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Sample records for apoptotic epithelial cells

  1. Autophagic and apoptotic cell death in amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z-Y; Li, E-M; Lu, S-Q; Shen, J; Cai, Y-M; Wu, Y-E; Zheng, R-M; Tan, L-J; Xu, L-Y

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine if autophagic cell death is associated with apoptosis and whether it participates in the process of term amniotic rupture. Forty pieces of fresh term amnions, including twenty from a position near the margin of the placentas and twenty from the margin of the naturally ruptured part of the placentas in term gestation were collected, respectively. The amnions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and amniotic epithelial (AE) cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Autophagic and apoptotic cell death (PCD) were assayed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) or flow cytometry using monodansylcadaverin (MDC) and propidium iodide (PI) stain. BCL(2) and BAX were examined by immunoblotting. Under SEM the amniotic epithelia appeared normal in the position near the placenta. They had an atrophied appearance in the margin of their natural broken parts. In the AE cells PCD was divided into three subtypes by TEM: autophagic cell death with positive stains of MDC and PI; apoptotic cell death; and the mixed type. Quantitative detection showed that there were more death cells, including autophagic and apoptotic, in the AE cells near the ruptured parts than near the placentas. An increased expression of BAX and a decreased expression of BCL(2) protein in the AE cells near the broken margin were observed. Apoptotic and autophagic cell death by the intrinsic pathway are the basic event in the AE cell and they are involved in the cause of membrane rupture of the human amnion in term gestation.

  2. Apoptotic epithelial cells control the abundance of Treg cells at barrier surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nakahashi-Oda, Chigusa; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nakazawa, Yuta; Totsuka, Naoya; Miki, Haruka; Iino, Shuichi; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Honda, Shin-ichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial tissues continually undergo apoptosis. Commensal organisms that inhabit the epithelium influence tissue homeostasis, in which regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have a central role. However, the physiological importance of epithelial cell apoptosis and how the number of Treg cells is regulated are both incompletely understood. Here we found that apoptotic epithelial cells negatively regulated the commensal-stimulated proliferation of Treg cells. Gut commensals stimulated CX3CR1(+)CD103(-)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) to produce interferon-β (IFN-β), which augmented the proliferation of Treg cells in the intestine. Conversely, phosphatidylserine exposed on apoptotic epithelial cells suppressed IFN-β production by the DCs via inhibitory signaling mediated by the cell-surface glycoprotein CD300a and thus suppressed Treg cell proliferation. Our findings reveal a regulatory role for apoptotic epithelial cells in maintaining the number of Treg cell and tissue homeostasis. PMID:26855029

  3. Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells engulf blebs from their apoptotic peers

    PubMed Central

    Rong, G-H; Yang, G-X; Ando, Y; Zhang, W; He, X-S; Leung, P S C; Coppel, R L; Ansari, A A; Zhong, R; Gershwin, M E

    2013-01-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for tissue homeostasis; a number of non-professional phagocytic cells, including epithelial cells, can both take up and process apoptotic bodies, including the release of anti-inflammatory mediators. These observations are particularly important in the case of human intrahepatic biliary cells (HiBEC), because such cells are themselves a target of destruction in primary biliary cirrhosis, the human autoimmune disease. To address the apoptotic ability of HiBECs, we have focused on their ability to phagocytize apoptotic blebs from autologous HiBECs. In this study we report that HiBEC cells demonstrate phagocytic function from autologous HiBEC peers accompanied by up-regulation of the chemokines CCL2 [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)] and CXCL8 [interleukin (IL)-8]. In particular, HiBEC cells express the phagocytosis-related receptor phosphatidylserine receptors (PSR), implying that HiBECs function through the ‘eat-me’ signal phosphatidylserine expressed by apoptotic cells. Indeed, although HiBEC cells acquire antigen-presenting cell (APC) function, they do not change the expression of classic APC function surface markers after engulfment of blebs, both with and without the presence of Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. These results are important not only for understanding of the normal physiological function of HiBECs, but also explain the inflammatory potential and reduced clearance of HiBEC cells following the inflammatory cascade in primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:23480189

  4. Apoptotic Cells Activate AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and Inhibit Epithelial Cell Growth without Change in Intracellular Energy Stores*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vimal A.; Massenburg, Donald; Vujicic, Snezana; Feng, Lanfei; Tang, Meiyi; Litbarg, Natalia; Antoni, Angelika; Rauch, Joyce; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Levine, Jerrold S.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an indispensable role in the maintenance and development of tissues. We have shown that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic target cells by viable kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) inhibits the proliferation and survival of PTECs. Here, we examined the effect of apoptotic targets on PTEC cell growth (cell size during G1 phase of the cell cycle). Using a cell culture model, we show that apoptotic cells potently activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a highly sensitive sensor of intracellular energy stores. AMPK activation leads to decreased activity of its downstream target, ribosomal protein p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), and concomitant inhibition of cell growth. Importantly, these events occur without detectable change in intracellular levels of AMP, ADP, or ATP. Inhibition of AMPK, either pharmacologically by compound C or molecularly by shRNA, diminishes the effects of apoptotic targets and largely restores p70S6K activity and cell size to normal levels. Apoptotic targets also inhibit Akt, a second signaling pathway regulating cell growth. Expression of a constitutively active Akt construct partially relieved cell growth inhibition but was less effective than inhibition of AMPK. Inhibition of cell growth by apoptotic targets is dependent on physical interaction between apoptotic targets and PTECs but independent of phagocytosis. We conclude that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic targets mimics the effects of intracellular energy depletion, activating AMPK and inhibiting cell growth. By acting as sentinels of environmental change, apoptotic death may enable nearby viable cells, especially nonmigratory epithelial cells, to monitor and adapt to local stresses. PMID:26183782

  5. Macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung alveolar epithelial cells via PGE2, PGD2, and HGF

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2016-01-01

    Apoptotic cell clearance results in the release of growth factors and the action of signaling molecules involved in tissue homeostasis maintenance. Here, we investigated whether and how macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit the TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Treatment with conditioned medium derived from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells, but not viable or necrotic cells, inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, including loss of E-cadherin, synthesis of N-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin, and induction of EMT-activating transcription factors, such as Snail1/2, Zeb1/2, and Twist1. Exposure of macrophages to cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors (NS-398 and COX-2 siRNA) or RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors (Y-27632 and RhoA siRNA) and LA-4 cells to antagonists of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP4 [AH-23848]), PGD2 receptors (DP1 [BW-A868C] and DP2 [BAY-u3405]), or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met (PHA-665752), reversed EMT inhibition by the conditioned medium. Additionally, we found that apoptotic cell instillation inhibited bleomycin-mediated EMT in primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells in vivo. Our data suggest a new model for epithelial cell homeostasis, by which the anti-EMT programming of macrophages by apoptotic cells may control the progressive fibrotic reaction via the production of potent paracrine EMT inhibitors. PMID:26875548

  6. Macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung alveolar epithelial cells via PGE2, PGD2, and HGF.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2016-01-01

    Apoptotic cell clearance results in the release of growth factors and the action of signaling molecules involved in tissue homeostasis maintenance. Here, we investigated whether and how macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit the TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Treatment with conditioned medium derived from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells, but not viable or necrotic cells, inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, including loss of E-cadherin, synthesis of N-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin, and induction of EMT-activating transcription factors, such as Snail1/2, Zeb1/2, and Twist1. Exposure of macrophages to cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors (NS-398 and COX-2 siRNA) or RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors (Y-27632 and RhoA siRNA) and LA-4 cells to antagonists of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP4 [AH-23848]), PGD2 receptors (DP1 [BW-A868C] and DP2 [BAY-u3405]), or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met (PHA-665752), reversed EMT inhibition by the conditioned medium. Additionally, we found that apoptotic cell instillation inhibited bleomycin-mediated EMT in primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells in vivo. Our data suggest a new model for epithelial cell homeostasis, by which the anti-EMT programming of macrophages by apoptotic cells may control the progressive fibrotic reaction via the production of potent paracrine EMT inhibitors. PMID:26875548

  7. ARP2, a novel pro-apoptotic protein expressed in epithelial prostate cancer LNCaP cells and epithelial ovary CHO transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Navarro-Vidal, Enrique; Tapia-Vieyra, Juana Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic epithelial cells generate the most aggressive types of cancers such as those located in the lung, breast, colon, prostate and ovary. During advanced stages of prostate cancer, epithelial cells are associated to the appearance of androgen-independent tumors, an apoptotic-resistant phenotype that ultimately overgrows and promotes metastatic events. We have previously identified and electrophysiologically characterized a novel Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated during apoptosis in the androgen-independent prostate epithelial cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of this channel-like molecule named apoptosis regulated protein 2 (ARP2) associated to a lethal influx of Ca(2+) in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study, LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cell line) transfected with arp2-cDNA are induced to undergo apoptosis showing an important impact on cell viability and activation of caspases 3 and 7 when compared to serum deprived grown cells and ionomycin treated cells. The subcellular localization of ARP2 in CHO cells undergoing apoptosis was studied using confocal microscopy. While apoptosis progresses, ARP2 initially localized in the peri-nuclear region of cells migrates with time towards the plasma membrane region. Based on the present results and those of our previous studies, the fact that ARP2 constitutes a novel cation channel is supported. Therefore, ARP2 becomes a valuable target to modulate the influx and concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm of epithelial cancer cells showing an apoptotic-resistant phenotype during the onset of an apoptotic event. PMID:24465888

  8. ARP2, a novel pro-apoptotic protein expressed in epithelial prostate cancer LNCaP cells and epithelial ovary CHO transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Navarro-Vidal, Enrique; Tapia-Vieyra, Juana Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic epithelial cells generate the most aggressive types of cancers such as those located in the lung, breast, colon, prostate and ovary. During advanced stages of prostate cancer, epithelial cells are associated to the appearance of androgen-independent tumors, an apoptotic-resistant phenotype that ultimately overgrows and promotes metastatic events. We have previously identified and electrophysiologically characterized a novel Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated during apoptosis in the androgen-independent prostate epithelial cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of this channel-like molecule named apoptosis regulated protein 2 (ARP2) associated to a lethal influx of Ca(2+) in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study, LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cell line) transfected with arp2-cDNA are induced to undergo apoptosis showing an important impact on cell viability and activation of caspases 3 and 7 when compared to serum deprived grown cells and ionomycin treated cells. The subcellular localization of ARP2 in CHO cells undergoing apoptosis was studied using confocal microscopy. While apoptosis progresses, ARP2 initially localized in the peri-nuclear region of cells migrates with time towards the plasma membrane region. Based on the present results and those of our previous studies, the fact that ARP2 constitutes a novel cation channel is supported. Therefore, ARP2 becomes a valuable target to modulate the influx and concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm of epithelial cancer cells showing an apoptotic-resistant phenotype during the onset of an apoptotic event.

  9. [(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate regulates expression of apoptotic genes and protects cultured human lens epithelial cells under hyperglycemia].

    PubMed

    Ye, Panpan; Lin, Kana; Li, Zhaochun; Liu, Jian; Yao, Ke; Xu, Wen

    2013-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant component in green tea, has a potent anti-apoptotic activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG and their molecular mechanisms on high glucose-induced apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells (HLEB-3). HLEB-3 cells were exposed to various concentrations of glucose and EGCG. Cell death was assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry using annexin V and propidium iodide. The expression of the Bcl-2 family, c-fos, c-myc and p53 was measured by real-time PCR. EGCG decreased the Bcl-2/Bax expression stimulated by a high glucose. Moreover, EGCG suppressed the high glucose-induced expression of c-fos, c-myc and p53. These findings suggest that EGCG protects HLEB-3 cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis by regulating the gene expression of the Bcl-2 family, c-fos, c-myc and p53. Thus, EGCG may have a potential protective effect against diabetic cataract formation.

  10. TNFα Induces Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cell Barrier Alterations by Apoptotic and Nonapoptotic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schwerk, Christian; Rybarczyk, Kasia; Essmann, Frank; Seibt, Annette; Mölleken, Marie-Louise; Zeni, Patrick; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium constitutes the structural basis of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Since the cytokine TNFα is markedly increased during inflammatory diseases in the blood and the central nervous system, we investigated by which mechanisms TNFα induces barrier alteration in porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells. We found a dose-dependent decrease of transepithelial electrical resistance, increase of paracellular inulin-flux, and induction of histone-associated DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation after TNFα stimulation. This response was strongly aggravated by the addition of cycloheximide and could partially be inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor CAPE, but most effectively by the pan-caspase-inhibitor zVAD-fmk and not by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Partial loss of cell viability could also be attenuated by CAPE. Immunostaining showed cell condensation and nuclear binding of high-mobility group box 1 protein as a sign of apoptosis after TNFα stimulation. Taken together our findings indicate that TNFα compromises PCPEC barrier function by caspase and NF-κB dependent mechanisms. PMID:20369072

  11. The 2009 pandemic A/Wenshan/01/2009 H1N1 induces apoptotic cell death in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Hong, Xiaoxu; Yang, Penghui; Ju, Xiangwu; Wang, Yuguo; Tang, Jun; Li, Chenggang; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang; Chen, Zhongwei; Xing, Li; Zhao, Zhongpeng; Gao, Xiao; Liao, Guoyang; Li, Qihan; Wang, Xiliang; Li, Dangsheng; Jiang, Chengyu

    2011-08-01

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus emerged in Mexico and quickly spread to other countries, including China. This 2009 pandemic H1N1 can cause human respiratory disease, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the infection and pathogenesis of a new 2009 pandemic strain, A/Wenshan/01/2009 H1N1, in China in human airway epithelial cell lines compared with contemporary seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. Our results showed that viral infection by the A/Wenshan H1N1 induced significant apoptotic cell death in both the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2Z and the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. The A/Wenshan H1N1 virus enters both of these cell types more efficiently than the seasonal influenza virus. Viral entry in both cell lines was shown to be mediated by clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Therefore, we discovered that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Wenshan/01/2009, can induce apoptotic cell death in epithelial cells of the human respiratory tract, suggesting a molecular pathogenesis for the 2009 pandemic H1N1. PMID:21816972

  12. Effect of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells on Inflammatory and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in the Presence of High Osmotic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Weifang; Lin, Anjuan; Sheng, Minjie

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that high osmotic pressure (HOP) of lacrimal fluid is the core mechanism causing ocular inflammation and injury. However, the association between HOP and the regulation of cell inflammatory response and apoptotic pathways remains unclear. In the present study, we used HOP to interfere with in vitro cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and found that HOP increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and increased ROS in turn induced the activation of JNK inflammatory signaling pathway, which further promoted the expression of pro-inflammatory factor NF-κβ and induced the generation of inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, HOP-induced ROS in rabbit corneal epithelial cells regulated the CD95/CD95L-mediated cell apoptotic signaling pathway by activating JNK inflammatory signaling pathway. These findings may serve as new theoretical basis and a new way of thinking about the treatment of ocular diseases, especially dry eye. PMID:23977369

  13. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester activates pro-apoptotic and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes in ovarian cancer cells A2780 and A2780cis.

    PubMed

    Gherman, Claudia; Braicu, Ovidiu Leonard; Zanoaga, Oana; Jurj, Anca; Pileczki, Valentina; Maralani, Mahafarin; Drigla, Flaviu; Braicu, Cornelia; Budisan, Liviuta; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly aggressive pathology, displaying a poor prognosis and chemoresistance to classical therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on survival of ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 (sensitive to cisplatin) and A2780cis (resistant to cisplatin). MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability, while the apoptotic processes were examined by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. A reduction of cell proliferation and activation of the apoptosis was observed in both cell lines. qRT-PCR evaluation demonstrated the activation of the pro-apoptotic genes (BAD, CASP8, FAS, FADD, p53) in both cell lines. The limited therapeutic effect in A2780 cells is explained by the activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes (ZEB1, ZEB2, or TGFBB1) as displayed by Ingenuity Network analysis. Overall data suggest that CAPE can be used as an alternative in sensitizing cells to chemotherapy. PMID:26838168

  14. Host Immune and Apoptotic Responses to Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 in Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zheng; Harper, Richart; Anunciacion, Jerome; Yang, Zengqi; Gao, Wei; Qu, Bingqian; Guan, Yi; Cardona, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The avian influenza virus H9N2 subtype has circulated in wild birds, is prevalent in domestic poultry, and has successfully crossed the species boundary to infect humans. Phylogenetic analyses showed that viruses of this subtype appear to have contributed to the generation of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Little is known about the host responses to H9N2 viruses in human airway respiratory epithelium, the primary portal for viral infection. Using an apically differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) culture, we examined host immune responses to infection by an avian H9N2 virus, in comparison with a human H9N2 isolate. We found that IFN-β was the prominent antiviral component, whereas interferon gamma-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-5 and TNF-α may be critical in proinflammatory responses to H9N2 viruses. In contrast, proinflammatory IL-1β, IL-8, and even IL-6 may only play a minor role in pathogenicity. Apparently Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-7, and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (MDA-5) contributed to the innate immunity against the H9N2 viruses, and MDA-5 was important in the induction of IFN-β. We showed that the avian H9N2 virus induced apoptosis through the mitochondria/cytochrome c–mediated intrinsic pathway, in addition to the caspase 8–mediated extrinsic pathway, as evidenced by the cytosolic presence of active caspase 9 and cytochrome c, independent of truncated BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) activation. Further, we demonstrated that FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), an apoptotic dual regulator, and the p53-dependent Bcl-2 family members, Bax and Bcl-xs, appeared to be involved in the regulation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. The findings in this study will further our understanding of host defense mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium. PMID:20118223

  15. Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Development.

    PubMed

    Shklover, Jeny; Levy-Adam, Flonia; Kurant, Estee

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death and its specific form apoptosis play an important role during development of multicellular organisms. They are crucial for morphogenesis and organ sculpting as well as for adjusting cell number in different systems. Removal of apoptotic cells is the last critical step of apoptosis. Apoptotic cells are properly and efficiently recognized and eliminated through phagocytosis, which is performed by professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or apoptotic cell clearance is a dynamic multistep process, involving interactions between phagocytic receptors and ligands on apoptotic cells, which are highly conserved in evolution. However, this process is extremely redundant in mammals, containing multiple factors playing similar roles in the process. Using model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, and mouse permits addressing fundamental questions in developmental cell clearance by a comprehensive approach including powerful genetics and cell biological tools enriched by live imaging. Recent studies in model organisms have enhanced significantly our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of apoptotic cell clearance during development. Here, we review the current knowledge and illuminate the great potential of the research performed in genetic models, which opens new directions in developmental biology.

  16. Toxicity of Pekinenin C from Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix on Rat Small Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell and Its Apoptotic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yudan; Cheng, Fangfang; Yao, Weifeng; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Kaicheng; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-01-01

    Pekinenin C is a casbane diterpenoid separated from the root of the traditional Chinese medicine, Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr., which is used as drug for the treatment of edema, ascites, and hydrothorax. Whereas pekinenin C exhibits severe cytotoxicity, the exact toxicity mechanism is unclear. In this study, the effects of pekinenin C on cell inhibition, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis were examined to explain its toxic mechanism. The proliferation of IEC-6 cells was accessed via MTT colorimetric assay after incubated with different concentrations of pekinenin C. Pekinenin C-treated IEC-6 cells labeled with RNase/PI and Annexin V/PI were analyzed by flow cytometric analyses for evaluation of cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis, respectively. The apoptosis mechanism of pekinenin C on IEC-6 was investigated through assaying the activities of caspase-3, 8, 9 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Apaf-1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and type 1-associated death domain (TRADD) by Western-blot, mRNA expression of Fas receptor (FasR), Fas ligand (FasL), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) and NF-κB by RT-PCR. The results showed that pekinenin C has exhibited obvious IEC-6 cells toxicity and the IC50 value was 2.1 μg·mL−1. Typical apoptosis characteristics were observed under a transmission electron microscopy, and it was found that pekinenin C could cause G0/G1 phase arrest in IEC-6 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce apoptosis of IEC-6 cells. Additionally, pekinenin C could increase the expressions of Bax, AIF, Apaf-1, FasR, FasL, TNFR1 and NF-κB, suppress the expression of Bcl-2, FADD and TRADD, then activate caspase-3, 8, 9 cascades, and at last result in apoptosis. These results demonstrated that pekinenin C effectively promoted cell apoptosis, and induced IEC-6 cells apoptosis through both the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. PMID:27271594

  17. Toxicity of Pekinenin C from Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix on Rat Small Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell and Its Apoptotic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yudan; Cheng, Fangfang; Yao, Weifeng; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Kaicheng; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-01-01

    Pekinenin C is a casbane diterpenoid separated from the root of the traditional Chinese medicine, Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr., which is used as drug for the treatment of edema, ascites, and hydrothorax. Whereas pekinenin C exhibits severe cytotoxicity, the exact toxicity mechanism is unclear. In this study, the effects of pekinenin C on cell inhibition, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis were examined to explain its toxic mechanism. The proliferation of IEC-6 cells was accessed via MTT colorimetric assay after incubated with different concentrations of pekinenin C. Pekinenin C-treated IEC-6 cells labeled with RNase/PI and Annexin V/PI were analyzed by flow cytometric analyses for evaluation of cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis, respectively. The apoptosis mechanism of pekinenin C on IEC-6 was investigated through assaying the activities of caspase-3, 8, 9 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Apaf-1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and type 1-associated death domain (TRADD) by Western-blot, mRNA expression of Fas receptor (FasR), Fas ligand (FasL), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) and NF-κB by RT-PCR. The results showed that pekinenin C has exhibited obvious IEC-6 cells toxicity and the IC50 value was 2.1 μg·mL(-1). Typical apoptosis characteristics were observed under a transmission electron microscopy, and it was found that pekinenin C could cause G0/G1 phase arrest in IEC-6 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce apoptosis of IEC-6 cells. Additionally, pekinenin C could increase the expressions of Bax, AIF, Apaf-1, FasR, FasL, TNFR1 and NF-κB, suppress the expression of Bcl-2, FADD and TRADD, then activate caspase-3, 8, 9 cascades, and at last result in apoptosis. These results demonstrated that pekinenin C effectively promoted cell apoptosis, and induced IEC-6 cells apoptosis through both the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. PMID:27271594

  18. Polarization of the epithelial layer and apical localization of integrins are required for engulfment of apoptotic cells in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Tracy L.; Kleinsorge, Sarah E.; Timmons, Allison K.; Taylor, Jeffrey D.; McCall, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inefficient clearance of dead cells or debris by epithelial cells can lead to or exacerbate debilitating conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Despite the importance of engulfment by epithelial cells, little is known about the molecular changes that are required within these cells. The misregulation of integrins has previously been associated with disease states, suggesting that a better understanding of the regulation of receptor trafficking could be key to treating diseases caused by defects in phagocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that the integrin heterodimer αPS3/βPS becomes apically enriched and is required for engulfment by the epithelial follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. We found that integrin heterodimer localization and function is largely directed by the α-subunit. Moreover, proper cell polarity promotes asymmetric integrin enrichment, suggesting that αPS3/βPS trafficking occurs in a polarized fashion. We show that several genes previously known for their roles in trafficking and cell migration are also required for engulfment. Moreover, as in mammals, the same α-integrin subunit is required by professional and non-professional phagocytes and migrating cells in Drosophila. Our findings suggest that migrating and engulfing cells use common machinery, and demonstrate a crucial role for integrin function and polarized trafficking of integrin subunits during engulfment. This study also establishes the epithelial follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary as a powerful model for understanding the molecular changes required for engulfment by a polarized epithelium. PMID:26398951

  19. Alveolar epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis display upregulation of TRAIL, DR4 and DR5 expression with simultaneous preferential over-expression of pro-apoptotic marker p53

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Khondoker M; Lomas, Nicola J; Forsyth, Nicholas R; Spiteri, Monica A

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, debilitating, and fatal lung disease of unknown aetiology with no current cure. The pathogenesis of IPF remains unclear but repeated alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injuries and subsequent apoptosis are believed to be among the initiating/ongoing triggers. However, the precise mechanism of apoptotic induction is hitherto elusive. In this study, we investigated expression of a panel of pro-apoptotic and cell cycle regulatory proteins in 21 IPF and 19 control lung tissue samples. We reveal significant upregulation of the apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and its cognate receptors DR4 and DR5 in AEC within active lesions of IPF lungs. This upregulation was accompanied by pro-apoptotic protein p53 overexpression. In contrast, myofibroblasts within the fibroblastic foci of IPF lungs exhibited high TRAIL, DR4 and DR5 expression but negligible p53 expression. Similarly, p53 expression was absent or negligible in IPF and control alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. No significant differences in TRAIL expression were noted in these cell types between IPF and control lungs. However, DR4 and DR5 upregulation was detected in IPF alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. The marker of cellular senescence p21WAF1 was upregulated within affected AEC in IPF lungs. Cell cycle regulatory proteins Cyclin D1 and SOCS3 were significantly enhanced in AEC within the remodelled fibrotic areas of IPF lungs but expression was negligible in myofibroblasts. Taken together these findings suggest that, within the remodelled fibrotic areas of IPF, AEC can display markers associated with proliferation, senescence, and apoptotosis, where TRAIL could drive the apoptotic response. Clear understanding of disease processes and identification of therapeutic targets will direct us to develop effective therapies for IPF. PMID:24551275

  20. The exocyst gene Sec10 regulates renal epithelial monolayer homeostasis and apoptotic sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Polgar, Noemi; Lee, Amanda J.; Lui, Vanessa H.; Napoli, Josephine A.

    2015-01-01

    The highly conserved exocyst protein complex regulates polarized exocytosis of subsets of secretory vesicles. A previous study reported that shRNA knockdown of an exocyst central subunit, Sec10 (Sec10-KD) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells disrupted primary cilia assembly and 3D cyst formation. We used three-dimensional collagen cultures of MDCK cells to further investigate the mechanisms by which Sec10 and the exocyst regulate epithelial polarity, morphogenesis, and homeostasis. Sec10-KD cysts initially demonstrated undisturbed lumen formation although later displayed significantly fewer and shorter primary cilia than controls. Later in cystogenesis, control cells maintained normal homeostasis, while Sec10-KD cysts displayed numerous apoptotic cells extruded basally into the collagen matrix. Sec10-KD MDCK cells were also more sensitive to apoptotic triggers than controls. These phenotypes were reversed by restoring Sec10 expression with shRNA-resistant human Sec10. Apico-basal polarity appeared normal in Sec10-KD cysts, whereas mitotic spindle angles differed significantly from controls, suggesting a planar cell polarity defect. In addition, analysis of renal tubules in a newly generated kidney-specific Sec10-knockout mouse model revealed significant defects in primary cilia assembly and in the targeted renal tubules; abnormal epithelial cell extrusion was also observed, supporting our in vitro results. We hypothesize that, in Sec10-KD cells, the disrupted exocyst activity results in increased apoptotic sensitivity through defective primary cilia signaling and that, in combination with an increased basal cell extrusion rate, it affects epithelial barrier integrity and homeostasis. PMID:26040895

  1. Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells

    PubMed Central

    Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn2+ (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72 h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy. PMID:25118929

  2. Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells.

    PubMed

    Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn(2+) (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72 h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy. PMID:25118929

  3. Clusterin facilitates apoptotic cell clearance and prevents apoptotic cell-induced autoimmune responses

    PubMed Central

    Cunin, P; Beauvillain, C; Miot, C; Augusto, J-F; Preisser, L; Blanchard, S; Pignon, P; Scotet, M; Garo, E; Fremaux, I; Chevailler, A; Subra, J-F; Blanco, P; Wilson, M R; Jeannin, P; Delneste, Y

    2016-01-01

    Clusterin (Clu), an extracellular chaperone, exhibits characteristics of soluble innate immunity receptors, as assessed by its ability to bind some bacteria strains. In this study, we report that Clu also binds specifically to late apoptotic cells but not to live, early apoptotic, or necrotic cells. Histones, which accumulate on blebs during the apoptotic process, represent privileged Clu-binding motifs at the surface of late apoptotic cells. As a consequence, Clu potentiates, both in vitro and in vivo, the phagocytosis of late apoptotic cells by macrophages. Moreover, the increased phagocytosis of late apoptotic cells induced by Clu favors the presentation and cross-presentation of apoptotic cell-associated antigens. Finally, we observed that, in a model of apoptotic cell-induced autoimmunity, and relative to control mice, Clu−/− mice develop symptoms of autoimmunity, including the generation of anti-dsDNA antibodies, deposition of immunoglobulins and complement components within kidneys, and splenomegaly. These results identify Clu as a new molecule partner involved in apoptotic cell efferocytosis and suggest a protective role for Clu in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27148688

  4. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Arandjelovic, Sanja; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2015-09-01

    Human bodies collectively turn over about 200 billion to 300 billion cells every day. Such turnover is an integral part of embryonic and postnatal development, as well as routine tissue homeostasis. This process involves the induction of programmed cell death in specific cells within the tissues and the specific recognition and removal of dying cells by a clearance 'crew' composed of professional, non-professional and specialized phagocytes. In the past few years, considerable progress has been made in identifying many features of apoptotic cell clearance. Some of these new observations challenge the way dying cells themselves are viewed, as well as how healthy cells interact with and respond to dying cells. Here we focus on the homeostatic removal of apoptotic cells in tissues.

  5. Apoptotic pathway induced by diallyl trisulfide in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hong-Bing; Huang, Shan; Yin, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yang; Di, Zheng-Li

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, in pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cells with wild-type p53 gene (Capan-2) and normal pancreatic epithelial cells (H6C7) were cultured in RPMI1640. DATS was prepared at a concentration of 100 μmol/L. Cell viability was determined via the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bax and Bcl-2 expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Apoptosis genes and cell cycle were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: DATS suppressed the viability of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-2) by increasing the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase and induced apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis indicated that DATS enhanced the expression of Fas, p21, p53 and cyclin B1, but downregulated the expression of Akt, cyclin D1, MDM2 and Bcl-2. DATS induced cell cycle inhibition which was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1 and p21, and reduced levels of cyclin D1 in Capan-2 cells and H6C7 cells. DATS-induced apoptosis was markedly elevated in Capan-2 cells compared with H6C7 cells, and this was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1 and p53, and reduced levels of Bcl-2. DATS-induced apoptosis was correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, Akt and cyclin D1 protein levels, and up-regulation of Bax, Fas, p53 and cyclin B protein levels in Capan-2 cells. CONCLUSION: DATS induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-2) and non-tumorigenic pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (H6C7). PMID:24415872

  6. Role of calpain-9 and PKC-delta in the apoptotic mechanism of lumen formation in CEACAM1 transfected breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Charng-Jui; Nguyen, Tung; Shively, John E

    2010-02-15

    CEACAM1-4S (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1) is a type I membrane protein with a short (12-amino acid) cytoplasmic tail. Wild type CEACAM1-4S-transfected MCF7 cells form glands with lumena when grown in 3D culture, while null mutations of two putative phosphorylation sites (T457A and S459A) in the cytoplasmic domain fail to undergo lumen formation. When gene chip analysis was performed on mRNA isolated from both wild type and T457A,S459A mutated CEACAM1-4S-transfected MCF7 cells grown in 3D culture, calpain-9 (CAPN9) was identified out of over 400 genes with a >2 log 2 difference as a potential inducer of lumen formation. Inhibition of CAPN9 expression in MCF7/CEACAM1-4S cells by RNAi or by calpeptin or PD150606 inhibited lumen formation. Transfection of CAPN9 into wild type MCF7 cells restores lumen formation demonstrating that calpain-9 may play a critical role in lumen formation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the apoptosis related kinase, PKC-delta, is activated by proteolytic cleavage during lumen formation exclusively in wild type CEACAM1-4S-transfected MCF7 cells grown in 3D culture and that lumen formation is inhibited by either RNAi to PKC-delta or by the PKC-delta inhibitor rottlerin.

  7. Human Cells Display Reduced Apoptotic Function Relative to Chimpanzee Cells

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Previously published gene expression analyses suggested that apoptotic function may be reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees and led to the hypothesis that this difference may contribute to the relatively larger size of the human brain and the increased propensity of humans to develop cancer. In this study, we sought to further test the hypothesis that humans maintain a reduced apoptotic function relative to chimpanzees by conducting a series of apoptotic function assays on human, chimpanzee and macaque primary fibroblastic cells. Human cells consistently displayed significantly reduced apoptotic function relative to the chimpanzee and macaque cells. These results are consistent with earlier findings indicating that apoptotic function is reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees. PMID:23029431

  8. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ivan K H; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2014-03-01

    The prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses, are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions, such as the killing of tumour cells by specific cell-death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and antitumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Complement activation by apoptotic cells occurs predominantly via IgM and is limited to late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Bas; Ciurana, Caroline; Rensink, Irma; Manoe, Rishi; Hack, C Erik; Aarden, Lucien A

    2004-03-01

    Apoptotic cells activate complement via various molecular mechanisms. It is not known which of these mechanisms predominate in a physiological environment. Using Jurkat cells as a model, we investigated complement deposition on vital, early and late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells in a physiological medium, human plasma, and established the main molecular mechanism involved in this activation. Upon incubation with recalcified plasma, binding of C3 and C4 to early apoptotic cells was similar to background binding on vital cells. In contrast, late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells consistently displayed substantial binding of C4 and C3 and low, but detectable, binding of C1q. Binding of C3 and C4 to the apoptotic cells was abolished by EDTA or Mg-EGTA, and also by C1-inhibitor or a monoclonal antibody that inhibits C1q binding, indicating that complement fixation by the apoptotic cells was mainly dependent on the classical pathway. Late apoptotic cells also consistently bound IgM, in which binding significantly correlated with that of C4 and C3. Depletion of plasma for IgM abolished most of the complement fixation by apoptotic cells, which was restored by supplementation with purified IgM. We conclude that complement binding by apoptotic cells in normal human plasma occurs mainly to late apoptotic, secondary necrotic cells, and that the dominant mechanism involves classical pathway activation by IgM.

  10. Staurosporine induces apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) in ECV304 cells.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, A M; Ghelli, A; Zanna, C; Valente, P; Ferroni, S; Rugolo, M

    2003-12-01

    Incubation of ECV304 cells with 1 micro M staurosporine (STS) causes apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we investigate whether a significant apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) was apparent during the very early times (1 h) of the apoptotic process. Our data suggest that upregulation of Cl(-) (and possibly K(+)) channels by STS may be a very early primary event required for the subsequent onset of AVD, which results in apoptosis.

  11. Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.

    PubMed

    Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-02-12

    Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension.

  12. Optical determination of intracellular water in apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Model, Michael A; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2013-12-01

    Intracellular water plays a critical role in apoptotic and necrotic cell death. We describe a method for quantifying cell water by application of two previously described variants of transmission microscopy. By taking two axially displaced brightfield images, the phase shift of the transmitted wave was computed using the transport-of-intensity equation. At the same time, cell thickness was determined by transmission through an externally applied dye ('transmission-through-dye' microscopy); switching between these two imaging modalities was accomplished by simply changing the illumination wavelength. The sets of data thus obtained allow computation of the refractive index and cell water content within individual cells. The method was illustrated using cells treated with apoptotic agents staurosporine and actinomycin D and with necrosis inducer ionomycin. Water imaging allows discrimination between apoptotic volume decrease due to dehydration from that due to detachment of apoptotic bodies and can be used on samples where cell volume determination alone would be difficult or insufficient.

  13. Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic functions of villin regulate cell turnover and intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaohong; George, Sudeep P.; Roy, Swati; Pham, Eric; Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Amin; Khurana, Seema

    2016-01-01

    In the small intestine, epithelial cells are derived from stem cells in the crypts, migrate up the villus as they differentiate and are ultimately shed from the villus tips. This process of proliferation and shedding is tightly regulated to maintain the intestinal architecture and tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis regulates both the number of stem cells in the crypts as well as the sloughing of cells from the villus tips. Previously, we have shown that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-binding protein functions as an anti-apoptotic protein in the gastrointestinal epithelium. The expression of villin is highest in the apoptosis-resistant villus cells and lowest in the apoptosis-sensitive crypts. In this study we report that villin is cleaved in the intestinal mucosa to generate a pro-apoptotic fragment that is spatially restricted to the villus tips. This cleaved villin fragment severs actin in an unregulated fashion to initiate the extrusion and subsequent apoptosis of effete cells from the villus tips. Using villin knockout mice, we validate the physiological role of villin in apoptosis and cell extrusion from the gastrointestinal epithelium. Our study also highlights the potential role of villin’s pro-apoptotic function in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia-reperfusion injury, enteroinvasive bacterial and parasitic infections. PMID:27765954

  14. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Emily E.; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C.; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration. PMID:26121639

  15. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Emily E; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration.

  16. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  17. Retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium forms early in development and subsequently remains dormant, undergoing minimal proliferation throughout normal life. Retinal pigment epithelium proliferation, however, can be activated in disease states or by removing retinal pigment epithelial cells into culture. We review the conditions that control retinal pigment epithelial proliferation in culture, in animal models and in human disease and interpret retinal pigment epithelium proliferation in context of the recently discovered retinal pigment epithelium stem cell that is responsible for most in vitro retinal pigment epithelial proliferation. Retinal pigment epithelial proliferation-mediated wound repair that occurs in selected macular diseases is contrasted with retinal pigment epithelial proliferation-mediated fibroblastic scar formation that underlies proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We discuss the role of retinal pigment epithelial proliferation in age-related macular degeneration which is reparative in some cases and destructive in others. Macular retinal pigment epithelium wound repair and regression of choroidal neovascularization are more pronounced in younger than older patients. We discuss the possibility that the limited retinal pigment epithelial proliferation and latent wound repair in older age-related macular degeneration patients can be stimulated to promote disease regression in age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26041390

  18. In vitro study of immunosuppressive effect of apoptotic cells*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-jin; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that apoptotic cells are actively involved in immunosuppression and anti-inflammation. After being phagocytosed by macrophages, apoptotic cells can actively regulate cytokines secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, in which the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) is increased while the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and leukin-8 (IL-8) are suppressed. In this paper, we first present evidence that phagocytosed apoptotic cells regulate cytokine secretion of LPS-stimulated macrophages, but also inhibit the activation of T lymphocytes stimulated by ConA. These data suggest that apoptotic cells can alter the biological behavior of macrophages which gain immunosuppressive property. PMID:16130196

  19. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M.; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  20. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  1. Rho kinase regulates fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, Kelly A.; Stone, Nicole L.; Pittman, Randall N. . E-mail: pittman@pharm.med.upenn.edu

    2006-01-01

    During the execution phase of apoptosis, a cell undergoes cytoplasmic and nuclear changes that prepare it for death and phagocytosis. The end-point of the execution phase is condensation into a single apoptotic body or fragmentation into multiple apoptotic bodies. Fragmentation is thought to facilitate phagocytosis; however, mechanisms regulating fragmentation are unknown. An isoform of Rho kinase, ROCK-I, drives membrane blebbing through its activation of actin-myosin contraction; this raises the possibility that ROCK-I may regulate other execution phase events, such as cellular fragmentation. Here, we show that COS-7 cells fragment into a number of small apoptotic bodies during apoptosis; treating with ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632 or H-1152) prevents fragmentation. Latrunculin B and blebbistatin, drugs that interfere with actin-myosin contraction, also inhibit fragmentation. During apoptosis, ROCK-I is cleaved and activated by caspases, while ROCK-II is not activated, but rather translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction. siRNA knock-down of ROCK-I but not ROCK-II inhibits fragmentation of dying cells, consistent with ROCK-I being required for apoptotic fragmentation. Finally, cells dying in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 are not efficiently phagocytized. These data show that ROCK plays an essential role in fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

  2. KIM-1-/TIM-1-mediated phagocytosis links ATG5-/ULK1-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells to antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Craig R; Yeung, Melissa Y; Brooks, Yang S; Chen, Hui; Ichimura, Takaharu; Henderson, Joel M; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-10-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by both professional and semi-professional phagocytes is required for resolution of organ damage and maintenance of immune tolerance. KIM-1/TIM-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is expressed on epithelial cells and can transform the cells into phagocytes. Here, we demonstrate that KIM-1 phosphorylation and association with p85 results in encapsulation of phagosomes by lipidated LC3 in multi-membrane organelles. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis is not associated with increased ROS production, and NOX inhibition does not block LC3 lipidation. Autophagy gene expression is required for efficient clearance of apoptotic cells and phagosome maturation. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis leads to pro-tolerogenic antigen presentation, which suppresses CD4 T-cell proliferation and increases the percentage of regulatory T cells in an autophagy gene-dependent manner. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism of epithelial biology linking phagocytosis, autophagy and antigen presentation to regulation of the inflammatory response.

  3. Apoptotic photoreceptor cell death in mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Portera-Cailliau, C; Sung, C H; Nathans, J; Adler, R

    1994-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited human diseases in which photoreceptor degeneration leads to visual loss and eventually to blindness. Although mutations in the rhodopsin, peripherin, and cGMP phosphodiesterase genes have been identified in some forms of RP, it remains to be determined whether these mutations lead to photoreceptor cell death through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. In this paper, we report a test of the hypothesis that photoreceptor cell death occurs by an apoptotic mechanism in three mouse models of RP: retinal degeneration slow (rds) caused by a peripherin mutation, retinal degeneration (rd) caused by a defect in cGMP phosphodiesterase, and transgenic mice carrying a rhodopsin Q344ter mutation responsible for autosomal dominant RP. Two complementary techniques were used to detect apoptosis-specific internucleosomal DNA fragmentation: agarose gel electrophoresis and in situ labeling of apoptotic cells by terminal dUTP nick end labeling. Both methods showed extensive apoptosis of photoreceptors in all three mouse models of retinal degeneration. We also show that apoptotic death occurs in the retina during normal development, suggesting that different mechanisms can cause photoreceptor death by activating an intrinsic death program in these cells. These findings raise the possibility that retinal degenerations may be slowed by interfering with the apoptotic mechanism itself. Images PMID:8302876

  4. Monitoring circulating apoptotic cells by in-vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wu, Bin; Wang, Chen

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapies currently constitute one main venue of cancer treatment. For a large number of adult and elderly patients, however, treatment options are poor. These patients may suffer from disease that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy or may not be candidates for curative therapies because of advanced age or poor medical conditions. To control disease in these patients, new therapies must be developed that are selectively targeted to unique characteristics of tumor cell growth and metastasis. A reliable early evaluation and prediction of response to the chemotherapy is critical to its success. Chemotherapies induce apoptosis in tumor cells and a portion of such apoptotic cancer cells may be present in the circulation. However, the fate of circulating tumor cells is difficult to assess with conventional methods that require blood sampling. We report the in situ measurement of circulating apoptotic cells in live animals using in vivo flow cytometry, a novel method that enables real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells without blood extraction. Apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared from the circulation with a half-life of ~10 minutes. Real-time monitoring of circulating apoptotic cells can be useful for detecting early changes in disease processes, as well as for monitoring response to therapeutic intervention.

  5. Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo imaging of apoptotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prathik; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Her, Guor-Mour; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Li, Chi-Lin; Shu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Liang, Chi-Te; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with the GQDs exhibiting high biocompatibility as they were excreted from the zebrafish's body without affecting its growth significantly at a concentration lower than 2 mg mL-1 over a period of 4 to 72 hour post fertilization. The GQDs have further been used to image human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells), human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells), and normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). These results are indispensable to further the advance of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with

  6. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  7. Apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Aten, J; Rentenaar, R J; Hack, C E; Koopman, G; Weening, J J; ten Berge, I J

    1998-01-01

    Tubular cells are important targets during acute renal allograft rejection and induction of apoptosis might be a mechanism of tubular cell destruction. Susceptibility to induction of apoptosis is regulated by the homologous Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax is regulated by p53, which down-regulates expression of Bcl-2, while simultaneously up-regulating expression of Bax. We studied apoptotic tubular cell death in 10 renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with acute rejection by in situ end-labelling and the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide. Tubular expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax was studies by immunohistochemistry. Five renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with uncomplicated clinical course and histologically normal renal tissue present in nephrectomy specimens from 4 patients with renal adenocarcinoma served as control specimens. Apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies were detected in tubular epithelia and tubular lumina in 9 out of 10 acute rejection biopsies. In control renal tissue, apoptotic cells were detected in 1 biopsy only. Compared to control renal tissue, acute renal allograft rejection was, furthermore, associated with a shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax in tubular epithelia and increased expression of p53 in tubular nuclei. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis contributes in part to tubular cell destruction during acute renal allograft rejection. In accordance, the shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax indicates increased susceptibility of tubular epithelia to induction of apoptosis. The expression of p53 in tubular nuclei during acute renal allograft rejection indicates the presence of damaged DNA, which can be important in initiation of part of the observed apoptosis. These findings elucidate part of the mechanisms controlling apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

  8. Apoptotic Cells Activate NKT Cells through T Cell Ig-Like Mucin-Like–1 Resulting in Airway Hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Meyer, Everett H.; Goya, Sho; Pichavant, Muriel; Kim, Hye Young; Bu, Xia; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Jones, Jennifer C.; Savage, Paul B.; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Kaplan, Gerardo; Freeman, Gordon J.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2011-01-01

    T cell Ig-like mucin-like–1 (TIM-1) is an important asthma susceptibility gene, but the immunological mechanisms by which TIM-1 functions remain uncertain. TIM-1 is also a receptor for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), an important marker of cells undergoing programmed cell death, or apoptosis. We now demonstrate that NKT cells constitutively express TIM-1 and become activated by apoptotic cells expressing PtdSer. TIM-1 recognition of PtdSer induced NKT cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis in airway epithelial cells activated pulmonary NKT cells and unexpectedly resulted in airway hyperreactivity, a cardinal feature of asthma, in an NKT cell-dependent and TIM-1–dependent fashion. These results suggest that TIM-1 serves as a pattern recognition receptor on NKT cells that senses PtdSer on apoptotic cells as a damage-associated molecular pattern. Furthermore, these results provide evidence for a novel innate pathway that results in airway hyperreactivity and may help to explain how TIM-1 and NKT cells regulate asthma. PMID:20889552

  9. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-01-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  10. Harnessing the apoptotic programs in cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Scadden, David T

    2015-01-01

    Elimination of malignant cells is an unmet challenge for most human cancer types even with therapies targeting specific driver mutations. Therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to alter cancer cell biology on multiple levels is increasingly recognized as essential for cancer cure. One such aspect of cancer cell biology is the relative apoptosis resistance of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. Further, we summarize efforts to exploit these differences to design therapies targeting that important cancer cell population. PMID:26253117

  11. The peculiar apoptotic behavior of skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Baldassarri, Valentina; Battistelli, Michela; Canonico, Barbara; Valmori, Aurelio; Papa, Stefano; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2013-08-01

    Apoptosis plays an active role in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Its deregulation is involved in several skeletal muscle disorders such as dystrophies, myopathies, disuse and sarcopenia. The aim of this work was to study in vitro the apoptotic behavior induced by etoposide, staurosporine and hydrogen peroxide in the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line, comparing myoblast vs myotube sensitivity, investigated by means of morphological and cytofluorimetric analyses. Myotubes appeared more resistant than myoblasts to apoptotic induction. In myoblasts treated with etoposide, nuclei with chromatin condensation were observed, in the presence of a diffuse DNA fragmentation, as shown by confocal microscopy. The latter also appeared in myotubes, where apoptotic and normal nuclei coexisted inside the same syncytium. After staurosporine treatment, myobalsts evidenced late apoptotic features and a high number of TUNEL-positive nuclei. Secondary necrosis appeared in myotubes, where myonuclei with cleaved DNA again coexisted with normal myonuclei. After H₂O₂ exposure, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, autophagic granules appeared abundantly in myotubes after each treatment. In myotubes, mitochondria were better preserved than in myoblasts since those which were damaged were probably degraded through autophagic processes. These findings demonstrate a scarce sensitivity of myotubes to apoptotic stimuli due to acquisition of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype during differentiation. The presence of nuclear-dependent "territorial" death domains in the syncytium could explain a slower death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. In addition, autophagy could preserve and protect muscle cell integrity against chemical stimuli, making C2C12 cells, in particular myotubes, more resistant to apoptosis induction. PMID:23400589

  12. Epithelial Sodium Channels in Pulmonary Epithelial Progenitor and Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Zhao, Run-Zhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the epithelium of mammalian lungs is essential for restoring normal function following injury, and various cells and mechanisms contribute to this regeneration and repair. Club cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are dominant stem/progenitor cells for maintaining epithelial turnover and repair. Epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC), a critical pathway for transapical salt and fluid transport, are expressed in lung epithelial progenitors, including club and ATII cells. Since ENaC activity and expression are development- and differentiation-dependent, apically located ENaC activity has therefore been used as a functional biomarker of lung injury repair. ENaC activity may be involved in the migration and differentiation of local and circulating stem/progenitor cells with diverse functions, eventually benefiting stem cells spreading to re-epithelialize injured lungs. This review summarizes the potential roles of ENaC expressed in native progenitor and stem cells in the development and regeneration of the respiratory epithelium. PMID:27570489

  13. Epithelial Sodium Channels in Pulmonary Epithelial Progenitor and Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Zhao, Run-Zhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the epithelium of mammalian lungs is essential for restoring normal function following injury, and various cells and mechanisms contribute to this regeneration and repair. Club cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are dominant stem/progenitor cells for maintaining epithelial turnover and repair. Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), a critical pathway for transapical salt and fluid transport, are expressed in lung epithelial progenitors, including club and ATII cells. Since ENaC activity and expression are development- and differentiation-dependent, apically located ENaC activity has therefore been used as a functional biomarker of lung injury repair. ENaC activity may be involved in the migration and differentiation of local and circulating stem/progenitor cells with diverse functions, eventually benefiting stem cells spreading to re-epithelialize injured lungs. This review summarizes the potential roles of ENaC expressed in native progenitor and stem cells in the development and regeneration of the respiratory epithelium. PMID:27570489

  14. Effect of PDT-treated apoptotic cells on macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xing, Da; Zhou, Fei-fan; Chen, Wei R.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the long-term immunological effects of photodynamic therapy have attracted much attention. PDT induced immune response was mainly initiated through necrotic cells and apoptotic cells, as well as immune cells such as macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) as an important regulatory factor in signal transfer between cells has been wildly studied for generation, development, and metastasis of tumors. NO synthase is a key enzyme in nitric oxide synthesis. However, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is usually activated under pathological conditions, such as stress and cancer, which can produce high levels of nitric oxide and contribute to tumor cytotoxicity. In addition, increased NO production by iNOS has been associated with the host immune response and cell apoptosis, which play an important role in many carcinogenesis and anti-carcinoma mechanisms. This study focuses on the NO production in macrophages, induced by mouse breast carcinoma apoptotic cells treated by PDT in vitro, and on the effects of immune response induced by apoptotic cells in tumor cells growth.

