the A549-p66ShcshRNA hyperoxia group, we found dampened oxidative stress. A549-p66ShcshRNA can cause p66Shc gene silencing, reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, reduce membrane potential decrease, reduce the apoptosis of A549 cells, and reduce alveolar epithelial cell injury, while the lentiviral empty vector group had no such changes. Conclusion p66Shc gene interfering lentivirus vector can affect the

  13. The age related markers lipofuscin and apoptosis show different genetic architecture by QTL mapping in short-lived Nothobranchius fish

    PubMed Central

    Ng'oma, Enoch; Reichwald, Kathrin; Dorn, Alexander; Wittig, Michael; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Allesandro

    2014-01-01

    Annual fish of the genus Nothobranchius show large variations in lifespan and expression of age-related phenotypes between closely related populations. We studied N. kadleci and its sister species N. furzeri GRZ strain, and found that N.kadleci is longer-lived than the N. furzeri. Lipofuscin and apoptosis measured in the liver increased with age in N. kadleci with different profiles: lipofuscin increased linearly, while apoptosis declined in the oldest animals. More lipofuscin (P < 0.001) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) was observed in N. furzeri than in N. kadleci at 16w age. Lipofuscin and apoptotic cells were then quantified in hybrids from the mating of N. furzeri to N. kadleci. F1 individuals showed heterosis for lipofuscin but additive effects for apoptosis. These two age-related phenotypes were not correlated in F2 hybrids. Quantitative trait loci analysis of 287 F2 fish using 237 markers identified two QTL accounting for 10% of lipofuscin variance (P < 0.001) with overdominance effect. Apoptotic cells revealed three significant- and two suggestive QTL explaining 19% of variance (P < 0.001), showing additive and dominance effects, and two interacting loci. Our results show that lipofuscin and apoptosis are markers of different age-dependent biological processes controlled by different genetic mechanisms. PMID:25093339

  14. Modulatory effects of curcumin on apoptosis and cytotoxicity-related molecules in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Asadollah; Fazeli, Bahare; Taheri, Marzieh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Poursina, Zohreh; Vakili, Vida; Yazdi, Shadi Zamanian; Keramati, Zahra; Boostani, Reza; Hampson, Ian; Rafatpanah, Houshang

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis is a universal cellular defense mechanism against viral infection. Curcumin, an anti-inflammatory phytochemical, induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. Here, we investigated the impact of supplementation with curcumin on the expression of a panel of apoptosis- and cytotoxicity-related genes in patients suffering from HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a progressive demyelinating neuroinflammatory disease caused by HTLV-1 infection. Twenty-one HAM/TSP patients enrolled in this study. Curcumin nanomicelles (80mg/day, orally) were administered once a day for 12 weeks. The mRNA levels of total Fas (tFas), membrane-bound Fas (mFas), Fas-Ligand (FasL), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), perforin, granzyme A, granzyme B and granulysin were analyzed before and after treatment in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Protein levels of Fas, FasL, TRAIL and granulysin were also measured in serum using ELISA. Curcumin supplementation inhibited FasL mRNA production and up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules granzyme A (at the mRNA level) and granulysin (at the protein level), suggesting degranulation of granulysin-bearing cells following curcumin supplementation. Conversely, Curcumin did not affect Fas, TRAIL, perforin, granzyme B at the mRNA level, and anti-apoptotic molecules sFas, sFasL and sTRAIL at the protein level. The present results suggest that curcumin supplementation increases cytotoxicity-related molecules granzyme A and granulysin in patients with HAM/TSP.

  15. Gene regulations in HBV-related liver cirrhosis closely correlate with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seram; Kim, Soyoun

    2007-09-30

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is defined as comprising diffuse fibrosis and regenerating nodules of the liver. The biochemical and anatomical dysfunction in LC results from both reduced liver cell number and portal vascular derangement. Although several studies have investigated dysregulated genes in cirrhotic nodules, little is known about the genes implicated in the pathophysiologic change of LC or about their relationship with the degree of decompensation. Here, we applied cDNA microarray analysis using 38 HBsAg-positive LC specimens to identify the genes dysregulated in HBV-associated LC and to evaluate their relation to disease severity. Among 1063 known cancer- and apoptosis-related genes, we identified 104 genes that were significantly up- (44) or down- (60) regulated in LC. Interestingly, this subset of 104 genes was characteristically correlated with the degree of decompensation, called the Pugh-Child classification (20 Pugh-Child A, 10 Pugh-Child B, and 8 Pugh-Child C). Patient samples from Pugh-Child C exhibited a distinct pattern of gene expression relative to those of Pugh-Child A and B. Especially in Pugh-Child C, genes encoding hepatic proteins and metabolizing enzymes were significantly down-regulated, while genes encoding various molecules related to cell replication were up-regulated. Our results suggest that subsets of genes in liver cells correspond to the pathophysiologic change of LC according to disease severity and possibly to hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Apoptosis gene polymorphisms, age, smoking and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ter-Minassian, Monica; Zhai, Rihong; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Geoffrey; Heist, Rebecca Suk; Lynch, Thomas J; Wain, John C; Lin, Xihong; De Vivo, Immaculata; Christiani, David C

    2008-11-01

    Apoptosis is important for targeting cancer cells for destruction. Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apoptotic genes have been associated with increased risks in lung cancer, particularly FAS -1377 G>A (rs2234767), FASLG -844 C>T (rs763110), IL1B +3954 C>T Phe105Phe (rs1143634) and BAT3 Ser625Pro (rs1052486). We studied the association of these SNPs with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a large case-control study (N = 4263: 2644 cases and 1619 controls). No associations with NSCLC were observed in the main effects analysis for all four SNPs, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack-years and years since smoking cessation. In subjects under age 60, for FASLG -844 C>T polymorphism, CT compared with the CC genotype, was significantly associated with increased risk of NSCLC, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.58 (1.22, 2.05), P = 0.0006 and TT aOR = 1.45 (1.01, 2.04), P = 0.04. In contrast, for those over age 60, the CT aOR = 0.91 (0.73, 1.13), P = 0.37 and TT aOR = 0.86 (0.64, 1.16), P = 0.32. The P-value for the age-genotype interaction was 0.004. For the IL1B +3954 C>T polymorphism, compared with the CC genotype, TT showed significant associations in former smokers and in men but tests of interaction were not significant (P(smoking) = 0.24, P(gender) = 0.17). No interactions were observed for FAS -1377 G>A and BAT3 Ser625Pro polymorphisms. Our findings indicate that age and smoking may modify the association of the FASLG -844 and IL1B + 3954 SNPs with the risk of NSCLC.

  17. p53, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis-related factors in thymic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Gal, Anthony A; Sheppard, Mary N; Nolen, John D L; Cohen, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Thymic neuroendocrine tumors are biologically aggressive neoplasms with extensive local invasion and high mortality. Although various markers of cellular proliferation and apoptosis have correlated with degrees of tumor differentiation in pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms, they have not been systematically studied in thymic neuroendocrine tumors. We immunostained 21 cases of thymic neuroendocrine tumors for p53, MIB-1, and the apoptosis-related markers Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and Bax. By histological classification the cases were low-grade (nine cases), intermediate-grade (eight cases), and high-grade (four cases) thymic neuroendocrine tumors. p53 was expressed in five cases: 1/9 low grade, 3/8 intermediate grade, and 2/4 high grade. The mean cellular proliferation (MIB-1) was 7.1% (range 2-12%) in low-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, 6.1% (range 2-15%) in intermediate-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, and 34.2% (range 2-80%) in high-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Bcl-2 was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 5/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. Bcl-x was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 6/8 intermediate grade, and 3/4 high grade. Bax was expressed in 13 cases: 5/9 low grade, 4/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. The presence of mutant p53 in the tumor was associated with a statistically significant decreased mean survival (P<0.05). In contrast, either by positive or negative staining or by the score technique (staining intensity x percentage of cells staining), the presence of Bcl-x was associated with an increased mean survival (P<0.05). Finally, a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 was also associated with an increased mean survival, as compared to a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 (P<0.05). Our study shows that p53 expression and certain apoptosis markers correlate with survival. The expression of these markers may account for differences in biological behavior.

  18. The genomic underpinnings of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is regulated in an orderly fashion by a series of genes, and has a crucial role in important physiological processes such as growth development, immunological response and so on. Recently, substantial studies have been undertaken on apoptosis in model animals including humans, fruit flies, and the nematode. However, the lack of genomic data for silkworms limits their usefulness in apoptosis studies, despite the advantages of silkworm as a representative of Lepidoptera and an effective model system. Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. Results From the newly assembled genome databases, a genome-wide analysis of apoptosis-related genes in Bombyx mori was performed using both nucleotide and protein Blast searches. Fifty-two apoptosis-related candidate genes were identified, including five caspase family members, two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, one Bcl-2 family member, four baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) repeat (BIR) domain family members and 1 RHG (Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle; Drosophila cell death activators) family member. Moreover, we identified a new caspase family member, BmCaspase-New, two splice variants of BmDronc, and Bm3585, a mammalian TNF superfamily member homolog. Twenty-three of these apoptosis-related genes were cloned and sequenced using cDNA templates isolated from BmE-SWU1 cells. Sequence analyses revealed that these genes could have key roles in apoptosis. Conclusions Bombyx mori possesses potential apoptosis-related genes. We hypothesized that the classic intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways potentially are active in Bombyx mori. These results lay the foundation for further apoptosis-related study in Bombyx mori. PMID:21040523

  19. The genomic underpinnings of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ye; Pan, Min-Hui; Sun, Zhi-Ya; Huang, Shu-Jing; Yu, Zi-Shu; Liu, Di; Zhao, Dan-Hong; Lu, Cheng

    2010-10-31

    Apoptosis is regulated in an orderly fashion by a series of genes, and has a crucial role in important physiological processes such as growth development, immunological response and so on. Recently, substantial studies have been undertaken on apoptosis in model animals including humans, fruit flies, and the nematode. However, the lack of genomic data for silkworms limits their usefulness in apoptosis studies, despite the advantages of silkworm as a representative of Lepidoptera and an effective model system. Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. From the newly assembled genome databases, a genome-wide analysis of apoptosis-related genes in Bombyx mori was performed using both nucleotide and protein Blast searches. Fifty-two apoptosis-related candidate genes were identified, including five caspase family members, two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, one Bcl-2 family member, four baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) repeat (BIR) domain family members and 1 RHG (Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle; Drosophila cell death activators) family member. Moreover, we identified a new caspase family member, BmCaspase-New, two splice variants of BmDronc, and Bm3585, a mammalian TNF superfamily member homolog. Twenty-three of these apoptosis-related genes were cloned and sequenced using cDNA templates isolated from BmE-SWU1 cells. Sequence analyses revealed that these genes could have key roles in apoptosis. Bombyx mori possesses potential apoptosis-related genes. We hypothesized that the classic intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways potentially are active in Bombyx mori. These results lay the foundation for further apoptosis-related study in Bombyx mori.

  20. miR-613 suppresses ischemia-reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting the programmed cell death 10 gene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenhua; Qi, Yujuan; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Peijun; Zhou, Ding

    2016-09-05

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators in both biological and pathological processes, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the effect of miR-613 on I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and its molecular mechanism of action. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) significantly increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, but these effects were attenuated by an miR-613 mimic. Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) was identified as a target gene of miR-613. miR-613 significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt). An miR-613 mimic lowered the level of expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and it up-regulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). All of these effects were reversed by restoration of PDCD10. Taken together, the current findings indicate that miR-613 inhibits I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting PDCD10 by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  1. Independent contributions of GR-1+ leukocytes and Fas/FasL interactions to induce apoptosis following interleukin-12 gene therapy in a metastatic model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanford, M A; Yan, Y; Canfield, S E; Hassan, W; Selleck, W A; Atkinson, G; Chen, S H; Hall, S J

    2001-08-10

    In a mouse model of prostate cancer, adenovirus-mediated interleukin-12 (Ad.mIL-12) gene therapy resulted in significant growth inhibition of both the injected primary tumor and synchronous metastases. Within 2 days of vector injection, two distinct patterns of apoptosis were detected within the primary tumor, the inhibition of which with a caspase inhibitor substantially negated growth suppression. The dominant pattern displayed localized sheets of apoptotic cells in close association with necrosis containing polymorphic neutrophils (PMNs). Depletion of PMNs resulted in the loss of this pattern of apoptosis and reduced growth suppression. A second major wave of growth suppression within the primary tumor was mediated by an immune response. Natural killer (NK) cell activity was detected within tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) by the eighth day post-vector injection, the depletion of which resulted in a significant loss of survival enhancement. A more modest role for T cells was identified, which in the absence of documented cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity may be related to a significant reduction in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels found in mice depleted of T cells, thereby reducing the secondary influences of IFN-gamma. However, depletion of NK cells or T cells had no discernible negative effect on IL-12-mediated anti-metastatic activity. Attention focused on the role of IFN-gamma, observed following Ad.mIL-12 therapy, to mediate the diffuse pattern of apoptosis seen in the primary and metastatic lesions. In vitro studies noted the ability of IFN-gamma to up-regulate tumor cell expression of Fas and FasL to mediate apoptosis, whereas in vivo blockage of Fas/FasL interactions with soluble Fas resulted in a modest reduction in primary tumor growth suppression but complete abrogation within metastatic lesions.

  2. Inhibition of Apoptosis Overcomes Stage-Related Compatibility Barriers to Chimera Formation in Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hideki; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Umino, Ayumi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Era, Takumi; Loh, Kyle M; Wu, Sean M; Weissman, Irving L; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2016-11-03

    Cell types more advanced in development than embryonic stem cells, such as EpiSCs, fail to contribute to chimeras when injected into pre-implantation-stage blastocysts, apparently because the injected cells undergo apoptosis. Here we show that transient promotion of cell survival through expression of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 enables EpiSCs and Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors to integrate into blastocysts and contribute to chimeric embryos. Upon injection into blastocyst, BCL2-expressing EpiSCs contributed to all bodily tissues in chimeric animals while Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors specifically contributed in a region-specific fashion to endodermal tissues. In addition, BCL2 expression enabled rat EpiSCs to contribute to mouse embryonic chimeras, thereby forming interspecies chimeras that could survive to adulthood. Our system therefore provides a method to overcome cellular compatibility issues that typically restrict chimera formation. Application of this type of approach could broaden the use of embryonic chimeras, including region-specific chimeras, for basic developmental biology research and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 accelerates neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dorward, David A; Felton, Jennifer M; Robb, Calum T; Craven, Thomas; Kipari, Tiina; Walsh, Timothy S; Haslett, Christopher; Kefala, Kallirroi; Rossi, Adriano G; Lucas, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a neutrophil-dominant disorder with no effective pharmacological therapies. While the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 induces neutrophil apoptosis to promote inflammation resolution in preclinical models of lung inflammation, its potential efficacy in ARDS has not been examined. Untreated peripheral blood sepsis-related ARDS neutrophils demonstrated prolonged survival after 20 hours in vitro culture. AT7519 was able to override this phenotype to induce apoptosis in ARDS neutrophils with reduced expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1. We demonstrate the first pharmacological compound to induce neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related ARDS, highlighting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic agents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 accelerates neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Jennifer M; Robb, Calum T; Craven, Thomas; Kipari, Tiina; Walsh, Timothy S; Haslett, Christopher; Kefala, Kallirroi; Rossi, Adriano G; Lucas, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a neutrophil-dominant disorder with no effective pharmacological therapies. While the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 induces neutrophil apoptosis to promote inflammation resolution in preclinical models of lung inflammation, its potential efficacy in ARDS has not been examined. Untreated peripheral blood sepsis-related ARDS neutrophils demonstrated prolonged survival after 20 hours in vitro culture. AT7519 was able to override this phenotype to induce apoptosis in ARDS neutrophils with reduced expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1. We demonstrate the first pharmacological compound to induce neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related ARDS, highlighting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27965411

  5. Analysis of development-related gene expression in cloned bovine blastocysts with different developmental potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangping; Amarnath, Dasari; Kato, Yoko; Tsunoda, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of abnormalities in cloned calves is a most serious problem for bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) technology. Because there is little information on the differences in mRNA expression in cloned blastocysts with donor cells of different sex and origin, we compared development-related gene expression in two types of cloned bovine blastocysts with different potentials to develop into normal calves, a female adult cumulus cell line (high potential to develop into live calves) and a male fibroblast cell line (low potential to develop into live calves) to examine the correlation between the normality of cloned calves and blastocyst mRNA expression patterns. We analyzed 12 genes involved in apoptosis, growth factor signaling, metabolism, and DNA methylation in blastocysts originating from two types of donor cells and in vitro-fertilized blastocysts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Glut-1 genes in fibroblast-derived blastocysts was significantly higher than in cumulus cell-derived and in vitro-fertilized blastocysts. The high Bcl-2 and Glut-1 gene expression suggests that some embryonic cells with damaged DNA in fibroblast-derived blastocysts are not removed, and their descendants later manifest abnormal placenta or fetus formation. Transfer of pre-selected cloned blastocysts into recipients is required, however, to determine whether the expression pattern of these apoptosis-related genes reflects differences in the potential to develop into normal calves.

  6. Effect of artemisia species on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via estrogen receptor-related pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunjeong; Kim, Gunhee

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of Artemisia species through the inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells. To evaluate the anticancer activity of methanol extracts of eight Artemisia species (Artemisia stolonifera, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia japonica, Artemisia Montana, Artemisia capillaris, Artemisia sylvatica, Artemisia keiskeana, and Artemisia scoparia), we first investigated the proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells exposed to 5 or 200 g/mL for 72 h. Apoptosis induction was assessed by an Annexin V binding assay in cells exposed to extracts at a high concentration (200 g/mL). To verify the mechanism of apoptosis, ER expression and its related signaling was investigated using an immunoblot assay under the same conditions. MCF-7 cells showed the strongest antiproliferative response to the tested extracts. However, a biphasic effect was observed: the extracts inhibited proliferation at high concentrations whereas they stimulated it at low ones. ER expression was similarly modulated by the extracts. However, all of the extracts induced apoptosis at a high concentration (200 g/mL). Compared to the control level, exposure to the extracts resulted in a remarkable increase in the shift of cell populations. The present study suggests that the tested Artemisia species exerted their anticancer effects through the induction of apoptosis via an ER-related pathway.

  7. Stable transfection of extrinsic Smac gene enhances apoptosis-inducing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li-Duan; Tong, Qiang-Song; Wang, Liang; Liu, Jun; Qian, Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of enhancing apoptosis-inducing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on human gastric cancer cells by stable transfection of extrinsic Smac gene. METHODS: After Smac gene was transferred into gastric cancer cell line MKN-45, subclone cells were obtained by persistent G418 selection. Cellular Smac gene expression was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. After treatment with mitomycin (MMC) as an apoptotic inducer, in vitro cell growth activities were investigated by trypan blue-staining method and MTT colorimetry. Cell apoptosis and its rates were determined by electronic microscopy, annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining flow cytometry. Cellular caspase-3 protein expression and its activities were assayed by Western blotting and colorimetry. RESULTS: When compared with MKN-45 cells, the selected subclone cell line MKN-45/Smac had significantly higher Smac mRNA (3.12±0.21 vs 0.82±0.14, t = 7.52, P<0.01) and protein levels (4.02±0.24 vs 0.98±0.11, t = 8.32, P<0.01). After treatment with 10 μg/mL MMC for 6-24 h, growth inhibition rate of MKN-45/Smac (15.8±1.2-54.8±2.9%) was significantly higher than that of MKN-45 (5.8±0.4- 24.0±1.5%, t = 6.42, P<0.01). Partial MKN-45/Smac cancer cells presented characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under the electronic microscope with an apoptosis rate of 36.4±2.1%, which was significantly higher than that of MKN-45 (15.2±0.8%, t = 9.25, P<0.01). Compared with MKN-45, caspase-3 expression levels in MKN-45/Smac were improved significantly (3.39±0.42 vs 0.96±0.14, t = 8.63, P<0.01), while its activities were 3.25 times as many as those of MKN-45 (0.364±0.010 vs 0.112±0.007, t = 6.34, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Stable transfection of extrinsic Smac gene and its over-expression in gastric cancer cell line can significantly enhance cellular caspase-3 expression and activities, ameliorate apoptosis-inducing effects of mitomycin C on cancer cells, which is a novel strategy to

  8. Induction of Bex genes by curcumin is associated with apoptosis and activation of p53 in N2a neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sidhar, Himakshi; Giri, Ranjit K.

    2017-01-01

    Brain expressed X-linked (Bex) genes are newer group of pro-apoptotic genes. Role of any Bex gene in neuroblastoma and Bex4 and Bex6 in any cancer is completely unknown. Re-expression of all endogenous Bex genes by any nutraceutical is also unknown. Therefore, we investigated the induction of all endogenous Bex genes and associated mechanisms by curcumin using N2a, an aggressive neuroblastoma cell line. Curcumin induced all endogenous Bex genes prior to apoptosis in N2a cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Wortmannin (PI-3Kinases inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) abrogated curcumin-mediated induction of Bex genes. Inhibition of curcumin-mediated induction of Bex genes by pifithrin-α also inhibited N2a cells apoptosis suggesting, a direct role of Bex genes in N2a cells apoptosis and involvement of p53 in Bex genes induction. Curcumin treatment activated p53 through hyperphosphorylation at serine 15 before Bex genes induction indicating Bex genes are novel downstream targets of p53. Collectively, curcumin, a safe nutraceutical has the potential to induce all endogenous Bex genes to harness their anti-cancer properties in neuroblastoma cells. Re-expression of Bex genes by curcumin acts as tumor suppressors and may provide alternate strategy to treat neuroblastomas and other cancers with silenced Bex genes. PMID:28145533

  9. Induction of Bex genes by curcumin is associated with apoptosis and activation of p53 in N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sidhar, Himakshi; Giri, Ranjit K

    2017-02-01

    Brain expressed X-linked (Bex) genes are newer group of pro-apoptotic genes. Role of any Bex gene in neuroblastoma and Bex4 and Bex6 in any cancer is completely unknown. Re-expression of all endogenous Bex genes by any nutraceutical is also unknown. Therefore, we investigated the induction of all endogenous Bex genes and associated mechanisms by curcumin using N2a, an aggressive neuroblastoma cell line. Curcumin induced all endogenous Bex genes prior to apoptosis in N2a cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Wortmannin (PI-3Kinases inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) abrogated curcumin-mediated induction of Bex genes. Inhibition of curcumin-mediated induction of Bex genes by pifithrin-α also inhibited N2a cells apoptosis suggesting, a direct role of Bex genes in N2a cells apoptosis and involvement of p53 in Bex genes induction. Curcumin treatment activated p53 through hyperphosphorylation at serine 15 before Bex genes induction indicating Bex genes are novel downstream targets of p53. Collectively, curcumin, a safe nutraceutical has the potential to induce all endogenous Bex genes to harness their anti-cancer properties in neuroblastoma cells. Re-expression of Bex genes by curcumin acts as tumor suppressors and may provide alternate strategy to treat neuroblastomas and other cancers with silenced Bex genes.

