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Sample records for apoptotic epithelial cells

  1. Apoptotic cell clearance by bronchial epithelial cells critically influences airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Juncadella, Ignacio J.; Kadl, Alexandra; Sharma, Ashish K.; Shim, Yun M.; Hochreiter-Hufford, Amelia; Borish, Larry; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2013-01-01

    Lung epithelial cells can influence immune responses to airway allergens1,2. Airway epithelial cells also undergo apoptosis after encountering environmental allergens3; yet, relatively little is known about how these are cleared, and their effect on airway inflammation. Here we show that airway epithelial cells efficiently engulf apoptotic epithelial cells and secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines, dependent upon intracellular signalling by the small GTPase Rac1. Inducible deletion of Rac1 expression specifically in airway epithelial cells in a mouse model resulted in defective engulfment by epithelial cells and aberrant anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Intranasal priming and challenge of these mice with house dust mite extract or ovalbumin as allergens led to exacerbated inflammation, augmented Th2 cytokines and airway hyper-responsiveness, with decreased interleukin (IL)-10 in bronchial lavages. Rac1-deficient epithelial cells produced much higher IL-33 upon allergen or apoptotic cell encounter, with increased numbers of nuocyte-like cells1,4,5. Administration of exogenous IL-10 ‘rescued’ the airway inflammation phenotype in Rac1-deficient mice, with decreased IL-33. Collectively, these genetic and functional studies suggest a new role for Rac1-dependent engulfment by airway epithelial cells and in establishing the anti-inflammatory environment, and that defects in cell clearance in the airways could contribute to inflammatory responses towards common allergens. PMID:23235830

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, Diane; Smythies, Lesley E; Waites, Ken B; Grams, Jayleen M; Stahl, Richard D; Mannon, Peter J; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C Mel; Harris, Paul R; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B; Smith, Phillip D

    2013-06-15

    Increased apoptotic death of gastric epithelial cells is a hallmark of Helicobacter pylori infection, and altered epithelial cell turnover is an important contributor to gastric carcinogenesis. To address the fate of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells and their role in H. pylori mucosal disease, we investigated phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells in H. pylori infection. Human gastric mononuclear phagocytes were analyzed for their ability to take up apoptotic epithelial cells (AECs) in vivo using immunofluorescence analysis. We then used primary human gastric epithelial cells induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to live H. pylori to study apoptotic cell uptake by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. We show that HLA-DR(+) mononuclear phagocytes in human gastric mucosa contain cytokeratin-positive and TUNEL-positive AEC material, indicating that gastric phagocytes are involved in AEC clearance. We further show that H. pylori both increased apoptosis in primary gastric epithelial cells and decreased phagocytosis of the AECs by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. Reduced macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells was mediated in part by H. pylori-induced macrophage TNF-α, which was expressed at higher levels in H. pylori-infected, compared with uninfected, gastric mucosa. Importantly, we show that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa contained significantly higher numbers of AECs and higher levels of nonphagocytosed TUNEL-positive apoptotic material, consistent with a defect in apoptotic cell clearance. Thus, as shown in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, insufficient phagocyte clearance may contribute to the chronic and self-perpetuating inflammation in human H. pylori infection.

  3. T cell targeting and phagocytosis of apoptotic biliary epithelial cells in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Hu, Bin; Sullivan, Daniel M; Fiel, Maria Isabel; Thung, Swan N; Bronk, Steven F; Huebert, Robert C; van de Water, Judy; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Gershwin, M E; Gores, Gregory J; Odin, Joseph A

    2006-12-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by loss of tolerance against ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial autoantigens followed by biliary and salivary gland epithelial cell (BEC and SGEC) destruction by autoreactive T cells. It is unclear why BECs and SGECs are targeted. Previous work demonstrated that the reduced form of the major PBC autoantigen predominated in apoptotic BECs and SGECs as opposed to an oxidized form in other apoptotic cells. This led to the hypothesis that presentation of novel self-peptides from phagocytosed apoptotic BECs might contribute to BEC targeting by autoreactive T cells. The effect of autoantigen redox status on self-peptide formation was examined along with the phagocytic ability of BECs. Oxidation of PBC autoantigens first was shown to be due to protein S-glutathionylation of lipoyllysine residues. Absence of protein S-glutathionylation generated novel self-peptides and affected T cell recognition of a lipoyllysine containing peptide. Liver biopsy staining revealed BEC phagocytosis of apoptotic BECs (3.74+/-2.90% of BEC) was present in PBC (7 of 7 cases) but not in normal livers (0 of 3). BECs have the ability to present novel mitochondrial self-peptides derived from phagocytosed apoptotic BECs. Apoptotic cell phagocytosis by non-professional phagocytes may influence the tissue specificity of autoimmune diseases.

  4. Intrinsic apoptotic pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Song; Park, Yoonsuk; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Tribble, Gena D; James, Chlöe E; Handfield, Martin; Stavropoulos, M Franci; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Lamont, Richard J

    2007-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis can inhibit chemically induced apoptosis in primary cultures of gingival epithelial cells through blocking activation of the effector caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of P. gingivalis is conserved across strains and does not depend on the presence of fimbriae, as fimbriae-deficient mutants and a naturally occurring non-fimbriated strain were able to impede apoptosis. To dissect the survival pathways modulated by P. gingivalis, protein and gene expression of a number of components of apoptotic death pathways were investigated. P. gingivalis infection of epithelial cells resulted in the phosphorylation of JAK1 and Stat3. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of Survivin and Stat3 itself, targets of activated Stat3, were elevated in P. gingivalis-infected cells. siRNA knockdown of JAK1, in combination with knockdown of Akt, abrogated the ability of P. gingivalis to block apoptosis. In contrast, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 were not differentially regulated at either the protein or mRNA levels by P. gingivalis. One mechanism by which P. gingivalis can block apoptotic pathways in gingival epithelial cells therefore is through manipulation of the JAK/Stat pathway that controls the intrinsic mitochondrial cell death pathways. Induction of a pro-survival phenotype may prevent programmed host cell death and aid survival of P. gingivalis within gingival epithelial cells.

  5. Intrinsic apoptotic pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Song; Park, Yoonsuk; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Tribble, Gena D.; James, Chlöe E.; Handfield, Martin; Stavropoulos, M. Franci; Yilmaz, özlem; Lamont, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis can inhibit chemically induced apoptosis in primary cultures of gingival epithelial cells through blocking activation of the effector caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of P. gingivalis is conserved across strains and does not depend on the presence of fimbriae, as fimbriae-deficient mutants and a naturally occurring non-fimbriated strain were able to impede apoptosis. To dissect the survival pathways modulated by P. gingivalis, protein and gene expression of a number of components of apoptotic death pathways were investigated. P. gingivalis infection of epithelial cells resulted in the phosphorylation of JAK1 and Stat3. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of Survivin and Stat3 itself, targets of activated Stat3, were elevated in P. gingivalis-infected cells. siRNA knockdown of JAK1, in combination with knockdown of Akt, abrogated the ability of P. gingivalis to block apoptosis. In contrast, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 were not differentially regulated at either the protein or mRNA levels by P. gingivalis. One mechanism by which P. gingivalis can block apoptotic pathways in gingival epithelial cells therefore is through manipulation of the JAK/Stat pathway that controls the intrinsic mitochondrial cell death pathways. Induction of a pro-survival phenotype may prevent programmed host cell death and aid survival of P. gingivalis within gingival epithelial cells. PMID:17419719

  6. Carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles elicit distinct apoptotic pathways in bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing environmental and occupational exposures to nanoparticles (NPs) warrant deeper insight into the toxicological mechanisms induced by these materials. The present study was designed to characterize the cell death induced by carbon black (CB) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o- cell line and primary cells) and to investigate the implicated molecular pathways. Results Detailed time course studies revealed that both CB (13 nm) and TiO2(15 nm) NP exposed cells exhibit typical morphological (decreased cell size, membrane blebbing, peripheral chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation) and biochemical (caspase activation and DNA fragmentation) features of apoptotic cell death. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of Bax and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were only observed in case of CB NPs whereas lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane destabilization and cathepsin B release were observed during the apoptotic process induced by TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, ROS production was observed after exposure to CB and TiO2 but hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was only involved in apoptosis induction by CB NPs. Conclusions Both CB and TiO2 NPs induce apoptotic cell death in bronchial epithelial cells. CB NPs induce apoptosis by a ROS dependent mitochondrial pathway whereas TiO2 NPs induce cell death through lysosomal membrane destabilization and lipid peroxidation. Although the final outcome is similar (apoptosis), the molecular pathways activated by NPs differ depending upon the chemical nature of the NPs. PMID:20398356

  7. Histochemical study of apoptotic epithelial cells depending on testosterone in primary cultured rat prostatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Furuya, T; Kubo, M; Ueno, A; Fujii, Y; Baba, T; Ohno, S

    2000-04-01

    To clarify whether apoptosis can be induced in cultured rat prostatic epithelial cells, they were investigated at various time points, depending on different concentrations of testosterone. Ventral lobes of rat prostates were cultured as small pieces of tissues up to 14 days. They were examined by anti-Fas antibody immunostaining and also compared to findings revealed by in situ end-labelling (ISEL) technique. To clarify apoptotic nuclei at high resolution, the quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) method was also used, as reported before. The localization and appearance of Fas-positive cells were detected more widely and earlier than those of ISEL-positive cells, but both label-positive localizations were closely related to each other. In addition, they were detected more often in epithelial cells cultured with low testosterone concentrations. By the QF-DE method, chromatin fibers were found to be broken in spotty parts of apoptotic nuclei. We could control the concentration of testosterone in culture medium and detect the appearance of Fas antigen in cultured prostatic epithelial cells, followed by apoptotic changes. So, Fas and Fas-ligand system is one candidate for apoptosis in the prostate glands, depending on removal of hormonal testosterone.

  8. A Discrete Subpopulation of Dendritic Cells Transports Apoptotic Intestinal Epithelial Cells to T Cell Areas of Mesenteric Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang-Ping; Platt, Nicholas; Wykes, Michelle; Major, James R.; Powell, Timothy J.; Jenkins, Christopher D.; MacPherson, G. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies a dendritic cell (DC) subset that constitutively transports apoptotic intestinal epithelial cell remnants to T cell areas of mesenteric lymph nodes in vivo. Rat intestinal lymph contains two DC populations. Both populations have typical DC morphology, are major histocompatibility complex class IIhi, and express OX62, CD11c, and B7. CD4+/OX41+ DCs are strong antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD4−/OX41− DCs are weak APCs and contain cytoplasmic apoptotic DNA, epithelial cell–restricted cytokeratins, and nonspecific esterase (NSE)+ inclusions, not seen in OX41+ DCs. Identical patterns of NSE electrophoretic variants exist in CD4−/OX41− DCs, intestinal epithelial cells, and mesenteric node DCs but not in other DC populations, macrophages, or tissues. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive DCs and strongly NSE+ DCs are present in intestinal lamina propria. Peyer's patches and mesenteric but not other lymph nodes contain many strongly NSE+ DCs in interfollicular and T cell areas. Similar DCs are seen in the ileum and in T cell areas of mesenteric nodes in gnotobiotic rats. These results show that a distinct DC subset constitutively endocytoses and transports apoptotic cells to T cell areas and suggest a role for these DCs in inducing and maintaining peripheral self-tolerance. PMID:10662789

  9. Stable expression of EBERs in immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells confers resistance to apoptotic stress.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hing Lok; Wang, Xianghong; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Jin, Dong-Yan; Feng, Huichen; Wang, Qi; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Huang, Dolly P; Yuen, Po Wing; Takada, Kenzo; Wong, Yong Chuan; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2005-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) are the most abundant EBV transcripts (about 10(7) copies per cell) in EBV infected cells. However, the cellular function of EBER expression, particularly in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, remains poorly understood. EBERs acquire secondary structures analogous to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and may bind to the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and interfere with its function. Activation of PKR involves autophosphorylation resulting in protein synthesis inhibition and cellular apoptosis. Induction of cellular apoptosis by activation of PKR may be an antiviral response adopted by virally infected cells. We have examined the functional properties of EBER expression in an immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line (NP69). Expression of EBERs was achieved by transfecting the NP69 cells with an EBER-expressing plasmid, pESK10. The EBER-expressing NP69 cells attained a higher growth rate compared to cells transfected with control plasmid (pcDNA3). However, the EBER-expressing NP69 cells did not form colonies in soft agar and were non-tumorigenic in nude mice. To investigate if EBERs may protect the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells from apoptotic insults, we treated the EBER-expressing NP69 cells with a dsRNA analogue, poly(I).poly(C) (pIC), to activate PKR in cells and examined for their responses. Lower level of PKR phosphorylation and elevation of Bcl-2 were observed in EBER-expressing NP69 cells. In addition, other apoptotic markers including the cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) were found to be lower in EBER-expressing NP69 cells after treatment with pIC. Lower phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and c-jun were also observed in EBER-expressing NP cells. Our results suggest that EBER expression may confer an apoptotic-resistant phenotype in

  10. Apoptotic effect of sodium acetate on a human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Xia, Y; Zhang, X L; Jin, F; Wang, Q X; Xiao, R; Hao, Z H; Gui, Q D; Sun, J

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium acetate on the viability of the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) epithelial cell line. AGS cells were exposed to a range of concentrations of sodium acetate for different periods of time, and the sodium acetate-induced cytotoxic effects, including cell viability, DNA fragmentation, apoptotic gene expression, and caspase activity, were assessed. The changes in these phenotypes were quantified by performing a lactate dehydrogenase cell viability assay, annexin V staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and several caspase activity assays. In vitro studies demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of sodium acetate on the AGS cell line were dose- and time-dependent manners. No differences were found between the negative control and sodium acetate-treated cells stained with annexin V and subjected to the TUNEL assay. However, caspase-3 activity was increased in AGS cells exposed to sodium acetate. Overall, it was concluded that sodium acetate exerted an apoptotic effect in AGS cells via a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  11. Tobacco smoking alters the number of oral epithelial cells with apoptotic features.

    PubMed

    Michcik, Adam; Cichorek, Miroslawa; Daca, Agnieszka; Chomik, Piotr; Wojcik, Slawomir; Zawrocki, Anton; Wlodarkiewicz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a global problem associated with the occurrence of many systemic diseases and tumors. Oral cavity tumors are common tobacco-related cancers, and of all the anatomical structures that are exposed to the effects of smoking, the oral cavity remains the least-explored area. Changes that occur in the biology of oral epithelial keratinocytes under the influence of the components of tobacco smoke often go unnoticed, if they are asymptomatic. The proper functioning of the oral epithelium is determined by the proliferation and differentiation of the cells in keratinization - the process of programmed cell death, which extends through to the mechanisms of apoptosis. Due to incomplete knowledge of the impact of tobacco smoke on the biology of keratinocytes, an evaluation of the cell cycle was conducted and the apoptosis of oral epithelial keratinocytes was analyzed. The study involved 77 patients divided into four groups according to their intensity of smoking, ranging from 0 to 27 pack-years. There were no differences in the cell count between nonsmokers and smokers in the proper cell-cycle phases. The percentage of proliferating cells in the oral epithelium is about 11%. A reduction in the number of early-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/propidium iodide negative) and an increase in the number of late-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/annexin V positive/propidium iodide positive) were observed to occur with increasing pack-years. The present study demonstrates that smoking does not affect the oral keratinocyte cell cycle, but does modify the number of cells with early and late apoptotic features. An intensification of the impact of tobacco smoke components on the biology of the oral keratinocytes is clearly noticeable at approximately 6 pack-years. This indicates that the biology of the first organ exposed to tobacco smoke - the oral epithelium - is altered by tobacco smoking.

  12. Tritrichomonas foetus induces apoptotic cell death in bovine vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N; Lucas, J J; Hayes, G R; Kumar, Ish; Beach, D H; Frajblat, Marcel; Gilbert, R O; Sommer, U; Costello, C E

    2004-07-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a serious veterinary pathogen, causing bovine trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease leading to infertility and abortion. T. foetus infects the mucosal surfaces of the reproductive tract. Infection with T. foetus leads to apoptotic cell death of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) in culture. An affinity-purified cysteine protease (CP) fraction yielding on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa (CP30) also induces BVEC apoptosis. Treatment of CP30 with the protease inhibitors TLCK (Nalpha-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone) and E-64 [l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamide-(4-guanido)-butane] greatly reduces induction of BVEC apoptosis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of CP30 reveals a single peak with a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa. Mass spectral peptide sequence analysis of proteolytically digested CP30 reveals homologies to a previously reported cDNA clone, CP8 (D. J. Mallinson, J. Livingstone, K. M. Appleton, S. J. Lees, G. H. Coombs, and M. J. North, Microbiology 141:3077-3085, 1995). Induction of apoptosis is highly species specific, since the related human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and associated purified CPs did not induce BVEC death. Fluorescence microscopy along with the Cell Death Detection ELISA(PLUS) assay and flow cytometry analyses were used to detect apoptotic nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and changes in plasma membrane asymmetry in host cells undergoing apoptosis in response to T. foetus infection or incubation with CP30. Additionally, the activation of caspase-3 and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitors indicates that caspases are involved in BVEC apoptosis. These results imply that apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of T. foetus infection in vivo, which may have important implications for therapeutic interference with host cell death that could

  13. Tritrichomonas foetus Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Bovine Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B. N.; Lucas, J. J.; Hayes, G. R.; Kumar, Ish; Beach, D. H.; Frajblat, Marcel; Gilbert, R. O.; Sommer, U.; Costello, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a serious veterinary pathogen, causing bovine trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease leading to infertility and abortion. T. foetus infects the mucosal surfaces of the reproductive tract. Infection with T. foetus leads to apoptotic cell death of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) in culture. An affinity-purified cysteine protease (CP) fraction yielding on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa (CP30) also induces BVEC apoptosis. Treatment of CP30 with the protease inhibitors TLCK (Nα-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone) and E-64 [l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamide-(4-guanido)-butane] greatly reduces induction of BVEC apoptosis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of CP30 reveals a single peak with a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa. Mass spectral peptide sequence analysis of proteolytically digested CP30 reveals homologies to a previously reported cDNA clone, CP8 (D. J. Mallinson, J. Livingstone, K. M. Appleton, S. J. Lees, G. H. Coombs, and M. J. North, Microbiology 141:3077-3085, 1995). Induction of apoptosis is highly species specific, since the related human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and associated purified CPs did not induce BVEC death. Fluorescence microscopy along with the Cell Death Detection ELISAPLUS assay and flow cytometry analyses were used to detect apoptotic nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and changes in plasma membrane asymmetry in host cells undergoing apoptosis in response to T. foetus infection or incubation with CP30. Additionally, the activation of caspase-3 and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitors indicates that caspases are involved in BVEC apoptosis. These results imply that apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of T. foetus infection in vivo, which may have important implications for therapeutic interference with host cell death that could alter

  14. Cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic role of Terminalia arjuna on oxalate injured renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amisha; Tandon, Simran; Singla, Surender Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-02-08

    Urolithiasis is one of the painful multifactorial disorders caused by metabolic abnormalities influencing the composition of body fluids and urine. The bark of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna), very well known in Ayurveda for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, possesses antioxidant and diuretic activity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiurolithiatic efficacy of aqueous extract of bark of T. arjuna on oxalate-induced injury to renal tubular epithelial cells. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were exposed to 2 mM oxalate for 48 h to evaluate the protective effect of T. arjuna aqueous extract on cell viability, CaOx crystal adherence and apoptotic changes caused by oxalate. The results confirmed that oxalate injured MDCK cells were protected by T. arjuna extract. On treatment with a range concentrations, the cell viability increased in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the extract prevented the interaction of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals with the cell surface and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The current data suggests that T. arjuna bark confers a cytoprotective role and based on our results it could be a potential candidate from natural plant sources against urolithiasis.

  15. Thimerosal induces apoptotic and fibrotic changes to kidney epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Morais, Christudas; Small, David M; Vesey, David A; Barbosa, Fernando; Gobe, Glenda C

    2015-12-01

    Thimerosal is an ethyl mercury-containing compound used mainly in vaccines as a bactericide. Although the kidney is a key target for mercury toxicity, thimerosal nephrotoxicity has not received the same attention as other mercury species. The aim of this study was to determine the potential cytotoxic mechanisms of thimerosal on human kidney cells. Human kidney proximal tubular epithelial (HK2) cells were exposed for 24 h to thimerosal (0-2 µM), and assessed for cell viability, apoptosis, and cell proliferation; expression of proteins Bax, nuclear factor-κB subunits, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1); mitochondrial health (JC-1, MitoTracker Red CMXRos); and fibronectin levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Thimerosal diminished HK2 cell viability and mitosis, promoted apoptosis, impaired the mitochondrial permeability transition, enhanced Bax and TGFβ1 expression, and augmented fibronectin secretion. This is the first report about kidney cell death and pro-fibrotic mechanisms promoted by thimerosal. Collectively, these in vitro results demonstrate that (1) thimerosal induces kidney epithelial cell apoptosis via upregulating Bax and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and (2) thimerosal is a potential pro-fibrotic agent in human kidney cells. We suggest that new evidence on toxicity as well as continuous surveillance in terms of fibrogenesis is required concerning thimerosal use.

  16. Bifidobacterium breve reduces apoptotic epithelial cell shedding in an exopolysaccharide and MyD88-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K R; Harnisch, L C; Alcon-Giner, C; Mitra, S; Wright, C J; Ketskemety, J; van Sinderen, D; Watson, A J M; Hall, L J

    2017-01-01

    Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes.

  17. Bifidobacterium breve reduces apoptotic epithelial cell shedding in an exopolysaccharide and MyD88-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K. R.; Harnisch, L. C.; Alcon-Giner, C.; Mitra, S.; Wright, C. J.; Ketskemety, J.