  15. PDT-treated apoptotic cells induce macrophage synthesis NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Xing, D.; Zhou, F. F.; Chen, W. R.

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has multi-functional in different species. As a second messenger and neurotransmitter, NO is not only an important regulatory factor between cells' information transmission, but also an important messenger in cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity. On the other side, NO is involving in some diseases' pathological process. In pathological conditions, the macrophages are activated to produce a large quantity of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which can use L-arginine to produce an excessive amount of NO, thereby killing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, tumor cells, as well as in other series of the immune process. In this paper, photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in vitro to induce apoptotic cells, and then co-incubation both apoptotic cells and macrophages, which could activate macrophage to induce a series of cytotoxic factors, especially NO. This, in turn, utilizes macrophages to activate a cytotoxic response towards neighboring tumor cells. These results provided a new idea for us to further study the immunological mechanism involved in damaging effects of PDT, also revealed the important function of the immune effect of apoptotic cells in PDT.

  16. Secretory component: a glandular epithelial cell marker.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. P.; South, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Secretory component (SC) has been demonstrated to be produced by both normal and malignantly transformed glandular epithelial cells. By an indirect immunofluorescent technique, this study surveys tumors of varied cellular origin in order to determine the reliability of SC as a marker for tumor cells derived from glandular epithelium. Both primary and metastatic tumors of glandular epithelial origin demonstrated SC fluorescence, while nonglandular epithelial tumors did not. This observation was extended to live single-cell preparations, which demonstrated intense cell-surface fluorescence only when glandular epithelial tumors cells were examined. Additionally, fixed, cytocentrifuged, single-cell preparations of glandular epithelial tumors demonstrated cytoplasmic SC fluorescence. When breast carcinoma was examined, all cases demonstrated SC, regardless of the degree of differentiation. This assay appears to have useful clinical application in that the finding of SC provides indication of the glandular epithelial origin of a malignantly transformed cell. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6271014

  17. Epithelial cells and Von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Negishi, H; Benke, P J

    1977-08-01

    Epithelial cells and not fibroblasts from human liver and amniotic fluid contain inducible glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity. The diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease has been made in a patient with hepatomegaly utilizing cultured epithelial cells grown from a liver biopsy. G-6-Pase activity in epithelial cells from this patient could not be induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. This is the first use of epithelial cells for diagnosis of a metabolic disease. G-6-Pase activity in cloned epithelial cells from amniotic fluid increases 2- to 3-fold after 24-hr exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. The prenatal diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease may be possible in a laboratory experienced with these techniques if epithelial cell growth is obtained from amniotic fluid. PMID:196249

  18. The anti-apoptotic protein lifeguard is expressed in breast cancer cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Bucan, Vesna; Reimers, Kerstin; Choi, Claudia Yu; Eddy, Mau-Thek; Vogt, Peter M

    2010-06-01

    Lifeguard (LFG) is an anti-apoptotic protein that inhibits Fas-mediated death in tumour cells. However, the molecular function of human LFG in the carcinogenesis of human breast cells is uncertain. We studied the expression and function of endogenous LFG in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T-47D and HS 578T), a human breast epithelial cell line (HS 578Bst), and in healthy and cancerous breast tissues. Molecular (Western blot and RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate the LFG expression. To investigate the breast cancer cell proliferation in the presence of Fas, we performed fluorescent cell viability assays. The possible association of Fas with LFG was analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In this paper, we provide convincing evidence that LFG is overexpressed in several human breast cancer cell lines. More importantly, we found that the LFG expression correlates with high tumour grades in primary breast tumours. Finally, we demonstrated that Fas sensitivity is reduced in breast cancer cell lines expressing LFG. Our results indicated that LFG is strongly expressed in breast cancer epithelial cells. Moreover, the overexpression of LFG correlated with tumour grade and reduced Fas sensitivity. Our findings support the idea that LFG may have a role in the downregulation of apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

  19. IGF-1 protects tubular epithelial cells during injury via activation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zengbin; Yu, Yang; Niu, Lei; Fei, Aihua; Pan, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Injury of renal tubular epithelial cells can induce acute renal failure and obstructive nephropathy. Previous studies have shown that administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) ameliorates the renal injury in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model, whereas the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we addressed this question. We found that the administration of IGF-1 significantly reduced the severity of the renal fibrosis in UUO. By analyzing purified renal epithelial cells, we found that IGF-1 significantly reduced the apoptotic cell death of renal epithelial cells, seemingly through upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, at protein but not mRNA level. Bioinformatics analyses and luciferase-reporter assay showed that miR-429 targeted the 3′-UTR of Bcl-2 mRNA to inhibit its protein translation in renal epithelial cells. Moreover, IGF-1 suppressed miR-429 to increase Bcl-2 in renal epithelial cells to improve survival after UUO. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in renal epithelial cells abolished the suppressive effects of IGF-1 on miR-429 activation, and then the enhanced effects on Bcl-2 in UUO. Thus, our data suggest that IGF-1 may protect renal tubular epithelial cells via activation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway during renal injury. PMID:27301852

  20. Opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via promotion of pro-apoptotic and inhibition of anti-apoptotic molecules

    PubMed Central

    Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to determine the important molecules involved in apoptosis induction by opium in Jurkat cell line. Materials and Methods: Jurkat cells were incubated 48 hrs with 2.86×10-5 g/ml concentration of opium and apoptosis as well as expression levels of related molecules were measured. Results: Our results demonstrated that 50.3±0.2 percent of opium treated Jurkat cells were revealed apoptotic features. The levels of mRNA of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules were increased and decreased, respectively, in the opium treated cells. The results also demonstrated that expression levels of BCL2, DFFA and NOL3 as anti-apoptotic molecules were increased in the opium treated cells. Conclusion: It seems that opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Although opium induces apoptosis in the cells but increased expression of some anti-apoptotic molecules may be a normal resistance of the cell for death. PMID:27081468

  1. Apoptotic Death of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Chun; Zhou, Fang-Liang; Shen, Yi; Liao, Duan-Fang; Cao, Deliang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles in tumor progression, chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, and recurrence. Recent studies on CSCs have advanced understanding of molecular oncology and development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review article updates the hypothesis and paradigm of CSCs with a focus on major signaling pathways and effectors that regulate CSC apoptosis. Selective CSC apoptotic inducers are introduced and their therapeutic potentials are discussed. These include synthetic and natural compounds, antibodies and recombinant proteins, and oligonucleotides. PMID:24823879

  2. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Sanchaita S; Dudda, Jan C

    2013-01-01

    The bronchial epithelium has been increasingly recognized as an important immunomodulatory compartment in asthma and other lung diseases. Clara cells, which comprise the nonciliated secretory epithelial cells, are an important epithelial cell type with functions in the regulation of lung homeostasis and inflammation. Using naphthalene, Clara cells can be depleted within 24 h and regenerate by 1 month, hence, providing an easy method to study the impact of Clara cells on lung inflammation.

  3. Melanin dependent survival of Apergillus fumigatus conidia in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shayista; Thywissen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Saluz, Hans Peter; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne pathogenic fungus of humans. Upon inhalation of conidia, the fungus makes close contact with lung epithelial cells, which only possess low phagocytic activity. These cells are in particular interesting to address the question whether there is some form of persistence of conidia of A. fumigatus in the human host. Therefore, by also using uracil-auxotrophic mutant strains, we were able to investigate the interaction of A549 lung epithelial cells and A. fumigatus conidia in detail for long periods. Interestingly, unlike professional phagocytes, our study showed that the presence of conidial dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin enhanced the uptake of A. fumigatus conidia by epithelial cells when compared with non-pigmented pksP mutant conidia. Furthermore, conidia of A. fumigatus were able to survive within epithelial cells. This was due to the presence of DHN melanin in the cell wall of conidia, because melanised wild-type conidia showed a higher survival rate inside epithelial cells and led to inhibition of acidification of phagolysosomes. Both effects were not observed for white (non-melanised) conidia of the pksP mutant strain. Moreover, in contrast to pksP mutant conidia, melanised wild-type conidia were able to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in A549 lung epithelial cells even for longer periods. The anti-apoptotic effect was not restricted to conidia, because both conidia-derived melanin ghosts (cell-free DHN melanin) and a different type of melanin, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin, acted anti-apoptotically. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of melanin-dependent persistence of conidia in lung epithelial cells.

  4. Mesd extrinsically promotes phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Guo, Feiye; LeBlanc, Michelle E; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Chenming; Shakya, Akhalesh; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Phagocytosis is a critical process to maintain tissue homeostasis. In the retina, photoreceptor cells renew their photoexcitability by shedding photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) in a diurnal rhythm. Shed POSs are phagocytosed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent debris accumulation, retinal degeneration, and blindness. Phagocytosis ligands are the key to understanding how RPE recognizes shed POSs. Here, we characterized mesoderm development candidate 2 (Mesd or Mesdc2), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperon for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRPs), to extrinsically promote RPE phagocytosis. The results showed that Mesd stimulated phagocytosis of fluorescence-labeled POS vesicles by D407 RPE cells. Ingested POSs were partially degraded within 3 h in some RPE cells to dispense undegradable fluorophore throughout the cytoplasm. Internalized POSs were colocalized with phagosome biomarker Rab7, suggesting that Mesd-mediated engulfment is involved in a phagocytosis pathway. Mesd also facilitated phagocytosis of POSs by primary RPE cells. Mesd bound to unknown phagocytic receptor(s) on RPE cells. Mesd was detected in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei, of different retinal layers and is predominantly expressed in the ER-free cellular compartment of POSs. Mesd was not secreted into medium from healthy cells but passively released from apoptotic cells with increased membrane permeability. Released Mesd selectively bound to the surface of POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, but not healthy cells. These results suggest that Mesd may be released from and bind to shed POSs to facilitate their phagocytic clearance.

  5. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today. PMID:11686863

  6. Direct binding of C1q to apoptotic cells and cell blebs induces complement activation.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Alma J; Trouw, Leendert A; Daha, Mohamed R; Tijsma, Odette; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Gingras, Alexandre R; Mantovani, Alberto; Hack, Erik C; Roos, Anja

    2002-06-01

    Deficiency of early components of the classical pathway of complement, particularly C1q, predisposes to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Several studies have suggested an association between the classical complement pathway and the clearance of apoptotic cells. Mice with a targeted deletion of the C1q gene develop a lupus-like renal disease, which is associated with the presence of multiple apoptotic bodies in the kidney. In the present study we demonstrate that highly purified C1q binds to apoptotic cells and isolated blebs derived from these apoptotic cells. Binding of C1q to apoptotic cells occurs via the globular heads of C1q and induces activation of the classical complement pathway, as shown by the deposition of C4 and C3 on the surface of these cells and on cell-derived blebs. In addition, for the first time, we demonstrate that surface-bound C1q is present on a subpopulation of microparticles isolated from human plasma. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that C1q binds directly to apoptotic cells and blebs derived therefrom and support a role for C1q, possibly in concert with C4 and C3, in the clearance of apoptotic cells and blebs by the phagocytic system.

  7. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate.

  8. Activation-induced CD154 expression abrogates tolerance induced by apoptotic cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    The decision to generate a productive immune response or tolerance often depends on the context in which T cells first see Ag. Using a classical system of tolerance induction, we examined the immunological consequence of Ag encountered in the presence of naïve or activated apoptotic cells. Naïve apoptotic cells induced tolerance when injected i.v.; however, previously activated apoptotic cells induced immunity. Further analysis revealed a key role for CD154, as tolerance resulted after i.v. injection of either naïve or activated apoptotic CD154−/− T cells, while co-injection of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb with naïve apoptotic T cells induced robust immunity. DC fed activated apoptotic T cells in vitro produced IL-12p40 in a CD154-dependent manner, and the use of IL-12p40−/− mice or mAb-mediated neutralization of IL-12 revealed a link between CD154, IL-12, and the ability of activated apoptotic T cells to induce immunity rather than tolerance. Collectively these results show that CD154 expression on apoptotic T cells can determine the outcome of an immune response to Ag recognized within the context of the apoptotic cells, and suggest the balance between naïve and activated apoptotic T cells may dictate whether a productive immune response is encouraged. PMID:19841180

  9. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. In vitro apoptotic cell death during erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zamai, L; Burattini, S; Luchetti, F; Canonico, B; Ferri, P; Melloni, E; Gonelli, A; Guidotti, L; Papa, S; Falcieri, E

    2004-03-01

    Erythropoiesis occurs in bone marrow and it has been shown that during in vivo erythroid differentiation some immature erythroblasts undergo apoptosis. In this regard, it is known that immature erythroblasts are FasL- and TRAIL-sensitive and can be killed by cells expressing these ligand molecules. In the present study, we have investigated the cell death phenomenon that occurs during a common unilineage model of erythroid development. Purified CD34+ human haemopoietic progenitors were cultured in vitro in the presence of SCF, IL-3 and erythropoietin. Their differentiation stages and apoptosis were followed by multiple technical approaches. Flow cytometric evaluation of surface and intracellular molecules revealed that glycophorin A appeared at day 3-4 of incubation and about 75% of viable cells co-expressed high density glycophorin A (Gly(bright)) and adult haemoglobin at day 14 of culture, indicating that this system reasonably recapitulates in vivo normal erythropoiesis. Interestingly, when mature (Gly(bright)) erythroid cells reached their higher percentages (day 14) almost half of cultured cells were apoptotic. Morphological studies indicated that the majority of dead cells contained cytoplasmic granular material typical of basophilic stage, and DNA analysis by flow cytometry and TUNEL reaction revealed nuclear fragmentation. These observations indicate that in vitro unilineage erythroid differentiation, as in vivo, is associated with apoptotic cell death of cells with characteristics of basophilic erythroblasts. We suggest that the interactions between different death receptors on immature basophilic erythroblasts with their ligands on more mature erythroblasts may contribute to induce apoptosis in vitro. PMID:15004520

  11. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  12. Effects of butyrate on the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in bovine kidney epithelial cells primarily via down-regulating cell cycle-related gene expression and enhancing expression of pro-apoptotic genes. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an essential role in these processes as well a...

  13. Reducing VDAC1 expression induces a non-apoptotic role for pro-apoptotic proteins in cancer cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Arif, Tasleem; Krelin, Yakov; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2016-08-01

    Proteins initially identified as essential for apoptosis also mediate a wide range of non-apoptotic functions that include cell cycle progression, differentiation and metabolism. As this phenomenon was mostly reported with non-cancer cells, we considered non-conventional roles for the apoptotic machinery in the cancer setting. We found that treating glioblastoma (GBM) tumors with siRNA against VDAC1, a mitochondrial protein found at the crossroads of metabolic and survival pathways and involved in apoptosis, inhibited tumor growth while leading to differentiation of tumor cells into neuronal-like cells, as reflected in the expression of specific markers. Although VDAC1 depletion did not induce apoptosis, the expression levels of several pro-apoptotic regulatory proteins were changed. Specifically, VDAC1 deletion led to up-regulation of caspases, p53, cytochrome c, and down-regulation of SMAC/Diablo, AIF and TSPO. The down-regulated group was highly expressed in U-87MG xenografts, as well as in GBMs from human patients. We also showed that the rewired cancer-cell metabolism resulting from VDAC1 depletion reinforced cell growth arrest and differentiation via alterations in the transcription factors p53, c-Myc, HIF-1α and NF-κB. The decrease in c-Myc, HIF-1α and NF-κB levels was in accord with reduced cell proliferation, whereas increased p53 expression promoted differentiation. Thus, upon metabolic re-programing induced by VDAC1 depletion, the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins associated with cell growth decreased, while those connected to cell differentiation increased, converting GBM cells into astrocyte- and neuron-like cells. The results reveal that in tumors, pro-apoptotic proteins can perform non-apoptotic functions, acting as regulators of cell growth and differentiation, making these molecules potential new targets for cancer therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy

  14. Chromatin-independent binding of serum amyloid P component to apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Familian, A; Zwart, B; Huisman, H G; Rensink, I; Roem, D; Hordijk, P L; Aarden, L A; Hack, C E

    2001-07-15

    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a glycoprotein structurally belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins, which has a characteristic pentameric organization. Mice with a targeted deletion of the SAP gene develop antinuclear Abs, which was interpreted as evidence for a role of SAP in controlling the degradation of chromatin. However, in vitro SAP also can bind to phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid which in normal cells is located mainly in the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, to be translocated to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane during a membrane flip-flop. We hypothesized that SAP, because of its specificity for phosphatidylethanolamine, may bind to apoptotic cells independent of its nuclear binding. Calcium-dependent binding of SAP to early, nonpermeable apoptotic Jurkat, SKW, and Raji cells was indeed observed. Experiments with flip-flopped erythrocytes confirmed that SAP bound to early apoptotic cells via exposed phosphatidylethanolamine. Binding of SAP was stronger to late, permeable apoptotic cells. Experiments with enucleated neutrophils, with DNase/RNase treatment of late apoptotic Jurkat cells, and competition experiments with histones suggested that binding of SAP to late apoptotic cells was largely independent of chromatin. Confocal laser microscopic studies indeed suggested that SAP bound to these apoptotic cells mainly via the blebs. Thus, this study shows that SAP binds to apoptotic cells already at an early stage, which raises the possibility that SAP is involved in dealing with apoptotic cells in vivo.

  15. The Neisseria meningitidis ADP-Ribosyltransferase NarE Enters Human Epithelial Cells and Disrupts Epithelial Monolayer Integrity.

    PubMed

    Valeri, Maria; Zurli, Vanessa; Ayala, Inmaculada; Colanzi, Antonino; Lapazio, Lucia; Corda, Daniela; Soriani, Marco; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rossi Paccani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria utilize ADP-ribosylating toxins to modify and impair essential functions of eukaryotic cells. It has been previously reported that Neisseria meningitidis possesses an ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme, NarE, retaining the capacity to hydrolyse NAD and to transfer ADP-ribose moiety to arginine residues in target acceptor proteins. Here we show that upon internalization into human epithelial cells, NarE gains access to the cytoplasm and, through its ADP-ribosylating activity, targets host cell proteins. Notably, we observed that these events trigger the disruption of the epithelial monolayer integrity and the activation of the apoptotic pathway. Overall, our findings provide, for the first time, evidence for a biological activity of NarE on host cells, suggesting its possible involvement in Neisseria pathogenesis.

  16. Apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quisbert-Valenzuela, Edwin O; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Cancer is a public health problem in the world and breast cancer is the most frequently cancer in women. Approximately 15% of the breast cancers are triple-negative. Apoptosis regulates normal growth, homeostasis, development, embryogenesis and appropriate strategy to treat cancer. Bax is a protein pro-apoptotic enhancer of apoptosis in contrast to Bcl-2 with antiapoptotic properties. Initiator caspase-9 and caspase-8 are features of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway, respectively. NF-κB is a transcription factor known to be involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Noscapine, an alkaloid derived from opium is used as antitussive and showed antitumor properties that induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to determine the apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines compared to breast normal cell line. Three cell lines were used: i) a control breast cell line MCF-10F; ii) a luminal-like adenocarcinoma triple-positive breast cell line MCF-7; iii) breast cancer triple-negative cell line MDA-MB-231. Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells because it increases Bax gene and protein expression in three cell lines, while decreases Bcl-xL gene expression, and Bcl-2 protein expression decreased in breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in the three cell lines. This drug increased caspase-9 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and caspase-8 gene expression increased in MCF-10F and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, it increased cleavage of caspase-8, suggesting that noscapine-induced apoptosis is probably due to the involvement of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Antiapoptotic gene and protein expression diminished and proapoptotic gene and protein expression increased noscapine-induced expression, probably due to decrease in NF-κB gene and protein expression

  17. Evidence of apoptotic cell death in HIV encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Petito, C. K.; Roberts, B.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of cell death in the brains of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome was examined in 15 cases, 8 of whom had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis, and in 8 control cases. Postmortem formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for routine histology and immunohistochemistry to detect cell-specific antigens. Apoptosis was detected by its morphology and by in situ end labeling of its characteristic oligonucleosomal fragments. Combined in situ end labeling and immunohistochemistry identified specific cell types. Six acquired immune deficiency syndrome brains, 5 of which had HIV encephalitis, contained positive nuclei by in situ end labeling. Co-labeling studies identified the cells as neurons, reactive astrocytes, and, rarely, the multinucleated giant cells of HIV encephalitis. The only control with nuclei positive by in situ end labeling had hepatic encephalopathy and Alzheimer type II astrocytes; the location and absence of cell-specific markers suggested a glial origin for the labeled cells. These results demonstrate that at least some neuronal and astrocytic death in HIV infection occurs by apoptosis. Its stimuli are unknown, but likely candidates include tumor necrosis factor or HIV viral products. Additionally, we hypothesize that apoptotic death of reactive astrocytes may be a normal mechanism whereby the brain removes an excess number of astrocytes that have proliferated after certain types of brain injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 PMID:7747806

  18. Inhibitory effects of apoptotic cell ingestion upon endotoxin-driven myeloid dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Lynda M; Lucas, Mark; Simpson, Cathy; Lamb, Jonathan; Savill, John; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam

    2002-02-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the sentinels of the immune system, able to interact with both naive and memory T cells. The recent observation that DCs can ingest cells dying by apoptosis has raised the possibility that DCs may, in fact, present self-derived Ags, initiating both autoimmunity and tumor-specific responses, especially if associated with appropriate danger signals. Although the process of ingestion of apoptotic cells has not been shown to induce DC maturation, the exact fate of these phagocytosing DCs remains unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that DCs that ingest apoptotic cells are able to produce TNF-alpha but have a diminished ability to produce IL-12 in response to external stimuli, a property that corresponds to a failure to up-regulate CD86. By single-cell analysis we demonstrate that these inhibitory effects are restricted to those DCs that have engulfed apoptotic cells, with bystander DCs remaining unaffected. These changes were independent of the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-beta1 and IL-10 and corresponded with a diminished capacity to stimulate naive T cells. Thus, the ingestion of apoptotic cells is not an immunologically null event but is capable of modulating DC maturation. These results have important implications for our understanding of the role of clearance of dying cells by DCs not only in the normal resolution of inflammation but also in control of subsequent immune responses to apoptotic cell-derived Ags.

  19. ABCF1 extrinsically regulates retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora; Alvarado, Gabriela; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical to retinal homeostasis and shares many conserved signaling pathways with other phagocytes, including extrinsic regulations. Phagocytotic ligands are the key to cargo recognition, engulfment initiation, and activity regulation. In this study, we identified intracellular protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) as a novel RPE phagocytotic ligand by a new approach of functional screening. ABCF1 was independently verified to extrinsically promote phagocytosis of shed POSs by D407 RPE cells. This finding was further corroborated with primary RPE cells and RPE explants. Internalized POS vesicles were colocalized with a phagosome marker, suggesting that ABCF1-mediated engulfment is through a phagocytic pathway. ABCF1 was released from apoptotic cells and selectively bound to shed POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, possibly via externalized phosphatidylserine. ABCF1 is predominantly expressed in POSs and colocalized with the POS marker rhodopsin, providing geographical convenience for regulation of RPE phagocytosis. Collectively these results suggest that ABCF1 is released from and binds to shed POSs in an autocrine manner to facilitate RPE phagocytosis through a conserved pathway. Furthermore, the new approach is broadly applicable to many other phagocytes and will enable systematic elucidation of their ligands to understand extrinsic regulation and cargo recognition. PMID:25904329

  20. ABCF1 extrinsically regulates retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora; Alvarado, Gabriela; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-06-15

    Phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical to retinal homeostasis and shares many conserved signaling pathways with other phagocytes, including extrinsic regulations. Phagocytotic ligands are the key to cargo recognition, engulfment initiation, and activity regulation. In this study, we identified intracellular protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) as a novel RPE phagocytotic ligand by a new approach of functional screening. ABCF1 was independently verified to extrinsically promote phagocytosis of shed POSs by D407 RPE cells. This finding was further corroborated with primary RPE cells and RPE explants. Internalized POS vesicles were colocalized with a phagosome marker, suggesting that ABCF1-mediated engulfment is through a phagocytic pathway. ABCF1 was released from apoptotic cells and selectively bound to shed POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, possibly via externalized phosphatidylserine. ABCF1 is predominantly expressed in POSs and colocalized with the POS marker rhodopsin, providing geographical convenience for regulation of RPE phagocytosis. Collectively these results suggest that ABCF1 is released from and binds to shed POSs in an autocrine manner to facilitate RPE phagocytosis through a conserved pathway. Furthermore, the new approach is broadly applicable to many other phagocytes and will enable systematic elucidation of their ligands to understand extrinsic regulation and cargo recognition.

  1. The scavenger receptor SCARF1 mediates apoptotic cell clearance and prevents autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G.; Pendergraft, William F.; Prasad, Amit; Byrne, Michael H.; Iram, Tal; Blanchette, Christopher J.; Luster, Andrew D.; Hacohen, Nir; Khoury, Joseph El; Means, Terry K.

    2013-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for control of tissue homeostasis however the full range of receptor(s) on phagocytes responsible for recognition of apoptotic cells remains to be identified. Here we show that dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and endothelial cells use scavenger receptor type F family member 1 (SCARF1) to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells via C1q. Loss of SCARF1 impairs uptake of apoptotic cells. Consequently, in SCARF1-deficient mice, dying cells accumulate in tissues leading to a lupus-like disease with the spontaneous generation of autoantibodies to DNA-containing antigens, immune cell activation, dermatitis and nephritis. The discovery of SCARF1 interactions with C1q and apoptotic cells provides insights into molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. PMID:23892722

  2. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major ‘eat-me’ signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering.

  3. Lysosomal photodamage induces cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xian-wang; Li, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Lysosomal photosensitizers have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Combination of such photosensitizers and light causes lysosomal photodamage, inducing cell death. The lysosomal disruption can lead to apoptosis but its signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. In this study, we selected N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6), an effective photosensitizer which preferentially accumulates in lysosomes, to study the mechanism of apoptosis caused by lysosomal photodamage. Apoptosis in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells treated by NPe6-PDT was studied using real-time single-cell analysis. In this study, the fluorescence probes Cyto c-GFP and DsRed-Mit were used to detect the spatial and temporal changes of cytochrome c in real-time in sub-cell level; the Rhodamine 123 dyes were used to monitor the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential. The results showed that, after PDT treatment,the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, and cytochrome c released from mitochondria; The caspase-3 was activated obviously. These results suggested that lysosomal photodamage activates mitochondrial apoptotic pathway to induce cell death.

  4. The secretome of alginate-encapsulated limbal epithelial stem cells modulates corneal epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bernice; Hopkinson, Andrew; Leyland, Martin; Connon, Che J

    2013-01-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cells may ameliorate limbal stem cell deficiency through secretion of therapeutic proteins, delivered to the cornea in a controlled manner using hydrogels. In the present study the secretome of alginate-encapsulated limbal epithelial stem cells is investigated. Conditioned medium was generated from limbal epithelial stem cells encapsulated in 1.2% (w/v) calcium alginate gels. Conditioned medium proteins separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis were visualized by silver staining. Proteins of interest including secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, profilin-1, and galectin-1 were identified by immunoblotting. The effect of conditioned medium (from alginate-encapsulated limbal epithelial stem cells) on corneal epithelial cell proliferation was quantified and shown to significantly inhibit (P≤0.05) their growth. As secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine was previously reported to attenuate proliferation of epithelial cells, this protein may be responsible, at least in part, for inhibition of corneal epithelial cell proliferation. We conclude that limbal epithelial stem cells encapsulated in alginate gels may regulate corneal epithelialisation through secretion of inhibitory proteins.

  5. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  6. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  7. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  8. Induced pluripotency of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongjuan; Sun, Ning; Young, Sarah R; Nolley, Rosalie; Santos, Jennifer; Wu, Joseph C; Peehl, Donna M

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a valuable resource for discovery of epigenetic changes critical to cell type-specific differentiation. Although iPS cells have been generated from other terminally differentiated cells, the reprogramming of normal adult human basal prostatic epithelial (E-PZ) cells to a pluripotent state has not been reported. Here, we attempted to reprogram E-PZ cells by forced expression of Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 using lentiviral vectors and obtained embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like colonies at a frequency of 0.01%. These E-PZ-iPS-like cells with normal karyotype gained expression of pluripotent genes typical of iPS cells (Tra-1-81, SSEA-3, Nanog, Sox2, and Oct4) and lost gene expression characteristic of basal prostatic epithelial cells (CK5, CK14, and p63). E-PZ-iPS-like cells demonstrated pluripotency by differentiating into ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cells in vitro, although lack of teratoma formation in vivo and incomplete demethylation of pluripotency genes suggested only partial reprogramming. Importantly, E-PZ-iPS-like cells re-expressed basal epithelial cell markers (CD44, p63, MAO-A) in response to prostate-specific medium in spheroid culture. Androgen induced expression of androgen receptor (AR), and co-culture with rat urogenital sinus further induced expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a hallmark of secretory cells, suggesting that E-PZ-iPS-like cells have the capacity to differentiate into prostatic basal and secretory epithelial cells. Finally, when injected into mice, E-PZ-iPS-like cells expressed basal epithelial cell markers including CD44 and p63. When co-injected with rat urogenital mesenchyme, E-PZ-iPS-like cells expressed AR and expression of p63 and CD44 was repressed. DNA methylation profiling identified epigenetic changes in key pathways and genes involved in prostatic differentiation as E-PZ-iPS-like cells converted to differentiated AR- and PSA-expressing cells. Our results suggest that

  9. Apoptotic cells actively inhibit the expression of CD69 on Con A activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Zhang, L; Zeng, Y; Ge, Q; Zhao, M; Gao, W

    2000-03-01

    Although apoptosis is commonly viewed as a silent cell death without damage to adjacent tissues, the effect of apoptosis on immunity has been unclear. We have investigated the influence of apoptotic cells on T-cell activation. The K562 or HL-60 human leukemia cell lines that had been induced apoptosis by FTY720 or cycloheximide (CHX) were added into the culture of mouse spleen cells stimulated with Con A. Six to 20 h later, the expression of CD69, an early T-cell activation antigen, was detected using flowcytometry. Living cells and necrotic cells served as control groups. Apoptotic K562 or HL-60 cells induced by either FTY720 or CHX unanimously inhibited CD69 expression on the CD3+ mouse T cells while living and necrotic cells did not. The inhibition was proportional to the number of apoptotic cells and was different in the T-cell subsets, showing a rapid and transient inhibition on the CD3+CD8+ T-cell activation but with a slow and continuous inhibition on CD3+CD8- T-cell activation. In conclusion, the apoptotic cells actively inhibit a T-cell activation that is independent of the cell lines or the apoptotic inducers, indicating that the apoptotic cells dominantly regulate T-cell immunity. PMID:10736091

  10. The role of nucleotides in apoptotic cell clearance: implications for disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chekeni, Faraaz B.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis occurs in many tissues, during both normal and pathogenic processes. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared, either by neighboring or recruited phagocytes. The prompt clearance of apoptotic cells requires that the apoptotic cells announce their presence through the release of chemotactic factors, known as ‘find-me’ signals, to recruit phagocytes to the site of death, and through the exposure of so-called ‘eat-me’ signals, which are ligands for phagocytic uptake. The importance of prompt apoptotic cell clearance is revealed by findings that decreasing the efficiency of engulfment results in the persistence of apoptotic cells, which is often associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Additionally, the proper clearance of apoptotic cells is actively anti-inflammatory, which is thought to play a crucial role in immunologic tolerance. Therefore, defects associated with clearance of apoptotic cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including autoimmunity and atherosclerosis. Here, we review the role of nucleotides in the apoptotic cell clearance process, and discuss their implications for disease pathogenesis. PMID:20809090

  11. Human odontogenic epithelial cells derived from epithelial rests of Malassez possess stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Yoshida, Maki; Takayama, Yukihiro; Kujiraoka, Satoko; Qi, Guangying; Kitagawa, Masae; Kondo, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Akiko; Arakaki, Rieko; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Ogawa, Ikuko; Abiko, Yoshihiro; Nikawa, Hiroki; Murakami, Shinya; Takata, Takashi; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) are quiescent epithelial remnants of the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) that are involved in the formation of tooth roots. ERM cells are unique epithelial cells that remain in periodontal tissues throughout adult life. They have a functional role in the repair/regeneration of cement or enamel. Here, we isolated odontogenic epithelial cells from ERM in the periodontal ligament, and the cells were spontaneously immortalized. Immortalized odontogenic epithelial (iOdE) cells had the ability to form spheroids and expressed stem cell-related genes. Interestingly, iOdE cells underwent osteogenic differentiation, as demonstrated by the mineralization activity in vitro in mineralization-inducing media and formation of calcification foci in iOdE cells transplanted into immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that a cell population with features similar to stem cells exists in ERM and that this cell population has a differentiation capacity for producing calcifications in a particular microenvironment. In summary, iOdE cells will provide a convenient cell source for tissue engineering and experimental models to investigate tooth growth, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. PMID:27479086

  12. Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Masahiro; Konno, Shiho

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events; restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing. PMID:21633524

  13. Paclitaxel resistance is associated with switch from apoptotic to autophagic cell death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ajabnoor, G M A; Crook, T; Coley, H M

    2012-01-01

    Taxanes remain first line chemotherapy in management of metastatic breast cancer and have a key role in epithelial ovarian cancer, with increasingly common use of weekly paclitaxel dosing regimens. However, their clinical utility is limited by the development of chemoresistance. To address this, we modelled in vitro paclitaxel resistance in MCF-7 cells. We show that at clinically relevant drug doses, emerging paclitaxel resistance is associated with profound changes in cell death responses and a switch from apoptosis to autophagy as the principal mechanism of drug-induced cytotoxicity. This was characterised by a complete absence of caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death (using the pan-caspase-inhibitor Z-VAD) in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7TaxR cells, compared with parent MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cell lines on paclitaxel challenge, downregulation of caspase-7, caspase-9 and BCl2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) expression. Silencing with small interfering RNA to BIM in MCF-7 parental cells was sufficient to confer paclitaxel resistance, inferring the significance in downregulation of this protein in contributing to the resistant phenotype of the MCF-7TaxR cell line. Conversely, there was an increased autophagic response in the MCF-7TaxR cell line with reduced phospho-mTOR and relative resistance to the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and RAD001. In conclusion, we show for the first time that paclitaxel resistance is associated with profound changes in cell death response with deletion of multiple apoptotic factors balanced by upregulation of the autophagic pathway and collateral sensitivity to platinum. PMID:22278287

  14. Androgen-Sensitized Apoptosis of HPr-1AR Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Congcong; Dienhart, Jason A.; Bolton, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is crucial to the development and homeostasis of the prostate gland, and its dysregulation mediates common prostate pathologies. The mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells have been investigated in human and rodent adult prostate. However, the cellular stress response of human prostate epithelial cells is not well understood, though it is central to prostate health and pathology. Here, we report that androgen sensitizes HPr-1AR and RWPE-AR human prostate epithelial cells to cell stress agents and apoptotic cell death. Although 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment alone did not induce cell death, co-treatment of HPr-1AR cells with DHT and an apoptosis inducer, such as staurosporine (STS), TNFt, or hydrogen peroxide, synergistically increased cell death in comparison to treatment with each apoptosis inducer by itself. We found that the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer led to activation of the intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is supported by robust cleavage activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further, the dramatic depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential that we observed upon co-treatment with DHT and STS is consistent with increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in the pro-apoptotic mechanism. Interestingly, the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer was abolished by AR antagonists and inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis, suggesting that AR mediates pro-apoptotic synergy through transcriptional regulation of MOMP genes. Expression analysis revealed that pro-apoptotic genes (BCL2L11/BIM and AIFM2) were DHT-induced, whereas pro-survival genes (BCL2L1/BCL-XL and MCL1) were DHT-repressed. Hence, we propose that the net effect of these AR-mediated expression changes shifts the balance of BCL2-family proteins, such that

  15. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  16. Replication of cultured lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, D.; Bienkowski, R.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have investigated the conditions necessary to support replication of lung type 2 epithelial cells in culture. Cells were isolated from mature fetal rabbit lungs (29d gestation) and cultured on feeder layers of mitotically inactivated 3T3 fibroblasts. The epithelial nature of the cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining for keratin and by polyacid dichrome stain. Ultrastructural examination during the first week showed that the cells contained myofilaments, microvilli and lamellar bodies (markers for type 2 cells). The following changes were observed after the first week: increase in cell size; loss of lamellar bodies and appearance of multivesicular bodies; increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi; increase in tonafilaments and well-defined junctions. General cell morphology was good for up to 10 wk. Cells cultured on plastic surface degenerated after 1 wk. Cell replication was assayed by autoradiography of cultures exposed to (/sup 3/H)-thymidine and by direct cell counts. The cells did not replicate during the first week; however, between 2-10 wk the cells incorporated the label and went through approximately 6 population doublings. They have demonstrated that lung alveolar epithelial cells can replicate in culture if they are maintained on an appropriate substrate. The coincidence of ability to replicate and loss of markers for differentiation may reflect the dichotomy between growth and differentiation commonly observed in developing systems.

  17. Control of the epithelial stem cell epigenome: the shaping of epithelial stem cell identity.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Callejas-Valera, Juan Luis; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2013-04-01

    The squamous epithelium covering the skin and oral mucosa relies on epithelial stem cells for tissue renewal. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation, and higher order chromatin structure are required to preserve their self-renewal capacity while orchestrating the timely execution of cell differentiation programs. This complex network of epigenetic modifications shapes the epithelial stem cell identity and fate. Pathological alterations can be perceived by aberrant chromatin sensors, such as the INK4/ARF locus, which initiate tumor suppressive cell senescence programs, and can often result in epithelial stem cell exhaustion. Unveiling the mechanisms controlling the epigenome in epithelial stem cells may help protect against the loss of their tissue regenerative capacity, thereby preventing premature aging without increasing cancer risk. PMID:23434069

  18. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  19. Integrin αVβ5-mediated Removal of Apoptotic Cell Debris by the Eye Lens and Its Inhibition by UV Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chauss, Daniel; Brennan, Lisa A; Bakina, Olga; Kantorow, Marc

    2015-12-18

    Accumulation of apoptotic material is toxic and associated with cataract and other disease states. Identification of mechanisms that prevent accumulation of apoptotic debris is important for establishing the etiology of these diseases. The ocular lens is routinely assaulted by UV light that causes lens cell apoptosis and is associated with cataract formation. To date, no molecular mechanism for removal of toxic apoptotic debris has been identified in the lens. Vesicular debris within lens cells exposed to UV light has been observed raising speculation that lens cells themselves could act as phagocytes to remove toxic apoptotic debris. However, phagocytosis has not been confirmed as a function of the intact eye lens, and no mechanism for lens phagocytosis has been established. Here, we demonstrate that the eye lens is capable of phagocytizing extracellular lens cell debris. Using high throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we establish that lens epithelial cells express members of the integrin αVβ5-mediated phagocytosis pathway and that internalized cell debris co-localizes with αVβ5 and with RAB7 and Rab-interacting lysosomal protein that are required for phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes. We demonstrate that the αVβ5 receptor is required for lens epithelial cell phagocytosis and that UV light treatment of lens epithelial cells results in damage to the αVβ5 receptor with concomitant loss of phagocytosis. These data suggest that loss of αVβ5-mediated phagocytosis by the eye lens could result in accumulation of toxic cell debris that could contribute to UV light-induced cataract formation.

  20. Dynamic process of phagocytosis and forms of macrophage cell death induced by ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiong; Huang, WeiLin; Wang, Cheng; Liu, RongYu

    2014-10-01

    Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages is important for both the successful resolution of acute inflammation and homeostasis. However, the dynamic process of phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages and the fate of macrophages after the ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils has not been well documented. In the present study, we staged the recognition and tethering, internalization, digestion and exocytosis steps of phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Furthermore, we found that after the ingestion of apoptotic cells, a subset of macrophages underwent cell death by autophagy, apoptosis or oncosis as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy combined with specific dyes. The percentage of autophagic, apoptotic and oncotic macrophages were 8.00%±2.00%, 12.33%±2.08%, and 3.66%±1.50%, respectively. These results indicated that after ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils, a subset of macrophages undergoes autophagy and apoptosis. We propose that autophagy of macrophages after the ingestion of apoptotic cells may be a new mechanism present in the resolution of inflammation.

  1. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  2. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  3. Sulbutiamine counteracts trophic factor deprivation induced apoptotic cell death in transformed retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kui Dong; Majid, Aman Shah Abdul; Kim, Kyung-A; Kang, Kyungsu; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Nho, Chu Won; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Sulbutiamine is a highly lipid soluble synthetic analogue of vitamin B(1) and is used clinically for the treatment of asthenia. The aim of our study was to demonstrate whether sulbutiamine is able to attenuate trophic factor deprivation induced cell death to transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). Cells were subjected to serum deprivation for defined periods and sulbutiamine at different concentrations was added to the cultures. Various procedures (e.g. cell viability assays, apoptosis assay, reactive oxygen species analysis, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis, glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) measurement) were used to demonstrate the effect of sulbutiamine. Sulbutiamine dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death induced by serum deprivation and stimulated GSH and GST activity. Moreover, sulbutiamine decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and AIF. This study demonstrates for the first time that sulbutiamine is able to attenuate trophic factor deprivation induced apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells in culture. PMID:20809085

  4. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and ‘instruct’ the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  5. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    PubMed

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016.

  6. Rac1 mediates intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis via JNK.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shi; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2006-12-01

    Apoptosis plays a key role in the maintenance of a constant cell number and a low incidence of cancer in the mucosa of the intestine. Although the small GTPase Rac1 has been established as an important regulator of migration of intestinal epithelial cells, whether Rac1 is also involved in apoptosis is unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that Rac1 mediates TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. Rac1 is activated during TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis as judged by the level of GTP-Rac1, the level of microsomal membrane-associated Rac1, and lamellipodia formation. Although expression of constitutively active Rac1 does not increase apoptosis in the basal condition, inhibition of Rac1 either by NSC-23766 (Rac1 inhibitor) or expression of dominant negative Rac1 protects cells from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. Inhibition of Rac1 before the administration of apoptotic stimuli significantly prevents TNF-alpha-induced activation of JNK1/2, the key proapoptotic regulator in IEC-6 cells. Inhibition of Rac1 does not modulate TNF-alpha-induced ERK1/2 and Akt activation. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and Akt activity by U-0126 and LY-294002, respectively, increased TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. However, inhibition of Rac1 significantly decreased apoptosis in the presence of ERK1/2 and Akt inhibitors, similar to the effect observed with NSC-23766 alone in response to TNF-alpha. Thus, Rac1 inhibition protects cells independently of ERK1/2 and Akt activation during TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Although p38 MAPK is activated in response to TNF-alpha, inhibition of p38 MAPK did not decrease apoptosis. Rac1 inhibition did not alter p38 MAPK activity. Thus, these results indicate that Rac1 mediates apoptosis via JNK and plays a key role in proapoptotic pathways in intestinal epithelial cells.

  7. Gambogic acid induces apoptotic cell death in T98G glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Thida, Mya; Kim, Dae Won; Tran, Thi Thu Thuy; Pham, Minh Quan; Lee, Heesu; Kim, Inki; Lee, Jae Wook

    2016-02-01

    Gambogic acid (GA), a natural product with a xanthone structure, has a broad range of anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines. We evaluated GA for its cytotoxic effects on T98G glioblastoma cells. GA exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity and induced apoptosis in T98G glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of cells with GA revealed apoptotic features including increased Bax and AIF expression, cytochrome c release, and cleavage of caspase-3, -8, -9, and PARP, while Bcl-2 expression was downregulated. Furthermore, GA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in T98G cells. Our results indicate that GA increases Bax- and AIF-associated apoptotic signaling in glioblastoma cells. PMID:26631318

  8. Effects of conidia of various Aspergillus species on apoptosis of human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Féménia, F; Huet, D; Lair-Fulleringer, S; Wagner, M C; Sarfati, J; Shingarova, L; Guillot, J; Boireau, P; Chermette, R; Berkova, N

    2009-05-01

    Aspergillus species can cause mycoses in human and animals. Previously, we demonstrated that A. fumigatus conidia from a human isolate inhibited apoptosis in human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. In the current study, we studied the effects of A. fumigatus conidia non-human origin and A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae conidia on human cells apoptosis. Human pneumocytes or bronchial epithelial cells were simultaneously exposed to apoptotic inductors and aspergilli conidia. The cell cultures were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and examination of nuclear morphology. Similar to A. fumigatus conidia, A. flavus conidia inhibited cellular apoptosis while A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae conidia did not affect apoptosis. We further studied the species specificity of conidia: there were no differences in the inhibition of apoptosis by A. fumigatus conidia from either human or bird isolates. In order to determine whether the inhibition of apoptosis by conidia is limited to certain strains, the effect on human cell apoptosis of different A. fumigatus human clinical isolates and A. fumigatus of environmental origin was evaluated. All A. fumigatus isolates inhibited apoptosis; an anti-apoptotic factor was released by conidia. For TNF-induced apoptosis, the anti-apoptotic effect of conidia of all isolates was found to be associated with a reduction of caspase-3 in human cells. The results suggest that suppression of apoptosis may play a role in reducing the efficacy of host defense mechanisms during infection with Aspergillus species. PMID:19117118

  9. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-κB was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-κB activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  10. Serum-derived plasminogen is activated by apoptotic cells and promotes their phagocytic clearance.