  10. Protective effect of melatonin against human leukocyte apoptosis induced by intracellular calcium overload: relation with its antioxidant actions.

    PubMed

    Espino, Javier; Bejarano, Ignacio; Paredes, Sergio D; Barriga, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ana B; Pariente, José A

    2011-09-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays a critical role in both inflammatory and immune responses. Recent evidence demonstrates that control of leukocyte apoptosis is one of the most striking immune system-related roles of melatonin. For this reason, this study evaluated the protective effects of melatonin on human leukocyte apoptosis induced by sustained cytosolic calcium increases. Such protective effects are likely mediated by melatonin's free-radical scavenging actions. Treatments with the specific inhibitor of cytosolic calcium re-uptake, thapsigargin (TG), and/or the calcium-mobilizing agonist, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, caspase activation as well as DNA fragmentation in human leukocytes. Also, TG- and/or FMLP-induced apoptosis was dependent on both cytosolic calcium increases and calcium uptake into mitochondria, because when cells were preincubated with the cytosolic calcium chelator, dimethyl BAPTA, and the inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uptake, Ru360, TG- and FMLP-induced apoptosis was largely inhibited. Importantly, melatonin treatment substantially prevented intracellular ROS production, reversed caspase activation, and forestalled DNA fragmentation induced by TG and FMLP. Similar results were obtained by preincubating the cells with another well-known antioxidant, i.e., N-acetyl-L-cysteine. To sum up, depletion of intracellular calcium stores induced by TG and/or FMLP triggers different apoptotic events in human leukocytes that are dependent on calcium signaling. The protective effects resulting from melatonin administration on leukocyte apoptosis likely depend on melatonin's antioxidant action because we proved that this protection is melatonin receptor independent. These findings help to understand how melatonin controls apoptosis in cells of immune/inflammatory relevance. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Suppressive effects of genomic imprinted gene PEG10 on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Huang, Huanjun; Lin, Jusheng; Zhang, Qiang; Tan, Jinquan; Ren, Jinghua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of PEG10 on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in human normal liver cell line L02 were investigated. The PEG10 gene was transfected into L02 cells by lipofectamine, the positive clone was screened by G418 and defined as L02/PEG10, while the cell transfected with empty expression vector (pEGFP-N1) was defined as L02/vector. L02/vector and parental L02 cells served as control. RT-PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the expression of target genes. H2O2 (50-400 mmol/L) was administered to induce the apoptosis of L02 cells. Cells viability was measured by MTT and the morphological changes of apoptotic cells were determined by fluorescence microscopy using hoechst33342 nuclei staining. DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PEG10 mRNA and protein levels in L02/PEG10 cells were significantly increased as compared with those in the control cells. After treatment with 400 mmol/L H2O2 for 24 h, the cellular growth inhibition rate of L02/PEG10 cells was significantly lower (58.2%) than that of L02 (92.5%) and L02/vector (88%). Distinct morphological changes characteristic of cell apoptosis such as karyopyknosis and conglomeration were not observed in L02/PEG10. Ladder-like DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner was observed in both L02 and L02/vector cell lines, but not in L02/PEG10. PEG10 over-expression significantly inhibited cytotoxicity induced by H2O2 on human normal liver cell line L02 by antagonizing H2O2-induced apoptosis.

  12. [Impact of Pax-8 gene interference on mitochondrial function and cardiomyocyte apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-chun; Zhou, Xi; Huang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Liang-guo; Lin, Su; Yang, De-ye

    2013-01-01

    To observe the effects of paired box gene 8 (Pax-8) silencing by RNA interference on mitochondrial function and cardiomyocytes apoptosis. The cultured H9C2 (2-1) myocytes were divided into 3 groups: short interference RNA targeting Pax-8 (Pax-8 siRNA) group, non-specific siRNA group as the negative control (NC siRNA), and blank control group (BC siRNA). Fluorescence spectrophotometry was used to detect the activity of caspase-3. RT-PCR was performed to detect mRNA expression of Bcl2 and Bax. The protein expression of Bcl2, Bax and cytoplasm of Cytochrome was examined by Western blot. Changes of ΔΨm were detected by flow cytometry.ΔΨm with JC-1 monomer/polymer ratio was calculated for measuring mitochondrial depolarization proportion. Compared to NC siRNA and BC siRNA group (0.075 ± 0.021, 0.072 ± 0.019), the activity of caspase-3 in Pax-8 siRNA group (0.167 ± 0.012) was significantly increased (P < 0.05); Bcl2 mRNA and protein expression in Pax-8 siRNA group (0.61 ± 0.06, 0.94 ± 0.11) were significantly downregulated compared with NC siRNA group (0.90 ± 0.070, 1.39 ± 0.15) and BC siRNA group (0.94 ± 0.087, 1.49 ± 0.20) (P < 0.05); Bax mRNA and protein expression in Pax-8 siRNA group (1.05 ± 0.10, 1.25 ± 0.12) were markedly upregulated compared with NC siRNA group (0.72 ± 0.03, 0.99 ± 0.12) and BC siRNA group (0.64 ± 0.03, 0.92 ± 0.06), P < 0.05; cytosolic cytochrome expression in Pax-8 siRNA group (0.75 ± 0.14) was significantly upregulated compared with NC siRNA group (0.51 ± 0.06) and BC siRNA group (0.48 ± 0.07) (P < 0.05); JC-1 monomer/polymer ratio in Pax-8 siRNA group (0.163 ± 0.011) was significantly increased compared with NC siRNA group (0.092 ± 0.015) and BC siRNA group (0.072 ± 0.025) (P < 0.05) indicating mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced in Pax-8 siRNA group. Above parameters were similar between NC siRNA group and BC siRNA group (P > 0.05). Inhibiting Pax-8 results in enhanced cardiomyocytes apoptosis

  13. Bcl-2-related protein family gene expression during oligodendroglial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takayuki; Itoh, Aki; Pleasure, David

    2003-06-01

    Oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLC) vary in susceptibility to both necrosis and apoptosis depending on their developmental stages, which might be regulated by differential expression of Bcl-2-related genes. As an initial step to test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of 19 Bcl-2-related genes in purified cultures of rat oligodendroglial progenitors, immature and mature oligodendrocytes. All 'multidomain' anti-apoptotic members (Bcl-x, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-w and Bcl2l10/Diva/Boo) except Bcl2a1/A1 are expressed in OLC. Semiquantitative and real-time RT-PCR revealed that Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 mRNAs are the dominant anti-apoptotic members and increase four- and twofold, respectively, with maturation. Bcl-2 mRNA is less abundant than Bcl-xL mRNA in progenitors and falls an additional 10-fold during differentiation. Bcl-w mRNA also increases, with significant changes in its splicing pattern, as OLC mature. Transfection studies demonstrated that Bcl-xL overexpression protects against kainate-induced excitotoxicity, whereas Bcl-2 overexpression does not. As for 'multidomain' pro-apoptotic members (Bax, Bad and Bok/Mtd), Bax and Bak are highly expressed throughout differentiation. Among 'BH3 domain-only' members examined (Bim, Biklk, DP5/Hrk, Bad, Bid, Noxa, Puma/Bbc3, Bmf, BNip3 and BNip3L), BNip3 and Bmf mRNAs increase markedly during differentiation. These results provide basic information to guide further studies on the roles for Bcl-2-related family proteins in OLC death.

  14. Mediastinal paragangliomas related to SDHx gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ćwikła, Jarosław; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Kwiatek, Paweł; Szperl, Małgorzata; Michalski, Wojciech; Wyrwicz, Lucjan; Kuśmierczyk, Mariusz; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Maciejczyk, Anna; Roszczynko, Marta; Pęczkowska, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paragangliomas (PGLs) related to hereditary syndromes are rare mediastinal tumors. Paragangliomas are caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH). Aim To evaluate clinical, anatomical and functional characteristics of mediastinal paragangliomas related to SDHx gene mutations. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of 75 patients with confirmed SDHx gene mutations (24 patients with SDHB, 5 SDHC, 46 with SDHD mutations) was performed. Patients underwent evaluation using computed tomography (CT), somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) (99mTc-[HYNIC,Tyr3]-octreotide), 123I mIBG scintigraphy and urinary excretion of total methoxycatecholamines. Results Out of 75 patients, 16 (21%) patients (1 SDHB, 15 SDHD mutations) had 17 PGLs localized in the mediastinum. Fourteen PGLs were localized in the middle mediastinum (intrapericardial) and 3 PGLs in the posterior mediastinum. The median diameter of paragangliomas measured on the axial slice was 24.3 mm (interquartile range (IQR): 14.7–36.6), and the median volume was 2.78 ml (IQR: 0.87–16.16). Twelve out of 16 patients (75%) underwent SRS, and 11 of them (92.3%) had pathological uptake of the radiotracer. Eleven (68.75%) out of 16 patients underwent 123 I mIBG, with only 3 positive results. Symptoms of catecholamine excretion were observed in 3 patients with PGLs localized in the posterior mediastinum. All PGLs were benign except in 1 patient with the SDHB mutation and PGL detected in the posterior mediastinum, who had a metastatic disease. Conclusions Most mediastinal paragangliomas were related to SDHD gene mutations. They were asymptomatic, localized in the medial mediastinum, intrapericardially. PMID:27785149

  15. Salidroside attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension via adenosine A2a receptor related mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoying; Zou, Lizhen; Yu, Xiaoming; Chen, Mayun; Guo, Rui; Cai, Hui; Yao, Dan; Xu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yanfan; Ding, Cheng; Cai, Xueding; Wang, Liangxing

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary arterial remodeling mainly due to excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea is proposed to exert protective effects against PAH. However, the function of salidroside in PAH has not been investigated systematically and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To investigate the effects of salidroside on PAH, the mice in chronic hypoxia model of PAH were given by an increasing concentration of salidroside (0, 16 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg, and 64 mg/kg). After salidroside treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial remodeling were attenuated, suggesting a protective role played by salidroside in PAH. To explore the potential mechanisms, the apoptosis of PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions were determined in vivo and in vitro, and also the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis factors, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, and caspase 9 were examined. The results revealed that salidroside reversed hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis resistance at least partially via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition, salidroside upregulated the expression of adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) in lung tissues of mice and in PASMCs in vitro after hypoxia exposure. Combined the evidence above, we conclude that salidroside can attenuate chronic hypoxia-induced PAH by promoting PASMCs apoptosis via an A2aR related mitochondria dependent pathway.

  16. The dietary flavonoid apigenin sensitizes malignant tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    PubMed

    Horinaka, Mano; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Shiraishi, Takumi; Nakata, Susumu; Wakada, Miki; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2006-04-01

    Dietary flavonoid apigenin is expected to have preventive and therapeutic potential against malignant tumors. In this report, we show for the first time that apigenin markedly induces the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and synergistically acts with exogenous soluble recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to induce apoptosis in malignant tumor cells. TRAIL is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The combined use of apigenin and TRAIL at suboptimal concentrations induces Bcl-2-interacting domain cleavage and the activation of caspases-8, -10, -9, and -3. Furthermore, human recombinant DR5/Fc chimera protein and caspase inhibitors dramatically inhibit apoptosis induced by the combination of apigenin and TRAIL. On the other hand, apigenin-mediated induction of DR5 expression is not observed in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, apigenin does not sensitize normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that this combined treatment with apigenin and TRAIL might be promising as a new therapy against malignant tumors.

  17. Roles of dynamin-related protein 1 in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in response to UV stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Feng, Jie; Wu, Shengnan

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic structures that frequently divide and fuse with one another to form interconnecting network. This network disintegrates into punctiform organelles during apoptosis. However, it remains unclear whether this event has a significant impact on the rate of cell death or only accompanies apoptosis as an epiphenomenon. In this study, we investigate the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a large GTPase that mediates outer mitochondrial membrane fission, in mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis in response to UV irradiation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) and HeLa cells. Using time-lapse fluorescent imaging, we find that Drp1 primarily distributes in cytosol under physiological conditions. After UV treatment, Drp1 translocates from cytosol to mitochondria, indicating the enhancement of Drp1 mitochondrial accumulation. Down-regulation of Drp1 by shRNA inhibits UV-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that Drp1 is involved in the regulation of transition from a reticulo-tubular to a punctiform mitochondrial phenotype and mitochondrial fission plays an important role in UV-induced apoptosis.

  18. Identification and characterization of an apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) gene from Branchiostoma belcheri: Insights into evolution of ASPP gene family.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojun; Du, Juan; Zhu, Wei; Jin, Ping; Ma, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) protein family plays very key roles in apoptosis regulation, in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. However, the ASPP homologous gene has not been identified in amphioxus to date. Here, we identified and characterized an ASPP gene from Branchiostoma belcheri (designed as AmphiASPP) and extensively studied its evolution and roles involved in innate immunity. The results showed that the amphioxus genome has an ASPP homolog gene with an ORF of 3285 bp, encoding 1094 amino acids which contains ANK repeats and SK3 domain. The evolutionary analyses indicated that the members of ASPP protein family might be present in a common ancestor of Nematostella vectensis and underwent positive selective in the evolutionary history. In addition, the amphioxus ASPP gene was ubiquitously and differentially expressed in five investigated tissues, and the amphioxus ASPP gene was involved in the innate immune response of LPS and LTA stimulation. Finally, bioinformatic analyses displayed that amphioxus ASPP protein could interact with REL protein by conserved binding sites compared with human ASPP2 protein, which seemed to further suggest that the amphioxus ASPP protein involve in innate immunity through NF-кB signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings provided an insight into the evolution and innate immunity function of the ASPP family.

  19. Analysis of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and receptors and implications in thymus biology and myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Kanatli, Irem; Akkaya, Bahar; Uysal, Hilmi; Kahraman, Sevim; Sanlioglu, Ahter Dilsad

    2017-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis is an autoantibody-mediated, neuromuscular junction disease, and is usually associated with thymic abnormalities presented as thymic tumors (~10%) or hyperplastic thymus (~65%). The exact role of thymus in Myasthenia Gravis development is not clear, yet many patients benefit from thymectomy. The apoptotic ligand TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand is thought to be involved in the regulation of thymocyte counts, although conflicting results are reported. We investigated differential expression profiles of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and its transmembrane receptors, Nuclear Factor-kB activation status, and apoptotic cell counts in healthy thymic tissue and pathological thymus from Myasthenia Gravis patients. All tissues expressed TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and its receptors, with hyperplastic tissue having the highest expression levels of death receptors DR4 and DR5. No detectable Nuclear Factor-kB activation, at least via the canonical Protein Kinase A-mediated p65 Ser276 phosphorylation, was evident in any of the tissues studied. Apoptotic cell counts were higher in MG-associated tissue compared to the normal thymus. Possible use of the TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand within the concept of an apoptotic ligand-mediated medical thymectomy in thymoma- or thymic hyperplasia-associated Myasthenia Gravis is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Apoptosis in acquired and genetic hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    de Beeck, Ken Op; Schacht, Jochen; Van Camp, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important physiological process. Normally, a healthy cell maintains a delicate balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, allowing it to live and proliferate. It is thus not surprising that disturbance of this delicate balance may result in disease. It is a well known fact that apoptosis also contributes to several acquired forms of hearing impairment. Noise-induced hearing loss is the result of prolonged exposure to excessive noise, triggering apoptosis in terminally differentiated sensory hair cells. Moreover, hearing loss caused by the use of therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and cisplatin potentially may result in the activation of apoptosis in sensory hair cells leading to hearing loss due to the “ototoxicity” of the drugs. Finally, apoptosis is a key contributor to the development of presbycusis, age-related hearing loss. Recently, several mutations in apoptosis genes were identified as the cause of monogenic hearing impairment. These genes are TJP2, DFNA5 and MSRB3. This implies that apoptosis not only contributes to the pathology of acquired forms of hearing impairment, but also to genetic hearing impairment as well. We believe that these genes constitute a new functional class within the hearing loss field. Here, the contribution of apoptosis in the pathology of both acquired and genetic hearing impairment is reviewed. PMID:21782914

  1. Apoptosis gene polymorphisms, age, smoking and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ter-Minassian, Monica; Zhai, Rihong; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Geoffrey; Heist, Rebecca Suk; Lynch, Thomas J.; Wain, John C.; Lin, Xihong; DeVivo, Immaculata; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis is important for targeting cancer cells for destruction. Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apoptotic genes have been associated with increased risks in lung cancer, particularly FAS −1377 G>A (rs2234767), FASLG −844 C>T (rs763110), IL1B +3954 C>T Phe105Phe (rs1143634) and BAT3 Ser625Pro (rs1052486). We studied the association of these SNPs with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a large case–control study (N = 4263: 2644 cases and 1619 controls). No associations with NSCLC were observed in the main effects analysis for all four SNPs, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack-years and years since smoking cessation. In subjects under age 60, for FASLG −844 C>T polymorphism, CT compared with the CC genotype, was significantly associated with increased risk of NSCLC, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.58 (1.22, 2.05), P  = 0.0006 and TT aOR = 1.45 (1.01, 2.04), P = 0.04. In contrast, for those over age 60, the CT aOR = 0.91 (0.73, 1.13), P = 0.37 and TT aOR = 0.86 (0.64, 1.16), P = 0.32. The P-value for the age–genotype interaction was 0.004. For the IL1B +3954 C>T polymorphism, compared with the CC genotype, TT showed significant associations in former smokers and in men but tests of interaction were not significant (Psmoking = 0.24, Pgender = 0.17). No interactions were observed for FAS −1377 G>A and BAT3 Ser625Pro polymorphisms. Our findings indicate that age and smoking may modify the association of the FASLG −844 and IL1B  + 3954 SNPs with the risk of NSCLC. PMID:18757527

  2. Genetic Polymorphisms in the Apoptosis-Associated Gene CASP3 and the Risk of Lung Cancer in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lixuan; Cao, Lei; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-3 (CASP3) plays a central role in executing cell apoptosis and thus in carcinogenesis. We previously investigated the relationship between functional polymorphisms in CAPS3 829 A>C and 20541 C>T and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However little is known about the role of CASP3 variants in susceptibility to lung cancer. To figure out the contribution of CASP3 polymorphisms to lung cancer risk, genotypes of 1000 lung cancer patients and 1000 controls were conducted by RFLP-PCR (restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR). The transcriptional activity of CASP3 829 A>C was examined by dual luciferase reporter assay. Logistic regression was applied to calculate Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Compared with CASP3 829 AA genotype, AC and CC genotype had significantly increased risk of lung cancer with OR (95% CI) of 1.33 (1.09–1.63) and 1.55 (1.19–2.01), respectively. To further explore the possible impact of 829 A>C SNP on CASP3 transcriptional activity, we detected the dual luciferase activity of PGL3-promoter vectors containing 829A or 829C alleles in lung cancer cell lines and found that report gene expressions driven by 829A containing CASP3 promoter were 1.64-fold, 1.94-fold greater than those driven by CASP3 829C containing counterparts in A549 and NCI-H1975 cells (P<0.001). When stratified by sex, the significantly increased risk associated with CASP3 829 AC or CC genotype was obviousl in males with OR (95% CI) of 1.42 (1.11–1.81) and 1.51 (1.11–2.05), but not in females. When stratified by age, we found that CASP3 829 AC or CC genotype contributed to the risk of lung cancer in youngers with OR (95% CI) of 2.73 (1.71–4.34) and 4.02 (2.20–7.32), but not in elder group. We also found that 829AC or 829CC genotype increased adenocarcinoma risk compared with the AA genotype with OR (95%CI) of 1.33 (1.04–1.70) and 1.51(1.09–2.07). CASP3 polymorphism and smoking interaction was demonstrated related with higher

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms in the Apoptosis-Associated Gene CASP3 and the Risk of Lung Cancer in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Hongge; Chang, Jiang; Wei, Lixuan; Cao, Lei; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-3 (CASP3) plays a central role in executing cell apoptosis and thus in carcinogenesis. We previously investigated the relationship between functional polymorphisms in CAPS3 829 A>C and 20541 C>T and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However little is known about the role of CASP3 variants in susceptibility to lung cancer. To figure out the contribution of CASP3 polymorphisms to lung cancer risk, genotypes of 1000 lung cancer patients and 1000 controls were conducted by RFLP-PCR (restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR). The transcriptional activity of CASP3 829 A>C was examined by dual luciferase reporter assay. Logistic regression was applied to calculate Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Compared with CASP3 829 AA genotype, AC and CC genotype had significantly increased risk of lung cancer with OR (95% CI) of 1.33 (1.09-1.63) and 1.55 (1.19-2.01), respectively. To further explore the possible impact of 829 A>C SNP on CASP3 transcriptional activity, we detected the dual luciferase activity of PGL3-promoter vectors containing 829A or 829C alleles in lung cancer cell lines and found that report gene expressions driven by 829A containing CASP3 promoter were 1.64-fold, 1.94-fold greater than those driven by CASP3 829C containing counterparts in A549 and NCI-H1975 cells (P<0.001). When stratified by sex, the significantly increased risk associated with CASP3 829 AC or CC genotype was obviousl in males with OR (95% CI) of 1.42 (1.11-1.81) and 1.51 (1.11-2.05), but not in females. When stratified by age, we found that CASP3 829 AC or CC genotype contributed to the risk of lung cancer in youngers with OR (95% CI) of 2.73 (1.71-4.34) and 4.02 (2.20-7.32), but not in elder group. We also found that 829AC or 829CC genotype increased adenocarcinoma risk compared with the AA genotype with OR (95%CI) of 1.33 (1.04-1.70) and 1.51(1.09-2.07). CASP3 polymorphism and smoking interaction was demonstrated related with higher risk of lung