    2017-01-01

    Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi—a process termed ‘cell shedding’. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes. PMID:28123052

  18. Macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung alveolar epithelial cells via PGE2, PGD2, and HGF

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2016-01-01

    Apoptotic cell clearance results in the release of growth factors and the action of signaling molecules involved in tissue homeostasis maintenance. Here, we investigated whether and how macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit the TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Treatment with conditioned medium derived from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells, but not viable or necrotic cells, inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, including loss of E-cadherin, synthesis of N-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin, and induction of EMT-activating transcription factors, such as Snail1/2, Zeb1/2, and Twist1. Exposure of macrophages to cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors (NS-398 and COX-2 siRNA) or RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors (Y-27632 and RhoA siRNA) and LA-4 cells to antagonists of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP4 [AH-23848]), PGD2 receptors (DP1 [BW-A868C] and DP2 [BAY-u3405]), or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met (PHA-665752), reversed EMT inhibition by the conditioned medium. Additionally, we found that apoptotic cell instillation inhibited bleomycin-mediated EMT in primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells in vivo. Our data suggest a new model for epithelial cell homeostasis, by which the anti-EMT programming of macrophages by apoptotic cells may control the progressive fibrotic reaction via the production of potent paracrine EMT inhibitors. PMID:26875548

  19. miR-214 regulates lactoferrin expression and pro-apoptotic function in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Du, Xiaogu; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2010-09-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is an abundantly expressed protein in human milk. Lactoferrin exhibits several important biological functions, and its expression is regulated by multiple environmental factors. Cellular endogenous factors, however, have not been extensively studied with regard to lactoferrin gene expression. In this study, we showed that lactoferrin gene expression and function are directly targeted by miR-214 in HC11 and MCF7 cells. In the lactoferrin mRNA 3 prime untranslated region (UTR) of human, mouse, rat, pig, bovine, camel, and goat species, there is a conserved region that perfectly matches the seed region of miR-214. Transfection of miR-214 mimic in HEK293 cells dose-dependently inhibited the activity of pGL3-control vector containing lactoferrin mRNA 3 prime UTR downstream of the luciferase gene. In HC11 cells, miR-214 overexpression inhibited the induction of lactoferrin expression by beta -estradiol (E2) and dexamethasone-prolactin-insulin (DPI). Furthermore, in MCF7 cells, overexpression of miR-214 markedly decreased lactoferrin expression (P lt 0.05), and inhibition of endogenous miR-214 expression increased lactoferrin expression and cellular apoptotic activities (P lt 0.05). In summary, our data showed that miR-214 is directly involved in lactoferrin expression and lactoferrin mediated cancer susceptibility (proapoptotic activities) in mammary epithelial cells.

  20. E-Cigarette Vapor Induces an Apoptotic Response in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells Through the Caspase-3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Park, Hyun Jin; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Chmielewski, Witold; Chakir, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes represent an increasingly significant proportion of today's consumable tobacco products. E-cigarettes contain several chemicals which may promote oral diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of e-cigarette vapor on human gingival epithelial cells. Results show that e-cigarette vapor altered the morphology of cells from small cuboidal form to large undefined shapes. Both single and multiple exposures to e-cigarette vapor led to a bulky morphology with large faint nuclei and an enlarged cytoplasm. E-cigarette vapor also increased L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the targeted cells. This activity was greater with repeated exposures. Furthermore, e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic/necrotic epithelial cell percentages compared to that observed in the control. Epithelial cell apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay showing that exposure to e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic cell numbers, particularly after two and three exposures. This negative effect involved the caspase-3 pathway, the activity of which was greater with repeated exposure and which decreased following the use of caspase-3 inhibitor. The adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor on gingival epithelial cells may lead to dysregulated gingival cell function and result in oral disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Peyer's patch dendritic cells process viral antigen from apoptotic epithelial cells in the intestine of reovirus-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Fleeton, Marina N; Contractor, Nikhat; Leon, Francisco; Wetzel, J Denise; Dermody, Terence S; Kelsall, Brian L

    2004-07-19

    We explored the role of Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cell (DC) populations in the induction of immune responses to reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L). Immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of T1L structural (sigma1) and nonstructural (sigmaNS) proteins in PPs of T1L-infected mice. Cells in the follicle-associated epithelium contained both sigma1 and sigmaNS, indicating productive viral replication. In contrast, sigma1, but not sigmaNS, was detected in the subepithelial dome (SED) in association with CD11c(+)/CD8alpha(-)/CD11b(lo) DCs, suggesting antigen uptake by these DCs in the absence of infection. Consistent with this possibility, PP DCs purified from infected mice contained sigma1, but not sigmaNS, and PP DCs from uninfected mice could not be productively infected in vitro. Furthermore, sigma1 protein in the SED was associated with fragmented DNA by terminal deoxy-UTP nick-end labeling staining, activated caspase-3, and the epithelial cell protein cytokeratin, suggesting that DCs capture T1L antigen from infected apoptotic epithelial cells. Finally, PP DCs from infected mice activated T1L-primed CD4(+) T cells in vitro. These studies show that CD8alpha(-)/CD11b(lo) DCs in the PP SED process T1L antigen from infected apoptotic epithelial cells for presentation to CD4(+) T cells, and therefore demonstrate the cross-presentation of virally infected cells by DCs in vivo during a natural viral infection.

  2. Lovastatin prevents cisplatin-induced activation of pro-apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR) of renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Katharina; Ziegler, Verena; Hartmann, Christina; Henninger, Christian; Thomale, Jürgen; Schupp, Nicole; Fritz, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    The platinating agent cisplatin (CisPt) is commonly used in the therapy of various types of solid tumors. The anticancer efficacy of CisPt largely depends on the formation of bivalent DNA intrastrand crosslinks, which stimulate mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR), thereby triggering checkpoint activation, gene expression and cell death. The clinically most relevant adverse effect associated with CisPt treatment is nephrotoxicity that results from damage to renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we addressed the question whether the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin affects the DDR of renal cells by employing rat renal proximal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells as in vitro model. The data show that lovastatin has extensive inhibitory effects on CisPt-stimulated DDR of NRK-52E cells as reflected on the levels of phosphorylated ATM, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and Kap1. Mitigation of CisPt-induced DDR by lovastatin was independent of the formation of DNA damage as demonstrated by (i) the analysis of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslink formation by Southwestern blot analyses and (ii) the generation of DNA strand breaks as analyzed on the level of nuclear γH2AX foci and employing the alkaline comet assay. Lovastatin protected NRK-52E cells from the cytotoxicity of high CisPt doses as shown by measuring cell viability, cellular impedance and flow cytometry-based analyses of cell death. Importantly, the statin also reduced the level of kidney DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by CisPt treatment of mice. The data show that the lipid-lowering drug lovastatin extensively counteracts pro-apoptotic signal mechanisms of the DDR of tubular epithelial cells following CisPt injury.

  3. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on normal mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, B S; Briski, K P; Tirmenstein, M A; Fariss, M W; Gapor, A; Sylvester, P W

    2000-02-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the comparative effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on normal mammary epithelial cell growth and viability. Cells isolated from midpregnant BALB/c mice were grown within collagen gels and maintained on serum-free media. Treatment with 0-120 microM alpha- and gamma-tocopherol had no effect, whereas 12.5-100m microM tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil (TRF), 100-120 microM delta-tocopherol, 50-60 microM alpha-tocotrienol, and 8-14 microM gamma- or delta-tocotrienol significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-responsive manner. In acute studies, 24-h exposure to 0-250 microM alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol had no effect, whereas similar treatment with 100-250 microM TRF, 140-250 microM alpha-, 25-100 microM gamma- or delta-tocotrienol significantly reduced cell viability. Growth-inhibitory doses of TRF, delta-tocopherol, and alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol were shown to induce apoptosis in these cells, as indicated by DNA fragmentation. Results also showed that mammary epithelial cells more easily or preferentially took up tocotrienols as compared to tocopherols, suggesting that at least part of the reason tocotrienols display greater biopotency than tocopherols is because of greater cellular accumulation. In summary, these findings suggest that the highly biopotent gamma- and delta-tocotrienol isoforms may play a physiological role in modulating normal mammary gland growth, function, and remodeling.

  4. Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Anti-Apoptotic Roles of αB-Crystallin in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Hee; Jeong, Na Young; Ryu, Won Yeol; Ahn, Hee Bae; Park, Woo Chan; Rho, Sae Heun; Yoon, Hee Seong; Choi, Yung Hyun; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the lens, αB-crystallin performs other functions. Methylglyoxal (MGO) can alter the function of the basement membrane of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Thus, if MGO is not efficiently detoxified, it can induce adverse reactions in RPE cells. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the anti-apoptotic activity of αB-crystallin in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 following MGO treatment using various assays, including nuclear staining, flow cytometry, DNA electrophoresis, pulse field gel electrophoresis, western blot analysis, confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays. To directly assess the role of phosphorylation of αB-crystallin, we used site-directed mutagenesis to convert relevant serine residues to alanine residues. Using these techniques, we demonstrated that MGO induces apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Silencing αB-crystallin sensitized ARPE-19 cells to MGO-induced apoptosis, indicating that αB-crystallin protects ARPE-19 cells from MGO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that αB-crystallin interacts with the caspase subtypes, caspase-2L, -2S, -3, -4, -7, -8, -9 and -12 in untreated control ARPE-19 cells and that MGO treatment caused the dissociation of these caspase subtypes from αB-crystallin; transfection of S19A, S45A or S59A mutants caused the depletion of αB-crystallin from the nuclei of untreated control RPE cells leading to the release of caspase subtypes. Additionally, transfection of these mutants enhanced MGO-induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells, indicating that phosphorylation of nuclear αB-crystallin on serine residues 19, 45 and 59 plays a pivotal role in preventing apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that αB-crystallin prevents caspase activation by physically interacting with caspase subtypes in the cytoplasm and nucleus, thereby protecting RPE cells from MGO-induced apoptosis. PMID:23049853

  5. Brucella suis vaccine strain S2-infected immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell lines induce non-apoptotic ER-stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, Pengfei; Yin, Yanlong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lei, Lanjie; Zhou, Xudong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2015-05-01

    Brucella, which is regarded as an intracellular pathogen responsible for a zoonotic disease called brucellosis, survives and proliferates within several types of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Brucella infects not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, inducing abortion and infertility. Therefore, the interaction between uterine cells and Brucella is important for understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we describe the Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 (B.suis.S2) infection and replication in the immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell line hTERT-EECs and the induced cellular and molecular response modulation in vitro. We found that B.suis S2 was able to infect and replicate to high titers and inhibit the proliferation of EECs and induce non-apoptotic pathways, as determined by B.suis.S2 detection using MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and flow cytometry. We explored the evidence of non-apoptotic pathways using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and by western blot analysis. Finally, we discovered the over-expression of GRP78, ATF4, ATF6, PERK, eIF2α, CHOP, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) but not IRE1, xbp-1, and caspase-3 in B.suis.S2 (HK)-attacked and B.suis.S2-infected cells, suggesting that the molecular mechanism of ER stress sensor activation by B.suis.S2 is basically concomitant with that by B.suis.S2 (HK) and that ER stress, especially the PERK pathway, plays an important role in the process of B.suis.S2 infecting EEC, which may, in part, explain the role of the uterus in the pathogenesis of B.suis.S2.

  6. Infection of epithelial cells with Chlamydia trachomatis inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis at the level of receptor internalization while leaving non-apoptotic TNF-signalling intact.

    PubMed

    Waguia Kontchou, Collins; Tzivelekidis, Tina; Gentle, Ian E; Häcker, Georg

    2016-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of medical importance. C. trachomatis develops inside a membranous vacuole in the cytosol of epithelial cells but manipulates the host cell in numerous ways. One prominent effect of chlamydial infection is the inhibition of apoptosis in the host cell, but molecular aspects of this inhibition are unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine with important roles in immunity, which is produced by immune cells in chlamydial infection and which can have pro-apoptotic and non-apoptotic signalling activity. We here analysed the signalling through TNF in cells infected with C. trachomatis. The pro-apoptotic signal of TNF involves the activation of caspase-8 and is controlled by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. We found that in C. trachomatis-infected cells, TNF-induced apoptosis was blocked upstream of caspase-8 activation even when inhibitor of apoptosis proteins were inhibited or the inhibitor of caspase-8 activation, cFLIP, was targeted by RNAi. However, when caspase-8 was directly activated by experimental over-expression of its upstream adapter Fas-associated protein with death domain, C. trachomatis was unable to inhibit apoptosis. Non-apoptotic TNF-signalling, particularly the activation of NF-κB, initiates at the plasma membrane, while the activation of caspase-8 and pro-apoptotic signalling occur subsequently to internalization of TNF receptor and the formation of a cytosolic signalling complex. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, NF-κB activation through TNF was unaffected, while the internalization of the TNF-TNF-receptor complex was blocked, explaining the lack of caspase-8 activation. These results identify a dichotomy of TNF signalling in C. trachomatis-infected cells: Apoptosis is blocked at the internalization of the TNF receptor, but non-apoptotic signalling through this receptor remains intact, permitting a response to this cytokine at sites of infection. © 2016 John

  7. Different forms of adiponectin reduce the apoptotic and damaging effect of cigarette smoke extract on human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Yu; Liu, Hu; Zhang, Tie-Mei; Xu, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease, in which adiponectin may serve an important role. The present study investigated the role of adiponectin in the apoptotic and damaging effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBECs). An MTT assay showed that CSE significantly inhibited the proliferation of 16HBECs (F=1808.88, P<0.01). The 16HBECs were treated with different concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and globular domain (gAd) adiponectin and it was observed that HMW and gAd dose-dependently inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, and the generation of 4-hydroxy-nonenal and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 16HBECs, thereby blocking the upregulating effect of CSE on these factors. However, the inhibitory effect of gAd on TNF-α and IL-8 expression was stronger compared with that of HMW, but the suppressing effect of HMW on ROS production was superior compared with that of gAd. Further testing of apoptosis indicated that CSE and HMW promoted the apoptosis of 16HBECs. However, such effects of HMW declined with an increase in concentration. In contrast, gAd showed an inhibitory effect on apoptosis and inhibited the occurrence of CSE-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that different forms of adiponectin may have different mechanisms of action, suggesting that further exploration of their effects may open a new avenue for the treatment of COPD. PMID:28105143

  8. Loss of anchorage primarily induces non-apoptotic cell death in a human mammary epithelial cell line under atypical focal adhesion kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, F; Ushida, K; Mori, K; Shibanuma, M

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage dependence of cellular growth and survival prevents inappropriate cell growth or survival in ectopic environments, and serves as a potential barrier to metastasis of cancer cells. Therefore, obtaining a better understanding of anchorage-dependent responses in normal cells is the first step to understand and impede anchorage independence of growth and survival in cancer cells and finally to eradicate cancer cells during metastasis. Anoikis, a type of apoptosis specifically induced by lack of appropriate cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, has been established as the dominant response of normal epithelial cells to anchorage loss. For example, under detached conditions, the untransformed mammary epithelial cell (MEC) line MCF-10 A, which exhibits myoepithelial characteristics, underwent anoikis dependent on classical ERK signaling. On the other hand, recent studies have revealed a variety of phenotypes resulting in cell death modalities distinct from anoikis, such as autophagy, necrosis, and cornification, in detached epithelial cells. In the present study, we characterized detachment-induced cell death (DICD) in primary human MECs immortalized with hTERT (TertHMECs), which are bipotent progenitor-like cells with a differentiating phenotype to luminal cells. In contrast to MCF-10 A cells, apoptosis was not observed in detached TertHMECs; instead, non-apoptotic cell death marked by features of entosis, cornification, and necrosis was observed along with downregulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Cell death was overcome by anchorage-independent activities of FAK but not PI3K/AKT, SRC, and MEK/ERK, suggesting critical roles of atypical FAK signaling pathways in the regulation of non-apoptotic cell death. Further analysis revealed an important role of TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) as a mediator of FAK signaling in regulation of entosis and necrosis and a role of p38 MAPK in the induction of necrosis. Overall

  9. Glucocorticoid receptors take part in the apoptotic process of human lens epithelial cells, but the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 does not rescue the cells fully.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wencheng; Leng, Fei; Ge, Jinying; Bu, Zhigao; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ping

    2011-06-01

    To identify an agent with specific activity against human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), we confirmed the presence of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and GR-α genes and evaluated whether GRs have a relationship with the apoptotic process in cultured HLECs. We also determined whether the inhibitor RU486 could rescue the cells from apoptosis when the HLECs were exposed to dexamethasone (Dex), a steroid, in 4 concentrations for 4 periods, or were co-treated with the antagonist RU486. We found that Dex, which has been used as a medical agent for a long time, resulted in increased expression of GRE-luciferase, the GR-α gene and GR-protein and, in contrast, decreased the viability of HLECs. The expression of Bax protein was increased in an earlier stage in contrast to the expression of Bcl-2 protein, which was increased in a later stage. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased under lower concentrations of Dex in the last stage. The nuclear morphology of HLECs showed an obvious apoptotic phenomenon under greater concentrations of Dex in the last stage. However, RU486, a GR antagonist, could partially inhibit GR and Bax expressions and the expression of caspase-3 was increased so that there was not a decrease in the ratio of apoptotic cells and an increase in the viability of HLECs. Our data showed that GRs had a partial relationship to the apoptotic process of HLECs when exposed to Dex and RU486 did not rescue the cells fully. Because of its toxicity, RU486 did not provide a therapeutic benefit in a glucocorticoid induced cataract (GIC) for the in vitro model, however, its activity and pathway targeting should still be studied further with appropriate drug combinations.

  10. Novel lnc RNA regulated by HIF-1 inhibits apoptotic cell death in the renal tubular epithelial cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Imari; Hirakawa, Yosuke; Kanki, Yasuharu; Kushida, Natsuki; Nakaki, Ryo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2017-04-01

    Chronic tubulointerstitial hypoxia plays an important role as the final common pathway to end-stage renal disease. HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is a master transcriptional factor under hypoxia, regulating downstream target genes. Genome-wide analysis of HIF-1 binding sites using high-throughput sequencers has clarified various kinds of downstream targets and made it possible to demonstrate the novel roles of HIF-1. Our aim of this study is to identify novel HIF-1 downstream epigenetic targets which may play important roles in the kidney. Immortalized tubular cell lines (HK2; human kidney-2) and primary cultured cells (RPTEC; renal proximal tubular cell lines) were exposed to 1% hypoxia for 24-72 h. We performed RNA-seq to clarify the expression of mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). We also examined ChIP-seq to identify HIF-1 binding sites under hypoxia. RNA-seq identified 44 lncRNAs which are up-regulated under hypoxic condition in both cells. ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that HIF-1 also binds to the lncRNAs under hypoxia. The expression of novel lncRNA, DARS-AS1 (aspartyl-tRNA synthetase anti-sense 1), is up-regulated only under hypoxia and HIF-1 binds to its promoter region, which includes two hypoxia-responsive elements. Its expression is also up-regulated with cobalt chloride exposure, while it is not under hypoxia when HIF-1 is knocked down by siRNA To clarify the biological roles of DARS-AS1, we measured the activity of caspase 3/7 using anti-sense oligo of DARS-AS1. Knockdown of DARS-AS1 deteriorated apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, we identified the novel lncRNAs regulated by HIF-1 under hypoxia and clarified that DARS-AS1 plays an important role in inhibiting apoptotic cell death in renal tubular cells. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. The apoptotic pathways effect of fine particulate from cooking oil fumes in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Zhen; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yanyan; Cao, Jiyu; Liang, Chunmei; Wang, Lei; Ding, Rui

    2014-02-01

    Apoptosis occurs along three major pathways: (i) an extrinsic pathway, mediated by death receptors; (ii) an intrinsic pathway centered on mitochondria; and (iii) an ER-stress pathway. We investigated the apoptotic pathway effects of cooking oil fumes (COF) in fetal lung type II-like epithelium cells (AEC II). Exposure to COF caused up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. COF induced the mitochondrial permeability transition, an early event in apoptosis; cytochrome c was translocated from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated, as a consequence of the mitochondrial permeability transition. The death receptor apoptotic pathway was triggered by COF, as indicated by a change in Fas expression, resulting in increased caspase-8 content. COF exposure arrested the cell cycle the at G0-G1 phase. In summary, COF can lead to apoptosis via mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AEC II cells.

  12. Reversal of the Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Cytotoxicity Pathway by Taurine from Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry) in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Benefit in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Roufogalis, B D; Huang, T H W

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a preventable microvascular diabetic complication and a leading cause of vision loss. Retinal pigment epithelial cell apoptosis is an early event in diabetic retinopathy. Taurine is reportedly beneficial for diabetic retinopathy and is abundant in the fruit of Lycium barbarum (LB). We have investigated the effect of pure taurine and an extract of LB rich in taurine on a model of diabetic retinopathy, the retinal ARPE-19 cell line exposed to high glucose. We demonstrate for the first time that LB extract and the active ligand, taurine, dose dependently enhance cell viability following high glucose treatment in the ARPE-19 retinal epithelial cell line. This cytoprotective effect was associated with the attenuation of high glucose-induced apoptosis, which was shown by characteristic morphological staining and the dose-dependent decrease in the number of apoptotic cells, determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, we have shown that LB extract and taurine dose dependently downregulate caspase-3 protein expression and the enzymatic activity of caspase-3. We conclude that taurine, a major component of LB, and the LB extract, have a cytoprotective effect against glucose exposure in a human retinal epithelial cell line and may provide useful approaches to delaying diabetic retinopathy progression.