    PubMed

    Rosenwald, Matthias; Koppe, Uwe; Keppeler, Hildegard; Sauer, Guido; Hennel, Roman; Ernst, Anne; Blume, Karin Erika; Peter, Christoph; Herrmann, Martin; Belka, Claus; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Lauber, Kirsten

    2012-12-15

    The elimination of apoptotic cells, called efferocytosis, is fundamentally important for tissue homeostasis and prevents the onset of inflammation and autoimmunity. Serum proteins are known to assist in this complex process. In the current study, we performed a multistep chromatographic fractionation of human serum and identified plasminogen, a protein involved in fibrinolysis, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, as a novel serum-derived factor promoting apoptotic cell removal. Even at levels significantly lower than its serum concentration, purified plasminogen strongly enhanced apoptotic prey cell internalization by macrophages. Plasminogen acted mainly on prey cells, whereas on macrophages no enhancement of the engulfment process was observed. We further demonstrate that the efferocytosis-promoting activity essentially required the proteolytic activation of plasminogen and was completely abrogated by the urokinase plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and serine protease inhibitor aprotinin. Thus, our study assigns a new function to plasminogen and plasmin in apoptotic cell clearance. PMID:23150713

  11. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Navarro-Villarán, E; González, R; Pereira, S; Soriano-De Castro, L B; Sarrias-Giménez, A; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Serrablo-Requejo, A; Blanco-Fernández, G; Nogales-Muñoz, A; Gila-Bohórquez, A; Pacheco, D; Torres-Nieto, M A; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J; Suárez-Artacho, G; Bernal-Bellido, C; Marín-Gómez, L M; Barcena, J A; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Padilla, C A; Padillo, F J; Muntané, J

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells.

  12. Oncogenic Properties of Apoptotic Tumor Cells in Aggressive B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Catriona A.; Petrova, Sofia; Pound, John D.; Voss, Jorine J.L.P.; Melville, Lynsey; Paterson, Margaret; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Gallimore, Awen M.; Cuff, Simone; Wheadon, Helen; Dobbin, Edwina; Ogden, Carol Anne; Dumitriu, Ingrid E.; Dunbar, Donald R.; Murray, Paul G.; Ruckerl, Dominik; Allen, Judith E.; Hume, David A.; van Rooijen, Nico; Goodlad, John R.; Freeman, Tom C.; Gregory, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cells undergoing apoptosis are known to modulate their tissue microenvironments. By acting on phagocytes, notably macrophages, apoptotic cells inhibit immunological and inflammatory responses and promote trophic signaling pathways. Paradoxically, because of their potential to cause death of tumor cells and thereby militate against malignant disease progression, both apoptosis and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are often associated with poor prognosis in cancer. We hypothesized that, in progression of malignant disease, constitutive loss of a fraction of the tumor cell population through apoptosis could yield tumor-promoting effects. Results Here, we demonstrate that apoptotic tumor cells promote coordinated tumor growth, angiogenesis, and accumulation of TAMs in aggressive B cell lymphomas. Through unbiased “in situ transcriptomics” analysis—gene expression profiling of laser-captured TAMs to establish their activation signature in situ—we show that these cells are activated to signal via multiple tumor-promoting reparatory, trophic, angiogenic, tissue remodeling, and anti-inflammatory pathways. Our results also suggest that apoptotic lymphoma cells help drive this signature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon induction of apoptosis, lymphoma cells not only activate expression of the tumor-promoting matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP12 in macrophages but also express and process these MMPs directly. Finally, using a model of malignant melanoma, we show that the oncogenic potential of apoptotic tumor cells extends beyond lymphoma. Conclusions In addition to its profound tumor-suppressive role, apoptosis can potentiate cancer progression. These results have important implications for understanding the fundamental biology of cell death, its roles in malignant disease, and the broader consequences of apoptosis-inducing anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25702581

  13. Competitive binding of pentraxins and IgM to newly exposed epitopes on late apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Ciurana, Caroline L F; Hack, C Erik

    2006-01-01

    A random distribution of phospholipids among the inner and outer leaflet of the cell membrane occurs during apoptosis and is known as membrane flip-flop. Flip-flopped cells have binding sites for various plasma proteins, such as IgM and the pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP). In this study, we investigated whether pentraxins and IgM antibodies recognize the same binding sites on apoptotic cells, and whether phospholipids constitute these binding sites. Except for SAP which also bound to early apoptotic cells, pentraxins and IgM preferentially bound to late apoptotic cells. Competition experiments with different phosphatemonoesters revealed that CRP and SAP as well as part of the IgM bound to the phospholipids head groups, SAP mainly to phosphorylethanolamine, CRP to phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine and to a lesser extent to phosphorylserine, and IgM to phosphorylcholine and phosphorylserine. These results were confirmed in experiments in which proteins were adsorbed from plasma with artificial phospholipids particles. IgM and the pentraxins variably competed for the same binding sites on late apoptotic cells, SAP having the highest and CRP the lowest apparent affinity. We conclude that CRP, SAP, and part of the IgM bind to the phospholipid head groups exposed on apoptotic cells. This shared specificity as well as their shared capability to activate complement, suggest that IgM and the pentraxins CRP and SAP exert similar functions in the removal of apoptotic cells.

  14. Co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Park, B; Lee, J; Moon, H; Lee, G; Lee, D-H; Cho, J Hoon; Park, D

    2015-01-01

    During efferocytosis, phagocytic cells recognize dying cells by receptors binding to ligands specifically exposed on apoptotic cells. Multiple phagocytic receptors and some of their signaling pathways have been identified. However, the downstream pathways of tethering receptors that secure apoptotic cells remain elusive. It is generally assumed that tethering receptors induce signaling to mediate engulfment via interacting with co-receptors or other engulfment receptors located nearby. However, it is poorly understood whether co-receptors for tethering receptors exist during efferocytosis, and, if they do, whether they are indispensable for this process. Here, we address this issue using glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored annexin A5 (Anxa5-GPI), an artificial tethering receptor without a putative co-receptor. Phagocytes expressing Anxa5-GPI exhibited enhanced binding of apoptotic cells, resulting in promoted ingestion of apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Anxa5-GPI-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells relied on the known cytoskeletal engulfment machinery but partially depended on the Elmo-Dock-Rac module or the integrin pathway. In addition, Anxa5-GPI-mediated efferocytosis provoked anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, our work suggests that co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-induced efferocytosis and that tethering receptors mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells through multiple engulfment signaling pathways.

  15. Esophageal epithelial cells acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts after undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Amanda B.; Dods, Kara; Noah, Yuli; Toltzis, Sarit; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Lee, Anna; Benitez, Alain; Bedenbaugh, Adam; Falk, Gary W.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that leads to esophageal fibrosis and stricture. We have recently shown that in EoE, esophageal epithelial cells undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by gain of mesenchymal markers and loss of epithelial gene expression. Whether epithelial cells exposed to profibrotic cytokines can also acquire the functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts, including migration, contraction, and extracellular matrix deposition, is relevant to our understanding and treatment of EoE-associated fibrogenesis. In the current study, we characterize cell migration, contraction, and collagen production by esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone cytokine-induced EMT in vitro. Methods and Results Stimulation of human non-transformed immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) with profibrotic cytokines TNFα, TGFβ, and IL1β for three weeks led to acquisition of mesenchymal αSMA and vimentin, and loss of epithelial E-cadherin expression. Upon removal of the profibrotic stimulus, epithelial characteristics were partially rescued. TGFβ stimulation had a robust effect upon epithelial collagen production. Surprisingly, TNFα stimulation had the most potent effect upon cell migration and contraction, exceeding the effects of the prototypical profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. IL1β stimulation alone had minimal effect upon esophageal epithelial migration, contraction, and collagen production. Conclusions Esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone EMT acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts in vitro. Profibrotic cytokines exert differential effects upon esophageal epithelial cells, underscoring complexities of fibrogenesis in EoE, and implicating esophageal epithelial cells as effector cells in EoE-associated fibrogenesis. PMID:25183431

  16. T cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Protein (TIM)-4 binds phosphatidylserine and mediates uptake of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Norimoto; Karisola, Piia; Peña-Cruz, Victor; Dorfman, David M.; Jinushi, Masahisa; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Butte, Manish J.; Nagumo, Haruo; Chernova, Irene; Zhu, Baogong; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Ito, Susumu; Dranoff, Glenn; Kaplan, Gerardo G.; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Freeman, Gordon J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The T cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) proteins regulate T cell activation and tolerance. Both TIM-4, expressed on human and mouse macrophages and dendritic cells, and TIM-1 specifically bind to phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of apoptotic cells and do not bind to any other phospholipid tested. TIM-4+ peritoneal macrophages, TIM-1+ kidney cells, as well as TIM-4 or TIM-1 transfected cells efficiently phagocytose apoptotic cells and phagocytosis can be blocked by TIM-4 or TIM-1 mAbs. TIM proteins have a unique binding cavity made by an unusual conformation of the CC′ and FG loops of the TIM IgV domain and mutations in this cavity eliminated PS binding and phagocytosis. TIM-4 mAbs that block PS binding and phagocytosis map to epitopes in this binding cavity. These results show that TIM-4 and TIM-1 are immunologically restricted members of the group of receptors that recognize PS, critical for the efficient clearance of apoptotic cells and prevention of autoimmunity. PMID:18082433

  17. Visible tumor surface response to physical plasma and apoptotic cell kill in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Matthias; Seebauer, Christian; Rutkowski, Rico; Hauschild, Anna; Podmelle, Fred; Metelmann, Camilla; Metelmann, Bibiana; von Woedtke, Thomas; Hasse, Sybille; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Metelmann, Hans-Robert

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to learn, whether clinical application of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is able to cause (i) visible tumor surface effects and (ii) apoptotic cell kill in squamous cell carcinoma and (iii) whether CAP-induced visible tumor surface response occurs as often as CAP-induced apoptotic cell kill. Twelve patients with advanced head and neck cancer and infected ulcerations received locally CAP followed by palliative treatment. Four of them revealed tumor surface response appearing 2 weeks after intervention. The tumor surface response expressed as a flat area with vascular stimulation (type 1) or a contraction of tumor ulceration rims forming recesses covered with scabs, in each case surrounded by tumor tissue in visible progress (type 2). In parallel, 9 patients with the same kind of cancer received CAP before radical tumor resection. Tissue specimens were analyzed for apoptotic cells. Apoptotic cells were detectable and occurred more frequently in tissue areas previously treated with CAP than in untreated areas. Bringing together both findings and placing side by side the frequency of clinical tumor surface response and the frequency of analytically proven apoptotic cell kill, detection of apoptotic cells is as common as clinical tumor surface response. There was no patient showing signs of an enhanced or stimulated tumor growth under influence of CAP. CAP was made applicable by a plasma jet, kINPen(®) MED (neoplas tools GmbH, Greifswald, Germany). PMID:27499516

  18. Loss of functional E-cadherin renders cells more resistant to the apoptotic agent taxol in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Maria Jose; Beraldi, Eliana; Mateus, Ana Rita; Nakajima, Takashi; Gleave, Martin; Yokota, Jun; Carneiro, Fatima; Huntsman, David; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo . E-mail: gsuriano@ipatimup.pt

    2005-10-15

    Experimental evidence supports a role for E-cadherin in suppressing invasion, metastasis, and proliferation. Germline mutations of the E-cadherin represent the genetic cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In this type of tumor, isolated cancer cells permeate the basal membrane and paradoxically survive in the gastric wall in the absence of contact with neighbor epithelial cells or with the extracellular matrix. This suggests that upon E-cadherin deregulation, cells acquired resistance to apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, CHO cells stably expressing either wild-type E-cadherin or the HDGC-related germline mutations T340A and V832M were seeded either on a thin layer of collagen type I or on plastic and then subjected to the apoptotic agent taxol. We found that in vitro functional E-cadherin renders cells more sensitive to the effect of taxol. Our results also indicate that this effect is associated to decreased level of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein.

  19. Actin reorganization as the molecular basis for the regulation of apoptosis in gastrointestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; George, S P; Srinivasan, K; Patnaik, S; Khurana, S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is a rapidly renewing tissue in which apoptosis represents part of the overall homeostatic process. Regulation of apoptosis in the GI epithelium is complex with a precise relationship between cell position and apoptosis. Apoptosis occurs spontaneously and in response to radiation and cytotoxic drugs at the base of the crypts. By contrast, the villus epithelial cells are extremely resistant to apoptosis. The molecular mechanism underlying this loss of function of villus epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis shortly after their exit from the crypt is unknown. In this study we demonstrate for the first time, that deletion of two homologous actin-binding proteins, villin and gelsolin renders villus epithelial cells extremely sensitive to apoptosis. Ultrastructural analysis of the villin-gelsolin−/− double-knockout mice shows an abnormal accumulation of damaged mitochondria demonstrating that villin and gelsolin function on an early step in the apoptotic signaling at the level of the mitochondria. A characterization of functional and ligand-binding mutants demonstrate that regulated changes in actin dynamics determined by the actin severing activities of villin and gelsolin are required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Our study provides a molecular basis for the regulation of apoptosis in the GI epithelium and identifies cell biological mechanisms that couple changes in actin dynamics to apoptotic cell death. PMID:22421965

  20. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  1. Growth inhibition of Candida by human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Steele, C; Leigh, J; Swoboda, R; Fidel, P L

    2000-11-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) caused by Candida albicans is a significant problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Recognizing the paucity of information on innate and/or adaptive mucosal host defenses against C. albicans, we recently reported that human and nonhuman primate and mouse vaginal epithelial cells inhibit the growth of C. albicans in vitro. In the present study, oral epithelial cells collected from saliva of healthy volunteers and a purified oral epithelial cell line were found to inhibit blastoconidia and/or hyphal growth of several Candida species. Cell contact was a strict requirement for the epithelial cell anti-Candida activity; neither saliva nor culture supernatants alone inhibited Candida growth, and addition of saliva to the coculture did not modulate the epithelial cell activity. Finally, epithelial cell anti-Candida activity was significantly lower in HIV-infected persons with OPC. Together, these results suggest that oral epithelial cells may play a role in innate resistance against OPC.

  2. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  3. Effects of microwave exposure and Gemcitabine treatment on apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells.

    PubMed

    Canseven, Ayşe G; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Kayhan, Handan; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 1.8 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic level and cell viability of Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells with or without Gemcitabine, which exhibits cell phase specificity, primarily killing cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase). Raji cells were exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM-modulated MW radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.350 W/kg in a CO2 incubator. The duration of the exposure was 24 h. The amount of apoptotic cells was analyzed using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining with flow cytometer. The apoptotic activity of MW exposed Raji cells was increased significantly. In addition, cell viability of exposed samples was significantly decreased. Combined exposure of MW and Gemcitabine increased the amount of apoptotic cells than MW radiation alone. Moreover, viability of MW + Gemcitabine exposed cells was lower than that of cells exposed only to MW. These results demonstrated that MW radiation exposure and Gemcitabine treatment have a synergistic effect on apoptotic activity of Raji cells.

  4. Cell-Centric View of Apoptosis and Apoptotic Cell Death-Inducing Antitumoral Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Apraiz, Aintzane; Boyano, Maria Dolores; Asumendi, Aintzane

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death and especially apoptotic cell death, occurs under physiological conditions and is also desirable under pathological circumstances. However, the more we learn about cellular signaling cascades, the less plausible it becomes to find restricted and well-limited signaling pathways. In this context, an extensive description of pathway-connections is necessary in order to point out the main regulatory molecules as well as to select the most appropriate therapeutic targets. On the other hand, irregularities in programmed cell death pathways often lead to tumor development and cancer-related mortality is projected to continue increasing despite the effort to develop more active and selective antitumoral compounds. In fact, tumor cell plasticity represents a major challenge in chemotherapy and improvement on anticancer therapies seems to rely on appropriate drug combinations. An overview of the current status regarding apoptotic pathways as well as available chemotherapeutic compounds provides a new perspective of possible future anticancer strategies. PMID:24212653

  5. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B inhibits apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages through protein S cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Yueh-Ying; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Han, Chia-Li; Wang, Shuying; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2016-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages plays an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Previous study indicated that streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) reduces phagocytic activity in group A streptococcus (GAS) infection. Here, we demonstrate that SPE B causes an inhibitory effect on protein S-mediated phagocytosis. In the presence of SPE B, serum- and purified protein S-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells were significantly inhibited. The binding abilities of protein S to apoptotic cells were decreased by treatment with SPE B. Bacterial culture supernatants from GAS NZ131 strain also caused a reduction of protein S binding to apoptotic cells, but speB mutant strain did not. SPE B directly cleaved protein S in vitro and in vivo, whereas a lower level of cleavage occurred in mice infected with a speB isogenic mutant strain. SPE B-mediated initial cleavage of protein S caused a disruption of phagocytosis, and also resulted in a loss of binding ability of protein S-associated C4b-binding protein to apoptotic cells. Taken together, these results suggest a novel pathogenic role of SPE B that initiates protein S degradation followed by the inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. PMID:27181595

  6. Apoptotic Endothelial Cells Demonstrate Increased Adhesiveness for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    POTAPOVA, IRINA A.; COHEN, IRA S.; DORONIN, SERGEY V.

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) participate in the wound healing process in mammalians. Adhesion of MSCs to endothelium is a key step in the homing of MSCs circulating in the bloodstream to the sites of injury and inflammation. Because endothelial cells (ECs) may become apoptotic under certain pro-inflammatory conditions, we investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory, TNF-α and IL-1β, and pro-apoptotic agents, actinomycin D, cycloheximide, okadaic acid, wortmannin, and staurosporine, on human MSCs (hMSCs) adhesion to ECs. Treatment of ECs with pro-apoptotic agents markedly increased adhesion of hMSCs to ECs. This adhesion correlated with reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibition of NADH dehydrogenases, and release of von Willebrand factor (vWF) by ECs. Treatment of ECs with exogenous vWF also stimulated hMSC adhesion. These data provide evidence that apoptosis of ECs may regulate homing of hMSCs to the sites of tissue injury. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of apoptotic signaling pathways in ECs releases vWF which regulates hMSC adhesion to ECs. PMID:19023868

  7. Smac-mimetic-induced epithelial cell death reduces the growth of renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lucy X; Zhou, Xia; Sweeney, William E; Wallace, Darren P; Avner, Ellis D; Grantham, Jared J; Li, Xiaogang

    2013-12-01

    Past efforts to pharmacologically disrupt the development and growth of renal cystic lesions focused primarily on normalizing the activity of a specific signaling molecule, but the effects of stimulating apoptosis in the proliferating epithelial cells have not been well studied. Although benign, ADPKD renal cysts created by the sustained proliferation of epithelial cells resemble tumors, and malignant cell death can be achieved by cotreatment with TNF-α and a mimetic of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac). Notably, TNF-α accumulates to high levels in ADPKD cyst fluid. Here, we report that an Smac-mimetic selectively induces TNF-α-dependent cystic renal epithelial cell death, leading to the removal of cystic epithelial cells from renal tissues and delaying cyst formation. In vitro, a Smac-mimetic (GT13072) induced the degradation of cIAP1 that is required but not sufficient for cell death. Cotreatment with TNF-α augmented the formation and activation of the RIPK1-dependent death complex and the degradation and cleavage of FLIP, an inhibitor of caspase-8, in renal cystic epithelial cells. This approach produced death specifically in Pkd1 mutant epithelial cells, with no effect on normal renal epithelial cells. Moreover, treatment with the Smac-mimetic slowed cyst and kidney enlargement and preserved renal function in two genetic strains of mice with Pkd1 mutations. Thus, our mechanistic data characterize an apoptotic pathway, activated by the selective synergy of an Smac-mimetic and TNF-α in renal cyst fluid, that attenuates cyst development, providing an innovative translational platform for the rational development of novel therapeutics for ADPKD.

  8. Melatonin enhances hyperthermia-induced apoptotic cell death in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Carlos; Cabrera, Javier; Perdomo, Juan; Estévez, Francisco; Loro, Juan F; Reiter, Russel J; Quintana, José

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine with a wide range of biological functions. In addition to modulating circadian rhythms, it plays important roles in the health as an antioxidant. Melatonin has also the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and to enhance the antitumoral activity of chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, the effect of melatonin on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis was explored using human leukemia cells. The results demonstrate that melatonin greatly improved the cytotoxicity of hyperthermia in U937 cells. The potentiation of cell death was achieved with 1 mmol/L concentrations of the indoleamine but not with concentrations close to physiological levels in blood (1 nmol/L). This effect was associated to an enhancement of the apoptotic response, revealed by an increase in cells with hypodiploid DNA content and activation of multiple caspases (caspase-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9). Melatonin also increased hyperthermia-induced Bid activation as well as translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria and cytochrome c release. Hyperthermia-provoked apoptosis and potentiation by melatonin were abrogated by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) as well as by specific inhibitors against caspase-8 or caspase-3. In contrast, blocking of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis either with a caspase-9 inhibitor or overexpressing the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (U937/Bcl-2) reduced the number of apoptotic cells in response to hyperthermia but it was unable to suppress melatonin enhancement. Melatonin appears to modulate the apoptotic response triggered by hyperthermia in a cell type-specific manner as similar results were observed in HL-60 but not in K562 or MOLT-3 cells.

  9. Melatonin enhances hyperthermia-induced apoptotic cell death in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Carlos; Cabrera, Javier; Perdomo, Juan; Estévez, Francisco; Loro, Juan F; Reiter, Russel J; Quintana, José

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine with a wide range of biological functions. In addition to modulating circadian rhythms, it plays important roles in the health as an antioxidant. Melatonin has also the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and to enhance the antitumoral activity of chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, the effect of melatonin on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis was explored using human leukemia cells. The results demonstrate that melatonin greatly improved the cytotoxicity of hyperthermia in U937 cells. The potentiation of cell death was achieved with 1 mmol/L concentrations of the indoleamine but not with concentrations close to physiological levels in blood (1 nmol/L). This effect was associated to an enhancement of the apoptotic response, revealed by an increase in cells with hypodiploid DNA content and activation of multiple caspases (caspase-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9). Melatonin also increased hyperthermia-induced Bid activation as well as translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria and cytochrome c release. Hyperthermia-provoked apoptosis and potentiation by melatonin were abrogated by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) as well as by specific inhibitors against caspase-8 or caspase-3. In contrast, blocking of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis either with a caspase-9 inhibitor or overexpressing the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (U937/Bcl-2) reduced the number of apoptotic cells in response to hyperthermia but it was unable to suppress melatonin enhancement. Melatonin appears to modulate the apoptotic response triggered by hyperthermia in a cell type-specific manner as similar results were observed in HL-60 but not in K562 or MOLT-3 cells. PMID:27465521

  10. Neutrophilic differentiation modulates the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Vrba, J; Dolezel, P; Ulrichova, J

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells may result in less sensitivity to various apoptotic stimuli. We examined whether human leukemia HL-60 cells differentiating by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) acquired resistance to the apoptogenic activity of two histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, butyrate and valproate. In undifferentiated cells, the cytotoxicity of both butyrate and valproate was associated with activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway since we observed dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities, appearance of sub-G1 DNA and loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and/or integrity. Both HDAC inhibitors were also able to induce accumulation of undifferentiated cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. ATRA was found to enhance the apoptotic effect of both butyrate and valproate in undifferentiated cells. This aside, ATRA appeared to synergize with butyrate in the induction of the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In cells pretreated for 72 h with ATRA, butyrate and valproate in combination with ATRA induced lower dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and weaker apoptotic and/or necrotic changes in plasma membrane, whereas DNA fragmentation was not diminished compared to undifferentiated cells. Similar results were also obtained when butyrate or valproate were combined with another neutrophilic differentiation inducer, dimethyl sulfoxide. We conclude that neutrophilic differentiation modulates but does not abrogate the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to butyrate and valproate, and nuclei are preferentially affected during apoptosis in differentiated cells.

  11. Synthesis of apoptotic chalcone analogues in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheon-Soo; Ahn, Yongchel; Lee, Dahae; Moon, Sung Won; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yamabe, Noriko; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Jang, Hyuk Jai; Lee, Heesu; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-12-15

    Eight chalcone analogues were prepared and evaluated for their cytotoxic effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Compound 5 had a potent cytotoxic effect. The percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in compound 5-treated cells than in control cells. Exposure to compound 5 for 24h induced cleavage of caspase-8 and -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Our findings suggest that compound 5 is the active chalcone analogue that contributes to cell death in HepG2 cells via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:26564263

  12. Lack of effective anti-apoptotic activities restricts growth of Parachlamydiaceae in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Sixt, Barbara S; Hiess, Birgit; König, Lena; Horn, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental role of programmed cell death in host defense is highlighted by the multitude of anti-apoptotic strategies evolved by various microbes, including the well-known obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae. As inhibition of apoptosis is assumed to be essential for a successful infection of humans by these chlamydiae, we analyzed the anti-apoptotic capacity of close relatives that occur as symbionts of amoebae and might represent emerging pathogens. While Simkania negevensis was able to efficiently replicate within insect cells, which served as model for metazoan-derived host cells, the Parachlamydiaceae (Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Protochlamydia amoebophila) displayed limited intracellular growth, yet these bacteria induced typical features of apoptotic cell death, including formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and effector caspase activity. Induction of apoptosis was dependent on bacterial activity, but not bacterial de novo protein synthesis, and was detectable already at very early stages of infection. Experimental inhibition of host cell death greatly enhanced parachlamydial replication, suggesting that lack of potent anti-apoptotic activities in Parachlamydiaceae may represent an important factor compromising their ability to successfully infect non-protozoan hosts. These findings highlight the importance of the evolution of anti-apoptotic traits for the success of chlamydiae as pathogens of humans and animals. PMID:22253735

  13. Lack of Effective Anti-Apoptotic Activities Restricts Growth of Parachlamydiaceae in Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sixt, Barbara S.; Hiess, Birgit; König, Lena; Horn, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental role of programmed cell death in host defense is highlighted by the multitude of anti-apoptotic strategies evolved by various microbes, including the well-known obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae. As inhibition of apoptosis is assumed to be essential for a successful infection of humans by these chlamydiae, we analyzed the anti-apoptotic capacity of close relatives that occur as symbionts of amoebae and might represent emerging pathogens. While Simkania negevensis was able to efficiently replicate within insect cells, which served as model for metazoan-derived host cells, the Parachlamydiaceae (Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Protochlamydia amoebophila) displayed limited intracellular growth, yet these bacteria induced typical features of apoptotic cell death, including formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and effector caspase activity. Induction of apoptosis was dependent on bacterial activity, but not bacterial de novo protein synthesis, and was detectable already at very early stages of infection. Experimental inhibition of host cell death greatly enhanced parachlamydial replication, suggesting that lack of potent anti-apoptotic activities in Parachlamydiaceae may represent an important factor compromising their ability to successfully infect non-protozoan hosts. These findings highlight the importance of the evolution of anti-apoptotic traits for the success of chlamydiae as pathogens of humans and animals. PMID:22253735

  14. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptotic-like blebbing in lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, S.; Shimizu, M.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    DMPK, the product of the DM locus, is a member of the same family of serine-threonine protein kinases as the Rho-associated enzymes. In DM, membrane inclusions accumulate in lens fiber cells producing cataracts. Overexpression of DMPK in cultured lens epithelial cells led to apoptotic-like blebbing of the plasma membrane and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Enzymatically active DMPK was necessary for both effects; inactive mutant DMPK protein did not produce either effect. Active RhoA but not constitutive GDP-state mutant protein produced similar effects as DMPK. The similar actions of DMPK and RhoA suggest that they may function in the same regulatory network. The observed effects of DMPK may be relevant to the removal of membrane organelles during normal lens differentiation and the retention of intracellular membranes in DM lenses. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Chronic inflammatory cells with epithelial cell characteristics in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Noga, E J; Dykstra, M J; Wright, J F

    1989-09-01

    Certain cells that participate in the chronic inflammatory response of teleost fishes have many features typical of epithelioid cells of mammals. Such features include high metabolic activity, frequent phagolysosomes, and cytoplasmic interdigitations between adjacent cells; however, the epithelioid granulomas formed in response to certain diseases in teleost fishes also have several features associated with epithelial cells. Cases of ulcerative mycosis or acid-fast bacterial infection in Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), fungal infection in silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), and mycobacteriosis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) had epithelioid cells that were joined together by well-formed desmosomes with tonofilaments. "Mature granulomas" of the ulcerative mycosis-infected menhaden stained positively for cytokeratin, a cytoskeletal protein that is considered to be highly specific for epithelial cells. The consistent presence of these heretofore unrecognized epithelial features suggest that they may be characteristic of certain types of cells participating in piscine chronic inflammation. PMID:2686148

  16. Cell density determines epithelial migration in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, P; Misfeldt, D S

    1980-01-01

    The dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK) has been shown to exhibit a density-correlated inhibition of growth at approxmately 6.6 X 10(5) cells per cm2. When a confluent monolayer at its maximal density was wounded by removal of a wide swath of cells, migration of the cell sheet into the denuded area occurred. Precise measurements of the rate of migration for 5 day showed that the cells accelerated at a uniform rate of 0.24 micrometer . hr-2 and, by extrapolation, possessed an apparent initial velocity of 2.8 micrometer . hr-1 at the time of wounding. The apparent initial velocity was considered to be the result of a brief (< 10 hr) and rapid acceleration dependent on cell density. To verify this, wounds were made at different densities below the maximum. In these experiments, the cells did not migrate until a "threshold" density of 2.0 X 10(5) cells per cm2 was reached regardless of the density at the time of wounding. At the threshold density, the cell sheet began to accelerate at the previously measured rate (0.24 micrometer . hr-2). Any increase in density by cell division was balanced by cell migration, so that the same threshold density was maintained by the migrating cells. Each migrating cell sustained the movement of the cell sheet at a constant rate of acceleration. It is proposed that an acceleration is, in general, characteristic of the vectorial movement of an epithelial cell sheet. Images PMID:6933523

  17. Ceramide metabolism regulates autophagy and apoptotic cell death induced by melatonin in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Raquel; Fernández, Anna; Prieto-Domínguez, Néstor; Martínez, Laura; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Mauriz, José L; González-Gallego, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy is a process that maintains homeostasis during stress, although it also contributes to cell death under specific contexts. Ceramides have emerged as important effectors in the regulation of autophagy, mediating the crosstalk with apoptosis. Melatonin induces apoptosis of cancer cells; however, its role in autophagy and ceramide metabolism has yet to be clearly elucidated. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of melatonin administration on autophagy and ceramide metabolism and its possible link with melatonin-induced apoptotic cell death in hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells. Melatonin (2 mm) transiently induced autophagy in HepG2 cells through JNK phosphorylation, characterized by increased Beclin-1 expression, p62 degradation, and LC3II and LAMP-2 colocalization, which translated in decreased cell viability. Moreover, ATG5 silencing sensitized HepG2 cells to melatonin-induced apoptosis, suggesting a dual role of autophagy in cell death. Melatonin enhanced ceramide levels through both de novo synthesis and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) stimulation. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) inhibition with myriocin prevented melatonin-induced autophagy and ASMase inhibition with imipramine-impaired autophagy flux. However, ASMase inhibition partially protected HepG2 cells against melatonin, while SPT inhibition significantly enhanced cell death. Findings suggest a crosstalk between SPT-mediated ceramide generation and autophagy in protecting against melatonin, while specific ASMase-induced ceramide production participates in melatonin-mediated cell death. Thus, dual blocking of SPT and autophagy emerges as a potential strategy to potentiate the apoptotic effects of melatonin in liver cancer cells.

  18. The Mannose Receptor Is Involved in the Phagocytosis of Mycobacteria-Induced Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, macrophages may undergo apoptosis, which has been considered an innate immune response. The pathways underlying the removal of dead cells in homeostatic apoptosis have been extensively studied, but little is known regarding how cells that undergo apoptotic death during mycobacterial infection are removed. This study shows that macrophages induced to undergo apoptosis with mycobacteria cell wall proteins are engulfed by J-774A.1 monocytic cells through the mannose receptor. This demonstration was achieved through assays in which phagocytosis was inhibited with a blocking anti-mannose receptor antibody and with mannose receptor competitor sugars. Moreover, elimination of the mannose receptor by a specific siRNA significantly diminished the expression of the mannose receptor and the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. As shown by immunofluorescence, engulfed apoptotic bodies are initially located in Rab5-positive phagosomes, which mature to express the phagolysosome marker LAMP1. The phagocytosis of dead cells triggered an anti-inflammatory response with the production of TGF-β and IL-10 but not of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α. This study documents the previously unreported participation of the mannose receptor in the removal of apoptotic cells in the setting of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The results challenge the idea that apoptotic cell phagocytosis in TB has an immunogenic effect. PMID:27413759

  19. Androstane derivatives induce apoptotic death in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jakimov, Dimitar S; Kojić, Vesna V; Aleksić, Lidija D; Bogdanović, Gordana M; Ajduković, Jovana J; Djurendić, Evgenija A; Penov Gaši, Katarina M; Sakač, Marija N; Jovanović-Šanta, Suzana S

    2015-11-15

    Biological investigation was conducted to study in vitro antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential of selected 17α-picolyl and 17(E)-picolinylidene androstane derivatives. The antiproliferative impact was examined on six human tumor cell lines, including two types of breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), prostate (PC3), cervical (HeLa), colon (HT 29) and lung cancer (A549), as well as one normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell line (MRC-5). All derivatives selectively decreased proliferation of estrogen receptor negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells after 48 h and 72 h treatment and compounds showed time-dependent activity. We used this cell line to investigate cell cycle modulation and apoptotic cell death induction by flow cytometry, expression of apoptotic proteins by Western blot and apoptotic morphology by visual observation. Tested androstane derivatives affected the cell cycle distribution and induced apoptosis and necrosis. Compounds had different and specific mode of action, depending on derivative type and exposure time. Some compounds induced significant apoptosis measured by Annexin V test compared to reference compound formestane. Higher expression of pro-apoptotic BAX, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and cleavage of PARP protein were confirmed in almost all treated samples, but the lack of caspase-3 activation suggested the induction of apoptosis in caspase-independent manner. More cells with apoptotic morphology were observed in samples after prolonged treatment. Structure-activity relationship analysis was performed to find correlations between the structure variations of investigated derivatives and observed biological effects. Results of this study showed that some of the investigated androstane derivatives have good biomedical potential and could be candidates for anticancer drug development.

  20. PKC{eta} confers protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic JNK activity in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem-Dai, Noa; Oberkovitz, Galia; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Livneh, Etta

    2009-09-10

    Apoptosis is frequently regulated by different protein kinases including protein kinase C family enzymes. Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were demonstrated for several of the different PKC isoforms. Here we show that the novel PKC isoform, PKC{eta}, confers protection against apoptosis induced by the DNA damaging agents, UVC irradiation and the anti-cancer drug - Camptothecin, of the breast epithelial adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The induced expression of PKC{eta} in MCF-7 cells, under the control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter, resulted in increased cell survival and inhibition of cleavage of the apoptotic marker PARP-1. Activation of caspase-7 and 9 and the release of cytochrome c were also inhibited by the inducible expression of PKC{eta}. Furthermore, JNK activity, required for apoptosis in MCF-7, as indicated by the inhibition of both caspase-7 cleavage and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the presence of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, was also suppressed by PKC{eta} expression. Hence, in contrast to most PKC isoforms enhancing JNK activation, our studies show that PKC{eta} is an anti-apoptotic protein, acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity. Thus, PKC{eta} could represent a target for intervention aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments.

  1. In vitro ultraviolet–induced damage in human corneal, lens, and retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun-Yi; Sivak, Jacob G.; Jones, Lyndon W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to develop suitable in vitro methods to detect ocular epithelial cell damage when exposed to UV radiation, in an effort to evaluate UV-absorbing ophthalmic biomaterials. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC), lens epithelial cells (HLEC), and retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured and Ultraviolet A/Ultraviolet B (UVA/UVB) blocking filters and UVB-only blocking filters were placed between the cells and a UV light source. Cells were irradiated with UV radiations at various energy levels with and without filter protections. Cell viability after exposure was determined using the metabolic dye alamarBlue and by evaluating for changes in the nuclei, mitochondria, membrane permeability, and cell membranes of the cells using the fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33342, rhodamine 123, calcein AM, ethidium homodimer-1, and annexin V. High-resolution images of the cells were taken with a Zeiss 510 confocal laser scanning microscope. Results The alamarBlue assay results of UV-exposed cells without filters showed energy level-dependent decreases in cellular viability. However, UV treated cells with 400 nm LP filter protection showed the equivalent viability to untreated control cells at all energy levels. Also, UV irradiated cells with 320 nm LP filter showed lower cell viability than the unexposed control cells, yet higher viability than UV-exposed cells without filters in an energy level-dependent manner. The confocal microscopy results also showed that UV radiation can cause significant dose-dependent degradations of nuclei and mitochondria in ocular cells. The annexin V staining also showed an increased number of apoptotic cells after UV irradiation. Conclusions The findings suggest that UV-induced HCEC, HLEC, and ARPE-19 cell damage can be evaluated by bioassays that measure changes in the cell nuclei, mitochondria, cell membranes, and cell metabolism, and these assay methods provide a valuable in vitro model for evaluating the

  2. Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

  3. Apoptosis induction of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells by noscapine

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mohammad Rasoul; Rashidi, Zahra; Chobsaz, Farzaneh; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Endometriosis is a complex gynecologic disease with unknown etiology. Noscapine has been introduced as a cancer cell suppressor. Endometriosis was considered as a cancer like disorder, The aim of present study was to investigate noscapine apoptotic effect on human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, endometrial biopsies from endometriosis patients (n=9) were prepared and digested by an enzymatic method (collagenase I, 2 mg/ml). Stromal and epithelial cells were separated by sequential filtration through a cell strainer and ficoll layering. The cells of each sample were divided into five groups: control (0), 10, 25, 50 and 100 micromole/liter (µM) concentration of noscapine and were cultured for three different periods of times; 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration was measured by Griess reagent. Cell death was analyzed by Acridine Orange (AO)–Ethidium Bromide (EB) double staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Viability of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells significantly decreased in 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentration in 24, 48, 72 hr (P<0.05) and apoptotic index increased in 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentrations in 48 hr significantly (P<0.05). Concentrations of NO didn’t show a significant decrease. Conclusion: Noscapine increased endometriotic epithelial and stromal cell death and can be suggested as a treatment for endometriosis. PMID:27803780

  4. Anti-apoptotic effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Jun, Hyoung-Oh; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Min, Bon Hong; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-12-01

    Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that is known to protect various retinal cells. It was also reported to be overexpressed in several types of malignant tumors, whose chemoresistance correlates with the expression of clusterin. Herein, we investigated the effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells. Firstly, evaluation of clusterin expression demonstrated that it was highly expressed in human retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines (SNUOT-Rb1 and Y79) particularly in the area between viable cells around vessels and necrotic zones in the relatively avascular area in human retinoblastoma tissues. Furthermore, the effects of cisplatin on retinoblastoma cells were evaluated. Cisplatin (1 µg/ml) significantly affected cell viability of SNUOT-Rb1 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Notably, the cell death due to cisplatin was prevented by 5 µg/ml of clusterin administered 4 h prior to cisplatin treatment by inhibiting cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of clusterin exerted its anti-apoptotic effect on cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and effectively prevented cisplatin-induced cell death. These data suggest that clusterin, found to be expressed in human retinoblastoma, may exert anti-apoptotic effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis and prevent cell death. Therefore, clusterin can contribute to cisplatin resistance of retinoblastoma.

  5. HTLV-1 Tax protein sensitizes cells to apoptotic cell death induced by DNA damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Kao, S Y; Lemoine, F J; Mariott, S J

    2000-04-27

    Transient HTLV-1 Tax expression suppresses cellular nucleotide excision repair, and this effect correlates with Tax transactivation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter. The inability to repair DNA damage typically induces apoptotic cell death. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Tax-mediated suppression of DNA repair on apoptosis in stable Tax-expressing cells. Constitutive Tax expression reduced cellular nucleotide excision repair activity compared with parental and control cells. Tax-expressing cells were also more sensitive to apoptosis induced by DNA damaging agents than control cells. Even though Tax-expressing cells displayed reduced DNA repair, they showed increased DNA replication following UV damage. These results suggest that Tax suppresses the cell's ability to repair DNA damage and stimulates DNA replication even in the presence of damage. The inability to repair DNA damage is likely to stimulate apoptotic cell death in the majority of Tax-expressing cells while the ability to promote DNA replication may also allow the survival of a small population of cells. We propose that together these effects contribute to the monoclonal nature and low efficiency of HTLV-1 transformation.

  6. Anti-apoptotic effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Jun, Hyoung-Oh; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Min, Bon Hong; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-12-01

    Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that is known to protect various retinal cells. It was also reported to be overexpressed in several types of malignant tumors, whose chemoresistance correlates with the expression of clusterin. Herein, we investigated the effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells. Firstly, evaluation of clusterin expression demonstrated that it was highly expressed in human retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines (SNUOT-Rb1 and Y79) particularly in the area between viable cells around vessels and necrotic zones in the relatively avascular area in human retinoblastoma tissues. Furthermore, the effects of cisplatin on retinoblastoma cells were evaluated. Cisplatin (1 µg/ml) significantly affected cell viability of SNUOT-Rb1 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Notably, the cell death due to cisplatin was prevented by 5 µg/ml of clusterin administered 4 h prior to cisplatin treatment by inhibiting cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of clusterin exerted its anti-apoptotic effect on cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and effectively prevented cisplatin-induced cell death. These data suggest that clusterin, found to be expressed in human retinoblastoma, may exert anti-apoptotic effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis and prevent cell death. Therefore, clusterin can contribute to cisplatin resistance of retinoblastoma. PMID:24085287

  7. Apoptosis of epithelial cells and macrophages due to nonpigmented Serratia marcescens strains.

    PubMed

    Krzymińska, Sylwia; Ochocka, Katarzyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strains are opportunistic pathogens that are increasingly recognized as a cause of severe nosocomial infections. In this study we observed interactions between nonpigmented strains with human epithelial and macrophage-like cells. The strains revealed hemolytic activity only after the contact of the cells with erythrocytes. The contact of the bacteria with the host cells was also essential to their cytotoxicity. Moreover, all strains revealed adherence ability and were invasive to epithelial cells. Analyses of cellular morphology and DNA fragmentation of the HEp-2 and J774 cells exhibited typical features of cells undergoing apoptosis. We observed morphological changes, including condensation of nuclear chromatin and formation of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. The lowest apoptotic index in HEp-2 cells did not exceed 25%, whereas the highest reached 59% at 24 h and 72% at 48 h after infection. Most of the strains (60%) induced fragmentation of nuclear DNA. The process depended on the activation of caspases, and was completely blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. This study provided new insights into the mechanisms of nonpigmented S. marcescens pathogenesis. The results revealed that the strains produce cell-contact toxins that facilitate bacterial invasion, induce hemolysis, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis of host cells.

  8. Detection of Bone Marrow Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Krause, Diane S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the ability of bone marrow derived cells to adopt the morphology and protein expression of epithelial cells in vivo have expanded rapidly over the last decade, and hundreds of publications report that bone marrow derived cells can become epithelial cells of multiple organs including lung, liver, GI tract, skin, pancreas and others. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature related to engraftment of bone marrow derived cells as epithelial cells in the lung. Over 40 manuscripts focused on whether bone marrow cells can differentiate into lung epithelial cells have been published, nearly all of which claim to identify marrow derived epithelial cells. A few investigations have concluded that no such cells are present and that the phenomenon of marrow derived epithelial cells is based on detection artifacts. Here we discuss the problems that exist in published papers identifying marrow derived epithelial cells, and propose standards for detection methods that provide the most definitive data. Identification of BM derived epithelial cells requires reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection, which must include cell identification based on the presence of an epithelial marker and the absence of blood cell markers as well as a marker for donor BM origin. In order for these studies to be rigorous, they must also use approaches to rule out cell overlap by microscopy or single cell isolation. Once these stringent criteria for identification of marrow derived epithelial cells are used universally, then the field can move forward to address the critical questions regarding which bone marrow derived cells are responsible for engraftment as epithelial cells, the mechanisms by which this occurs, whether these cells play a role in normal tissue repair, and whether specific cell subsets can be used for therapeutic benefit. PMID:20447442

  9. Sterile inflammation of endothelial cell-derived apoptotic bodies is mediated by interleukin-1α

    PubMed Central

    Berda-Haddad, Yaël; Robert, Stéphane; Salers, Paul; Zekraoui, Leila; Farnarier, Catherine; Dinarello, Charles A.; Dignat-George, Françoise; Kaplanski, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Sterile inflammation resulting from cell death is due to the release of cell contents normally inactive and sequestered within the cell; fragments of cell membranes from dying cells also contribute to sterile inflammation. Endothelial cells undergoing stress-induced apoptosis release membrane microparticles, which become vehicles for proinflammatory signals. Here, we show that stress-activated endothelial cells release two distinct populations of particles: One population consists of membrane microparticles (<1 μm, annexin V positive without DNA and no histones) and another larger (1–3 μm) apoptotic body-like particles containing nuclear fragments and histones, representing apoptotic bodies. Contrary to present concepts, endothelial microparticles do not contain IL-1α and do not induce neutrophilic chemokines in vitro. In contrast, the large apoptotic bodies contain the full-length IL-1α precursor and the processed mature form. In vitro, these apoptotic bodies induce monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and IL-8 chemokine secretion in an IL-1α–dependent but IL-1β–independent fashion. Injection of these apoptotic bodies into the peritoneal cavity of mice induces elevated serum neutrophil-inducing chemokines, which was prevented by cotreatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist. Consistently, injection of these large apoptotic bodies into the peritoneal cavity induced a neutrophilic infiltration that was prevented by IL-1 blockade. Although apoptosis is ordinarily considered noninflammatory, these data demonstrate that nonphagocytosed endothelial apoptotic bodies are inflammatory, providing a vehicle for IL-1α and, therefore, constitute a unique mechanism for sterile inflammation. PMID:22143786

  10. FSAP-mediated nucleosome release from late apoptotic cells is inhibited by autoantibodies present in SLE.

    PubMed

    Marsman, Gerben; Stephan, Femke; de Leeuw, Karina; Bulder, Ingrid; Ruinard, Jessica T; de Jong, Jan; Westra, Johanna; Bultink, Irene E M; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Aarden, Lucien A; Luken, Brenda M; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2016-03-01

    Inefficient clearance of apoptotic cells and the subsequent exposure of the immune system to nuclear contents are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated in serum upon contact with dead cells, and releases nucleosomes from late apoptotic cells into the extracellular environment. We investigated whether FSAP-mediated nucleosome release from late apoptotic cells is affected in SLE patients. Nucleosome release in sera of 27 SLE patients and 30 healthy controls was investigated by incubating late apoptotic Jurkat cells with serum and analyzing the remaining DNA content by flow cytometry. We found that nucleosome release in sera of SLE patients with high disease activity was significantly decreased when compared with that in SLE sera obtained during low disease activity or from healthy individuals. Upon removal of IgG/IgM antibodies from SLE sera, nucleosome release was restored. Similarly, monoclonal antinuclear antibodies inhibited nucleosome release in healthy donor serum or by plasma-purified FSAP. This inhibition was lost when Fab fragments were used, suggesting that antigen cross-linking is involved. In conclusion, FSAP-mediated nucleosome release from late apoptotic cells is greatly impaired in SLE patient sera, possibly hampering the clearance of these cells and thereby propagating inflammation.