  4. GNRs@SiO2-FA in combination with radiotherapy induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    GAO, BIN; SHEN, LEI; HE, KE-WU; XIAO, WEI-HUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptosis of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, induced by treatment with folic acid-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs@SiO2-FA) in combination with radiotherapy, and to determine the involvement of apoptosis-related proteins. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the biocompatibility of GNRs@SiO2-FA. The distribution of GNRs@SiO2-FA into the cells was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HepG2 cells cultured in vitro were divided into the following 4 groups: i)the control group (untreated), ii) the GNRs@SiO2-FA group, iii) the radiotherapy group (iodine 125 seeds) and iv) the combination group (treated with GNRs@SiO2-FA and iodine 125 seeds) groups. The apoptosis of the HepG2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. The concentration range of <40 µg/ml GNRs@SiO2-FA was found to be safe for the biological activity of the HepG2 cells. GNRs@SiO2-FA entered the cytoplasm through endocytosis. The apoptotic rates of the HepG2 cells were higher in the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups than in the control group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate was also significantly higher in the combination group than the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups (P<0.05). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy more effectively induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. These apoptotic effects are achieved by increasing the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and inhibiting the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Ki-67. The combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy may thus prove to be a new approach in the treatment of primary liver cancer. PMID:26648274

  5. ABCG1 rs57137919G>A Polymorphism Is Functionally Associated with Varying Gene Expression and Apoptosis of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lian-Feng; Fang, Quan; Yan, Xiao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) is a transmembrane cholesterol transporter involved in macrophage sterol homeostasis, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and atherosclerosis. The role of ABCG1 in atherosclerosis remains controversial, especially in animal models. Our previous study showed that single nucleotide polymorphism rs57137919 (-367G>A) in the ABCG1 promoter region was associated with reduced risk for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was designed to provide functional evidence for the role of rs57137919G>A in atherosclerosis in humans. We combined in vitro and ex vivo studies using cell lines and human monocyte-derived macrophages to investigate the functional consequences of the promoter polymorphism by observing the effects of the rs57137919A allele on promoter activity, transcription factor binding, gene expression, cholesterol efflux, and apoptosis levels. The results showed that the rs57137919A allele was significantly associated with decreased ABCG1 gene expression possibly due to the impaired ability of protein-DNA binding. ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux decreased by 23% with rs57137919 A/A versus the G/G genotype. Cholesterol-loaded macrophage apoptosis was induced 2-fold with the A/A genotype compared with the G/G genotype. Proapoptotic genes Bok and Bid mRNA levels were significantly increased in macrophages from the A/A genotype compared with those from the G/G genotype. These findings demonstrated that the ABCG1 promoter rs57137919G>A variant had an allele-specific effect on ABCG1 expression and was associated with an increased apoptosis in cholesterol-loaded macrophages, providing functional evidence to explain the reduced risk for atherosclerosis in subjects with the ABCG1 promoter rs57137919A allele as reported in our previous study. PMID:24972087

  6. The Complete Genome Sequence of Plodia Interpunctella Granulovirus: Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer and Discovery of an Unusual Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Robert L.; Rowley, Daniel L.; Funk, C. Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored goods with a worldwide distribution. The complete genome sequence for a larval pathogen of this moth, the baculovirus Plodia interpunctella granulovirus (PiGV), was determined by next-generation sequencing. The PiGV genome was found to be 112, 536 bp in length with a 44.2% G+C nucleotide distribution. A total of 123 open reading frames (ORFs) and seven homologous regions (hrs) were identified and annotated. Phylogenetic inference using concatenated alignments of 36 baculovirus core genes placed PiGV in the “b” clade of viruses from genus Betabaculovirus with a branch length suggesting that PiGV represents a distinct betabaculovirus species. In addition to the baculovirus core genes and orthologues of other genes found in other betabaculovirus genomes, the PiGV genome sequence contained orthologues of the bidensovirus NS3 gene, as well as ORFs that occur in alphabaculoviruses but not betabaculoviruses. While PiGV contained an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-5 (iap-5), an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-3 (iap-3) was not present. Instead, the PiGV sequence contained an ORF (PiGV ORF81) encoding an IAP homologue with sequence similarity to insect cellular IAPs, but not to viral IAPs. Phylogenetic analysis of baculovirus and insect IAP amino acid sequences suggested that the baculovirus IAP-3 genes and the PiGV ORF81 IAP homologue represent different lineages arising from more than one acquisition event. The presence of genes from other sources in the PiGV genome highlights the extent to which baculovirus gene content is shaped by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27472489

  7. Polymeric micelle gene delivery of bcl-xL via eye drop reduced corneal apoptosis following epithelial debridement.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yaw-Chong; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Kao, Winston W-Y; Liu, Chia-Yang; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2010-10-01

    Stromal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by epithelial injury is one mechanism of corneal disorders. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement is established, and keratocyte apoptosis is evidenced by DNA fragmentation and cellular morphological changes in the anterior stroma underlying the injured epithelium. Delivery of plasmid (pCMV-bcl-x(L)-eGFP) encoding an anti-apoptotic gene, the bcl-x(L) with a nano-carrier, polymeric micelles (PM) via eye drop to cornea after epithelial debridement, the mRNA level of bcl-x(L) was significantly increased (2.2-fold, P<0.05) at 48 h and the eGFP mRNA was detected (4571.7 ± 1194.5 copies/μg total RNA). The bcl-x(L)-eGFP fusion protein was also detected in wounded cornea at 48 h after delivery, accompanying with decreased DNA fragmentation and lower caspase-3 activity (P<0.05). In conclusion, eye drop of pCMV-bcl-x(L)-eGFP/PM reduced corneal apoptosis following epithelial debridement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Homeodomain-containing gene 10 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes cell invasion and migration in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wen; Zhou, Quan; Liu, Gang; Liu, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Xin-Yu

    2017-05-01

    Homeodomain-containing gene 10 (HOXC10) belongs to the homeobox family, which encodes a highly conserved family of transcription factors that plays an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Altered expressions of HOXC10 have been reported in several malignancies. This study was aimed to reveal the expression profile of HOXC10 in osteosarcoma and evaluated whether HOXC10 is a molecular target for cancer therapy. We found that HOXC10 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with bone cyst specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Osteosarcoma MG63 cells were infected with HOXC10 shRNA expressing vector, and 143B cells were infected with HOXC10 expressing vector. We found that reduced expression of HOXC10 markedly impaired the ability of proliferation, invasion, and migration, and promoted cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulated expression of HOXC10 promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration, and inhibited apoptosis of 143B cells. Additionally, HOXC10 regulated apoptosis and migration via modulating expression of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3, MMP-2/MMP-9, and E-cadherin in both MG63 and 143B cells and in vivo. These results indicated that HOXC10 might be a diagnostic marker for osteosarcoma and could be a potential molecular target for the therapy of osteosarcoma.

  9. Peroxynitrite induces apoptosis in canine cerebral vascular muscle cells: possible relation to neurodegenerative diseases and strokes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Su, Jialin; Li, Wenyan; Liu, Weimin; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2003-10-30

    Considerable evidence is accumulating to suggest that in vivo formation of free radicals in the brain, such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and programmed cell death (i.e. apoptosis) play important roles in neurodegeneration and stroke. However, it is not known whether ONOO- can induce apoptosis in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs). The present study was designed to determine whether or not canine CVSMCs undergo apoptosis following treatment with ONOO-. Direct exposure of canine CVSMCs to ONOO- induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, as confirmed by means of fluorescence staining, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and comet assays. Peroxynitrite treatment resulted in an elevation of [Ca2+]i in the CVSMCs. Peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may thus be brought about by activation of Ca2+-dependent endonucleases. Although the precise mechanisms by which peroxynitrite induces apoptosis need to be further investigated, the present findings could be used to suggest that ONOO- formation in the brain may play important roles in neurodegenerative processes and strokes via detrimental actions on cerebral microvessels and blood flow.

  10. Role of apoptosis-related miRNAs in resveratrol-induced breast cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Venkatadri, R; Muni, T; Iyer, A K V; Yakisich, J S; Azad, N

    2016-02-18

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent evidences indicate that dietary agents such as resveratrol may inhibit cancer progression through modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). We demonstrate that resveratrol regulates apoptotic and cell cycle machinery in breast cancer cells by modulating key tumor-suppressive miRNAs including miR-125b-5p, miR-200c-3p, miR-409-3p, miR-122-5p and miR-542-3p. Resveratrol-mediated miRNA modulation regulates key anti-apoptotic and cell cycle proteins including Bcl-2, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and CDKs, which are critical for its activity. Modulating miRNAs with mimics or inhibitors further validated a key role for miR-542-3p in MCF-7 and miR-122-5p in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell death in response to resveratrol. In conclusion, this study reveals novel miRNAs modulated by resveratrol that have a key role in breast cancer cell death.

  11. Cloning and Expression of TNF Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand in Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Hamid Reza; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Vahidi, Hossein; Barar, Jaleh; Kazemi, Bahram; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Molecular farming has been considered as a secure and economical approach for production of biopharmaceuticals. Human TNF Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) as a promising biopharmaceutical candidate has been produced in different expression hosts. However, little attention has been paid to molecular farming of the TRAIL in spite of numerous advantages of plant expression systems. Therefore, in this study the cytoplasmic production of the TRAIL was tackled in Nicotiana tabacum using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. Initially, the desired coding sequence was obtained using PCR technique on the constructed human cDNA library. Afterward, the necessary requirements for expression of the TRAIL in plant cell system were provided through sub-cloning into 35S-CaMV (Cauliflower Mosaic Virus) helper and final 0179-pGreen expression vectors. Then, the final TRAIL-pGreen expression vector was cloned into A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. Subsequently, the N. tabacum cells were transformed through co-culture method and expression of the TRAIL was confirmed by western blot analysis. Finally, the recombinant TRAIL was extracted through chromatographic technique and biological activity was evaluated through MTT assay (Methylthiazol Tetrazolium Assay). The result of western blot analysis indicated that only monomer and oxidized dimer forms of the TRAIL can be extracted from the N. tabacum cells. Moreover, the lack of trimeric assembly of the extracted TRAIL diminished its biological activity in sensitive A549 cell line. In conclusion, although N. tabacum cells can successfully produce the TRAIL, proper assembly and functionality of the TRAIL were unfavorable. PMID:25561925

  12. Exposure of Phosphatidylserine by Xk-related Protein Family Members during Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Imanishi, Eiichi; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) on their surface as an “eat me” signal. Mammalian Xk-related (Xkr) protein 8, which is predicted to contain six transmembrane regions, and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog CED-8 promote apoptotic PtdSer exposure. The mouse and human Xkr families consist of eight and nine members, respectively. Here, we found that mouse Xkr family members, with the exception of Xkr2, are localized to the plasma membrane. When Xkr8-deficient cells, which do not expose PtdSer during apoptosis, were transformed by Xkr family members, the transformants expressing Xkr4, Xkr8, or Xkr9 responded to apoptotic stimuli by exposing cell surface PtdSer and were efficiently engulfed by macrophages. Like Xkr8, Xkr4 and Xkr9 were found to possess a caspase recognition site in the C-terminal region and to require its direct cleavage by caspases for their function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the amino acid residues conserved among CED-8, Xkr4, Xkr8, and Xkr9 identified several essential residues in the second transmembrane and second cytoplasmic regions. Real time PCR analysis indicated that unlike Xkr8, which is ubiquitously expressed, Xkr4 and Xkr9 expression is tissue-specific. PMID:25231987

  13. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis Underlie the Pathogenic Process in Alpha-B-Crystallin Desmin Related Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Maloyan, Alina; Sanbe, Atsushi; Osinska, Hanna; Westfall, Margaret; Robinson, Dustin; Imahashi, Ken-ichi; Murphy, Elizabeth; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Background Mitochondria and sarcomeres have a well-defined architectural relationship that partially depends upon the integrity of the cytoskeletal network. An R120G missense mutation in the small heat shock protein alpha-B-crystallin (CryAB) causes desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRM). DRM is characterized by the formation of intracellular aggregates containing CryAB and desmin that are amyloid positive, and disease can be recapitulated in transgenic mice by cardiac-specific expression of the mutant protein. Methods and Results To understand the resultant pathology, we explored the acute effects of R120G expression both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, transfection of adult cardiomyocytes with R120G-expressing adenovirus resulted in altered contractile mechanics. In vivo, as the cytoskeletal network is disturbed but before deficits in organ function can be detected, alterations in mitochondrial organization and architecture occur, leading to a reduction in the maximal rate of oxygen consumption with substrates that utilize complex I activity, alterations in the Permeability Transition Pore and compromised inner membrane potential. Apoptotic pathways are subsequently activated, which eventually result in cardiomyocyte death, dilation and heart failure. Conclusions Cardiac chaperone dysfunction acutely leads to altered cardiomyocyte mechanics, perturbations in mitochondrial-sarcomere architecture and deficits in mitochondrial function, which can result in activation of apoptosis and heart failure. PMID:16316967

  14. Apoptosis and age-related disorders: role of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Nicotera, Pierluigi

    2002-02-28

    The execution of the apoptotic program involves a relatively limited number of pathways that converge on the activation of the caspase family of proteases. However, there is increasing evidence that other protease families may contribute to produce apoptotic-like features. This has posed the question as to whether caspase inhibitors may then be used to treat diseases characterised by an excess apoptosis. In several neurodegenerative diseases including acute neuronal loss as in stroke or slowly developing diseases at least two major events contribute to neurodegeneration: the loss of neuronal connectivity and cell loss. In many of these conditions, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting ATP depletion may preclude caspase activation, and consequently switch execution of cell death towards necrosis. A block or partial inhibition of the typical apoptotic demise may have profound implications in vivo, as persistence within the nervous system of damaged, but 'undead' cells, followed by delayed lysis may favour neuroinflammatory reactions. Furthermore, caspases may be involved in loss of neurons, but not in the loss of connectivity that seems to initiate degenerative processes in the nervous system. Some recent findings, which suggest that degenerating neurons may use multiple execution pathways will be discussed.

  15. Coexpression of hyperactivated AKT1 with additional genes activated in leukemia drives hematopoietic progenitor cells to cell cycle block and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanjuan; Halvarsson, Camilla; Nordigården, Amanda; Kumar, Komal; Åhsberg, Josefine; Rörby, Emma; Wong, Wan Man; Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar

    2015-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway is an integral component of signaling involved in the development of many cancers, including myeloid leukemias such as chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Increased AKT1 activity is frequently seen in AML patients, providing leukemic cells with growth and survival promoting signals. An important aspect of AKT1 function is its involvement in cellular metabolism and energy production. Under some circumstances, strong activation of AKT1 increases oxidative stress, which can cause apoptosis when cells progressively build up excess free radicals. This has been described in hematopoietic cells overexpressing activated AKT1; however, whether this is true in cells coexpressing other genetic events involved in leukemia is not known. This prompted us to investigate the effect of constitutively active AKT1 (myristoylated AKT1) in hematopoietic progenitor cells expressing constitutively active signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication, or antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2. Surprisingly, myristoylated AKT1 was incompatible with proliferation driven by both signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication, which triggered cell cycle block and apoptosis. Moreover, transplantable cells of B-cell lymphoma 2-transgenic mice were impaired in their engraftment ability to recipient mice when expressing hyperactivated AKT1. This was linked to AKT1-mediated proapoptotic functions and not to impairment in homing to the bone marrow. Although cells expressing hyperactivated AKT1 displayed higher levels of reactive oxygen species both in vitro and in vivo, the addition of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly reduced apoptosis. Taken together, the results indicate that constitutive AKT1 activity is incompatible with growth- and survival-promoting ability of other activated genes in

  16. Comparative genomics of free-living Gammaproteobacteria: pathogenesis-related genes or interaction-related genes?

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rosas-Landa, Mirna; Ponce-Soto, Gabriel Yaxal; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, V

    2017-07-31

    Bacteria have numerous strategies to interact with themselves and with their environment, but genes associated with these interactions are usually cataloged as pathogenic. To understand the role that these genes have not only in pathogenesis but also in bacterial interactions, we compared the genomes of eight bacteria from human-impacted environments with those of free-living bacteria from the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), a relatively pristine oligotrophic site. Fifty-one genomes from CCB bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Photobacterium and Aeromonas, were analyzed. We found that the CCB strains had several virulence-related genes, 15 of which were common to all strains and were related to flagella and chemotaxis. We also identified the presence of Type III and VI secretion systems, which leads us to propose that these systems play an important role in interactions among bacterial communities beyond pathogenesis. None of the CCB strains had pathogenicity islands, despite having genes associated with antibiotics. Integrons were rare, while CRISPR elements were common. The idea that pathogenicity-related genes in many cases form part of a wider strategy used by bacteria to interact with other organisms could help us to understand the role of pathogenicity-related elements in an ecological and evolutionary framework leading toward a more inclusive One Health concept. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Expression profile analysis of mycotoxin-related genes in cartilage with endemic osteochondropathy kashin-beck disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is an endemic osteochondropathy. Mycotoxins are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of KBD. Because the molecular mechanism of mycotoxin-induced cartilage lesions remains unclear, there is not effective treatment for KBD now. To identify key genes involved in the mycotoxin-induced cartilage lesions, we compared the expression profiles of mycotoxin-related genes (MRG) between KBD cartilage and healthy cartilage. Methods Total RNA was isolated from cartilage samples, following by being amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human whole genome microarray chip. qRT-PCR was conducted to validate the microarray data. 1,167 MRG were derived from the environmentally related genomic database Toxicogenomics. The microarray data of MRG was subjected to single gene and gene ontology (GO) expression analysis for identifying differently expressed genes and GO. Results We identified 7 up-regulated MRG and 2 down-regulated MRG in KBD cartilage, involved in collagen, apoptosis, metabolism and growth & development. GO expression analysis found that 4 apoptosis-related GO and 5 growth & development-related GO were significantly up-regulated in KBD cartilage. Conclusions Based on the results of previous and our studies, we suggest that mycotoxins might contribute to the development of KBD through dysfunction of MRG involved in collagen, apoptosis and growth & development in cartilage. PMID:22828367

  18. Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Related Gene Expression Changes in a Cellular and Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Su; Koppula, Sushruta; Park, Shin-Young; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2017-01-01

    We employed transcriptome analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor related gene expression changes in cellular and animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We used a well-known Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) to induce neuronal apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. The MPP+-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells was capable of inducing neuro-apoptosis, but it remains unclear what kinds of transcriptional genes are affected by MPP+ toxicity. Therefore the pathways that were significantly perturbed in MPP+ treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were identified based on genome-wide gene expression data at two time points (24 and 48 h). We found that the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) pathway-related genes showed significantly differential expression at all time points. The EGFR pathway has been linked to diverse cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Further, to evaluate the functional significance of the altered EGFR related gene expression observed in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells, the EGFR related GJB2 (Cx26) gene expression was analyzed in an MPP+-intoxicated animal PD model. Our findings identify that the EGFR signaling pathway and its related genes, such as Cx26, might play a significant role in dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal cell death during the process of neuro-apoptosis and therefore can be focused on as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28212331

  19. Role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2), NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species in diallyl disulphide-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lan; Ji, Xiao-Xia; Tan, Hui; Lin, Min; Tang, Yi; Wen, Ling; Ma, Yan-Hua; Su, Qi

    2010-12-01

    1. Diallyl disulphide (DADS) has potential as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent. Previous studies have reported that Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2), a regulatory subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, is upregulated in DADS-induced apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Rac2, NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DADS-induced apoptosis. 2. Expression of the Rac2 gene along with that of five other genes of NADPH oxidase subunits were in HL-60 cells measured by Sybergreen quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RNA interference was used to test the effect of Rac2. Protein expression was evaluated using western blot analysis and ROS levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect apoptotic cells. 3. Levels of Rac2 gene and protein were significantly upregulated and NADPH oxidase was activated in DADS-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of HL-60 cells with small interfering (si) RNAs to inhibit Rac2 blocked DADS-induced apoptosis. Diallyl disulphide-induced intracellular ROS production was increased in phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated cells, but decreased in Rac2 siRNA-treated cells. In Rac2 siRNA-treated cells, activator protein-1 and caspase 3 levels decreased, c-myc protein levels were increased and p38 protein levels were unchanged compared with Rac2-competent, DADS-treated cells. 4. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase is the main source of DADS-induced ROS. In addition, Rac2 selectively activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway, but not the p38 pathway, in DADS-induced apoptosis. So, Rac2, NADPH oxidase and ROS have a critical role in DADS-induced apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.

  20. Iodine-131 treatment of thyroid cancer cells leads to suppression of cell proliferation followed by induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by regulation of B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated JNK/NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L M; Pang, A X

    2017-01-16

    Iodine-131 (131I) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the expression of p53 and BTG2 genes following 131I therapy in thyroid cancer cell line SW579 and the possible underlying mechanism. SW579 human thyroid squamous carcinoma cells were cultured and treated with 131I. They were then assessed for 131I uptake, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, p53 expression, and BTG2 gene expression. SW579 cells were transfected with BTG2 siRNA, p53 siRNA and siNC and were then examined for the same aforementioned parameters. When treated with a JNK inhibitor of SP600125 and 131I or with a NF-κB inhibitor of BMS-345541 and 131I, non-transfected SW579 cells were assessed in JNK/NFκB pathways. It was observed that 131I significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Both BTG2 and p53 expression were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in cell viability by up-regulation in Bcl2 gene, a decrease in apoptosis by enhanced CDK2 gene expression and a decrease in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase were also observed in SW579 cell lines transfected with silenced BTG2 gene. When treated with SP600125 and 131I, the non-transfected SW579 cell lines significantly inhibited JNK pathway, NF-κB pathway and the expression of BTG2. However, when treated with BMS-345541 and 131I, only the NF-κB pathway was suppressed. 131I suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle arrest of thyroid cancer cells by up-regulating B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated activation of JNK/NF-κB pathways.

  1. Iodine-131 treatment of thyroid cancer cells leads to suppression of cell proliferation followed by induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by regulation of B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated JNK/NF-κB pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, L.M.; Pang, A.X.

    2017-01-01

    Iodine-131 (131I) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the expression of p53 and BTG2 genes following 131I therapy in thyroid cancer cell line SW579 and the possible underlying mechanism. SW579 human thyroid squamous carcinoma cells were cultured and treated with 131I. They were then assessed for 131I uptake, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, p53 expression, and BTG2 gene expression. SW579 cells were transfected with BTG2 siRNA, p53 siRNA and siNC and were then examined for the same aforementioned parameters. When treated with a JNK inhibitor of SP600125 and 131I or with a NF-κB inhibitor of BMS-345541 and 131I, non-transfected SW579 cells were assessed in JNK/NFκB pathways. It was observed that 131I significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Both BTG2 and p53 expression were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in cell viability by up-regulation in Bcl2 gene, a decrease in apoptosis by enhanced CDK2 gene expression and a decrease in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase were also observed in SW579 cell lines transfected with silenced BTG2 gene. When treated with SP600125 and 131I, the non-transfected SW579 cell lines significantly inhibited JNK pathway, NF-κB pathway and the expression of BTG2. However, when treated with BMS-345541 and 131I, only the NF-κB pathway was suppressed. 131I suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle arrest of thyroid cancer cells by up-regulating B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated activation of JNK/NF-κB pathways. PMID:28099584

  2. [Effect of pingxian granules on protein expression of apoptosis regulatory genes in hippocampus of pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptic model rats].