  13. Reversal of the Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Cytotoxicity Pathway by Taurine from Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry) in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Benefit in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Song, M. K.; Roufogalis, B. D.; Huang, T. H. W.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a preventable microvascular diabetic complication and a leading cause of vision loss. Retinal pigment epithelial cell apoptosis is an early event in diabetic retinopathy. Taurine is reportedly beneficial for diabetic retinopathy and is abundant in the fruit of Lycium barbarum (LB). We have investigated the effect of pure taurine and an extract of LB rich in taurine on a model of diabetic retinopathy, the retinal ARPE-19 cell line exposed to high glucose. We demonstrate for the first time that LB extract and the active ligand, taurine, dose dependently enhance cell viability following high glucose treatment in the ARPE-19 retinal epithelial cell line. This cytoprotective effect was associated with the attenuation of high glucose-induced apoptosis, which was shown by characteristic morphological staining and the dose-dependent decrease in the number of apoptotic cells, determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, we have shown that LB extract and taurine dose dependently downregulate caspase-3 protein expression and the enzymatic activity of caspase-3. We conclude that taurine, a major component of LB, and the LB extract, have a cytoprotective effect against glucose exposure in a human retinal epithelial cell line and may provide useful approaches to delaying diabetic retinopathy progression. PMID:22567031

  14. Host immune and apoptotic responses to avian influenza virus H9N2 in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zheng; Harper, Richart; Anunciacion, Jerome; Yang, Zengqi; Gao, Wei; Qu, Bingqian; Guan, Yi; Cardona, Carol J

    2011-01-01

    The avian influenza virus H9N2 subtype has circulated in wild birds, is prevalent in domestic poultry, and has successfully crossed the species boundary to infect humans. Phylogenetic analyses showed that viruses of this subtype appear to have contributed to the generation of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Little is known about the host responses to H9N2 viruses in human airway respiratory epithelium, the primary portal for viral infection. Using an apically differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) culture, we examined host immune responses to infection by an avian H9N2 virus, in comparison with a human H9N2 isolate. We found that IFN-β was the prominent antiviral component, whereas interferon gamma-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-5 and TNF-α may be critical in proinflammatory responses to H9N2 viruses. In contrast, proinflammatory IL-1β, IL-8, and even IL-6 may only play a minor role in pathogenicity. Apparently Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-7, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) contributed to the innate immunity against the H9N2 viruses, and MDA-5 was important in the induction of IFN-β. We showed that the avian H9N2 virus induced apoptosis through the mitochondria/cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic pathway, in addition to the caspase 8-mediated extrinsic pathway, as evidenced by the cytosolic presence of active caspase 9 and cytochrome c, independent of truncated BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) activation. Further, we demonstrated that FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), an apoptotic dual regulator, and the p53-dependent Bcl-2 family members, Bax and Bcl-x(s), appeared to be involved in the regulation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. The findings in this study will further our understanding of host defense mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  15. Teriflunomide (leflunomide) promotes cytostatic, antioxidant, and apoptotic effects in transformed prostate epithelial cells: evidence supporting a role for teriflunomide in prostate cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Hail, Numsen; Chen, Ping; Bushman, Lane R

    2010-06-01

    Teriflunomide (TFN) is an inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and the active metabolite of leflunomide. Leflunomide is prescribed to patients worldwide as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory disease-modifying prodrug. Leflunomide inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer xenographs in mice, and leflunomide or TFN promoted cytostasis and/or apoptosis in cultured cells. These findings suggest that TFN could be useful in prostate cancer chemoprevention. We investigated the possible mechanistic aspects of this tenet by characterizing the effects of TFN using premalignant PWR-1E and malignant DU-145 human prostate epithelial cells. TFN promoted a dose- and time-dependent cytostasis or apoptosis induction in these cells. The cytostatic effects of TFN, which were reversible but not by the presence of excess uridine in the culture medium, included diminished cellular uridine levels, an inhibition in oxygen consumption, a suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and a conspicuous reduction in the size and number of the nucleoli in the nuclei of these cells. Conversely, TFN's apoptogenic effects were characteristic of catastrophic mitochondrial disruption (i.e., a dissipation of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, enhanced ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and cytoplasmic vacuolization) and followed by DNA fragmentation. The respiration-deficient derivatives of the DU-145 cells, which are also uridine auxotrophs, were markedly resistant to the cytostatic and apoptotic effects of TFN, implicating de novo pyrimidine synthesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics as the primary targets for TFN in the respiration competent cells. These mechanistic findings advocate a role for TFN and mitochondrial bioenergetics in prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  16. Teriflunomide (Leflunomide) Promotes Cytostatic, Antioxidant, and Apoptotic Effects in Transformed Prostate Epithelial Cells: Evidence Supporting a Role for Teriflunomide in Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention1

    PubMed Central

    Hail, Numsen; Chen, Ping; Bushman, Lane R

    2010-01-01

    Teriflunomide (TFN) is an inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and the active metabolite of leflunomide. Leflunomide is prescribed to patients worldwide as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory disease-modifying prodrug. Leflunomide inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer xenographs in mice, and leflunomide or TFN promoted cytostasis and/or apoptosis in cultured cells. These findings suggest that TFN could be useful in prostate cancer chemoprevention. We investigated the possible mechanistic aspects of this tenet by characterizing the effects of TFN using premalignant PWR-1E and malignant DU-145 human prostate epithelial cells. TFN promoted a dose- and time-dependent cytostasis or apoptosis induction in these cells. The cytostatic effects of TFN, which were reversible but not by the presence of excess uridine in the culture medium, included diminished cellular uridine levels, an inhibition in oxygen consumption, a suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and a conspicuous reduction in the size and number of the nucleoli in the nuclei of these cells. Conversely, TFN's apoptogenic effects were characteristic of catastrophic mitochondrial disruption (i.e., a dissipation of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, enhanced ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and cytoplasmic vacuolization) and followed by DNA fragmentation. The respiration-deficient derivatives of the DU-145 cells, which are also uridine auxotrophs, were markedly resistant to the cytostatic and apoptotic effects of TFN, implicating de novo pyrimidine synthesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics as the primary targets for TFN in the respiration competent cells. These mechanistic findings advocate a role for TFN and mitochondrial bioenergetics in prostate cancer chemoprevention. PMID:20563249

  17. Immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voll, Reinhard E.; Herrmann, Martin; Roth, Edith A.; Stach, Christian; Kalden, Joachim R.; Girkontaite, Irute

    1997-11-01

    Apoptotic cell death is important in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and is a highly controlled means of eliminating dangerous, damaged or unnecessary cells without causing an inflammatory response or tissue damage,. We now show that the presence of apoptotic cells during monocyte activation increases their secretion of the anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) and decreases secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1 and IL-12. This may inhibit inflammation and contribute to impaired cell-mediated immunity in conditions associated with increased apoptosis, such as viral infections, pregnancy, cancer and exposure to radiation.

  18. Anti-apoptotic effects of Curcuma longa L. extract and its curcuminoids against blue light-induced cytotoxicity in A2E-laden human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Il; Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, So Ra; Jang, Young Pyo

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the protective effect of the Curcuma longa L. extract (CLE) and its curcuminoids against blue light-induced cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells laded with A2E. A2E has been concerned in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To perform this study, A2E-accumulated ARPE-19 cells were exposed to blue light to induce cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity and apoptotic gene expression levels were evaluated using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. Curcuma longa L. extract was found to exert a protective effect in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 15 μm, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin exerted significant protective effects against blue light-induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with CLE and curcuminoids meaningfully reduced the mRNA levels of c-Abl and p53, which was known to be augmented in apoptotic RPE cells. Demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were found to inhibit p38 expression, which is increased in blue light-irradiated A2E-accumulated RPE cells. Curcuma longa L. extract and its curcuminoids provided significant protection against photooxidative damage and apoptosis in the RPE cells. Our results suggest that curcuminoids may show potential in the treatment of AMD. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly (Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) and graphene oxide nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Candida albicans-infected vaginal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shemedia J.; Danielsen, Zhixia Yan; Lim, Jin-Hee; Mudalige, Thilak; Linder, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Mucous-penetrating nanoparticles consisting of poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) could improve targeting of microbicidal drugs for sexually transmitted diseases by intravaginal inoculation. Nanoparticles can induce inflammatory responses, which may exacerbate the inflammation that occurs in the vaginal tracts of women with yeast infections. This study evaluated the effects of these drug-delivery nanoparticles on VK2(E6/E7) vaginal epithelial cell proinflammatory responses to Candida albicans yeast infections. Vaginal epithelial cell monolayers were infected with C. albicans and exposed to 100 μg/ml 49.5 nm PLGA-PEG nanospheres or 20 μg/ml 1.1 x 500 nm PEG-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PEG) sheets. The cells were assessed for changes in mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes by RT-qPCR and physiological markers of cell stress using high content analysis and flow cytometry. C. albicans exposure suppressed apoptotic gene expression, but induced oxidative stress in the cells. The nanomaterials induced cytotoxicity and programmed cell death responses alone and with C. albicans. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles induced mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes and induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, increased BAX/BCL2 ratios, and chromatin condensation indicative of apoptosis. They also induced autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and DNA damage. They caused the cells to excrete inflammatory recruitment molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), interleukin-1α (IL1A), interleukin-1β (IL1B), calprotectin (S100A8), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF). GO-PEG nanoparticles induced expression of necrosis-related genes and cytotoxicity. They reduced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic gene expression responses. The results show that stealth nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles may cause intracellular damage to vaginal epithelial cells by several mechanisms and that their use

  20. Polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly (Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) and graphene oxide nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Candida albicans-infected vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J; Danielsen, Zhixia Yan; Lim, Jin-Hee; Mudalige, Thilak; Linder, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Mucous-penetrating nanoparticles consisting of poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) could improve targeting of microbicidal drugs for sexually transmitted diseases by intravaginal inoculation. Nanoparticles can induce inflammatory responses, which may exacerbate the inflammation that occurs in the vaginal tracts of women with yeast infections. This study evaluated the effects of these drug-delivery nanoparticles on VK2(E6/E7) vaginal epithelial cell proinflammatory responses to Candida albicans yeast infections. Vaginal epithelial cell monolayers were infected with C. albicans and exposed to 100 μg/ml 49.5 nm PLGA-PEG nanospheres or 20 μg/ml 1.1 x 500 nm PEG-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PEG) sheets. The cells were assessed for changes in mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes by RT-qPCR and physiological markers of cell stress using high content analysis and flow cytometry. C. albicans exposure suppressed apoptotic gene expression, but induced oxidative stress in the cells. The nanomaterials induced cytotoxicity and programmed cell death responses alone and with C. albicans. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles induced mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes and induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, increased BAX/BCL2 ratios, and chromatin condensation indicative of apoptosis. They also induced autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and DNA damage. They caused the cells to excrete inflammatory recruitment molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), interleukin-1α (IL1A), interleukin-1β (IL1B), calprotectin (S100A8), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF). GO-PEG nanoparticles induced expression of necrosis-related genes and cytotoxicity. They reduced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic gene expression responses. The results show that stealth nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles may cause intracellular damage to vaginal epithelial cells by several mechanisms and that their use

  1. Apoptotic cells enhance pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Goutham; Palasiewicz, Karol; Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Freitag, Nancy E; Ucker, David S

    2017-04-01

    Infections by pathogenic microorganisms elicit host immune responses, which crucially limit those infections. Pathogens employ various strategies to evade host immunity. We have identified the exploitation of the repertoire of potent immunosuppressive responses elicited normally by apoptotic cells ("Innate Apoptotic Immunity"; IAI) as one of these strategies. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, an environmentally ubiquitous, foodborne bacterial pathogen capable of causing life-threatening invasive disease in immunocompromised and elderly individuals, the induction of host cell apoptosis appears to play an important role in pathogenesis. Previous studies have documented extensive lymphocyte apoptosis resulting from L. monocytogenes infection and demonstrated paradoxically that lymphocyte-deficient animals exhibit diminished susceptibility to listerial pathogenicity. We speculated that the triggering of IAI following the induction of host cell apoptosis was responsible for enhanced pathogenesis, and that the administration of exogenous apoptotic cells would serve to exert this effect. Importantly, apoptotic cells, which are not susceptible to L. monocytogenes infection, do not provide a niche for bacterial replication. Our experiments confirm that apoptotic cells, including exogenous apoptotic cells induced to die independently of the pathogen, specifically enhance pathogenesis. The recognition of a role of apoptotic cells and Innate Apoptotic Immunity in microbial pathogenesis provides an intriguing and novel insight for therapeutic approaches for the control of pathogenic infections.

  2. Apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by benzo(a)pyrene in liver epithelial cells: role of p53 and pHi changes.

    PubMed

    Huc, Laurence; Gilot, David; Gardyn, Claire; Rissel, Mary; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Guillouzo, André; Fardel, Olivier; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2003-12-01

    How pH(i) changes, more specifically alkalinization, affect the apoptotic cascade has yet to be determined. The aim of the present work was to test the involvement of mitochondria in the apoptotic cascade triggered by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and to determine the role of pH(i) changes and p53 relative to mitochondria. Our results indicate that B(a)P-induced apoptosis might rely upon a p53-dependent and a pH-sensitive mitochondrial dysfunction.

  3. Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells.

    PubMed

    Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

    2014-08-14

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn(2+) (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72 h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy.

  4. Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells

    PubMed Central

    Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn2+ (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72 h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy. PMID:25118929

  5. Apoptotic cell death and efferocytosis in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Van Vré, Emily A; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad

    2012-04-01

    Apoptotic cell death is an important feature of atherosclerotic plaques, and it seems to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects depending on the cell type and plaque stage. Because late apoptotic cells can launch proatherogenic inflammatory responses, adequate engulfment of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by macrophages is important to withstand atherosclerosis progression. Several efferocytosis systems, composed of different phagocytic receptors, apoptotic ligands, and bridging molecules, can be distinguished. Because phagocytes in atherosclerotic plaques are very much solicited, a fully operative efferocytosis system seems to be an absolute requisite. Indeed, recent studies demonstrate that deletion of just 1 of the efferocytosis pathways aggravates atherosclerosis. This review discusses the role of apoptosis in atherosclerosis and general mechanisms of efferocytosis, to end with indirect and direct indications of the significance of effective efferocytosis in atherosclerosis.

  6. Stabilization Of Apoptotic Cells: Generation Of Zombie Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Alcázar, José A; Oropesa Ávila, Manuel; Andrade Talavera, Yuniesky; Garrido Maraver, Juan; de Lavera, Isabel; de la Mata, Mario; Cotán, David; Villanueva Paz, Marina; Delgado Pavón, Ana; Alcocer Gómez, Elisabet; Rodríguez Moreno, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We were able by using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn(2+) (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant) to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72hours preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cells characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels, plasma membrane potential, PS externalization and ability of being phagocytosed. Stabilized apoptotic cells can be considered as dying cells in which the cellular cortex and plasma membrane are maintained intact or alive. In a metaphorical sense, we can consider them as "living dead" or "zombie cells". Stabilization of apoptotic cells can be used for reliable detection and quantification of apoptosis in cultured cells and may allow a safer administration of apoptotic cells in clinical applications. Furthermore, it opens new avenues in the functional reconstruction of apoptotic cells for longer preservation.

  7. Detection of apoptotic cells using immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-11-03

    Immunohistochemistry is commonly used to show the presence of apoptotic cells in situ. In this protocol, B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples are fixed and sectioned, and fragmented DNA (a feature of apoptotic cells) is end-labeled by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Immunohistochemical methods are then used to detect the labeled DNA and identify B-cell lymphoma cells in the last stage of apoptosis. Because the assay can lead to false-positive results, it is advisable to carry out an additional assay (e.g., immunohistochemistry for active caspase-3) to confirm the presence of apoptotic cells.

  8. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust particles exhibit alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity associated with decrease in antioxidant defenses and imbalance in pro- and anti-apoptotic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Seriani, Robson; de Souza, Claudia Emanuele Carvalho; Krempel, Paloma Gava; Frias, Daniela Perroni; Matsuda, Monique; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Ferreira, Márcia Zotti Justo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from diesel engines produce adverse alterations in cells of the airways by activating intracellular signaling pathways and apoptotic gene overexpression, and also by influencing metabolism and cytoskeleton changes. This study used human bronchial epithelium cells (BEAS-2B) in culture and evaluates their exposure to DEPs (15ug/mL for 1 and 2 h) in order to determine changes to cell rheology (viscoelasticity) and gene expression of the enzymes involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. BEAS-2B cells exposed to DEPs were found to have a significant loss in stiffness, membrane stability, and mitochondrial activity. The genes involved in apoptosis [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2 and caspase-3)] presented inversely proportional expressions (p = 0.05, p = 0.01, respectively), low expression of the genes involved in antioxidant responses [SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1); SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) (p = 0.01)], along with an increase in cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) (p = 0.01). These results suggest that alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity could be associated with oxidative stress and imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic genes.

  9. Mediators involved in the immunomodulatory effects of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Bonnefoy, Francis; Kury-Paulin, Stephanie; Kleinclauss, François; Perruche, Sylvain

    2007-07-15

    Immunomodulatory properties are attributed to apoptotic cells. These properties have been used to modulate allogeneic immune responses in experimental transplantation settings. In independent studies, apoptotic cell infusion has been shown to favor hematopoietic cell engraftment, to increase heart graft survival, and to delay the lethal onset of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The goal of this review was to discuss how apoptotic cell infusion interferes with graft rejection or host rejection (i.e., GVHD) and to focus on the potential mediators or "perpetuators" involved in apoptotic cell-induced immunomodulation. Particular emphasis on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta secretion, and regulatory T cell induction was performed. Stimulating "naturally" immunosuppressive molecules (i.e., TGF-beta) or immunomodulatory cells ("alternatively-activated" macrophages, certain dendritic cell subsets, or regulatory T cells) in a physiological manner by using apoptotic cell infusion can be a promising way to induce tolerance.

  10. Apoptotic effects of salinomycin on human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3).

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Fuat; Teksen, Fulya

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we studied the apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of salinomycin on human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3) as salinomycin is known as a selectively cancer stem cell killer agent. We used immortal human ovarian epithelial cell line (IHOEC) as control group. Ovarian cancer cells and ovarian epithelial cells were treated by different concentrations of salinomycin such as 0.1, 1, and 40 μM and incubated for 24, 48, and 72 h. Dimethylthiazol (MTT) cell viability assay was performed to determine cell viability and toxicity. On the other hand, the expression levels of some of the apoptosis-related genes, namely anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, apoptotic Bax, and Caspase-3 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Additionally, Caspase-3 protein level was also determined. As a result, we concluded that incubation of human OVCAR-3 by 0.1 μM concentration of salinomycin for 24 h killed 40 % of the cancer cells by activating apoptosis but had no effect on normal cells. The apoptotic Bax gene expression was upregulated but anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression was downregulated. Active Caspase-3 protein level was increased significantly (p < 0.05).

  11. Mediators involved in the immunomodulatory effects of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Saas, Philippe; Bonnefoy, Francis; Kury-Paulin, Stephanie; Kleinclauss, François M.; Perruche, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Immunomodulatory properties are attributed to apoptotic cells. These properties have been used to modulate allogeneic immune responses in experimental transplantation settings. In independent studies, apoptotic cell infusion has been shown to favor hematopoietic cell engraftment, to increase heart graft survival and to delay the lethal onset of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The goal of this review was to discuss how apoptotic cell infusion interferes with graft rejection or host rejection (i.e., GVHD) and to focus on the potential mediators or “perpetuators” involved in apoptotic cell-induced immunomodulation. Particular emphasis on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, TGF-β secretion and regulatory T cell induction was performed. Stimulating “naturally” immunosuppressive molecules (i.e., TGF-β) or immunomodulatory cells (“alternatively-activated” macrophages, certain DC subsets or regulatory T cells) in a physiological manner by using apoptotic cell infusion can be a promising way to induce tolerance. PMID:17632410

  12. Elimination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa through Efferocytosis upon Binding to Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Paula; Kierbel, Arlinet

    2016-01-01

    For opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the mucosal barrier represents a formidable challenge. Infections develop only in patients with altered epithelial barriers. Here, we showed that P. aeruginosa interacts with a polarized epithelium, adhering almost exclusively at sites of multi-cellular junctions. In these sites, numerous bacteria attach to an extruded apoptotic cell or apoptotic body. This dead cell tropism is independent of the type of cell death, as P. aeruginosa also binds to necrotic cells. We further showed that P. aeruginosa is internalized through efferocytosis, a process in which surrounding epithelial cells engulf and dispose of extruded apoptotic cells. Intracellularly, along with apoptotic cell debris, P. aeruginosa inhabits an efferocytic phagosome that acquires lysosomal features, and is finally killed. We propose that elimination of P. aeruginosa through efferocytosis is part of a host defense mechanism. Our findings could be relevant for the study of cystic fibrosis, which is characterized by an exacerbated number of apoptotic cells and ineffective efferocytosis. PMID:27977793

  13. Epithelial cell extrusion: Pathways and pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gudipaty, Swapna Aravind; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2016-05-19

    To remove dying or unwanted cells from an epithelium while preserving the barrier function of the layer, epithelia use a unique process called cell extrusion. To extrude, the cell fated to die emits the lipid Sphingosine 1 Phosphate (S1P), which binds the G-protein-coupled receptor Sphingosine 1 Phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) in the neighboring cells that activates Rho-mediated contraction of an actomyosin ring circumferentially and basally. This contraction acts to squeeze the cell out apically while drawing together neighboring cells and preventing any gaps to the epithelial barrier. Epithelia can extrude out cells targeted to die by apoptotic stimuli to repair the barrier in the face of death or extrude live cells to promote cell death when epithelial cells become too crowded. Indeed, because epithelial cells naturally turn over by cell death and division at some of the highest rates in the body, epithelia depend on crowding-induced live cell extrusion to preserve constant cell numbers. If extrusion is defective, epithelial cells rapidly lose contact inhibition and form masses. Additionally, because epithelia act as the first line of defense in innate immunity, preservation of this barrier is critical for preventing pathogens from invading the body. Given its role in controlling constant cell numbers and maintaining barrier function, a number of different pathologies can result when extrusion is disrupted. Here, we review mechanisms and signaling pathways that control epithelial extrusion and discuss how defects in these mechanisms can lead to multiple diseases. We also discuss tactics pathogens have devised to hijack the extrusion process to infect and colonize epithelia.

  14. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Ivan K. H.; Lucas, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with a variety of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions such as killing tumour cells by specific cell death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and anti-tumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24481336

  15. Apoptotic cells subjected to cold/warming exposure disorganize apoptotic microtubule network and undergo secondary necrosis.

    PubMed

    Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Fernández-Vega, Alejandro; de la Mata, Mario; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Cotán, David; Paz, Marina Villanueva; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Lema, Rafael; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A

    2014-09-01

    Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis, forming a cortical structure beneath the plasma membrane which plays a critical role in preserving cell morphology and plasma membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cold/warming exposure on apoptotic microtubules and plasma membrane integrity during the execution phase of apoptosis. We demonstrated in camptothecin-induced apoptotic H460 cells that cold/warming exposure disorganized apoptotic microtubules and allowed the access of active caspases to the cellular cortex and the cleavage of essential proteins in the preservation of plasma membrane permeability. Cleavage of cellular cortex and plasma membrane proteins, such as α-spectrin, paxilin, focal adhesion kinase and calcium ATPase pump (PMCA-4) involved in cell calcium extrusion resulted in increased plasma permeability and calcium overload leading apoptotic cells to secondary necrosis. The essential role of caspase-mediated cleavage in this process was demonstrated because the addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD during cold/warming exposure that induces AMN depolymerization avoided the cleavage of cortical and plasma membrane proteins and prevented apoptotic cells to undergo secondary necrosis. Likewise, apoptotic microtubules stabilization by taxol during cold/warming exposure also prevented cellular cortex and plasma membrane protein cleavage and secondary necrosis. Furthermore, microtubules stabilization or caspase inhibition during cold/warming exposure was also critical for proper phosphatidylserine externalization and apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. These results indicate that cold/warming exposure of apoptotic cells induces secondary necrosis which can be prevented by both, microtubule stabilization or caspase inhibition.

  16. Innate recognition of apoptotic cells: novel apoptotic cell-associated molecular patterns revealed by crossreactivity of anti-LPS antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tennant, I; Pound, J D; Marr, L A; Willems, J J L P; Petrova, S; Ford, C A; Paterson, M; Devitt, A; Gregory, C D

    2013-05-01

    Cells dying by apoptosis are normally cleared by phagocytes through mechanisms that can suppress inflammation and immunity. Molecules of the innate immune system, the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are able to interact not only with conserved structures on microbes (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) but also with ligands displayed by apoptotic cells. We reasoned that PRRs might therefore interact with structures on apoptotic cells - apoptotic cell-associated molecular patterns (ACAMPs) - that are analogous to PAMPs. Here we show that certain monoclonal antibodies raised against the prototypic PAMP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can crossreact with apoptotic cells. We demonstrate that one such antibody interacts with a constitutively expressed intracellular protein, laminin-binding protein, which translocates to the cell surface during apoptosis and can interact with cells expressing the prototypic PRR, mCD14 as well as with CD14-negative cells. Anti-LPS cross reactive epitopes on apoptotic cells colocalised with annexin V- and C1q-binding sites on vesicular regions of apoptotic cell surfaces and were released associated with apoptotic cell-derived microvesicles (MVs). These results confirm that apoptotic cells and microbes can interact with the immune system through common elements and suggest that anti-PAMP antibodies could be used strategically to characterise novel ACAMPs associated not only with apoptotic cells but also with derived MVs.

  17. Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, Emma L.