  11. Participation of the serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica protein in amebic phagocytosis of apoptotic host cells.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jose E; Huston, Christopher D

    2008-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal ameba that causes dysentery and liver abscesses. Cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of host cells characterize invasive E. histolytica infection. Prior to phagocytosis of host cells, E. histolytica induces apoptotic host cell death, using a mechanism that requires contact via an amebic galactose-specific lectin. However, lectin inhibition only partially blocks phagocytosis of already dead cells, implicating at least one additional receptor in phagocytosis. To identify receptors for engulfment of apoptotic cells, monoclonal antibodies against E. histolytica membrane antigens were screened for inhibition of phagocytosis. Of 43 antibodies screened, one blocked lectin-independent uptake of apoptotic cells, with >90% inhibition at a dose of 20 microg/ml (P < 0.0003 versus control). The same antibody also inhibited adherence to apoptotic lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, adherence to and killing of viable lymphocytes. The antigen recognized by the inhibitory antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as the serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP). Consistent with this, the inhibitory antibody bound to recombinant SREHP present in bacterial lysates on immunoblots. The SREHP is an abundant immunogenic surface protein of unclear function. The results of this unbiased antibody screen strongly implicate the SREHP as a participant in E. histolytica phagocytosis and suggest that it may play an important role in adherence to apoptotic cells. PMID:18086807

  12. Cell death stages in single apoptotic and necrotic cells monitored by Raman microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brauchle, Eva; Thude, Sibylle; Brucker, Sara Y.; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Although apoptosis and necrosis have distinct features, the identification and discrimination of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in vitro is challenging. Immunocytological and biochemical assays represent the current gold standard for monitoring cell death pathways; however, these standard assays are invasive, render large numbers of cells and impede continuous monitoring experiments. In this study, both room temperature (RT)-induced apoptosis and heat-triggered necrosis were analyzed in individual Saos-2 and SW-1353 cells by utilizing Raman microspectroscopy. A targeted analysis of defined cell death modalities, including early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis, was facilitated based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy. Spectral shifts were identified in the two cell lines that reflect biochemical changes specific for either RT-induced apoptosis or heat-mediated necrosis. A supervised classification model specified apoptotic and necrotic cell death based on single cell Raman spectra. To conclude, Raman spectroscopy allows a non-invasive, continuous monitoring of cell death, which may help shedding new light on complex pathophysiological or drug-induced cell death processes. PMID:24732136

  13. Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Chaetominine in a Human Leukemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jingyun; Jiao, Ruihua; Liu, Changqing; Zhang, Yupeng; Yu, Wanguo; Lu, Yanhua; Tan, Renxiang

    2016-01-01

    Chaetominine is a quinazoline alkaloid originating from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CY018. In this study, we showed evidence that chaetominine has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human leukemia K562 cells and investigated the pathway involved in chaetominine-induced apoptosis in detail. Chaetominine inhibited K562 cell growth, with an IC50 value of 35 nM, but showed little inhibitory effect on the growth of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The high apoptosis rates, morphological apoptotic features, and DNA fragmentation caused by chaetominine indicated that the cytotoxicity was partially caused by its pro-apoptotic effect. Under chaetominine treatment, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was upregulated (from 0.3 to 8), which was followed by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and stimulation of Apaf-1. Furthermore, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which are the main executers of the apoptotic process, was observed. These results demonstrated that chaetominine induced cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Chaetominine inhibited K562 cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death through the intrinsic pathway, which suggests that chaetominine might be a promising therapeutic for leukemia. PMID:26902083

  14. Are peripheral blood cells from patients with Alzheimer disease more sensitive to apoptotic stimuli?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael; Salman, Hertzel; Beloosesky, Yichayaou; Djaldetti, Meir; Bessler, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    One of the reasons for the increased susceptibility to infections in patients with Alzheimer disease may be enhanced apoptotic death of their peripheral leukocytes. If this is the case, the enhanced apoptosis may be due to components in the patients' sera or to an increased sensitivity of the cells to apoptotic stimuli. To examine this possibility, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 patients with Alzheimer disease was compared with that of 12 age-matched non-demented persons and 12 middle-aged healthy control subjects. In addition, the effect of sera from subjects in the three groups on the apoptosis, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha production by peripheral blood cells from healthy control subjects was examined. It was found that the percentage of apoptotic PBMC from patients with Alzheimer disease was higher than that from the remaining two groups. However, incubation of control cells with sera from patients with Alzheimer disease and non-demented elderly persons did not affect the number of apoptotic cells. Sera from patients with Alzheimer disease and non-demented elderly subjects caused an increase in IL-2 and a decrease in IL-10 production by PBMC from middle-aged control subjects but did not affect IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha secretion, indicating alterations of the immune system related to aging.

  15. GSIV serine/threonine kinase can induce apoptotic cell death via p53 and pro-apoptotic gene Bax upregulation in fish cells.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Horng-Cherng; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that GSIV induces apoptotic cell death through upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Bak in Grouper fin cells (GF-1 cells). However, the role of viral genome-encoded protein(s) in this death process remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the Giant seaperch iridovirus (GSIV) genome encoded a serine/threonine kinase (ST kinase) protein, and induced apoptotic cell death via a p53-mediated Bax upregulation approach and a downregulation of Bcl-2 in fish cells. The ST kinase expression profile was identified through Western blot analyses, which indicated that expression started at day 1 h post-infection (PI), increased up to day 3, and then decreased by day 5 PI. This profile indicated the role of ST kinase expression during the early and middle phases of viral replication. We then cloned the ST kinase gene and tested its function in fish cells. The ST kinase was transiently expressed and used to investigate possible novel protein functions. The transient expression of ST kinase in GF-1 cells resulted in apoptotic cell features, as revealed with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays and Hoechst 33258 staining at 24 h (37 %) and 48 h post-transfection (PT) (49 %). Then, through studies on the mechanism of cell death, we found that ST kinase overexpression could upregulate the anti-stress gene p53 and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax at 48 h PT. Interestingly, this upregulation of p53 and Bax also correlated to alterations in the mitochondria function that induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activated the initiator caspase-9 and the effector caspase-3 in the downstream. Moreover, when the p53-dependent transcriptional downstream gene was blocked by a specific transcriptional inhibitor, it was found that pifithrin-α not only reduced Bax expression, but also averted cell death in GF-1 cells during the ST kinase overexpression. Taken altogether, these

  16. Melatonin decreases cell proliferation, impairs myogenic differentiation and triggers apoptotic cell death in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Codenotti, Silvia; Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Salucci, Sara; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Rezzani, Rita; Faggi, Fiorella; Colombi, Marina; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Melatonin is a small indole produced by the pineal gland and other tissues, and has numerous functions that aid in the maintenance of the whole body homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep to protection from oxidative stress. Melatonin has also been reported to counteract cell growth and chemoresistance in different types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on different human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. The results showed that melatonin significantly affected the behavior of RMS cells, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and impairment of myogenic differentiation followed by increased apoptotic cell death, as observed by immunoblotting analysis of apoptosis-related markers including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. Similar findings were observed using a combination of microscopy techniques, including scanning/transmission electron and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, melatonin in combination with doxorubicin or cisplatin, two compounds commonly used for the treatment of solid tumors, increased the sensitivity of RMS cells to apoptosis. These data indicated that melatonin may be effective in counteracting RMS tumor growth and chemoresistance.

  17. Isolated Epithelial Cells of the Toad Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Gatzy, J. T.; Berndt, W. O.

    1968-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the toad bladder were disaggregated with EDTA, trypsin, hyaluronidase, or collagenase and were then scraped free of the underlying connective tissue. In most experiments EDTA was complexed with a divalent cation before the tissue was scraped. QOO2, sucrose and inulin spaces, and electrolytes of the isolated cells were measured. Cells disaggregated by collagenase or hyaluronidase consumed O2 at a rate of 4 µl hr-1 dry wt-1. QOO2 was increased 50% by ADH (100 U/liter) or by cyclic 3',5'-AMP (10 mM/liter). Na+-free Ringer's depressed the QOO2 by 40%. The QOO2 of cells prepared by trypsin treatment or by two EDTA methods was depressed by Na+-free Ringer's but was stimulated relatively little by ADH. Two other EDTA protocols produced cells that did not respond to Na+ lack or ADH. The intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations of collagenase-disaggregated cells were 32 and 117 mEq/kg cell H2O, respectively. Cation concentrations of hyaluronidase cells were similar, but cells that did not respond to ADH had higher intracellular Na+ concentrations. Cells unresponsive to ADH and Na+ lack had high sucrose spaces and low transcellular membrane gradients of Na+, K+, and Cl-. The results suggest that trypsin and EDTA disaggregation damage the active Na+ transport system of the isolated cell. Certain EDTA techniques may also produce a general increase in permeability. Collagenase and hyaluronidase cells appear to function normally. PMID:4300150

  18. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic dendritic cells as a novel therapy for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; Wierts, Laura; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; van Santbrink, Peter J; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C A

    2015-03-01

    Modulation of immune responses may form a powerful approach to treat atherosclerosis. It was shown that clearance of apoptotic cells results in tolerance induction to cleared Ags by dendritic cells (DCs); however, this seems impaired in atherosclerosis because Ag-specific tolerance is lacking. This could result, in part, from decreased emigration of DCs from atherosclerotic lesions because of the high-cholesterol environment. Nonetheless, local induction of anti-inflammatory responses by apoptotic cell clearance seems to dampen atherosclerosis, because inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance worsens atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed whether i.v. administration of oxLDL-induced apoptotic DCs (apop(ox)-DCs) and, as a control, unpulsed apoptotic DCs could modulate atherosclerosis by inducing tolerance. Adoptive transfer of apop(ox)-DCs into low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice either before or during feeding of a Western-type diet resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+) tolerogenic splenic DCs, with a concomitant increase in regulatory T cells. Interestingly, both types of apoptotic DCs induced an immediate 40% decrease in Ly-6C(hi) monocyte numbers and a 50% decrease in circulating CCL2 levels, but only apop(ox)-DC treatment resulted in long-term effects on monocytes and CCL2 levels. Although initial lesion development was reduced by 40% in both treatment groups, only apop(ox)-DC treatment prevented lesion progression by 28%. Moreover, progressed lesions of apop(ox)-DC-treated mice showed a robust 45% increase in collagen content, indicating an enhanced stability of lesions. Our findings clearly show that apoptotic DC treatment significantly decreases lesion development, but only apop(ox)-DCs can positively modulate lesion progression and stability. These findings may translate into a safe treatment for patients with established cardiovascular diseases using patient-derived apop(ox)-DCs.

  19. Uptake of apoptotic cells drives the growth of a pathogenic trypanosome in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Nascimento, Danielle O.; Soares, Milena B. P.; Bozza, Patricia T.; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C.; de Mello, Fernando G.; Dosreis, George A.; Lopes, Marcela F.

    2000-01-01

    After apoptosis, phagocytes prevent inflammation and tissue damage by the uptake and removal of dead cells. In addition, apoptotic cells evoke an anti-inflammatory response through macrophages. We have previously shown that there is intense lymphocyte apoptosis in an experimental model of Chagas' disease, a debilitating cardiac illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we show that the interaction of apoptotic, but not necrotic T lymphocytes with macrophages infected with T. cruzi fuels parasite growth in a manner dependent on prostaglandins, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and polyamine biosynthesis. We show that the vitronectin receptor is critical, in both apoptotic-cell cytoadherence and the induction of prostaglandin E2/TGF-β release and ornithine decarboxylase activity in macrophages. A single injection of apoptotic cells in infected mice increases parasitaemia, whereas treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors almost completely ablates it in vivo. These results suggest that continual lymphocyte apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages have a role in parasite persistence in the host, and that cyclooxygenase inhibitors have potential therapeutic application in the control of parasite replication and spread in Chagas' disease.

  20. Ultrastructural observation of human neutrophils during apoptotic cell death triggered by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Sim, Seobo; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Soon-Jung; Im, Kyung-il; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2004-12-01

    Neutrophils are important effector cells against protozoan extracellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and liver abscess in human beings. Apoptotic cell death of neutrophils is an important event in the resolution of inflammation and parasite's survival in vivo. This study was undertaken to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of apoptotic cells during neutrophil death triggered by Entamoeba histolytica. Isolated human neutrophils from the peripheral blood were incubated with or without live trophozoites of E. histolytica and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Neutrophils incubated with E. histolytica were observed to show apoptotic characteristics, such as compaction of the nuclear chromatin and swelling of the nuclear envelop. In contrast, neutrophils incubated in the absence of the amoeba had many protrusions of irregular cell surfaces and heterogenous nuclear chromatin. Therefore, it is suggested that Entamoeba-induced neutrophil apoptosis contribute to prevent unwanted tissue inflammation and damage in the amoeba-invaded lesions in vivo.

  1. Anti-apoptotic potential of insect cellular and viral IAPs in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C J; Ekert, P G; Uren, A G; Holmgreen, S P; Vaux, D L

    1998-07-01

    IAPs were identified as baculoviral proteins that could inhibit the apoptotic response of insect cells to infection. Of the viral IAPs, OpIAP and CpIAP can inhibit apoptosis, whereas AcIAP cannot. OpIAP and some mammalian homologues can inhibit mammalian cell death. Two mammalian IAPs bind to TNFRII associated factors (TRAFs), but the significance of this is unclear. Here we show that Drosophila cellular IAPs and two baculoviral IAPs (OpIAP and CpIAP) can inhibit mammalian cell death induced by overexpression of Caspases 1 and 2. IAPs must act on conserved components of the apoptotic mechanism, but as none of these IAPs could bind TRAF proteins, TRAFs are not likely to be important for IAP mediated apoptosis inhibition. As OpIAP protected against death induced by ligation of TNF receptor family members, but not by factor nor serum withdrawal from dependent cells, it can inhibit certain apoptotic pathways without affecting others.

  2. Ultrastructural observation of human neutrophils during apoptotic cell death triggered by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Sim, Seobo; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Soon-Jung; Im, Kyung-il; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2004-12-01

    Neutrophils are important effector cells against protozoan extracellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and liver abscess in human beings. Apoptotic cell death of neutrophils is an important event in the resolution of inflammation and parasite's survival in vivo. This study was undertaken to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of apoptotic cells during neutrophil death triggered by Entamoeba histolytica. Isolated human neutrophils from the peripheral blood were incubated with or without live trophozoites of E. histolytica and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Neutrophils incubated with E. histolytica were observed to show apoptotic characteristics, such as compaction of the nuclear chromatin and swelling of the nuclear envelop. In contrast, neutrophils incubated in the absence of the amoeba had many protrusions of irregular cell surfaces and heterogenous nuclear chromatin. Therefore, it is suggested that Entamoeba-induced neutrophil apoptosis contribute to prevent unwanted tissue inflammation and damage in the amoeba-invaded lesions in vivo. PMID:15591839

  3. Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2015-01-01

    Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

  4. Skeletal muscle stem cells express anti-apoptotic ErbB receptors during activation from quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, Jon P. . E-mail: j.p.golding@open.ac.uk; Calderbank, Emma; Partridge, Terence A.; Beauchamp, Jonathan R.

    2007-01-15

    To be effective for tissue repair, satellite cells (the stem cells of adult muscle) must survive the initial activation from quiescence. Using an in vitro model of satellite cell activation, we show that erbB1, erbB2 and erbB3, members of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase family, appear on satellite cells within 6 h of activation. We show that signalling via erbB2 provides an anti-apoptotic survival mechanism for satellite cells during the first 24 h, as they progress to a proliferative state. Inhibition of erbB2 signalling with AG825 reduced satellite cell numbers, concomitant with elevated caspase-8 activation and TUNEL labelling of apoptotic satellite cells. In serum-free conditions, satellite cell apoptosis could be largely prevented by a mixture of erbB1, erbB3 and erbB4 ligand growth factors, but not by neuregulin alone (erbB3/erbB4 ligand). Furthermore, using inhibitors specific to discrete intracellular signalling pathways, we identify MEK as a pro-apoptotic mediator, and the erbB-regulated factor STAT3 as an anti-apoptotic mediator during satellite cell activation. These results implicate erbB2 signalling in the preservation of a full compliment of satellite cells as they activate in the context of a damaged muscle.

  5. Scrib is Required for Epithelial Cell Identity and Prevents Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yamben, Idella F.; Rachel, Rivka A.; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depends on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, αSMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of αSMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGFβ signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGFβ target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGFβ signaling. PMID:24095903

  6. LFG: an anti-apoptotic gene that provides protection from Fas-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Somia, N V; Schmitt, M J; Vetter, D E; Van Antwerp, D; Heinemann, S F; Verma, I M

    1999-10-26

    Programmed cell death regulates a number of biological phenomena, and the apoptotic signal must itself be tightly controlled to avoid inappropriate cell death. We established a genetic screen to search for molecules that inhibit the apoptotic signal from the Fas receptor. Here we report the isolation of a gene, LFG, that protects cells uniquely from Fas but not from the mechanistically related tumor necrosis factor alpha death signal. LFG is widely distributed, but remarkably is highly expressed in the hippocampus. LFG can bind to the Fas receptor, but does not regulate Fas expression or interfere with binding of an agonist antibody. Furthermore LFG does not inhibit binding of FADD to Fas.

  7. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3.

  8. Tie-mediated signal from apoptotic cells protects stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yalan; Su, Tin Tin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Many types of normal and cancer stem cells are resistant to killing by genotoxins, but the mechanism for this resistance is poorly understood. Here we show that adult stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster germline and midgut are resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemically induced apoptosis and dissect the mechanism for this protection. We find that upon IR the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie/Tie-2 is activated, leading to the upregulation of microRNA bantam that represses FOXO-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIABLO orthologue, Hid in germline stem cells. Knockdown of the IR-induced putative Tie ligand, Pvf1, a functional homologue of human Angiopoietin, in differentiating daughter cells renders germline stem cells sensitive to IR, suggesting that the dying daughters send a survival signal to protect their stem cells for future repopulation of the tissue. If conserved in cancer stem cells, this mechanism may provide therapeutic options for the eradication of cancer. PMID:25959206

  9. Divergent members of a single autoreactive B cell clone retain specificity for apoptotic blebs.

    PubMed

    Neeli, Indira; Richardson, Mekel M; Khan, Salar N; Nicolo, Danielle; Monestier, Marc; Radic, Marko Z

    2007-03-01

    Specificity for double-stranded DNA can arise due to somatic mutations within one of the branches of an autoreactive B cell clone. However, it is not known whether a different autospecificity predates anti-dsDNA and whether separate offshoots of an expanding B cell clone retain or evolve alternative specificities. We compared 3H9, an anti-dsDNA IgG, to 4H8 and 1A11, antibodies produced by hybridomas representing an alternative branch of the 3H9 B cell clone. All three IgG bound chromatin in ELISA and apoptotic cells in confocal microscopy, yet only 3H9 bound dsDNA, as measured by plasmon resonance. Moreover, we demonstrate that despite the unique specificity of 3H9 for dsDNA, all three clone members exhibited indistinguishable binding to chromatin. The binding to chromatin and apoptotic cells was unaffected by N-linked glycosylation in L chain CDR1, a modification that results from a replacement of serine 26 with asparagine in 4H8 and 1A11. These data provide the first evidence that specificity for nucleosome epitopes on apoptotic cells provides the initial positive stimulus for somatic variants that comprise a B cell clone, including those that subsequently acquire specificity for dsDNA. Conversely, selection of autoreactive B cells for binding to apoptotic cells leads to clonal expansion, antibody diversification, and the development of linked sets of anti-nuclear autoantibodies.

  10. Apoptotic effects of signal transduction inhibitors on human tumor cells with different PTEN expression.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Georg; Horn, Felicitas; Lattrich, Claus; Klappenberger, Stefanie; Ortmann, Olaf; Treeck, Oliver

    2007-11-01

    An important mechanism of antitumoral targeted therapies is the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Tamoxifen and trastuzumab (Herceptin), respectively, are able to trigger apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. But, frequently altered apoptotic signal cascades, for instance through PTEN mutations, help tumor cells to escape antitumoral therapy. We studied to what extent the apoptotic effect of signal-transduction inhibitors is dependent on PTEN expression. PTEN expression was analysed by Western blot analysis in tumor cell lines of the breast (BT-474, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), ovary (BG-1, SK-OV-3) and endometrium (Ishikawa, HEC-1A). Apoptotic effects of tamoxifen, trastuzumab, ZD1839 (Iressa) and different mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP) inhibitors were measured after 24 h of treatment. Cellular apoptosis was determined by the detection of cytoplasmic histone-DNA complexes. The tested tumor cell lines exhibited a different PTEN expression, ranging from a high expression (ovarian cancer cell line BG-1 and BT-474 breast cancer cells) to a total absence of PTEN expression (endometrial Ishikawa cells). The apoptotic effect of receptor-targeting drugs (tamoxifen, trastuzumab, ZD1839) was dependent both on receptor expression and PTEN expression. When cells were treated with MAPK inhibitors, no correlation between PTEN expression and the apoptosis rate was observed. Our data underline the importance of PTEN expression regarding the induction of apoptosis through various targeted therapies.

  11. Caspase dependent apoptotic inhibition of melanoma and lung cancer cells by tropical Rubus extracts.

    PubMed

    George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M

    2016-05-01

    Rubus fairholmianus Gard. inhibits human melanoma (A375) and lung cancer (A549) cell growth by the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. Herbal products have a long history of clinical use and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. The plants and plant derived products became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years. The effects of R. fairholmianus root acetone extract (RFRA) on the proliferation of A375 and A549 cells was examined in this study. RFRA led to a decrease in cell viability, proliferation and an increase in cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner when compared with control and normal skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The morphology of treated cells supported apoptotic cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that RFRA induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells and the percentages of early and late apoptotic populations significantly increased. Moreover, the apoptotic inducing ability of RFRA when analysing effector caspase 3/7 activity, indicated a marked increase in treated cells. In summary, we have shown the anticancer effects of RFRA in A375 and A549 cancer cells via induction of caspase dependent apoptosis in vitro. The extract is more effective against melanoma; which may suggest the usefulness of RFRA-based anticancer therapies. PMID:27133056

  12. Apoptotic neurons induce proliferative responses of progenitor cells in the postnatal neocortex.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Volodymyr; Mihhailova, Jevgenia; Salmon, Patrick; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2015-11-01

    Apoptotic cell death is the leading cause of neuronal loss after neonatal brain injury. Little is known about the intrinsic capacity of the immature cerebral cortex for replacing dead cells. Here we test the hypothesis that neuronal apoptosis is able to trigger compensatory proliferation in surrounding cells. In order to establish a "pure" apoptotic cell death model and to avoid the confounding effects of broken blood-brain barrier and inflammatory reactions, we used a diphtheria toxin (DT) and diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) system to induce ablation of layer IV neurons in the rodent somatosensory cortex during the early postnatal period. We found that DT-triggered apoptosis is a slowly progressing event lasting about for 7 days. While dying cells expressed the morphological features of apoptosis, we could not detect immunoreactivity for activated caspase-3 in these cells. Microglia activation and proliferation represented the earliest cellular responses to apoptotic cell death. In addition, we found that induced apoptosis triggered a massive proliferation of undifferentiated progenitor cell pool including Sox2 as well as NG2 cells. The default differentiation pattern of proliferating progenitors appears to be the glial phenotype; we could not find evidence for newly generated neurons in response to apoptotic neuronal death. These results suggest that mitotically active progenitor populations are intrinsically capable to contribute to the repair process of injured cortical tissue and may represent a potential target for neuronal replacement strategies.

  13. Ouabain modulates ciliogenesis in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Larre, Isabel; Castillo, Aida; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Contreras, Ruben G.; Galvan, Ivan; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesus; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2011-01-01

    The exchange of substances between higher organisms and the environment occurs across transporting epithelia whose basic features are tight junctions (TJs) that seal the intercellular space, and polarity, which enables cells to transport substances vectorially. In a previous study, we demonstrated that 10 nM ouabain modulates TJs, and we now show that it controls polarity as well. We gauge polarity through the development of a cilium at the apical domain of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, epithelial dog kidney). Ouabain accelerates ciliogenesis in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Claudin-2, a molecule responsible for the Na+ and H2O permeability of the TJs, is also present at the cilium, as it colocalizes and coprecipitates with acetylated α-tubulin. Ouabain modulates claudin-2 localization at the cilium through ERK1/2. Comparing wild-type and ouabain-resistant MDCK cells, we show that ouabain acts through Na+,K+-ATPase. Taken together, our previous and present results support the possibility that ouabain constitutes a hormone that modulates the transporting epithelial phenotype, thereby playing a crucial role in metazoan life. PMID:22143774

  14. Apoptotic and autophagic cell death induced by glucolaxogenin in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, L; Escobar, M L; Sandoval-Ramírez, J; López-Muñoz, H; Fernández-Herrera, M A; Hernández-Vázquez, J M V; Hilario-Martínez, C; Zenteno, E

    2015-12-01

    The antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of glucolaxogenin and its ability to induce apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells are reported. We ascertained that glucolaxogenin exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa, CaSki and ViBo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of DNA distribution in the cell-cycle phase of tumor cells treated with glucolaxogenin suggests that the anti-proliferative activity of this steroid is not always dependent on the cell cycle. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by detection of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in supernatants from tumor cell cultures treated with the steroid. Glucolaxogenin exhibited null cytotoxic activity. With respect to the apoptotic activity, the generation of apoptotic bodies, the presence of active caspase-3 and annexin-V, as well as the DNA fragmentation observed in all tumor lines after treatment with glucolaxogenin suggests that this compound does indeed induce cell death by apoptosis. Also, a significantly increased presence of the LC3-II, LC3 and Lamp-1 proteins was evidenced with the ultrastructural existence of autophagic vacuoles in cells treated with this steroidal glycoside, indicating that glucolaxogenin also induces autophagic cell death. It is important to note that this compound showed no cytotoxic effect and did not affect the proliferative capacity of mononuclear cells obtained from normal human peripheral blood activated by phytohaemagglutinin. Thus, glucolaxogenin is a compound with anti-proliferative properties that induces programmed cell death in cancer cell lines, though it is selective with respect to normal lymphocytic cells. These findings indicate that this glycoside could have a selective action on tumor cells and, therefore, be worthy of consideration as a therapeutic candidate with anti-tumor potential.

  15. Apoptotic and autophagic cell death induced by glucolaxogenin in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, L; Escobar, M L; Sandoval-Ramírez, J; López-Muñoz, H; Fernández-Herrera, M A; Hernández-Vázquez, J M V; Hilario-Martínez, C; Zenteno, E

    2015-12-01

    The antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of glucolaxogenin and its ability to induce apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells are reported. We ascertained that glucolaxogenin exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa, CaSki and ViBo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of DNA distribution in the cell-cycle phase of tumor cells treated with glucolaxogenin suggests that the anti-proliferative activity of this steroid is not always dependent on the cell cycle. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by detection of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in supernatants from tumor cell cultures treated with the steroid. Glucolaxogenin exhibited null cytotoxic activity. With respect to the apoptotic activity, the generation of apoptotic bodies, the presence of active caspase-3 and annexin-V, as well as the DNA fragmentation observed in all tumor lines after treatment with glucolaxogenin suggests that this compound does indeed induce cell death by apoptosis. Also, a significantly increased presence of the LC3-II, LC3 and Lamp-1 proteins was evidenced with the ultrastructural existence of autophagic vacuoles in cells treated with this steroidal glycoside, indicating that glucolaxogenin also induces autophagic cell death. It is important to note that this compound showed no cytotoxic effect and did not affect the proliferative capacity of mononuclear cells obtained from normal human peripheral blood activated by phytohaemagglutinin. Thus, glucolaxogenin is a compound with anti-proliferative properties that induces programmed cell death in cancer cell lines, though it is selective with respect to normal lymphocytic cells. These findings indicate that this glycoside could have a selective action on tumor cells and, therefore, be worthy of consideration as a therapeutic candidate with anti-tumor potential. PMID:26437916

  16. [Research progress of corneal epithelial basal cells and basement membrane].

    PubMed

    Qu, J H; Sun, X G

    2016-09-11

    The cylinder cells at the bottom of corneal epithelial cells are basal cells. Their cytoplasm contains keratin intermediate filament which is important in secretion of basement membrane. Corneal epithelial dysfunction due to diabetes or ocular surgery is intimately related with basal cell abnormality. Corneal epithelial basement membrane is a highly specific extracellular matrix which is made up of lamina lucida and lamina densa. It plays an extremely important role in renewal and restoration. Many ocular abnormalities and diseases have been described to relate to the corneal epithelial basement membrane, such as traumatic recurrent corneal erosion, corneal dystrophy and keratoconus. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 703-707). PMID:27647251

  17. Calcium oxalate toxicity in renal epithelial cells: the mediation of crystal size on cell death mode.

    PubMed

    Sun, X-Y; Gan, Q-Z; Ouyang, J-M

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in renal epithelial cells has been studied extensively, but the cell death mode induced by CaOx with different physical properties, such as crystal size and crystal phase, has not been studied in detail. In this study, we comparatively investigated the differences of cell death mode induced by nano-sized (50 nm) and micron-sized (10 μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) to explore the cell death mechanism. The effect of the exposure of nano-/micron-sized COM and COD crystals toward the African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were investigated by detecting cell cytoskeleton changes, lysosomal integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), apoptosis and/or necrosis, osteopontin (OPN) expression, and malondialdehyde (MDA) release. Nano-/micron-sized COM and COD crystals could cause apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Nano-sized crystals primarily caused apoptotic cell death, leading to cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine ectropion, and nuclear shrinkage, whereas micron-sized crystals primarily caused necrotic cell death, leading to cell swelling and cell membrane and lysosome rupture. Nano-sized COM and COD crystals induced much greater cell death (sum of apoptosis and necrosis) than micron-sized crystals, and COM crystals showed higher cytotoxicity than the same-sized COD crystals. Both apoptosis and necrosis could lead to mitochondria depolarization and elevate the expression of OPN and the generation of lipid peroxidation product MDA. The amount of expressed OPN and generated MDA was positively related to cell injury degree. The physicochemical properties of crystals could affect the cell death mode. The results of this study may provide a basis for future studies on cell death mechanisms.

  18. Calcium oxalate toxicity in renal epithelial cells: the mediation of crystal size on cell death mode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X-Y; Gan, Q-Z; Ouyang, J-M

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in renal epithelial cells has been studied extensively, but the cell death mode induced by CaOx with different physical properties, such as crystal size and crystal phase, has not been studied in detail. In this study, we comparatively investigated the differences of cell death mode induced by nano-sized (50 nm) and micron-sized (10 μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) to explore the cell death mechanism. The effect of the exposure of nano-/micron-sized COM and COD crystals toward the African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were investigated by detecting cell cytoskeleton changes, lysosomal integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), apoptosis and/or necrosis, osteopontin (OPN) expression, and malondialdehyde (MDA) release. Nano-/micron-sized COM and COD crystals could cause apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Nano-sized crystals primarily caused apoptotic cell death, leading to cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine ectropion, and nuclear shrinkage, whereas micron-sized crystals primarily caused necrotic cell death, leading to cell swelling and cell membrane and lysosome rupture. Nano-sized COM and COD crystals induced much greater cell death (sum of apoptosis and necrosis) than micron-sized crystals, and COM crystals showed higher cytotoxicity than the same-sized COD crystals. Both apoptosis and necrosis could lead to mitochondria depolarization and elevate the expression of OPN and the generation of lipid peroxidation product MDA. The amount of expressed OPN and generated MDA was positively related to cell injury degree. The physicochemical properties of crystals could affect the cell death mode. The results of this study may provide a basis for future studies on cell death mechanisms. PMID:27551481

  19. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R. . E-mail: chunt@radonc.wustl.edu

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  20. Coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multilineage stroma via polyploid giant cells during immortalization and transformation of mullerian epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Sood, Anil; Bast, Robert C.; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. However, the origins of stromal cells have been quite controversial. To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. Here we show that immortalized or HRAS-transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl2. The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS-transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. PMID:27382431

  1. Coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multilineage stroma via polyploid giant cells during immortalization and transformation of mullerian epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwu; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Sood, Anil; Bast, Robert C; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-03-01

    Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. However, the origins of stromal cells have been quite controversial. To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. Here we show that immortalized or HRAS-transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl2. The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS-transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. PMID:27382431

  2. Henipavirus Pathogenesis in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J. Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection. PMID:23302882

  3. Characterization of glomerular epithelial cell matrix receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, S.

    1992-01-01

    Integrin matrix receptors on glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) may play an important role in adhesion of GEC to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and in the maintenance of normal glomerular permeability. Therefore, the author determined the types of matrix receptors present on cultured rat GEC and examined their interactions with several components of the extracellular matrix. Beta 1 integrin matrix receptors were detected on all three glomerular cell types in rat kidney in vivo and at areas of cell-cell contact on cultured GEC. Glomerular epithelial cell adhesion to types I and IV collagen was slightly greater than to laminin and fibronectin. Adhesion to fibronectin was significantly inhibited by a synthetic peptide containing the RGD adhesion sequence. Immunoprecipitation of lysates of surface-iodinated GEC showed the presence of alpha 3 beta 1 integrin. Chromatography of lysates on immobilized collagen showed alpha 3 beta 1 integrin and a 70- to 75-kd protein band as the collagen receptors on GEC. Chromatography on the 120-kd cell-binding fragment of fibronectin disclosed only alpha 3 beta 1 as a specific fibronectin receptor. Antibody to the beta 1 integrin chain inhibited adhesion to laminin and collagen. These studies demonstrate that in vitro, as in vivo, GEC appear to express only alpha 3 beta 1 integrin. Furthermore, this matrix receptor is capable of mediating GEC adhesion to collagen, fibronectin, and laminin, components of the GBM, and presumably plays a similar role in promoting GEC adhesion to GBM in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1325740

  4. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  5. Ceramide metabolism regulates autophagy and apoptotic-cell death induced by melatonin in liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñez, Raquel; Fernández, Ana; Prieto-Domínguez, Néstor; Martínez, Laura; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C.; Mauriz, José L.; González-Gallego, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a process that maintains homeostasis during stress, although it also contributes to cell death under specific contexts. Ceramides have emerged as important effectors in the regulation of autophagy, mediating the crosstalk with apoptosis. Melatonin induces apoptosis of cancer cells; however, its role in autophagy and ceramide metabolism has yet to be clearly elucidated. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of melatonin administration on autophagy and ceramide metabolism and its possible link with melatonin-induced apoptotic cell death in hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells. Melatonin (2 mM) transiently induced autophagy in HepG2 cells through JNK phosphorylation, characterized by increased Beclin1 expression, p62 degradation and LC3II and LAMP2 colocalization, which translated in decreased cell viability. Moreover, ATG5-silencing sensitized HepG2 cells to melatonin induced-apoptosis, suggesting a dual role of autophagy in cell death. Melatonin enhanced ceramide levels through both de novo synthesis and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) stimulation. Serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) inhibition with myriocin prevented melatonin induced autophagy and ASMase inhibition with imipramine impaired autophagy flux. However, ASMase inhibition partially protected HepG2 cells against melatonin while SPT inhibition significantly enhanced cell death. Findings suggest a cross-talk between SPT-mediated ceramide generation and autophagy in protecting against melatonin, while specific ASMase-induced ceramide production participates in melatonin-mediated cell death. Thus, dual blocking of SPT and autophagy emerge as a potential strategy to potentiate the apoptotic effects of melatonin in liver cancer cells. PMID:25975536

  6. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  7. Anthrax Toxin Entry into Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, Kathryn E.; Wimer-Mackin, Susan; Collier, R. John; Lencer, Wayne I.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the entry of anthrax edema toxin (EdTx) into polarized human T84 epithelial cells using cyclic AMP-regulated Cl− secretion as an index of toxin entry. EdTx is a binary A/B toxin which self assembles at the cell surface from anthrax edema factor and protective antigen (PA). PA binds to cell surface receptors and delivers EF, an adenylate cyclase, to the cytosol. EdTx elicited a strong Cl− secretory response when it was applied to the basolateral surface of T84 cells but no response when it was applied to the apical surface. PA alone had no effect when it was applied to either surface. T84 cells exposed basolaterally bound at least 30-fold-more PA than did T84 cells exposed apically, indicating that the PA receptor is largely or completely restricted to the basolateral membrane of these cells. The PA receptor did not fractionate with detergent-insoluble caveola-like membranes as cholera toxin receptors do. These findings have implications regarding the nature of the PA receptor and confirm the view that EdTx and CT coopt fundamentally different subcellular systems to enter the cell and cause disease. PMID:10338515

  8. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  9. Recognition of apoptotic cells by viable cells is specific, ubiquitous, and species independent: analysis using photonic crystal biosensors.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Goutham; Lidstone, Erich A; Palasiewicz, Karol; Cunningham, Brian T; Ucker, David S

    2014-06-01

    Apoptotic recognition is innate and linked to a profound immune regulation (innate apoptotic immunity [IAI]) involving anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses. Many of the molecular and mechanistic details of this response remain elusive. Although immune outcomes can be quantified readily, the initial specific recognition events have been difficult to assess. We developed a sensitive, real-time method to detect the recognition of apoptotic cells by viable adherent responder cells, using a photonic crystal biosensor approach. The method relies on characteristic spectral shifts resulting from the specific recognition and dose-dependent interaction of adherent responder cells with nonadherent apoptotic targets. Of note, the biosensor provides a readout of early recognition-specific events in responder cells that occur distal to the biosensor surface. We find that innate apoptotic cell recognition occurs in a strikingly species-independent manner, consistent with our previous work and inferences drawn from indirect assays. Our studies indicate obligate cytoskeletal involvement, although apoptotic cell phagocytosis is not involved. Because it is a direct, objective, and quantitative readout of recognition exclusively, this biosensor approach affords a methodology with which to dissect the early recognition events associated with IAI and immunosuppression.

  10. Triggering of death receptor apoptotic signaling by human papillomavirus 16 E2 protein in cervical cancer cell lines is mediated by interaction with c-FLIP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fang, Yong; Sima, Ni; Li, Yan; Li, Wei; Li, Li; Han, Linfei; Liao, Shujie; Han, Zhiqiang; Gao, Qinglei; Li, Kezhen; Deng, Dongrui; Meng, Li; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 gene disruption is one of the key features of HPV-induced cervical malignant transformation. Though it is thought to prevent progression of carcinogenesis, the pro-apoptotic function of E2 protein remains poorly understood. This study shows that expression of HPV16 E2 induces apoptosis both in HPV-positive and -negative cervical cancer cell lines and leads to hyperactivation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Activation of these signaling factors is responsible for the observed sensitivity to apoptosis upon treatment with anti-Fas antibody or TNF-α. In addition, immunoprecipitation experiments clearly show an interaction between HPV16 E2 and c-FLIP, a key regulator of apoptotic cell death mediated by death receptor signaling. Moreover, c-FLIP and a caspase-8 inhibitor protect cells from HPV16 E2-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of c-FLIP rescues cervical cancer cells from apoptosis induced by HPV16 E2 protein expression. The data suggest that HPV16 E2 abrogates the apoptosis-inhibitory function of c-FLIP and renders the cell hypersensitive to the Fas/FasL apoptotic signal even below threshold concentration. This suggests a novel mechanism for deregulation of cervical epithelial cell growth upon HPV-induced transformation, which is of great significance in developing therapeutic strategies for intervention of cervical carcinogenesis.

  11. 'This way please': Apoptotic cells regulate phagocyte migration before and after engulfment.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Amiram; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2016-07-01

    Apoptotic leukocyte clearance is a hallmark of the resolution of inflammation and is a central fate-determining event for macrophages. The directional migration of motile phagocytes toward cellular corpses and the subsequent engulfment are tightly regulated, and the exciting molecular mechanisms for these complex steps are actively under investigation. In this issue Angsana et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: 1592-1599.] report that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is upregulated on murine and human macrophages following the engulfment of apoptotic cells, or following exposure to the pro-resolving nucleotide adenosine. This work, together with other recent findings, point toward a new mode of regulation of macrophages following the engulfment of apoptotic cells. In this commentary, we put these findings in relevant perspective and highlight its potential ramifications. PMID:27345468

  12. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  13. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). Objective: To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. Materials and Methods: OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. Results: We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50–500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16–84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. SUMMARY OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; RT-PCR: Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. PMID:27563220

  14. Rapid reuptake of granzyme B leads to emperitosis: an apoptotic cell-in-cell death of immune killer cells inside tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; He, M-f; Chen, Y-h; Wang, M-y; Yu, X-M; Bai, J; Zhu, H-y; Wang, Y-y; Zhao, H; Mei, Q; Nie, J; Ma, J; Wang, J-f; Wen, Q; Ma, L; Wang, Y; Wang, X-n

    2013-01-01

    A cell-in-cell process refers to the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. Different from non-apoptotic death processes of internalized cells termed entosis or cannibalism, we previously reported an apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurring during heterotypic cell-in-cell formation. In this study, we further demonstrated that the apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurred only in internalized immune killer cells expressing granzyme B (GzmB). Vacuole wrapping around the internalized cells inside the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes, which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However, internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes, resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary, internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor cells. Our results thus demonstrated the critical involvement of immune cells with cytotoxic property in apoptotic cell-in-cell death, which we termed as emperitosis taken from emperipolesis and apoptosis. Whereas entosis or cannibalism may serve as a feed-on mechanism to exacerbate and nourish tumor cells, emperitosis of immune killer cells inside tumor cells may serve as an in-cell danger sensation model to prevent the killing of target cells from inside, implying a unique mechanism for tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. PMID:24113190

  15. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Able to Trigger Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Martinelli, Daniela; Valente, Sabatino; Alimandi, Maurizio; Raffa, Salvatore; Santino, Iolanda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some bacterial pathogens to activate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition normally is a consequence of the persistence of a local chronic inflammatory response or depends on a direct interaction of the pathogens with the host epithelial cells. In this study we monitored the abilities of the K. pneumoniae to activate the expression of genes related to EMT-like processes and the occurrence of phenotypic changes in airway epithelial cells during the early steps of cell infection. We describe changes in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased HIF-1α mRNA expression in cells exposed to K. pneumoniae infection. We also describe the upregulation of a set of transcription factors implicated in the EMT processes, such as Twist, Snail and ZEB, indicating that the morphological changes of epithelial cells already appreciable after few hours from the K. pneumoniae infection are tightly regulated by the activation of transcriptional pathways, driving epithelial cells to EMT. These effects appear to be effectively counteracted by resveratrol, an antioxidant that is able to exert a sustained scavenging of the intracellular ROS. This is the first report indicating that strains of K. pneumoniae may promote EMT-like programs through direct interaction with epithelial cells without the involvement of inflammatory cells. PMID:26812644

  17. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rebecca N.; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.; Duncan, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell–Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell–derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell–Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell–derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  18. Eikenella corrodens adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Y; Ebisu, S; Okada, H

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of Eikenella corrodens adherence to human buccal epithelial cells in vitro was studied. Initial experiments to determine the optimal conditions for adherence of E. corrodens to buccal epithelial cells showed that adherence was dependent on time, temperature, bacterial concentration, and pH. Different strains of E. corrodens varied in their ability to adhere, and strain 1073 showed the greatest ability in adherence. Strain 1073 was selected for studies of adherence mechanisms. Trypsin treatment or heating (100 degrees C, 10 min) of the bacterial cells abolished their capacity to adhere to buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of buccal epithelial cells with trypsin also abolished adherence of E. corrodens 1073, whereas neuraminidase treatment of buccal epithelial cells enhanced the adherence. The adherence was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and restored by adding Ca2+. The adherence was remarkably inhibited by sugars containing D-galactose and n-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Treatment of neuraminidase-treated epithelial cells with sodium metaperiodate or alpha- and beta-galactosidase did not decrease the adherence. These data suggest that adherence of E. corrodens 1073 to human buccal epithelial cells may require the interaction of lectin-like proteins on the bacterial surface with galactose-like receptors on the surface of epithelial cells. PMID:6260661

  19. Ouabain modulates epithelial cell tight junction

    PubMed Central

    Larre, Isabel; Lazaro, Amparo; Contreras, Ruben G.; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Ponce, Arturo; Flores-Benitez, David; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Castillo, Aída; Shoshani, Liora; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial cells treated with high concentrations of ouabain (e.g., 1 μM) retrieve molecules involved in cell contacts from the plasma membrane and detach from one another and their substrates. On the basis of this observation, we suggested that ouabain might also modulate cell contacts at low, nontoxic levels (10 or 50 nM). To test this possibility, we analyzed its effect on a particular type of cell–cell contact: the tight junction (TJ). We demonstrate that at concentrations that neither inhibit K+ pumping nor disturb the K+ balance of the cell, ouabain modulates the degree of sealing of the TJ as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the flux of neutral 3 kDa dextran (JDEX). This modulation is accompanied by changes in the levels and distribution patterns of claudins 1, 2, and 4. Interestingly, changes in TER, JDEX, and claudins behavior are mediated through signal pathways containing ERK1/2 and c-Src, which have distinct effects on each physiological parameter and claudin type. These observations support the theory that at low concentrations, ouabain acts as a modulator of cell–cell contacts. PMID:20534449

  20. How does ethanol induce apoptotic cell death of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yong; Kwon, Yongil; Yu, Shun

    2013-07-15

    A body of evidence suggests that ethanol can lead to damage of neuronal cells. However, the mechanism underlying the ethanol-induced damage of neuronal cells remains unclear. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in ethanol-induced damage was investigated in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide cell viability assay, DNA fragmentation detection, and flow cytometric analysis showed that ethanol induced apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest, characterized by increased caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation, nuclear disruption, and G1 arrest of cell cycle of the SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that ethanol induced a lasting increase in c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity and a transient increase in p38 kinase activity of the neuroblastoma cells. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase or p38 kinase inhibitors significantly reduced the ethanol-induced cell death. Ethanol also increased p53 phosphorylation, followed by an increase in p21 tumor suppressor protein and a decrease in phospho-Rb (retinoblastoma) protein, leading to alterations in the expressions and activity of cyclin dependent protein kinases. Our results suggest that ethanol mediates apoptosis of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells by activating p53-related cell cycle arrest possibly through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase-related cell death pathway. PMID:25206494

  1. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer.

  2. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer. PMID:20032400

  3. Heterogeneity and stochastic growth regulation of biliary epithelial cells dictate dynamic epithelial tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kamimoto, Kenji; Kaneko, Kota; Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Okada, Hajime; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic remodeling of the intrahepatic biliary epithelial tissue plays key roles in liver regeneration, yet the cellular basis for this process remains unclear. We took an unbiased approach based on in vivo clonal labeling and tracking of biliary epithelial cells in the three-dimensional landscape, in combination with mathematical simulation, to understand their mode of proliferation in a mouse liver injury model where the nascent biliary structure formed in a tissue-intrinsic manner. An apparent heterogeneity among biliary epithelial cells was observed: whereas most of the responders that entered the cell cycle upon injury exhibited a limited and tapering growth potential, a select population continued to proliferate, making a major contribution in sustaining the biliary expansion. Our study has highlighted a unique mode of epithelial tissue dynamics, which depends not on a hierarchical system driven by fixated stem cells, but rather, on a stochastically maintained progenitor population with persistent proliferative activity. PMID:27431614

  4. Proteinase 3 on apoptotic cells disrupts immune silencing in autoimmune vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Arnaud; Martin, Katherine R.; Bonnefoy, Francis; Saas, Philippe; Mocek, Julie; Alkan, Manal; Terrier, Benjamin; Kerstein, Anja; Tamassia, Nicola; Satyanarayanan, Senthil Kumaran; Ariel, Amiram; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Guillevin, Loïc; Cassatella, Marco A.; Mueller, Antje; Thieblemont, Nathalie; Lamprecht, Peter; Mouthon, Luc; Perruche, Sylvain; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that is associated with granulomatous inflammation and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We previously determined that PR3 on the surface of apoptotic neutrophils interferes with induction of antiinflammatory mechanisms following phagocytosis of these cells by macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that enzymatically active membrane-associated PR3 on apoptotic cells triggered secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) and chemokines. This response required the IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling pathway and was dependent on the synthesis of NO, as macrophages from animals lacking these pathways did not exhibit a PR3-associated proinflammatory response. The PR3-induced microenvironment facilitated recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and neutrophils, which were observed in close proximity within granulomatous lesions in the lungs of GPA patients. In different murine models of apoptotic cell injection, the PR3-induced microenvironment instructed pDC-driven Th9/Th2 cell generation. Concomitant injection of anti-PR3 ANCAs with PR3-expressing apoptotic cells induced a Th17 response, revealing a GPA-specific mechanism of immune polarization. Accordingly, circulating CD4+ T cells from GPA patients had a skewed distribution of Th9/Th2/Th17. These results reveal that PR3 disrupts immune silencing associated with clearance of apoptotic neutrophils and provide insight into how PR3 and PR3-targeting ANCAs promote GPA pathophysiology. PMID:26436651

  5. Cytoplasmic myosin-exposed apoptotic cells appear with caspase-3 activation and enhance CLL cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cui, X; Zhang, L; Magli, A R; Catera, R; Yan, X-J; Griffin, D O; Rothstein, T L; Barrientos, J; Kolitz, J E; Allen, S L; Rai, K R; Chiorazzi, N; Chu, C C

    2016-01-01

    The degree of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) binding to myosin-exposed apoptotic cells (MEACs) correlates with worse patient outcomes, suggesting a link to disease activity. Therefore, we studied MEAC formation and the effects of MEAC binding on CLL cells. In cell line studies, both intrinsic (spontaneous or camptothecin-induced) and extrinsic (FasL- or anti-Fas-induced) apoptosis created a high percent of MEACs over time in a process associated with caspase-3 activation, leading to cytoplasmic myosin cleavage and trafficking to cell membranes. The involvement of common apoptosis pathways suggests that most cells can produce MEACs and indeed CLL cells themselves form MEACs. Consistent with the idea that MEAC formation may be a signal to remove dying cells, we found that natural IgM antibodies bind to MEACs. Functionally, co-culture of MEACs with CLL cells, regardless of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene mutation status, improved leukemic cell viability. Based on inhibitor studies, this improved viability involved BCR signaling molecules. These results support the hypothesis that stimulation of CLL cells with antigen, such as those on MEACs, promotes CLL cell viability, which in turn could lead to progression to worse disease. PMID:26220042

  6. Overexpression of Telomerase Protects Human and Murine Lung Epithelial Cells from Fas- and Bleomycin-Induced Apoptosis via FLIP Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Arish, Nissim; Cohen, Pazit Y.; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Fridlender, Zvi; Dayan, Mark Richter; Zisman, Philip; Breuer, Raphael; Wallach-Dayan, Shulamit B.