    PubMed

    Tian, Rong; She, Yali; Jia, Yuxin; Wang, Yu; Cheng, Xiaoli; Mu, Baolong

    2012-05-01

    To observe the effect of Pingxian granules on the protein expression of apoptosis regulatory genes Bcl-2 and Bax in the hippocampus of epileptic model rats and study the molecular biological mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Pingxian granules. Totally 60 45-days-old Wistar rats were selected and then randomly assigned into 5 groups: the normal control group, the model group, the positive control group, the Pingxian high dose group and the Pingxian low dose group, with 12 in each group. Except the normal control group, all the groups were intraperitoneally injected with 35 mg x kg(-1) pentylenetetrazol to establish the models of epilepsy. The Pingxian high dose (1.66 g x mL(-1)) and low dose (0.42 g x mL(-1)) groups were intragastrically infused with Pingxian granules 2 mL x d(-1). The positive control group received 3.6 g x L(-1) phenobarbital suspension by gastric perfusion. The normal group and the model group were drenched with distilled water, 2 mL x d(-1), for 5 weeks. Bcl-2 and Bax protein positive cells were labeled with immunohistochemical SABC at 3, 5 w. (1) Rats in the model group appeared the epileptic behavior at the 1st week, and became serious with the kindle frequency; grade VIepileptic behavior appeared at the 4th week. The attack frequency and grade of the Pingxian group were less and lower, the highest grade were only IV, and there were no significant differences in the attack grade and frequency. (2) With the increase in kindle frequency, the model group showed a notable decrease in the Bcl-2 expression compared with the normal control group at the 3rd and 5th weekend (P < 0.01), but a significant increase in Bax protein expression (P <0. 01). The number of the Bcl-2 protein expression in Pingxian groups and the positive control group were obviously more than the model group (P < 0.01); and the number of the Bax protein expression in Pingxian groups and the positive control group were obviously less than the model group (P < 0

  3. Reversal of right ventricular remodeling by dichloroacetate is related to inhibition of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hong-Da; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Qin-Hua; Wang, Lan; Jiang, Rong; Jan Bogaard, Harm; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Most patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension die from right ventricular failure (RVF). Right ventricular (RV) myocardial apoptosis has an important role in RVF and is regulated by the mitochondria. Dichloroacetate (DCA) can improve cardiac function in RVF, but whether it can regulate myocardial apoptosis via mitochondria is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of DCA on myocardial mitochondria, the mitochondrial apoptosis and other aspects of RV remodeling, including fibrosis and capillary rarefaction. RVF was induced in rats by a single s.c. injection of monocrotaline. After 4 weeks, DCA treatment was started with i.p. injection of 50, 150 or 2007 mg kg(-1) per day during 14 days. Compared with saline-treated RVF animals, treatment with DCA resulted in decreased mean pulmonary arterial pressure and total pulmonary resistance (TPR), and increased cardiac output. The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was suppressed, while pyruvate dehydrogenase expression was upregulated with DCA application. DCA treatment was also associated with restored RV mitochondrial function and a reduction in RV hypertrophy, fibrosis, capillary rarefaction and apoptosis. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis was involved in DCA regulation of RV. The absent correlation between TPR and main parameters in RV suggests that the effects of DCA in the two organ systems are independent. We conclude that DCA improves cardiac function in experimental RVF partly by reversing RV remodeling, restoring mitochondrial function and regulating mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. The study shows that a fear for increased RV apoptosis with DCA treatment is unnecessary and suggests a potential role of DCA in the treatment of RVF.

  4. Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yingqiong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Mingzhu; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases.

  5. Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yingqiong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Mingzhu; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases. PMID:28352215

  6. [Effect of small interfering RNA targeting multidrug resistance-related protein and bcl-2 on drug resistance and apoptosis of K562 and K562/ADM cells].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhao-yang; Hu, Hai-yan; Deng, Lan; Wu, Bing-yi; Guo, Kun-yuan; Zhang, Mei-xia

    2008-07-01

    To observe the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP) and bcl-2 genes in modulating drug resistance and apoptosis of K562 and K562/ADM cells. Two siRNA constructs targeting respectively bcl-2 and MRP genes, were synthesized and transfected either alone or in combination into K562 and K562/ADM cells via lipofectamine2000. MTT assay was used to evaluate the viability of the transfected cells at 24, 48 and 72 h Post-fransfection, and RT-PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels of bcl-2 and MRP. The effects of MRP siRNA and bcl2 siRNA on the apoptosis and the protein expression of Bcl-2 and MRP were evaluated with flow cytometry. In K562/ADM cells, the IC (50) decreased from 12.81 microg/ml (ADM group) to 3.74 microg/ml (ADM+MRP siRNA group), 6.82 microg/ml (ADM+bcl2 siRNA group) and 2.51 microg/ml (ADM+MRP siRNA+bcl2 siRNA). Similarly, in K562 cells, the IC50 decreased significantly from 6.75 microg/ml (ADM) to 3.22 microg/ml (ADM+MRP siRNA), 3.56 microg/ml (ADM+bcl2 siRNA) and 1.84 microg/ml (ADM+MRP siRNA+bcl2 siRNA) (P<0.05). Flow cytometry demonstrated significantly increased apoptosis of the cells following MRP siRNA and bcl2 siRNA transfection, which also resulted in significantly decreased expressions of MRP and bcl-2 proteins (P<0.05). Treatment with both MRP and bcl-2 siRNAs inhibits the target gene expression, and increases the drug sensitivity and apoptosis of K562 and K562/ADM cells.

  7. Double stranded-RNA-mediated activation of P21 gene induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Jared M; Noonan, Emily J; Pookot, Deepa; Place, Robert F; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    Small double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) are a new class of molecules which regulate gene expression. Accumulating data suggest that some dsRNA can function as tumor suppressors. Here we report further evidence on the potential of dsRNA mediated p21 induction. Using the human renal cell carcinoma cell line A498, we found that dsRNA targeting the p21 promoter significantly induced the expression of p21 mRNA and protein levels. As a result, dsP21 transfected cells had a significant decrease in cell viability with a concomitant G1 arrest. We also observed a significant increase in apoptosis. These findings were associated with a significant decrease in survivin mRNA and protein levels. This is the first report that demonstrates dsRNA mediated gene activation in renal cell carcinoma and suggests that forced over-expression of p21 may lead to an increase in apoptosis through a survivin dependent mechanism. PMID:19384944

  8. Double stranded-RNA-mediated activation of P21 gene induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Jared M; Noonan, Emily J; Pookot, Deepa; Place, Robert F; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2009-07-15

    Small double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) are a new class of molecules which regulate gene expression. Accumulating data suggest that some dsRNA can function as tumor suppressors. Here, we report further evidence on the potential of dsRNA mediated p21 induction. Using the human renal cell carcinoma cell line A498, we found that dsRNA targeting the p21 promoter significantly induced the expression of p21 mRNA and protein levels. As a result, dsP21 transfected cells had a significant decrease in cell viability with a concomitant G1 arrest. We also observed a significant increase in apoptosis. These findings were associated with a significant decrease in survivin mRNA and protein levels. This is the first report that demonstrates dsRNA mediated gene activation in renal cell carcinoma and suggests that forced over-expression of p21 may lead to an increase in apoptosis through a survivin dependent mechanism.

  9. Stra6, a retinoic acid-responsive gene, participates in p53-induced apoptosis after DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, S; Cuadrado-Castano, S; Samuel, J; Jones, G D D; Villar, E; Lee, S W; Macip, S

    2013-01-01

    Stra6 is the retinoic acid (RA)-inducible gene encoding the cellular receptor for holo-retinol binding protein. This transmembrane protein mediates the internalization of retinol, which then upregulates RA-responsive genes in target cells. Here, we show that Stra6 can be upregulated by DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner, and it has an important role in cell death responses. Stra6 expression induced significant amounts of apoptosis in normal and cancer cells, and it was also able to influence p53-mediated cell fate decisions by turning an initial arrest response into cell death. Moreover, inhibition of Stra6 severely compromised p53-induced apoptosis. We also found that Stra6 induced mitochondria depolarization and accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and that it was present not only at the cellular membrane but also in the cytosol. Finally, we show that these novel functions of Stra6 did not require downstream activation of RA signalling. Our results present a previously unknown link between the RA and p53 pathways and provide a rationale to use retinoids to upregulate Stra6, and thus enhance the tumour suppressor functions of p53. This may have implications for the role of vitamin A metabolites in cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:23449393

  10. Thymidine kinase/ganciclovir and cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine suicide gene therapy-induced cell apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, H; Tao, L; Qi, K; Wang, Y; Li, Q; Du, J; Huang, Z

    2013-09-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficacy of suicide gene therapy with thymidine kinase (TK) in combination with cytosine deaminase (CD) for breast cancer. The expression of CD/TK was detected in the infected cells by RT-PCR. The killing effect on MCF-7 cells following treatment was analyzed by MTT assay. The morphological characteristics of the cells were observed by electron microscopy, and the distribution of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Caspase‑3 and -8 activities were detected by absorption spectrometry. Cytotoxic assays showed that cells transfected with CD/TK became more sensitive to the prodrugs. Morphological features characteristic of apoptosis were noted in the MCF‑7 cells via electron microscopy. The experimental data showed that the proportion of MCF-7 cells during the different phases of the cell cycle varied significantly following treatment with the prodrugs. The activity of caspase‑3 gradually increased following treatment with increasing concentrations of the prodrugs. We conclude that the TK/ganciclovir and CD/5-fluorocytosine suicide gene system used here induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells, and provides a promising treatment modality for breast cancer.

  11. Low Doses of Cisplatin Induce Gene Alterations, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Dasari, Shaloam R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a known antitumor drug, but its mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we studied the anticancer potential of cisplatin at doses of 1, 2, or 3 µM using HL-60 cells as a test model. We investigated cisplatin effects at the molecular level using RNA sequencing, cell cycle analysis, and apoptotic assay after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of treatment. The results show that many genes responsible for molecular and cellular functions were significantly altered. Cisplatin treatment also caused the cells to be arrested at the DNA synthesis phase, and as the time increases, the cells gradually accumulated at the sub-G1 phase. Also, as the dose increases, a significant number of cells entered into the apoptotic and necrotic stages. Altogether, the data show that low doses of cisplatin significantly impact the viability of HL-60 cells, through modulation of gene expression, cell cycle, and apoptosis. PMID:27594783

  12. Effects of surgical and chemical castration on spatial learning ability in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Chung, Kyung Jin; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jin, Jun-Jang; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang Hee; Cho, Young-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Khae-Hawn

    2016-04-01

    Chemical castration using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists and/or anti-androgens is an alternative to surgical castration. Goserelin and bicalutamide are representative drugs used for chemical castration. The effects of chemical castration on sexual functions are well documented; however, the possibility that chemical castration might induce undesirable effects on brain functions has been raised. We investigated the effects of chemical castration and surgical castration on spatial learning ability in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in hippocampus. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed for surgical castration, and chemical castration was induced by treatment with goserelin or bicalutamide for 28 days. To find out the effects of goserelin and bicalutamide with those of orchiectomy on the spatial learning ability, radial eight-arm maze test was performed. To find out the effects of goserelin and bicalutamide with those of orchiectomy in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, doublecortin, and caspase-3 were performed. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was also performed. Orchiectomy caused deterioration of spatial learning ability with suppression of cell proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis in the hippocampus. However, treatment with goserelin and bicalutamide had no effect on spatial learning ability. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were not altered by treatment with goserelin and bicalutamide either. Surgical castration causes deterioration of spatial learning ability, while chemical castration does not impair spatial learning ability. We should find out further mechanisms affect to the relationship between androgen level and neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis.

  13. FTY720 induces autophagy-related apoptosis and necroptosis in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong; Ding, Ke; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-07-02

    FTY720 is a potent immunosuppressant which has preclinical antitumor efficacy in various cancer models. However, its role in glioblastoma remains unclear. In the present study, we found that FTY720 induced extrinsic apoptosis, necroptosis and autophagy in human glioblastoma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by either RNA interference or chemical inhibitors attenuated FTY720-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Furthermore, autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis induction were dependent on reactive oxygen species-c-Jun N-terminal kinase-protein 53 (ROS-JNK-p53) loop mediated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6 kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. In addition, receptor-interacting protein 1 and 3 (RIP1 and RIP3) served as an upstream of ROS-JNK-p53 loop. However, the phosphorylation form of FTY720 induced autophagy but not apoptosis and necroptosis. Finally, the in vitro results were validated in vivo in xenograft mouse of glioblastoma cells. In conclusion, the current study provided novel insights into understanding the mechanisms and functions of FTY720-induced apoptosis, necroptosis and autophagy in human glioblastoma cells.

  14. Peroxynitrite induces apoptosis in rat aortic smooth muscle cells: possible relation to vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Li, Wenyan; Su, Jialin; Liu, Weimin; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2004-03-01

    An emerging body of evidence is accumulating to suggest that in vivo formation of free radicals in the vasculature, such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis) play important roles in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis. The present study was designed to determine whether primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo apoptosis following treatment with ONOO-. Direct exposure of primary rat aortic SMCs to ONOO--induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, as confirmed by means of quantitative fluorescence staining and TUNEL assays. ONOO--induced apoptosis in rat aortic SMCs appears to involve activation of Ca2+-dependent endonucleases. Although the precise mechanisms by which peroxynitrite induces apoptosis in rat aortic SMCs need to be further investigated, the present, preliminary findings could be used to suggest that ONOO- formation in the vasculature may play roles in the processes of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis, via adverse actions on blood vessels.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis reveals sex-specific differences in the expression of Dcl1 and Fis1 genes in the radio-adaptive response of thymocytes to TRP53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    López-Nieva, Pilar; Malavé, Manuel; González-Sánchez, Laura; Fernández-Piqueras, José; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Santos, Javier

    2016-08-31

    Radio-Adaptive Response (RAR) is a biological defense mechanism whereby exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (IR) mitigates the detrimental effects of high dose irradiation. RAR has been widely observed in vivo using as endpoint less induction of apoptosis. However, sex differences associated with RAR and variations between males and females on global gene expression influenced by RAR have not been still investigated. In addition, the response to radiation-induced apoptosis is associated with phosphorylation of TRP53 at both the serine 15 (ser-18 in the mouse) and serine 392 (ser-389 in mice) residues, but the role of these two phosphorylated forms in male and female RAR remains to be elucidated. We analyzed the effect of administering priming low dose radiation (0.075 Gy of X-rays) prior to high dose radiation (1.75 Gy of γ-rays) on the level of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and on global transcriptional expression in thymocytes of male and female mice. Here, we provide the first evidence of a differential sex effect of RAR on the reduction of thymocyte apoptosis with males showing lesser levels of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis than females. Analysis of transcriptomic profiles of 1944 genes involved in apoptosis signaling in radio-adapted thymocytes identified 17 transcripts exhibiting differential expression between both sexes. Among them, Dlc1 and Fis1 are closely related to the apoptosis mediated by the TRP53 protein. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of Dlc1 and Fis1 occur concomitantly with a highest accumulation of phosphoserine-18-TRP53 and caspase-3 in radio-adapted thymocytes of female mice. In an opposite way, both down-modulation of Fis1 and phosphoserine-389-TRP53 accumulation appear to be associated with protection from thymocyte apoptosis mediated by caspase-3 in males. Transcriptomic analysis performed in this work reveals for the first time sex-specific differences in gene expression influenced by RAR. Our results also suggest a sex

  16. Effects of high-LET radiation on neural cells in culture: apoptosis induction, cell toxicity and gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, M.; Otto, S.; Estevez, L.; Rios, D.; Pena, L.; Anderson, C.

    Despite the fact that some in vivo studies suggest that chronic low-dose exposure to HZE particles might produce effects similar to aging and neurodegeneration, the basic mechanisms of HZE particle neurotoxicity remain to be elucidated. The goal of these experiments is to establish neural cellular models to evaluate the capacity of low- and high-LET radiation, to induce cell damage and apoptosis. In the present study we measured apoptosis, cell toxicity and gene expression induced by low fluences-doses of heavy ions, protons and photons using neuronal precursor cells (NT2, STRATAGENE) and post-mitotic neurons as models for adult neural cell system. Using heavy ions accelerated at AGS (BNL) and HIMAC (Chiba, Japan), and protons (Loma Linda) we study the neurotoxic effects of a variety of heavy particles (1 and 0.6 GeV/n Fe, 580 MeV/n Si, 290 MeV/n C, 550 MeV/n Ar; LET ranging from 13 to148 keV/μm), and 255 MeV/n protons. Apoptosis Induction: We measured the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry using a FACSCalibur to detect the expression of Annexin V, as an early marker in the apoptotic pathway, in NT-2 cells. The ApoAlert Annexin V assay is based on the observation that soon after initiating apoptosis, most cell types translocate phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner face of the plasma membrane to the cell surface. Once on the cell surface, PS can be easily detected by staining with a FITC conjugate of Annexin V, a protein that has a strong natural affinity for PS. Externalization of PS occurs earlier than the nuclear changes associated with apoptosis, so the ApoAlert Assay detects apoptotic cells significantly earlier than do DNA-based assays. Exposing NT-2 cells to Fe ions and protons induced a strong dose- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis with the peak of apoptosis appearing at 72 hours post-irradiation. It was determined that Fe ion exposure were more effective to induce apoptosis in comparison to protons and gamma rays, suggesting an high RBE

  17. Changes of Antioxidant Function and the mRNA Expression Levels of Apoptosis Genes in Duck Ovaries Caused by Molybdenum or/and Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huabin; Xia, Bing; Zhang, Mengmeng; Liao, Yilin; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Guoliang; Zhang, Caiying

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of molybdenum (Mo) combined with cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant function and the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in duck ovaries, 60 healthy 11-old-day female ducks were treated with hexaammonium molybdate ([(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O]) or/and cadmium sulfate (3CdSO4·8H2O) at different doses on a daily basis for 120 days. On the 120th day, ten female birds in each group were euthanized, and the ovaries and blood were collected to determine the antioxidant indexes and the mRNA expression levels of Bak-1, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 in ovaries. In addition, ovary tissues were subjected to histopathological analysis with optical microscope. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in treated groups comparing with control while the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity increased (P < 0.01) both in ovary tissue and serum. The Bak-1 and caspase-3 expressions were upregulated while the Bcl-2 was downgraded by Mo or/and Cd. Biomolecules were affected in all metal-treated groups, whereas combined-treated animals showed greater effects. What is more, pathological damage in Mo and Cd combination treated groups was more severe. The results from the present study indicated that Mo or/and Cd caused oxidative stress and apoptosis in duck ovaries. Combination of Mo and Cd showed additive or synergistic effect leading to apoptosis and oxidative stress, and the pathway might be the mitochondrial pathway.

  18. Cleavage of the Bloom’s syndrome gene product during apoptosis by caspase-3 results in an impaired interaction with topoisomerase IIIα

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Raimundo; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Wu, Leonard; Pedrazzi, Graziella; Stagljar, Igor; Hickson, Ian D.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2001-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the integration of signals triggered in response to certain types of stress can result in programmed cell death. Central to these events is the sequential activation of a cascade of proteinases known as caspases. The final activated effector caspases of this cascade digest a number of cellular proteins, in some cases increasing their enzymatic activity, in others destroying their function. Of the proteins shown to be targets for caspase-mediated proteolysis, a surprisingly large proportion are proteins involved in the signalling or repair of DNA damage. Here we investigate whether BLM, the product of the gene mutated in Bloom’s syndrome, a human autosomal disease characterised by cancer predisposition and sunlight sensitivity, is cleaved during apoptosis. BLM interacts with topoisomerase IIIα and has been proposed to play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity through its roles in DNA repair and replication. We show that BLM is cleaved during apoptosis by caspase-3 and reveal that the main cleavage site is located at the junction between the N-terminal and central helicase domains of BLM. Proteolytic cleavage by caspase-3 produces a 120 kDa fragment, which contains the intact helicase domain and three smaller fragments, the relative amounts of which depend on time of incubation with caspase-3. The 120 kDa fragment retains the helicase activity of the intact BLM protein. However, its interaction with topoisomerase IIIα is severely impaired. Since the BLM–topoisomerase interaction is believed to be necessary for many of the replication and recombination functions of BLM, we suggest that caspase-3 cleavage of BLM could alter the localisation and/or function of BLM and that these changes may be important in the process of apoptosis. PMID:11470874

  19. Copy number gain of VCX, X-linked multi-copy gene, leads to cell proliferation and apoptosis during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juan; Qin, Yufeng; Wang, Rong; Huang, Zhenyao; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Ran; Song, Ling; Ling, Xiufeng; Hu, Zhibin; Miao, Dengshun; Shen, Hongbing; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru; Lu, Chuncheng

    2016-11-29

    Male factor infertility affects one-sixth of couples worldwide, and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the most severe forms. In recent years there has been increasing evidence to implicate the participation of X chromosome in the process of spermatogenesis. To uncover the roles of X-linked multi-copy genes in spermatogenesis, we performed systematic analysis of X-linked gene copy number variations (CNVs) and Y chromosome haplogrouping in 447 idiopathic NOA patients and 485 healthy controls. Interestingly, the frequency of individuals with abnormal level copy of Variable charge, X-linked (VCX) was significantly different between cases and controls after multiple test correction (p = 5.10 × 10-5). To discriminate the effect of gain/loss copies in these genes, we analyzed the frequency of X-linked multi-copy genes in subjects among subdivided groups. Our results demonstrated that individuals with increased copy numbers of Nuclear RNA export factor 2 (NXF2) (p = 9.21 × 10-8) and VCX (p = 1.97 × 10-4) conferred the risk of NOA. In vitro analysis demonstrated that increasing copy number of VCX could upregulate the gene expression and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our study establishes a robust association between the VCX CNVs and NOA risk.