    2008-01-01

    The current enthusiasm for stem cell research stems from the hope that damaged or diseased tissues may one day be repaired through the manipulation of endogenous or exogenous stem cells. The postnatal human respiratory system is highly accessible and provides unique opportunities for the application of such techniques. Several putative adult lung epithelial stem cells have been identified in the mouse model system. However, their in vivo capabilities to contribute to different lineages, and their control mechanisms, remain unclear. If stem cell–based therapies are to be successful in the lung, it is vitally important that we understand the normal behavior of adult lung stem cells, and how this is regulated. Lung embryonic progenitor cells are much better defined and characterized than their adult counterparts. Moreover, experiments on a variety of developing tissues are beginning to uncover general mechanisms by which embryonic progenitors influence final organ size and structure. This provides a framework for the study of lung embryonic progenitor cells, facilitating experimental design and interpretation. A similar approach to investigating adult lung stem cells could produce rapid advances in the field. PMID:18684716

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M.; Boe, Darren M.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J.; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M.; Henson, Peter M.; Vandivier, R. William

    2012-01-01

    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance. PMID:22307908

  19. Cell death at the intestinal epithelial front line.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Maria Eugenia; Grabinger, Thomas; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents the largest epithelial surface in our body. This single-cell-layer epithelium mediates important functions in the absorption of nutrients and in the maintenance of barrier function, preventing luminal microorganisms from invading the body. Due to its constant regeneration the intestinal epithelium is a tissue not only with very high proliferation rates but also with very prominent physiological and pathophysiological cell death induction. The normal physiological differentiation and maturation of intestinal epithelial cells leads to their shedding and apoptotic cell death within a few days, without disturbing the epithelial barrier integrity. In contrast excessive intestinal epithelial cell death induced by irradiation, drugs and inflammation severely impairs the vital functions of this tissue. In this review we discuss cell death processes in the intestinal epithelium in health and disease, with special emphasis on cell death triggered by the tumour necrosis factor receptor family. © 2015 FEBS.

  20. Ion Channels, Cell Volume, Cell Proliferation and Apoptotic Cell Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Florian; Gulbins, Erich; Szabo, Ildiko; Vereninov, Alexey; Huber, Stephan M.

    At some stage cell proliferation requires an increase in cell volume and a typical hallmark of apoptotic cell death is cell shrinkage. The respective alterations of cell volume are accomplished by altered regulation of ion transport including ion channels. Thus, cell proliferation and apoptosis are both paralleled by altered activity of ion channels, which play an active part in these fundamental cellular mechanisms. Activation of anion channels allows exit of Cl?, osmolyte and HCO3 ? leading to cell shrinkage and acidification of the cytosol. K+ exit through K+ channels leads to cell shrinkage and a decrease in intracellular K+ concentration. K+ channel activity is further important for maintenance of the cell membrane potential - a critical determinant of Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels. Cytosolic Ca2+ may both activate mechanisms required for cell proliferation and stimulate enzymes executing apoptosis. The effect of enhanced cytosolic Ca2+ activity depends on the magnitude and temporal organisation of Ca2+ entry. Moreover, a given ion channel may support both cell proliferation and apoptosis, and specific ion channel blockers may abrogate both fundamental cellular mechanisms, depending on cell type, regulatory environment and condition of the cell. Clearly, further experimental effort is needed to clarify the role of ion channels in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  1. Apoptotic Cell Death of Human Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Faussone Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Garrity-Park, Megan M.; Miller, Steven M.; Schmalz, Philip F.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Larson, David W.; Dozois, Eric J.; Camilleri, Michael; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Szurszewski, Joseph H.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are specialized mesenchyme-derived cells that regulate contractility and excitability of many smooth muscles with loss of ICC seen in a variety of gut motility disorders. Maintenance of ICC numbers is tightly regulated, with several factors known to regulate proliferation. In contrast, the fate of ICC is not established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apoptosis plays a role in the regulation of ICC numbers in the normal colon. ICC were identified by immunolabeling for the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase and by electron microscopy. Apoptosis was detected in colon tissue by immunolabeling for activated caspase-3, terminal dUTP nucleotide end labeling, and ultrastructural changes in the cells. Apoptotic ICC were identified and counted in double labeled tissue sections. Apoptotic ICC were identified in all layers of the colonic muscle. In the muscularis propria 1.5 ± 0.2% of ICC were positive for activated caspase-3 and in the circular muscle layer 2.1 ± 0.9% of ICC were positive for TUNEL. Apoptotic ICC were identified by electron microscopy. Apoptotic cell death is ongoing in ICC. The level of apoptosis in ICC in healthy colon indicates that these cells must be continually regenerated to maintain intact networks. PMID:18798796

  2. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity.

  3. Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.

    PubMed

    Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-02-12

    Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension.

  4. Anti-CD16 autoantibodies and delayed phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Stanca, Carmen M; Garber, John; Hu, Bin; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Bach, Nancy; Odin, Joseph A

    2008-06-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by chronic hepatic inflammation and immune mediated apoptosis of bile duct epithelial cells. Delayed macrophage phagocytosis of opsonized apoptotic cells, noted in other autoimmune diseases, may promote inflammation. Recent studies suggest serum anti-CD16 autoantibodies contribute to impaired macrophage phagocytosis by blocking complement receptor 3 (CR3) signaling via CD16. Therefore, serum anti-CD16 levels and the ability of monocyte derived macrophages from individuals with PBC to phagocytosis apoptotic cells were compared to controls. The mean level of anti-CD16 IgM autoantibodies (0.86+/-0.62 v. 0.35+/-0.22, respectively, p=0.031) was increased in PBC compared to control sera, and mean PBC phagocytosis of opsonized apoptotic cells was significantly decreased compared to controls (23.9+/-12.2% v. 43.9+/-14.4%, respectively, p=0.020). However, PBC phagocytosis of opsonized apoptotic cells was not significantly affected by the presence or absence of autologous serum (20.8+/-13.5% v. 23.9+/-12.2%, respectively, p=0.560). PBC phagocytosis of opsonized apoptotic cells inversely correlated with CD16 (and CR3) expression levels on Day 5 after culture in the presence or absence of autologous serum (r=-0.546, p=0.033 and r=-0.519, p=0.042, respectively). Phagocytosis of non-opsonized apoptotic cells did not correlate with CD16 or CR3 expression (p>0.050). In conclusion, PBC macrophage phagocytosis of opsonized apoptotic cells is impaired, irrespective of serum factors and may increase hepatic inflammation.

  5. Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo imaging of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Prathik; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Her, Guor-Mour; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Li, Chi-Lin; Shu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Liang, Chi-Te; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2015-02-14

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with the GQDs exhibiting high biocompatibility as they were excreted from the zebrafish's body without affecting its growth significantly at a concentration lower than 2 mg mL(-1) over a period of 4 to 72 hour post fertilization. The GQDs have further been used to image human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells), human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells), and normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). These results are indispensable to further the advance of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

  6. Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic functions of villin regulate cell turnover and intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaohong; George, Sudeep P.; Roy, Swati; Pham, Eric; Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Amin; Khurana, Seema

    2016-01-01

    In the small intestine, epithelial cells are derived from stem cells in the crypts, migrate up the villus as they differentiate and are ultimately shed from the villus tips. This process of proliferation and shedding is tightly regulated to maintain the intestinal architecture and tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis regulates both the number of stem cells in the crypts as well as the sloughing of cells from the villus tips. Previously, we have shown that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-binding protein functions as an anti-apoptotic protein in the gastrointestinal epithelium. The expression of villin is highest in the apoptosis-resistant villus cells and lowest in the apoptosis-sensitive crypts. In this study we report that villin is cleaved in the intestinal mucosa to generate a pro-apoptotic fragment that is spatially restricted to the villus tips. This cleaved villin fragment severs actin in an unregulated fashion to initiate the extrusion and subsequent apoptosis of effete cells from the villus tips. Using villin knockout mice, we validate the physiological role of villin in apoptosis and cell extrusion from the gastrointestinal epithelium. Our study also highlights the potential role of villin’s pro-apoptotic function in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia-reperfusion injury, enteroinvasive bacterial and parasitic infections. PMID:27765954

  7. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Emily E; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration.

  8. Signaling pathway for phagocyte priming upon encounter with apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Saori; Ando, Yuki; Kanetani, Takuto; Hoshi, Chiharu; Nakai, Yuji; Nainu, Firzan; Nagaosa, Kaz; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-12

    The phagocytic elimination of cells undergoing apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells. Previous studies showed an increase in the level of engulfment receptors in phagocytes after the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which leads to the enhancement of their phagocytic activity. However, precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon require further clarification. We found that the pre-incubation of a Drosophila phagocyte cell line with the fragments of apoptotic cells enhanced the subsequent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, accompanied by an augmented expression of the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin αPS3. The DNA-binding activity of the transcription repressor Tailless was transiently raised in those phagocytes, depending on two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for the induction of phagocytosis as well as the occurrence of engulfment. The RNAi knockdown of tailless in phagocytes abrogated the enhancement of both phagocytosis and engulfment receptor expression. Furthermore, the hemocyte-specific RNAi of tailless reduced apoptotic cell clearance in Drosophila embryos. Taken together, we propose the following mechanism for the activation of Drosophila phagocytes after an encounter with apoptotic cells: two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for phagocytosis are initiated; transcription repressor Tailless is activated; expression of engulfment receptors is stimulated; and phagocytic activity is enhanced. This phenomenon most likely ensures the phagocytic elimination of apoptotic cells by stimulated phagocytes and is thus considered as a mechanism to prime phagocytes in innate immunity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Human CD14 mediates recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Devitt, A; Moffatt, O D; Raykundalia, C; Capra, J D; Simmons, D L; Gregory, C D

    1998-04-02

    Cells undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis) are cleared rapidly in vivo by phagocytes without inducing inflammation. Here we show that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked plasma-membrane glycoprotein CD14 on the surface of human macrophages is important for the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells. CD14 can also act as a receptor that binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), triggering inflammatory responses. Overstimulation of CD14 by LPS can cause the often fatal toxic-shock syndrome. Here we show that apoptotic cells interact with CD14, triggering phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells. This interaction depends on a region of CD14 that is identical to, or at least closely associated with, a region known to bind LPS. However, apoptotic cells, unlike LPS, do not provoke the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages. These results indicate that clearance of apoptotic cells is mediated by a receptor whose interactions with 'non-self' components (LPS) and 'self' components (apoptotic cells) produce distinct macrophage responses.

  10. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  11. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M.; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  12. Carbocisteine promotes phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masako; Ishibashi, Yuji; Nogawa, Hisashi; Yasue, Tokutaro

    2012-02-29

    Clearance of apoptotic cells, so-called efferocytosis, by alveolar macrophages (AMs) is important for lung homeostasis and is impaired in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Carbocisteine, a mucoregulatory drug, corrects the contents of fucose in airway mucus and has anti-inflammatory properties in airway inflammation. Thus, we conducted the present study to better understand the anti-inflammatory properties of carbocisteine. First, we induced airway inflammation in mice with lipopolysaccharide intratracheally. Carbocisteine significantly decreased neutrophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the resolution phase of inflammation, implying the promotion of neutrophil clearance. Then, we investigated whether carbocisteine would enhance the efferocytosis by AMs isolated from mice and found that this drug promoted not only the phagocytosis but also the binding of apoptotic cells to AMs in vitro. Furthermore, carbocisteine decreased the fucose residues stained with fluorescent fucose-binding lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, on the cell surface of AMs. We found here that removing fucose residues from cell surfaces of AMs by fucosidase markedly enhanced both the binding and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Finally, AMs from mice orally given carbocisteine also promoted both the binding and phagocytosis ex vivo similarly to in vitro. These results suggest that carbocisteine could promote the clearance of apoptotic cells by AMs in airway. In addition, the present findings suggest that the binding and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells may be modulated by fucose residues on the cell surface of AMs.

  13. Phagocytosis Assay for Apoptotic Cells in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Saori; Hori, Aki; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Kuraishi, Takayuki

    2017-08-03

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and inflammatory intractable diseases. We herein developed an experimental method to investigate phagocytosis quantitatively using the fruit fly Drosophila, in which the gene network controlling engulfment reactions is evolutionally conserved from mammals. In order to accurately detect and count engulfing and un-engulfing phagocytes using whole animals, Drosophila embryos were homogenized to obtain dispersed cells including phagocytes and apoptotic cells. The use of dispersed embryonic cells enables us to measure in vivo phagocytosis levels as if we performed an in vitro phagocytosis assay in which it is possible to observe all phagocytes and apoptotic cells in whole embryos and precisely quantify the level of phagocytosis. We confirmed that this method reproduces those of previous studies that identified the genes required for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. This method allows the engulfment of dead cells to be analyzed, and when combined with the powerful genetics of Drosophila, will reveal the complex phagocytic reactions comprised of the migration, recognition, engulfment, and degradation of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  14. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, YuFeng; Martin, David A; Kenkel, Justin; Zhang, Kang; Ogden, Carol Anne; Elkon, Keith B.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated by natural antibodies and serum opsonins. Recognition, may be site and context specific. Uptake and ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes an immunosuppressive environment that avoids inflammatory responses to self antigens. However, it does not preclude a T cell response and it is likely that constant exposure to self antigen, particularly by immature dendritic cells, leads to T cell tolerance. Tolerance occurs by several different mechanisms including anergy and deletion (for CD8+ T cells) and induction of T regulatory cells (for CD4+ T cells). Failed apoptotic cell clearance promotes immune responses to self antigens, especially when the cellular contents are leaked from the cell (necrosis). Inflammatory responses may be induced by nucleic acid stimulation of toll like receptors and other immune sensors, specific intracellular proteins and non protein (uric acid) stimulation of inflammasomes. PMID:17888627

  15. Apoptotic cell death in rat epididymis following epichlorohydrin treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Kim, K-H; Kim, S-H; Baek, H-S; Moon, C; Kim, S-H; Yun, W-K; Nam, K-H; Kim, H-C; Kim, J-C

    2013-06-01

    Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is an antifertility agent that acts both as an epididymal toxicant and an agent capable of directly affecting sperm motility. This study identified the time course of apoptotic cell death in rat epididymides after ECH treatment. Rats were administrated with a single oral dose of ECH (50 mg/kg). ECH-induced apoptotic changes were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and its related mechanism was confirmed by Western blot analysis and colorimetric assay. The TUNEL assay showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased at 8 h, reached a maximum level at 12 h, and then decreased progressively. The Western blot analysis demonstrated no significant changes in proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression during the time course of the study. However, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and phospho-c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK) expression increased at 8-24 h. Caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities also increased at 8-48 h and 12-48 h, respectively, in the same manner as p-p38 MAPK and p-JNK expression. These results indicate that ECH induced apoptotic changes in rat epididymides and that the apoptotic cell death may be related more to the MAPK pathway than to the mitochondrial pathway.

  16. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  17. The apoptotic effect of apigenin on human gastric carcinoma cells through mitochondrial signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiayu; Chen, Jiaqi; Li, Zhaoyun; Liu, Chibo; Yin, Lihui

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to explore the apoptotic function of apigenin on the gastric cancer cells and the related mechanism. The gastric cancer cell lines HGC-27 and SGC-7901, and normal gastric epithelial cell line GES1 were treated with different concentrations of apigenin. Cell proliferation was tested. Morphological changes of the apoptotic cells were observed after Hoechst33342 staining. The apoptosis rate of the gastric cancer cells were measured with flow cytometry. Changes of the cell cycle were explored. The mitochondrial membrane potential changes were analyzed after JC-1 staining. Bcl-2 family proteins and caspases-3 expression with apigenin treatment was analyzed by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation of HGC-27 and SGC-7901 was inhibited by apigenin, and the inhibition was dose-time-dependent. Gastric carcinoma cells treated by apigenin had no obvious cell cycle arrest, but were observed with the higher apoptosis rate and the typical apoptotic morphological changes of the cell nucleus. JC-1 staining showed that apigenin could reduce mitochondrial membrane potential of gastric carcinoma cells. Real-time PCR results showed that apigenin significantly increased caspase-3 and Bax expression level, and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner in gastric carcinoma cells. However, the GES1 was almost not affected by apigenin treatment. Apigenin can inhibit cell lines HGC-27 and SGC-7901 proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner, reduce anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 levels, enhance apoptosis-promoting protein Bax level, result in mitochondrial membrane potential decreasing and caspase-3 enzyme activating, then lead to cell apoptosis.

  18. Rho kinase regulates fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, Kelly A.; Stone, Nicole L.; Pittman, Randall N. . E-mail: pittman@pharm.med.upenn.edu

    2006-01-01

    During the execution phase of apoptosis, a cell undergoes cytoplasmic and nuclear changes that prepare it for death and phagocytosis. The end-point of the execution phase is condensation into a single apoptotic body or fragmentation into multiple apoptotic bodies. Fragmentation is thought to facilitate phagocytosis; however, mechanisms regulating fragmentation are unknown. An isoform of Rho kinase, ROCK-I, drives membrane blebbing through its activation of actin-myosin contraction; this raises the possibility that ROCK-I may regulate other execution phase events, such as cellular fragmentation. Here, we show that COS-7 cells fragment into a number of small apoptotic bodies during apoptosis; treating with ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632 or H-1152) prevents fragmentation. Latrunculin B and blebbistatin, drugs that interfere with actin-myosin contraction, also inhibit fragmentation. During apoptosis, ROCK-I is cleaved and activated by caspases, while ROCK-II is not activated, but rather translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction. siRNA knock-down of ROCK-I but not ROCK-II inhibits fragmentation of dying cells, consistent with ROCK-I being required for apoptotic fragmentation. Finally, cells dying in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 are not efficiently phagocytized. These data show that ROCK plays an essential role in fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

  19. The Sound of Silence: Signaling by Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Caitlin E.; Bergmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a carefully choreographed process of cellular self-destruction in the absence of inflammation. During the death process, apoptotic cells actively communicate with their environment, signaling to both their immediate neighbors as well as distant sentinels. Some of these signals direct the anti-inflammatory immune response, instructing specific subsets of phagocytes to participate in the limited and careful clearance of dying cellular debris. These immunomodulatory signals can also regulate the activation state of the engulfing phagocytes. Other signals derived from apoptotic cells contribute to tissue growth control with the common goal of maintaining tissue integrity. Derangements in these growth control signals during prolonged apoptosis can lead to excessive cell loss or proliferation. Here, we highlight some of the most intriguing signals produced by apoptotic cells during the course of normal development as well as during physiological disturbances such as atherosclerosis and cancer. PMID:26431570

  20. Monitoring circulating apoptotic cells by in-vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wu, Bin; Wang, Chen

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapies currently constitute one main venue of cancer treatment. For a large number of adult and elderly patients, however, treatment options are poor. These patients may suffer from disease that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy or may not be candidates for curative therapies because of advanced age or poor medical conditions. To control disease in these patients, new therapies must be developed that are selectively targeted to unique characteristics of tumor cell growth and metastasis. A reliable early evaluation and prediction of response to the chemotherapy is critical to its success. Chemotherapies induce apoptosis in tumor cells and a portion of such apoptotic cancer cells may be present in the circulation. However, the fate of circulating tumor cells is difficult to assess with conventional methods that require blood sampling. We report the in situ measurement of circulating apoptotic cells in live animals using in vivo flow cytometry, a novel method that enables real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells without blood extraction. Apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared from the circulation with a half-life of ~10 minutes. Real-time monitoring of circulating apoptotic cells can be useful for detecting early changes in disease processes, as well as for monitoring response to therapeutic intervention.

  1. Apoptotic lymphocytes induce progenitor cell mobilization after exercise.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    There is evidence that apoptotic cells and their components have immunmodulatory properties and signaling function. The present study investigated first whether exercise-induced apoptosis and exercise-induced mobilization of progenitor cells are similarly affected by subjects' training status and, second, whether the appearance of dying cells in the circulation might mobilize progenitor cells. CD1 SWISS mice were subjected to a 10-wk endurance training using free wheel running or served as untrained controls. Mice of both groups performed an intensive exercise test after the training period at a velocity corresponding to 80% maximal oxygen uptake for 30 min. Cells from blood and bone marrow were analyzed, and apoptosis and number of progenitor cells determined via flow cytometry. In a second experiment, apoptotic cells were transferred into recipient mice, and mobilization of progenitor cells was analyzed while vital cells served as controls. In untrained animals, the exhaustive exercise was followed by an enhanced rate of annexin V positive CD3(+) cells in blood and bone marrow (P < 0.05), whereas no increase was found in trained mice. Similarly, exercise mobilized Sca-1(+)/c-kit(+) and Sca-1(+)/Flk(+) cells in untrained (P < 0.05) but not trained mice. Furthermore, application of apoptotic cells and their supernatant mobilized Sca-1(+)/c-kit(+) cells into the blood (P < 0.05), whereas Sca-1(+)/Flk(+) cells were not affected. The present study demonstrated that both lymphocyte apoptosis, as well as mobilization of progenitor cells are similarly related to training status. Furthermore, apoptotic cells seem to induce signals that effectively mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells. The relevance of this effect for the adaptation to exercise stimuli remains to be shown. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo imaging of apoptotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prathik; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Her, Guor-Mour; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Li, Chi-Lin; Shu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Liang, Chi-Te; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with the GQDs exhibiting high biocompatibility as they were excreted from the zebrafish's body without affecting its growth significantly at a concentration lower than 2 mg mL-1 over a period of 4 to 72 hour post fertilization. The GQDs have further been used to image human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells), human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells), and normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). These results are indispensable to further the advance of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with

  3. Integrin α PAT-2/CDC-42 signaling is required for muscle-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiao-Han; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Jiang, Hang-Shiang; Wu, Yi-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by engulfment plays an important role in the homeostasis and development of multicellular organisms. Despite the fact that the recognition of apoptotic cells by engulfment receptors is critical in inducing the engulfment process, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we characterize a novel cell corpse engulfment pathway mediated by the integrin α subunit PAT-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it specifically functions in muscle-mediated engulfment during embryogenesis. Inactivation of pat-2 results in a defect in apoptotic cell internalization. The PAT-2 extracellular region binds to the surface of apoptotic cells in vivo, and the intracellular region may mediate signaling for engulfment. We identify essential roles of small GTPase CDC-42 and its activator UIG-1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, in PAT-2-mediated cell corpse removal. PAT-2 and CDC-42 both function in muscle cells for apoptotic cell removal and are co-localized in growing muscle pseudopods around apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that PAT-2 functions through UIG-1 for CDC-42 activation, which in turn leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement and apoptotic cell internalization by muscle cells. Moreover, in contrast to PAT-2, the other integrin α subunit INA-1 and the engulfment receptor CED-1, which signal through the conserved signaling molecules CED-5 (DOCK180)/CED-12 (ELMO) or CED-6 (GULP) respectively, preferentially act in epithelial cells to mediate cell corpse removal during mid-embryogenesis. Our results show that different engulfing cells utilize distinct repertoires of receptors for engulfment at the whole organism level.