    2015-01-01

    High doses of bleomycin administered to patients with lymphomas and other tumors lead to significant lung toxicity in general, and to apoptosis of epithelial cells, in particular. Apoptosis of alveolar epithelium is an important step in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The Fas-FasL pathway is one of the main apoptotic pathways involved. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein RNA-dependent DNA polymerase complex consisting of an RNA template and a catalytic protein, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Telomerase also possess extra-telomeric roles, including modulation of transcription of anti-apoptotic genes, differentiation signals, and more. We hypothesized that telomerase overexpression affects Fas-induced epithelial cell apoptosis by an extra-telomeric role such as regulation of anti-apoptotic genes, specifically FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP). Telomerase in mouse (MLE) and human (A549) lung epithelial cell lines was upregulated by transient transfection using cDNA hTERT expression vector. Telomerase activity was detected using a real-time PCR-based system. Bleomycin, and bleomycin-induced Fas-mediated apoptosis following treatment with anti-Fas activating mAb or control IgG, were assessed by Annexin V staining, FACS analysis, and confocal microscopy; caspase cleavage by Western blot; FLIP or Fas molecule detection by Western blot and flow cytometry. hTERT transfection of lung epithelial cells resulted in a 100% increase in their telomerase activity. Fas-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis was significantly reduced in hTERT-transfected cells compared to controls in all experiments. Lung epithelial cells with increased telomerase activity had higher levels of FLIP expression but membrane Fas expression was unchanged. Upregulation of hTERT+ in human lung epithelial cells and subsequent downregulation of FLIP by shFLIP-RNA annulled hTERT-mediated resistance to apoptosis. Telomerase-mediated FLIP overexpression may be a novel

  7. STUDIES ON AN EPITHELIAL (GLAND) CELL JUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, Werner R.; Kanno, Yoshinobu

    1964-01-01

    Membrane permeability of an epithelial cell junction (Drosophila salivary gland) was examined with intracellular microelectrodes and with fluorescent tracers. In contrast to the non-junctional cell membrane surface, which has a low permeability to ions (10-4 mho/cm2), the junctional membrane surface is highly permeable. In fact, it introduces no substantial restriction to ion flow beyond that in the cytoplasm; the resistance through a chain of cells (150 Ω cm) is only slightly greater than in extruded cytoplasm (100 Ω cm). The diffusion resistance along the intercellular space to the exterior, on the other hand, is very high. Here, there exists an ion barrier of, at least, 104Ω cm2. As a result, small ions and fluorescein move rather freely from one cell to the next, but do not leak appreciably through the intercellular space to the exterior. The organ here, rather than the single cell, appears to be the unit of ion environment. The possible underlying structural aspects are discussed. PMID:14206423

  8. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L.; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus. PMID

  9. Multi-functionality and plasticity characterize epithelial cells in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Buzgariu, W; Al Haddad, S; Tomczyk, S; Wenger, Y; Galliot, B

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular features. These multifunctional contractile cells maintain homeostasis by providing a protective physical barrier, by digesting nutrients, by selecting a stable microbiota, and by rapidly closing wounds. In addition, epithelial cells are highly plastic, supporting the adaptation of Hydra to physiological and environmental changes, such as long starvation periods where survival relies on a highly dynamic autophagy flux. Epithelial cells also play key roles in developmental processes as evidenced by the organizer activity they develop to promote budding and regeneration. We propose here an integrative view of the homeostatic and developmental aspects of epithelial plasticity in Hydra. PMID:26716072

  10. TNFR1 and TNFR2 regulate the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in myeloma cells by multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rauert, H; Stühmer, T; Bargou, R; Wajant, H; Siegmund, D

    2011-01-01

    The huge majority of myeloma cell lines express TNFR2 while a substantial subset of them failed to show TNFR1 expression. Stimulation of TNFR1 in the TNFR1-expressing subset of MM cell lines had no or only a very mild effect on cellular viability. Surprisingly, however, TNF stimulation enhanced cell death induction by CD95L and attenuated the apoptotic effect of TRAIL. The contrasting regulation of TRAIL- and CD95L-induced cell death by TNF could be traced back to the concomitant NFκB-mediated upregulation of CD95 and the antiapoptotic FLIP protein. It appeared that CD95 induction, due to its strength, overcompensated a rather moderate upregulation of FLIP so that the net effect of TNF-induced NFκB activation in the context of CD95 signaling is pro-apoptotic. TRAIL-induced cell death, however, was antagonized in response to TNF because in this context only the induction of FLIP is relevant. Stimulation of TNFR2 in myeloma cells leads to TRAF2 depletion. In line with this, we observed cell death induction in TNFR1-TNFR2-costimulated JJN3 cells. Our studies revealed that the TNF-TNF receptor system adjusts the responsiveness of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in myeloma cells by multiple mechanisms that generate a highly context-dependent net effect on myeloma cell survival. PMID:21850048

  11. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-08-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  12. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-01-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  13. Artocarpus communis Induces Autophagic Instead of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, natural plant extracts have played an important role in traditional medicine for curing and preventing diseases. Studies have revealed that Artocarpus communis possess various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities. A. communis offers economic value as a source of edible fruit, yields timber, and is widely used in folk medicines. However, little is known about its molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of A. communis methanol extract (AM) and its dichloromethane fraction (AD) in two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. Colony assay showed the long-term inhibitory effect of both extracts on cell growth. DNA laddering and immunoblotting analyses revealed that both extracts did not induce apoptosis in the hepatoma cell lines. AM and AD-treated cells demonstrated different cell cycle distribution compared to UV-treated cells, which presented apoptotic cell death with high sub-G1 ratio. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that AM and AD triggered autophagosome accumulation. Immunoblotting showed a significant expression of autophagy-related proteins, which indicated the autophagic cell death (ACD) of hepatoma cell lines. This study therefore demonstrates that A. communis AM and its dichloromethane fraction can induce ACD in HCC cells and elucidates the potential of A. communis extracts for development as anti tumor therapeutic agents that utilize autophagy as mechanism in mediating cancer cell death.

  14. Artocarpus communis Induces Autophagic Instead of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, natural plant extracts have played an important role in traditional medicine for curing and preventing diseases. Studies have revealed that Artocarpus communis possess various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities. A. communis offers economic value as a source of edible fruit, yields timber, and is widely used in folk medicines. However, little is known about its molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of A. communis methanol extract (AM) and its dichloromethane fraction (AD) in two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. Colony assay showed the long-term inhibitory effect of both extracts on cell growth. DNA laddering and immunoblotting analyses revealed that both extracts did not induce apoptosis in the hepatoma cell lines. AM and AD-treated cells demonstrated different cell cycle distribution compared to UV-treated cells, which presented apoptotic cell death with high sub-G1 ratio. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that AM and AD triggered autophagosome accumulation. Immunoblotting showed a significant expression of autophagy-related proteins, which indicated the autophagic cell death (ACD) of hepatoma cell lines. This study therefore demonstrates that A. communis AM and its dichloromethane fraction can induce ACD in HCC cells and elucidates the potential of A. communis extracts for development as anti tumor therapeutic agents that utilize autophagy as mechanism in mediating cancer cell death. PMID:25967668

  15. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A.; Navarro-Villarán, E.; González, R.; Pereira, S.; Soriano-De Castro, L.B.; Sarrias-Giménez, A.; Barrera-Pulido, L.; Álamo-Martínez, J.M.; Serrablo-Requejo, A.; Blanco-Fernández, G.; Nogales-Muñoz, A.; Gila-Bohórquez, A.; Pacheco, D.; Torres-Nieto, M.A.; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J.; Suárez-Artacho, G.; Bernal-Bellido, C.; Marín-Gómez, L.M.; Barcena, J.A.; Gómez-Bravo, M.A.; Padilla, C.A.; Padillo, F.J.; Muntané, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10 nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells. PMID:26233703

  16. Observing planar cell polarity in multiciliated mouse airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Lee, Yin Loon; Stearns, Tim; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The concerted movement of cilia propels inhaled contaminants out of the lungs, safeguarding the respiratory system from toxins, pathogens, pollutants, and allergens. Motile cilia on the multiciliated cells (MCCs) of the airway epithelium are physically oriented along the tissue axis for directional motility, which depends on the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway. The MCCs of the mouse respiratory epithelium have emerged as an important model for the study of motile ciliogenesis and the PCP signaling mechanism. Unlike other motile ciliated or planar polarized tissues, airway epithelial cells are relatively easily accessible and primary cultures faithfully model many of the essential features of the in vivo tissue. There is growing interest in understanding how cells acquire and polarize motile cilia due to the impact of mucociliary clearance on respiratory health. Here, we present methods for observing and quantifying the planar polarized orientation of motile cilia both in vivo and in primary culture airway epithelial cells. We describe how to acquire and evaluate electron and light microscopy images of ciliary ultrastructural features that reveal planar polarized orientation. Furthermore, we describe the immunofluorescence localization of PCP pathway components as a simple readout for airway epithelial planar polarization and ciliary orientation. These methods can be adapted to observe ciliary orientation in other multi- and monociliated cells and to detect PCP pathway activity in any tissue or cell type. PMID:25837385

  17. Epithelial cell-derived microvesicles activate macrophages and promote inflammation via microvesicle-containing microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heedoo; Zhang, Duo; Zhu, Ziwen; Dela Cruz, Charles S.; Jin, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages play an essential role in host defense against acute lung injury. Hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress is an established model to mimic human lung injury. We show that after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and culture medium of lung epithelial cells. Microvesicles (MVs), but not exosomes (Exos) or apoptotic bodies (Abs), are the main type of EVs found in the early stages after hyperoxia. Among all the MV compositions, small RNAs are altered the most significantly after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress. We further confirmed that hyperoxia up-regulates the levels of certain specific miRNAs in the epithelial cell-derived MVs, such as the miR-320a and miR-221. Functionally, the hyperoxia-induced epithelial MVs promote macrophage activation in vitro and facilitate the recruitment of immunomodulatory cells in vivo detected in BALF. Using MV as a cargo, delivery of the specific miRNA-enriched epithelial MVs (miR-221 and/or miR-320a) also triggers macrophage-mediated pro-inflammatory effects. Collectively, epithelial cell-derived MVs promote macrophage-regulated lung inflammatory responses via MV-shuttling miRNAs. PMID:27731391

  18. Effect of blue light emitting diodes on melanoma cells: involvement of apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Na, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Hyosook; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Lim, SeokTae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether blue LED irradiation induces cellular apoptosis in B16-F10 cells and whether it blocks the early growth of melanoma cells in mice. Irradiation with blue LED was observed to reduce cell viability and to induce apoptotic cell death, as accompanied by exposure of phosphatidylserine on the plasma outside membrane and an accumulation of a sub-G1 population. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential increased, and mitochondria-related apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c, caspase 3, and PARP) were observed. In addition, the level of intracellular superoxide anion (O2(-)) gradually increased. Interestingly the phosphorylation of p53 increased at earlier times under blue LED irradiation, but reduced after exposure for a longer time. Additionally, the thickness of the mice footpad injected with B16-F10 cells decreased significantly until the 9th day of blue LED irradiation, indicating the inhibition of the early growth rate of the melanoma cells. Our data demonstrate that blue LED irradiation induces apoptotic cell death by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway and reduces the early growth rate of melanoma cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of blue LED in melanoma cells.

  19. Apoptotic regulation and mutagenesis in human cells exposes to charged particles of importance for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Gauny, S.; Hain, J.; Wu, P.; Wiese, C.

    Exposure to ionizing radiation can elicit two modes of cell death - necrosis or apoptosis. In human lymphoid cells, the predominant mechanism of radiation- induced cell death is apoptosis. The most likely exposure of individual human cells to heavy ions (e.g. Fe or Si) during spaceflight will result from single particle traversals. Here we report the fluence-response for apoptosis in human TK6 B- lymp hoblasts and provide evidence that single Fe ion traversals can stimulate an apoptotic response. The apoptotic response to charged particle exposures includes scrambling of the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane, activation of caspase signaling cascades and degradation of DNA into oligonucleosomes. We have also explored the importance of apoptotic regulation on the frequency and spectrum of mutations arising after exposure to charged particles. We used isogenic derivatives of TK6 cells stably transfected with pSFFV-neo-bcl-xL (encoding the anti-apoptotic gene BCL-XL and the neomycin resistance gene) or with pSFFV neo (encoding only- the neomycin resistance gene). TK6-bclxL cells were more susceptible to mutations at the TK1 locus than TK6-neo cells following exposure to protons, silicon ions or Fe ions. Molecular analysis demonstrated that most Fe-ion-induced mutations arose by loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In TK6-bclxL cells, more of the LOH occurred via mitotic recombination than in TK6-neo cells where the predominant mode of LOH was via deletion. We are currently mapping the LOH tracts to further define the biological bases for the differential sensitivity to Fe-ion-induced mutagenesis as a function of the genotype of the cell at risk. Supported by NASA grant T-964W to A. Kronenberg

  20. Selective apoptotic cell death effects of oral cancer cells treated with destruxin B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that destruxins (Dtx) have potent cytotoxic activities on individual cancer cells, however, data on oral cancer cells especial human are absent. Methods Destruxin B (DB) was isolated and used to evaluate the selective cytotoxicity with human oral cancer cell lines, GNM (Neck metastasis of gingival carcinoma) and TSCCa (Tongue squamous cell carcinoma) cells, and normal gingival fibroblasts (GF) were also included as controls. Cells were tested with different concentrations of DB for 24, 48, and 72 h by MTT assay. Moreover, the mechanism of cytotoxicity was investigated using caspase-3 Immunofluorescence, annexin V/PI staining, and the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 by western blotting after treated with different concentrations of DB for 72 h as parameters for apoptosis analyses. Results The results show that DB exhibited significant (p < 0.01) and selective time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on GNM and TSCCa cells viability but not on GF cells. The data suggested that DB is capable to induce tumor specific growth inhibition in oral GNM and TSCCa cancer cells via Bax/Bcl-2-mediated intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in time- and dose-dependent manners. Conclusions This is the first report on the anti-proliferation effect of DB in oral cancer cells. The results reported here may offer further evidences to the development of DB as a potential complementary chemotherapeutic target for oral cancer complications. PMID:24972848

  1. Anti-apoptotic mechanism of Bacoside rich extract against reactive nitrogen species induced activation of iNOS/Bax/caspase 3 mediated apoptosis in L132 cell line.

    PubMed

    Anand, T; Pandareesh, M D; Bhat, Pratiksha V; Venkataramana, M

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide is a highly reactive free radical gas that reacts with a wide range of bio-molecules to produce reactive nitrogen species and exerts nitrative stress. Bacopa monniera is a traditional folk and ayurvedic medicine known to alleviate a variety of disorders. Aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective propensity of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) through its oxido-nitrosative and anti-apoptotic mechanism to attenuate sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in a human embryonic lung epithelial cell line (L132). Our results elucidate that pre-treatment of L132 cells with BME ameliorates the mitochondrial and plasma membrane damage induced by SNP as evidenced by MTT and LDH leakage assays. BME pre-treatment inhibited NO generation by down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. BME exhibited potent antioxidant activity by up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes. SNP-induced damage to cellular, nuclear and mitochondrial integrity was also restored by BME, which was confirmed by ROS estimation, comet assay and mitochondrial membrane potential assays respectively. BME pre-treatment efficiently attenuated the SNP-induced apoptotic biomarkers such as Bax, cytochrome-c and caspase-3, which orchestrate the proteolytic damage of the cell. By considering all these findings, we report that BME protects L132 cells against SNP-induced toxicity via its free radical scavenging and anti-apoptotic mechanism.

  2. Loss of α(E)-catenin promotes Fas mediated apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinhui; Parrish, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    The aging kidney undergoes structural and functional alterations which make it more susceptible to drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Previous studies in our lab have shown that the expression of α(E)-catenin is decreased in aged kidney and loss of α(E)-catenin potentiates AKI-induced apoptosis, but not necrosis, in renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E cells). However, the specific apoptotic pathway underlying the increased AKI-induced cell death is not yet understood. In this study, cells were challenged with nephrotoxicant cisplatin to induce AKI. A ~5.5-fold increase in Fas expression in C2 (stable α(E)-catenin knockdown) relative to NT3 (non-targeted control) cells was seen. Increased caspase-8 and -9 activation was induced by cisplatin in C2 as compared to NT3 cells. In addition, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased BID cleavage and cytochrome C release were detected in C2 cells after cisplatin challenge. Treating the cells with cisplatin, in combination with a Bcl-2 inhibitor, decreased the viability of NT3 cells to the same level as C2 cells after cisplatin. Furthermore, caspase-3/-7 activation is blocked by Fas, caspase-8, caspase-9 and pan-caspase inhibitors. These inhibitors also completely abolished the difference in viability between NT3 and C2 cells in response to cisplatin. These results demonstrate a Fas-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway that is enhanced by the age-dependent loss of α(E)-catenin in renal tubule epithelial cells. PMID:25894537

  3. Secretomes of apoptotic mononuclear cells ameliorate neurological damage in rats with focal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Patrick; Mildner, Michael; Haider, Thomas; Traxler, Denise; Beer, Lucian; Ristl, Robin; Golabi, Bahar; Gabriel, Christian; Leutmezer, Fritz; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of targeting multiple pathways in the ischemic cascade of cerebral stroke is a promising treatment option. We examined the regenerative potential of conditioned medium derived from rat and human apoptotic mononuclear cells (MNC), rMNC apo sec and hMNC apo sec, in experimental stroke. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion on Wistar rats and administered apoptotic MNC-secretomes intraperitoneally in two experimental settings. Ischemic lesion volumes were determined 48 hours after cerebral ischemia. Neurological evaluations were performed after 6, 24 and 48 hours. Immunoblots were conducted to analyze neuroprotective signal-transduction in human primary glia cells and neurons. Neuronal sprouting assays were performed and neurotrophic factors in both hMNC apo sec and rat plasma were quantified using ELISA. Administration of rat as well as human apoptotic MNC-secretomes significantly reduced ischemic lesion volumes by 36% and 37%, respectively. Neurological examinations revealed improvement after stroke in both treatment groups. Co-incubation of human astrocytes, Schwann cells and neurons with hMNC apo sec resulted in activation of several signaling cascades associated with the regulation of cytoprotective gene products and enhanced neuronal sprouting in vitro. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in hMNC apo sec and rat plasma revealed high levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our data indicate that apoptotic MNC-secretomes elicit neuroprotective effects on rats that have undergone ischemic stroke. PMID:25383184

  4. Secretomes of apoptotic mononuclear cells ameliorate neurological damage in rats with focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Patrick; Mildner, Michael; Haider, Thomas; Traxler, Denise; Beer, Lucian; Ristl, Robin; Golabi, Bahar; Gabriel, Christian; Leutmezer, Fritz; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of targeting multiple pathways in the ischemic cascade of cerebral stroke is a promising treatment option. We examined the regenerative potential of conditioned medium derived from rat and human apoptotic mononuclear cells (MNC), rMNC (apo sec) and hMNC (apo sec), in experimental stroke. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion on Wistar rats and administered apoptotic MNC-secretomes intraperitoneally in two experimental settings. Ischemic lesion volumes were determined 48 hours after cerebral ischemia. Neurological evaluations were performed after 6, 24 and 48 hours. Immunoblots were conducted to analyze neuroprotective signal-transduction in human primary glia cells and neurons. Neuronal sprouting assays were performed and neurotrophic factors in both hMNC (apo sec) and rat plasma were quantified using ELISA. Administration of rat as well as human apoptotic MNC-secretomes significantly reduced ischemic lesion volumes by 36% and 37%, respectively. Neurological examinations revealed improvement after stroke in both treatment groups. Co-incubation of human astrocytes, Schwann cells and neurons with hMNC (apo sec) resulted in activation of several signaling cascades associated with the regulation of cytoprotective gene products and enhanced neuronal sprouting in vitro. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in hMNC (apo sec) and rat plasma revealed high levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our data indicate that apoptotic MNC-secretomes elicit neuroprotective effects on rats that have undergone ischemic stroke.

  5. Technical note: Isolation and characterization of porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dahanayaka, S; Rezaei, R; Porter, W W; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Bazer, F W; Hou, Y Q; Wu, Z L; Wu, G

    2015-11-01

    Within the mammary gland, functional synthesis of milk is performed by its epithelial (alveolar) cells. The availability of a stable mammary epithelial cell line is essential for biochemical studies to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nutritional regulation of lactation. Therefore, porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) were isolated from mammary glands of a 9-mo-old nonpregnant and nonlactating gilt and cultured to establish a nonimmortalized cell line. These cells were characterized by expression of cytokeratin-18 (an intermediate filament specific for epithelial cells), β-casein (a specific marker for mammary epithelial cells), and α-lactalbumin. In culture, the PMEC doubled in number every 24 h and maintained a cobblestone morphology, typical for cultured epithelial cells, for at least 15 passages. Addition of 0.2 to 2 μg/mL prolactin to culture medium for 3 d induced the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by PMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we have successfully developed a useful PMEC line for future studies of cellular and molecular regulation of milk synthesis by mammary epithelial cells of the sow. PMID:26641038

  6. Autophagy exacerbates caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death after short times of starvation.

    PubMed

    Mattiolo, Paolo; Yuste, Victor J; Boix, Jacint; Ribas, Judit

    2015-12-15

    Autophagy is generally regarded as a mechanism to promote cell survival. However, autophagy can occasionally be the mechanism responsible of cell demise. We have found that a concomitant depletion of glucose, nutrients and growth factors provoked cell death in a variety of cell lines. This death process was contingent upon caspase activation and was mediated by BAX/BAK proteins, thus indicating its apoptotic nature and the engagement of an intrinsic pathway. In order to abrogate autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), BECLIN-1 siRNA and Atg5 knock-out (Tet-Off type) approaches were alternatively employed. Irrespective of the procedure, at short times of starvation, we found that the ongoing autophagy was sensitizing cells to the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOMP), caspase activation and, therefore, apoptosis. On the contrary, at longer times of starvation, autophagy displayed its characteristic pro-survival effect on cells. As far as we know, we provide the first experimental paradigm where time is the only variable determining the final outcome of autophagy. In other words, we have circumscribed in time the shift transforming autophagy from a cell death to a protection mechanism. Moreover, at short times, starvation-driven autophagy exacerbated the apoptotic cell death caused by several antitumor agents. In agreement with this fact, their apoptotic effects were greatly diminished by autophagy inhibition. The implications of these facts in tumor biology will be discussed. PMID:26441250

  7. Apoptotic and proinflammatory effect of combustion-generated organic nanoparticles in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pedata, Paola; Bergamasco, Nadia; D'Anna, Andrea; Minutolo, Patrizia; Servillo, Luigi; Sannolo, Nicola; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa

    2013-06-01

    Air pollution exposure in industrialized cities is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Combustion exhausts emitted from motor vehicles and industries represent a major source of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. Flame-generated organic carbon nanoparticles (OC NPs) provide interesting model nanoparticles that simulate fresh combustion emissions near roadways or combustion sources. These model nanoparticles can be produced by controlling flame operating conditions and used to test possible toxicological mechanisms responsible for the observed health effects. OC NPs were used to investigate their possible effect on endothelial cells (EC) growth and production of proinflammatory lipid mediators. Results indicated a dose and time-dependent reduction in cell viability following incubation of EC with OC NPs for 24 and 48h. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that EC treated with OC NPs showed a cell proliferation index significantly lower than that of control cells and an increased apoptotic cell death. The annexin assay confirmed the increased apoptotic cell death. Moreover, OC NPs also induced a time-dependent increase of proinflammatory lysophospholipid production. These results, establishing that OC NPs induce EC proinflammatory lysophosholipid production and apoptotic cell death, provide the first evidence of the detrimental effect of OC NPs on EC.

  8. The suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS1 promotes apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells via p53 signaling in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaopeng; Shan, Xiaohang; Qian, Ji; Ji, Qianqian; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Manhua; Ding, Haifang; Liu, Qingqing; Chen, Lingling; Zhang, Dongmei; Ni, Runzhou

    2016-08-01

    The suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS1 is a member of the cytokine signaling pathway inhibitor family, which is induced by the IFN-γ induced JAK signaling pathway. The expression of SOCS1 has been found to increase in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, but the role of SOCS1 in intestinal epithelium is unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether SOCS1 has a role in the death of intestinal epithelial cells and intestinal injury. The results showed that the expression of SOCS1 increased in CD patients, and the expression of SOCS1, p-p53 and PUMA increased in the mouse TNBS induced colitis model. Using IFN-γ treated HT-29 cells as an apoptotic model of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, we confirmed that SOCS1 promoted apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells by activating p53. In HT-29 cells which were treated with IFN-γ, the interaction between p53 and SOCS1 and phosphorylation of p53 were significantly higher than untreated cells. When knocking SOCS1 down by using SOCS1 siRNA, phosphorylation of p53 and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells which was induced by IFN-γ were significantly inhibited. In summary, our findings suggest that SOCS1 may promote apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells at least partly through mediating p53 signaling. PMID:27236107

  9. Apoptotic, necrotic, or fused tumor cells: an equivalent source of antigen for dendritic cell loading.

    PubMed

    Larmonier, Nicolas; Mérino, Delphine; Nicolas, Alexandra; Cathelin, Dominique; Besson, Angélique; Bateman, Andrew; Solary, Eric; Martin, François; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    The identification of the most efficient strategy for tumor antigen loading of dendritic cells (DCs) remains a challenge in cancer immunotherapy protocols. Autologous dead tumor cells have been demonstrated to constitute an acceptable source of multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to pulse DCs. However the optimal approach for inducing cell death that would lead to effective endocytosis and activation of DCs remains controversial. In this study we have induced and defined 3 distinct mechanisms of tumor cell death (apoptosis, necrosis and fusion-mediated cell death), and investigated their differential effects on DCs. Bone marrow-derived DCs demonstrated comparable uptake of primary apoptotic, necrotic, or fused dead tumor cells. Furthermore, the distinct modes of cancer cell death had analogous potential in activating the transcription factors NF-kappaB and STAT1 and in maturing DCs, resulting in an equally effective stimulation of immune T cells. The current study therefore provides further informations on the use of dead whole tumor cells as antigen sources for effective active anti-cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during digestive tract development and epithelial stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Ludovic; Marchal, Stéphane; Faure, Sandrine; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract develops from a simple and uniform tube into a complex organ with specific differentiation patterns along the anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of asymmetry. It is derived from all three germ layers and their cross-talk is important for the regulated development of fetal and adult gastrointestinal structures and organs. Signals from the adjacent mesoderm are essential for the morphogenesis of the overlying epithelium. These mesenchymal-epithelial interactions govern the development and regionalization of the different gastrointestinal epithelia and involve most of the key morphogens and signaling pathways, such as the Hedgehog, BMPs, Notch, WNT, HOX, SOX and FOXF cascades. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying mesenchyme differentiation into smooth muscle cells influence the regionalization of the gastrointestinal epithelium through interactions with the enteric nervous system. In the neonatal and adult gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions are essential for the maintenance of the epithelial regionalization and digestive epithelial homeostasis. Disruption of these interactions is also associated with bowel dysfunction potentially leading to epithelial tumor development. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions observed during digestive epithelium development and differentiation and also during epithelial stem cell regeneration. PMID:26126787

  11. Detection of Apoptotic Versus Autophagic Cell Death by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sica, Valentina; Maiuri, M Chiara; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Different modes of regulated cell death (RCD) can be initiated by distinct molecular machineries and their morphological manifestations can be difficult to discriminate. Moreover, cells responding to stress often activate an adaptive response centered around autophagy, and whether such a response is cytoprotective or cytotoxic cannot be predicted based on morphological parameters only. Molecular definitions are therefore important to understand various RCD subroutines from a mechanistic perspective. In vitro, various forms of RCD including apoptosis and autophagic cell death can be easily discriminated from each other with assays that involve chemical or pharmacological interventions targeting key components of either pathway. Here, we detail a straightforward method to discriminate apoptosis from autophagic cell death by flow cytometry, based on the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and the genetic inhibition of ATG5.

  12. Role of LPA and the Hippo pathway on apoptosis in salivary gland epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung-Min; Jin, MeiHong; Shin, Yong Hwan; Ki Choi, Seul; Namkoong, Eun; Kim, MinKyoung; Park, Moon-Yong; Park, Kyungpyo

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid involved in numerous physiological responses. However, the expression of LPA receptors and the role of the Hippo signaling pathway in epithelial cells have remained elusive. In this experiment, we studied the functional expression of LPA receptors and the associated signaling pathway using reverse transcriptase–PCR, microspectrofluorimetry, western blotting and immunocytochemistry in salivary gland epithelial cells. We found that LPA receptors are functionally expressed and involved in activating the Hippo pathway mediated by YAP/TAZ through Lats/Mob1 and RhoA/ROCK. Upregulation of YAP/TAZ-dependent target genes, including CTGF, ANKRD1 and CYR61, has also been observed in LPA-treated cells. In addition, based on data suggesting that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induces cell apoptosis, LPA upregulates TNF-induced caspase-3 and cleaved Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP). However, small interfering RNA treatment to Yes-associated protein (YAP) or transcriptional co-activator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) significantly decreased TNF-α- and LPA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that YAP and TAZ modulate the apoptotic pathway in salivary epithelial cells. PMID:25502757

  13. Quantitative assessment of cytosolic Salmonella in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Knodler, Leigh A; Nair, Vinod; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Within mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhabits a membrane-bound vacuole known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). We have recently shown that wild type S. Typhimurium also colonizes the cytosol of epithelial cells. Here we sought to quantify the contribution of cytosolic Salmonella to the total population over a time course of infection in different epithelial cell lines and under conditions of altered vacuolar escape. We found that the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, acts on vacuolar, but not cytosolic, Salmonella. After chloroquine treatment, vacuolar bacteria are not transcriptionally active or replicative and appear degraded. Using a chloroquine resistance assay, in addition to digitonin permeabilization, we found that S. Typhimurium lyses its nascent vacuole in numerous epithelial cell lines, albeit with different frequencies, and hyper-replication in the cytosol is also widespread. At later times post-infection, cytosolic bacteria account for half of the total population in some epithelial cell lines, namely HeLa and Caco-2 C2Bbe1. Both techniques accurately measured increased vacuole lysis in epithelial cells upon treatment with wortmannin. By chloroquine resistance assay, we also determined that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1), but not SPI-2, the virulence plasmid nor the flagellar apparatus, was required for vacuolar escape and cytosolic replication in epithelial cells. Together, digitonin permeabilization and the chloroquine resistance assay will be useful, complementary tools for deciphering the mechanisms of SCV lysis and Salmonella replication in the epithelial cell cytosol.

  14. Staphylococcal Esx Proteins Modulate Apoptosis and Release of Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus during Infection in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korea, Charalampia G.; Balsamo, Giuliana; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Merakou, Christina; Tavarini, Simona; Bagnoli, Fabio; Serruto, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of health care-associated infections. S. aureus is primarily an extracellular pathogen, but it was recently reported to invade and replicate in several host cell types. The ability of S. aureus to persist within cells has been implicated in resistance to antimicrobials and recurrent infections. However, few staphylococcal proteins that mediate intracellular survival have been identified. Here we examine if EsxA and EsxB, substrates of the ESAT-6-like secretion system (Ess), are important during intracellular S. aureus infection. The Esx proteins are required for staphylococcal virulence, but their functions during infection are unclear. While isogenic S. aureus esxA and esxB mutants were not defective for epithelial cell invasion in vitro, a significant increase in early/late apoptosis was observed in esxA mutant-infected cells compared to wild-type-infected cells. Impeding secretion of EsxA by deleting C-terminal residues of the protein also resulted in a significant increase of epithelial cell apoptosis. Furthermore, cells transfected with esxA showed an increased protection from apoptotic cell death. A double mutant lacking both EsxA and EsxB also induced increased apoptosis but, remarkably, was unable to escape from cells as efficiently as the single mutants or the wild type. Thus, using in vitro models of intracellular staphylococcal infection, we demonstrate that EsxA interferes with host cell apoptotic pathways and, together with EsxB, mediates the release of S. aureus from the host cell. PMID:25047846

  15. Detection of DNA Strand Breaks in Apoptotic Cells by Flow- and Image-Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Extensive DNA fragmentation that generates a multitude of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a hallmark of apoptosis. A widely used approach to identify apoptotic cells relies on labeling DSBs in situ with fluorochromes. Flow or image cytometry is then used to detect and quantify apoptotic cells labeled this way. We developed several variants of the methodology that is based on the use of exogenous terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) to label 3′-OH ends of the DSBs with fluorochromes, defined as the TUNEL assay. This chapter describes the variant based on DSBs labeling using 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-triphosphate (BrdUTP) as a TdT substrate and the incorporated BrdU is subsequently detected immunocytochemically with anti-BrdU antibody. We also describe modifications of the protocol that allow using other than BrdUTP deoxyribonucleotides to label DSBs. Concurrent differential staining of cellular DNA and multiparameter analysis of cells by flow- or image cytometry enables one to correlate the induction of apoptosis with the cell cycle phase. Examples of the detection of apoptotic cells in cultures of human leukemic cell lines treated with TNF-α and DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor topote-can are presented. The protocol can be applied to the cells growing in vitro, treated ex vivo with cytotoxic drugs as well as to clinical samples. PMID:21057923

  16. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  17. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  18. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  19. Leptin Is an Anti-Apoptotic Effector in Placental Cells Involving p53 Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Ayelén Rayen; Maymó, Julieta Lorena; Ibarbalz, Federico Matías; Pérez, Antonio Pérez; Maskin, Bernardo; Faletti, Alicia Graciela; Margalet, Víctor Sánchez; Varone, Cecilia Laura

    2014-01-01

    Leptin, a peripheral signal synthetized by the adipocyte to regulate energy metabolism, can also be produced by placenta, where it may work as an autocrine hormone. We have previously demonstrated that leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. In the present work, we aimed to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate the survival effect of leptin in placenta. We used the human placenta choriocarcinoma BeWo and first trimester Swan-71 cell lines, as well as human placental explants. We tested the late phase of apoptosis, triggered by serum deprivation, by studying the activation of Caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. Recombinant human leptin added to BeWo cell line and human placental explants, showed a decrease on Caspase-3 activation. These effects were dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at 250 ng leptin/ml. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous leptin expression with 2 µM of an antisense oligonucleotide, reversed Caspase-3 diminution. We also found that the cleavage of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was diminished in the presence of leptin. We analyzed the presence of low DNA fragments, products from apoptotic DNA cleavage. Placental explants cultivated in the absence of serum in the culture media increased the apoptotic cleavage of DNA and this effect was prevented by the addition of 100 ng leptin/ml. Taken together these results reinforce the survival effect exerted by leptin on placental cells. To improve the understanding of leptin mechanism in regulating the process of apoptosis we determined the expression of different intermediaries in the apoptosis cascade. We found that under serum deprivation conditions, leptin increased the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein expression, while downregulated the pro-apoptotic BAX and BID proteins expression in Swan-71 cells and placental explants. In both models leptin augmented BCL-2/BAX ratio. Moreover we have demonstrated that p53, one of the key cell cycle-signaling proteins, is

  20. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  1. Pro-apoptotic NOXA is implicated in atmospheric-pressure plasma-induced melanoma cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) has been successfully used to treat several types of cancers in vivo and in vitro, with the effect being primarily attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanisms by which APP induces apoptosis in cancer cells require further elucidation. In this study, the effects of APP on the expression of 500 genes in melanoma Mel007 cancer cells were examined. Pro-apoptotic phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein (PMAIP1), also known as NOXA, was highly expressed as a result of APP treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking of ROS using scavenger NAC or silencing of NOXA gene by RNA interference inhibited the APP-induced NOXA genes upregulation and impaired caspases 3/7 mediated apoptosis, confirming the important role plasma-generated ROS species and pro-apoptotic NOXA play in APP-induced cancer cell death.

  2. Investigation of the apoptotic way induced by digallic acid in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The digallic acid (DGA) purified from Pistacia lentiscus. L fruits was investigated for its antiproliferative and apoptotic activities on human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Methods We attempt to characterize the apoptotic pathway activated by DGA. Apoptosis was detected by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and by evaluating caspase activities. Results The inhibition of lymphoblastoid cell proliferation was noted from 8.5 μg/ml of DGA. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage. We have demonstrated that DGA induces apoptosis by activating the caspase-8 extrinsic pathway. Caspase-3 was also activated in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion In summary, DGA exhibited an apoptosis inductor effect in TK6 cells revealing thus its potential as a cancer-preventive agent. PMID:22686580

  3. Polyethylene glycol inhibits apoptotic cell death following traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Shi, Riyi

    2007-06-25

    We have previously shown that local administration of polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW: 2000 Da, 50% by weight), a known membrane repair agent, immediately after trauma in guinea pig spinal cord repairs neuronal membrane disruptions and reduces oxidative injury. Here we report that a similar application of PEG resulted in marked decreases in apoptotic cell death and caspase-3 activity. We suggest that PEG may suppress apoptosis through interactions with mitochondria. This is based on our current findings that in isolated mitochondria, PEG improves mitochondrial function and reduces the release of cytochrome c, a pro-apoptotic cell death factor. This hypothesis is further supported by our previous observation that PEG enters injured cells after spinal cord injury, placing PEG in a position to directly interact with mitochondria. In summary, we conclude that PEG reduces both necrosis and apoptosis through two distinct yet synergistic pathways: repair of disrupted plasma membranes and protection of mitochondria through direct interaction.

  4. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation regulates necroptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Koo, Michael Jakun; Rooney, Kristen T; Choi, Mary E; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K; Moon, Jong-Seok

    2015-08-28

    Cellular metabolism can impact cell life or death outcomes. While metabolic dysfunction has been linked to cell death, the mechanisms by which metabolic dysfunction regulates the cell death mode called necroptosis remain unclear. Our study demonstrates that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activates programmed necrotic cell death (necroptosis) in human lung epithelial cells. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis induced the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and necroptotic cell death. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting from impaired mitochondrial OXPHOS, regulates necroptotic cell death. These results suggest that impaired mitochondrial OXPHOS contributes to necroptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

  5. Genetics and epithelial cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, J.R.; Buchwald, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the advances being made in the study of the physiology, cell biology, and molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis. Emphasis is placed on various areas of research that involve epithelial cells (e.g., the CF-specific phenotypes exhibited by epithelial cells, abnormalities in epithelium ion transport, chloride channel regulation in CF epithelial.) Coverage is presented on the current status of CF, including data on the incidence of the disease, its mode of inheritance, chromosomal localization, genetic heterogeneity, and screening and management.

  6. Growth of corneal epithelial cells over in situ therapeutic contact lens after simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET)

    PubMed Central

    Bhalekar, Swapnil; Sangwan, Virender S; Basu, Sayan

    2013-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) from the healthy right eye to his left eye for total limbal stem cell deficiency. One month later, corneal surface epithelialised and whitish plaques overlying the transplants were seen inferiorly. Those plaques were adherent to the surface of the contact lens and underlying corneal surface had smooth elevations. Similar findings were noted in a 23-year man following cyanoacrylate glue application for corneal perforation. On histological and immunohistochemical analysis, cells lining the contact lenses were identified as corneal epithelial cells. These cases illustrate epithelial cell growth on the contact lens and epithelial hyperplasia on corresponding surface of the cornea. Exorbitant proliferation of the epithelial cells may be owing to young age; therefore, early contact lens removal after SLET in young age, can possibly avoid epithelial hyperplasia. This also reiterates the possibility of using contact lens as a scaffold to grow epithelial cells. PMID:23814196

  7. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  8. Bcl-xS and Bax induce different apoptotic pathways in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lindenboim, L; Yuan, J; Stein, R

    2000-03-30

    Apoptosis is regulated by the action of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, which includes anti- and pro-apoptotic members such as Bcl-xS and Bax. These proteins may differ from each other in structure, mechanism of action and interactions with anti-apoptotic signaling. The mechanism whereby Bax induces cell death has been studied in some cellular systems, but the mechanism of Bcl-xS-induced apoptosis is largely unknown. In this study we investigated and compared the apoptotic effects of Bcl-xS and Bax in the pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12 (a useful model system for studying neuronal apoptosis), and the extent to which they are protected by the survival factor, nerve growth factor (NGF). PC12 cells express endogenous Bcl-xS, Bax and Bcl-xL proteins. Subcellular fractionation revealed that Bax is presented mainly in the cytosolic and the heavy membrane fractions, Bcl-xS is present only in the cytosol, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL is located mainly in the heavy membrane fraction. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of endogenous Bcl-xS, the exogenously overexpressed Bcl-xS is localized to the mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-xS or Bax induces cell death in the transfected cells. The cell death induced by overexpression of Bcl-xS was inhibited by coexpression of Bcl-xS with Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL, or by treatment with the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoro-methylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) or with NGF. The Bcl-2 mutants deltaC22, which lacks the transmembrane domain, and G145A (mI-3) were able to inhibit the death-inducing effect of Bcl-xS. These results therefore suggest that the apoptotic pathway induced by overexpression of Bcl-xS in PC12 cells can be controlled by Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is mediated by caspases, and can be inhibited by the NGF signaling pathway. The Bax-induced cell death was inhibited by co-expression of Bax with Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL, but was not inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK, NGF, or the Bcl-2 ml-3 or deltaC22 mutants. These

  9. Apoptotic susceptibility to DNA damage of pluripotent stem cells facilitates pharmacologic purging of teratoma risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alyson J; Nelson, Natalie G; Oommen, Saji; Hartjes, Katherine A; Folmes, Clifford D; Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have been the focus of bioengineering efforts designed to generate regenerative products, yet harnessing therapeutic capacity while minimizing risk of dysregulated growth remains a challenge. The risk of residual undifferentiated stem cells within a differentiated progenitor population requires a targeted approach to eliminate contaminating cells prior to delivery. In this study we aimed to validate a toxicity strategy that could selectively purge pluripotent stem cells in response to DNA damage and avoid risk of uncontrolled cell growth upon transplantation. Compared with somatic cell types, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells displayed hypersensitivity to apoptotic induction by genotoxic agents. Notably, hypersensitivity in pluripotent stem cells was stage-specific and consistently lost upon in vitro differentiation, with the mean half-maximal inhibitory concentration increasing nearly 2 orders of magnitude with tissue specification. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting demonstrated that the innate response was mediated through upregulation of the BH3-only protein Puma in both natural and induced pluripotent stem cells. Pretreatment with genotoxic etoposide purged hypersensitive pluripotent stem cells to yield a progenitor population refractory to teratoma formation upon transplantation. Collectively, this study exploits a hypersensitive apoptotic response to DNA damage within pluripotent stem cells to decrease risk of dysregulated growth and augment the safety profile of transplant-ready, bioengineered progenitor cells.

  10. Targeting early apoptotic genes in batch and fed-batch CHO cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Danny Chee Furng; Wong, Kathy Tin Kam; Nissom, Peter Morin; Heng, Chew Kiat; Yap, Miranda Gek Sim

    2006-10-20

    Based on the transcriptional profiling of CHO cell culture using microarray, four key early apoptosis signaling genes, Fadd, Faim, Alg-2, and Requiem, were identified and CHO GT (Gene Targeted) cell lines were developed by targeting these four genes. Two were CHO GT(O) cell lines overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes, Faim and Fadd DN and two were CHO GT(KD) cell lines involving knockdown of Alg-2 and Requiem which are pro-apoptotic genes using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology. Comparisons of these CHO GT cell lines with the parental cell line in batch culture (BC) and fed-batch culture (FBC) were performed. Compared to parental cells, the CHO GT cell lines showed apoptosis resistance as they significantly delayed and/or suppressed initiator caspase-8 and -9 and executioner caspase-3 activities during culture. FBC of CHO GT cell lines reached significantly higher maximum viable cell densities (up to 9 x 10(6) cells/mL) compared with the parental cell line (5 x 10(6) cells/mL). The recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) yields were increased by up to 2.5-fold. Furthermore, it was observed that the IFN-gamma was more highly sialylated.

  11. Selective Depletion of Eosinophils or Neutrophils in Mice Impacts the Efficiency of Apoptotic Cell Clearance in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Alonzo, Eric S.; Dorothee, Guillaume; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Sant'Angelo, Derek B.

    2010-01-01

    Developing thymocytes undergo a rigorous selection process to ensure that the mature T cell population expresses a T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire that can functionally interact with major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). Over 90% of thymocytes fail this selection process and die. A small number of macrophages within the thymus are responsible for clearing the large number of dying thymocytes that must be continuously cleared. We studied the capacity of thymic macrophages to clear apoptotic cells under acute circumstances. This was done by synchronously inducing cell death in the thymus and then monitoring the clearance of apoptotic thymocytes. Interestingly, acute cell death was shown to recruit large numbers of CD11b+ cells into the thymus. In the absence of a minor CSF-1 dependent population of macrophages, the recruitment of these CD11b+ cells into the thymus was greatly reduced and the clearance of apoptotic cells was disrupted. To assess a possible role for the CD11b+ cells in the clearance of apoptotic cells, we analyzed mice deficient for eosinophils and mice with defective trafficking of neutrophils. Failure to attract either eosinophils or neutrophils to the thymus resulted in the impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. These results suggested that there is crosstalk between cells of the innate immune system that is necessary for maximizing the efficiency of apoptotic cell removal. PMID:20625428

  12. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips, including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy, methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry, techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress, and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking with light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  13. Induction of Cell Death Through Alteration of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Epithelial Cells Exposed to High Energy Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    2012-07-01

    Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes including double strand breakage, modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source which poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton radiation for tumor radiation therapy is increasing as it largely spares healthy tissues while killing tumor tissues. Although radiation related research has been conducted extensively, the molecular toxicology and cellular mechanisms affected by proton radiation remain poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we irradiated rat epithelial cells (LE) with different doses of protons and investigated their effects on cell proliferation and cell death. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in proton irradiated cells with a significant dose dependent activation and repression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase respectively as compared to control cells. In addition, apoptotic related genes such as caspase-3 and -8 activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in proton irradiated cells than control cells. Together, our results show that proton radiation alters oxidant and antioxidant levels in the cells to activate apoptotic pathway for cell death.

  14. Induction of Cell Death through Alteration of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Epithelial Cells Exposed to High Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    2012-01-01

    Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes including double strand breakage, modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source which poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton radiation for tumor radiation therapy is increasing as it largely spares healthy tissues while killing tumor tissues. Although radiation related research has been conducted extensively, the molecular toxicology and cellular mechanisms affected by proton radiation remain poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we irradiated rat epithelial cells (LE) with different doses of protons and investigated their effects on cell proliferation and cell death. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in proton irradiated cells with a significant dose dependent activation and repression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase respectively as compared to control cells. In addition, apoptotic related genes such as caspase-3 and -8 activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in proton irradiated cells than control cells. Together, our results show that proton radiation alters oxidant and antioxidant levels in the cells to activate apoptotic pathway for cell death.

  15. Emergence of an Apical Epithelial Cell Surface In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Sedzinski, Jakub; Hannezo, Edouard; Tu, Fan; Biro, Maté; Wallingford, John B

    2016-01-11

    Epithelial sheets are crucial components of all metazoan animals, enclosing organs and protecting the animal from its environment. Epithelial homeostasis poses unique challenges, as addition of new cells and loss of old cells must be achieved without disrupting the fluid-tight barrier and apicobasal polarity of the epithelium. Several studies have identified cell biological mechanisms underlying extrusion of cells from epithelia, but far less is known of the converse mechanism by which new cells are added. Here, we combine molecular, pharmacological, and laser-dissection experiments with theoretical modeling to characterize forces driving emergence of an apical surface as single nascent cells are added to a vertebrate epithelium in vivo. We find that this process involves the interplay between cell-autonomous actin-generated pushing forces in the emerging cell and mechanical properties of neighboring cells. Our findings define the forces driving this cell behavior, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of epithelial homeostasis.