  20. Copy number gain of VCX, X-linked multi-copy gene, leads to cell proliferation and apoptosis during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhenyao; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Ran; Song, Ling; Ling, Xiufeng; Hu, Zhibin; Miao, Dengshun; Shen, Hongbing; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru; Lu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Male factor infertility affects one-sixth of couples worldwide, and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the most severe forms. In recent years there has been increasing evidence to implicate the participation of X chromosome in the process of spermatogenesis. To uncover the roles of X-linked multi-copy genes in spermatogenesis, we performed systematic analysis of X-linked gene copy number variations (CNVs) and Y chromosome haplogrouping in 447 idiopathic NOA patients and 485 healthy controls. Interestingly, the frequency of individuals with abnormal level copy of Variable charge, X-linked (VCX) was significantly different between cases and controls after multiple test correction (p = 5.10 × 10−5). To discriminate the effect of gain/loss copies in these genes, we analyzed the frequency of X-linked multi-copy genes in subjects among subdivided groups. Our results demonstrated that individuals with increased copy numbers of Nuclear RNA export factor 2 (NXF2) (p = 9.21 × 10−8) and VCX (p = 1.97 × 10−4) conferred the risk of NOA. In vitro analysis demonstrated that increasing copy number of VCX could upregulate the gene expression and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our study establishes a robust association between the VCX CNVs and NOA risk. PMID:27705943

  1. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a neurological disorder that manifests as a debilitating headache associated with altered sensory perception. The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is now firmly established as a key player in migraine. Clinical trials carried out during the past decade have proved that CGRP receptor antagonists are effective for treating migraine, and antibodies to the receptor and CGRP are currently under investigation. Despite this progress in the clinical arena, the mechanisms by which CGRP triggers migraine remain uncertain. This review discusses mechanisms whereby CGRP enhances sensitivity to sensory input at multiple levels in both the periphery and central nervous system. Future studies on epistatic and epigenetic regulators of CGRP actions are expected to shed further light on CGRP actions in migraine. In conclusion, targeting CGRP represents an approachable therapeutic strategy for migraine. PMID:25340934

  2. NES1/KLK10 gene represses proliferation, enhances apoptosis and down-regulates glucose metabolism of PC3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiajia; Lei, Hu; Fei, Xiaochun; Liang, Sheng; Xu, Hanzhang; Qin, Dongjun; Wang, Yue; Wu, Yingli; Li, Biao

    2015-11-30

    The normal epithelial cell-specific-1 (NES1) gene, also named as KLK10, is recognised as a novel putative tumour suppressor in breast cancer, but few studies have focused on the function of KLK10 in human prostate cancer. Our study confirms that the expression of KLK10 in prostate cancer tissue and cell lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP clone FGC) is low. Given that the androgen-independent growth characteristic of the PC3 cell line is more similar to clinical castration-resistant prostate cancer, we studied the role of KLK10 in PC3. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that over-expressing KLK10 in PC3 could decelerate tumour proliferation, which was accompanied with an increase in apoptosis and suppression of glucose metabolism. The related proteins, such as Bcl-2 and HK-2, were down-regulated subsequently. Furthermore, by up-regulating Bcl-2 or HK-2 respectively in the PC3-KLK10 cell line, we observed a subsequent increase of cell proliferation and a synchronous up-regulation of HK-2 and Bcl-2. Besides, KLK10 expression was also increased by Bcl-2 and HK-2, which suggests that there is a negative feedback loop between KLK10 and Bcl-2/HK-2. Thus, our results demonstrated that KLK10 may function as a tumour suppressor by repressing proliferation, enhancing apoptosis and decreasing glucose metabolism in PC3 cells.

  3. NES1/KLK10 gene represses proliferation, enhances apoptosis and down-regulates glucose metabolism of PC3 prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiajia; Lei, Hu; Fei, Xiaochun; Liang, Sheng; Xu, Hanzhang; Qin, Dongjun; Wang, Yue; Wu, Yingli; Li, Biao

    2015-01-01

    The normal epithelial cell-specific-1 (NES1) gene, also named as KLK10, is recognised as a novel putative tumour suppressor in breast cancer, but few studies have focused on the function of KLK10 in human prostate cancer. Our study confirms that the expression of KLK10 in prostate cancer tissue and cell lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP clone FGC) is low. Given that the androgen-independent growth characteristic of the PC3 cell line is more similar to clinical castration-resistant prostate cancer, we studied the role of KLK10 in PC3. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that over-expressing KLK10 in PC3 could decelerate tumour proliferation, which was accompanied with an increase in apoptosis and suppression of glucose metabolism. The related proteins, such as Bcl-2 and HK-2, were down-regulated subsequently. Furthermore, by up-regulating Bcl-2 or HK-2 respectively in the PC3-KLK10 cell line, we observed a subsequent increase of cell proliferation and a synchronous up-regulation of HK-2 and Bcl-2. Besides, KLK10 expression was also increased by Bcl-2 and HK-2, which suggests that there is a negative feedback loop between KLK10 and Bcl-2/HK-2. Thus, our results demonstrated that KLK10 may function as a tumour suppressor by repressing proliferation, enhancing apoptosis and decreasing glucose metabolism in PC3 cells. PMID:26616394

  4. Impact of RGD Peptide Tethering to IL24/mda-7 (Melanoma Differentiation Associated Gene-7) on Apoptosis Induction in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bina, Samaneh; Shenavar, Fatemeh; Khodadad, Mahboobeh; Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Mohammad-Reza; Erfani, Nasrollah; Hosseini, Seyed Younes

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (MDA-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24), a unique tumor suppressor gene, has killing activity in a broad spectrum of cancer cells. Herein, plasmids producing mda-7 proteins fused to different RGD peptides (full RGD4C and shortened RGD, tRGD) were evaluated for apoptosis induction with a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2. The study aim was to improve the apoptosis potency of mda-7 by tethering to RGD peptides. Three plasmids including mda-7, mda-7-RGD and mda-7-tRGD genes beside a control vector were transfected into Hep-G2 cells. After 72 hours incubation, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, the rate of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry using PI/annexin staining. To detect early events in apoptosis, 18 hours after transfection, expression of the BAX gene was quantified by real time PCR. Modeling of proteins was also performed to extrapolate possible consequences of RGD modification on their structures and subsequent attachment to receptors. In MTT assays, while all mda-7 forms showed measurable inhibition of proliferation, unmodified mda-7 protein exhibited most significant effect compared to control plasmid (P<0.001). Again, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant apoptosis induction by simple mda-7 gene but not for those RGD-fused mda-7 proteins. These findings were also supported by expression analysis of BAX gene (P<0.001). Protein modelling analysis revealed that tethering RGD at the end of IL-24/Mda7 disrupt attachment to cognate receptor, IL-20R1/ IL-20R2. In conclusion, fusion of RGD4C and shortened RGD peptides to carboxyl terminal of mda7, not only reduce apoptosis property in vitro but also disrupt receptor attachment as demonstrated by protein modelling.

  5. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells through extrinsic and intrinsic signal pathways and altering associated genes expression assayed by cDNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hung-Sheng; Shih, Yung-Luen; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Liu, Jia-You; Liao, Nien-Chieh; Chen, Yung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ping; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the isothiocyanates, is a biologically active compound extracted from cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to induce cytotoxic effects on many human cancer cells including human leukemia cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism and altered gene expression associated with apoptosis is unclear. In this study, we investigated SFN-induced cytotoxic effects and whether or not they went through cell-cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis and further examined molecular mechanism and altered gene expression in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Cell viability, cell-cycle distribution, sub-G1 (apoptosis), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) production, levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ), and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities were assayed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis-associated proteins levels and gene expressions were examined by Western blotting and cDNA microarray assays, respectively. Results indicated that SFN decreased viable cells, induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis based on sub-G1 phase development. Furthermore, SFN increased ROS and Ca(2+) production and decreased the levels of ΔΨm and activated caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in HL-60 cells. SFN significantly upregulated the expression of BAX, Bid, Fas, Fas-L, caspase-8, Endo G, AIF, and cytochrome c, and inhibited the antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-x and XIAP, that is associated with apoptosis. We also used cDNA microarray to confirm several gene expressions such as caspase -8, -3, -4, -6, and -7 that are affected by SFN. Those results indicated that SFN induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells via Fas- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 311-328, 2017.

  6. Global gene expression changes underlying Stachybotrys chartarum toxin-induced apoptosis in murine alveolar macrophages: evidence of multiple signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyan; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2007-03-01

    The overall mechanism(s) underlying macrophage apoptosis caused by the toxins of the indoor mold Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) are not yet understood. In this direction, we report a microarray-based global gene expression profiling on the murine alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S) treated with SC toxins for short (2 h) and long (24 h) periods, coinciding with the pre-apoptotic (<3 h) and progressed apoptotic stages of the treated cells, respectively. Microarray results on differential expression were validated by real-time RT-PCR analysis using representative gene targets. The toxin-regulated genes corresponded to multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation and death, inflammatory/immune response, genotoxic stress and oxidative stress, and to the underlying multiple signal transduction pathways involving MAPK-, NF-kB-, TNF-, and p53-mediated signaling. Transcription factor NF-kB showed dynamic temporal changes, characterized by an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition. Up-regulation of a battery of DNA damage-responsive and DNA repair genes in the early stage of the treatment suggested a possible role of genotoxic stress in the initiation of apoptosis. Simultaneous expression changes in both pro-survival genes and pro-apoptotic genes indicated the role of a critical balance between the two processes in SC toxin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the results imply that multiple signaling pathways underlie the SC toxin-induced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages.

  7. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals arsenic-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells through differential gene pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaozhong Robinson, Joshua F.; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung Woo; Sidhu, Jaspreet S.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2008-12-15

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known environmental toxicant and carcinogen as well as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. The underlying mechanism of this dual capability, however, is not fully understood. Tumor suppressor gene p53, a pivotal cell cycle checkpoint signaling protein, has been hypothesized to play a possible role in mediating As-induced toxicity and therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we found that arsenite (As{sup 3+}) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in both p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). There was, however, a distinction between genotypes in the apoptotic response, with a more prominent induction of caspase-3 in the p53{sup -/-} cells than in the p53{sup +/+} cells. To examine this difference further, a systems-based genomic analysis was conducted comparing the critical molecular mechanisms between the p53 genotypes in response to As{sup 3+}. A significant alteration in the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway was found in both genotypes. In p53{sup +/+} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced p53-dependent gene expression alterations in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation genes. However, in the p53{sup -/-} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced a significant up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (Noxa) and down-regulation of genes in immune modulation. Our findings demonstrate that As-induced cell death occurs through a p53-independent pathway in p53 deficient cells while apoptosis induction occurs through p53-dependent pathway in normal tissue. This difference in the mechanism of apoptotic responses between the genotypes provides important information regarding the apparent dichotomy of arsenic's dual mechanisms, and potentially leads to further advancement of its utility as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  8. Nupr1/Chop signal axis is involved in mitochondrion-related endothelial cell apoptosis induced by methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Cai, D; Huang, E; Luo, B; Yang, Y; Zhang, F; Liu, C; Lin, Z; Xie, W-B; Wang, H

    2016-03-31

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has been a serious global public health problem for decades. Previous studies have shown that METH causes detrimental effects on the nervous and cardiovascular systems. METH-induced cardiovascular toxicity has been, in part, attributed to its destructive effect on vascular endothelial cells. However, the underlying mechanism of METH-caused endothelium disruption has not been investigated systematically. In this study, we identified a novel pathway involved in endothelial cell apoptosis induced by METH. We demonstrated that exposure to METH caused mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells in vitro as well as in rat cardiac endothelial cells in vivo. We found that METH mediated endothelial cell apoptosis through Nupr1-Chop/P53-PUMA/Beclin1 signaling pathway. Specifically, METH exposure increased the expression of Nupr1, Chop, P53 and PUMA. Elevated p53 expression raised up PUMA expression, which initiated mitochondrial apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2, followed by upregulation of proapoptotic Bax, resulting in translocation of cytochrome c (cyto c), an apoptogenic factor, from the mitochondria to cytoplasm and activation of caspase-dependent pathways. Interestingly, increased Beclin1, upregulated by Chop, formed a ternary complex with Bcl-2, thereby decreasing the dissociative Bcl-2. As a result, the ratio of dissociative Bcl-2 to Bax was also significantly decreased, which led to translocation of cyto c and initiated more drastic apoptosis. These findings were supported by data showing METH-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by silencing Nupr1, Chop or P53, or by PUMA or Beclin1 knockdown. Based on the present data, a novel mechanistic model of METH-induced endothelial cell toxicity is proposed. Collectively, these results highlight that the Nupr1-Chop/P53-PUMA/Beclin1 pathway is essential for mitochondrion-related METH-induced endothelial

  9. Nupr1/Chop signal axis is involved in mitochondrion-related endothelial cell apoptosis induced by methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Cai, D; Huang, E; Luo, B; Yang, Y; Zhang, F; Liu, C; Lin, Z; Xie, W-B; Wang, H

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has been a serious global public health problem for decades. Previous studies have shown that METH causes detrimental effects on the nervous and cardiovascular systems. METH-induced cardiovascular toxicity has been, in part, attributed to its destructive effect on vascular endothelial cells. However, the underlying mechanism of METH-caused endothelium disruption has not been investigated systematically. In this study, we identified a novel pathway involved in endothelial cell apoptosis induced by METH. We demonstrated that exposure to METH caused mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells in vitro as well as in rat cardiac endothelial cells in vivo. We found that METH mediated endothelial cell apoptosis through Nupr1–Chop/P53–PUMA/Beclin1 signaling pathway. Specifically, METH exposure increased the expression of Nupr1, Chop, P53 and PUMA. Elevated p53 expression raised up PUMA expression, which initiated mitochondrial apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2, followed by upregulation of proapoptotic Bax, resulting in translocation of cytochrome c (cyto c), an apoptogenic factor, from the mitochondria to cytoplasm and activation of caspase-dependent pathways. Interestingly, increased Beclin1, upregulated by Chop, formed a ternary complex with Bcl-2, thereby decreasing the dissociative Bcl-2. As a result, the ratio of dissociative Bcl-2 to Bax was also significantly decreased, which led to translocation of cyto c and initiated more drastic apoptosis. These findings were supported by data showing METH-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by silencing Nupr1, Chop or P53, or by PUMA or Beclin1 knockdown. Based on the present data, a novel mechanistic model of METH-induced endothelial cell toxicity is proposed. Collectively, these results highlight that the Nupr1–Chop/P53–PUMA/Beclin1 pathway is essential for mitochondrion-related METH

  10. Inhibition of Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor/Serum Response Factor Signaling Decreases Lung Fibrosis and Promotes Mesenchymal Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sisson, Thomas H.; Ajayi, Iyabode O.; Subbotina, Natalya; Dodi, Amos E.; Rodansky, Eva S.; Chibucos, Lauren N.; Kim, Kevin K.; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; White, Eric S.; Zhou, Yong; Higgins, Peter D.R.; Larsen, Scott D.; Neubig, Richard R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are crucial to the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis. Their formation of stress fibers results in the release of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a transcriptional coactivator of serum response factor (SRF). MRTF-A (Mkl1)-deficient mice are protected from lung fibrosis. We hypothesized that the SRF/MRTF pathway inhibitor CCG-203971 would modulate myofibroblast function in vitro and limit lung fibrosis in vivo. Normal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung fibroblasts were treated with/without CCG-203971 (N-[4-chlorophenyl]-1-[3-(2-furanyl)benzoyl]-3-piperidine carboxamide) and/or Fas-activating antibody in the presence/absence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and apoptosis was assessed. In vivo studies examined the effect of therapeutically administered CCG-203971 on lung fibrosis in two distinct murine models of fibrosis induced by bleomycin or targeted type II alveolar epithelial injury. In vitro, CCG-203971 prevented nuclear localization of MRTF-A; increased the apoptotic susceptibility of normal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis fibroblasts; blocked TGF-β1–induced myofibroblast differentiation; and inhibited TGF-β1–induced expression of fibronectin, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. TGF-β1 did not protect fibroblasts or myofibroblasts from apoptosis in the presence of CCG-203971. In vivo, CCG-203971 significantly reduced lung collagen content in both murine models while decreasing alveolar plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and promoting myofibroblast apoptosis. These data support a central role of the SRF/MRTF pathway in the pathobiology of lung fibrosis and suggest that its inhibition can help resolve lung fibrosis by promoting fibroblast apoptosis. PMID:25681733

  11. Dynamin-related protein 1 mediates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in chlorpyrifos-treated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Ko, Juyeon; Hwang, Jungwook; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, mediates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial division. However, little is known about the mechanism by which Drp1 modulates apoptosis in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced toxicity. In this study, we determined that CPF-induced mitochondrial apoptosis is mediated by Drp1 translocation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results showed that CPF treatment induced intrinsic apoptosis by activating caspase-9, caspase-3, and cytochrome c release in SH-SY5Y cells. Cytosolic Drp1 translocated to the mitochondria in CPF-treated cells and was phosphorylated at Ser616. Treating cells with CPF induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Inhibiting this ROS generation and MAPK activation abolished CPF-induced expression of phospho-Drp1. Furthermore, Drp1 was required for p53 to translocate to the mitochondria under CPF-induced oxidative stress. Treating cells with mitochondrial-division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1), which blocks Drp1 translocation, increased the viability of CPF-treated cells by abrogating Drp1 translocation and caspase-3 activation. Specifically, pretreating cells with mdivi-1 inhibited Bax translocation to the mitochondria by blocking p53 signaling. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism by which Drp1 activates mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and indicate that inhibiting Dpr1 function can protect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that inhibiting Drp1 is a possible therapeutic approach for pesticide-induced toxicity when hyperactivated Drp1 contributes to pathology.

  12. Chicken oviduct-the target tissue for growth hormone action: effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis and on the gene expression of some oviduct-specific proteins.

    PubMed

    Hrabia, Anna; Leśniak-Walentyn, Agnieszka; Sechman, Andrzej; Gertler, Arieh

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo effect of growth hormone (GH) on cell proliferation and apoptosis and on the gene expression of selected proteins in the chicken oviduct before sexual maturity (first oviposition). Ten-week-old Hy-Line Brown chickens were injected three times a week with 200 μg · kg(-1) body weight of recombinant chicken GH (cGH) until 16 weeks of age. Control hens received 0.9 % NaCl with 0.05 % bovine serum albumin as a vehicle. Treatment with cGH increased (P < 0.05) oviduct weight at 16 weeks of age, i.e. 1-2 weeks before onset of egg laying. The highest number of proliferating (determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] immunocytochemistry) and apoptotic (determined by TUNEL assay) cells in the oviduct was found in the mucosal epithelium, and the lowest in the stroma. Administration of cGH did not increase (P > 0.05) the number of PCNA-positive cells but it decreased (P < 0.01) the number of TUNEL-positive cells, thus increasing the proliferating-to-apoptotic cell ratio in the oviduct. Gene expression (determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction) of apoptosis-related caspase-2 in the magnum and caspase-3 in the magnum and isthmus and their activity (determined by fluorometric assay) in the magnum were attenuated (P < 0.05) in cGH-treated hens. The gene expression of the magnum-specific ovalbumin and the shell-gland-specific ovocalyxins 32 and 36 was increased (P < 0.05) in cGH-treated chickens. In contrast, the expression of Bcl-2 and of caspases 8 and 9 was not affected by cGH in any of the oviductal segments. The results suggest that GH, via the orchestration of apoptosis and expression of some oviduct-specific proteins, participates in the development and activity of the chicken oviduct prior to the onset of egg laying.

  13. Cell cycle-related genes p57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Yang, Zhong; Zeng, Yi; Xu, Hong; Li, Hongli; Han, Yangyun; Long, Xiaodong; You, Chao

    2013-07-15

    In the field of developmental neurobiology, accurate and ordered regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis are crucial factors contributing to the normal formation of the neural tube. Preliminary studies identified several genes involved in the development of neural tube defects. In this study, we established a model of developmental neural tube defects by administration of retinoic acid to pregnant rats. Gene chip hybridization analysis showed that genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis, signal transduction, transcription and translation regulation, energy and metabolism, heat shock, and matrix and cytoskeletal proteins were all involved in the formation of developmental neural tube defects. Among these, cell cycle-related genes were predominant. Retinoic acid ment caused differential expression of three cell cycle-related genes p57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin, the expression levels of which were downregulated by retinoic acid and upregulated during normal neural tube formation. The results of this study indicate that cell cycle-related genes play an important role in the formation of neural tube defects. P57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin may be critical genes in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.

  14. Connexin 26 gene therapy of human bladder cancer: induction of growth suppression, apoptosis, and synergy with Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Grossman, H B

    2001-12-10

    The connexin 26 (Cx26) gene encodes a protein involved in gap junctional intercellular communication and is a putative tumor suppressor. We constructed a Cx26 adenovirus vector (Ad-Cx26) and used it to infect human bladder cancer cell lines UM-UC-3, UM-UC-6, UM-UC-14, and T24. Infection with Ad-Cx26 suppressed the growth of these cell lines in vitro and prevented tumor formation in vivo. Cell cycle accumulation or arrest at the G(1) phase was noted in UM-UC-3 cells and at the G(2)/M phase in UM-UC-6, UM-UC-14, and T24 cells. Apoptosis was noted in UM-UC-3, UM-UC-6, and UM-UC-14 cells both in vitro and in vivo. These effects were not seen with control adenovirus (Ad-CTR) or mock infection. Ad-Cx26 did not significantly alter the growth of the immortalized normal human bladder cell line SV-HUC. Direct injection of Ad-Cx26 into established UM-UC-3 and UM-UC-14 tumors in nude mice resulted in Cx26 expression, apoptosis, and significantly decreased growth compared with Ad-CTR treated tumors. Delayed resumption of tumor growth was associated with loss of Cx26 expression. Combination therapy with Ad-Cx26 and cisplatin resulted in decreased growth in vitro compared with either agent alone. We explored combination therapy with Ad-Cx26 and cisplatin to improve the in vivo efficacy of Cx26 gene therapy. In vivo therapy with Ad-Cx26 and cisplatin resulted in long-term suppression of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that combining gene and chemotherapy can result in dramatic synergy in vivo.