  4. Modulation of macrophage antitumor potential by apoptotic lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Voss, Jorine J L P; Ford, Catriona A; Petrova, Sofia; Melville, Lynsey; Paterson, Margaret; Pound, John D; Holland, Pam; Giotti, Bruno; Freeman, Tom C; Gregory, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    In aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), constitutive apoptosis of a proportion of the tumor cell population can promote net tumor growth. This is associated with the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that clear apoptotic cells and exhibit pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation profiles characteristic of reparatory, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic programs. Here we consider further the activation status of these TAMs. We compare their transcriptomic profile with that of a range of other macrophage types from various tissues noting especially their expression of classically activated (IFN-γ and LPS) gene clusters - typically antitumor - in addition to their previously described protumor phenotype. To understand the impact of apoptotic cells on the macrophage activation state, we cocultured apoptotic lymphoma cells with classically activated macrophages (M(IFN-γ/LPS), also known as M1, macrophages). Although untreated and M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages were able to bind apoptotic lymphoma cells equally well, M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages displayed enhanced ability to phagocytose them. We found that direct exposure of M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages to apoptotic lymphoma cells caused switching towards a protumor activation state (often referred to as M2-like) with concomitant inhibition of antitumor activity that was a characteristic feature of M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages. Indeed, M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages exposed to apoptotic lymphoma cells displayed increased lymphoma growth-promoting activities. Antilymphoma activity by M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages was mediated, in part, by galectin-3, a pleiotropic glycoprotein involved in apoptotic cell clearance that is strongly expressed by lymphoma TAMs but not lymphoma cells. Intriguingly, aggressive lymphoma growth was markedly impaired in mice deficient in galectin-3, suggesting either that host galectin-3-mediated antilymphoma activity is required to sustain net tumor growth or that additional functions of galectin-3

  5. Modulation of macrophage antitumor potential by apoptotic lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Jorine J L P; Ford, Catriona A; Petrova, Sofia; Melville, Lynsey; Paterson, Margaret; Pound, John D; Holland, Pam; Giotti, Bruno; Freeman, Tom C; Gregory, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    In aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), constitutive apoptosis of a proportion of the tumor cell population can promote net tumor growth. This is associated with the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that clear apoptotic cells and exhibit pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation profiles characteristic of reparatory, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic programs. Here we consider further the activation status of these TAMs. We compare their transcriptomic profile with that of a range of other macrophage types from various tissues noting especially their expression of classically activated (IFN-γ and LPS) gene clusters – typically antitumor – in addition to their previously described protumor phenotype. To understand the impact of apoptotic cells on the macrophage activation state, we cocultured apoptotic lymphoma cells with classically activated macrophages (M(IFN-γ/LPS), also known as M1, macrophages). Although untreated and M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages were able to bind apoptotic lymphoma cells equally well, M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages displayed enhanced ability to phagocytose them. We found that direct exposure of M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages to apoptotic lymphoma cells caused switching towards a protumor activation state (often referred to as M2-like) with concomitant inhibition of antitumor activity that was a characteristic feature of M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages. Indeed, M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages exposed to apoptotic lymphoma cells displayed increased lymphoma growth-promoting activities. Antilymphoma activity by M(IFN-γ/LPS) macrophages was mediated, in part, by galectin-3, a pleiotropic glycoprotein involved in apoptotic cell clearance that is strongly expressed by lymphoma TAMs but not lymphoma cells. Intriguingly, aggressive lymphoma growth was markedly impaired in mice deficient in galectin-3, suggesting either that host galectin-3-mediated antilymphoma activity is required to sustain net tumor growth or that additional functions of

  6. Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipains cause defective macrophage migration towards apoptotic cells and inhibit phagocytosis of primary apoptotic neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sowmya A; Collighan, Russell; Lambert, Peter A; Dias, Irundika Hk; Chauhan, Parbata; Bland, Charlotte E; Milic, Ivana; Milward, Michael R; Cooper, Paul R; Devitt, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Periodontal disease is a prevalent chronic inflammatory condition characterised by an aberrant host response to a pathogenic plaque biofilm resulting in local tissue damage and frustrated healing that can result in tooth loss. Cysteine proteases (gingipains) from the key periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been implicated in periodontal disease pathogenesis by inhibiting inflammation resolution and are linked with systemic chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is essential for the resolution of inflammation and tissue restoration. Here we sought to characterise the innate immune clearance of apoptotic cells and its modulation by gingipains. We examined the capacity of gingipain-treated macrophages to migrate towards and phagocytose apoptotic cells. Lysine gingipain treatment of macrophages impaired macrophage migration towards apoptotic neutrophils. Furthermore, lysine gingipain treatment reduced surface expression levels of CD14, a key macrophage receptor for apoptotic cells, which resulted in reduced macrophage interactions with apoptotic cells. Additionally, while apoptotic cells and their derived secretome were shown to inhibit TNF-α-induced expression by P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide, we demonstrated that gingipain preparations induced a rapid inflammatory response in macrophages that was resistant to the anti-inflammatory effects of apoptotic cells or their secretome. Taken together, these data indicate that P. gingivalis may promote the chronic inflammation seen in periodontal disease patients by multiple mechanisms, including rapid, potent gingipain-mediated inflammation, coupled with receptor cleavage leading to defective clearance of apoptotic cells and reduced anti-inflammatory responses. Thus, gingipains represent a potential therapeutic target for intervention in the management of chronic periodontal disease.

  7. Apoptotic effects of bovine apo-lactoferrin on HeLa tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Carla; Brisdelli, Fabrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Bozzi, Argante; Carnicelli, Veronica; Di Giulio, Antonio; Lizzi, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), a cationic iron-binding glycoprotein of 80 kDa present in body secretions, is known as a compound with marked antimicrobial activity. In the present study, the apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin (apo-bLf) on human epithelial cancer (HeLa) cells was examined in association with reactive oxygen species and glutathione (GSH) levels. Apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin inhibited the growth of HeLa cells after 48 hours of treatment while the diferric-bLf was ineffective in the concentration range tested (from 1 to 12.5 μM). Western blot analysis showed that key apoptotic regulators including Bax, Bcl-2, Sirt1, Mcl-1, and PARP-1 were modulated by 1.25 μM of apo-bLf. In the same cell line, apo-bLf induced apoptosis together with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, caspase activation, and a significant drop of NAD(+) . In addition, apo-bLf-treated HeLa cells showed a marked increase of reactive oxygen species level and a significant GSH depletion. On the whole, apo-bLf triggered apoptosis of HeLa cells upon oxygen radicals burst and GSH decrease.

  8. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  9. Identification and apoptotic potential of T-2 toxin metabolites in human cells.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Maria; Welsch, Tanja; Hübner, Florian; Schwerdt, Gerald; Gekle, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-06-06

    The mycotoxin T-2 toxin, produced by various Fusarium species, is a widespread contaminant of grain and grain products. Knowledge about its toxicity and metabolism in the human body is crucial for any risk assessment as T-2 toxin can be detected in processed and unprocessed food samples. Cell culture studies using cells of human origin represent a potent model system to study the metabolic fate of T-2 toxin as well as the cytotoxicity in vitro. In this study the metabolism of T-2 toxin was analyzed in a cell line derived from human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29) and primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier transformation mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTMS). Both cell types metabolized T-2 toxin to a variety of compounds. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis in RPTEC proved the apoptotic effect of T-2 toxin and its metabolites HT-2 toxin and neosolaniol in micromolar concentrations.

  10. Harnessing the apoptotic programs in cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Scadden, David T

    2015-09-01

    Elimination of malignant cells is an unmet challenge for most human cancer types even with therapies targeting specific driver mutations. Therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to alter cancer cell biology on multiple levels is increasingly recognized as essential for cancer cure. One such aspect of cancer cell biology is the relative apoptosis resistance of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. Further, we summarize efforts to exploit these differences to design therapies targeting that important cancer cell population. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Harnessing the apoptotic programs in cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Scadden, David T

    2015-01-01

    Elimination of malignant cells is an unmet challenge for most human cancer types even with therapies targeting specific driver mutations. Therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to alter cancer cell biology on multiple levels is increasingly recognized as essential for cancer cure. One such aspect of cancer cell biology is the relative apoptosis resistance of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. Further, we summarize efforts to exploit these differences to design therapies targeting that important cancer cell population. PMID:26253117

  12. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization.

    PubMed

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-02-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  13. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-01-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  14. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Suga, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Fujisawa, Takao; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  15. Mitigated NSAID-induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death with Smad7 overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jong Min; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2017-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs damaged gastrointestinal mucosa in cyclooxygenase-dependent and -independent pathway, among which apopototic or autophagic cell death in gastrointestinal cells might be one of key cytotoxic mechanisms responsible for NSAID-induced damages. Therefore, alleviating this cell death after NSAIDs can be a rescuing strategy. In this study, we explored the role of Smad7 on NSAID-induced cytotoxicity in gastric epithelial cells. Using RGM1 cells, we have compared biological changes between mock-transfected and Smad7-overexpressed cells. As results, significantly decreased cytotoxicity accompanied with decreased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, and autophagic vesicles concurrent with decreased expressions of autophagy protein 5 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B-II were noted in Smad7-overexpressed cells with indomethacin administration compared to mock-transfected cells. Contrast to mitigated apoptotic execution, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 were significantly increased in Smad7-overexpressed cells compared to mock-transfected cells. Smad7 siRNA significantly reversed these protective actions of Smad7 against indomethacin, in which p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was significantly intervened. Furthermore, indomethacin-induced Smad7 degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was relevant to increased cytotoxicity, while chloroquine as autophagy inhibitor significantly attenuated indomethacin-induced cytotoxicity through Smad7 preservation via repressed ubiquitination. Conclusively, either genetic overexpression or pharmacological induction of Smad7 significantly attenuated indomethacin-induced gastric cell damages. PMID:28163383

  16. Evidence for apoptotic cell death in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Smale, G; Nichols, N R; Brady, D R; Finch, C E; Horton, W E

    1995-06-01

    We provide evidence for apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease using the in situ labeling technique TUNEL (terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling). The technique specifically detects apoptotic cells by utilizing terminal transferase to incorporate biotinylated nucleotides into the fragmented DNA of apoptotic cells. The labeled cells are visualized by reaction with avidin peroxidase and a suitable substrate. Sections from the hippocampus of Alzheimer-diseased (AD) brains and non-AD brains were examined for apoptosis. While considerable variation in the quantity of apoptotic cells was observed among individual samples, the incidence of apoptosis in AD brains was elevated in comparison to age-matched, non-AD brains in specific regions of the hippocampal formation. Immunostaining indicated that both neurons and astrocytes were undergoing apoptosis, although the majority of the TUNEL-positive cells appeared to be glial, based on the location of the stained cells. These data suggest that apoptosis may be involved in both the primary neuronal cell loss and in the glial response that is a component of AD.

  17. PDT-apoptotic tumor cells induce macrophage immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fei-fan; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) functions as a cancer therapy through two major cell death mechanisms: apoptosis and necrosis. Immunological responses induced by PDT has been mainly associated with necrosis while apoptosis associated immune responses have not fully investigated. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in regulating immune responses. In present study, we studied whether apoptotic tumor cells could induce immune response and how the HSP70 regulates immune response. The endocytosis of tumor cells by the activated macrophages was observed at single cell level by LSM. The TNF-α release of macrophages induced by co-incubated with PDT-apoptotic tumor cells was detected by ELISA. We found that apoptotic tumor cells treated by PDT could activate the macrophages, and the immune effect decreased evidently when HSP70 was blocked. These findings not only show that apoptosis can induce immunological responses, but also show HSP70 may serves as a danger signal for immune cells and induce immune responses to regulate the efficacy of PDT.

  18. Apoptotic cell signaling in cancer progression and therapy†

    PubMed Central

    Plati, Jessica; Bucur, Octavian; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell suicide program that plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis by eliminating unnecessary or harmful cells. Impairment of this native defense mechanism promotes aberrant cellular proliferation and the accumulation of genetic defects, ultimately resulting in tumorigenesis, and frequently confers drug resistance to cancer cells. The regulation of apoptosis at several levels is essential to maintain the delicate balance between cellular survival and death signaling that is required to prevent disease. Complex networks of signaling pathways act to promote or inhibit apoptosis in response to various cues. Apoptosis can be triggered by signals from within the cell, such as genotoxic stress, or by extrinsic signals, such as the binding of ligands to cell surface death receptors. Various upstream signaling pathways can modulate apoptosis by converging on, and thereby altering the activity of, common central control points within the apoptotic signaling pathways, which involve the BCL-2 family proteins, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). This review highlights the role of these fundamental regulators of apoptosis in the context of both normal apoptotic signaling mechanisms and dysregulated apoptotic pathways that can render cancer cells resistant to cell death. In addition, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the activity of BCL-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for the targeted induction of apoptosis are briefly discussed. PMID:21340093

  19. Apoptotic cell signaling in cancer progression and therapy.

    PubMed

    Plati, Jessica; Bucur, Octavian; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2011-04-01

    Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell suicide program that plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis by eliminating unnecessary or harmful cells. Impairment of this native defense mechanism promotes aberrant cellular proliferation and the accumulation of genetic defects, ultimately resulting in tumorigenesis, and frequently confers drug resistance to cancer cells. The regulation of apoptosis at several levels is essential to maintain the delicate balance between cellular survival and death signaling that is required to prevent disease. Complex networks of signaling pathways act to promote or inhibit apoptosis in response to various cues. Apoptosis can be triggered by signals from within the cell, such as genotoxic stress, or by extrinsic signals, such as the binding of ligands to cell surface death receptors. Various upstream signaling pathways can modulate apoptosis by converging on, and thereby altering the activity of, common central control points within the apoptotic signaling pathways, which involve the BCL-2 family proteins, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). This review highlights the role of these fundamental regulators of apoptosis in the context of both normal apoptotic signaling mechanisms and dysregulated apoptotic pathways that can render cancer cells resistant to cell death. In addition, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the activity of BCL-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for the targeted induction of apoptosis are briefly discussed.

  20. Nitric oxide and calcium ions in apoptotic esophageal carcinoma cells induced by arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Wen-Ying; Chen, Ming-Hua; Shen, Jian; Cai, Wei-Jie; Yi, Zeng

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To Quantitatively analyze the nitri oxide (NO) and Ca2+ in apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma cells induced by arsenic trioxide (As2O3). METHODS: The cell line SHEEC1, a malignant esophageal epithelial cell induced by HPV in synergy with TPA in our laboratory, was cultured in a serum-free medium and treated with As2O3. Before and after administration of As2O3, NO production in cultured medium was detected quantitatively using the Griess Colorimetric method. Intracellular Ca2+ was labeled by using the fluorescent dye Fluo3-AM and detected under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), which was able to acquire data in real-time enabling Ca2+ dynamics of individual cells in vitro. The apoptotic cells were examined under electron microscopy. RESULTS: Intracellular concentration of Ca2+ increased from 1.00 units to 1.09-1.38 units of fluorescent intensity at As2O3 treatment and NO products subsequently released from As2O3-treated cells increased from 0.98-1.00 × 10-2 μmol·L-1 up to 1.48-1.52 × 10-2 μmol·L-1 and maintained in a high level continuously. Finally apoptosis of cells occurred, chromatin being agglutinated, cells shrunk, nuclei became round and mitochondria swelled. CONCLUSION: Ca2+ and NO increased with cell damage and apoptosis in cells treated by As2O3. The Ca2+ is an initial messenger to the apoptotic pathway. To investigate Ca2+ and NO will be a new direction for studying the apoptotic signaling messenger of the esophageal carcinoma cells induced by As2O3. PMID:11833068

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad inhibits tonicity-induced apoptosis in renal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Küper, Christoph; Bartels, Helmut; Beck, Franz-X; Neuhofer, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    During antidiuresis, cell survival in the renal medulla requires cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. We have recently found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes cell survival by phosphorylation and, hence, inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad during hypertonic stress in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in vitro. Here we determine the role of COX-2-derived PGE(2) on phosphorylation of Bad and medullary apoptosis in vivo using COX-2-deficient mice. Both wild-type and COX-2-knockout mice constitutively expressed Bad in tubular epithelial cells of the renal medulla. Dehydration caused a robust increase in papillary COX-2 expression, PGE2 excretion, and Bad phosphorylation in wild-type, but not in the knockout mice. The abundance of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, was significantly higher in papillary homogenates, especially in tubular epithelial cells of the knockout mice. Knockdown of Bad in MDCK cells decreased tonicity-induced caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, the addition of PGE2 to cells with knockdown of Bad had no effect on caspase-3 activation; however, PGE2 caused phosphorylation of Bad and substantially improved cell survival in mock-transfected cells. Thus, tonicity-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in the renal medulla entails phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, thereby counteracting apoptosis in renal medullary epithelial cells.

  2. Ribonuclease binase apoptotic signature in leukemic Kasumi-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Kretova, Olga V; Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Burnysheva, Ksenia M; Sosin, Dmitry V; Simonenko, Olga V; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Makarov, Alexander A

    2013-06-01

    Cytotoxic exogenous RNases triggering apoptotic response in malignant cells have potential as anticancer drugs; surprisingly, detailed characterization of the RNase-induced apoptosis has not been conducted so far. Here we show that a cytotoxic RNase from Bacillus intermedius (binase) induces extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in leukemic Kasumi-1 cells. The experiments were performed using TaqMan Array Human Apoptosis 96-well Plate for gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry. Cytometric studies demonstrated dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, activation of caspases, increase of intracellular Ca(2+) and decrease of reactive oxygen species levels. We found that expression of 62 apoptotic genes is up-regulated, including 16 genes that are highly up-regulated, and only one gene was found to be down-regulated. The highest, 16 fold increase of the expression level was observed for TNF gene. Highly up-regulated genes also include the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway and inflammatory caspases 1,4. The obtained results suggest that binase induces evolutionary acquired cellular response to a microbial agent and triggers unusual apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The complexity of apoptotic cell death in mollusks: An update.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death that produces changes in cell morphology and in biochemical intracellular processes without inflammatory reactions. The components of the apoptotic pathways are conserved throughout evolution. Caspases are key molecules involved in the transduction of the death signal and are responsible for many of the biochemical and morphological changes associated with apoptosis. Nowadays, It is known that caspases are activated through two major apoptotic pathways (the extrinsic or death receptor pathway and the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway), but there are also evidences of at least other alternative pathway (the perforin/granzyme pathway). Apoptosis in mollusks seems to be similar in complexity to apoptosis in vertebrates but also has unique features maybe related to their recurrent exposure to environmental changes, pollutants, pathogens and also related to the sedentary nature of some stages in the life cycle of mollusks bivalves and gastropods. As in other animals, apoptotic process is involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and also constitutes an important immune response that can be triggered by a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, hormones, toxic insults, viruses, and protozoan parasites. The main goal of this work is to present the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in mollusks and to highlight those steps that need further study.

  4. Administration of donor apoptotic cells: an alternative cell-based therapy to induce tolerance?

    PubMed

    Kleinclauss, François; Perruche, Sylvain; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2003-05-15

    Apoptotic cells are endowed with immunomodulatory properties. The authors propose infusing apoptotic cells as a cell-based therapy product to facilitate allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment after a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. Such an approach may be used to obtain macrochimerism in combined hematopoietic cells and solid organ transplantation. In this article, the authors describe the mechanisms of combined hematopoietic and organ allograft transplantation and the potential difficulties. The authors discuss how intravenous apoptotic cell infusion may influence the outcome of combined transplantation. This may prove to be an interesting approach for future development in cell therapy.

  5. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants.

    PubMed

    Reape, Theresa J; McCabe, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is now accepted as a fundamental cellular process in plants. It is involved in defence, development and response to stress, and our understanding of these processes would be greatly improved through a greater knowledge of the regulation of plant PCD. However, there may be several types of PCD that operate in plants, and PCD research findings can be confusing if they are not assigned to a specific type of PCD. The various cell-death mechanisms need therefore to be carefully described and defined. This review describes one of these plant cell death processes, namely the apoptotic-like PCD (AL-PCD). We begin by examining the hallmark 'apoptotic-like' features (protoplast condensation, DNA degradation) of the cell's destruction that are characteristic of AL-PCD, and include examples of AL-PCD during the plant life cycle. The review explores the possible cellular 'executioners' (caspase-like molecules; mitochondria; de novo protein synthesis) that are responsible for the hallmark features of the cellular destruction. Finally, senescence is used as a case study to show that a rigorous definition of cell-death processes in plant cells can help to resolve arguments that occur in the scientific literature regarding the timing and control of plant cell death.

  6. Detection of apoptotic cells using propidium iodide staining.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-11-03

    Flow cytometry assays are often used to detect apoptotic cells in in vitro cultures. Depending on the experimental model, these assays can also be useful in evaluating apoptosis in vivo. In this protocol, we describe a propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay to evaluate B-cell lymphomas that have undergone apoptosis in vivo. B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples collected from the lymph nodes and/or the spleen are used to prepare a single-cell suspension that is exposed to a hypotonic solution containing the fluorochrome PI. The DNA content of the cells, now labeled with PI, is analyzed by flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content is lost during apoptosis, resulting in a hypodiploid (or sub-G1) DNA profile during flow cytometry. In contrast, healthy cells display a sharp diploid DNA profile.

  7. Parallel single-cell analysis of active caspase-3/7 in apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, Vojtěch; Janečková, Eva; Matalová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Analysing the chemical content of individual cells has already been proven to reveal unique information on various biological processes. Single-cell analysis provides more accurate and reliable results for biology and medicine than analyses of extracts from cell populations, where a natural heterogeneity is averaged. To meet the requirements in the research of important biologically active molecules, such as caspases, we have developed a miniaturized device for simultaneous analyses of individual cells. A stainless steel body with a carousel holder enables high-sensitivity parallel detections in eight microvials. The holder is mounted in front of a photomultiplier tube with cooled photocathode working in photon counting mode. The detection of active caspase-3/7, central effector caspases in apoptosis, in single cells is based on the bioluminescence chemistry commercially available as Caspase-Glo(®) 3/7 reagent developed by Promega. Individual cells were captured from a culture medium under microscope and transferred by micromanipulator into detection microvial filled with the reagent. As a result of testing, the limits of detection and quantification were determined to be 0.27/0.86 of active caspase-3/7 content in an average apoptotic cell and 0.46/2.92 for non-apoptotic cells. Application potential of this technology in laboratory diagnostics and related medical research is discussed. Graphical abstract Miniaturized device for simultaneous analyses of individual cells.