  16. Cell survival, DNA damage, and oncogenic transformation after a transient and reversible apoptotic response

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ho Lam; Tang, Ho Man; Mak, Keng Hou; Hu, Shaomin; Wang, Shan Shan; Wong, Kit Man; Wong, Chung Sing Timothy; Wu, Hoi Yan; Law, Hiu Tung; Liu, Kan; Talbot, C. Conover; Lau, Wan Keung; Montell, Denise J.; Fung, Ming Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis serves as a protective mechanism by eliminating damaged cells through programmed cell death. After apoptotic cells pass critical checkpoints, including mitochondrial fragmentation, executioner caspase activation, and DNA damage, it is assumed that cell death inevitably follows. However, this assumption has not been tested directly. Here we report an unexpected reversal of late-stage apoptosis in primary liver and heart cells, macrophages, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, cervical cancer HeLa cells, and brain cells. After exposure to an inducer of apoptosis, cells exhibited multiple morphological and biochemical hallmarks of late-stage apoptosis, including mitochondrial fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and DNA damage. Surprisingly, the vast majority of dying cells arrested the apoptotic process and recovered when the inducer was washed away. Of importance, some cells acquired permanent genetic changes and underwent oncogenic transformation at a higher frequency than controls. Global gene expression analysis identified a molecular signature of the reversal process. We propose that reversal of apoptosis is an unanticipated mechanism to rescue cells from crisis and propose to name this mechanism “anastasis” (Greek for “rising to life”). Whereas carcinogenesis represents a harmful side effect, potential benefits of anastasis could include preservation of cells that are difficult to replace and stress-induced genetic diversity. PMID:22535522

  17. Nuclear transfer with apoptotic bovine fibroblasts: can programmed cell death be reprogrammed?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Moyses dos Santos; Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; De Bem, Tiago Henrique Camara; Merighe, Giovana Krempel Fonseca; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; King, William Alan; Meirelles, Flavio Viera

    2012-06-01

    Cell death by apoptosis is considered to be irreversible. However, reports have indicated that its reversibility is possible if the cells have not yet reached the "point of no return." In order to add new information about this topic, we used cells at different moments of apoptotic process as nuclear donors in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in order to test if programmed cell death can be reversed. Adult bovine fibroblasts were treated with 10 μM of staurosporine (STP) for 3 h and analyzed for phosphatidylserine externalization (Annexin assay) and presence of active caspase-9. Annexin-positive (Anx+) and Caspase-9-positive (Casp-9+) cells were isolated by FACS and immediately transferred into enucleated in vitro matured bovine oocytes. After STP treatment, 89.9% of cells were Anx+ (4.6% in control cells; p<0.01) and 24.9% were Casp-9+ (2.4% in control cells; p<0.01). Fusion and cleavage were not affected by the use apoptotic cells (p>0.05). Also, the use of Anx+ cells did not affect blastocyst production compared to control (26.4% vs. 22.9%, respectively; p>0.05). However, blastocyst formation was affected by the use of Casp-9+ cells (12.3%; p<0.05). These findings contribute to the idea of that apoptosis is reversible only at early stages. Additionally, we hypothesize that the "point of no return" for apoptosis may be located around activation of Caspase-9.

  18. Dealcoholated red wine induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in an osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, I; Russo, M; Bilotto, S; Spagnuolo, C; Scognamiglio, A; Palumbo, R; Nappo, A; Iacomino, G; Moio, L; Russo, G L

    2013-10-01

    Until recently, the supposed preventive effects of red wine against cardiovascular diseases, the so-called "French Paradox", has been associated to its antioxidant properties. The interest in the anticancer capacity of polyphenols present in red wine strongly increased consequently to the enormous number of studies on resveratrol. In this study, using lyophilized red wine, we present evidence that its anticancer effect in a cellular model is mediated by apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Using a human osteosarcoma cell line, U2Os, we found that the lyophilized red wine was cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum effect in the range of 100-200 μg/ml equivalents of gallic acid. A mixed phenotype of types I/II cell death was evidenced by means of specific assays following treatment of U2Os with lyophilized red wine, e.g., autophagy and apoptosis. We found that cell death induced by lyophilized red wine proceeded through a mechanism independent from its anti-oxidant activity and involving the inhibition of PI3K/Akt kinase signaling. Considering the relative low concentration of each single bioactive compound in lyophilized red wine, our study suggests the activation of synergistic mechanism able to inhibit growth in malignant cells.

  19. Direct Raman imaging spectroscopy of lung cancer cells and apoptotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Furihata, Chie; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-02-01

    A Raman spectroscopic technique enables to observe intracellular molecules without fixation or labeling procedures in situ. We demonstrated a classification of human lung cancer cells with Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Normal lung cell-lines and 4 pathological types of cancer cell-lines were seeded on culture dishes and examined. It was as a preliminary study for direct Raman imaging spectroscopy, which could be available for clinical use, to diagnose cancer. The result suggests that Raman spectroscopy could be a complementary method for immunohistology study. We also constructed a new direct Raman imaging system consisting of a high sensitive CCD image sensor, narrow band pass-filters, and a background-free electrically tunable Ti:Sapphire laser. The observation wavelengths can be switched immediately for the purpose of malignancy rapid diagnosis or real time measurement for apoptotic cells. The potential ability of the direct Raman imaging system is supposed to evaluate apoptosis by UV irradiation and anticancer drug-treatment for living lung cancer cells.

  20. Crystal violet staining to quantify Candida adhesion to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Negri, M; Gonçalves, V; Silva, S; Henriques, M; Azeredo, J; Oliveira, R

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies of adhesion capability are essential to characterise the virulence of Candida species. However, the assessment of adhesion by traditional methods is time-consuming. The aim of the present study is the development of a simple methodology using crystal violet staining to quantify in vitro adhesion of different Candida species to epithelial cells. The experiments are performed using Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), C. glabrata (ATCC 2001), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 750). A human urinary bladder epithelial cell line (TCC-SUP) is used. Yeast and epithelial cells were stained with crystal violet, epithelial cells were then destained using intermediate washing, and the dye in the yeast cells was extracted with acetic acid. The method was validated for the different Candida reference species by comparison with traditional microscope observation and enumeration. The method was then used to assess Candida adhesion to epithelial cells and also to silicone. For all Candida spp. high correlation values (r2= 0.9724-0.9997) between the number of adherent yeasts (microscope enumeration) and absorbance values were obtained for an inoculum concentration >10(6) cells/mL. The proposed technique was easy to perform and reproducible, enabling the determination of adhesion ability of Candida species to an epithelial cell line. PMID:20973406

  1. The fungicide Mancozeb induces metacaspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741.

    PubMed

    Scariot, F J; Jahn, L M; Maianti, J P; Delamare, A P L; Echeverrigaray, S

    2016-07-01

    Mancozeb (MZ), a mixture of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate manganese and zinc salts, is one of the most widely used fungicides in agriculture. Toxicologic studies in mammals and mammalian cells indicate that this fungicide can cause neurological and cytological disorders, putatively associated with pro-oxidant and apoptotic effects. Yeast adaptation to sub-inhibitory concentrations of MZ has been correlated with oxidative response, proteins degradation, and energy metabolism, and its main effect on yeast has been attributed to its high reactivity with thiol groups in proteins. Herein, we show that acute MZ treatments on aerobic exponentially growing yeast of wild type (BY4741) and deletion mutant strains, coupled with multiplex flow cytometry analysis, conclusively demonstrated that MZ displays the typical features of pro-oxidant activity on Saccharomyces, elevating mitochondrial ROS, and causing hyper-polarization of mitochondrial membranes leading to apoptosis. A drastic reduction of cellular viability associated with the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, as well as phosphatidyl serine externalization on yeast cells exposed to MZ, also supports an apoptotic mode of action. Moreover, abrogation of the apoptotic response in yca1 deficient mutants indicates that metacaspase-1 is involved in the programmed cell death mechanism induced by MZ in yeast. PMID:27160815

  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection protects human endocervical epithelial cells from apoptosis via expression of host antiapoptotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Follows, S A; Murlidharan, J; Massari, P; Wetzler, L M; Genco, C A

    2009-09-01

    Several microbial pathogens can modulate the host apoptotic response to infection, which may contribute to immune evasion. Various studies have reported that infection with the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae can either inhibit or induce apoptosis. N. gonorrhoeae infection initiates at the mucosal epithelium, and in women, cells from the ectocervix and endocervix are among the first host cells encountered by this pathogen. In this study, we defined the antiapoptotic effect of N. gonorrhoeae infection in human endocervical epithelial cells (End/E6E7 cells). We first established that N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090B failed to induce cell death in End/E6E7 cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that stimulation with N. gonorrhoeae protected these cells from staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, only End/E6E7 cells incubated with live bacteria and in direct association with N. gonorrhoeae were protected from STS-induced apoptosis, while heat-killed and antibiotic-killed bacteria failed to induce protection. Stimulation of End/E6E7 cells with live N. gonorrhoeae induced NF-kappaB activation and resulted in increased gene expression of the NF-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic genes bfl-1, cIAP-2, and c-FLIP. Furthermore, cIAP-2 protein levels also increased in End/E6E7 cells incubated with gonococci. Collectively, our results indicate that the antiapoptotic effect of N. gonorrhoeae in human endocervical epithelial cells results from live infection via expression of host antiapoptotic proteins. Securing an intracellular niche through the inhibition of apoptosis may be an important mechanism utilized by N. gonorrhoeae for microbial survival and immune evasion in cervical epithelial cells. PMID:19546192

  3. Stochastic Terminal Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Grosshans, Joerg; Wolf, Fred

    2015-03-01

    We found that the constriction of epithelial cell contacts during intercalation in germ band extension in Drosophila embryos follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. The mean contact length < L > follows < L > (t) ~(T - t) α , where T is the finite collapse time; the time dependent variance of contact length is proportional to the square of the mean; finally the time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations suggest that the dynamics of contact collapse can be captured by a stochastic differential equation analytically tractable in small noise approximation. Here, we present such a model, providing an effective description of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. All model parameters are fixed by measurements of time dependent mean and variance of contact lengths. The model predicts the contact length covariance function that we obtain in closed form. The contact length covariance function closely matches experimental observations suggesting that the model well captures the dynamics of contact collapse.

  4. Infection of human fallopian tube epithelial cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-alpha was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  5. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  6. In Situ-Targeting of Dendritic Cells with Donor-Derived Apoptotic Cells Restrains Indirect Allorecognition and Ameliorates Allograft Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiliang; Shufesky, William J.; Montecalvo, Angela; Divito, Sherrie J.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Morelli, Adrian E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is an atheromatous-like lesion that affects vessels of transplanted organs. It is a component of chronic rejection that conventional immuno-suppression fails to prevent, and is a major cause of graft loss. Indirect allo-recognition through T cells and allo-Abs are critical during CAV pathogenesis. We tested whether the indirect allo-response and its impact on CAV is down-regulated by in situ-delivery of donor Ags to recipient's dendritic cells (DCs) in lymphoid organs in a pro-tolerogenic fashion, through administration of donor splenocytes undergoing early apoptosis. Following systemic injection, donor apoptotic cells were internalized by splenic CD11chi CD8α+ and CD8− DCs, but not by CD11cint plasmacytoid DCs. Those DCs that phagocytosed apoptotic cells in vivo remained quiescent, resisted ex vivo-maturation, and presented allo-Ag for up to 3 days. Administration of donor apoptotic splenocytes, unlike cells alive, (i) promoted deletion, FoxP3 expression and IL-10 secretion, and decreased IFN-γ-release in indirect pathway CD4 T cells; and (ii) reduced cross-priming of anti-donor CD8 T cells in vivo. Targeting recipient's DCs with donor apoptotic cells reduced significantly CAV in a fully-mismatched aortic allograft model. The effect was donor specific, dependent on the physical characteristics of the apoptotic cells, and was associated to down-regulation of the indirect type-1 T cell allo-response and secretion of allo-Abs, when compared to recipients treated with donor cells alive or necrotic. Down-regulation of indirect allo-recognition through in situ-delivery of donor-Ag to recipient's quiescent DCs constitutes a promising strategy to prevent/ameliorate indirect allorecognition and CAV. PMID:19333400

  7. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex strains induce caspase-dependent and caspase-independent death of human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krzymińska, Sylwia; Frąckowiak, Hanna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-09-01

    We investigated interactions of human isolates of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex strains with epithelial cells. The results showed that bacterial contact with the cells as well as adhesion and invasion were required for induction of cytotoxicity. The infected cells revealed hallmarks of apoptosis characterized by cell shrinking, condensed chromatin, and internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA. The highest apoptotic index was observed for 4 of 10 A. calcoaceticus and 4 of 7 A. baumannii strains. Moreover, we observed oncotic changes: cellular swelling and blebbing, noncondensed chromatin, and the absence of DNA fragmentation. The highest oncotic index was observed in cells infected with 6 A. calcoaceticus isolates. Cell-contact cytotoxicity and cell death were not inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Induction of oncosis was correlated with increased invasive ability of the strains. We demonstrated that the mitochondria of infected cells undergo structural and functional alterations which can lead to cell death. Infected apoptotic and oncotic cells exhibited loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ(m)). Bacterial infection caused generation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. This study indicated that Acinetobacter spp. induced strain-dependent distinct types of epithelial cell death that may contribute to the pathogenesis of bacterial infection.

  8. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  9. mAChRs activation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition on lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression of airway diseases and cancer. Here, we explored the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and the pathway involved in the process of EMT, as well as the effects of mAChRs antagonist. Methods Human lung epithelial cells were stimulated with carbachol, an analogue of ACh, and epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins were evaluated using western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Results Decreased E-cadherin expression and increased vimentin and α-SMA expression induced by TGF-β1 in alveolar epithelial cell (A549) were significantly abrogated by the non-selective mAChR antagonist atropine and enhanced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. An EMT event also occurred in response to physostigmine alone. Furthermore, ChAT express and ACh release by A549 cells were enhanced by TGF-β1. Interestingly, ACh analogue carbachol also induced EMT in A549 cells as well as in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, the induction of carbachol was abrogated by selective antagonist of M1 (pirenzepine) and M3 (4-DAMP) mAChRs, but not by M2 (methoctramine) antagonist. Moreover, carbachol induced TGF-β1 production from A549 cells concomitantly with the EMT process. Carbachol-induced EMT occurred through phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK, which was inhibited by pirenzepine and 4-DAMP. Conclusions Our findings for the first time indicated that mAChR activation, perhaps via M1 and M3 mAChR, induced lung epithelial cells to undergo EMT and provided insights into novel therapeutic strategies for airway diseases in which lung remodeling occurs. PMID:24678619

  10. p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of pro-apoptotic SAP.

    PubMed

    Madapura, Harsha S; Salamon, Daniel; Wiman, Klas G; Lain, Sonia; Klein, George; Klein, Eva; Nagy, Noémi

    2012-12-15

    Lack of functional SAP protein, due to gene deletion or mutation, is the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), characterized by functionally impaired T and NK cells and a high risk of lymphoma development. We have demonstrated earlier that SAP has a pro-apoptotic function in T and B cells. Deficiency of this function might contribute to the pathogenesis of XLP. We have also shown that SAP is a target of p53 in B cell lines. In the present study, we show that activated primary T cells express p53, which induces SAP expression. p53 is functional as a transcription factor in activated T cells and induces the expression of p21, PUMA and MDM2. PARP cleavage in the late phase of activation indicates that T cells expressing high levels of SAP undergo apoptosis. Modifying p53 levels using Nutlin-3, which specifically dissociates the MDM2-p53 interaction, was sufficient to upregulate SAP expression, indicating that SAP is a target of p53 in T cells. We also demonstrated p53's role as a transcription factor for SAP in activated T cells by ChIP assays. Our result suggests that p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of the pro-apoptotic SAP. A high level of SAP is necessary for the activation-induced cell death that is pivotal in termination of the T cell response.

  11. Evidence of apoptotic cell death after experimental traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Rink, A.; Fung, K. M.; Trojanowski, J. Q.; Lee, V. M.; Neugebauer, E.; McIntosh, T. K.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in many developmental and pathological processes of the central nervous system. However, the role of apoptosis in traumatic brain injury has not been determined. Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) method, we detected many cells with extensive DNA fragmentation in different regions of the brains of rats subjected to experimental traumatic brain injury. Two types of TUNEL-positive cells were demonstrated by light and electron microscopy, including type I cells that displayed morphological features of necrotic cell death and type II cells that displayed morphological features of classic apoptotic cell death. TUNEL-positive cells were detectable for up to 72 hours after the initial injury. Gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from affected areas of the injured brain containing both type I and II cells revealed only internucleosomal fragmentation at 185-bp intervals, a feature originally described in apoptotic cell death. These data suggest that apoptosis, in addition to necrotic cell death, occurs after traumatic brain injury, and that internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA may be associated with certain types of necrotic cell death. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7495282

  12. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  13. Leptin suppresses non-apoptotic cell death in ischemic rat cardiomyocytes by reduction of iPLA{sub 2} activity

    SciTech Connect

    Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-07-17

    Caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death is an important therapeutic target in myocardial ischemia. Leptin, an adipose-derived hormone, is known to exhibit cytoprotective effects on the ischemic heart, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this research, we found that pretreatment of leptin strongly suppressed ischemic-augmented nuclear shrinkage and non-apoptotic cell death on cardiomyocytes. Leptin was also shown to significantly inhibit the activity of iPLA{sub 2}, which is considered to play crucial roles in non-apoptotic cell death, resulting in effective prevention of ischemia-induced myocyte death. These findings provide the first evidence of a protective mechanism of leptin against ischemia-induced non-apoptotic cardiomyocyte death. - Highlights: • Myocardial ischemia-model induces in caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death. • Leptin strongly inhibits ischemic-augmented non-apoptotic cell death. • Leptin reduces iPLA{sub 2} activity, leading to avoidance of non-apoptotic cell death.

  14. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line. PMID:20400167

  15. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line.

  16. Gene expression in TGFbeta-induced epithelial cell differentiation in a three-dimensional intestinal epithelial cell differentiation model

    PubMed Central

    Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati M; Kaukinen, Katri; Mäki, Markku; Tuimala, Jarno; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2006-01-01

    Background The TGFβ1-induced signal transduction processes involved in growth and differentiation are only partly known. The three-dimensional epithelial differentiation model, in which T84 epithelial cells are induced to differentiate either with TGFβ1 or IMR-90 mesenchymal cell-secreted soluble factors, is previously shown to model epithelial cell differentiation seen in intestine. That model has not been used for large scale gene expression studies, such as microarray method. Therefore the gene expression changes were studied in undifferentiated and differentiated three-dimensional T84 cultures with cDNA microarray method in order to study the molecular changes and find new players in epithelial cell differentiation. Results The expression of 372 genes out of 5188 arrayed sequences was significantly altered, and 47 of them were altered by both mediators. The data were validated and the altered genes are presented in ontology classes. For the genes tested the expressions in protein level were in accordance with the mRNA results. We also found 194 genes with no known function to be potentially important in epithelial cell differentiation. The mRNA expression changes induced by TGFβ1 were bigger than changes induced by soluble factors secreted by IMR-90 mesenchymal cells. The gene expression data was depicted in already known signaling pathway routes. Conclusion Our results reveal potential new signaling pathways and several new genes affected by TGFβ in epithelial cell differentiation. The differentiation induced by TGFβ1 appears to be more potent than the differentiation induced by mesenchymal cells. This study indicates that our cell culture model is a suitable tool in studying regulatory mechanisms during epithelial cell differentiation in intestine. Furthermore the present results indicate that our model is a good tool for finding new players acting in the differentiation of epithelial cells. PMID:17074098

  17. Influence of the mesenchymal cell source on oral epithelial development.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Rovere, Marie Rose; Haftek, Marek; Hasirci, Vasif; Damour, Odile

    2012-03-01

    The extent of the influence of mesenchymal tissue on epithelial development is still debated, and elucidation of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions should be of relevance for controlling normal as well as pathological growth and development. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of the mesenchymal cell type on oral mucosa epithelial development in vitro, using tissue-engineering principles, by including three different sources for mesenchymal cell type, viz. oral mucosa, skin and cornea, each of them presenting a distinct type of epithelium in situ. We investigated epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, considering both morphological criteria and protein expression (filaggrin, keratin 10, keratin 12, keratin 13 and laminin 5). The results of the histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy of the three types of tissue-engineered constructs composed of mesenchymal cells of different sources (oral, dermal and corneal fibroblasts) and of the same oral epithelial cells showed that the mesenchymal cell source had a significant influence on the thickness and ultrastructure of the epithelium, but not on the differentiation of oral epithelial cells, which might be an intrinsic property of these cells due to their genetic programming. PMID:21548135

  18. Isolation and characterization of cutaneous epithelial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Uffe B.; Ghazizadeh, Soosan; Owens, David M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During homeostasis, adult mammalian skin turnover is maintained by a number of multipotent and unipotent epithelial progenitors located either in the epidermis, hair follicle or sebaceous gland. Recent work has illustrated that these various progenitor populations reside in regionalized niches and are phenotypically distinct from one another. This degree of heterogeneity within the progenitor cell landscape in the cutaneous epithelium complicates our ability to target, purify and manipulate cutaneous epithelial stem cell subpopulations in adult skin. The techniques outlined in this chapter describe basic procedures for the isolation and purification of murine epithelial progenitors and assessing their capacity for ex vivo propagation. PMID:23483387

  19. The apoptotic effect of 1's-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate from Alpinia conchigera on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Awang, Khalijah; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Aun, Lionel In Lian; Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Ibrahim, Halijah; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2010-11-09

    1'-(S)-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. was investigated for its potential as an anticancer drug. In this communication, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of ACA on five human tumour cell lines. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that ACA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity on all tumour cell lines tested and had no adverse cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Total mortality of the entire tumour cell population was achieved within 30 hrs when treated with ACA at 40.0 µM concentration. Flow cytometric analysis for annexin-V and PI dual staining demonstrated that cell death occurred via apoptosis, followed by secondary necrosis. The apoptotic effects of ACA were confirmed via the DNA fragmentation assay, in which consistent laddering of genomic DNA was observed for all tumour cell lines after a 24 hrs post-treatment period at the IC(50) concentration of ACA. A cell cycle analysis using PI staining also demonstrated that ACA induced cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase, corresponding to oral tumour cell lines. In conclusion, ACA exhibits enormous potential for future development as a chemotherapeutic drug against various malignancies.

  20. TSLP in Epithelial Cell and Dendritic Cell Cross Talk

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that have the ability to sense infection and tissue stress, sample and present antigen to T lymphocytes, and instruct the initiation of different forms of immunity and tolerance. The functional versatility of DCs depends on their remarkable ability to translate collectively the information from the invading microbes, as well as their resident tissue microenvironments. Recent progress in understanding Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology has illuminated the mechanisms by which DCs link innate and adaptive antimicrobial immune responses. However, how tissue microenvironments shape the function of DCs has remained elusive. Recent studies of TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin), an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that strongly activates DCs, provide strong evidence at a molecular level that epithelial cells/tissue microenvironments directly communicate with DCs, the professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. We review recent progress on how TSLP expressed within thymus and peripheral lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated central tolerance, peripheral T cell homeostasis, and inflammatory Th2 responses. PMID:19231591

  1. Cell cycle regulation and apoptotic cell death in experimental colon carcinogenesis: intervening with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2015-01-01

    Relative imbalance in the pathways regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, or cell death marks a prerequisite for neoplasm. C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis and a selective COX-2 inhibitor along with piroxicam, a traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug was used to investigate the role of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proinflammatory transcription factor NFκB in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Cell cycle regulators [cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4, and p53], NFκB (p65) pathway, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated by gene and protein expression, whereas apoptosis was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and apoptotic bleb assay. Molecular docking of ligand protein interaction was done to validate the in vivo results. Cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDK4 were overexpressed in DMH, whereas piroxicam and c-phycocyanin promoted the cell cycle arrest by downregulating them. Both drugs mediated apoptosis through p53 activation. Piroxicam and c-phycocyanin also stimulated antiproliferation by restraining PCNA expression and reduced cell survival via inhibiting NFκB (p65) pathway. Molecular docking revealed that phycocyanobilin (a chromophore of c-phycocyanin) interact with DNA binding site of NFκB. Inhibition of cyclin/CDK complex by piroxicam and c-phycocyanin affects the expression of p53 in colon cancer followed by downregulation of NFκB and PCNA levels, thus substantiating the antineoplastic role of these agents. PMID:25825916

  2. The Blockade of IL6 Counterparts the Osmolar Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Human Conjunctival Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hee-Jung; Byun, Yong-Soo; Mok, Jee-Won

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of hyperosmolarity on cell survival/apoptosis of conjunctival epithelial cells and evaluate the possible role of IL6, Wong-Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctival cell line (WKD) was used in this study. Confluent cells were incubated under different osmolarity (290 mOsm and 500 mOsm) with or without neutralizing IL6 antibody (50 ng/mL). The expression of IL6 level was measured in the supernatant of each conditioned medium. Cell viability/apoptosis assay was performed using Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Western blot was conducted to measure the abundance of apoptotic markers and IL6 related downstream signaling pathway. The concentration of IL6 showed time-dependent increase in cells treated with 500 mOsm. Although apoptosis of WKD cell is increased in treated 500 mOsm for 24 h, apoptosis reduced in WKD cell treated 500 mOsm with anti-IL6 for 24 h. Anti-IL6 inhibited the activation of JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which was induced by hyperosmolarity. Hyperosmolar condition induced apoptosis in conjunctival epithelial cells, along with increase of IL6 production. IL6 neutralizing antibody inhibited apoptosis and JAK-STAT signaling in hyperosmolar condition. These findings suggested that IL6 may be involved in apoptotic change and in hyperosmolarity. PMID:27555966

  3. Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody inhibits apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages in pregnant NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Sóñora, Cecilia; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Calo, Guillermina; Hauk, Vanesa; Ramhorst, Rosanna; Hernández, Ana; Leirós, Claudia Pérez

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmunity is a feature of celiac disease (CD) with tissue transglutaminase (tTG) as a major autoantigen. A correlation between gynecological-obstetric disorders in CD patients and the presence of circulating antibodies anti-tTG that inhibited tTG activity was reported. Serum anti-tTG antibodies were detected in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and Sjögren's syndrome, two comorbid states with CD. Since pregnancy complications have been described in NOD mice, we evaluated the ability of anti-tTG antibodies to affect the functions of tTG relevant to the normal course of an early pregnancy like extracellular matrix assembling and apoptotic cell phagocytosis by macrophages. Circulating IgG antibodies against tTG were detected in NOD mice with titers that decreased at early pregnancy; interestingly, the in vitro transamidating activity of tTG was reduced by NOD serum samples. Particularly, anti-tTG antibody inhibited apoptotic cell phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages from pregnant NOD mice that express the enzyme on surface. Evidence provided support for a role for anti-tTG antibodies through reduced transamidating activity and reduced apoptotic cell clearance by the macrophages of pregnant NOD mice. PMID:24377394

  4. Tetrabromobisphenol-A induces apoptotic death of auditory cells and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Park, Channy; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Won Kyo; Moon, Sung Kyun; Kwak, SeongAe; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2016-09-30

    Phenolic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and its derivatives are commonly used flame-retardants, in spite of reported toxic effects including neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. However, the effects of TBBPA on ototoxicity have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of TBBPA on hearing function in vivo and in vitro. Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) threshold was markedly increased in mice after oral administration of TBBPA, indicating that TBBPA causes hearing loss. In addition, TBBPA induced the loss of both zebrafish neuromasts and hair cells in the rat cochlea in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, hearing loss is largely attributed to apoptotic cell death, as TBBPA increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes but decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic genes. We also found that TBBPA induced oxidative stress, and importantly, pretreatment with NAC, an anti-oxidant reagent, reduced TBBPA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and partially prevented cell death. Our results show that TBBPA-mediated ROS generation induces ototoxicity and hearing loss. These findings implicate TBBPA as a potential environmental ototoxin by exerting its hazardous effects on the auditory system. PMID:27592553

  5. Long-term treadmill exercise overcomes ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sim, Young-Je; Kim, Hong; Kim, Jee-Youn; Yoon, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Shin, Min-Chul; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2005-04-13

    It has been suggested that exercise may ameliorate neurologic impairment by impeding neuronal loss following various brain insults. In the present study, the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on short-term memory and apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following transient global ischemia in gerbils was investigated. A step-down inhibitory avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were used for this study. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of both the common carotid arteries of gerbils for 5 min. Gerbils in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. The present results reveal that treadmill exercise for 4 weeks improved short-term memory by suppressing the ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. Here in this study, we show that long-term treadmill exercise for 4 weeks overcomes the ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and thus facilitates the recovery of short-term memory impairment induced by ischemic cerebral injury.

  6. Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaou, Katerina A.; Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas; Constantinou, Constantina; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L.; Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A.; Constantinou, Andreas I.

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

  7. How Shigella Utilizes Ca(2+) Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca(2+) responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca(2+) increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca(2+) responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection. PMID:26904514

  8. Apoptotic effects on cultured cells of atmospheric-pressure plasma produced using various gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominami, Kanako; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kudo, Tada-aki; Sasaki, Shota; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma on various cells such as rat fibroblastic Rat-1 cell line, rat neuroblastoma-like PC12 cell line, and rat macrophage-like NR8383 cell line. The plasma was irradiated directly to a culture medium containing plated cells for 0-20 s. The applied voltage, excitation frequency, and argon or helium gas flow were, respectively, 3-6 kV, 10 kHz, and 3 L/min. Cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated using annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. Results showed that the low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation promoted cell death in a discharge-voltage-dependent and irradiation-time-dependent manner. Furthermore, different effects are produced depending on the cell type. Moreover, entirely different mechanisms might be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cells by helium and argon plasma.

  9. Nitric oxide induces cell death by regulating anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Colleen M; Shroff, Emelyn H; Liu, Jing; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2009-09-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to induce cell death. However, the mechanism by which this pathway is activated in cells exposed to NO is not known. Here we report that BAX and BAK are activated by NO and that cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria. Cells deficient in Bax and Bak or Caspase-9 are completely protected from NO-induced cell death. The individual loss of the BH3-only proteins, Bim, Bid, Puma, Bad or Noxa, or Bid knockdown in Bim(-/-)/Puma(-/-) MEFs, does not prevent NO-induced cell death. Our data show that the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 undergoes ASK1-JNK1 mediated degradation upon exposure to NO, and that cells deficient in either Ask1 or Jnk1 are protected against NO-induced cell death. NO can inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain resulting in an increase in superoxide generation and peroxynitrite formation. However, scavengers of ROS or peroxynitrite do not prevent NO-induced cell death. Collectively, these data indicate that NO degrades MCL-1 through the ASK1-JNK1 axis to induce BAX/BAK-dependent cell death.

  10. Fibronectin Expression Modulates Mammary Epithelial Cell Proliferation during Acinar Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Courtney M.; Engler, Adam J.; Slone, R. Daniel; Galante, Leontine L.; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2009-01-01

    The mammary gland consists of a polarized epithelium surrounded by a basement membrane matrix that forms a series of branching ducts ending in hollow, sphere-like acini. Essential roles for the epithelial basement membrane during acinar differentiation, in particular laminin and its integrin receptors, have been identified using mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane. Contributions from fibronectin, which is abundant in the mammary gland during development and tumorigenesis, have not been fully examined. Here, we show that fibronectin expression by mammary epithelial cells is dynamically regulated during the morphogenic process. Experiments with synthetic polyacrylamide gel substrates implicate both specific extracellular matrix components, including fibronectin itself, and matrix rigidity in this regulation. Alterations in fibronectin levels perturbed acinar organization. During acinar development, increased fibronectin levels resulted in overproliferation of mammary epithelial cells and increased acinar size. Addition of fibronectin to differentiated acini stimulated proliferation and reversed growth arrest of mammary epithelial cells negatively affecting maintenance of proper acinar morphology. These results show that expression of fibronectin creates a permissive environment for cell growth that antagonizes the differentiation signals from the basement membrane. These effects suggest a link between fibronectin expression and epithelial cell growth during development and oncogenesis in the mammary gland. PMID:18451144

  11. Biliary epithelial cells proliferate during oxygenated ex situ liver culture

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Congwen; Du, Yiqi; Ding, Rui; Huang, Jun; Dai, Yan; Bao, Sujin; Zhao, Lijuan; Shen, Hefang; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianjian; Xiong, Qiru; Xu, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Biliary complications remain a major source of morbidity in liver transplant patients. Among these complications, nonanastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) are especially common and they are frequently therapy resistant in part because biliary epithelial cells are more sensitive to warm ischemic injury than hepatocytes. It has been a challenge to maintain the physiological function of biliary epithelial cells during liver transplantation. In this work, we have examined the effect of oxygen on proliferation of biliary epithelial cells in the rat livers obtained from donation after circulatory death (DCD). Twelve rat livers from DCD were divided into two groups. Livers in the control group were isolated following a standard procedure without oxygen supply. Livers in the experimental group were isolated with a constant supply of oxygen. All livers were then connected to an ex situ liver culture system in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analogue and a marker for cell proliferation. After 6 hours of normothermic ex situ liver culture, morphology and DNA replication in hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells were assessed and compared between the two groups. We found that about 4.5% of the biliary epithelial cells in the experimental group proliferated compared with only 0.4% of cells in the control based on BrdU staining. No significant change in cell morphology was observed in those cells between the two groups. Thus, our results indicate that oxygen supply is required for maintenance of the physiological function of biliary epithelial cells during liver transplant and suggest that a constant oxygen supply during liver isolation along with ex situ liver organ culture can enhance the repair of biliary epithelial cell injury during liver transplantation. PMID:27725875

  12. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  13. Inhibition of corneal epithelial cell migration by cadmium and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Ubels, J.L.; Osgood, T.B. Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee )

    1991-02-01

    In a previous comparative study of corneal healing in fish, the authors observed that corneal epithelial healing occurs very rapidly in vivo in the marine teleost Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus (longhorn sculpin) with a 6-mm diameter wound on the mammalian cornea. This rapid healing which permits prompt restoration of the epithelial barrier is apparently an adaptation to the large ionic and osmotic gradients between the environment and the intraocular fluids of the fish. These observations suggested that epithelial healing in the sculpin cornea might be useful model in aquatic biomedical toxicology if an in vitro method for measurement of healing rates could be developed. In this report the authors demonstrate that sculpin eyes maintained in short-term organ culture have a rapid corneal epithelial healing response and that this model can be used to demonstrate the toxic effects of heavy metals on epithelial cell migration.

  14. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with {sup 3}H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-{beta} did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 {times} 10{sup 6} sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined.

  15. Left-right asymmetric cell intercalation drives directional collective cell movement in epithelial morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Emi; Isomura, Ayako; Shibata, Tatsuo; Kuranaga, Erina

    2015-12-01

    Morphogenetic epithelial movement occurs during embryogenesis and drives complex tissue formation. However, how epithelial cells coordinate their unidirectional movement while maintaining epithelial integrity is unclear. Here we propose a novel mechanism for collective epithelial cell movement based on Drosophila genitalia rotation, in which epithelial tissue rotates clockwise around the genitalia. We found that this cell movement occurs autonomously and requires myosin II. The moving cells exhibit repeated left-right-biased junction remodelling, while maintaining adhesion with their neighbours, in association with a polarized myosin II distribution. Reducing myosinID, known to cause counter-clockwise epithelial-tissue movement, reverses the myosin II distribution. Numerical simulations revealed that a left-right asymmetry in cell intercalation is sufficient to induce unidirectional cellular movement. The cellular movement direction is also associated with planar cell-shape chirality. These findings support a model in which left-right asymmetric cell intercalation within an epithelial sheet drives collective cellular movement in the same direction.

  16. Different Roles of a Rat Cortical Thymic Epithelial Cell Line In Vitro on Thymocytes and Thymocyte Hybridoma Cells: Phagocytosis, Induction of Apoptosis, Nursing and Growth Promoting Activities

    PubMed Central

    Vučević, Dragana; Čolić, Miodrag; Popović, Petar; Gašić, Sonja

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the interaction between a rat cortical thymic epithelial cell (TEC) line (R-TNC.1) with nursing activity and thymocytes as well as BWRT 8 thymocyte hybridoma (TH) cells has been studied. The R-TNC.1 cell line significantly bound thymocytes and TH. Binding was stronger during the first 30 min of cell incubation and was followed by a progressive deadhesion. Among adherent thymocytes the proportion of apoptotic cells increased with culture time which was a consequence of higher capacity of the line for binding of apoptotic than viable cells and induction of apoptosis in a subset of adherent thymocytes. Emperiopolesis activity of this thymic nurse cell (TNC) line was manifested by engulfment of thymocytes as well as TH cells. A subset of viable intra-TNC thymocytes has been triggered to die by apoptosis, whereas other internalized thymocytes have been stimulated to proliferate, as measured by an increase in the percentage of cells in mitosis and higher incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), in comparison to thymocytes cultivated alone. A significant stimulation of proliferation of engulfed TH cells was also observed. The R-TNC.1 cell line efficiently phagocytosed both apoptotic thymocytes and TH, and the process is followed by intra-TNC destruction of ingested cells. Cumulatively, these results suggest different role of the R-TNC.1 clone: phagocytosis of apoptotic cells; induction of apoptotic cell death in a subset of both bound and internalized thymocytes and stimulation of proliferation of a subset of intra-TNC thymocytes or TH cells. PMID:12739783

  17. Normal Cellular Prion Protein Protects against Manganese-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Christopher J.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Saetveit, Nathan J.; Houk, Robert. S.; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2012-01-01

    The normal prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, but its biological function remains unclear. The prion protein has octapeptide repeat regions that bind to several divalent metals, suggesting that the prion proteins may alter the toxic effect of environmental neurotoxic metals. In the present study, we systematically examined whether prion protein modifies the neurotoxicity of manganese (Mn) by comparing the effect of Mn on mouse neural cells expressing prion protein (PrPC -cells) and prion-knockout (PrPKO -cells). Exposure to Mn (10 μM-1 mM) for 24 hr produced a dose-dependent cytotoxic response in both PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells. Interestingly, PrPC -cells (EC50 117.6μM) were more resistant to Mn-induced cytotoxicity, as compared to PrPKO -cells (EC50 59.9μM), suggesting a protective role for PrPC against Mn neurotoxicity. Analysis of intracellular Mn levels showed less Mn accumulation in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Furthermore, Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS generation were significantly attenuated in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Measurement of antioxidant status revealed similar basal levels of glutathione (GSH) in PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells; however, Mn treatment caused greater depletion of GSH in PrPKO -cells. Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production were followed by time- and dose-dependent activation of the apoptotic cell death cascade involving caspase-9 and -3. Notably, DNA fragmentation induced by both Mn treatment and oxidative stress-inducer hydrogen peroxide (100μM) was significantly suppressed in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Together, these results demonstrate that prion protein interferes with divalent metal Mn uptake and protects against Mn-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. PMID:17483122

  18. Phosphoproteomic analysis of apoptotic hematopoietic stem cells from hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia is particularly common in Southeast Asia and has variable symptoms ranging from mild to severe anemia. Previous investigations demonstrated the remarkable symptoms of β-thalassemia in terms of the acceleration of apoptotic cell death. Ineffective erythropoiesis has been studied in human hematopoietic stem cells, however the distinct apoptotic mechanism was unclear. Methods The phosphoproteome of bone marrow HSCs/CD34+ cells from HbE/β-thalassemic patients was analyzed using IMAC phosphoprotein isolation followed by LC-MS/MS detection. Decyder MS software was used to quantitate differentially expressed proteins in 3 patients and 2 normal donors. The differentially expressed proteins from HSCs/CD34+ cells were compared with HbE/β-thalassemia and normal HSCs. Results A significant change in abundance of 229 phosphoproteins was demonstrated. Importantly, the analysis of the candidate proteins revealed a high abundance of proteins that are commonly found in apoptotic cells including cytochrome C, caspase 6 and apoptosis inducing factors. Moreover, in the HSCs patients a significant increase was observed in a specific type of phosphoserine/threonine binding protein, which is known to act as an important signal mediator for the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis in HbE/β-thalassemia. Conclusions Our study used a novel method to investigate proteins that influence a particular pathway in a given disease or physiological condition. Ultimately, phosphoproteome profiling in HbE/β-thalassemic stem cells is an effective method to further investigate the cell death mechanism of ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia. Our report provides a comprehensive phosphoproteome, an important resource for the study of ineffective erythropoiesis and developing therapies for HbE/β-thalassemia. PMID:21702968

  19. HSP70 mediates survival in apoptotic cells-Boolean network prediction and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Vasaikar, Suhas V; Ghosh, Sourish; Narain, Priyam; Basu, Anirban; Gomes, James

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal stress or injury results in the activation of proteins, which regulate the balance between survival and apoptosis. However, the complex mechanism of cell signaling involving cell death and survival, activated in response to cellular stress is not yet completely understood. To bring more clarity about these mechanisms, a Boolean network was constructed that represented the apoptotic pathway in neuronal cells. FasL and neurotrophic growth factor (NGF) were considered as inputs in the absence and presence of heat shock proteins known to shift the balance toward survival by rescuing pro-apoptotic cells. The probabilities of survival, DNA repair and apoptosis as cellular fates, in the presence of either the growth factor or FasL, revealed a survival bias encoded in the network. Boolean predictions tested by measuring the mRNA level of caspase-3, caspase-8, and BAX in neuronal Neuro2a (N2a) cell line with NGF and FasL as external input, showed positive correlation with the observed experimental results for survival and apoptotic states. It was observed that HSP70 contributed more toward rescuing cells from apoptosis in comparison to HSP27, HSP40, and HSP90. Overexpression of HSP70 in N2a transfected cells showed reversal of cellular fate from FasL-induced apoptosis to survival. Further, the pro-survival role of the proteins BCL2, IAP, cFLIP, and NFκB determined by vertex perturbation analysis was experimentally validated through protein inhibition experiments using EM20-25, Embelin and Wedelolactone, which resulted in 1.27-, 1.26-, and 1.46-fold increase in apoptosis of N2a cells. The existence of a one-to-one correspondence between cellular fates and attractor states shows that Boolean networks may be employed with confidence in qualitative analytical studies of biological networks.

  20. Lung epithelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles activate macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via ROCK1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Moon, H-G; Cao, Y; Yang, J; Lee, J H; Choi, H S; Jin, Y

    2015-12-10

    Despite decades of research, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains poorly understood, thus impeding the development of effective treatment. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and lung epithelial cell death are prominent features of ARDS. Lung epithelial cells are the first line of defense after inhaled stimuli, such as in the case of hyperoxia. We hypothesized that lung epithelial cells release 'messenger' or signaling molecules to adjacent or distant macrophages, thereby initiating or propagating inflammatory responses after noxious insult. We found that, after hyperoxia, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) were generated and released into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These hyperoxia-induced EVs were mainly derived from live lung epithelial cells as the result of hyperoxia-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. These EVs were remarkably different from epithelial 'apoptotic bodies', as reflected by the significantly smaller size and differentially expressed protein markers. These EVs fall mainly in the size range of the exosomes and smaller microvesicles (MVs) (50-120 nm). The commonly featured protein markers of apoptotic bodies were not found in these EVs. Treating alveolar macrophages with hyperoxia-induced, epithelial cell-derived EVs led to an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). Robustly increased macrophage and neutrophil influx was found in the lung tissue of the mice intranasally treated with hyperoxia-induced EVs. It was determined that EV-encapsulated caspase-3 was largely responsible for the alveolar macrophage activation via the ROCK1 pathway. Caspase-3-deficient EVs induced less cytokine/MIP-2 release, reduced cell counts in BALF, less neutrophil infiltration and less inflammation in lung parenchyma, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the serum circulating EVs were increased and mainly derived from lung epithelial cells after

  1. Role of autophagy in the regulation of epithelial cell junctions.

    PubMed

    Nighot, Prashant; Ma, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism by which bulk cytoplasmic material, including soluble macromolecules and organelles, is targeted for lysosomal degradation. The role of autophagy in diverse cellular processes such as metabolic stress, neurodegeneration, cancer, aging, immunity, and inflammatory diseases is being increasingly recognized. Epithelial cell junctions play an integral role in the cell homeostasis via physical binding, regulating paracellular pathways, integrating extracellular cues into intracellular signaling, and cell-cell communication. Recent data indicates that cell junction composition is very dynamic. The junctional protein complexes are actively regulated in response to various intra- and extra-cellular clues by intracellular trafficking and degradation pathways. This review discusses the recent and emerging information on how autophagy regulates various epithelial cell junctions. The knowledge of autophagy regulation of epithelial junctions will provide further rationale for targeting autophagy in a wide variety of human disease conditions. PMID:27583189

  2. Epigenetic regulators governing cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shanaya; Shah, Kanisha; Mirza, Sheefa; Daga, Aditi; Rawal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is amongst the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide with its predominance in the Indian subcontinent due to its etiological behavioral pattern of tobacco consumption. Late diagnosis, low therapeutic response and aggressive metastasis are the foremost confounders accountable for the poor 5 year survival rate of OSCC. These failures are attributed to the existence of "Cancer Stem cell (CSC)" subpopulation within the tumour environment. Quiescence, apoptotic evasion, resistance to DNA damage, abnormal expression of drug transporter pumps and in vivo tumorigenesis are the defining hallmarks of CSC phenotype. These CSCs have been distinguished from the tumor mass by determining the expression patterns of cell surface proteins, specific stemness markers and quantifying the cellular activities such as drug efflux & aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Hence, it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the CSC features in tumor development, metastasis and response to chemotherapy. Increasing evidence suggests that majority of malignant cells eventually undergoing Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) share many biological characteristics with CSCs. Thus, this review encompasses the functional relevance of CSC and EMT markers in OSCC population with a hope to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying cancer progression and to highlight the most relevant epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of CSC features. We further aimed to explore the causal effects of nicotine, a major tobacco carcinogen, on epigenetic mechanisms regulating the OSCC CSCs and EMT markers which unravels the undisputable contribution of tobacco in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:25330402

  3. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446

  4. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing.

  5. Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 induce mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, O. A.; Isaeva, A. V.; Prokhorenko, T. S.; Zima, A. P.; Novitsky, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Cellular malignant transformation is often accompanied by increased gene expression of low-molecular proteins of lectins family-galectins. But it is unknown how galectins promote tumor growth and malignization. Galectins-1 and galectin-3 are thought to be possible immunoregulators exerting their effects by regulating the balance of CD4+ lymphocytes. In addition it is known that tumor cells overexpressing galectins are capable of escaping immunological control, causing apoptosis of lymphocytes. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in the implementation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells. Methods: Jurkat cells were used as a model for the study of T-lymphocytes. Jurkat cells were activated with antibodies to CD3 and CD28 and cultured with recombinant galectin-1 and -3. Apoptosis of Jurkat cells and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. It was found that galectin-1 and galectin-3 have a dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effect on Jurkat cells in vitro and enlarge the number of cells with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential compared with intact cells.

  6. Protective natural autoantibodies to apoptotic cells: evidence of convergent selection of recurrent innate-like clones.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Gregg J

    2015-12-01

    During murine immune development, recurrent B cell clones arise in a predictable fashion. Among these B cells, an archetypical clonotypic set that recognizes phosphorylcholine (PC) antigens and produces anti-PC IgM, first implicated for roles in microbial protection, was later found to become expanded in hyperlipidemic mice and in response to an increased in vivo burden of apoptotic cells. These IgM natural antibodies can enhance clearance of damaged cells and induce intracellular blockade of inflammatory signaling cascades. In clinical populations, raised levels of anti-PC IgM correlate with protection from atherosclerosis and may also downmodulate the severity of autoimmune disease. Human anti-PC-producing clones without hypermutation have been isolated that can similarly discriminate apoptotic from healthy cells. An independent report on unrelated adults has described anti-PC-producing B cells with IgM genes that have conserved CDR3 motifs, similar to stereotypic clonal sets of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Taken together, emerging evidence suggests that, despite the capacity to form an effectively limitless range of Ig receptors, the human immune system may often recurrently generate lymphocytes expressing structurally convergent B cell receptors with protective and homeostatic roles.