  15. A novel member of the SAF (scaffold attachment factor)-box protein family inhibits gene expression and induces apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ching Wan; Lee, Youn-Bok; Uney, James; Flynn, Andrea; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Norman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The SLTM [SAF (scaffold attachment factor)-like transcription modulator] protein contains a SAF-box DNA-binding motif and an RNA-binding domain, and shares an overall identity of 34% with SAFB1 {scaffold attachment factor-B1; also known as SAF-B (scaffold attachment factor B), HET [heat-shock protein 27 ERE (oestrogen response element) and TATA-box-binding protein] or HAP (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1-interacting protein)}. Here, we show that SLTM is localized to the cell nucleus, but excluded from nucleoli, and to a large extent it co-localizes with SAFB1. In the nucleus, SLTM has a punctate distribution and it does not co-localize with SR (serine/arginine) proteins. Overexpression of SAFB1 has been shown to exert a number of inhibitory effects, including suppression of oestrogen signalling. Although SLTM also suppressed the ability of oestrogen to activate a reporter gene in MCF-7 breast-cancer cells, inhibition of a constitutively active β-galactosidase gene suggested that this was primarily the consequence of a generalized inhibitory effect on transcription. Measurement of RNA synthesis, which showed a particularly marked inhibition of [3H]uridine incorporation into mRNA, supported this conclusion. In addition, analysis of cell-cycle parameters, chromatin condensation and cytochrome c release showed that SLTM induced apoptosis in a range of cultured cell lines. Thus the inhibitory effects of SLTM on gene expression appear to result from generalized down-regulation of mRNA synthesis and initiation of apoptosis consequent upon overexpressing the protein. While indicating a crucial role for SLTM in cellular function, these results also emphasize the need for caution when interpreting phenotypic changes associated with manipulation of protein expression levels. PMID:17630952

  16. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress.

  17. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress. PMID:27460544

  18. UHRF1 gene silencing inhibits cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma CaSki cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ting-Ting; Yang, Meng; Chen, Zhuo; Lou, Ge; Gu, Tao

    2016-07-19

    Up-regulation of UHRF1 has been observed in a variety of cancers and appears to serve as an independent prognostic factor. To explore the effect of UHRF1 gene silencing on apoptosis and proliferation of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) CaSki cells. This study consisted of 47 CSCC tissues and 40 normal cervical tissues. The CaSki cells were assigned into Blank group (CaSki cells not transfected), NC group (CaSki cells transfected with control siRNA), and UHRF1 Silence group (CaSki cells transfected with UHRF1 siRNA). qRT-PCR and Western blot were used for UHRF1 mRNA and protein expressions, CKK-8 assay for cell proliferation, flow cytometry for cell cycle and apoptosis, Western blot for expressions of apoptosis-related proteins. Nude mice tumor transplant experiment was performed. UHRF1 exhibited higher mRNA and protein expressions in the CSCC tissues than normal cervical tissues (both P < 0.05). The cell proliferation ability in the UHRF1 Silence group was reduced when compared with the Blank group and the NC group, the cells at S-G2M stage in the UHRF1 Silence group were dropped when compared with the Blank group and the NC group (P < 0.05), while the cells at G0/G1 stage were elevated (P < 0.05), and the proportion of Annexin V positive cells in the UHRF1 Silence group was increased in comparison with the Blank group and the NC group (P < 0.05). Nude mice tumor transplant experiment indicated that the growth rate and weight of tumor in the Blank group and NC group was higher and heavier than the UHRF1 Silence group (P < 0.05). UHRF1 showed a high expression in CSCC and UHRF1 silencing can reduce proliferation and enhance apoptosis of the CaSki cells.

  19. EZH2-mediated Puma gene repression regulates non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haidan; Li, Wei; Yu, Xinfang; Gao, Feng; Duan, Zhi; Ma, Xiaolong; Tan, Shiming; Yuan, Yunchang; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Xinmin; Yang, Yifeng

    2016-08-30

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are highly conserved epigenetic effectors that maintain the silenced state of genes. EZH2 is the catalytic core and one of the most important components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and primary lung tumors, we found that PRC2 components, including EZH2, are overexpressed. High levels of EZH2 protein were associated with worse overall survival rate in NSCLC patients. RNA interference mediated attenuation of EZH2 expression blunted the malignant phenotype in this setting, exerting inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. Unexpectedly, we discovered that, in the suppression of EZH2, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression was concomitantly induced. This is achieved through EZH2 directly binds to the Puma promoter thus epigenetic repression of PUMA expression. Furthermore, cisplatin-induced apoptosis of EZH2-knocking down NSCLC cells was elevated as a consequence of increased PUMA expression. Our work reveals a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism controlling PUMA expression and suggests that EZH2 offers a candidate molecular target for NSCLC therapy and EZH2-regulated PUMA induction would synergistically increase the sensitivity to platinum agents in non-small cell lung cancers.

  20. EZH2-mediated Puma gene repression regulates non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinfang; Gao, Feng; Duan, Zhi; Ma, Xiaolong; Tan, Shiming; Yuan, Yunchang; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Xinmin; Yang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are highly conserved epigenetic effectors that maintain the silenced state of genes. EZH2 is the catalytic core and one of the most important components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and primary lung tumors, we found that PRC2 components, including EZH2, are overexpressed. High levels of EZH2 protein were associated with worse overall survival rate in NSCLC patients. RNA interference mediated attenuation of EZH2 expression blunted the malignant phenotype in this setting, exerting inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. Unexpectedly, we discovered that, in the suppression of EZH2, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression was concomitantly induced. This is achieved through EZH2 directly binds to the Puma promoter thus epigenetic repression of PUMA expression. Furthermore, cisplatin-induced apoptosis of EZH2-knocking down NSCLC cells was elevated as a consequence of increased PUMA expression. Our work reveals a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism controlling PUMA expression and suggests that EZH2 offers a candidate molecular target for NSCLC therapy and EZH2-regulated PUMA induction would synergistically increase the sensitivity to platinum agents in non-small cell lung cancers. PMID:27472460

  1. Comparison of cell cycle components, apoptosis and cytoskeleton-related molecules and therapeutic effects of flavopiridol and geldanamycin on the mouse fibroblast, lung cancer and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Aktug, Huseyin; Acikgoz, Eda; Uysal, Aysegul; Oltulu, Fatih; Oktem, Gulperi; Yigitturk, Gurkan; Demir, Kenan; Yavasoglu, Altug; Bozok Cetintas, Vildan

    2016-09-01

    Similarities and differences in the cell cycle components, apoptosis and cytoskeleton-related molecules among mouse skin fibroblast cells (MSFs), mouse squamous cell lung carcinomas (SqCLCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are important determinants of the behaviour and differentiation capacity of these cells. To reveal apoptotic pathways and to examine the distribution and the role of cell cycle-cell skeleton comparatively would necessitate tumour biology and stem cell biology to be assessed together in terms of oncogenesis and embryogenesis. The primary objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of flavopiridol, a cell cycle inhibitor, and geldanamycin, a heat shock protein inhibitor on mouse somatic, tumour and embryonic stem cells, by specifically focusing on alterations in cytoskeletal proteins, cell polarity and motility as well as cell cycle regulators. To meet these objectives, expression of several genes, cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence staining of intracellular cytoskeletal molecules were performed in untreated and flavopiridol- or geldanamycin-treated cell lines. Cytotoxicity assays showed that SqCLCs are more sensitive to flavopiridol than MSFs and mESCs. Keratin-9 and keratin-2 expressions increased dramatically whereas cell cycle regulatory genes decreased significantly in the flavopiridol-treated MSFs. Flavopiridol-treated SqCLCs displayed a slight increase in several cell cytoskeleton regulatory genes as well as cell cycle regulatory genes. However, gene expression profiles of mESCs were not affected after flavopiridol treatment except the Cdc2a. Cytotoxic concentrations of geldanamycin were close to each other for all cell lines. Cdkn1a was the most increased gene in the geldanamycin-treated MSFs. However, expression levels of cell cytoskeleton-associated genes were increased dramatically in the geldanamycin-treated SqCLCs. Our results revealing differences in molecular mechanisms between embryogenesis and

  2. In vitro and in vivo modulation of testosterone mediated alterations in apoptosis related proteins by [6]-gingerol.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tripathi, Chitra; Singh, Madhulika; George, Jasmine; Kalra, Neetu

    2007-12-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) has been widely used as a dietary spice, and as a traditional oriental medicine. The rhizome of ginger contains pungent vanillyl ketones, including [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, and have been credited with therapeutic and preventive health benefits, including anti-cancer activity. Prostate cancer is an attractive target for chemoprevention because of its ubiquity, treatment-related morbidity, long latency between premalignant lesions and clinically evident cancer, and defined molecular pathogenesis. Here we are reporting the modulatory effects of [6]-gingerol on testosterone-induced alterations on apoptosis related proteins in both in vitro, androgen sensitive LNCaP cells and in vivo, ventral prostate of Swiss albino mice. [6]-gingerol treatment resulted apoptosis in LNCaP cells, as indicated by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in sub G1 cell population by flow cytometry and the appearance of DNA laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis. Results of western blot analysis showed that [6]-gingerol upregulated the testosterone depleted levels of p53 in mouse prostate and upregulated its downstream regulator Bax and further activated Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 in both LNCaP cells and in mouse prostate. We also found downregulation of testosterone induced antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Survivin expression by [6]-gingerol in both LNCaP cells and in mouse ventral prostate. Thus, [6]-gingerol shows its protective effects in both in vivo and in vitro prostate cancer models by modulation of proteins involved in apoptosis pathway.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces death receptor 5 networks that are highly organized.

    PubMed

    Valley, Christopher C; Lewis, Andrew K; Mudaliar, Deepti J; Perlmutter, Jason D; Braun, Anthony R; Karim, Christine B; Thomas, David D; Brody, Jonathan R; Sachs, Jonathan N

    2012-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests that TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death-inducing cytokine with anti-tumor potential, initiates apoptosis by re-organizing TRAIL receptors into large clusters, although the structure of these clusters and the mechanism by which they assemble are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TRAIL receptor 2 (DR5) forms receptor dimers in a ligand-dependent manner at endogenous receptor levels, and these receptor dimers exist within high molecular weight networks. Using mutational analysis, FRET, fluorescence microscopy, synthetic biochemistry, and molecular modeling, we find that receptor dimerization relies upon covalent and noncovalent interactions between membrane-proximal residues. Additionally, by using FRET, we show that the oligomeric structure of two functional isoforms of DR5 is indistinguishable. The resulting model of DR5 activation should revise the accepted architecture of the functioning units of DR5 and the structurally homologous TNF receptor superfamily members.

  4. 4-Nonylphenol induces disruption of spermatogenesis associated with oxidative stress-related apoptosis by targeting p53-Bcl-2/Bax-Fas/FasL signaling.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peng; Hu, Chunhui; Butler, Holly J; Quan, Chao; Chen, Wei; Huang, Wenting; Tang, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Meng; Shi, Yuqin; Martin, Francis L; Yang, Kedi

    2017-03-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) is a ubiquitous environmental chemical with estrogenic activity. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that pubertal exposure to NP leads to testicular dysfunction. Herein, 24 7-week-old rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NP (0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight every 2 days for 20 consecutive days) by intraperitoneal injection. Compared to untreated controls, the parameters of sperm activation rate, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, and swimming velocity were significantly lower at doses of 100 mg/kg, while sperm morphological abnormalities were higher, indicating functional disruption and reduced fertilization potential. High exposure to NP (100 mg/kg) resulted in disordered arrangement of spermatoblasts and reduction of spermatocytes in seminiferous tubules, while tissues exhibited a marked decline in testicular fructose content and serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels. Oxidative stress was induced by NP (50 or 100 mg/kg) as evidenced by elevated MDA, decreased SOD and GSH-Px, and inhibited antioxidant gene expression (CAT, GPx, SOD1, and CYP1B1). In addition, NP treatment decreased proportions of Ki-67-positive cells and increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Rats treated with 100 mg/kg NP exhibited significantly increased mRNA expression of caspase-1, -2, -9, and -11, decreased caspase-8 and PCNA1 mRNA expression, downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratios and upregulation of Fas, FasL, and p53 at the protein and mRNA levels. Taken together, NP-induced apoptosis, hormonal deficiencies, and depletion of fructose potentially impairs spermatogenesis and sperm function. p53-independent Fas/FasL-Bax/Bcl-2 pathways may be involved in NP-induced oxidative stress-related apoptosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 739-753, 2017.

  5. Cholecystokinin attenuates radiation-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis by modulating p53 gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi; Su, Chongyu; Yu, Daping; Zhou, Shijie; Song, Xiaoyun; Liu, Shuku; Qin, Ming; Li, Yunsong; Xiao, Ning; Cao, Xiaoqing; Shi, Kang; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    The deregulation of p53 in cancer cells is one of the important factors by which cancer cells escape from the immune surveillance. Cholecystokinin (CCK) has strong bioactivity in the regulation of a number of cell activities. This study tests a hypothesis that CCK interferes with p53 expression to affect the apoptotic process in lung cancer (tumor) cells. In this study, tumor-bearing mice and A549 cells (a tumor cell line) were irradiated. The expression of CCK and p53 in tumor cells was assessed with RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The binding of p300 to the promoter of p53 was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We observed that, with a given amount and within a given period, small doses/more sessions of irradiation markedly increased the levels of CCK in the sera and tumor cells, which were positively correlated with the tumor growth in mice and negatively correlated with tumor cell apoptosis. CCK increased the levels of histone acetyltransferase p300 and repressed the levels of nuclear factor-kB at the p53 promoter locus in tumor cells, which suppressed the expression of p53. In conclusion, CCK plays an important role in attenuating the radiation-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis. CCK may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of lung cancers. PMID:28337291

  6. Che-1 gene silencing induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by inhibiting mutant p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Dan; Li, Ning

    2016-04-22

    The transcriptional cofactor Che-1 is an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) which is involved in tumorigenesis, such as breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Che-1 can also regulate mutant p53 expression, which plays roles in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and specific mechanism of Che-1 in the regulation of osteosarcoma (OS) cell growth. We found that Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells compared with osteoblast hFOB1.19 cells. MTT and flow cytometry assays showed that Che-1 depletion by siRNA markedly suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay verified the presence of Che-1 on the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells carrying mutant p53. Further studies showed that Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. Notably, our study showed that the loss of Che-1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MG-63 cells by decreasing the level of mutant p53. Therefore, these findings open the possibility that silencing of Che-1 will have therapeutic benefit in OS.

  7. Lentiviral vector PLV-PI3KCG gene transfer inhibits hypoxic cardiomyocytes apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Xin-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt signal pathway was suggested to be associated with apoptosis. However, it was still unclear whether activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway could inhibit hypoxic cardiomyocytes apoptosis. In this research, the recombinant PI3KCG lentiviral vector plasmid (PLV-PI3KCG) was constructed and transfected into neonatal rat hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury cardiomyocytes models which were randomly divided into five groups as the normal control group, H/R group, HR empty plasmid group (HRE group), HR PLV-PI3KCG transfection preconditioning group (HRP group), and HR PLV-PI3KCG transfection + LY294002 group (HRPL group). Compared with the H/R, HRE and HRPL groups, the cardiomyocytes beat frequency and survival rate in the HRP group were significantly increased (P<0.05) and the released LDH were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly lower in H/R, HRE and HRPL groups than that in HRP group (P<0.05). Activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway could play a protection role in the cardiomyocytes H/R injury process which could be inhibited by LY294002. PMID:26884933

  8. Hepatic Xbp1 Gene Deletion Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Liver Injury and Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Shantel; Henkel, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a highly conserved signaling cascade that functions to alleviate stress and promote cell survival. If, however, the cell is unable to adapt and restore homeostasis, then the UPR activates pathways that promote apoptotic cell death. The molecular mechanisms governing the critical transition from adaptation and survival to initiation of apoptosis remain poorly understood. We aim to determine the role of hepatic Xbp1, a key mediator of the UPR, in controlling the adaptive response to ER stress in the liver. Liver-specific Xbp1 knockout mice (Xbp1LKO) and Xbp1fl/fl control mice were subjected to varying levels and durations of pharmacologic ER stress. Xbp1LKO and Xbp1fl/fl mice showed robust and equal activation of the UPR acutely after induction of ER stress. By 24 h, Xbp1fl/fl controls showed complete resolution of UPR activation and no liver injury, indicating successful adaptation to the stress. Conversely, Xbp1LKO mice showed ongoing UPR activation associated with progressive liver injury, apoptosis, and, ultimately, fibrosis by day 7 after induction of ER stress. These data indicate that hepatic XBP1 controls the adaptive response of the UPR and is critical to restoring homeostasis in the liver in response to ER stress. PMID:26504083

  9. Wnt antagonist DKK1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene that induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Hinoda, Yuji; Nakajima, Koichi; Kawamoto, Ken; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Ueno, Koji; Yamamura, Soichiro; Zaman, Mohd S; Khatri, Gaurav; Chen, Yi; Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Deng, Guoren; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2011-04-15

    The functional significance of Wnt antagonist DKK1 has not been investigated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, we hypothesized that DKK1 may be a tumor suppressor gene and is epigenetically silenced, thus decreased DKK1 may cause progression of RCC. To assess the function of DKK1, we established stable DKK1 transfected cells and monitored them regarding cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and invasive capability. RCC cell lines had decreased levels of DKK1, which were increased after treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, the level of dimethyl H3K9 and trimethyl H3K27 was decreased after 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine/trichostatin A treatment in RCC cell lines. Increased methylation was also associated with higher pathological stages in primary RCC tissues. T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor activity and nuclear beta-catenin expression were not changed in DKK1 transfectants. Also the expression of cyclinD1 and c-Myc was not changed in DKK1 transfectants. These results suggest that DKK1 may not be involved in the beta-catenin dependent pathway. We also evaluated the expression of various related genes. Cleaved caspase3, p53, p21 and puma expression were significantly upregulated in the DKK1 transfected cells. The population of apoptotic cells was increased in stable DKK1 cells and tumor growth suppression was also observed in nude mice with DKK1 transfected cells. In conclusion, this is the first report to show that DKK1 expression is epigenetically silenced in kidney cancer and its reexpression induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RCC.

  10. Adenovirus-mediated ING4 Gene Transfer in Osteosarcoma Suppresses Tumor Growth via Induction of Apoptosis and Inhibition of Tumor Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Xie, Yufeng; Sheng, Weihua; Miao, Jingcheng; Yang, Jicheng

    2015-10-01

    The inhibitor of growth (ING) family proteins have been defined as candidate tumor suppressors. ING4 as a novel member of ING family has potential tumor-suppressive effects via multiple pathways. However, the therapeutic effect of adenovirus-mediated ING4 (Ad-ING4) gene transfer in human osteosarcoma is still unknown. In this study, we explored the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of Ad-ING4 in human osteosarcoma and its potential mechanism using a MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line. We demonstrated that Ad-ING4 induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis, upregulated the expression of P21, P27 and Bax, downregulated the Bcl-2 expression and activated Caspase-3 in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, intratumoral injections of Ad-ING4 in athymic nude mice bearing MG-63 human osteosarcoma tumors significantly suppressed osteosarcoma xenografted tumor growth, increased the expression of P21, P27 and Bax, reduced the Bcl-2 and CD34 expression and microvessel density (MVD) in tumors. This retarded MG-63 osteosarcoma growth in vitro and in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model elicited by Ad-ING4 was closely associated with the increase in the expression of cell cycle-related molecules P21 and P27, decrease in the ratio of anti- to pro-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2/Bax followed by the activation of Caspase-3 leading to apoptosis via intrinsic apoptotic pathways, and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, our results indicate that Ad-ING4 is a potential candidate for human osteosarcoma gene therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Wild-type measles virus infection upregulates poliovirus receptor-related 4 and causes apoptosis in brain endothelial cells by induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Hani'ah; Brankin, Brenda; Brady, Clare; Cosby, Sara Louise

    2013-07-01

    Small numbers of brain endothelial cells (BECs) are infected in children with neurologic complications of measles virus (MV) infection. This may provide a mechanism for virus entry into the central nervous system, but the mechanisms are unclear. Both in vitro culture systems and animal models are required to elucidate events in the endothelium. We compared the ability of wild-type (WT), vaccine, and rodent-adapted MV strains to infect, replicate, and induce apoptosis in human and murine brain endothelial cells (HBECs and MBECs, respectively). Mice also were infected intracerebrally. All MV stains productively infected HBECs and induced the MV receptor PVRL4. Efficient WT MV production also occurred in MBECs. Extensive monolayer destruction associated with activated caspase 3 staining was observed in HBECs and MBECs, most markedly with WT MV. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not Fas ligand, was induced by MV infection. Treatment of MBECs with supernatants from MV-infected MBEC cultures with an anti-TRAIL antibody blocked caspase 3 expression and monolayer destruction. TRAIL was also expressed in the endothelium and other cell types in infected murine brains. This is the first demonstration that infection of low numbers of BECs with WT MV allows efficient virus production, induction of TRAIL, and subsequent widespread apoptosis.

  12. [Effect of TAK1 gene silencing on the apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by arsenic trioxide].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-xia; Fan, Rui-hua; Wei, Xu-dong; Yin, Qing-song; Mi, Rui-hua; Song, Yong-ping

    2013-05-01

    To study the effect of transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃). Acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21) cell line Kasumi-1 cells were treated with As₂O₃ or in combination with TAK1 siRNA interference technology. The experiment was divided into four groups: Kasumi-1 cells without any treatment, TAK1 specific siRNA transfection alone, Kasumi-1 cells treated with different concentration of As₂O₃, TAK1siRNA transfection combined with As₂O₃. CCK-8 was used to detect the cell viability. The expression of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) was determined by Western Blot. Cell apoptosis and growth were examined by morphological and colony formation assay. After Kasumi-1 cells were treated with As₂O₃, the rate of cell inhibition was concentration-dependent, and the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.5 μmol/L. The highest expression level of P-JNK appeared in 30 minutes after cells were treated with As₂O₃. The apoptosis rates of Kasumi-1 cells without any treatment, TAK1 siRNA interference alone group, As₂O₃ alone group and the combined group were (5.02 ± 1.13)%, (6.18 ± 0.28)%, (48.33 ± 2.70)% and (86.07 ± 2.21)%; colony formation rates were (73.83 ± 2.78)%, (76.03 ± 1.46)%, (55.07 ± 1.50)% and (22.20 ± 1.15)%; apoptosis rate of TAK1 siRNA group and the untreated group has no significant difference (P = 0.052); colony formation rate between TAk1 siRNA group and the untreated group has no significant difference (P = 0.179), but the difference in other groups was significant (P = 0.000). Silencing the expression of TAK1 can enhance the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of As₂O₃ on Kasumi-1 cells, and its mechanism may be through the TAK1 downstream JNK signal pathway.