  8. Enhanced survival of Leishmania major in neutrophil granulocytes in the presence of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hellberg, Lars; Köhl, Jörg; Laskay, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the first leukocytes that encounter and phagocytose Leishmania major (L. major) parasites in the infected skin. The parasites can nonetheless survive within neutrophils. However, the mechanisms enabling the survival of Leishmania within neutrophils are still elusive. Previous findings indicated that human neutrophils can engulf apoptotic cells. Since apoptotic neutrophils are abundant in infected tissues, we hypothesized that the uptake of apoptotic cells results in diminished anti-leishmanial activity and, consequently, contributes to enhanced survival of the parasites at the site of infection. In the present study, we demonstrated that L. major-infected primary human neutrophils acquire enhanced capacity to engulf apoptotic cells. This was associated with increased expression of the complement receptors 1 and 3 involved in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Next, we showed that ingestion of apoptotic cells affects neutrophil antimicrobial functions. We observed that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by neutrophils downregulates the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PKCδ, the kinases involved in activation of NADPH oxidase and hence reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In line, uptake of apoptotic cells inhibits TNF- and L. major-induced ROS production by neutrophils. Importantly, we found that the survival of Leishmania in neutrophils is strongly enhanced in neutrophils exposed to apoptotic cells. Together, our findings reveal that apoptotic cells promote L. major survival within neutrophils by downregulating critical antimicrobial functions. This suggests that the induction of enhanced uptake of apoptotic cells represents a novel evasion mechanism of the parasites that facilitates their survival in neutrophil granulocytes. PMID:28187163

  9. Reduced association of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 with E3 ligase Mule increases the stability of Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, S; Tran, A; Tran, L; Urman, R; Braga, M; Chaudhuri, G; Singh, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mechanisms that increase resistance to apoptosis help promote cellular transformation. Cancer cells have deregulated apoptotic pathways, where increased expression and stability of anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 increases resistance to apoptosis. Pathways that increase the stability of proteins in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Methods: Using human mammary epithelial and established breast cancer cell lines, we assessed the mechanisms that increase the stability of anti-apoptotic proteins in breast cancer cells by caspase assay, western blot, small-inhibitory RNA treatment and immunoprecipitation. Results: While breast cancer cells were resistant to de novo inhibition of protein synthesis, a rapid proteosome-mediated degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 induced apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. Although Mule, an E3 ligase that targets Mcl-1 for degradation was expressed in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell lines, rapid increase of polyubiquitinated Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was detected only in mammary epithelial cells. Only transient formation of the Mule–Mcl-1 complex was detected in breast cancer cells. Downregulation of pERK1/2 in breast cancer cells reduced Mcl-1 levels and increased Mcl-1/Mule complex. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that reduced Mule/Mcl-1 complex has a significant role in increasing the stability of Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. PMID:21730980

  10. Characterization of uterine epithelium apoptotic cell death kinetics and regulation by progesterone and RU 486.

    PubMed Central

    Rotello, R. J.; Lieberman, R. C.; Lepoff, R. B.; Gerschenson, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    The authors show here that progesterone suppresses apoptosis, and its antagonist RU 486 induces it in rabbit uterine epithelium, as assessed by morphologic and biochemical studies. The authors' studies demonstrate that internucleosomal DNA fragments are identifiable as early as 24 hours after ovariectomy of pseudopregnant rabbits, and become undetectable 6 days after ovariectomy. Maximal levels of DNA fragmentation (about 74% of total isolated DNA) were observed 36 hours after ovariectomy. The number of apoptotic cells appeared to increase parallel to the increased DNA breakdown, and accounted for approximately 26% of the uterine epithelial cells at 48 hours after ovariectomy. Levels of progesterone in serum dropped precipitously 6 hours after ovariectomy and remained very low for several days. Administration of progesterone, more than any other steroid hormone, to pseudopregnant ovariectomized rabbits, prevented the increase in apoptotic cell death. By contrast, administration of the anti-progestin RU 486 to pseudopregnant rabbits triggered apoptosis, which attained levels similar to those observed in ovariectomized animals. The authors' findings establish that uterine epithelium apoptosis occurs in a time-dependent fashion and provides strong evidence that the actions of progesterone in that tissue are not only to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation, but also to suppress apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1739135

  11. Autophagy genes function sequentially to promote apoptotic cell corpse degradation in the engulfing cell

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zou, Wei; Yang, Yihong; Chai, Yongping; Chen, Baohui; Cheng, Shiya; Tian, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic cell degradation is a fundamental process for organism development, and impaired clearance causes inflammatory or autoimmune disease. Although autophagy genes were reported to be essential for exposing the engulfment signal on apoptotic cells, their roles in phagocytes for apoptotic cell removal are not well understood. In this paper, we develop live-cell imaging techniques to study apoptotic cell clearance in the Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblast lineage. We show that the autophagy proteins LGG-1/LC3, ATG-18, and EPG-5 were sequentially recruited to internalized apoptotic Q cells in the phagocyte. In atg-18 or epg-5 mutants, apoptotic Q cells were internalized but not properly degraded; this phenotype was fully rescued by the expression of autophagy genes in the phagocyte. Time-lapse analysis of autophagy mutants revealed that recruitment of the small guanosine triphosphatases RAB-5 and RAB-7 to the phagosome and the formation of phagolysosome were all significantly delayed. Thus, autophagy genes act within the phagocyte to promote apoptotic cell degradation. PMID:22451698

  12. Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces a TGF-beta-dependent regulatory T-cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kleinclauss, François M.; Perruche, Sylvain; Masson, Emeline; De Carvalho Bittencourt, Marcelo; Biichle, Sabeha; Remy-Martin, Jean-Paul; Ferrand, Christophe; Martin, Mael; Bittard, Hugues; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Seilles, Estelle; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Apoptotic leukocytes are endowed with immunomodulatory properties that can be used to enhance hematopoietic engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease. This apoptotic cell-induced tolerogenic effect is mediated by host macrophages and not recipient dendritic cells or donor phagocytes present in the bone marrow graft as evidenced by selective cell depletion and trafficking experiments. Furthermore, apoptotic cell infusion is associated with TGF-β-dependent donor CD4+CD25+ T cell expansion. Such cells have a regulatory phenotype (CD62Lhigh and intracellular CTLA-4+), express high levels of Foxp3 mRNA and exert ex vivo suppressive activity through a cell-to-cell contact mechanism. In vivo CD25 depletion after apoptotic cell infusion prevents the apoptotic spleen cell-induced beneficial effects on engraftment and graft-versus-host disease occurrence. This highlights the role of regulatory T cells in the tolerogenic effect of apoptotic spleen cell infusion. This novel association between apoptosis and regulatory T cell expansion may also contribute to preventing deleterious auto-immune responses during normal turnover. PMID:15962005

  13. Erdosteine protects rat testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Guven, A; Ickin, M; Uzun, O; Bakar, C; Balbay, E Gulec; Balbay, O

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on testis morphology and the effects of erdosteine on testis tissue. Caspase-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry. Adult male Wistar rats were placed in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber. Rats in the erdosteine group were exposed to the same conditions and treated orally with erdosteine (20 mg kg(-1) daily) at the same time from the first day of hypoxic exposure for 2 weeks. The normoxia group was evaluated as the control. The hypoxia group showed decreased height of spermatogenic epithelium in some seminiferous tubules, vacuolisation in spermatogenic epithelial cells, deterioration and gaps in the basal membrane and an increase in blood vessels in the interstitial area. The erdosteine group showed amelioration of both epithelial cell vacuolisation and basal membrane deterioration. Numbers of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-immunostained Sertoli and Leydig cells were significantly higher in the hypoxia group than in the erdosteine group. The number of seminiferous tubules with caspase-3-immunostained germ cells was highest in the hypoxia group and decreased in the erdosteine and normoxia groups respectively. Based on these observations, erdosteine protects testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

  14. Anti-Apoptotic Gene Delivery with cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) Peptide Nanotube via Eye Drop Following Corneal Epithelial Debridement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsing; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2015-07-17

    Corneal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by cornel debridement is one mechanism of corneal disorders. In this study, the feasibility of cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) peptide nanotubes (PNTs) as carriers of caspase 3 silence shRNA delivery was assessed. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement was applied to investigate the feasibility of PNTs as gene delivery carriers on corneal injury. First, the PNTs were found within 2 μm in length and 300 nm in width by an atomic force microscope and confocal laser microscope system. Plasmid DNAs were observed to be associated with PNTs by atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The plasmids were associated with tyrosine of PNTs with a binding constant of 2.7 × 108 M-1. The stability of plasmid DNA with PNTs against the DNase was found at 60 min. Using thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs on the corneal eye drop delivery, the distribution of PNTs was in the epithelial and stroma regions. After corneal debridement, the rhodamine-labeled plasmid DNA and thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs were also delivered and could be observed in the stroma of cornea. PNTs complexed with anti-apoptotic plasmid caspase 3 silencing shRNA eye drop delivery decreased 41% of caspase 3 activity after the first dose by caspase 3 activity and Western blot analysis.

  15. Anti-Apoptotic Gene Delivery with cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) Peptide Nanotube via Eye Drop Following Corneal Epithelial Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsing; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2015-01-01

    Corneal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by cornel debridement is one mechanism of corneal disorders. In this study, the feasibility of cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) peptide nanotubes (PNTs) as carriers of caspase 3 silence shRNA delivery was assessed. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement was applied to investigate the feasibility of PNTs as gene delivery carriers on corneal injury. First, the PNTs were found within 2 μm in length and 300 nm in width by an atomic force microscope and confocal laser microscope system. Plasmid DNAs were observed to be associated with PNTs by atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The plasmids were associated with tyrosine of PNTs with a binding constant of 2.7 × 108 M−1. The stability of plasmid DNA with PNTs against the DNase was found at 60 min. Using thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs on the corneal eye drop delivery, the distribution of PNTs was in the epithelial and stroma regions. After corneal debridement, the rhodamine-labeled plasmid DNA and thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs were also delivered and could be observed in the stroma of cornea. PNTs complexed with anti-apoptotic plasmid caspase 3 silencing shRNA eye drop delivery decreased 41% of caspase 3 activity after the first dose by caspase 3 activity and Western blot analysis. PMID:26193308

  16. Melanin dependent survival of Apergillus fumigatus conidia in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shayista; Thywissen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Saluz, Hans Peter; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne pathogenic fungus of humans. Upon inhalation of conidia, the fungus makes close contact with lung epithelial cells, which only possess low phagocytic activity. These cells are in particular interesting to address the question whether there is some form of persistence of conidia of A. fumigatus in the human host. Therefore, by also using uracil-auxotrophic mutant strains, we were able to investigate the interaction of A549 lung epithelial cells and A. fumigatus conidia in detail for long periods. Interestingly, unlike professional phagocytes, our study showed that the presence of conidial dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin enhanced the uptake of A. fumigatus conidia by epithelial cells when compared with non-pigmented pksP mutant conidia. Furthermore, conidia of A. fumigatus were able to survive within epithelial cells. This was due to the presence of DHN melanin in the cell wall of conidia, because melanised wild-type conidia showed a higher survival rate inside epithelial cells and led to inhibition of acidification of phagolysosomes. Both effects were not observed for white (non-melanised) conidia of the pksP mutant strain. Moreover, in contrast to pksP mutant conidia, melanised wild-type conidia were able to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in A549 lung epithelial cells even for longer periods. The anti-apoptotic effect was not restricted to conidia, because both conidia-derived melanin ghosts (cell-free DHN melanin) and a different type of melanin, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin, acted anti-apoptotically. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of melanin-dependent persistence of conidia in lung epithelial cells.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation protects gastric epithelial cells from Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Krishna, Uma; Hobbs, Stuart S.; Dempsey, Peter J.; Peek, Richard M.; Cover, Timothy L.; Washington, M. Kay; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Helicobacter pylori infection disrupts the balance between gastric epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, which is likely to lower the threshold for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection is associated with EGF receptor (EGFR) activation through metalloproteinase-dependent release of EGFR ligands in gastric epithelial cells. Since EGFR signaling regulates cell survival, we investigated whether activation of EGFR following H. pylori infection promotes gastric epithelial survival. Methods Mouse conditionally immortalized stomach epithelial cells (ImSt) and AGS cells, as well as wild-type and kinase-defective EGFR (EGFRwa2) mice, were infected with the H. pylori cag+ strain 7.13. Apoptosis, caspase activity, EGFR activation (phosphorylation) and EGFR downstream targets were analyzed. Results Inhibiting EGFR kinase activity or decreasing EGFR expression significantly increased H. pylori-induced apoptosis in ImSt. Blocking H. pylori-induced EGFR activation with a heparin-binding (HB)-EGF neutralizing antibody or abrogating a disintegrin and matrix metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM-17) expression increased apoptosis of H. pylori-infected AGS and ImSt, respectively. Conversely, pretreatment of ImSt with HB-EGF completely blocked H. pylori-induced apoptosis. H. pylori infection stimulated gastric epithelial cell apoptosis in EGFRwa2, but not in wild-type mice. Furthermore, H. pylori-induced EGFR phosphorylation stimulated PI3K-depnedent activation of the anti-apoptotic factor Akt, increased expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, and decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax. Conclusions EGFR activation by H. pylori infection has an anti-apoptotic effect in gastric epithelial cells that appears to involve Akt signaling and Bcl family members. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of H. pylori-associated tumorigenesis. PMID:19250983

  18. Patterning Bacterial Communities on Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Leung, Brendan M.; Yaguchi, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS) enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv) gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. PMID:23785519

  19. Epithelial TRPV1 Signaling Accelerates Gingival Epithelial Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Yamada, H.; Tabeta, K.; Nakajima, T.; Murakami, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  20. Activation-induced CD154 expression abrogates tolerance induced by apoptotic cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    The decision to generate a productive immune response or tolerance often depends on the context in which T cells first see Ag. Using a classical system of tolerance induction, we examined the immunological consequence of Ag encountered in the presence of naïve or activated apoptotic cells. Naïve apoptotic cells induced tolerance when injected i.v.; however, previously activated apoptotic cells induced immunity. Further analysis revealed a key role for CD154, as tolerance resulted after i.v. injection of either naïve or activated apoptotic CD154−/− T cells, while co-injection of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb with naïve apoptotic T cells induced robust immunity. DC fed activated apoptotic T cells in vitro produced IL-12p40 in a CD154-dependent manner, and the use of IL-12p40−/− mice or mAb-mediated neutralization of IL-12 revealed a link between CD154, IL-12, and the ability of activated apoptotic T cells to induce immunity rather than tolerance. Collectively these results show that CD154 expression on apoptotic T cells can determine the outcome of an immune response to Ag recognized within the context of the apoptotic cells, and suggest the balance between naïve and activated apoptotic T cells may dictate whether a productive immune response is encouraged. PMID:19841180

  1. Apoptotic hair cell death after transient cochlear ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masafumi; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Koga, Kenichiro; Watanabe, Futoshi; Hyodo, Jun; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2002-12-20

    The mechanisms of cochlear hair cell death following exposure to transient inner ear ischemia were investigated in gerbils histologically. The animals were subjected to ischemic insult by occluding both vertebral arteries for 15 min. Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining showed that inner hair cells (IHCs) underwent sporadic degeneration via nuclear condensation, which peaked 12 hours after the ischemia. Furthermore, nuclear DNA fragmentation was noted by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-biotin nick end labeling method. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes in the IHCs characteristic of apoptosis, including karyopyknosis, chromatin condensation. These findings suggest that apoptotic cell death is the major process in hair cell degeneration in this animal model.

  2. Apoptotic and genomic effects of corilagin on SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Rukset; Cincin, Zeynep Birsu; Bireller, Elif Sinem; Cakmakoglu, Bedia

    2017-01-01

    Corilagin is a member of the tannin family and has been isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, such as Phyllanthus spp. Corilagin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiatherogenic, and antihypertensive effects in various experimental models. In this research, we aimed to investigate for the first time whether corilagin had apoptotic and genomic effects in ovarian cancer treatment in the same study. The potential apoptotic of corilagin was investigated using a WST1 cell proliferation test, caspase 3, and mitochondrial membrane potential JC1 assays in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Genomic changes in expression levels against corilagin treatment were measured using an Illumina human HT-12V4 BeadChip microarray. Bioinformatic data analyses were performed using GenomeStudio and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. The data of our study demonstrated that there were statistically significant time- and dose-dependent increases in caspase 3 enzymatic activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in line with decreases in cancer cell proliferation. According to gene-ontology analysis, we found that adherens junctions, antigen processing and presentation, and the phosphatidylinositol signaling system were the most statistically significant networks in response to corilagin treatment on SKOV3 cells, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The apoptotic and genome-wide effects of corilagin on ovarian cancer cells were examined in detail for the first time in the literature. The results of our study suggest that corilagin might have the potential to be used as a new treatment option for epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:28408846

  3. Povidone-iodine-induced cell death in cultured human epithelial HeLa cells and rat oral mucosal tissue.

    PubMed

    Sato, So; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Although povidone-iodine (PVP-I) has been used as a gargle since 1956, its effectiveness and material safety have been remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of PVP-I to epithelial cells in a concentration range significantly lower than that used clinically. Study design was in vitro laboratory investigations and in vivo histological and immunologic analysis. We examined the effects of PVP-I at concentrations of 1 × 10(-2) to 1 × 10(3) μM and 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10 μM on HeLa cells as a model of epithelial cells and rat oral mucosa, respectively, after 1 or 2 days of exposure. Annexin V/FLUOS was used to distinguish live, apoptotic and necrotic cells. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method was also used to observe whether apoptotic epithelial cells exist in rat oral mucosa after 1 day of exposure of PVP-I. HeLa cells developed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, and epithelium of rat oral mucosa was thinned in a concentration-dependent manner. HeLa cell apoptosis increased after 1 × 10(0) μM of PVP-I exposure for 2 days. In the TUNEL method, many apoptotic epithelial cells were observed in the rat oral mucosa after 1 day of exposure to diluted 1 × 10(-2) μM of PVP-I, but minimal apoptotic epithelial cells were observed using 1 × 10(-3) μM of PVP-I. Our findings suggest that exposure to PVP-I, of which concentrations are even lower than those used clinically, causes toxicity in epithelial cells. This knowledge would help us better understand the risk of the use of PVP-I against mucosa.

  4. Intravenous apoptotic cell infusion as a cell-based therapy toward improving hematopoietic cell transplantation outcome.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Gaugler, Béatrice; Perruche, Sylvain

    2010-10-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is an efficient therapy for different malignant and nonmalignant hematological diseases. However, the use of this therapeutic approach is still limited by some severe toxic side effects, mainly graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Today, the risk of fatal GvHD restrains the wider application of AHCT to many patients in need of an effective therapy for their high-risk hematologic malignancies. Thus, new strategies, including cell-based therapy approaches, are required. We propose to use intravenous donor apoptotic leukocyte infusion to improve AHCT outcome. In experimental AHCT models, we demonstrated that intravenous apoptotic leukocyte infusion, simultaneously with allogeneic bone marrow grafts, favors hematopoietic engraftment, prevents allo-immunization, and delays acute GvHD onset. Here, we review the different mechanisms and the potential beneficial effects associated with the immunomodulatory properties of apoptotic cells in the AHCT setting. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2008-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived cells can take on the phenotype of epithelial cells and express epithelial-specific genes in multiple organs. Here, we focus on recent data on the appearance of marrow-derived epithelial cells in the adult lung. These findings have garnered significant skepticism because in most cases marrow-derived epithelial cells are very rare, the marrow cell of origin is not known, the techniques for detection have needed improvement, and there seem to be multiple mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent studies have focused on these concerns. Once these important concerns are addressed, further studies on the function(s) of these cells will need to be performed to determine whether this engraftment has any clinical significance-either beneficial or detrimental.

  7. Mitochondrial Staining Allows Robust Elimination of Apoptotic and Damaged Cells during Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarev, Eugeny D.; Tsytsykova, Alla; Armant, Myriam; Vorobjev, Ivan A.

    2014-01-01

    High-speed fluorescence-activated cell sorting is relevant for a plethora of applications, such as PCR-based techniques, microarrays, cloning, and propagation of selected cell populations. We suggest a simple cell-sorting technique to eliminate early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells, with good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-purity yield. The mitochondrial potential dye, TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate), was used to separate viable and non-apoptotic cells from the cell sorting samples. TMRE staining is reversible and does not affect cell proliferation and viability. Sorted TMRE+ cells contained a negligible percentage of apoptotic and damaged cells and had a higher proliferative potential as compared with their counterpart cells, sorted on the basis of staining with DNA viability dye. This novel sorting technique using TMRE does not interfere with subsequent functional assays and is a method of choice for the enrichment of functionally active, unbiased cell populations. PMID:24394470

  8. Mitochondrial staining allows robust elimination of apoptotic and damaged cells during cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Barteneva, Natasha S; Ponomarev, Eugeny D; Tsytsykova, Alla; Armant, Myriam; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2014-04-01

    High-speed fluorescence-activated cell sorting is relevant for a plethora of applications, such as PCR-based techniques, microarrays, cloning, and propagation of selected cell populations. We suggest a simple cell-sorting technique to eliminate early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells, with good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-purity yield. The mitochondrial potential dye, TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate), was used to separate viable and non-apoptotic cells from the cell sorting samples. TMRE staining is reversible and does not affect cell proliferation and viability. Sorted TMRE(+) cells contained a negligible percentage of apoptotic and damaged cells and had a higher proliferative potential as compared with their counterpart cells, sorted on the basis of staining with DNA viability dye. This novel sorting technique using TMRE does not interfere with subsequent functional assays and is a method of choice for the enrichment of functionally active, unbiased cell populations.

  9. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  10. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Epithelial Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter D. Eirew CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: British Columbia Cancer Agency...NUMBER Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0702 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Abstract The mammary epithelium in normal adult female mice contains undifferentiated stem cells with extensive in vivo regenerative and self-renewal

  11. The canonical intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway has a non-apoptotic role in signaling lens cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Gregory F; Menko, A Sue

    2005-06-10

    The mitochondrial cell death pathway is known for its role in signaling apoptosis. Here, we describe a novel function for the mitochondrial cell death pathway in signaling initiation of differentiation in the developing lens. Most remarkably, we induced lens cell differentiation by short-term exposure of lens epithelial cells to the apoptogen staurosporine. Activation of apoptosis-related pathways induced lens epithelial cells to express differentiation-specific markers and to undergo morphogenetic changes that led to formation of the lens-like structures known as lentoids. The fact that multiple stages of differentiation are expressed at a single stage of development in the embryonic lens made it possible to precisely determine the timing of expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway. We discovered that there was high expression in the lens equatorial epithelium (the region of the lens in which differentiation is initiated) of pro-apoptotic molecules such as Bax and Bcl-x(S) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, we found significant caspase-3-like activity in the equatorial epithelium, yet this activity was far lower than that associated with lens cell apoptosis. These apoptotic pathways are likely regulated by the concurrent expression of prosurvival molecules, including Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L); phosphorylation of Bad; and high expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins chicken IAP1, IAP3, and survivin. This finding suggests that prosurvival pathways allow pro-apoptotic molecules to function as molecular switches in the differentiation process without tipping the balance toward apoptosis. We call this process apoptosis-related Bcl-2- and caspase-dependent (ABC) differentiation.