  7. DA-6034 Induces [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, Hyewon; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-04-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca(2+) signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca(2+)]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca(2+)]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca(2+) entry from extracellular and Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling via extracellular Ca(2+) entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores in epithelial cells.

  8. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R.; Murugesan, Senthil V.; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D. Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling. PMID:25977510

  9. Trefoil peptides promote restitution of wounded corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Göke, M N; Cook, J R; Kunert, K S; Fini, M E; Gipson, I K; Podolsky, D K

    2001-04-01

    The ocular surface shares many characteristics with mucosal surfaces. In both, healing is regulated by peptide growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. However, these factors are not sufficient to ensure most rapid healing. Trefoil peptides are abundantly expressed epithelial cell products which exert protective effects and are key regulators of gastrointestinal epithelial restitution, the critical early phase of cell migration after mucosal injury. To assess the role of trefoil peptides in corneal epithelial wound healing, the effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF/TFF3) and spasmolytic polypeptide (SP/TFF2) on migration and proliferation of corneal epithelial cells were analyzed. Both ITF and SP enhanced restitution of primary rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro. While the restitution-enhancing effects of TGF-alpha and TGF-beta were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TGF-beta-antibodies, trefoil peptide stimulation of restitution was not. Neither trefoil peptide significantly affected proliferation of primary corneal epithelial cells. ITF but not SP or pS2 mRNA was present in rabbit corneal and conjunctival tissues. In summary, the data indicate an unanticipated role of trefoil peptides in healing of ocular surface and demand rating their functional actions beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chun-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Shelly; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  11. Distinct Modes of Macrophage Recognition for Apoptotic and Necrotic Cells Are Not Specified Exclusively by Phosphatidylserine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, Regina E.; Ucker, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The distinction between physiological (apoptotic) and pathological (necrotic) cell deaths reflects mechanistic differences in cellular disintegration and is of functional significance with respect to the outcomes that are triggered by the cell corpses. Mechanistically, apoptotic cells die via an active and ordered pathway; necrotic deaths, conversely, are chaotic and passive. Macrophages and other phagocytic cells recognize and engulf these dead cells. This clearance is believed to reveal an innate immunity, associated with inflammation in cases of pathological but not physiological cell deaths. Using objective and quantitative measures to assess these processes, we find that macrophages bind and engulf native apoptotic and necrotic cells to similar extents and with similar kinetics. However, recognition of these two classes of dying cells occurs via distinct and noncompeting mechanisms. Phosphatidylserine, which is externalized on both apoptotic and necrotic cells, is not a specific ligand for the recognition of either one. The distinct modes of recognition for these different corpses are linked to opposing responses from engulfing macrophages. Necrotic cells, when recognized, enhance proinflammatory responses of activated macrophages, although they are not sufficient to trigger macrophage activation. In marked contrast, apoptotic cells profoundly inhibit phlogistic macrophage responses; this represents a cell-associated, dominant-acting anti-inflammatory signaling activity acquired posttranslationally during the process of physiological cell death. PMID:11294896

  12. Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bergstralh, Dan T; Lovegrove, Holly E; St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium. Here we test this assumption in three types of Drosophila epithelium; the cuboidal follicle epithelium, the columnar early embryonic ectoderm, and the pseudostratified neuroepithelium. Ectopic expression of Inscuteable in these tissues reorients mitotic spindles, resulting in one daughter cell being born outside the epithelial layer. Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial layer back into it. Our findings reveal a robust mechanism that protects epithelia against the consequences of misoriented divisions. PMID:26414404

  13. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them.

    PubMed

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-28

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  14. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  15. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  16. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  17. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  18. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  19. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Craise, L M

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-LET radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells. PMID:11538024

  20. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  1. A NPxY-independent {beta}5 integrin activation signal regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhwinder; D'mello, Veera; Henegouwen, Paul van Bergen en; Birge, Raymond B.

    2007-12-21

    Integrin receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors with critical functions in cell adhesion and migration, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrins are activated by intracellular signaling that alter the binding affinity for extracellular ligands, so-called inside to outside signaling. A common element for integrin activation involves binding of the cytoskeletal protein talin, via its FERM domain, to a highly conserved NPxY motif in the {beta} chain cytoplasmic tails, which is involved in long-range conformation changes to the extracellular domain that impinges on ligand affinity. When the human beta-5 ({beta}5) integrin cDNA was expressed in {alpha}v positive, {beta}5 and {beta}3 negative hamster CS-1 cells, it promoted NPxY-dependent adhesion to VTN-coated surfaces, phosphorylation of FAK, and concomitantly, {beta}5 integrin-EGFP protein was recruited into talin and paxillin-containing focal adhesions. Expression of a NPxY destabilizing {beta}5 mutant (Y750A) abrogated adhesion and {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP was excluded from focal adhesions at the tips of stress fibers. Surprisingly, expression of {beta}5 Y750A integrin had a potent gain-of-function effect on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, and further, a {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP fusion integrin readily bound MFG-E8-coated 10 {mu}m diameter microspheres developed as apoptotic cell mimetics. The critical sequences in {beta}5 integrin were mapped to a YEMAS motif just proximal to the NPxY motif. Our studies suggest that the phagocytic function of {beta}5 integrin is regulated by an unconventional NPxY-talin-independent activation signal and argue for the existence of molecular switches in the {beta}5 cytoplasmic tail for adhesion and phagocytosis.

  2. Pineapple bromelain induces autophagy, facilitating apoptotic response in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Prakash, Bharti; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-01-01

    Bromelain, from pineapple, possesses potent anticancer effects. We investigated autophagic phenomenon in mammary carcinoma cells (estrogen receptor positive and negative) under bromelain treatment and also illustrated the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells exposed to bromelain showed delayed growth inhibitory response and induction of autophagy, identified by monodansylcadaverine localization. It was succeeded by apoptotic cell death, evident by sub-G1 cell fraction and apoptotic features like chromatin condensation and nuclear cleavage. 3-Methyladenine (MA, autophagy inhibitor) pretreatment reduced the bromelain-induced autophagic level, also leading to decline in apoptotic population, indicating that here autophagy facilitates apoptosis. However, addition of caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK augmented the autophagy levels, inhibited morphological apoptosis but did not prevent cell death. Next, we found that bromelain downregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK½), whereas that of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase were upregulated. Also, MA had no influence on bromelain-suppressed ERK½ activation, yet, it downregulated JNK and p38 activation. Also, addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors enhanced the autophagic ratios, which suggested the role of MAP kinases in bromelain-induced autophagy. All three MAPKs were seen to be constantly activated over the time. Bromelain was seen to induce the expressions of autophagy-related proteins, light chain 3 protein B II (LC3BII), and beclin-1. Using ERK½ inhibitor, expressions of LC3BII and beclin-1 increased, whereas p38 and JNK inhibitors decreased this protein expression, indicating that bromelain-induced autophagy was positively regulated by p38 and JNK but negatively regulated by ERK½. Autophagy-inducing property of bromelain can be further exploited in breast cancer therapy.

  3. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

  4. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Di, Guohu; Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Yao; Qi, Xia; Duan, Haoyun; Xie, Lixin

    2015-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a well-known neuroprotective cytokine, has been found to play an important role in neurogenesis and functional regulations of neural stem cells. As one of the most innervated tissue, however, the role of CNTF in cornea epithelium remains unclear. This study was to explore the roles and mechanisms of CNTF in the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and wound healing of both normal and diabetic mouse corneal epithelium. In mice subjecting to mechanical removal of corneal epithelium, the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing were promoted by exogenous CNTF application, while delayed by CNTF neutralizing antibody. In cultured corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, CNTF enhanced the colony-forming efficiency, stimulated the mitogenic proliferation, and upregulated the expression levels of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell-associated transcription factors. Furthermore, the promotion of CNTF on the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing was mediated by the activation of STAT3. Moreover, in diabetic mice, the content of CNTF in corneal epithelium decreased significantly when compared with that of normal mice, and the supplement of CNTF promoted the diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing, accompanied with the advanced activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and the regeneration of corneal nerve fibers. Thus, the capability of expanding corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and promoting corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration indicates the potential application of CNTF in ameliorating limbal stem cell deficiency and treating diabetic keratopathy.

  5. Heterogeneity and stochastic growth regulation of biliary epithelial cells dictate dynamic epithelial tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kamimoto, Kenji; Kaneko, Kota; Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Okada, Hajime; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic remodeling of the intrahepatic biliary epithelial tissue plays key roles in liver regeneration, yet the cellular basis for this process remains unclear. We took an unbiased approach based on in vivo clonal labeling and tracking of biliary epithelial cells in the three-dimensional landscape, in combination with mathematical simulation, to understand their mode of proliferation in a mouse liver injury model where the nascent biliary structure formed in a tissue-intrinsic manner. An apparent heterogeneity among biliary epithelial cells was observed: whereas most of the responders that entered the cell cycle upon injury exhibited a limited and tapering growth potential, a select population continued to proliferate, making a major contribution in sustaining the biliary expansion. Our study has highlighted a unique mode of epithelial tissue dynamics, which depends not on a hierarchical system driven by fixated stem cells, but rather, on a stochastically maintained progenitor population with persistent proliferative activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15034.001 PMID:27431614

  6. Microsphere-based intracellular sensing of caspase-3/7 in apoptotic living cells.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Maestre, Juan Manuel; Pérez-López, Ana M; Bradley, Mark; Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M

    2014-07-01

    A novel multifunctional probe to monitor intracellular enzymatic activity in living cells is successfully developed. Their use as accurate intracellular sensors by conjugation of an internal control (that gives an extra feature to both evaluate cellular-uptake efficiency and track probes over time) is reported. In particular, a specific application of these multifunctional microspheres as sensors of caspase-3/7 to monitor apoptosis by flow cytometry is described. The preparation of these devices together with a kinetic study towards caspase-3 and caspase-7 and their evaluation as flow cytometry probe in apoptotic living cells are reported.

  7. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  8. Trans-sialidase Stimulates Eat Me Response from Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Claire E; de Carvalho, Tecia M U; Grisard, Edmundo C; Field, Robert A; Tyler, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell invasion by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is enhanced by the presence of an enzyme expressed on its cell surface during the trypomastigote life cycle stage. The enzyme, trans-sialidase (TS), is a member of one of the largest gene families expressed by the parasite and the role of its activity in mediating epithelial cell entry has not hitherto been understood. Here we show that the T. cruzi TS generates an eat me signal which is capable of enabling epithelial cell entry. We have utilized purified, recombinant, active (TcTS) and inactive (TcTS2V0) TS coated onto beads to challenge an epithelial cell line. We find that TS activity acts upon G protein coupled receptors present at the epithelial cell synapse with the coated bead, thereby enhancing cell entry. By so doing, we provide evidence that TS proteins bind glycans, mediate the formation of distinct synaptic domains and promote macropinocytotic uptake of microparticles into a perinuclear compartment in a manner which may emulate entosis. PMID:23601193

  9. Mechanobiology in Lung Epithelial Cells: Measurements, Perturbations, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Christopher M.; Roan, Esra; Navajas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the lung are located at the interface between the environment and the organism and serve many important functions including barrier protection, fluid balance, clearance of particulate, initiation of immune responses, mucus and surfactant production, and repair following injury. Because of the complex structure of the lung and its cyclic deformation during the respiratory cycle, epithelial cells are exposed to continuously varying levels of mechanical stresses. While normal lung function is maintained under these conditions, changes in mechanical stresses can have profound effects on the function of epithelial cells and therefore the function of the organ. In this review, we will describe the types of stresses and strains in the lungs, how these are transmitted, and how these may vary in human disease or animal models. Many approaches have been developed to better understand how cells sense and respond to mechanical stresses, and we will discuss these approaches and how they have been used to study lung epithelial cells in culture. Understanding how cells sense and respond to changes in mechanical stresses will contribute to our understanding of the role of lung epithelial cells during normal function and development and how their function may change in diseases such as acute lung injury, asthma, emphysema, and fibrosis. PMID:23728969

  10. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release.

  11. Complement activation by necrotic cells in normal plasma environment compares to that by late apoptotic cells and involves predominantly IgM.

    PubMed

    Ciurana, Caroline L F; Zwart, Bas; van Mierlo, Gerard; Hack, C Erik

    2004-09-01

    Necrotic cells are generally considered to stimulate inflammation, whereas apoptotic cells should not. However, apoptotic cells have pro-inflammatory properties since they can activate complement. To what extent this activation compares to that by necrotic cells is not known. We compared complement activation by necrotic cells and apoptotic cells in plasma. Jurkat cells were made apoptotic or necrotic by incubation with etoposide or by heat shock, respectively. Cells incubated in recalcified plasma were tested for C3 and C4 fixation and fluid phase generation of complement activation products. Fixation of C3 and C4 to necrotic cells occurred mainly via the classical pathway, independent from the method of necrosis induction and the cell type. Depletion of IgM from plasma almost completely abrogated complement fixation by necrotic cells, which was restored by supplementation with purified IgM. Complement activation by late apoptotic cells was comparable to that by necrotic cells regarding the extent and dependence on IgM. Moreover, incubation of plasma with necrotic or late apoptotic cells led to the generation of comparable amounts of complement activation products. These results indicate that late apoptotic and necrotic cells employ similar complement activation mechanisms in the plasma environment.

  12. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of modified deoxynivalenol on porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Nathan; Devreese, Mathias; Demeyere, Kristel; Berthiller, Franz; Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Meyer, Evelyne; Croubels, Siska

    2016-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the first target after ingestion of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) via feed and food. Deoxynivalenol is known to affect the proliferation and viability of animal and human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition to DON, feed and food is often co-contaminated with modified forms of DON, such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON3G). The goal of this study was to determine the in vitro intrinsic cytotoxicity of these modified forms towards differentiated and proliferative porcine intestinal epithelial cells by means of flow cytometry. Cell death was assessed by dual staining with Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI), which allows the discrimination of viable (FITC-/PI-), apoptotic (FITC+/PI-) and necrotic cells (FITC+/PI+). Based on the data from the presented pilot in vitro study, it is concluded that cytotoxicity for proliferative cells can be ranked as follows: DON3G ≪ 3ADON < DON≈15ADON. PMID:27338712

  13. Repression of SRF target genes is critical for Myc-dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Katrin E; Haikala, Heidi M; von Eyss, Björn; Wolf, Elmar; Esnault, Cyril; Rosenwald, Andreas; Treisman, Richard; Klefström, Juha; Eilers, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic levels of Myc expression sensitize cells to multiple apoptotic stimuli, and this protects long-lived organisms from cancer development. How cells discriminate physiological from supraphysiological levels of Myc is largely unknown. Here, we show that induction of apoptosis by Myc in breast epithelial cells requires association of Myc with Miz1. Gene expression and ChIP-Sequencing experiments show that high levels of Myc invade target sites that lack consensus E-boxes in a complex with Miz1 and repress transcription. Myc/Miz1-repressed genes encode proteins involved in cell adhesion and migration and include several integrins. Promoters of repressed genes are enriched for binding sites of the serum-response factor (SRF). Restoring SRF activity antagonizes Myc repression of SRF target genes, attenuates Myc-induced apoptosis, and reverts a Myc-dependent decrease in Akt phosphorylation and activity, a well-characterized suppressor of Myc-induced apoptosis. We propose that high levels of Myc engage Miz1 in repressive DNA binding complexes and suppress an SRF-dependent transcriptional program that supports survival of epithelial cells. PMID:25896507

  14. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of modified deoxynivalenol on porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Nathan; Devreese, Mathias; Demeyere, Kristel; Berthiller, Franz; Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Meyer, Evelyne; Croubels, Siska

    2016-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the first target after ingestion of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) via feed and food. Deoxynivalenol is known to affect the proliferation and viability of animal and human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition to DON, feed and food is often co-contaminated with modified forms of DON, such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON3G). The goal of this study was to determine the in vitro intrinsic cytotoxicity of these modified forms towards differentiated and proliferative porcine intestinal epithelial cells by means of flow cytometry. Cell death was assessed by dual staining with Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI), which allows the discrimination of viable (FITC-/PI-), apoptotic (FITC+/PI-) and necrotic cells (FITC+/PI+). Based on the data from the presented pilot in vitro study, it is concluded that cytotoxicity for proliferative cells can be ranked as follows: DON3G ≪ 3ADON < DON≈15ADON.

  15. Active p21-activated kinase 1 rescues MCF10A breast epithelial cells from undergoing anoikis.

    PubMed

    Menard, Raymond E; Jovanovski, Andrew P; Mattingly, Raymond R

    2005-07-01

    The protein kinase, PAK1, is overexpressed in human breast cancer and may contribute to malignancy through induction of proliferation and invasiveness. In this study, we examined the role of PAK1 in the survival of detached MCF10A breast epithelial cells to test whether it may also regulate the early stages of neoplasia. MCF10A cells undergo anoikis, as measured by the cleavage of caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), after more than 8 hours of detachment. Endogenous Akt, PAK1, and BAD are phosphorylated in attached MCF10A cells, but these phosphorylation events are all lost during the first 8 hours of detachment. Expression of constitutively active PAK1 or Akt suppresses the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP in detached MCF10A cells. Co-overexpression of active PAK1 with dominant-negative Akt, or of active Akt with dominant-negative PAK1, still suppresses anoikis. Thus, Akt and PAK1 enhance survival through pathways that are at least partially independent. PAK1-dependent regulation of anoikis is likely to occur early in the apoptotic cascade as expression of dominant-negative PAK1 increased the cleavage of the upstream caspase 9, while constitutively active PAK1 inhibited caspase 9 activation. These results support a role for activated PAK1 in the suppression of anoikis in MCF10A epithelial cells.

  16. Ozone exposed epithelial cells modify cocultured natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) causes significant adverse health effects worldwide. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are among the first sites within the respiratory system to be exposed to inhaled air pollutants. They recruit, activate, and interact with immune cells via soluble mediators and direct cell-cell contacts. Based on our recent observation demonstrating the presence of natural killer (NK) cells in nasal lavages, the goal of this study was to establish a coculture model of NECs and NK cells and examine how exposure to O3 modifies this interaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess immunophenotypes of NK cells cocultured with either air- or O3-exposed NECs. Our data show that coculturing NK cells with O3-exposed NECs decreased intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ), enhanced, albeit not statistically significant, IL-4, and increased CD16 expression on NK cells compared with air controls. Additionally, the cytotoxicity potential of NK cells was reduced after coculturing with O3-exposed NECs. To determine whether soluble mediators released by O3-exposed NECs caused this shift, apical and basolateral supernatants of air- and O3-exposed NECs were used to stimulate NK cells. While the conditioned media of O3-exposed NECs alone did not reduce intracellular IFN-γ, O3 enhanced the expression of NK cell ligands ULBP3 and MICA/B on NECs. Blocking ULBP3 and MICA/B reversed the effects of O3-exposed NECs on IFN-γ production in NK cells. Taken together, these data showed that interactions between NECs and NK cells in the context of O3 exposure changes NK cell activity via direct cell-cell interactions and is dependent on ULBP3/MICA/B expressed on NECs. PMID:23241529

  17. Cell division and the maintenance of epithelial order

    PubMed Central

    Ragkousi, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Epithelia are polarized layers of adherent cells that are the building blocks for organ and appendage structures throughout animals. To preserve tissue architecture and barrier function during both homeostasis and rapid growth, individual epithelial cells divide in a highly constrained manner. Building on decades of research focused on single cells, recent work is probing the mechanisms by which the dynamic process of mitosis is reconciled with the global maintenance of epithelial order during development. These studies reveal how symmetrically dividing cells both exploit and conform to tissue organization to orient their mitotic spindles during division and establish new adhesive junctions during cytokinesis. PMID:25349258

  18. Angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts: mimic of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Taneja, Samir S; Melamed, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts (AMLEC) is a rare variant of angiomyolipoma with minimal fat that contains epithelial-lined cysts and may mimic a cystic renal cell carcinoma. While 17 cases have been described in the pathology literature since this entity was first described in 2006, the radiologic appearance was not demonstrated in any of these cases. We report the CT and MRI appearance of AMLEC found incidentally in a patient with lupus nephritis.

  19. Investigation of the apoptotic pathway induced by benzimidazole-oxindole conjugates against human breast cancer cells MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Lakshma Nayak, Vadithe; Nagaseshadri, Bobburi; Vishnuvardhan, M V P S; Kamal, Ahmed

    2016-07-15

    In our previous studies, benzimidazole-oxindole conjugates were synthesized and evaluated by National Cancer Institute (NCI) for their cytotoxic activity and the new molecules like 5c and 5p were considered as potential leads. These conjugates arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase and inhibited tubulin polymerization. These observations prompted us to investigate the apoptotic mechanism induced by these lead molecules against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Studies like measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC assay revealed that these compounds induced mitochondrial mediated (intrinsic apoptotic pathway) apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. It was further confirmed by western blot analysis of pro apoptotic protein Bax, anti apoptotic protein Bcl-2, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activity and cleavage of PARP. PMID:27262596

  20. T Cell/Transmembrane, Ig, and Mucin-3 Allelic Variants Differentially Recognize Phosphatidylserine and Mediate Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Bu, Xia; Ballesteros, Angela; Santiago, César; Chim, Yee-Ling E.; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Karisola, Piia; Pichavant, Muriel; Kaplan, Gerardo G.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Casasnovas, José M.

    2011-01-01

    T cell/transmembrane, Ig, and mucin (TIM) proteins, identified using a congenic mouse model of asthma, critically regulate innate and adaptive immunity. TIM-1 and TIM-4 are receptors for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), exposed on the surfaces of apoptotic cells. Herein, we show with structural and biological studies that TIM-3 is also a receptor for PtdSer that binds in a pocket on the N-terminal IgV domain in coordination with a calcium ion. The TIM-3/PtdSer structure is similar to that of TIM-4/PtdSer, reflecting a conserved PtdSer binding mode by TIM family members. Fibroblastic cells expressing mouse or human TIM-3 bound and phagocytosed apoptotic cells, with the BALB/c allelic variant of mouse TIM-3 showing a higher capacity than the congenic C.D2 Es-Hba–allelic variant. These functional differences were due to structural differences in the BC loop of the IgV domain of the TIM-3 polymorphic variants. In contrast to fibroblastic cells, T or B cells expressing TIM-3 formed conjugates with but failed to engulf apoptotic cells. Together these findings indicate that TIM-3–expressing cells can respond to apoptotic cells, but the consequence of TIM-3 engagement of PtdSer depends on the polymorphic variants of and type of cell expressing TIM-3. These findings establish a new paradigm for TIM proteins as PtdSer receptors and unify the function of the TIM gene family, which has been associated with asthma and autoimmunity and shown to modulate peripheral tolerance. PMID:20083673

  1. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  3. Canarypox Virus-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells Is Mediated by Apoptotic Cell Death and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Ralf; Marovich, Mary; Mehlhop, Erin; Villamide, Loreley; Mahnke, Karsten; Cox, William I.; Isdell, Frank; Frankel, Sarah S.; Mascola, John R.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Pope, Melissa

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant avipox viruses are being widely evaluated as vaccines. To address how these viruses, which replicate poorly in mammalian cells, might be immunogenic, we studied how canarypox virus (ALVAC) interacts with primate antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). When human and rhesus macaque monocyte-derived DCs were exposed to recombinant ALVAC, immature DCs were most susceptible to infection. However, many of the infected cells underwent apoptotic cell death, and dying infected cells were engulfed by uninfected DCs. Furthermore, a subset of DCs matured in the ALVAC-exposed DC cultures. DC maturation coincided with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion and was significantly blocked in the presence of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Interestingly, inhibition of apoptosis with a caspase 3 inhibitor also reduced some of the maturation induced by exposure to ALVAC. This indicates that both TNF-α and the presence of primarily apoptotic cells contributed to DC maturation. Therefore, infection of immature primate DCs with ALVAC results in apoptotic death of infected cells, which can be internalized by noninfected DCs driving DC maturation in the presence of the TNF-α secreted concomitantly by exposed cells. This suggests an important mechanism that may influence the immunogenicity of avipox virus vectors. PMID:11070033

  4. Change in Cell Shape Is Required for Matrix Metalloproteinase-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a “cuboidal” epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-β-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents. PMID:18506791

  5. Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2008-06-26

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.

  6. Role of TASK2 in the control of apoptotic volume decrease in proximal kidney cells.

    PubMed

    L'Hoste, Sébastien; Poet, Mallorie; Duranton, Christophe; Belfodil, Radia; é Barriere, Herv; Rubera, Isabelle; Tauc, Michel; Poujeol, Chantal; Barhanin, Jacques; Poujeol, Phillipe

    2007-12-14

    Apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) is prerequisite to apoptotic events that lead to cell death. In a previous study, we demonstrated in kidney proximal cells that the TASK2 channel was involved in the K+ efflux that occurred during regulatory volume decrease. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the TASK2 channel in the regulation of AVD and apoptosis phenomenon. For this purpose renal cells were immortalized from primary cultures of proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) from wild type and TASK2 knock-out mice (task2-/-). Apoptosis was induced by staurosporine, cyclosporin A, or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cell volume, K+ conductance, caspase-3, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were monitored during AVD. In wild type PCT cells the K+ conductance activated during AVD exhibited characteristics of TASK2 currents. In task2-/- PCT cells, AVD and caspase activation were reduced by 59%. Whole cell recordings indicated that large conductance calcium-activated K+ currents inhibited by iberiotoxin (BK channels) partially compensated for the deletion of TASK2 K+ currents in the task2-/- PCT cells. This result explained the residual AVD measured in these cells. In both cell lines, apoptosis was mediated via intracellular ROS increase. Moreover AVD, K+ conductances, and caspase-3 were strongly impaired by ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, the main K+ channels involved in staurosporine, cyclosporin A, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced AVD are TASK2 K+ channels in proximal wild type cells and iberiotoxin-sensitive BK channels in proximal task2-/- cells. Both K+ channels could be activated by ROS production.

  7. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol affect rat intestinal epithelial cells: a concentration related study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuseppe; Fontanella, Bianca; Severino, Lorella; Quaroni, Andrea; Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the gastrointestinal tract represents a crucial first level defence against ingested toxins. Among them, Nivalenol is a trichotecenes mycotoxin frequently found on cereals and processed grains; when it contaminates human food and animal feed it is often associated with another widespread contaminant, Deoxynivalenol. Following their ingestion, intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to concentrations of these trichothecenes high enough to cause mycotoxicosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol on intestinal cells in an in vitro model system utilizing the non-tumorigenic rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Both Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol (5-80 µM) significantly affected IEC-6 viability through a pro-apoptotic process which mainly involved the following steps: (i) Bax induction; (ii) Bcl-2 inhibition, and (iii) caspase-3 activation. Moreover, treatment with Nivalenol produced a significant cell cycle arrest of IEC-6 cells, primarily at the G(0)/G(1) interphase and in the S phase, with a concomitant reduction in the fraction of cells in G(2). Interestingly, when administered at lower concentrations (0.1-2.5 µM), both Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol affected epithelial cell migration (restitution), representing the initial step in gastrointestinal wound healing in the gut. This reduced motility was associated with significant remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, and changes in expression of connexin-43 and focal adhesion kinase. The concentration range of Nivalenol or Deoxynivalenol we have tested is comparable with the mean estimated daily intake of consumers eating contaminated food. Thus, our results further highlight the risks associated with intake of even low levels of these toxins. PMID:23251682

  8. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol affect rat intestinal epithelial cells: a concentration related study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuseppe; Fontanella, Bianca; Severino, Lorella; Quaroni, Andrea; Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the gastrointestinal tract represents a crucial first level defence against ingested toxins. Among them, Nivalenol is a trichotecenes mycotoxin frequently found on cereals and processed grains; when it contaminates human food and animal feed it is often associated with another widespread contaminant, Deoxynivalenol. Following their ingestion, intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to concentrations of these trichothecenes high enough to cause mycotoxicosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol on intestinal cells in an in vitro model system utilizing the non-tumorigenic rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Both Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol (5-80 µM) significantly affected IEC-6 viability through a pro-apoptotic process which mainly involved the following steps: (i) Bax induction; (ii) Bcl-2 inhibition, and (iii) caspase-3 activation. Moreover, treatment with Nivalenol produced a significant cell cycle arrest of IEC-6 cells, primarily at the G(0)/G(1) interphase and in the S phase, with a concomitant reduction in the fraction of cells in G(2). Interestingly, when administered at lower concentrations (0.1-2.5 µM), both Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol affected epithelial cell migration (restitution), representing the initial step in gastrointestinal wound healing in the gut. This reduced motility was associated with significant remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, and changes in expression of connexin-43 and focal adhesion kinase. The concentration range of Nivalenol or Deoxynivalenol we have tested is comparable with the mean estimated daily intake of consumers eating contaminated food. Thus, our results further highlight the risks associated with intake of even low levels of these toxins.

  9. Apoptotic effects of non-edible parts of Punica granatum on human multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Kiraz, Yağmur; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Rummun, Nawraj; Baran, Yusuf

    2016-02-01

    Multiple myeloma is of great concern since existing therapies are unable to cure this clinical condition. Alternative therapeutic approaches are mandatory, and the use of plant extracts is considered interesting. Punica granatum and its derived products were suggested as potential anticancer agents due to the presence of bioactive compounds. Thus, polypenolic-rich extracts of the non-edible parts of P. granatum were investigated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on U266 multiple myeloma cells. We demonstrated that there were dose-dependent decreases in the proliferation of U266 cells in response to P. granatum extracts. Also, exposure to the extracts triggered apoptosis with significant increases in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U266 cells exposed to the leaves and stem extracts, while the flower extract resulted in slight increases in loss of MMP. These results were confirmed by Annexin-V analysis. These results documented the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of P. granatum extracts on human U266 multiple myeloma cells via disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing cell cycle arrest. The data suggest that the extracts can be envisaged in cancer chemoprevention and call for further exploration into the potential application of these plant parts.

  10. Cathepsin B launches an apoptotic exit effort upon cell death-associated disruption of lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, MAG; Bunt, G; Wouters, FS

    2016-01-01

    The release of cathepsin proteases from disrupted lysosomes results in lethal cellular autodigestion. Lysosomal disruption-related cell death is highly variable, showing both apoptotic and necrotic outcomes. As the substrate spectrum of lysosomal proteases encompasses the apoptosis-regulating proteins of the Bcl-2 family, their degradation could influence the cell death outcome upon lysosomal disruption. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors to image the real-time degradation of the Bcl-2-family members, Bcl-xl, Bax and Bid, in living cells undergoing lysosomal lysis and identified an early chain of proteolytic events, initiated by the release of cathepsin B, which directs cells toward apoptosis. In this apoptotic exit strategy, cathepsin B’s proteolytic activity results in apoptosis-inducing Bid and removes apoptosis-preventing Bcl-xl. Cathepsin B furthermore appears to degrade a cystein protease that would otherwise have eliminated apoptosis-supporting Bax, indirectly keeping cellular levels of the Bax protein up. The concerted effort of these three early events shifts the balance of cell fate away from necrosis and toward apoptosis. PMID:27551506

  11. Cathepsin B launches an apoptotic exit effort upon cell death-associated disruption of lysosomes.

    PubMed

    de Castro, M A G; Bunt, G; Wouters, F S

    2016-01-01

    The release of cathepsin proteases from disrupted lysosomes results in lethal cellular autodigestion. Lysosomal disruption-related cell death is highly variable, showing both apoptotic and necrotic outcomes. As the substrate spectrum of lysosomal proteases encompasses the apoptosis-regulating proteins of the Bcl-2 family, their degradation could influence the cell death outcome upon lysosomal disruption. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors to image the real-time degradation of the Bcl-2-family members, Bcl-xl, Bax and Bid, in living cells undergoing lysosomal lysis and identified an early chain of proteolytic events, initiated by the release of cathepsin B, which directs cells toward apoptosis. In this apoptotic exit strategy, cathepsin B's proteolytic activity results in apoptosis-inducing Bid and removes apoptosis-preventing Bcl-xl. Cathepsin B furthermore appears to degrade a cystein protease that would otherwise have eliminated apoptosis-supporting Bax, indirectly keeping cellular levels of the Bax protein up. The concerted effort of these three early events shifts the balance of cell fate away from necrosis and toward apoptosis. PMID:27551506

  12. Cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by SDS-solubilized single-walled carbon nanotubes in normal rat kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chang-Won; Kang, Su-Jin; Kang, Youn Kyung; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2011-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), promising novel nanomaterials, have been applied to drug delivery and bio-imaging; however, their potential harmful effects on human health and environment have gained much attention recently. In the present study, we investigated cytotoxic effect of solubilized single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), which were dispersed in water by sodium dodesyl sulfate (SDS), in normal rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E). SDS-SWCNT (0.125-10 μg/mL)-treated NRK-52E cells showed decreased cell viability and enhanced cytotoxicity marker levels following 24-48 h incubation. In addition, SDS-SWCNT treatment evoked the cell growth inhibition: 8 μg/mL SDS-SWCNT induced the growth arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase and levels of cell cycle-related proteins such as CDK2, CDK6 and phosphorylated-retinoblastoma (pRB) were significantly reduced by CNT. Whereas, at higher concentration of SDS-SWCNT, the percentage of cell numbers in apoptotic sub-G(1) phase was substantially increased. Along with these changes, SDS-SWCNT treatment elevated protein levels for p53 and p21 with a concomitant increase in the single strand DNA breakage. Taken together, these results suggest that SDS-solubilized SWCNTs exert genotoxic effect in renal epithelial cells, and p53-dependent signaling can be associated with the growth arrest and apoptosis events upon CNT-induced DNA damage.

  13. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells grown from explants.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, Asma; Zaman, Aisha; Dolovich, Myrna

    2010-01-01

    Human bronchial epithelial cells are needed for cell models of disease and to investigate the effect of excipients and pharmacologic agents on the function and structure of human epithelial cells. Here we describe in detail the method of growing bronchial epithelial cells from bronchial airway tissue that is harvested by the surgeon at the times of lung surgery (e.g. lung cancer or lung volume reduction surgery). With ethics approval and informed consent, the surgeon takes what is needed for pathology and provides us with a bronchial portion that is remote from the diseased areas. The tissue is then used as a source of explants that can be used for growing primary bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Bronchial segments about 0.5-1cm long and < or =1cm in diameter are rinsed with cold EBSS and excess parenchymal tissue is removed. Segments are cut open and minced into 2-3mm(3) pieces of tissue. The pieces are used as a source of primary cells. After coating 100mm culture plates for 1-2 hr with a combination of collagen (30 microg/ml), fibronectin (10 microg/ml), and BSA (10 microg/ml), the plates are scratched in 4-5 areas and tissue pieces are placed in the scratched areas, then culture medium (DMEM/Ham F-12 with additives) suitable for epithelial cell growth is added and plates are placed in an incubator at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) humidified air. The culture medium is changed every 3-4 days. The epithelial cells grow from the pieces forming about 1.5 cm diameter rings in 3-4 weeks. Explants can be re-used up to 6 times by moving them into new pre-coated plates. Cells are lifted using trypsin/EDTA, pooled, counted, and re-plated in T75 Cell Bind flasks to increase their numbers. T75 flasks seeded with 2-3 million cells grow to 80% confluence in 4 weeks. Expanded primary human epithelial cells can be cultured and allowed to differentiate on air-liquid interface. Methods described here provide an abundant source of human bronchial epithelial cells from freshly

  14. Apoptotic-like programed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    PubMed Central

    Shlezinger, Neta; Goldfinger, Nir; Sharon, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Studies conducted in the early 1990s showed for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well-documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologs of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with aging and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programed cell death (PCD) instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts) and multicellular (filamentous) species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis. PMID:22891165

  15. Apoptotic-like programed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species.

    PubMed

    Shlezinger, Neta; Goldfinger, Nir; Sharon, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Studies conducted in the early 1990s showed for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well-documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologs of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with aging and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programed cell death (PCD) instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts) and multicellular (filamentous) species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis. PMID:22891165

  16. The involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in eugenol-induced cell death in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol, a natural phenolic constituent of clove oil, has a wide range of applications in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. However, the effect of eugenol on human glioblastoma is unclear. This study examined whether eugenol elevated intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) and induced apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells. Eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises which were reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). Eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises were not altered by store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers but were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonist capsazepine. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 significantly inhibited eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Eugenol killed cells which were not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Eugenol induced apoptosis through increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, releasing cytochrome c and activating caspase-9/caspase-3. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells, eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum and caused Ca(2+) influx possibly through TRPM8 or PKC-sensitive channels. Furthermore, eugenol induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:25455450

  17. Different apoptotic effects of saxifragifolin C in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kwak, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Byung Oh; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is currently the most common form of cancer affecting women. Recent studies have reported that triterpenoid saponins isolated from Androsace umbellata exhibit anti-proliferative effects in several types of cancer cells. However, the cytotoxic effect of saxifragifolin C (Saxi C) on breast cancer cells remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro anti-tumor activity of Saxi C in human breast cancer cells. Our data indicated that MDA-MB-231 cells were more sensitive than MCF-7 cells to Saxi C treatment. In addition, Saxi C inhibited cell survival through the induction of reactive oxygen species and the caspase-dependent pathway in the MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas MCF-7 cells treated with Saxi C underwent the apoptotic cell death in a caspase-independent manner. Although Saxi C treatment resulted in the induction of activation of MAPKs in both types of human breast cancer cells, p38 MAPK and JNK, but not ERK1/2, appeared to be involved in Saxi C-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ERα-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells remained alive, whereas the survival of shERα-transfected MCF-7 cells decreased. Taken together, Saxi C induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells via different regulatory mechanisms, and ERα status might be essential for regulating Saxi C-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Thus, Saxi C is a potential chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer. PMID:26965415

  18. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    SciTech Connect

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  19. Decline in NAD(P)H autofluorescence precedes apoptotic cell death from chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toms, Steven A.; Muhammad, Osman; Jackson, Heather; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2005-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Optical spectroscopic tools exist that allow open surgical and minimally invasive assays of intrinsic tissue optics. Optical detection of cellular and tissue viability may offer a minimally invasive way to assess tumor responsiveness to chemotherapies. We report on an optical spectroscopic change that precedes apoptotic cell death and appears related to NAD(P)H autofluorescence. METHODS: The cell lines SW 480 and U87-MG were grown in culture and treated with cisplatin 100 μg/ml and tamoxifen 10 μM, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy at 355 nm excitation and 460 nm emission were collected. MTS assays were used to determine cell viability. Cell lysates were analyzed for NAD(P)H concentrations by mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: Autoflourescence at 355 nm excitation and 460 nm emission declines markedly despite normalization for cell number and total protein concentration after treatment with tamoxifen or cisplatin. The autofluorescence drop precedes the loss of cell viability as measured by MTS assay. For example, the relative viability of the U87-MG cell treated with tamoxifen at hours 0, 8, 12 and 24 of treatment was 100 +/- 6, 85 +/- 6, 53 +/- 9 and 0 +/- 3. The relative fluorescence at the same time points were 100 +/- 2, 57 +/- 6, 47 +/- 3, and 0 +/- 1. TUNNEL assays confirm that cell death is via apoptosis. The key cellular fluorophore at these wavelengths is NAD(P)H. Mass spectroscopic analysis of cell lysates at these time points reveals a drop in NAD(P)H concentrations that is parallel to the loss of fluorescence signal. CONCLUSIONS: NAD(P)H autofluoresence decline precedes apoptotic cell death. This may allow the design of minimally invasive spectroscopic tools to monitor chemotherapeutic response.

  20. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Haka, Abigail S; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J; Hudis, Clifford A; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2016-06-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. PMID:27044658

  1. CCR5 blockage by maraviroc induces cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Asim; Ansari, Shariq; Berger, Martin R; Adwan, Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Alterations in the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5 or CD195) have been correlated with disease progression in different cancers. Recently, a few investigations have reported the blockage of this receptor by an antagonist (maraviroc) and its antineoplastic effects on tumor cell growth. However, little is known about the mechanistic reasons behind these antineoplastic effects of CCR5 blockage by maraviroc. In this study, we blocked the CCR5 receptor by maraviroc in SW480 and SW620 colorectal cancer cells to study the resulting changes in biological properties and related pathways. This blockage induced significantly reduced proliferation and a profound arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle. Concomitantly, maraviroc caused significant signs of apoptosis at morphological level. Significant modulation of multiple apoptosis-relevant genes was also noticed at mRNA levels. In addition, we found remarkable increases in cleaved caspases at protein level. These modulations led us to propose a signaling pathway for the observed apoptotic effects. In conclusion, blocking the CCR5 by maraviroc induces significant cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, maraviroc can be considered a model compound, which may foster the development of further CCR5 antagonists to be used for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  2. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation[S

    PubMed Central

    Haka, Abigail S.; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C.; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. PMID:27044658

  3. Golgi Anti-apoptotic Proteins Are Highly Conserved Ion Channels That Affect Apoptosis and Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Guia; Saraiva, Nuno; Parsons, Maddy; Byrne, Bernadette; Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Golgi anti-apoptotic proteins (GAAPs) are multitransmembrane proteins that are expressed in the Golgi apparatus and are able to homo-oligomerize. They are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and are present in some prokaryotes and orthopoxviruses. Within eukaryotes, GAAPs regulate the Ca2+ content of intracellular stores, inhibit apoptosis, and promote cell adhesion and migration. Data presented here demonstrate that purified viral GAAPs (vGAAPs) and human Bax inhibitor 1 form ion channels and that vGAAP from camelpox virus is selective for cations. Mutagenesis of vGAAP, including some residues conserved in the recently solved structure of a related bacterial protein, BsYetJ, altered the conductance (E207Q and D219N) and ion selectivity (E207Q) of the channel. Mutation of residue Glu-207 or -178 reduced the effects of GAAP on cell migration and adhesion without affecting protection from apoptosis. In contrast, mutation of Asp-219 abrogated the anti-apoptotic activity of GAAP but not its effects on cell migration and adhesion. These results demonstrate that GAAPs are ion channels and define residues that contribute to the ion-conducting pore and affect apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration independently. PMID:25713081

  4. Freezing and post-thaw apoptotic behaviour of cells in the presence of palmitoyl nanogold particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Forman, Julianne M.; Monroe, W. Todd; Devireddy, Ram V.

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the freezing response of HeLa and Jurkat cells in the presence of commercially available nanoparticles, NPs (Palmitoyl Nanogold®, Nanoprobes). The cells were incubated with NPs for either 5 min or 3 h, and a calorimeter technique was then used to generate the volumetric shrinkage response during freezing at 20 °C min-1. Concomitantly, we also examined the effect of a commonly used cryoprotectant, dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO (10% v/v ratio) on the freezing response of HeLa and Jurkat cells. By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the reference hydraulic conductivity, Lpg, (μm/min-atm) and activation energy, ELp, (kcal mol-1) were obtained. For HeLa cells, the values of Lpg ranged from 0.08 to 0.23 µm/min-atm, while ELp ranged from 10.9 to 37.4 kcal mol-1. For Jurkat cells these parameter values ranged from 0.05 to 0.16 µm/min-atm and 9.5 to 35.9 kcal mol-1. A generic optimal cooling rate equation was then used to predict the optimal rates of freezing HeLa and Jurkat cells in the presence and absence of DMSO and NPs. The post-thaw viability and apoptotic response of HeLa and Jurkat cells was further investigated by cooling cells at three rates in the presence and absence of DMSO and NPs using a commercially available controlled rate freezer. Jurkat cells treated in this manner demonstrated an increase in their adhesive properties after 18 h incubation and adhered strongly to the bottom of the culture plate. This observation prevented further analysis of Jurkat apoptotic and necrotic post-thaw responses. There was no significant effect of NPs or DMSO alone on HeLa cell viability prior to freezing. The post-thaw results from HeLa cells show that the NPs increased the measured post-freeze apoptotic response when cooled at 1 °C min-1, suggesting a possible therapeutic use of NPs in cryodestructive procedures.

  5. In vitro cadmium effects on ECM gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Tiziano; Lilli, Cinzia; Bellucci, Catia; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Fallarino, Francesca; Falabella, Giulia; Arato, Iva; Calvitti, Mario; Marinucci, Lorella; Muzi, Giacomo; Dell'Omo, Marco; Gambelunghe, Angela; Bodo, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and its inhalation from cigarette smoke are associated with emphysema. Many growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) cell signaling molecules are directly involved in the epithelial bronchial cell pathway. This study investigated the direct effects of Cd on the production of several ECM components in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) that were exposed in vitro for 48 h to sub-toxic and toxic concentrations of Cd. Gene expression of collagens, metalloproteases (MMPs), integrins, tenascin and vitronectin were quantified by RT-PCR. To study apoptosis cascade, annexin assay and cellular cytotoxicity by MTT assay were performed. We also investigated whether an imbalance in the TGFβ/TGFβ receptor (TGFβR) expression mediated Cd effects. The results showed the sub-toxic Cd dose significantly increased tenascin, vitronectin, β1 and β5 integrin gene expression. The toxic Cd dose decreased type IV and V collagen, α1, α2 and β3 integrins. Both Cd doses down-regulated type I collagen and up-regulated metalloproteases. Each Cd dose caused a different imbalance in the complex pattern of TGFβ and its receptors. No alteration in classic apoptotic marker protein expression was observed in presence of the sub-toxic dose of Cd, suggesting this metal alters ECM production without apoptotic activation. In conclusion, all these data show even sub-toxic Cd dose exposure alters the specific gene expression of several ECM components that are crucially implicated in the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism underlying Cd-induced lung disease may involve downstream changes in TGFβ/TGFβR signaling.

  6. A novel pathway for phagosome maturation during engulfment of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Kinchen, Jason M.; Doukoumetzidis, Kimon; Almendinger, Johann; Stergiou, Lilli; Tosello-Trampont, Annie; Sifri, Costi D.; Hengartner, Michael O.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2010-01-01

    The efficient removal of apoptotic cells is critical for the physiological well-being of the organism1â4; defects in corpse removal have been linked to autoimmune disease4, 5. While several players regulating the early steps of corpse recognition and internalization have been characterized6, the molecules and mechanisms relevant to the subsequent processing of the internalized corpses are poorly understood. Here, we identify a novel pathway for the processing of internalized apoptotic cells in C. elegans and in mammals. First, we show that RAB-5 and RAB-7 are sequentially recruited to phagosomes containing apoptotic corpses as they mature within phagocytes, and that both proteins are required for efficient corpse clearance. We then used targeted genetic screens to identify players regulating the recruitment and/or retention of Rab5 and Rab7 to phagosomes. Seven members of the HOPS complex (a Rab7 activator/effector complex) were required for Rab7 localization or retention on phagosomes. In an effort to identify factors that regulate Rab5 recruitment, we undertook an unbiased reverse genetic screen and identified 61 genes potentially required for corpse removal. In-depth analysis of two candidate genes, vps-34 and dyn-1/dynamin, showed accumulation of internalized, but undegraded corpses within abnormal phagosomes that are defective in RAB-5 recruitment. Using a series of genetic and biochemical experiments in worms and mammalian cells, we ordered these proteins in a pathway, with DYN-1 functioning upstream of VPS-34, in the recruitment/retention of Rab5 to the nascent phagosome. Further, we identified a novel biochemical complex containing Vps34, dynamin and Rab5GDP, providing a mechanism for Rab5 recruitment to the nascent phagosome. PMID:18425118

  7. Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus Escapes the Endosome and Induces Apoptosis in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bayles, Kenneth W.; Wesson, Carla A.; Liou, Linda E.; Fox, Lawrence K.; Bohach, Gregory A.; Trumble, W. R.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the invasion of an established bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) by a Staphylococcus aureus mastitis isolate to study the potential role of intracellular survival in the persistence of staphylococcal infections. S. aureus cells displayed dose-dependent invasion of MAC-T cells and intracellular survival. An electron microscopic examination of infected cells indicated that the bacteria induced internalization via a mechanism involving membrane pseudopod formation and then escaped into the cytoplasm following lysis of the endosomal membrane. Two hours after the internalization of S. aureus, MAC-T cells exhibited detachment from the matrix, rounding, a mottled cell membrane, and vacuolization of the cytoplasm, all of which are indicative of cells undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis). By 18 h, the majority of the MAC-T cell population exhibited an apoptotic morphology. Other evidence for apoptosis was the generation of MAC-T cell DNA fragments differing in size by increments of approximately 180 bp and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling of the fragmented nuclear DNA of the infected host cells. These results demonstrate that after internalization S. aureus escapes the endosome and induces apoptosis in nonprofessional phagocytes. PMID:9423876

  8. Role of integrins, tetraspanins, and ADAM proteins during the development of apoptotic bodies by spermatogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Kierszenbaum, Abraham L; Rosselot, Carolina; Rivkin, Eugene; Tres, Laura L

    2006-07-01

    cell apoptosis, integrin beta1, alpha3, and alpha6 subunits, and tetraspanins CD9 and C81 become displaced away from the developing apoptotic bodies. In contrast, the intermediate filament protein Sak57, a keratin 5 ortholog, concentrates in the developing apoptotic bodies. We propose that the redistribution of integrin-tetraspanin complexes during spermatogenic cell apoptosis may be evidence of a signaling cascade initiated by Sertoli cell geometric changes. As a result, Sertoli cell reduction in surface area may be a limiting factor of spermatogenic cell survival and in the developmental regulation of spermatogenic cell progenies in the intact seminiferous epithelium.