  13. Lower incidence of deletions in the survival of motor neuron gene and the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene in children with spinal muscular atrophy from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Miskovic, Marijana; Lalic, Tanja; Radivojevic, Danijela; Cirkovic, Sanja; Vlahovic, Gordana; Zamurovic, Dragan; Guc-Scekic, Marija

    2011-11-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the second most frequent autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular atrophy. SMA is classified into three types according to disease severity and age-onset: severe (type I), intermediate (type II) and mild (type III). Deletions in the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene, located in the chromosome region 5q11.2- 5q13.3, are major determinants of SMA phenotype. Extended deletions that include the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene may correlate with the severtity of SMA. SMN gene is present in two highly homologous copies, SMN1 and SMN2, but only deletions of the SMN1 gene (exons 7 and 8 or exon 7) are responsible for clinical manifestations of SMA. Here, we present the deletion profiling of SMN1 and NAIP genes in 89 children with SMA from Serbia: 52 patients with type I, 26 with type II, and 11 with type III. The homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene was confirmed in 72 of 89 (81%) patients, being the most frequent in SMA type I (48/52): 68 patients (94.4%) with deletion of exons 7 and 8 and 4 patients (5.6%) with deletion of exon 7. The extended deletion including the NAIP gene was detected in 18 of 89 (20.2%) patients, mostly affected with type I. This study has revealed the lower incidence of deletions in the SMN1 and NAIP genes in families with SMA in Serbia and will provide important information for genetic counselling in these families.

  14. Neurofibromin and Neuronal Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    role of familial pheochromocytoma genes, including succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and Nf1, in modulating neuronal apoptosis following neurotrophin...gene products, in Nf1-/- sensory and sympathetic neurons; this work will also have relevance to the biology of familial pheochromocytoma . "So what...Schlisio, S. (2005). Neuronal apoptosis linked to EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase and familial pheochromocytoma genes: Developmental culling and cancer. Cancer

  15. Protein Kinase C Processes and Their Relation to Apoptosis in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    since calyculin A was the most effective compound. DNA fragmentation was the next hallmark of apoptosis measured using calyculin A. Calyculin A does not...promote internucleosomal DNA fragmentation , but does induce heavy molecular weight DNA fragmentation at concentrations that induce apoptotic...morphology in MDA-MB-231 cells. This compound instigates apoptotic morphology and heavy molecular weight DNA fragmentation in MDA-MB-231 cells characteristic

  16. Cloning the Gravity and Shear Stress Related Genes from MG-63 Cells by Subtracting Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Dai, Zhong-quan; Wang, Bing; Cao, Xin-sheng; Li, Ying-hui; Sun, Xi-qing

    2008-06-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to clone the gravity and shear stress related genes from osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by subtractive hybridization. Method MG-63 cells were divided into two groups (1G group and simulated microgravity group). After cultured for 60 h in two different gravitational environments, two groups of MG-63 cells were treated with 1.5Pa fluid shear stress (FSS) for 60 min, respectively. The total RNA in cells was isolated. The gravity and shear stress related genes were cloned by subtractive hybridization. Result 200 clones were gained. 30 positive clones were selected using PCR method based on the primers of vector and sequenced. The obtained sequences were analyzed by blast. changes of 17 sequences were confirmed by RT-PCR and these genes are related to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, protein synthesis, signal transduction and apoptosis. 5 unknown genes related to gravity and shear stress were found. Conclusion In this part of our study, our result indicates that simulated microgravity may change the activities of MG-63 cells by inducing the functional alterations of specific genes.

  17. Secreted Frizzled related protein-4 (sFRP4) promotes epidermal differentiation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maganga, Richard; Giles, Natalie; Adcroft, Katharine; Unni, Ambili; Keeney, Diane; Wood, Fiona; Fear, Mark Dharmarajan, Arunasalam

    2008-12-12

    The skin provides vital protection from infection and dehydration. Maintenance of the skin is through a constant program of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of epidermal cells, whereby proliferating cells in the basal layer differentiating to form the keratinized, anucleated stratum corneum. The WNT signalling pathway is known to be important in the skin. WNT signalling has been shown to be important both in epidermal development and in the maintenance and cycling of hair follicles and epidermal stem cells. However, the precise role for this pathway in epidermal differentiation remains unknown. We investigated the role of the WNT signalling inhibitor sFRP4 in epidermal differentiation. sFRP4 is expressed in both normal skin and keratinocytes in culture. Expression of sFRP4 mRNA and protein increases with keratinocyte differentiation and apoptosis, whilst exposure of keratinocytes to exogenous sFRP4 promotes apoptosis and expression of the terminal differentiation marker Involucrin. These data suggest sFRP4 promotes epidermal differentiation.

  18. 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine Sensitizes Busulfan-resistant Myeloid Leukemia Cells By Regulating Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Checkpoint and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Li, Yang; Murray, David; Corn, Paul; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2009-01-01

    Busulfan (Bu) is a DNA-alkylating drug used in myeloablative pretransplant conditioning therapy for patients with myeloid leukemia (ML). A major obstacle to successful treatment is cellular Bu-resistance. To investigate the possible contribution of DNA hypermethylation to Bu-resistance, we examined the cytotoxic activity of combined 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) and Bu. Exposure of Bu-resistant B5/Bu2506 ML cells to 0.5 μM DAC resulted in G2-arrest and apoptosis. The observed G2-arrest was associated with hypomethylation and subsequent expression of epigenetically controlled genes including p16INK4A, activation of the p53 pathway, and phosphorylation of CDC2. The DAC-mediated apoptosis was partly due to hypomethylation and up-regulation of XAF1, which resulted in down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2. The pro-apoptotic PUMA and BNIP3 proteins were up-regulated while pro-survival STAT3 and c-MYC were suppressed. Combination of 0.05 μM DAC and 5 μg/ml Bu resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity, which was associated with PARP1 cleavage and activation of caspases 3 and 8, suggesting induction of an apoptotic response. P53 inhibition in B5/Bu2506 cells using pifithrin-α alleviated these effects, suggesting a role for p53 therein; this observation was supported by the relative resistance of p53-null K562 cells to [DAC+Bu] combinations and by the effects of an anti-p53 shRNA on the OCI-AML3 cell line. We conclude that the synergistic effects of [DAC+Bu] are p53-dependent and involve cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and down-regulation of pro-survival genes. Our results suggest that, depending on tumor p53 status, incorporation of DAC might synergistically improve the cytoreductive efficacy of Bu-based pre-transplant regimen in patients with ML. PMID:19732952

  19. Vitamin C protects against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis through reactivating silenced tumor suppressor genes p21 and p16 in a Tet-dependent DNA demethylation manner in human skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-ran; Qin, Hai-hong; Wu, Wen-yu; He, Shu-juan; Xu, Jin-hua

    2014-08-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in various kinds of carcinogenesis. Vitamin C could induce Tet-dependent DNA demethylation in embryonic stem cells. Therefore, the antagonizing activity of vitamin C on ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis was investigated in this study. Apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p16-knockout (KO) or p21-KO fibroblasts was assessed by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the relative expression levels of p12, p21, and Tet1/2/3 genes. The global DNA methylation levels were determined using MethylFlash Methylated DNA Quantification Kit in A431 cells with or without vitamin C treatment. To examine the DNA demethylation activity of vitamin C, DNA immunoprecipitation (DIP)-qPCR was performed to determine the relative levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in p16 and p21 promoter regions containing cytosine-phosphorothiolated guanine (CpG) islands. The increasing apoptosis of A431 cells under prolonged UV irradiation was remarkably decreased by the combination of vitamin C treatment, suggesting that vitamin C protects against UV-induced apoptosis. Concurrently, vitamin C induced a significant reduction of global DNA methylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in A431 cells. Vitamin C also reactivated the expression of p16 and p21 at mRNA and protein levels. Mechanistically, about 27% 5hmC-positive cells were observed in vitamin C-treated A431 cells, and the 5hmC enrichment at p16 and p21 promoter regions was also largely increased by vitamin C. Moreover, the expression of p16 and p21 was decreased in Tet1/2 double-knockdown cells, in which the inhibitory effect of vitamin C on UV-induced apoptosis was dismissed. Furthermore, the inhibition of UV-induced apoptosis on vitamin C treatment nearly disappeared in p16- or p21-knockout primary cultured fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that vitamin C effectively antagonizes UV

  20. The Impact of Autophagy on the Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Apoptosis of Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Jang, An-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies report that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema, and macroautophagy is one of the processes regulating the apoptosis pathway. However, few studies have evaluated whether chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) contributes to the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of autophagy, including both macroautophagy and CMA, on the apoptosis in bronchial epithelial cells. Methods Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was injected intratracheally into C57BL/6 mice, and emphysema and apoptosis were evaluated in the lungs. After treatment with CSE, apoptosis, macroautophagy, and CMA were measured in BEAS2-B cells, and the impact of autophagy on the apoptosis was evaluated following knockdown of autophagy-related genes by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Results Intratracheal CSE injection resulted in the development of emphysema and an increase in apoptosis in mice. CSE increased the apoptosis in BEAS2-B cells, and also elevated the expression of proteins related to both macroautophagy and CMA in BEAS2-B cells. The knockdown experiment with siRNAs showed that macroautophagy increases apoptosis in BEAS2-B cells, while CMA suppresses apoptosis. Conclusion The intratracheal injection of CSE induces pulmonary emphysema and an increase in apoptosis in mice. CSE also induces apoptosis, macroautophagy, and CMA of bronchial epithelial cells. Macroautophagy and CMA regulate apoptosis in opposite directions. PMID:28119751

  1. Molecular cloning and gene expression of canine apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Tomura, Shintaro; Uchida, Mona; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Masato; Bonkobara, Makoto; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru; Tamahara, Satoshi; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) plays roles in survival of macrophages. In this study, we cloned canine AIM cDNA and observed its transcriptional expression levels in various tissues. The coding sequence of canine AIM was 1,023 bp encoding 340 amino acid residues, which had around 65% homology with those of the human, mouse and rat. Transcriptional expression of AIM was observed in the spleen, lung, liver and lymph node, which confirmed the expression of canine AIM in tissue macrophages. Moreover, AIM was highly expressed in one of the canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines. CD36, the receptor of AIM, was also expressed in various tissues and these cell lines. These findings are useful to reveal the actual functions of canine AIM.

  2. Double gene siRNA knockdown of mutant p53 and TNF induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pileczki, Valentina; Pop, Laura; Braicu, Cornelia; Budisan, Livia; Bolba Morar, Gabriela; del C Monroig-Bosque, Paloma; Sandulescu, Robert V; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is the major downregulated pathway in cancer. Simultaneous inhibition using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) of two key player genes, p53 and TNF, is an interesting and feasible strategy when it comes to investigating various molecular pathways and biological processes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is one of the most aggressive and therapeutically unresponsive forms of breast cancers. Our present research focuses on evaluating the impact of double p53-siRNA and TNF-siRNA knockdown at a cellular level, and also evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, induction of autophagy, and gene expression by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction array approaches. Simultaneous inhibition of p53 and TNF in Hs578T TNBC human cell line revealed a panel of up- and downregulated genes involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, the effects of double gene knockdown were validated in a second TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231, by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay. All our findings help in understanding the functional mechanisms of extrinsic apoptosis, cell signaling pathways, and the mechanisms involved in tumor cell survival, growth, and death in TNBC. PMID:27956838

  3. Combined effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and ionizing radiation in breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Prasad, Uttara; Shankar, Sunita; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Shanaiah, Murthy; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2000-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent endogenous activator of the cell death pathway and functions by activating the cell surface death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). TRAIL is nontoxic in vivo and preferentially kills neoplastically transformed cells over normal cells by an undefined mechanism. Radiotherapy is a common treatment for breast cancer as well as many other cancers. Here we demonstrate that ionizing radiation can sensitize breast carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This synergistic effect is p53-dependent and may be the result of radiation-induced up-regulation of the TRAIL-receptor DR5. Importantly, TRAIL and ionizing radiation have a synergistic effect in the regression of established breast cancer xenografts. Changes in tumor cellularity and extracellular space were monitored in vivo by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI), a noninvasive technique to produce quantitative images of the apparent mobility of water within a tissue. Increased water mobility was observed in combined TRAIL- and radiation-treated tumors but not in tumors treated with TRAIL or radiation alone. Histological analysis confirmed the loss of cellularity and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in TRAIL- and radiation-treated tumors. Taken together, our results provide support for combining radiation with TRAIL to improve tumor eradication and suggest that efficacy of apoptosis-inducing cancer therapies may be monitored noninvasively, using diffusion MRI. PMID:10677530

  4. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Disease is Associated with Depressed Levels of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Funda; Yalçın, Arzu Didem; Genç, Gizem Esra; Sarıkaya, Metin; Bisgin, Atıl; Çetinkaya, Ramazan; Gümüşlü, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by multiple, large renal cysts and impaired kidney function. Although the reason for the development of kidney cysts is unknown, ADPKD is associated with cell cycle arrest and abundant apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Aims: We asked whether serum-soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) might underlie ADPKD. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Serum sTRAIL levels were measured in 44 patients with ADPKD and 18 healthy volunteers. The human soluble TRAIL/Apo2L ELISA kit was used for the in vitro quantitative determination of sTRAIL in serum samples. Results: Mean serum sTRAIL levels were lower in patients with ADPKD as compared to the control group (446.9±103.1 and 875.9±349.6 pg/mL, p<0.001). Serum sTRAIL levels did not differ among stages of renal failure in patients with ADPKD. There was no correlation between serum sTRAIL levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with ADPKD (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our results show that ADPKD patients have depressed sTRAIL levels, indicating apoptosis unrelated to the stage of chronic renal failure. PMID:27761278

  5. Che-1 gene silencing induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by inhibiting mutant p53 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Dan Li, Ning

    2016-04-22

    The transcriptional cofactor Che-1 is an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) which is involved in tumorigenesis, such as breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Che-1 can also regulate mutant p53 expression, which plays roles in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and specific mechanism of Che-1 in the regulation of osteosarcoma (OS) cell growth. We found that Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells compared with osteoblast hFOB1.19 cells. MTT and flow cytometry assays showed that Che-1 depletion by siRNA markedly suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay verified the presence of Che-1 on the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells carrying mutant p53. Further studies showed that Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. Notably, our study showed that the loss of Che-1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MG-63 cells by decreasing the level of mutant p53. Therefore, these findings open the possibility that silencing of Che-1 will have therapeutic benefit in OS. - Highlights: • Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells. • Che-1 depletion suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell growth. • Che-1 is existed in the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells. • Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. • Che-1 depletion inhibits cell growth by decreasing the level of mutant p53.

  6. Ginsenoside Rg1 Protects against Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis through Myosin IIA-actin Related Cytoskeletal Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Qian; Xu, Yingqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yanni; Tan, Yisha; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Ma, Xiaonan; Wang, Jingrong; Cao, Zhengyu; Yu, Boyang; Kou, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal dysfunction of neurons has been implicated as a crucial cause of cell apoptosis or death in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The application of neuroprotectants rescuing the neurons from cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis can be a potential treatment for these CNS diseases. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major active components of ginseng, has been reported possessing notable neuroprotective activities. However, there is rare report about its effect on cytoskeleton and its undergoing mechanism. The current study is to reveal the regulatory effects of Rg1 on cytoskeletal and morphological lesion in oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. The results demonstrated that pre-treatment with Rg1 (0.1-10 μM) attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress through reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level. The Rg1 treatment also abolished H2O2-induced morphological changes, including cell rounding, membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and nuclei condensation, which were generated by myosin IIA-actin interaction. These effects were mediated via the down-regulation of caspase-3, ROCK1 (Rho-associated kinase1) activation and myosin light chain (MLC, Ser-19) phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibiting myosin II activity with blebbistatin partly blocked the neuroprotective effects of Rg1. The computer-aided homology modelling revealed that Rg1 preferentially positioned in the actin binding cleft of myosin IIA and might block the binding of myosin IIA to actin filaments. Accordingly, the neuroprotective mechanism of Rg1 is related to the activity that inhibits myosin IIA-actin interaction and the caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC signaling pathway. These findings put some insights into the unique neuroprotective properties of Rg1 associated with the regulation of myosin IIA

  7. [Treatment of osteosarcoma with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or in combination with doxorubicin in animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Yu, Ai-xi; Zhu, Shao-bo; Qi, Bai-wen

    2009-10-13

    To examine the effect of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and in combination with doxorubicin (ADM) to xenografted tumors in nude mice and to explore its potential mechanism. MG-63 cells (5 x 10(6)/ml) were suspended in 0.2 ml RPMI-1640 and inoculated subcutaneously into the lower limb of nude mice. Treatment groups were given TRAIL of different concentration or combination of TRAIL and ADM intraperitoneally. Normal saline was administrated in the control group. Anti-tumor effects were estimated by tumor volumes. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was detected by ALP kits. Induction of apoptosis in xenografted tumors was confirmed by TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay. Expression of Bax was detected by immunohistochemical assay. Expression of TRAIL receptors was detected by RT-PCR assay. Growth curve of tumors indicated that tumors carried by TRAIL-treated mice grew more slowly than that with normal saline and 2 microg TRAIL was more effective, Also tumors treated with combination of TRAIL and ADM grew more slowly than any other group. ALP activities of each group were moderately different but significance was not reached. TUNEL showed that there were more apoptotic cells in the combination group than any other group. Immunohistochemical assay showed that expression of Bax was up-regulated in the combination group. RT-PCR showed that expression of TRAIL-R2 mRNA was up-regulated in the combination group. TRAIL can induce an effective apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells in vivo in a dose-dependent fashion. ADM can enhance the effect of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. And up-regulations of Bax and TRAIL-R2 may be the involved mechanism.

  8. Si Shen Wan Inhibits mRNA Expression of Apoptosis-Related Molecules in p38 MAPK Signal Pathway in Mice with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Feng; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wan, Pan-Ting; Huang, Min-Fang; Ye, Qing; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Si Shen Wan (SSW) is used to effectively treat ulcerative colitis (UC) as a formula of traditional Chinese medicine. To explore the mechanism of SSW-inhibited apoptosis of colonic epithelial cell, the study observed mRNA expression of apoptosis-related molecules in p38 MAPK signal pathway in colonic mucosa in colitis mice treated with SSW. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice; meanwhile, the mice were administrated daily either SSW (5 g/kg) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (physiological saline) for 10 days. While microscopical evaluation was observed, apoptosis rate of colonic epithelial cell and mRNA expression of apoptosis-related molecules were tested. Compared with colitis mice without treatment, SSW alleviated colonic mucosal injuries and decreased apoptosis rate of colonic epithelial cell, while the mRNA expressions of p38 MAPK, p53, caspase-3, c-jun, c-fos, Bax, and TNF-α were decreased in the colonic mucosa in colitis mice treated with SSW, and Bcl-2 mRNA and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased. The present study demonstrated that SSW inhibited mRNA expression of apoptosis-related molecules in p38 MAPK signal pathway to downregulate colonic epithelial cells apoptosis in colonic mucosa in mice with colitis. PMID:24223057

  9. Yolk sac angiogenic defect and intra-embryonic apoptosis in mice lacking the Ets-related factor TEL.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L C; Kuo, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gilliland, D G; Golub, T R; Orkin, S H

    1997-01-01

    The TEL gene, which is frequently rearranged in human leukemias of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, encodes a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. The TEL gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development and in the adult. To determine the requirement for the TEL gene product in development we generated TEL knockout mice (TEL-/-) by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. TEL-/- mice are embryonic lethal and die between E10.5-11.5 with defective yolk sac angiogenesis and intra-embryonic apoptosis of mesenchymal and neural cells. Two-thirds of TEL-deficient yolk sacs at E9.5 lack vitelline vessels, yet possess capillaries, indicative of normal vasculogenesis. Vitelline vessels regress by E10.5 in the remaining TEL-/- yolk sacs. Hematopoiesis at the yolk sac stage, however, appears unaffected in TEL-/- embryos. Our findings demonstrate that TEL is required for maintenance of the developing vascular network in the yolk sac and for survival of selected cell types within the embryo proper. PMID:9250681

  10. Age-related changes in gene expression in tissues of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Loram, Jeannette; Bodnar, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    The life history of sea urchins is fundamentally different from that of traditional models of aging and therefore they provide the opportunity to gain new insight into this complex process. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species exhibit negligible senescence. Using a microarray and qRT-PCR, age-related changes in gene expression were examined in three tissues (muscle, esophagus and nerve) of the sea urchin species Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The results indicate age-related changes in gene expression involving many key cellular functions such as the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, DNA metabolism, signaling pathways and apoptosis. Although there are tissue-specific differences in the gene expression profiles, there are some characteristics that are shared between tissues providing insight into potential mechanisms that promote lack of senescence in these animals. As an example, there is an increase in expression of genes encoding components of the Notch signaling pathway with age in all three tissues and a decrease in expression of the Wnt1 gene in both muscle and nerve. The interplay between the Notch and Wnt pathways may be one mechanism that ensures continued regeneration of tissues with advancing age contributing to the general lack of age-related decline in these animals.

  11. Signaling pathways involved in induction of GADD45 gene expression and apoptosis by troglitazone in human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fen; Bruemmer, Dennis; Blaschke, Florian; Hsueh, Willa A; Law, Ronald E; Herle, Andre J Van

    2004-06-03

    We previously reported that the PPARgamma agonist troglitazone (TRO) inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. To understand the mechanisms of antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TRO, we screened a limited DNA array containing 23 genes involved in regulating either the cell cycle and/or apoptosis. Four of the 23 genes screened exhibited regulation by TRO, with growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 45 (GADD45) being the most strongly upregulated. TRO induced GADD45 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Depletion of GADD45 by siRNA abrogated TRO-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells demonstrating the physiological relevance of GADD45 upregulation. Signaling pathways mediating TRO-induced GADD45 were also investigated. Several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were involved in the induction of GADD45 by TRO. Inhibition of the c-jun N-terminal kinase MAPK pathway by SP600125 partially abolished TRO-induced GADD45 mRNA, and protein expression and apoptosis. In contrast, inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway by SB203580, or through overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 MAPK, augmented GADD45 mRNA induction and GADD45 promoter activation as well as cell apoptosis by TRO. Blockade of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK pathway by PD98059 also enhanced TRO's effects on GADD45 and apoptosis. Two other PPARgamma agonists pioglitazone and rosiglitazone did not induce GADD45 expression. Our finding of GADD45 induction by TRO may provide a new insight concerning the mechanisms for TRO's antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in breast cancer cells.