  12. Potential role for laminin 5 in hypoxia-mediated apoptosis of human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Esco, M A; Wang, Z; McDermott, M L; Kurpakus-Wheater, M

    2001-11-01

    Laminin 5 functions to promote cell-matrix adhesion and therefore is hypothesized to abrogate apoptosis initiated through the loss of epithelial cell contact with extracellular matrix. Laminin 5 levels are decreased in epithelial cells cultured in a hypoxic environment. Exposure of epithelial cells to hypoxia may induce apoptotic pathways transmitted through changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Using an apoptosis assay based on mitochondrial membrane integrity, the effect of hypoxia (2% oxygen) on human corneal epithelial cell viability was determined. Both a virally transformed corneal epithelial cell line and third passage corneal epithelial cells were resistant to hypoxia-mediated apoptosis for up to 5 days in culture. However, at 7 days in culture, a statistically significant increase in apoptosis was noted in hypoxic corneal epithelial cells compared to normoxic (20% oxygen) controls. Increased apoptosis in hypoxic epithelium at 7 days in culture correlated with decreased deposition of laminin 5 into the extracellular matrix, as determined by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the extracellular processing of the alpha3 and gamma2 chains of laminin 5 was negatively impacted by corneal epithelial cell exposure to hypoxia for 7 days. Treatment of human corneal epithelial cells cultured in 20% oxygen with function-inhibiting antibodies to laminin 5 for 2 or 3 days resulted in a statistically significant decrease in proliferation, and concomitant increase in apoptosis, compared with untreated normoxic controls. Based on these results, it appears that mechanisms of hypoxia-mediated apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells may be initiated by the loss of processed laminin 5 in the extracellular matrix or by the loss of laminin 5-epithelial cell communication and transmitted through mitochondria.

  13. Adiponectin differentially affects gene expression in human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Treeck, O; Lattrich, C; Juhasz-Boess, I; Buchholz, S; Pfeiler, G; Ortmann, O

    2008-10-21

    Serum levels of adiponectin are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. In this study, its effect on growth and gene expression of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells was compared. The antiproliferative effect of adiponectin on MCF-10A cells was more pronounced and was accompanied by elevated transcript levels of caspase 1, ERbeta2, ERbeta5, TR2 and USP2. Our data suggest that upregulation of genes with known growth inhibitory or apoptotic functions in mammary epithelial cells might contribute to the protective action of this adipocytokine.

  14. Apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quisbert-Valenzuela, Edwin O; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Cancer is a public health problem in the world and breast cancer is the most frequently cancer in women. Approximately 15% of the breast cancers are triple-negative. Apoptosis regulates normal growth, homeostasis, development, embryogenesis and appropriate strategy to treat cancer. Bax is a protein pro-apoptotic enhancer of apoptosis in contrast to Bcl-2 with antiapoptotic properties. Initiator caspase-9 and caspase-8 are features of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway, respectively. NF-κB is a transcription factor known to be involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Noscapine, an alkaloid derived from opium is used as antitussive and showed antitumor properties that induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to determine the apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines compared to breast normal cell line. Three cell lines were used: i) a control breast cell line MCF-10F; ii) a luminal-like adenocarcinoma triple-positive breast cell line MCF-7; iii) breast cancer triple-negative cell line MDA-MB-231. Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells because it increases Bax gene and protein expression in three cell lines, while decreases Bcl-xL gene expression, and Bcl-2 protein expression decreased in breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in the three cell lines. This drug increased caspase-9 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and caspase-8 gene expression increased in MCF-10F and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, it increased cleavage of caspase-8, suggesting that noscapine-induced apoptosis is probably due to the involvement of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Antiapoptotic gene and protein expression diminished and proapoptotic gene and protein expression increased noscapine-induced expression, probably due to decrease in NF-κB gene and protein expression

  15. Myb permits multilineage airway epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie-hong; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Patel, Anand C.; Huang, Tao; Yozamp, Nicholas S.; Xu, Jian; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Byers, Derek E.; Pierce, Richard A.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium of the pulmonary airway is specially differentiated to provide defense against environmental insults, but also subject to dysregulated differentiation that results in lung disease. The current paradigm for airway epithelial differentiation is a one-step program whereby a p63+ basal epithelial progenitor cell generates a ciliated or secretory cell lineage, but the cue for this transition and whether there are intermediate steps is poorly defined. Here we identify transcription factor Myb as a key regulator that permits early multilineage differentiation of airway epithelial cells. Myb+ cells were identified as p63− and therefore distinct from basal progenitor cells, but were still negative for markers of differentiation. Myb RNAi treatment of primary-culture airway epithelial cells and Myb gene deletion in mice resulted in a p63− population with failed maturation of Foxj1+ ciliated cells, as well as Scbg1a1+ and Muc5ac+ secretory cells. Consistent with these findings, analysis of whole genome expression of Myb-deficient cells identified Myb-dependent programs for ciliated and secretory cell differentiation. Myb+ cells were rare in human airways but were increased in regions of ciliated cells and mucous cell hyperplasia in samples from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Together, the results show that a p63− Myb+ population of airway epithelial cells represents a distinct intermediate stage of differentiation that is required under normal conditions and may be heightened in airway disease. PMID:25103188

  16. TRIP13-deficient tubular epithelial cells are susceptible to apoptosis following acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Pressly, Jeffrey D; Hama, Taketsugu; Brien, Shannon O'; Regner, Kevin R; Park, Frank

    2017-03-03

    Damage to renal tubular epithelial cells by genetic, environmental, or biological insults can initiate complex signaling mechanisms that promote kidney repair and functional recovery. In this study, we demonstrated that thyroid receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) is a critical modulator of tubular epithelial cell repair following ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), a common type of renal stressor. In Trip13(Gt/Gt)hypomorph mice treated with unilateral renal IRI, persistent tubular epithelial cell damage was determined in the IRI-treated kidney throughout the 168 hours of experimental period compared to the contralateral kidneys. The damaged epithelial cells were associated with increased levels of DNA damage (ɣH2AX) and apoptotic markers (p53, cleaved caspase-7, and TUNEL-positive cells). Correspondingly, TRIP13 was found to directly interact with Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain 5 (TTC5), a p53 co-factor, and genetic knockdown of TRIP13 in murine inner medullary collecting duct cells in the presence of hydrogen peroxide showed increased activity of p53 at Serine 15. In all, these studies suggest that insufficient TRIP13 increased the susceptibility of damaged tubular epithelial cells to progress towards apoptotic cell death.

  17. TRIP13-deficient tubular epithelial cells are susceptible to apoptosis following acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Pressly, Jeffrey D.; Hama, Taketsugu; Brien, Shannon O’; Regner, Kevin R.; Park, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Damage to renal tubular epithelial cells by genetic, environmental, or biological insults can initiate complex signaling mechanisms that promote kidney repair and functional recovery. In this study, we demonstrated that thyroid receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) is a critical modulator of tubular epithelial cell repair following ischemia‐reperfusion injury (IRI), a common type of renal stressor. In Trip13Gt/Gthypomorph mice treated with unilateral renal IRI, persistent tubular epithelial cell damage was determined in the IRI-treated kidney throughout the 168 hours of experimental period compared to the contralateral kidneys. The damaged epithelial cells were associated with increased levels of DNA damage (ɣH2AX) and apoptotic markers (p53, cleaved caspase-7, and TUNEL-positive cells). Correspondingly, TRIP13 was found to directly interact with Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain 5 (TTC5), a p53 co‐factor, and genetic knockdown of TRIP13 in murine inner medullary collecting duct cells in the presence of hydrogen peroxide showed increased activity of p53 at Serine 15. In all, these studies suggest that insufficient TRIP13 increased the susceptibility of damaged tubular epithelial cells to progress towards apoptotic cell death. PMID:28256593

  18. Epithelial Cell Proliferation Contributes to Airway Remodeling in Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lance; E, Xueping; Tarsi, Jaime; Ramkumar, Thiruvamoor; Horiuchi, Todd K.; Cochran, Rebecca; DeMartino, Steve; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Hussain, Iftikhar; Holtzman, Michael J.; Castro, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Despite long-term therapy with corticosteroids, patients with severe asthma develop irreversible airway obstruction. Objectives: To evaluate if there are structural and functional differences in the airway epithelium in severe asthma associated with airway remodeling. Methods: In bronchial biopsies from 21 normal subjects, 11 subjects with chronic bronchitis, 9 subjects with mild asthma, and 31 subjects with severe asthma, we evaluated epithelial cell morphology: epithelial thickness, lamina reticularis (LR) thickness, and epithelial desquamation. Levels of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), Ki67, and Bcl-2 were measured, reflecting cellular proliferation and death. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to study cellular apoptosis. Measurements and Main Results: Airway epithelial and LR thickness was greater in subjects with severe asthma compared with those with mild asthma, normal subjects, and diseased control subjects (p = 0.009 and 0.033, respectively). There was no significant difference in epithelial desquamation between groups. Active, hypophosphorylated Rb expression was decreased (p = 0.002) and Ki67 was increased (p < 0.01) in the epithelium of subjects with severe asthma as compared with normal subjects, indicating increased cellular proliferation. Bcl-2 expression was decreased (p < 0.001), indicating decreased cell death suppression. There was a greater level of apoptotic activity in the airway biopsy in subjects with severe asthma as compared with the normal subjects using the TUNEL assay (p = 0.002), suggesting increased cell death. Conclusions: In subjects with severe asthma, as compared with subjects with mild asthma, normal subjects, and diseased control subjects, we found novel evidence of increased cellular proliferation in the airway contributing to a thickened epithelium and LR. These changes may contribute to the progressive decline in lung function and airway remodeling in patients with severe

  19. Apoptotic pathway induced by noscapine in human myelogenous leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Nastaran; Goliaei, Bahram; Moghaddam, Parvaneh Rahimi; Rahbar-Roshandel, Nahid; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2007-11-01

    It has been shown that noscapine, an opium-derived phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid that is currently being used as an oral antitussive drug, induces apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. The molecular mechanism responsible for the anticancer effects of noscapine is poorly understood. In the current study, the apoptotic effects of noscapine on two myeloid cell lines, apoptosis-proficient HL60 cells and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, were analyzed. An increase in the activity of caspase-2, -3, -6, -8 and -9, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage, detection of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the cell membrane, nucleation of chromatin, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Noscapine increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with a significant decrease of Bcl-2 expression accompanied with Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Using an inhibitory approach, the activation of the caspase cascade involved in the noscapine-induced apoptosis was analyzed. We observed no inhibitory effect of the caspase-8 inhibitor on caspase-9 activity. In view of these results and taking into consideration that K562 cells are Fas-null, we suggested that caspase-8 is activated in a Fas-independent manner downstream of caspase-9. In conclusion, noscapine can induce apoptosis in both apoptosis-proficient and apoptosis-resistant leukemic cells, and it can be a novel candidate in the treatment of hematological malignancies.

  20. Establishment of a blue light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Cai, S J; Gong, X; Wang, L L; Li, H H; Wang, L M

    2016-06-24

    To establish a blue-light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fourth-generation human RPE cells were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, cells were exposed to blue light (2000 ± 500 lux) for 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, and 12 h, and cell culture was stopped after 12 h. In group B, cells were exposed to blue light at the same intensity and time periods, but cell culture was stopped after 24 h. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to determine the most suitable illuminating time with apoptotic index. Flow cytometry was used to determine apoptotic ratio of RPEs. In group A, the apoptotic index of cells that received 6, 9 and 12 h of blue light was higher than that of control. The apoptotic index of cells receiving 9 and 12 h was higher than that of 6 h (P = 0.000). In group B, the apoptotic index and RPE cell apoptosis ratio of cells exposed to 6, 9 and 12 h of blue light were higher than that of 3 h (P = 0.000); and cells receiving 9 and 12 h had higher values than that of 6 h. This study demonstrated that the best conditions to establish a blue light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro are 2000 ± 500 lux light intensity for 6 h, with 24 h of cell culture post-exposure.

  1. Macrophage-derived apoptotic bodies promote the proliferation of the recipient cells via shuttling microRNA-221/222.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ziwen; Zhang, Duo; Lee, Heedoo; Menon, Aravind Ajakumar; Wu, Jingxuan; Hu, Kebin; Jin, Yang

    2017-03-08

    Bacterial pneumonia is a common and serious clinical entity. Alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense in the innate immunity against bacterial pathogens. Epithelial cells are known to release chemokines/cytokines that recruit and activate phagocytic cells. However, the signals sent from alveolar macrophages back to the lung epithelial cells remain largely unexplored. We found that LPS, a well-recognized stimulator derived from gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria, rapidly and robustly induces the secretion of macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). The main type of EVs found in the early stages after LPS stimulation are apoptotic bodies (ABs) and not microvesicles (MVs) or exosomes (Exos). Furthermore, LPS markedly up-regulate the levels of a repertoire of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the macrophage-derived ABs, including miR-221 and miR-222. Functionally, the LPS-induced, macrophage-derived ABs promote the proliferation of malignant and/or normal lung epithelial cells. We next directly transfected miR-221 and/or miR-222 inhibitors into the LPS-induced ABs. Deletion of miR-221/222 in ABs significantly reduces the AB-mediated proliferation of lung epithelial cells. Mechanistically, AB-shuttling miR-221/222 promote cell growth by modulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) pathways. Collectively, LPS-induced, macrophage-derived ABs promote the proliferation of their recipient epithelial cells, partially via AB-shuttling miRNAs.

  2. Purification of kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, R W; Böhlen, P; Fava, R; Baldwin, J H; Kleeman, G; Armour, R

    1980-01-01

    Two high molecular weight growth inhibitors have been isolated from the culture medium of BSC-1 cells, epithelial cells of African green monkey kidney. The purified kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors, at ng/ml concentrations, reversibly arrest the growth of BSC-1 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Their action is selective; they are most active on BSC-1 cells, are less active as inhibitors of the growth of rat lung and human breast epithelial cells, and do not inhibit the growth of 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts ad human skin fibroblasts in culture. Their growth inhibitory action on BSC-1 cell cultures is counteracted by epidermal growth factor or calf serum. PMID:6969400

  3. Cell Division Drives Epithelial Cell Rearrangements during Gastrulation in Chick.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Joao; Rocancourt, Didier; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Moreau, Chloe; Gros, Jerome

    2016-02-08

    During early embryonic development, cells are organized as cohesive epithelial sheets that are continuously growing and remodeled without losing their integrity, giving rise to a wide array of tissue shapes. Here, using live imaging in chick embryo, we investigate how epithelial cells rearrange during gastrulation. We find that cell division is a major rearrangement driver that powers dramatic epithelial cell intercalation events. We show that these cell division-mediated intercalations, which represent the majority of epithelial rearrangements within the early embryo, are absolutely necessary for the spatial patterning of gastrulation movements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intercalation events result from overall low cortical actomyosin accumulation within the epithelial cells of the embryo, which enables dividing cells to remodel junctions in their vicinity. These findings uncover a role for cell division as coordinator of epithelial growth and remodeling that might underlie various developmental, homeostatic, or pathological processes in amniotes.

  4. Galleria mellonella lysozyme induces apoptotic changes in Candida albicans cells.

    PubMed

    Sowa-Jasiłek, Aneta; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Stączek, Sylwia; Wydrych, Jerzy; Skrzypiec, Krzysztof; Mak, Paweł; Deryło, Kamil; Tchórzewski, Marek; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    The greater wax moth Galleria mellonella has been increasingly used as a model host to determine Candida albicans virulence and efficacy of antifungal treatment. The G. mellonella lysozyme, similarly to its human counterpart, is a member of the c-type family of lysozymes that exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activity. However, in contrast to the relatively well explained bactericidal action, the mechanism of fungistatic and/or fungicidal activity of lysozymes is still not clear. In the present study we provide the direct evidences that the G. mellonella lysozyme binds to the protoplasts as well as to the intact C. albicans cells and decreases the survival rate of both these forms in a time-dependent manner. No enzymatic activity of the lysozyme towards typical chitinase and β-glucanase substrates was detected, indicating that hydrolysis of main fungal cell wall components is not responsible for anti-Candida activity of the lysozyme. On the other hand, pre-treatment of cells with tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker, prevented them from the lysozyme action, suggesting that lysozyme acts by induction of programmed cell death. In fact, the C. albicans cells treated with the lysozyme exhibited typical apoptotic features, i.e. loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine exposure in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, as well as chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation.

  5. The scavenger receptor SCARF1 mediates apoptotic cell clearance and prevents autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G.; Pendergraft, William F.; Prasad, Amit; Byrne, Michael H.; Iram, Tal; Blanchette, Christopher J.; Luster, Andrew D.; Hacohen, Nir; Khoury, Joseph El; Means, Terry K.

    2013-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for control of tissue homeostasis however the full range of receptor(s) on phagocytes responsible for recognition of apoptotic cells remains to be identified. Here we show that dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and endothelial cells use scavenger receptor type F family member 1 (SCARF1) to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells via C1q. Loss of SCARF1 impairs uptake of apoptotic cells. Consequently, in SCARF1-deficient mice, dying cells accumulate in tissues leading to a lupus-like disease with the spontaneous generation of autoantibodies to DNA-containing antigens, immune cell activation, dermatitis and nephritis. The discovery of SCARF1 interactions with C1q and apoptotic cells provides insights into molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. PMID:23892722

  6. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major ‘eat-me’ signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering.

  7. Role of ion transport in control of apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Hoffmann, Else K

    2012-07-01

    Cell shrinkage is a hallmark and contributes to signaling of apoptosis. Apoptotic cell shrinkage requires ion transport across the cell membrane involving K(+) channels, Cl(-) or anion channels, Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+),K(+),Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase. Activation of K(+) channels fosters K(+) exit with decrease of cytosolic K(+) concentration, activation of anion channels triggers exit of Cl(-), organic osmolytes, and HCO3(-). Cellular loss of K(+) and organic osmolytes as well as cytosolic acidification favor apoptosis. Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels may result in apoptosis by affecting mitochondrial integrity, stimulating proteinases, inducing cell shrinkage due to activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels, and triggering cell-membrane scrambling. Signaling involved in the modification of cell-volume regulatory ion transport during apoptosis include mitogen-activated kinases p38, JNK, ERK1/2, MEKK1, MKK4, the small G proteins Cdc42, and/or Rac and the transcription factor p53. Osmosensing involves integrin receptors, focal adhesion kinases, and tyrosine kinase receptors. Hyperosmotic shock leads to vesicular acidification followed by activation of acid sphingomyelinase, ceramide formation, release of reactive oxygen species, activation of the tyrosine kinase Yes with subsequent stimulation of CD95 trafficking to the cell membrane. Apoptosis is counteracted by mechanisms involved in regulatory volume increase (RVI), by organic osmolytes, by focal adhesion kinase, and by heat-shock proteins. Clearly, our knowledge on the interplay between cell-volume regulatory mechanisms and suicidal cell death is still far from complete and substantial additional experimental effort is needed to elucidate the role of cell-volume regulatory mechanisms in suicidal cell death. 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:2037-2061, 2012.

  8. ABCF1 extrinsically regulates retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora; Alvarado, Gabriela; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical to retinal homeostasis and shares many conserved signaling pathways with other phagocytes, including extrinsic regulations. Phagocytotic ligands are the key to cargo recognition, engulfment initiation, and activity regulation. In this study, we identified intracellular protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) as a novel RPE phagocytotic ligand by a new approach of functional screening. ABCF1 was independently verified to extrinsically promote phagocytosis of shed POSs by D407 RPE cells. This finding was further corroborated with primary RPE cells and RPE explants. Internalized POS vesicles were colocalized with a phagosome marker, suggesting that ABCF1-mediated engulfment is through a phagocytic pathway. ABCF1 was released from apoptotic cells and selectively bound to shed POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, possibly via externalized phosphatidylserine. ABCF1 is predominantly expressed in POSs and colocalized with the POS marker rhodopsin, providing geographical convenience for regulation of RPE phagocytosis. Collectively these results suggest that ABCF1 is released from and binds to shed POSs in an autocrine manner to facilitate RPE phagocytosis through a conserved pathway. Furthermore, the new approach is broadly applicable to many other phagocytes and will enable systematic elucidation of their ligands to understand extrinsic regulation and cargo recognition. PMID:25904329

  9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a major role in apoptotic leukocyte-induced immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, Francis; Perruche, Sylvain; Couturier, Mélanie; Sedrati, Abdeslem; Sun, Yunwei; Tiberghien, Pierre; Gaugler, Béatrice; Saas, Philippe

    2011-05-15

    Several APCs participate in apoptotic cell-induced immune modulation. Whether plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are involved in this process has not yet been characterized. Using a mouse model of allogeneic bone marrow engraftment, we demonstrated that donor bone marrow PDCs are required for both donor apoptotic cell-induced engraftment and regulatory T cell (Treg) increase. We confirmed in naive mice receiving i.v. syngeneic apoptotic cell infusion that PDCs from the spleen induce ex vivo Treg commitment. We showed that PDCs did not interact directly with apoptotic cells. In contrast, in vivo macrophage depletion experiments using clodronate-loaded liposome infusion and coculture experiments with supernatant from macrophages incubated with apoptotic cells showed that PDCs required macrophage-derived soluble factors--including TGF-β--to exert their immunomodulatory functions. Overall, PDCs may be considered as the major APC involved in Treg stimulation/generation in the setting of an immunosuppressive environment obtained by apoptotic cell infusion. These findings show that like other APCs, PDC functions are influenced, at least indirectly, by exposure to blood-borne apoptotic cells. This might correspond with an additional mechanism preventing unwanted immune responses against self-antigens clustered at the cell surface of apoptotic cells occurring during normal cell turnover.

  10. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed.

  11. Apoptotic cell death by the novel natural compound, cinobufotalin.

    PubMed

    Emam, Heba; Zhao, Qing-Li; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Refaat, Alaa; Ahmed, Kanwal; Kadowaki, Makoto; Kondo, Takashi

    2012-09-30

    Cinobufotalin (CB), one of the bufadienolides prepared from toad venom, was investigated for its cytotoxicity, and the underneath mechanism involved. We primarily utilized DNA fragmentation assay and microscopic observation to assess the effect of various doses of CB in human lymphoma U937 cells. Following that, we investigated other parameters involved in cell death mechanism such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and apoptotic proteins activation. HeLa cells were concomitantly used to generalize the data observed. Our results show that CB caused significant DNA fragmentation, decrease of MMP, and an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) ion and ROS production. In addition, CB induced upregulation of Fas protein, proteolytic activation of cytochrome c, caspase-2, -3, -8 and -9 together with the activation of Bid and Bax. Our findings were further validated using either Fas/FasL antagonist or pan-caspase inhibitor to significantly inhibit CB-induced DNA fragmentation. In our study, we suggest that CB induces caspase dependent cell death in U937 cells, and that Fas plays a role in CB-induced apoptosis. Altogether, our data provides novel insights of the mechanism of action of CB and its potential as a future chemotherapeutic agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insights into the apoptotic death of immune cells in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Luan, Ying-yi; Yao, Yong-ming; Xiao, Xian-zhong; Sheng, Zhi-yong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis with subsequent multiple-organ dysfunction is a distinct systemic inflammatory response to concealed or obvious infection, and it is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. Thus, one of the key goals in critical care medicine is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that will affect favorably on outcome of septic patients. In addition to systemic response to infection, apoptosis is implicated to be an important mechanism of the death of immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages, T lymphocytes, and dendritic cells, and it is usually followed by the development of multiple-organ failure in sepsis. The implication of apoptosis of immune cells is now highlighted by multiple studies that demonstrate that prevention of cell apoptosis can improve survival in relevant animal models of severe sepsis. In this review, we focus on major apoptotic death pathways and molecular mechanisms that regulate apoptosis of different immune cells, and advances in these areas that may be translated into more promising therapies for the prevention and treatment of severe sepsis.