  9. Enhancement of dendritic cell-based vaccine potency by anti-apoptotic siRNAs targeting key pro-apoptotic proteins in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Hee; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Seok-Ho; Yoo, Young Do; Seong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Tae Woo

    2009-01-29

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have become an important measure for the treatment of malignancies. Current DC preparations, however, generate short-lived DCs because they are subject to cell death from various apoptotic pressures. Antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is one of the main obstacles to limit the DC-mediated immune priming since CTLs can recognize the target antigen expressing DCs as target cells and kill the DCs. CTLs secret perforin and serine protease granzymes during CTL killing. Perforin and serine protease granzymes induce the release of a number of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic factors, which are controlled by members of the BCL-2 family, such as BAK, BAX and BIM. FasL linking to Fas on DCs triggers the activation of caspase-8, which eventually leads to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via truncation of BID. In this study, we tried to enhance the DC priming capacity by prolonging DC survival using anti-apoptotic siRNA targeting these key pro-apoptotic molecules in CTL killing. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E7 antigen presenting DCs that were transfected with these anti-apoptotic siRNAs showed increased resistance to T cell-mediated death, leading to enhanced E7-specific CD8(+) T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Among them, siRNA targeting BIM (siBIM) generated strongest E7-specific E7-specific CD8(+) T cell immunity. More importantly, vaccination with E7 presenting DCs transfected with siBIM was capable of generating a marked therapeutic effect in vaccinated mice. Our data indicate that ex vivo manipulation of DCs with siBIM may represent a plausible strategy for enhancing dendritic cell-based vaccine potency.

  10. Time between onset of apoptosis and release of nucleosomes from apoptotic cells: putative implications for systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    van Nieuwenhuijze, A E M; van Lopik, T; Smeenk, R; Aarden, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the kinetics of nucleosome leakage from apoptotic cells in an in vitro system and extrapolate the results to autoimmune disease, in particular systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: A sensitive nucleosome enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against histone 3 and an mAb against nucleosomes. Nucleosome release during apoptotic cell death was studied in Jurkat cells. AnnexinV binding (early apoptosis) and propidium iodide positivity (late apoptosis) of the cells were compared with nucleosome release at different times after apoptosis induction. Results: Nucleosomes appeared in culture supernatant of Jurkat cells 24 to 48 hours after apoptosis induction, when the cells had been late apoptotic for more than 12 hours. Conclusion: Nucleosomes are released from late apoptotic Jurkat cells, with a 12 hour delay from the appearance of AnnexinV binding cells. This result suggests that in vivo scavenger mechanisms have 12 hours to remove apoptotic material from the circulation. PMID:12480662

  11. Extracellular matrix proteins regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qike K.; Lee, KangAe; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells undergo transdifferentiation via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) upon treatment with matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3). In rigid microenvironments, MMP3 upregulates expression of Rac1b, which translocates to the cell membrane to promote induction of reactive oxygen species and EMT. Here we examine the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in this process. Our data show that the basement membrane protein laminin suppresses the EMT response in MMP3-treated cells, whereas fibronectin promotes EMT. These ECM proteins regulate EMT via interactions with their specific integrin receptors. α6-integrin sequesters Rac1b from the membrane and is required for inhibition of EMT by laminin. In contrast, α5-integrin maintains Rac1b at the membrane and is required for the promotion of EMT by fibronectin. Understanding the regulatory role of the ECM will provide insight into mechanisms underlying normal and pathological development of the mammary gland. PMID:23660532

  12. Internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Paris, S; Boisvieux-Ulrich, E; Crestani, B; Houcine, O; Taramelli, D; Lombardi, L; Latgé, J P

    1997-01-01

    The internalization of conidia of the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus by primary cell cultures of nonprofessional phagocytes was investigated. This study is the first to show that A. fumigatus conidia were able to be engulfed by tracheal epithelial, alveolar type II, and endothelial cells. PMID:9119494

  13. AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

  14. Epithelial Stem Cells and Implications for Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Gay, Denise L.; Treffeisen, Elsa; Wang, Anne; Supapannachart, Rarinthip June; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Activation of epithelial stem cells and efficient recruitment of their proliferating progeny plays a critical role in cutaneous wound healing. The reepithelialized wound epidermis hasa mosaic composition consisting of progeny that can be traced back both to epidermal and several types of hair follicle stem cells. The contribution of hair follicle stem cells to wound epidermis is particularly intriguing as it involves lineage identity change from follicular to epidermal. Studies from our laboratory show that hair follicle-fated bulge stem cells commit only transient amplifying epidermal progeny that participate in the initial wound re-epithelialization, but eventually are outcompeted by other epidermal clones and largely disappear after a few months. Conversely, recently described stem cell populations residing in the isthmus portion of hair follicle contribute long-lasting progeny toward wound epidermis and, arguably, give rise to new inter-follicular epidermal stem cells. The role of epithelial stem cells during wound healing is not limited to regenerating stratified epidermis. By studying regenerative response in large cutaneous wounds, our laboratory uncovered that epithelial cells in the center of the wound can acquire greater morphogenetic plasticity and, together with the underlying wound dermis, can engage in an embryonic-like process of hair follicle neogenesis. Future studies should uncover cellular and signaling basis of this remarkable adult wound regeneration phenomenon. PMID:23085626

  15. Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers

    PubMed Central

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium1,2. Here we test this assumption in three types of Drosophila epithelia; the cuboidal follicle epithelium, the columnar early embryonic ectoderm, and the pseudostratified neuroepithelium. Ectopic expression of Inscuteable in these tissues reorients mitotic spindles, resulting in one daughter cell being born outside of the epithelial layer. Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells appears to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelia layer back into it. Our findings reveal a robust mechanism that protects epithelia against the consequences of misoriented divisions. PMID:26414404

  16. Transcriptional PROFILING OF MUCOCILIARY DIFFERENTIATION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in the appropriate medium, primary human airway epithelial cells form a polarized, pseudostratified epithelium composed of ciliated and mucus-secreting cells. This culture system provides a useful tool for the in vitro study of...

  17. Characterization of discrete equine intestinal epithelial cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Kinnin, Leslie A.; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize epithelial cells of the small intestine and colon in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities with an emphasis on the stem cell niche constituents. SAMPLE Mucosal biopsy specimens from small and large intestines obtained from 12 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease or systemic disease. PROCEDURES Intestinal biopsy specimens were collected by sharp dissection immediately following euthanasia. Specimens were prepared for immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopic imaging to detect and characterize each epithelial cell type. Antibodies against protein biomarkers for cellular identification were selected on the basis of expression in other mammalian species. RESULTS Intestinal epithelial cell types were identified by means of immunostaining and morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy. Some differences in biomarker expression and antibody cross-reactivity were identified in equine tissue, compared with other species. However, each known type of mucosal epithelial cell was identified in equine tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The methodology used can enhance detection of stem cells and progenitor cells as well as postmitotic cell lineages in equine intestinal tissues. Results may have relevance to regenerative potential of intestinal mucosa and survival in horses with colic. PMID:25815577

  18. Nipah Virus Entry and Egress from Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lamp, Boris; Dietzel, Erik; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Sauerhering, Lucie; Erbar, Stephanie; Weingartl, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) infections are transmitted via airway secretions and urine, commonly via the respiratory route. Epithelial surfaces represent important replication sites in both primary and systemic infection phases. NiV entry and spread from polarized epithelial cells therefore determine virus entry and dissemination within a new host and influence virus shedding via mucosal surfaces in the respiratory and urinary tract. To date, there is no knowledge regarding the entry and exit sites of NiV in polarized epithelial cells. In this report, we show for the first time that NiV can infect polarized kidney epithelial cells (MDCK) from both cell surfaces, while virus release is primarily restricted to the apical plasma membrane. Substantial amounts of basolateral infectivity were detected only after infection with high virus doses, at time points when the integrity of the cell monolayer was largely disrupted as a result of cell-to-cell fusion. Confocal immunofluorescence analyses of envelope protein distribution at early and late infection stages suggested that apical virus budding is determined by the polarized sorting of the NiV matrix protein, M. Studies with stably M-expressing and with monensin-treated cells furthermore demonstrated that M protein transport is independent from the glycoproteins, implying that the M protein possesses an intrinsic apical targeting signal. PMID:23283941

  19. [Isolation, purification and identification of epithelial cells derived from fetal islet-like cell clusters].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hai; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Yun; Yang, Chun-Rong; Xiao, Mei; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this article is to provide methods for the isolation and identification of pancreatic stem cells and cell source for research and therapy of diabetes. ICCs were isolated by collagenase IV digesting and then cultured; epithelial cells were purified from monolayer cultured ICCs. The growth curve of the epithelial cells was measured by MTT. The expression of molecular markers in the cells was identified by immunohistochemical staining. The surface markers in the epithelial cells were analyzed by FACS. Epithelial cells were purified from isolated human fetal ICCs and passaged 40 times, and 10(6) - 10(8) cells were cryopreservated per passage. The growth curve demonstrated that the epithelial cells proliferated rapidly. The epithelial cells expressed PDX-1, PCNA, CK-7, CK-19, Nestin, Glut2, and Vimentin, but Insulin was undetected. The cells expressed CD29, CD44, and CD166, but did not express CD11a, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD90, CD105, and CD117. Taken together, these results indicate that self-renewable epithelial cells can be isolated and purified from human fetal pancreas. These also show that the epithelial cells originate from ducts and have the characteristics of pancreatic stem cells. PMID:17460896

  20. [Isolation, purification and identification of epithelial cells derived from fetal islet-like cell clusters].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hai; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Yun; Yang, Chun-Rong; Xiao, Mei; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this article is to provide methods for the isolation and identification of pancreatic stem cells and cell source for research and therapy of diabetes. ICCs were isolated by collagenase IV digesting and then cultured; epithelial cells were purified from monolayer cultured ICCs. The growth curve of the epithelial cells was measured by MTT. The expression of molecular markers in the cells was identified by immunohistochemical staining. The surface markers in the epithelial cells were analyzed by FACS. Epithelial cells were purified from isolated human fetal ICCs and passaged 40 times, and 10(6) - 10(8) cells were cryopreservated per passage. The growth curve demonstrated that the epithelial cells proliferated rapidly. The epithelial cells expressed PDX-1, PCNA, CK-7, CK-19, Nestin, Glut2, and Vimentin, but Insulin was undetected. The cells expressed CD29, CD44, and CD166, but did not express CD11a, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD90, CD105, and CD117. Taken together, these results indicate that self-renewable epithelial cells can be isolated and purified from human fetal pancreas. These also show that the epithelial cells originate from ducts and have the characteristics of pancreatic stem cells.

  1. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed

  2. Porphyromonas gingivalis genes isolated by screening for epithelial cell attachment.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, M J; Emory, S A; Almira, E C

    1996-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with chronic and severe periodontitis in adults. P. gingivalis and the other periodontal pathogens colonize and interact with gingival epithelial cells, but the genes and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. To dissect the first steps in these interactions, a P. gingivalis expression library was screened for clones which bound human oral epithelial cells. Insert DNA from the recombinant clones did not contain homology to the P. gingivalis fimA gene, encoding fimbrillin, the subunit protein of fimbriae, but showed various degrees of homology to certain cysteine protease-hemagglutinin genes. The DNA sequence of one insert revealed three putative open reading frames which appeared to be in an operon. The relationship between P. gingivalis attachment to epithelial cells and the activities identified by the screen is discussed. PMID:8751909

  3. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  4. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K.; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  5. Subcellular localization of PUMA regulates its pro-apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma B cells.

    PubMed

    Ambroise, Gorbatchev; Portier, Alain; Roders, Nathalie; Arnoult, Damien; Vazquez, Aimé

    2015-11-10

    The BH3-only protein PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a major regulator of apoptosis. It belongs to the Bcl-2 family of proteins responsible for maintaining mitochondrial outer membrane integrity by controlling the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. We describe here a new pathway regulating PUMA activation through the control of its subcellular distribution. Surprisingly, neither PUMA upregulation in normal activated human B lymphocytes nor high levels of PUMA in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were associated with cell death. We show that PUMA is localized to the cytosol in these cells. By contrast, various apoptosis-triggering signals were found to promote the translocation of PUMA to the mitochondria in these cells, leading to their death by apoptosis. This apoptosis was associated with the binding of mitochondrial PUMA to anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. This translocation was caspase-independent but was prevented by inhibiting or knocking down the expression of the MAPK kinase p38. Our data suggest that the accumulation of PUMA in the cytosol may be important for the participation of this protein in apoptosis without the need for prior transcription. This regulatory pathway may be an important feature of differentiation and tumorigenic processes.

  6. Molecular mechanism of PDT-induced apoptotic cells stimulation NO production in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Fei-fan; Yang, Si-hua; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that apoptotic cells (AC) participate in immune response. The immune response induced by AC, either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive, have been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanisms of the immunostimulatory effects induced by PDT-treated AC remain unclear. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal transduction molecule and has been implicated in a variety of functions. It has also been found to play an important role not only as a cytotoxic effector but an immune regulatory mediator. In this study, we demonstrate that the PDT-induced apoptotic tumor cells stimulate the production of NO in macrophages by up-regulating expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, we show that AC, through toll-like receptors (TLRs), can activate myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), indicating that AC serves as an intercellular signal to induce iNOS expression in immune cells after PDT treatment. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  7. Identification of Fas antigen associated with apoptotic cell death in murine ovary.

    PubMed

    Guo, M W; Mori, E; Xu, J P; Mori, T

    1994-09-30

    The majority of ovarian follicles including oocytes undergo atresia through a mechanism involving apoptotic cell death. The mechanisms underlying atresia remain to be clarified. In the present study, we detected the expression of the Fas antigen (Fas), which is a cell-surface protein to modulate apoptosis, in murine ovarian oocytes and hyperovulated eggs as well as in several control tissues. Substantial decline in Fas mRNA was found in atretic follicles which were injected with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on day 3. The observed decreases in mRNA of Fas could not be attributed to a generalized degradation of cellular RNA during atresia, as evidenced by the presence of intact 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA as well as constitutive expression of EF-1 alpha mRNA in atretic follicles. The data obtained indicate that apoptotic cell death of oocytes seemed to be associated with internucleosomal DNA fragmentation regulated by Fas molecule expressed in atretic ovarian follicles. PMID:7524484

  8. Role of mitochondria in apoptotic and necroptotic cell death in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Claire; Hagberg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy induces secondary brain injury characterized by delayed energy failure. Currently, therapeutic hypothermia is the sole treatment available after severe intrapartum asphyxia in babies and acts to attenuate secondary loss of high energy phosphates improving both short- and long-term outcome. In order to develop the next generation of neuroprotective therapies, we urgently need to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to cell death. Hypoxia–ischemia creates a toxic intracellular environment including accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrosative species and intracellular calcium after the insult, inducing mitochondrial impairment. More specifically mitochondrial respiration is suppressed and calcium signaling is dysregulated. At a certain threshold, Bax-dependent mitochondrial permeabilization will occur leading to activation of caspase-dependent and apoptosis-inducing factor-dependent apoptotic cell death. In addition, hypoxia–ischemia induces inflammation, which leads to the release of TNF-α, TRAIL, TWEAK, FasL and Toll-like receptor agonists that will activate death receptors on neurons and oligodendroglia. Death receptors trigger apoptotic death via caspase-8 and necroptotic cell death through formation of the necrosome (composed of RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL), both of which converge at the mitochondria. PMID:25661091

  9. Drosophila Wnt and STAT Define Apoptosis-Resistant Epithelial Cells for Tissue Regeneration after Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Shilpi; Su, Tin Tin

    2016-09-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae irradiated with doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that kill about half of the cells in larval imaginal discs still develop into viable adults. How surviving cells compensate for IR-induced cell death to produce organs of normal size and appearance remains an active area of investigation. We have identified a subpopulation of cells within the continuous epithelium of Drosophila larval wing discs that shows intrinsic resistance to IR- and drug-induced apoptosis. These cells reside in domains of high Wingless (Wg, Drosophila Wnt-1) and STAT92E (sole Drosophila signal transducer and activator of transcription [STAT] homolog) activity and would normally form the hinge in the adult fly. Resistance to IR-induced apoptosis requires STAT and Wg and is mediated by transcriptional repression of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper. Lineage tracing experiments show that, following irradiation, apoptosis-resistant cells lose their identity and translocate to areas of the wing disc that suffered abundant cell death. Our findings provide a new paradigm for regeneration in which it is unnecessary to invoke special damage-resistant cell types such as stem cells. Instead, differences in gene expression within a population of genetically identical epithelial cells can create a subpopulation with greater resistance, which, following damage, survive, alter their fate, and help regenerate the tissue. PMID:27584613

  10. Drosophila Wnt and STAT Define Apoptosis-Resistant Epithelial Cells for Tissue Regeneration after Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae irradiated with doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that kill about half of the cells in larval imaginal discs still develop into viable adults. How surviving cells compensate for IR-induced cell death to produce organs of normal size and appearance remains an active area of investigation. We have identified a subpopulation of cells within the continuous epithelium of Drosophila larval wing discs that shows intrinsic resistance to IR- and drug-induced apoptosis. These cells reside in domains of high Wingless (Wg, Drosophila Wnt-1) and STAT92E (sole Drosophila signal transducer and activator of transcription [STAT] homolog) activity and would normally form the hinge in the adult fly. Resistance to IR-induced apoptosis requires STAT and Wg and is mediated by transcriptional repression of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper. Lineage tracing experiments show that, following irradiation, apoptosis-resistant cells lose their identity and translocate to areas of the wing disc that suffered abundant cell death. Our findings provide a new paradigm for regeneration in which it is unnecessary to invoke special damage-resistant cell types such as stem cells. Instead, differences in gene expression within a population of genetically identical epithelial cells can create a subpopulation with greater resistance, which, following damage, survive, alter their fate, and help regenerate the tissue. PMID:27584613

  11. Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ≤ 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2–0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05–0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P ≤ 0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. Part A: 102A: 3393–3400, 2014. PMID:24142706

  12. Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

    2014-10-01

    Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ≤ 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2-0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05-0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P ≤ 0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy.

  13. Necrotic and apoptotic cells serve as nuclei for calcification on osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Masanao; Ogino, Tetsuya; Kobuchi, Hirotsugu; Ohmoto, Naoko; Aoyama, Eriko; Oka, Takashi; Nakanishi, Tohru; Inoue, Keiji; Sasaki, Junzo

    2014-01-01

    A close relationship between cell death and pathological calcification has recently been reported, such as vascular calcification in atherosclerosis. However, the roles of cell death in calcification by osteoblast lineage have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we investigated whether cell death is involved in the calcification on osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) under osteogenic culture in vitro. Apoptosis and necrosis occurred in an osteogenic culture of hMSC, and cell death preceded calcification. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation increased in this culture. A pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and anti-oxidants (Tiron and n-acetylcysteine) inhibited osteogenic culture-induced cell death and calcification. Furthermore, calcification was significantly promoted by the addition of necrotic dead cells or its membrane fraction. Spontaneously dead cells by osteogenic culture and exogenously added necrotic cells were surrounded by calcium deposits. Induction of localized cell death by photodynamic treatment in the osteogenic culture resulted in co-localized calcification. These findings show that necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths were induced in an osteogenic culture of hMSC and indicated that both necrotic and apoptotic cells of osteoblast lineage served as nuclei for calcification on osteoblastic differentiation of hMSC in vitro.

  14. Proliferative activity of extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein in human epithelial cells: expression profile of pathogenetically relevant genes

    PubMed Central

    Bettaccini, Alessia A; Baj, Andreina; Accolla, Roberto S; Basolo, Fulvio; Toniolo, Antonio Q

    2005-01-01

    Background Tat is being tested as a component of HIV vaccines. Tat activity has been mainly investigated on cells of lymphoid/hematopoietic lineages. HIV-1, however, is known to infect many different cells of both solid organs and mucosal surfaces. The activity of two-exon (aa 1–101) and synthetic (aa 1–86) Tat was studied on mammary and amniotic epithelial cells cultured under low serum conditions. Results small concentrations of Tat (100 ng/ml) stimulated cell proliferation. Tat antibodies neutralized the mitogenic Tat activity. Changes of gene expression in Tat-treated cells were evaluated by RT-PCR and gene-array methods. Within 4 hours of treatment, exposure to Tat is followed by up-regulation of some cell cycle-associated genes (transcription factors, cyclin/cdk complexes, genes of apoptotic pathways) and of genes relevant to HIV pathogenesis [chemokine receptors (CXCR4, CCR3), chemotactic cytokines (SDF-1, RANTES, SCYC1, SCYE1), IL6 family cytokines, inflammatory cytokines, factors of the TGF-beta family (TGFb, BMP-1, BMP-2)]. Up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20), a hallmark of other persistent viral infections, was a remarkable feature of Tat-treated epithelial cell lines. Conclusion extracellular Tat is mitogenic for mammary and amniotic epithelial cells and stimulates the expression of genes of pathogenetic interest in HIV infection. These effects may favor virus replication and may facilitate the mother-to-child transmission of virus. PMID:15857508

  15. Apoptotic-like Leishmania exploit the host's autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell-mediated parasite elimination.

    PubMed

    Crauwels, Peter; Bohn, Rebecca; Thomas, Meike; Gottwalt, Stefan; Jäckel, Florian; Krämer, Susi; Bank, Elena; Tenzer, Stefan; Walther, Paul; Bastian, Max; van Zandbergen, Ger

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a well-defined cellular process in which a cell dies, characterized by cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation. In parasites like Leishmania, the process of apoptosis-like cell death has been described. Moreover upon infection, the apoptotic-like population is essential for disease development, in part by silencing host phagocytes. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of how apoptosis in unicellular organisms may support infectivity remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the fate of apoptotic-like Leishmania parasites in human host macrophages. Our data showed--in contrast to viable parasites--that apoptotic-like parasites enter an LC3(+), autophagy-like compartment. The compartment was found to consist of a single lipid bilayer, typical for LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). As LAP can provoke anti-inflammatory responses and autophagy modulates antigen presentation, we analyzed how the presence of apoptotic-like parasites affected the adaptive immune response. Macrophages infected with viable Leishmania induced proliferation of CD4(+) T-cells, leading to a reduced intracellular parasite survival. Remarkably, the presence of apoptotic-like parasites in the inoculum significantly reduced T-cell proliferation. Chemical induction of autophagy in human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM), infected with viable parasites only, had an even stronger proliferation-reducing effect, indicating that host cell autophagy and not parasite viability limits the T-cell response and enhances parasite survival. Concluding, our data suggest that apoptotic-like Leishmania hijack the host cells' autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overall population survival is guaranteed, explaining the benefit of apoptosis-like cell death in a single-celled parasite and defining the host autophagy pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treating Leishmaniasis.

  16. Apoptotic-like Leishmania exploit the host´s autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell-mediated parasite elimination

    PubMed Central

    Crauwels, Peter; Bohn, Rebecca; Thomas, Meike; Gottwalt, Stefan; Jäckel, Florian; Krämer, Susi; Bank, Elena; Tenzer, Stefan; Walther, Paul; Bastian, Max; van Zandbergen, Ger

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a well-defined cellular process in which a cell dies, characterized by cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation. In parasites like Leishmania, the process of apoptosis-like cell death has been described. Moreover upon infection, the apoptotic-like population is essential for disease development, in part by silencing host phagocytes. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of how apoptosis in unicellular organisms may support infectivity remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the fate of apoptotic-like Leishmania parasites in human host macrophages. Our data showed—in contrast to viable parasites—that apoptotic-like parasites enter an LC3+, autophagy-like compartment. The compartment was found to consist of a single lipid bilayer, typical for LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). As LAP can provoke anti-inflammatory responses and autophagy modulates antigen presentation, we analyzed how the presence of apoptotic-like parasites affected the adaptive immune response. Macrophages infected with viable Leishmania induced proliferation of CD4+ T-cells, leading to a reduced intracellular parasite survival. Remarkably, the presence of apoptotic-like parasites in the inoculum significantly reduced T-cell proliferation. Chemical induction of autophagy in human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM), infected with viable parasites only, had an even stronger proliferation-reducing effect, indicating that host cell autophagy and not parasite viability limits the T-cell response and enhances parasite survival. Concluding, our data suggest that apoptotic-like Leishmania hijack the host cells´ autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overall population survival is guaranteed, explaining the benefit of apoptosis-like cell death in a single-celled parasite and defining the host autophagy pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treating Leishmaniasis. PMID:25801301

  17. Effects of apicidin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the regulation of apoptosis in H-ras-transformed breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeyoung; Im, Ji Young; Kim, Jeonga; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2008-03-01

    The cellular susceptibility of cancer cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is increased by the etopic expression of oncogenic Ras. However, the ability of HDAC inhibitors to regulate the apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells is still not completely understood. In this study, the anti-proliferative effects of apicidin were compared in H-ras-transformed human breast epithelial (MCF10A-ras) and non-transformed epithelial (MCF10A) cells. MCF10A-ras cells showed a significantly higher growth rate than MCF10A cells. Apicidin significantly increased the levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 in both cell lines. Western blot analysis and flow cytometry were used to determine if the anti-proliferative effects of apicidin in MCF10A and MCF10A-ras cells could be mediated by modulating the cell cycle. Apicidin attenuated the expression of cyclin E and CDK2 in MCF10A cells, decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin E levels in MCF10A-ras cells, and increased the levels of CDK inhibitors, p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1, in both cell lines. Notably, the levels of hyperphosphorylation of the Rb protein levels were lower in the MCF10A-ras cells after apicidin treatment. Studies on the regulation of apoptosis showed that apicidin induces the up-regulation of p53 and the downstream activation of ERK in MCF10A-ras cells. The up-regulation of p53 promoted Bax expression leading to activation of caspases-9 and -6, and eventually to apoptosis in MCF10A-ras cells. In addition, apicidin significantly increased the levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in MCF10A-ras cells. Therefore, the apicidin-mediated ERK pathway appears to play an important role in modulating the pro-apoptotic pathway in MCF10A-ras cells.

  18. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Abraha, Aman M; Ketema, Ezra B

    2016-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27574550

  19. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abraha, Aman M; Ketema, Ezra B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27574550

  20. Counteraction of Apoptotic and Inflammatory Effects of Adriamycin in the Liver Cell Culture by Clinopitolite.

    PubMed

    Yapislar, Hande; Taskin, Eylem; Ozdas, Sule; Akin, Demet; Sonmez, Emine

    2016-04-01

    Growing evidence has been reported on adriamycin (ADR) hepatotoxicity in literature. Hepatotoxicity caused by the use of drugs has a serious undesirable effect in the cure of cancer patients that needs to be eliminated. The exact mechanism of ADR on non-cancerous tissue still remains to be a mystery. The zeolite (clinoptilolite) minerals form a complex group of aluminosilicates that often occur as accessory minerals in intermediate and basic rocks. In light of this information, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of clinoptilolite in ADR that is inducing the toxicity in primary liver cell culture. Primary liver cell culture from rat was used in the study. We had three experiment groups including the following: (1) cells treated only with 50 μM ADR for 24 h, (2) cells treated with the 50 μM ADR for 24 h and then treated with 10(-4) M zeolite for 1 h, and (3) cells were incubated with 50 μM ADR for 24 h and then incubated with 10(-4) M zeolite for 24 h to test its long-term effects. After that, western blotting was performed in order to evaluate protein expression levels of several inflammation markers including IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect apoptosis in liver cell culture. Also, TdT-dUTP Terminal Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) method was used for detecting apoptosis. We found elevated levels of inflammatory protein and apoptotic markers in ADR-administered cells (p < 0.05). Inflammatory and apoptotic markers decreased significantly after treated with zeolite (p < 0.05). The present study was pointed out that ADR causes hepatotoxicity via apoptosis and/or inflammation processes resulting from initiator NF-κB and TNF which causes proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1β. Elevation of inflammation might give rise to trigger apoptosis. Clinoptilolite counteracted the apoptosis and inflammation induced by ADR arising from the

  1. Counteraction of Apoptotic and Inflammatory Effects of Adriamycin in the Liver Cell Culture by Clinopitolite.

    PubMed

    Yapislar, Hande; Taskin, Eylem; Ozdas, Sule; Akin, Demet; Sonmez, Emine

    2016-04-01

    Growing evidence has been reported on adriamycin (ADR) hepatotoxicity in literature. Hepatotoxicity caused by the use of drugs has a serious undesirable effect in the cure of cancer patients that needs to be eliminated. The exact mechanism of ADR on non-cancerous tissue still remains to be a mystery. The zeolite (clinoptilolite) minerals form a complex group of aluminosilicates that often occur as accessory minerals in intermediate and basic rocks. In light of this information, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of clinoptilolite in ADR that is inducing the toxicity in primary liver cell culture. Primary liver cell culture from rat was used in the study. We had three experiment groups including the following: (1) cells treated only with 50 μM ADR for 24 h, (2) cells treated with the 50 μM ADR for 24 h and then treated with 10(-4) M zeolite for 1 h, and (3) cells were incubated with 50 μM ADR for 24 h and then incubated with 10(-4) M zeolite for 24 h to test its long-term effects. After that, western blotting was performed in order to evaluate protein expression levels of several inflammation markers including IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect apoptosis in liver cell culture. Also, TdT-dUTP Terminal Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) method was used for detecting apoptosis. We found elevated levels of inflammatory protein and apoptotic markers in ADR-administered cells (p < 0.05). Inflammatory and apoptotic markers decreased significantly after treated with zeolite (p < 0.05). The present study was pointed out that ADR causes hepatotoxicity via apoptosis and/or inflammation processes resulting from initiator NF-κB and TNF which causes proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1β. Elevation of inflammation might give rise to trigger apoptosis. Clinoptilolite counteracted the apoptosis and inflammation induced by ADR arising from the

  2. Mechanisms Involved in the Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Melatonin in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Martín, Vanesa; Herrera, Federico; García-Santos, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Casado-Zapico, Sara; Sánchez-Sánchez, Ana María; Suárez, Santos; Puente-Moncada, Noelia; Anítua, María José; Antolín, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that melatonin exerts antitumoral effects in many cancer types, mostly decreasing cell proliferation at low concentrations. On the other hand, induction of apoptosis by melatonin has been described in the last few years in some particular cancer types. The cytotoxic effect occurs after its administration at high concentrations, and the molecular pathways involved have been only partially determined. Moreover, a synergistic effect has been found in several cancer types when it is administered in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In the present review, we will summarize published work on the pro-apoptotic effect of melatonin in cancer cells and the reported mechanisms involved in such action. We will also construct a hypothesis on how different cell signaling pathways may relate each other on account for such effect. PMID:23528889

  3. MLK3 is critical for breast cancer cell migration and promotes a malignant phenotype in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Miller, E M; Gallo, K A

    2010-08-01

    The malignant phenotype in breast cancer is driven by aberrant signal transduction pathways. Mixed-lineage kinase-3 (MLK3) is a mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) that activates multiple MAPK pathways. Depending on the cellular context, MLK3 has been implicated in apoptosis, proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we investigated the effect of MLK3 and its signaling to MAPKs in the acquisition of malignancy in breast cancer. We show that MLK3 is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that MLK3's catalytic activity and signaling to c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is required for migration of highly invasive breast cancer cells and for MLK3-induced migration of mammary epithelial cells. Expression of active MLK3 is sufficient to induce the invasion of mammary epithelial cells, which requires AP-1 activity and is accompanied by the expression of several proteins corresponding to AP-1-regulated invasion genes. To assess MLK3's contribution to the breast cancer malignant phenotype in a more physiological setting, we implemented a strategy to inducibly express active MLK3 in the preformed acini of MCF10A cells grown in 3D Matrigel. Induction of MLK3 expression dramatically increases acinar size and modestly perturbs apicobasal polarity. Remarkably, MLK3 expression induces luminal repopulation and suppresses the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BimEL, as has been observed in Her2/Neu-expressing acini. Taken together, our data show that MLK3-JNK-AP-1 signaling is critical for breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Our current study uncovers both a proliferative and novel antiapoptotic role for MLK3 in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype in mammary epithelial cells. Thus, MLK3 may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of invasive breast cancer.

  4. Poncirin Induces Apoptosis in AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells through Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by up-Regulation of Fas Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, Venu; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Poncirin, a natural bitter flavanone glycoside abundantly present in many species of citrus fruits, has various biological benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The anti-cancer mechanism of Poncirin remains elusive to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of Poncirin in AGS human gastric cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinoma). The results revealed that Poncirin could inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed Poncirin induced accumulation of sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic cell population, apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in AGS cells. The expression of Fas Ligand (FasL) protein was up-regulated dose dependently in Poncirin-treated AGS cells Moreover, Poncirin in AGS cells induced activation of Caspase-8 and -3, and subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibitor studies’ results confirm that the induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in Poncirin-treated AGS cells was led by the Fas death receptor. Interestingly, Poncirin did not show any effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) in AGS-treated cells followed by no activation in the mitochondrial apoptotic protein caspase-9. This result suggests that the mitochondrial-mediated pathway is not involved in Poncirin-induced cell death in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that Poncirin has a potential anti-cancer effect via extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis, possibly making it a strong therapeutic agent for human gastric cancer. PMID:26393583

  5. Hypothesis for thermal activation of the caspase cascade in apoptotic cell death at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, John A.

    2013-02-01

    Apoptosis is an especially important process affecting disease states from HIV-AIDS to auto-immune disease to cancer. A cascade of initiator and executioner capsase functional proteins is the hallmark of apoptosis. When activated the various caspases activate other caspases or cleave structural proteins of the cytoskeleton, resulting in "blebbing" of the plasma membrane forming apoptotic bodies that completely enclose the disassembled cellular components. Containment of the cytosolic components within the apoptotic bodies differentiates apoptosis from necroptosis and necrosis, both of which release fragmented cytosol and other cellular constituents into the intracellular space. Biochemical models of caspase activation reveal the extensive feedback loops characteristic of apoptosis. They clearly explain the failure of Arrhenius models to give accurate predictions of cell survival curves in hyperthermic heating protocols. Nevertheless, each of the individual reaction velocities can reasonably be assumed to follow Arrhenius kinetics. If so, the thermal sensitivity of the reaction velocity to temperature elevation is: ∂k/∂T = Ea [k/RT2]. Particular reaction steps described by higher activation energies, Ea, are likely more thermally-sensitive than lower energy reactions and may initiate apoptosis in the absence of other stress signals. Additionally, while the classical irreversible Arrhenius formulation fails to accurately represent many cell survival and/or dye uptake curves - those that display an early stage shoulder region - an expanded reversible model of the law of mass action equation seems to prove effective and is directly based on a firm theoretical thermodynamic foundation.

  6. 3-Deazaneplanocin A and neplanocin A analogues and their effects on apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Tam, Eric K W; Nguyen, Tuan Minh; Lim, Cheryl Z H; Lee, Puay Leng; Li, Zhimei; Jiang, Xia; Santhanakrishnan, Sridhar; Tan, Tiong Wei; Goh, Yi Ling; Wong, Sze Yue; Yang, Haiyan; Ong, Esther H Q; Hill, Jeffrey; Yu, Qiang; Chai, Christina L L

    2015-01-01

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DzNep) is a potential epigenetic drug for the treatment of various cancers. DzNep has been reported to deplete histone methylations, including oncogenic EZH2 complex, giving rise to epigenetic modifications that reactivate many silenced tumor suppressors in cancer cells. Despite its promise as an anticancer drug, little is known about the structure-activity relationships of DzNep in the context of epigenetic modifications and apoptosis induction. In this study, a number of analogues of DzNep were examined for DzNep-like ability to induce synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells in combination with trichostatin A, a known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The structure-activity relationship data thus obtained provide valuable information on the structural requirements for biological activity. The studies identified three compounds that show similar activities to DzNep. Two of these compounds show good pharmacokinetics and safety profiles. Attempts to correlate the observed synergistic apoptotic activities with measured S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) inhibitory activities suggest that the apoptotic activity of DzNep might not be directly due to its inhibition of SAHH. PMID:25319940

  7. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Ebenus boissieri Barbey on human lung cancer cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Esra Arslan; Simsek, Ece; Imir, Nilüfer; Göktürk, Ramazan Süleyman; Yesilada, Erdem; Fiskin, Kayahan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fabaceae family members are known to possess preventive and therapeutic potentials against various types of cancers. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of an endemic Ebenus species; Ebenus boissieri Barbey in human lung cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: After treatment with hydroalcoholic extracts cytotoxic activities of both extracts were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, whereas caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-a lpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) releasewere measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: According to in vitro assay results, the increase in all caspases activity suggested that extracts induce cells to undergo apoptosis. Especially, induction in caspase-3 activity was the most remarkable result of this study. Both aerial part and root extracts induced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3 activity, TNF-α and IFN-γ release. When compared to their relative controls, the concentrations of both TNF-α and IFN-γ in extract-treated groups were significantly and dose dependently exalted. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that the hydroalcoholic extracts of E. boissieri can be considered as a source of new anti-apoptotic and therefore anti-carcinogenic agent. PMID:26109772

  8. Role of Apoptotic Proteins in REC-2006 Mediated Radiation Protection in Hepatoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of apoptotic proteins in REC-2006-mediated radiation protection in hepatoma cell lines. REC-2006 treatment 2 h before irradiation strongly inhibited the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1 in HepG2 cells. The expression of nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was found to be more inhibited (~17%) in HepG2 cells in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. More inhibition (~33%) of cytochrome c was observed in HepG2 cells upon REC-2006 treatment 2 h prior irradiation. Similarly, significantly more (P<.05) inhibition of Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in REC-2006 + radition-treated group in HepG2 cells. REC-2006 treatment restored the expression of ICAD in HepG2 cells; however, no restoration was observed in Hep3B cells. Lower nuclear to cytoplasmic CAD ratio was observed in HepG2 cells (~0.6) as compared with Hep3B cells (~1.2) in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. In conclusion, REC-2006 rendered higher protection in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the expression and translocation of AIF, inhibiting the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1, restoring the expression of ICAD, inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and thus modulating the expression of Apaf-1 caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3.

  9. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5’,6,6’ tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

  10. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ansil, P N; Wills, P J; Varun, R; Latha, M S

    2014-01-01

    Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5',6,6' tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

  11. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Aoshiba, K; Nagai, A

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke. PMID:19570263

  12. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Aoshiba, K; Nagai, A

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  13. Overexpression of c-myc induces epithelial mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung Bin; Cho, Min Kyong; Lee, Won Young; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-07-28

    The c-myc gene is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer and its target genes are involved in tumorigenesis. Epithelial mesenchymal transitions (EMT), where cells undergo a developmental switch from a polarized epithelial phenotype to a highly motile mesenchymal phenotype, are associated with invasion and motility of cancer cells. Basal E-cadherin expression was down-regulated in c-myc overexpressing MCF10A (c-myc-MCF10A) cells compared to GFP-overexpressing MCF10A (GFP-MCF10A) cells, while N-cadherin was distinctly increased in c-myc-MCF10A cells. Given that glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and the snail axis have key roles in E-cadherin deregulation during EMT, we investigated the role of GSK-3beta/snail signaling pathways in the induction of EMT by c-myc overexpression. In contrast to GFP-MCF10A cells, both the transcriptional activity and the ubiquitination-dependent protein stability of snail were enhanced in c-myc-MCF10A cells, and this was reversed by GSK-3beta overexpression. We also found that c-myc overexpression inhibits GSK-3beta activity through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK by dominant negative mutant transfection or chemical inhibitor significantly suppressed snail gene transcription. These results suggest that c-myc overexpression during transformation of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) is involved in EMTs via ERK-dependent GSK-3beta inactivation and subsequent snail activation.

  14. Expression of Fas and Fas Ligand on Mouse Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells in the Generalized Shwartzman Reaction and Its Relationship to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Naoki; Narita, Kayo; Kato, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Morikawa, Akiko; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Previously we reported that the consecutive injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into LPS-sensitized mice for the generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR) appeared to induce the injury of renal tubular epithelial cells via apoptosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of renal tubular epithelial cell injury in GSR. The expression of Fas and Fas ligand was immunohistochemically detected on renal tubular epithelial cells from GSR-induced mice, although neither Fas nor Fas ligand was found in cells from untreated control mice or in cells from mice receiving a single injection of LPS. GSR-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury was produced in neither Fas-negative MRL-lpr/lpr mice nor Fas ligand-negative MRL-gld/gld mice. The administration of anti-gamma interferon antibody together with a preparative injection of LPS prevented the expression of Fas and Fas ligand and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. A provocative injection of tumor necrosis factor alpha into LPS-sensitized mice augmented Fas and Fas ligand expression and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. The administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha to interleukin-12-sensitized mice resulted in Fas and Fas ligand expression and the apoptosis. Sensitization with interleukin-12 together with anti-gamma interferon antibody did not cause the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. It was suggested that the Fas/Fas ligand system probably plays a critical role in the development of renal tubular epithelial cell injury through apoptotic cell death. PMID:10417181

  15. Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle; Bussiere, Marianne; Dos Santos, Esther; Leneveu, Marie-Christine; Giudicelli, Yves . E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene

    2006-06-23

    It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

  16. Emergence of an Apical Epithelial Cell Surface In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Sedzinski, Jakub; Hannezo, Edouard; Tu, Fan; Biro, Maté; Wallingford, John B

    2016-01-11

    Epithelial sheets are crucial components of all metazoan animals, enclosing organs and protecting the animal from its environment. Epithelial homeostasis poses unique challenges, as addition of new cells and loss of old cells must be achieved without disrupting the fluid-tight barrier and apicobasal polarity of the epithelium. Several studies have identified cell biological mechanisms underlying extrusion of cells from epithelia, but far less is known of the converse mechanism by which new cells are added. Here, we combine molecular, pharmacological, and laser-dissection experiments with theoretical modeling to characterize forces driving emergence of an apical surface as single nascent cells are added to a vertebrate epithelium in vivo. We find that this process involves the interplay between cell-autonomous actin-generated pushing forces in the emerging cell and mechanical properties of neighboring cells. Our findings define the forces driving this cell behavior, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26766441

  17. Sheep stromal-epithelial cell interactions and ovarian tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wang-Johanning, Feng; Huang, Miao; Liu, Jinsong; Rycaj, Kiera; Plummer, Joshua B; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Satterfield, William C; Johanning, Gary L

    2007-11-15

    Previous studies suggest that underlying ovarian stromal cues may regulate the ovarian surface epithelium. However, little is known about the interaction between ovarian stromal cells (OSC) and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE) under normal physiologic and pathologic conditions, largely because of the lack of a suitable model. In the current study, the OSC obtained from a sheep were immortalized with SV-40 T/t antigen (designated IOSC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (designated IOSCH), followed by transfection with the oncogenic allele of the human H-Ras oncogene (designated IOSChR). IOSC cells transfected with H-Ras before immortalization with telomerase were designated IOSCRH. These sheep OSCs were used in both in vitro and in vivo model systems to evaluate mechanisms by which OSCs influence ovarian tumor progression. Normal sheep OSCs were found to inhibit the growth of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 human ovarian cancer cells, but not normal sheep OSE and human OSE cells (hOSE137 cells). In contrast, IOSChR and IOSCRH cells stimulated the growth of normal sheep and human OSE cells, as well as cancer cells. These findings were confirmed by in vivo studies. Our data provide compelling support for the importance of stromal-epithelial cell interactions during tumor progression, and show for the first time that immortalized and transformed OSCs promote growth of ovarian epithelial tumors.

  18. [Methotrexate as inducer of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Morón-Medina, Alejandra; Viera, Ninoska; de Morales, Thaís Rojas; Alcocer, Sirley; Bohorquez, Dinorath

    2014-03-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in childhood cancer, has also been indicated as a cytotoxic agent of the oral mucosa, which can trigger the inflammatory process and increase the vascularity of epithelial tissues during the early stages of oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to determine the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 y TNF-alpha in epithelial cell cultures treated with MTX. Epithelial cells of human larynx, obtained from the cell line Hep-2, were cultured with different doses of MTX during different incubation times. The drug cytotoxicity was analyzed by means of the colorimetric test, which is based on the metabolic reduction of the bromide of 3-(4, 5-dimetiltiazol-2-ilo)-2,5-difeniltetrazol (MTT); and the proinflammatory cytokines production by the test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cultures of HEp-2 cells showed increased production of proinflammatory cytokines at 72 hours with 0.32 microM of MTX. These results suggest that depending on the dose and exposure time, MTX alters the physiology of human epithelial cells, which may play an important role during the phases of initiation and development of oral mucositis. PMID:24758098

  19. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced cytotoxicity in cultured rat Sertoli cells involves differential apoptotic response.

    PubMed Central

    Raychoudhury, Samir S; Kubinski, Dana

    2003-01-01

    F for 24 hr. The cytotoxic effects exerted by these PAHs tested resulted in different apoptotic responses as characterized by in situ fluorescence staining. Microscopic analysis of apoptotic cells demonstrated nuclei of reduced size and labeled 3 -OH DNA ends when Sertoli cells had been incubated for 24 hr with 10 micro g BaP or BbF, but not with vehicle, media, FL, or BaA. Thus, our results demonstrate that the toxic effects of BaA and BbF on Sertoli cells are exerted through apoptosis, whereas FL and BaA do not elicit the apoptotic response. PMID:12515676

  1. Establishment of a rat nasal epithelial tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Hood, A T; Currie, D; Garte, S J

    1987-04-01

    A new cell line designated NAS 2BL has been established from a rat nasal tumor induced by inhalation of the direct-acting carcinogen methylmethane sulfonate. The cells are epithelial in morphology, have a generation time of 34 h, require 10% fetal bovine serum for optimal growth, and exhibit keratinization at confluence. The karyotype is aneuploid, with several marker chromosomes, and the cells are transformed by the criterion of nude mouse tumorigenicity.

  2. Cholinergic epithelial cell with chemosensory traits in murine thymic medulla.

    PubMed

    Panneck, Alexandra Regina; Rafiq, Amir; Schütz, Burkhard; Soultanova, Aichurek; Deckmann, Klaus; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Weihe, Eberhard; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Grau, Veronika; del Rey, Adriana; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Specialized epithelial cells with a tuft of apical microvilli ("brush cells") sense luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to potentially harmful substances. They utilize the canonical taste transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum-sensing molecules. In the respiratory tract, most of these cells are cholinergic and are approached by cholinoceptive sensory nerve fibers. Utilizing two different reporter mouse strains for the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), we observed intense labeling of a subset of thymic medullary cells. ChAT expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These cells showed expression of villin, a brush cell marker protein, and ultrastructurally exhibited lateral microvilli. They did not express neuroendocrine (chromogranin A, PGP9.5) or thymocyte (CD3) markers but rather thymic epithelial (CK8, CK18) markers and were immunoreactive for components of the taste transduction cascade such as Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and phospholipase Cβ2. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the expression of Gα-gustducin, TRPM5, and phospholipase Cβ2. Thymic "cholinergic chemosensory cells" were often in direct contact with medullary epithelial cells expressing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit α3. These cells have recently been identified as terminally differentiated epithelial cells (Hassall's corpuscle-like structures in mice). Contacts with nerve fibers (identified by PGP9.5 and CGRP antibodies), however, were not observed. Our data identify, in the thymus, a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensitive cell that probably utilizes acetylcholine for paracrine signaling. This cell might participate in intrathymic infection-sensing mechanisms.

  3. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry.

  4. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bjaelde, Randi G.; Arnadottir, Sigrid S.; Overgaard, Morten T.; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A.

    2013-01-01

    Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30), which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1) cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin) reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%)-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1) and vesicular transport (nocodazole). These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, whi