  12. Irradiation enhances the tumor tropism and therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-secreting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in glioma therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Muk; Oh, Ji Hyeon; Park, Soon A; Ryu, Chung Heon; Lim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Dal-Soo; Chang, Jong Wook; Oh, Wonil; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2010-12-01

    Irradiation is a standard therapy for gliomas and many other cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the most promising candidates for cancer gene therapy. Here, we show that tumor irradiation enhances the tumor tropism of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and the therapeutic effect of TRAIL delivered by UCB-MSCs. The sequential treatment with irradiation followed by TRAIL-secreting UCB-MSCs (MSC-TRAIL) synergistically enhanced apoptosis in either TRAIL-sensitive or TRAIL-resistant glioma cells by upregulating the death receptor 5 and by inducing caspase activation. Migration assays showed greater MSC migration toward irradiated glioma cells and the tumor site in glioma-bearing mice compared with unirradiated tumors. Irradiated glioma cells had increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which leads to the upregulation of the IL-8 receptor on MSCs. This upregulation, which is involved in the migratory capacity of UCB-MSCs, was confirmed by siRNA inhibition and an antibody-neutralizing assay. In vivo survival experiments in orthotopic xenografted mice showed that MSC-based TRAIL gene delivery to irradiated tumors had greater therapeutic efficacy than a single treatment. These results suggest that clinically relevant tumor irradiation increases the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-TRAIL by increasing tropism of MSCs and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which may be a more useful strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  13. Construction of differentially expressed genes library of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) exposed to microcystin-lr using ssh and expression profile of related genes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhihui; Zhang, Kaiyue; Qu, Xiancheng; Liu, Qigen

    2011-12-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). There are more than 70 MCs variants of which the most common and widely studied is MC-LR. We screened the hepatocellular differentially expressed genes against MC-LR in the bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to construct the forward subtracted and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries, and one hundred and thirty two positive clones (seventy one in forward library and sixty one in reverse library) were randomly selected and sequenced. Finally, fifty five reliable sequences from the forward subtracted library were used in a homology search by BLASTn and BLASTx, as were 57 reliable sequences from the reverse subtracted library. Furthermore, eight analyzed sequences from the forward subtracted cDNA library and seven from the reverse subtracted library were found to be non-homologous sequences. The screening identified genes induced by MC-LR in both libraries that are involved in various processes, such as energy metabolism, immunity, and apoptosis. Some are cytoskeleton- and transportation-related genes, while signal transduction-related genes were also found. Significant genes, such as the apoptosis-related gene p53 and the proto-oncogene c-myc, are involved in inhibition of the MC-LR response in the reverse subtracted library. In addition, several immune-related genes, which play an important role in antioxidation and detoxification of MC-LR, were characterized and identified in both of the subtracted libraries. The study provides the basic data to further identify the genes and molecular mechanism of detoxification of microcystins.

  14. PpIX induces mitochondria-related apoptosis in murine leukemia L1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Pan; Li, Long; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a well-known sensitizer that can enhance laser light or ultrasound induced cytotoxicity in photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy. However, PpIX alone could effectively cause anti-tumor effect and the underlying mechanisms are rarely been reported. Therefore, this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which PpIX revealed anti-proliferative effect on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The accumulation of PpIX in L1210 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated with flow cytometry. The subcellular localization of PpIX and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation were determined by confocal microscope. The cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD and DAPI staining were used to detect apoptotic cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes were tested by rhodamine123 staining. DNA damage was measured by comet assay. PpIX preferentially accumulated in L1210 cells compared to PBMCs and PpIX mainly located in the mitochondria of L1210 cells. PpIX at a concentration of 1 µg/ml or above exerted significant anti-tumor effect and the cell viability loss presented PpIX dose-dependent manner. Typical apoptotic features such as chromatin condensation were observed by DAPI staining. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD analysis showed 5 µg/ml PpIX could induce about 24% cell apoptosis, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In addition, the PpIX caused MMP loss, AIF translocation to nucleus and serious DNA damage were also suppressed by CsA. The results indicate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were involved in PpIX caused cell damage on L1210 cells.

  15. Identification of cancer-related genes and motifs in the human gene regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Carson, Matthew B; Gu, Jianlei; Yu, Guangjun; Lu, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The authors investigated the regulatory network motifs and corresponding motif positions of cancer-related genes. First, they mapped disease-related genes to a transcription factor regulatory network. Next, they calculated statistically significant motifs and subsequently identified positions within these motifs that were enriched in cancer-related genes. Potential mechanisms of these motifs and positions are discussed. These results could be used to identify other disease- and cancer-related genes and could also suggest mechanisms for how these genes relate to co-occurring diseases.

  16. Alternating expression levels of WWOX tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes in patients with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    PŁUCIENNIK, ELŻBIETA; NOWAKOWSKA, MAGDALENA; STĘPIEN, ANNA; WOŁKOWICZ, MATEUSZ; STAWIŃSKI, ADAM; RÓŻAŃSKI, WALDEMAR; LIPIŃSKI, MAREK; BEDNAREK, ANDRZEJ K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the roles of the WWOX tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes in bladder tumor carcinogenesis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the status of WWOX promoter methylation (using MethylScreen™ technology) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in papillary urothelial cancer tissues. The associations between the expression levels of the following tumorigenesis-related genes were also assessed: The WWOX tumor suppressor gene, the MKI67 proliferation gene, the BAX, BCL2 and BIRC5 apoptotic genes, the EGFR signal transduction gene, the VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor gene, and the CCND1 and CCNE1 cell cycle genes. The results reveal a high frequency of LOH in intron 1 in the WWOX gene, as well as an association between reduced WWOX expression levels and increased promoter methylation. In addition, the present study demonstrates that in bladder tumors, apoptosis is inhibited by increased expression levels of the BCL2 gene. A correlation between the proliferation indices of the MKI67 and the BIRC5 genes was also revealed. Furthermore, the expression levels of VEGF were identified to be positively associated with those of the EGFR gene. PMID:25295115

  17. High expression of S100A8 gene is associated with drug resistance to etoposide and poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia through influencing the apoptosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Ming-ying; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Shui-yan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Wei-ying; Pan, Jian; Cen, Jian-nong; Chen, Zi-xing; Guo, Wen-ge; Chen, Chien-shing; Yan, Wen-hua; Hu, Shao-yan

    2016-01-01

    S100A8 has been increasingly recognized as a biomarker in multiple solid tumors and has played pivotal roles in hematological malignancies. S100A8 is potentially an indicator for poor survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in retrospective studies. However, the mechanisms of S100A8 are diverse in cancers. In this study, we investigated the correlation of S100A8 at the transcription level with clinical parameters in 91 de novo AML patients and explored its mechanisms of chemoresistance to etoposide in vitro. The transcription level of S100A8 was significantly lower at initial and relapse stages of AML samples than at complete remission (P<0.001) and than in the control group (P=0.0078), while no significant difference could be found between initial and relapse stages (P=0.257). Patients with high transcription levels of S100A8 exhibited a shorter overall survival (P=0.0012). HL-60 cells transfected with S100A8 showed resistance to etoposide with a higher level IC50 value and lower apoptosis rate compared with HL-60 cells transfected with empty vector. Thirty-six genes were significantly downregulated and 12 genes were significantly upregulated in S100A8 overexpression group compared with control group in which 360 genes involved in apoptotic genes array were performed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Among them, the caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were verified by Western blot analysis which indicated that the role of S100A8 in resistance to chemotherapy was closely related with antiapoptosis. In conclusion, critical S100A8 provided useful clinical information in predicting the outcome of AML. The main mechanism of S100A8 which promoted chemoresistance was antiapoptosis. PMID:27540302

  18. An AD-related neuroprotector rescues transformed rat retinal ganglion cells from CoCl₂-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Men, Jie; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Gao, Dianwen

    2012-05-01

    Some ocular diseases characterized by apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are chronic neurodegenerative disorders and have similarities in neuropathology. Humanin (HN) is known for its ability to suppress neuronal death induced by AD-related insults. In present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of HN on hypoxia-induced toxicity in RGC-5 cells. Hypoxia mimetic compound cobalt chloride (CoCl₂) could increase the cell viability loss and apoptosis, whereas HN can significantly attenuate these effects. This finding may provide new therapeutics for the retinal neurodegenerative diseases targeting neuroprotection.

  19. Whole Genome Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Casiopeína-Induced Apoptosis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Cruz, Alejandra Idan; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura I.; Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Baca-López, Karol; Gutiérrez, Anllely G.; Vázquez-Aguirre, Adriana; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Mejía, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Copper-based chemotherapeutic compounds Casiopeínas, have been presented as able to promote selective programmed cell death in cancer cells, thus being proper candidates for targeted cancer therapy. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis–in a process mediated by reactive oxygen species–for a number of tumor cells, have been argued to be the main mechanisms. However, a detailed functional mechanism (a model) is still to be defined and interrogated for a wide variety of cellular conditions before establishing settings and parameters needed for their wide clinical application. In order to shorten the gap in this respect, we present a model proposal centered in the role played by intrinsic (or mitochondrial) apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress caused by the chemotherapeutic agent. This model has been inferred based on genome wide expression profiling in cervix cancer (HeLa) cells, as well as statistical and computational tests, validated via functional experiments (both in the same HeLa cells and also in a Neuroblastoma model, the CHP-212 cell line) and assessed by means of data mining studies. PMID:23382936

  20. Expression of p73 gene, cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer: Immunohistochemical and clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyoshi; Oda, Koji; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Miyazaki, Kou; Takenouti, Yasushi; Nimura, Yuji; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Matsuda, Satoru

    2002-01-01

    p73 is a member of p53 tumor suppressor protein family. In spite of similarities of three meaningful domains between p53 and p73, the exact function of p73 protein is not established. To approach the relevance of p73 expression to a pathological parameter in human breast cancer, the apoptotic index (AI) and the mitotic index (MI) were examined for 75 patients with the breast cancer after mastectomies. We found that both of the AI and MI in p73-positive cases were significantly higher compared to the p73-negative cases, suggesting that the p73-positive cases in the breast cancer were in advanced grade. In six cases of breast cancer with distant metastasis, however, the p73 expression was slight and showing low AI but high MI. Advanced breast cancer with distant metastasis seemed to lose the p73 expression and gain the function of evading apoptosis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that p73 expression is well correlated with AI in breast cancer.

  1. The anticancer gene ORCTL3 targets stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 for tumour-specific apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    AbuAli, G; Chaisaklert, W; Stelloo, E; Pazarentzos, E; Hwang, M-S; Qize, D; Harding, SV; Al-Rubaish, A; Alzahrani, A-H; Al-Ali, A; Sanders, TAB; Aboagye, E O; Grimm, S

    2014-01-01

    ORCTL3 is a member of a group of genes, the so-called anticancer genes, that cause tumour-specific cell death. We show that this activity is triggered in isogenic renal cells upon their transformation independently of the cells’ proliferation status. For its cell death effect ORCTL3 targets the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in fatty acid metabolism. This is caused by transmembrane domains 3 and 4, which are more efficacious in vitro than a low molecular weight drug against SCD1, and critically depend on their expression level. SCD1 is found upregulated upon renal cell transformation indicating that its activity, while not impacting proliferation, represents a critical bottleneck for tumourigenesis. An adenovirus expressing ORCTL3 leads to growth inhibition of renal tumours in vivo and to substantial destruction of patients’ kidney tumour cells ex vivo. Our results indicate fatty acid metabolism as a target for tumour-specific apoptosis in renal tumours and suggest ORCTL3 as a means to accomplish this. PMID:24769897

  2. Upregulation of Gem relates to retinal ganglion cells apoptosis after optic nerve crush in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Huang, Hui; Wu, Yu; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Li; Chen, Lifei; Zeng, Siming; Li, Li; Li, Min

    2014-10-01

    GTP-binding protein Gem, a member protein of the Ras superfamily, can regulate actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK). One attractive activity of the ROCK is playing a potential role in physiological and pathological process in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) apoptosis. However, the function of Gem in retina is still with limited understanding. To investigate whether Gem is involved in optic nerve injury, we performed an optic nerve crush (ONC) model in adult rats. Western blot analysis indicated that Gem was significantly increased in the retina at the 3rd day after ONC. Meanwhile, double-immunofluorescent staining showed that Gem expression was mainly up-regulated in ganglion cell layer and co-localized with NeuN (a marker of RGCs). Additionally, the co-localizations of Gem/active-caspase-3 and Gem/TUNEL-positive cells were detected in RGCs. Furthermore, the expression of active-caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells was parallel with that of Gem. Finally, expression pattern of ROCK family (only ROCK2 but not ROCK1) was increased in the differentiated process, which was collected with the expression of GEM and active-caspase-3. Based on the present results, it is suggested that Gem might play a crucial role in RGCs apoptosis after ONC, which might be involved in ROCK pathway.

  3. Induction of apoptosis after switch-on of the hepatitis B virus X gene mediated by the Cre/loxP recombination system.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Y; Yotsuyanagi, H; Moriya, K; Fujie, H; Tsutsumi, T; Kanegae, Y; Kimura, S; Saito, I; Koike, K

    1999-12-01

    The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus is a multifunctional protein that is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating gene transcription, causing cell proliferation and, as shown recently, inducing cell death. However, analysis of the effects of HBx in stable cultured cell clones has been hampered because only cell lines that adapted to the effects of HBx were selected during the establishment of cell clones. Here, we describe a system in which transcription of the X gene of hepatitis B virus is switched on by the use of the site-specific Cre recombinase. Two human liver cell lines, HLF and HepG2, were used, the former with a mutant p53 allele and the latter with wild-type p53. The stable cell clones isolated, which carried the X gene in a transcriptionally silent state, were infected with recombinant adenovirus carrying Cre recombinase. Ninety-six hours after adenovirus infection, cell clones that expressed HBx had undergone TUNEL-positive cell death with characteristics of apoptosis. Apoptosis was induced despite concomitant inactivation of the p53 protein as a result of its cytoplasmic translocation by HBx. In contrast, neither the X gene-carrying cells infected with wild-type adenovirus nor various control cells infected with Cre-expressing adenovirus exhibited apoptosis. These results indicate that the expression of HBx protein leads to liver cell apoptosis independently of the p53 pathway. The significance of HBx-induced apoptosis in natural infection is unclear, but it may contribute to the development of hepatitis and serve to spread progeny virus to neighbouring cells while evading the host immune responses.

  4. Hyperthermia: an effective strategy to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kanwal; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Heat has been used as a medicinal and healing modality throughout human history. The combination of hyperthermia (HT) with radiation and anticancer agents has been used clinically and has shown positive results to a certain extent. However, the clinical results of HT treatment alone have been only partially satisfactory. Cell death following HT treatment is a function of both temperature and treatment duration. HT induces cancer cell death through apoptosis; the degree of apoptosis and the apoptotic pathway vary in different cancer cell types. HT-induced reactive oxygen species production are responsible for apoptosis in various cell types. However, the underlying mechanism of signal transduction and the genes related to this process still need to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by HT, enhancement of heat-induced apoptosis, and the genetic network involved in HT-induced apoptosis.

  5. Molecular cloning of the apoptosis-related calcium-binding protein AsALG-2 in Avena sativa.

    PubMed

    Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Yang, Qian; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki

    2013-04-01

    Victorin, the host-selective toxin produced by the fungus Cochliobolus victoriae, induces programmed cell death (PCD) in victorin-sensitive oat lines with characteristic features of animal apoptosis, such as mitochondrial permeability transition, chromatin condensation, nuclear DNA laddering and rRNA/mRNA degradation. In this study, we characterized a calcium-binding protein, namely AsALG-2, which might have a role in the victorin-induced PCD. AsALG-2 is homologous to the Apoptosis-Linked Gene ALG-2 identified in mammalian cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that the accumulation of AsALG-2 transcripts increased during victorin-induced PCD, but not during necrotic cell death. Salicylic acid, chitosan and chitin strongly activated the expression of general defence response genes, such as PR-10; however, neither induced cell death nor the accumulation of AsALG-2 mRNA. Pharmacological studies indicated that victorin-induced DNA laddering and AsALG-2 expression were regulated through similar pathways. The calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, moderately inhibited the accumulation of AsALG-2 mRNA during cell death. Trifluoperazine (calmodulin antagonist) and K252a (serine-threonine kinase inhibitor) reduced the victorin-induced phytoalexin accumulation, but did not prevent the victorin-induced DNA laddering or accumulation of AsALG-2 mRNA. Taken together, our investigations suggest that there is a calcium-mediated signalling pathway in animal and plant PCD in common. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  6. High concentration calcitriol induces endoplasmic reticulum stress related gene profile in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ak, Handan; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2017-04-01

    Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is known for its anticancer properties including induction of apoptosis as well as the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. Understanding the mechanisms of action for calcitriol will help with the development of novel treatment strategies. Since vitamin D exerts its cellular actions via binding to its receptor and by altering expressions of a set of genes, we aimed to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on transcriptomic profile of breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that calcitriol alters endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, therefore in this study we have focused on ER-stress-related genes to reveal calcitriols action on these genes in particular. We have treated breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with previously determined IC50 concentrations of calcitriol and evaluated the transcriptomic alterations via microarray. During analysis, only genes altered by at least 2-fold with a P value < 0.05 were taken into consideration. Our findings revealed an ER-stress-associated transcriptomic profile induced by calcitriol. Induced genes include genes with a pro-survival function (NUPR1, DNAJB9, HMOX1, LCN2, and LAMP3) and with a pro-death function (CHOP (DDIT3), DDIT4, NDGR1, NOXA, and CLGN). These results suggest that calcitriol induces an ER-stress-like response inducing both pro-survival and pro-death transcripts in the process.

  7. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    PubMed

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Taip2 is a novel cell death-related gene expressed in the brain during development

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Kazumi; Akiyama, Nobutake; Yamada, Shuichi; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Saito, Saburo; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2008-05-02

    TAIP2 was isolated as one of the homologous genes of TAIP3 (TGF-{beta}-up-regulated apoptosis-inducing-protein chromosome 3). The transcript of the mouse counterpart of TAIP2, designated mTaip2, was detected in several tissue specimens from embryos to adults, while mTaip2 was dominantly expressed in the embryonic brain. The overexpression of the full-length mTaip2 induced cell death in various cell lines. An analysis of mTaip2 deletion mutants revealed that the N-terminal half of mTaip2, but not the C-terminal half, had nuclear localization and cell death-inducing activities. The results indicate that mTaip2 is a novel cell death-related gene dominantly expressed in the embryonic brain, thus suggesting that mTaip2 may play a role in development of the brain.

  9. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand promotes human preadipocyte proliferation via ERK1/2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Zoller, Verena; El Hay, Muad Abd; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Wabitsch, Martin; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Upon obesity, adipose tissue is excessively expanded and characterized by pathologic processes like hypoxia, fibrosis, and inflammation. Death ligands belonging to the TNF superfamily such as TNF-α are important contributors to these derangements and exert a pronounced influence on the metabolic and cellular homeostasis of adipose tissue. Here, we sought to identify the effect of the death ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on the adipose tissue precursor cell pool and therefore investigated its influence on preadipocyte proliferation. Treatment of human preadipocytes with TRAIL resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in proliferation (EC50 3.4 ng/ml) comparable to IGF-1. Although no apoptosis was observed, TRAIL triggered a rapid cleavage of caspase-8 and -3. Neither inhibition of caspase activity by zVAD.fmk (20 µM) nor ablation of caspase-8 expression by lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNA (shRNA) abolished the proliferative response. TRAIL triggered a delayed and sustained activation of ERK1/2, leaving Akt, p38, JNK, and NF-κB unaffected. Importantly, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by PD0325901 (300 nM) or AZD6244 (5 or 10 µM) completely abolished the proliferative response. We thus reveal a hitherto unknown function of TRAIL in regulating adipose tissue homeostasis by promoting the proliferation of tissue-resident precursor cells.—Funcke, J.-B., Zoller, V., Abd El Hay, M., Debatin, K.-M., Wabitsch, M., Fischer-Posovszky, P. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand promotes human preadipocyte proliferation via ERK1/2 activation. PMID:25857555

  10. SU-E-T-245: MR Guided Focused Ultrasound Increased PARP Related Apoptosis On Prostate Cancer in Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L; Chen, X; Cvetkovic, D; Gupta, R; Yang, D; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated that significant tumor growth delay was observed in the mice treated with pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU). The purpose of this study is to understand the cell killing mechanisms of pHIFU. Methods: Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), were grown orthotopically in 17 nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated using pHIFU with an acoustic power of 25W, pulse width 100msec and 300 pulses in one sonication under MR guidance. Mutiple sonications were used to cover the whole tumor volume. Temperature (less than 40 degree centigrade in the focal spot) was monitored using MR thermometry. Animals were euthanized at pre-determined time points (n=2) after treatment: 0 hours; 6 hrs; 24 hrs; 48 hrs; 4 days and 7 days. Two tumorbearing mice were used as control. Three tumor-bearing mice were treated with radiation (RT, 2 Gy) using 6 MV photon beams. RT treated mice were euthanized at 0 hr, 6 hrs and 24 hrs. The tumors were processed for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PARP (a surrogate of apoptosis). A multispectral imaging analysis system was used to quantify the expression of PARP staining. Cell apoptosis was calculated based on the PARP expression level, which is the intensity of the DAB reaction. Results: Our data showed that PARP related apoptosis peaked at 48 hrs and 7 days in pHIFU treated mice, which is comparable to that for the RT group at 24 hrs. The preliminary results from this study were consistent with our previous study on tumor growth delay using pHIFU. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that non-thermal pHIFU increased apoptotic tumor cell death through the PARP related pathway. MR guided pHIFU may have a great potential as a safe, noninvasive treatment modality for cancer therapy. This treatment modality might be able to synergize with PARP inhibitors to achieve better result.

  11. Expression of apoptosis-regulatory genes in the hippocampus of rat neonates born to mothers with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Haghir, Hossein; Hami, Javad; Lotfi, Nassim; Peyvandi, Mostafa; Ghasemi, Simagol; Hosseini, Mehran

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes during pregnancy impairs the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and causes cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring. However, the exact mechanism by which the maternal diabetes affects the development of the brain remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes in pregnancy on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes and the numerical density of degenerating dark neurons (DNs) in the hippocampus of offspring at the first postnatal two weeks. Wistar female rats were maintained diabetic from a week before pregnancy through parturition and male offspring was sacrificed at P0, P7, and P14. Our findings demonstrated a significant down-regulation in the hippocampal expression of Bcl-2 in the diabetic group newborns (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mRNA expression of Bax was markedly up-regulated in the offspring born to diabetic dams at all of studied time-points (P < 0.05). Moreover, we found a striking increase in the numerical density of DNs in the various subfields of hippocampus of diabetic group pups (P < 0.05). The results of the present study revealed that maternal hyperglycemia during gestational period may result in disturbances in the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes as two important genes in neuronal apoptosis regulation and induces the production of DNs in the developing hippocampus of neonatal rats. These disturbances may be a reason for the cognitive, structural, and behavioral anomalies observed in offspring born to diabetic mothers. Furthermore, the control of maternal glycaemia by insulin administration in most cases normalized these negative impacts.