  13. Lysosomal photodamage induces cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xian-wang; Li, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Lysosomal photosensitizers have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Combination of such photosensitizers and light causes lysosomal photodamage, inducing cell death. The lysosomal disruption can lead to apoptosis but its signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. In this study, we selected N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6), an effective photosensitizer which preferentially accumulates in lysosomes, to study the mechanism of apoptosis caused by lysosomal photodamage. Apoptosis in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells treated by NPe6-PDT was studied using real-time single-cell analysis. In this study, the fluorescence probes Cyto c-GFP and DsRed-Mit were used to detect the spatial and temporal changes of cytochrome c in real-time in sub-cell level; the Rhodamine 123 dyes were used to monitor the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential. The results showed that, after PDT treatment,the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, and cytochrome c released from mitochondria; The caspase-3 was activated obviously. These results suggested that lysosomal photodamage activates mitochondrial apoptotic pathway to induce cell death.

  14. KIM-1-/TIM-1-mediated phagocytosis links ATG5-/ULK1-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells to antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Craig R; Yeung, Melissa Y; Brooks, Yang S; Chen, Hui; Ichimura, Takaharu; Henderson, Joel M; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by both professional and semi-professional phagocytes is required for resolution of organ damage and maintenance of immune tolerance. KIM-1/TIM-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is expressed on epithelial cells and can transform the cells into phagocytes. Here, we demonstrate that KIM-1 phosphorylation and association with p85 results in encapsulation of phagosomes by lipidated LC3 in multi-membrane organelles. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis is not associated with increased ROS production, and NOX inhibition does not block LC3 lipidation. Autophagy gene expression is required for efficient clearance of apoptotic cells and phagosome maturation. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis leads to pro-tolerogenic antigen presentation, which suppresses CD4 T-cell proliferation and increases the percentage of regulatory T cells in an autophagy gene-dependent manner. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism of epithelial biology linking phagocytosis, autophagy and antigen presentation to regulation of the inflammatory response. PMID:26282792

  15. Analysis of apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soma, T; Ogo, M; Suzuki, J; Takahashi, T; Hibino, T

    1998-12-01

    We analyzed changes of growth and apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles. In anagen hair follicles, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick labeling-positive cells were observed in the keratogenous zone of the upper bulb matrix, the inner root sheath, and the companion layer of the outer root sheath. DNA ladder formation was also detected in anagen hair follicles. In catagen hair follicles, the lower bulb matrix cells around the dermal papilla and the outer layer cells of the outer root sheath became strongly positive, showing that apoptosis in catagen hair is distinct from that in anagen hair. We also confirmed the mRNA expression of four caspases (caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-7) in anagen hair follicles by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. When human anagen hair follicles were cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the serum-free medium, transforming growth factor-beta but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced catagen-like morphologic changes, which were indistinguishable from normal catagen hair follicles. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, however, strongly inhibited the elongation of the hair shaft in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by abnormal morphology and increased cell death in the bulb matrix cells. Our results suggest that apoptosis in hair follicles involves two different types. One is related to the terminal differentiation of follicular epithelial cells in anagen hair. The other occurs as a major driving force to eliminate the distinct portion of epithelial components in catagen hair. Furthermore, this study strongly indicates that the transforming growth factor-beta pathway is involved in the induction of catagen phase in human hair cycle.

  16. Control of lens epithelial cell survival

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the survival requirements of developing lens epithelial cells to test the hypothesis that most cells are programmed to kill themselves unless they are continuously signaled by other cells not to do so. The lens cells survived for weeks in both explant cultures and high-density dissociated cell cultures in the absence of other cells or added serum or protein, suggesting that they do not require signals from other cell types to survive. When cultured at low density, however, they died by apoptosis, suggesting that they depend on other lens epithelial cells for their survival. Lens epithelial cells cultured at high density in agarose gels also survived for weeks, even though they were not in direct contact with one another, suggesting that they can promote one another's survival in the absence of cell- cell contact. Conditioned medium from high density cultures promoted the survival of cells cultured at low density, suggesting that lens epithelial cells support one another's survival by secreting survival factors. We show for the first time that normal cell death occurs within the anterior epithelium in the mature lens, but this death is strictly confined to the region of the anterior suture. PMID:8491781

  17. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  18. Growth requirements of human mammary epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Papadimitriou, J; Shearer, M; Stoker, M G

    1977-12-15

    Colony-forming epithelial cells can be separated from the non-dividing "foam cells" in human milk by differential adhesion to glass and freezing. The growth of such partially purified mammary epithelial cells is stimulated by co-culture with non-dividing feeder cells. Foam cells, mitomycin-treated mouse fibroblast lines and human mammary fibroblasts and calf lens epithelial cells are all effective in promoting mammary epithelial cell growth. Contact between epithelial cells and feeders is not required for the growth-promoting effect. The mitogenic effect of epidermal growth factor on mammary epithelial cells also requires feeder cell activity.

  19. Prospects of apoptotic cell-based therapies for transplantation and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Kaminski, Sandra; Perruche, Sylvain

    2013-10-01

    Apoptotic cell removal or interactions of early-stage apoptotic cells with immune cells are associated with an immunomodulatory microenvironment that can be harnessed to exert therapeutic effects. While the involved immune mechanisms are still being deciphered, apoptotic cell infusion has been tested in different experimental models where inflammation is deregulated. This includes chronic and acute inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, contact hypersensitivity and acute myocardial infarction. Apoptotic cell infusion has also been used in transplantation settings to prevent or treat acute and chronic rejection, as well as to limit acute graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in apoptotic cell-induced immunomodulation and data obtained in preclinical models of transplantation and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Concise Review: Apoptotic Cell-Based Therapies-Rationale, Preclinical Results and Future Clinical Developments.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Daguindau, Etienne; Perruche, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this review are to summarize the experimental data obtained using apoptotic cell-based therapies, and then to discuss future clinical developments. Indeed, apoptotic cells exhibit immunomodulatory properties that are reviewed here by focusing on more recent mechanisms. These immunomodulatory mechanisms are in particular linked to the clearance of apoptotic cells (called also efferocytosis) by phagocytes, such as macrophages, and the induction of regulatory T cells. Thus, apoptotic cell-based therapies have been used to prevent or treat experimental inflammatory diseases. Based on these studies, we have identified critical steps to design future clinical trials. This includes: the administration route, the number and schedule of administration, the appropriate apoptotic cell type to be used, as well as the apoptotic signal. We also have analyzed the clinical relevancy of apoptotic-cell-based therapies in experimental models. Additional experimental data are required concerning the treatment of inflammatory diseases (excepted for sepsis) before considering future clinical trials. In contrast, apoptotic cells have been shown to favor engraftment and to reduce acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in different relevant models of transplantation. This has led to the conduct of a phase 1/2a clinical trial to alleviate GvHD. The absence of toxic effects obtained in this trial may support the development of other clinical studies based on this new cell therapy. Stem Cells 2016;34:1464-1473. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Elastase-mediated phosphatidylserine receptor cleavage impairs apoptotic cell clearance in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Vandivier, R. William; Fadok, Valerie A.; Hoffmann, Peter R.; Bratton, Donna L.; Penvari, Churee; Brown, Kevin K.; Brain, Joseph D.; Accurso, Frank J.; Henson, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is characterized by an early and sustained influx of inflammatory cells into the airways and by release of proteases. Resolution of inflammation is normally associated with the orderly removal of dying apoptotic inflammatory cells through cell recognition receptors, such as the phosphatidylserine receptor, CD36, and αv integrins. Accordingly, removal of apoptotic inflammatory cells may be impaired in persistent inflammatory responses such as that seen in cystic fibrosis airways. Examination of sputa from cystic fibrosis and non–cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients demonstrated an abundance of apoptotic cells, in excess of that seen in patients with chronic bronchitis. In vitro, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis airway fluid directly inhibited apoptotic cell removal by alveolar macrophages in a neutrophil elastase-dependent manner, suggesting that elastase may impair apoptotic cell clearance in vivo. Flow cytometry demonstrated that neutrophil elastase cleaved the phosphatidylserine receptor, but not CD36 or CD32 (FcγRII). Cleavage of the phosphatidylserine receptor by neutrophil elastase specifically disrupted phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, implying a potential mechanism for delayed apoptotic cell clearance in vivo. Therefore, defective airway clearance of apoptotic cells in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis may be due to elastase-mediated cleavage of phosphatidylserine receptor on phagocytes and may contribute to ongoing airway inflammation. PMID:11877474

  2. Pro-apoptotic versus anti-apoptotic properties of dietary resveratrol on tumoral and normal cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Baarine, Mauhamad; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Louis, Xavier Lieben; Mazué, Frédéric; Yu, Liping; Delmas, Dominique; Netticadan, Thomas; Lizard, Gérard; Latruffe, Norbert

    2011-05-01

    Resveratrol is a natural dietary polyphenol found in grape skin, red wine, and various other food products. Resveratrol has proved to be an effective chemopreventive agent for different malignant tumors. It has also been shown to prevent vascular alterations such as atherosclerosis and inflammatory-associated events. In view of these observations, we investigated the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of resveratrol on a tumoral cardiac cell line (HL-1 NB) derived from mouse tumoral atrial cardiac myocytes. These effects were compared with those found on normal neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. HL-1 NB cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with resveratrol (5, 30, and/or 100 μM) for different times of culture (24, 48, and/or 72 h). Resveratrol effects were determined by various microscopical and flow cytometric methods. After resveratrol treatment, a strong inhibition of tumoral cardiac HL1-NB cell growth associated with a loss of cell adhesion was observed. This cell proliferation arrest was associated with an apoptotic process revealed by an increased percentage of cells with fragmented and/or condensed nuclei (characteristic of apoptotic cells) identified after staining with Hoechst 33342 and by the presence of cells in subG1. At the opposite, on normal cardiomyocytes, no cytotoxic effects of resveratrol were observed, and a protective effect of resveratrol against norepinephrine-induced apoptosis was found on normal cardiomyocytes. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that resveratrol (1) induces apoptosis of tumoral cardiac HL1-NB cells, (2) does not induce cell death on normal cardiomyocytes, and (3) prevents norepinephrine-induced apoptosis on normal cardiomyocytes.

  3. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in adult liver cells.

    PubMed

    Sicklick, Jason K; Choi, Steve S; Bustamante, Marcia; McCall, Shannon J; Pérez, Elizabeth Hernández; Huang, Jiawen; Li, Yin-Xiong; Rojkind, Marcos; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2006-10-01

    Both myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatic epithelial progenitors accumulate in damaged livers. In some injured organs, the ability to distinguish between fibroblastic and epithelial cells is sometimes difficult because cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). During EMT, cells coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal cell markers. To determine whether EMT occurs in adult liver cells, we analyzed the expression profile of primary HSC, two HSC lines, and hepatic epithelial progenitors. As expected, all HSC expressed HSC markers. Surprisingly, these markers were also expressed by epithelial progenitors. In addition, one HSC line expressed typical epithelial progenitor mRNAs, and these epithelial markers were inducible in the second HSC line. In normal and damaged livers, small ductular-type cells stained positive for an HSC marker. In conclusion, HSC and hepatic epithelial progenitors both coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal markers, providing evidence that EMT occurs in adult liver cells.

  4. Epithelial stem cells and intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian intestine is comprised of an epithelial layer that serves multiple functions in order to maintain digestive activity as well as intestinal homeostasis. This epithelial layer contains highly proliferative stem cells which facilitate its characteristic rapid regeneration. How these stem cells contribute to tissue repair and normal homeostasis are actively studied, and while we have a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cellular locations that underlie stem cell regulation in this tissue, much still remains undiscovered. This review describes epithelial stem cells in both intestinal and non-intestinal tissues, as well as the strategies that have been used to further characterize the cells. Through a discussion of the current understanding of intestinal self-renewal and tissue regeneration in response to injury, we focus on how dysregulation of critical signaling pathways results in potentially oncogenic aberrations, and highlight issues that should be addressed in order for effective intestinal cancer therapies to be devised.

  5. A fluorescent toolkit for spatiotemporal tracking of apoptotic cells in living Drosophila tissues.

    PubMed

    Schott, Sonia; Ambrosini, Arnaud; Barbaste, Audrey; Benassayag, Corinne; Gracia, Mélanie; Proag, Amsha; Rayer, Mégane; Monier, Bruno; Suzanne, Magali

    2017-09-04

    Far from being passive, apoptotic cells influence their environment. For instance, they promote tissue folding, myoblast fusion and modulate tumor growth. Understanding the role of apoptotic cells necessitates their efficient tracking within living tissues, a task which is currently challenging. In order to easily spot apoptotic cells in developing Drosophila tissues, we generated a series of fly lines expressing different fluorescent sensors of caspase activity. We show that three of these reporters (GFP, Cerulean and Venus derived molecules) are detected specifically in apoptotic cells and throughout the whole process of programmed cell death. These reporters allow the specific visualization of apoptotic cells directly within living tissues, without any post-acquisition processing. They overcome the limitations of other apoptosis detection methods developed so far and notably, they can be combined with any kind of fluorophore. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  7. Long-term leptin treatment exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on renal tubular cells via prostaglandin E2 augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Cheng, Chung-Yi; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Cheng-Hsien

    2012-08-15

    Adipokine leptin reportedly acts on the kidney in pathophysiological states. However, the influence of leptin on renal tubular epithelial cells is still unclear. Gentamicin, a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial infection, can cause nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the influence of long-term leptin treatment on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in rat renal tubular cells (NRK-52E) and mice. We monitored apoptosis and molecular mechanisms using annexin V/ propidium iodide staining and small interfering RNA transfection. In NRK-52E cells, leptin reduced gentamicin-induced apoptosis at 24h, but significantly increased apoptosis at 48 h. Long-term treatment of leptin decreased Bcl-x(L) expression and increased caspase activity in gentamicin-treated NRK-52E cells. Leptin also increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in a dose-dependent manner. The COX-2 inhibitor, NS398 (N-[2-(Cyclohexyloxy)-4- nitrophenyl]methanesulfonamide), blocked PGE(2) augmentation and the pro-apoptotic effects of leptin. The addition of PGE(2) recovered the pro-apoptotic effect of leptin in NS398-treated NRK-52E cells. In a mouse animal model, a 10 day leptin treatment significantly increased gentamicin-induced apoptotic cells in proximal tubules. NS398 treatment inhibited this in vivo pro-apoptotic effect of leptin. Results reveal that long-term elevation of leptin induces COX-2-mediated PGE(2) augmentation in renal tubular cells, and then increases these cells' susceptibility to gentamicin-induced apoptosis.

  8. Increased sensitivity of early apoptotic cells to complement-mediated lysis.

    PubMed

    Attali, Gitit; Gancz, Dana; Fishelson, Zvi

    2004-11-01

    Opsonization of apoptotic cells with complement proteins contributes to their clearance by phagocytes. Little is known about the lytic effects of complement on apoptotic cells. Sensitivity of cells treated with anti-Fas antibody (Jurkat cells), staurosporine or etoposide (Raji cells) to lysis by complement was examined. As shown here, early apoptotic cells are more sensitive to lysis by antibody and complement than control cells. More complement C3 and C9 bound to apoptotic than to control cells, even though antibody binding was similar. Enhanced killing and C3/C9 deposition were blocked by benzyloxy-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Complement-mediated lysis of early apoptotic cells was also prevented by inhibitors of caspases 6, 8, 9 or 10. In contrast, caspase inhibitors had no effect on the lysis of non-apoptotic Jurkat and Raji cells. Early apoptotic Jurkat cells were also more sensitive to lysis by the pore formers streptolysin O and melittin. Sensitivity of Jurkat Bcl-2 transfectants to lysis by complement was analyzed. Enhanced Bcl-2 expression was associated with reduced C3 deposition and lower sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis. These results demonstrate that at an early stage in apoptosis, following caspase activation, cells become sensitive to necrotic-type death by complement and other pore formers. Furthermore, they suggest that Bcl-2 is actively protecting Jurkat cells from complement-mediated lysis.

  9. The apoptotic effect of simvastatin via the upregulation of BIM in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, In Kyoung; Lee, Hye In; Mo, Jin Young; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kang, Hyeon Hui; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-01-01

    Statins are known to have pleiotropic effects that induce cell death in certain cancer cells. BIM is a member of the bcl-2 gene family, which promotes apoptotic cell death. This study investigated the hypothesis that simvastatin has pro-apoptotic effects in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung cancer cell lines via the upregulation of the expression of the BIM protein. The cytotoxic effects of simvastatin on gefitinib-sensitive (HCC827, E716-A750del) and -resistant (H1975, T790M + L858R) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were compared. Cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis-related and EGFR downstream signaling proteins were evaluated. Expression of BIM was compared in H1975 cells after treatment with simvastatin or gefitinib. SiRNA-mediated BIM depletion was performed to confirm whether the cytotoxicity of simvastatin was mediated by the expression of BIM. H1975 cells showed significantly reduced viability compared with HCC827 cells after treatment with simvastatin (2 μM) for 48 hours. In simvastatin-treated H1975 cells, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins was increased and the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) was reduced. Expression of BIM was suppressed by gefitinib (1 μM) treatment in H1975 cells, but it was significantly increased by treatment with simvastatin. BIM depletion by siRNA transfection enhanced the viability of H1975 cells that received simvastatin treatment and increased their expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Simvastatin restored the expression of BIM to induce apoptotic cell death in NSCLC cells harboring an EGFR-resistant mutation. Our study suggests the potential utility of simvastatin as a BIM-targeted treatment for NSCLC.

  10. Epithelial cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stem cells in airway epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Coraux, Christelle; Roux, Jacqueline; Jolly, Thomas; Birembaut, Philippe

    2008-08-15

    In healthy subjects, the respiratory epithelium forms a continuous lining to the airways and to the environment, and plays a unique role as a barrier against external deleterious agents to protect the airways from the insults. In respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, or asthma, the airway epithelium is frequently remodeled and injured, leading to the impairment of its defense functions. The rapid restoration of the epithelial barrier is crucial for these patients. The complete regeneration of the airway epithelium is a complex phenomenon, including not only the epithelial wound repair but also the epithelial differentiation to reconstitute a fully well differentiated and functional epithelium. The regeneration implies two partners: the epithelial stem/progenitor cells and factors able to regulate this process. Among these factors, epithelial cells-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a crucial role. The secretion of a provisional ECM, the cell-ECM relationships through epithelial receptors, and the remodeling of the ECM by proteases (mainly matrix metalloproteinases) contribute not only to airway epithelial repair by modulating epithelial cell migration and proliferation, but also to the differentiation of repairing cells leading to the complete restoration of the wounded epithelium. A better characterization of resident stem cells and of effectors of the regeneration process is an essential prerequisite to propose new regenerative therapeutics to patients suffering from infectious/inflammatory respiratory diseases.

  11. Epithelial: lamina propria lymphocyte interactions promote epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Stephanie; Roda, Giulia; Pinn, David; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Kamalu, Okebugwu; Martin, Andrea P.; Mayer, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Lymphoepithelial interactions in the gut can occur in the epithelium and the sub-epithelial space. We asked whether Normal, Crohn’s Disease (CD) or Ulcerative colitis (UC) lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) could promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and differentiation. Methods T84 cells were co-cultured with freshly isolated LPL for varying periods. After removal of LPL, IECs were lysed and subjected to i) measurement of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity; ii) Western blot analysis for MAPK and Akt activation; and iii) Real Time-PCR to assess CDX2 mRNA levels. Tissue sections were immunostained for evidence of MAPK and PI3K activation, CDX2 and IAP; and CDX2 mRNA expression was assessed on human colonic biopsies. Results IAP activity was increased in T84 cells co-cultured for 8 days with Normal LPL (p<0.05), and even greater with CD LPL (p<0.001). Crypt IECs in active CD mucosa expressed IAP ex vivo. Phospho-MAPK (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and phospho-Akt were seen as early as 30 min after co-culture. MAPK activation was greatest in T84 cells co-cultured with CD LPL. There was a specific increase in P-p38 MAPK and P-Akt staining in the nuclei of crypt IECs in active vs inactive CD, normal mucosa and UC mucosa. CDX2 mRNA expression was increased in CD LPL co-cultured T84 cells which not correlated with the CDX2 protein localization ex vivo. Conclusion Our observations indicate that there is crosstalk between LPL and IECs, which leads to IEC differentiation. Moreover, in CD mucosa, the differentiation of IEC is accelerated. PMID:18045591

  12. Androgen-Sensitized Apoptosis of HPr-1AR Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Congcong; Dienhart, Jason A.; Bolton, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is crucial to the development and homeostasis of the prostate gland, and its dysregulation mediates common prostate pathologies. The mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells have been investigated in human and rodent adult prostate. However, the cellular stress response of human prostate epithelial cells is not well understood, though it is central to prostate health and pathology. Here, we report that androgen sensitizes HPr-1AR and RWPE-AR human prostate epithelial cells to cell stress agents and apoptotic cell death. Although 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment alone did not induce cell death, co-treatment of HPr-1AR cells with DHT and an apoptosis inducer, such as staurosporine (STS), TNFt, or hydrogen peroxide, synergistically increased cell death in comparison to treatment with each apoptosis inducer by itself. We found that the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer led to activation of the intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is supported by robust cleavage activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further, the dramatic depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential that we observed upon co-treatment with DHT and STS is consistent with increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in the pro-apoptotic mechanism. Interestingly, the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer was abolished by AR antagonists and inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis, suggesting that AR mediates pro-apoptotic synergy through transcriptional regulation of MOMP genes. Expression analysis revealed that pro-apoptotic genes (BCL2L11/BIM and AIFM2) were DHT-induced, whereas pro-survival genes (BCL2L1/BCL-XL and MCL1) were DHT-repressed. Hence, we propose that the net effect of these AR-mediated expression changes shifts the balance of BCL2-family proteins, such that

  13. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  14. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  15. Lens epithelial cell apoptosis appears to be a common cellular basis for non-congenital cataract development in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cataract is a major ocular disease that causes blindness in many developing countries of the world. It is well established that various factors such as oxidative stress, UV, and other toxic agents can induce both in vivo and in vitro cataract formation. However, a common cellular basis for this induction has not been previously recognized. The present study of lens epithelial cell viability suggests such a general mechanism. When lens epithelial cells from a group of 20 cataract patients 12 to 94 years old were analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) labeling and DNA fragmentation assays, it was found that all of these patients had apoptotic epithelial cells ranging from 4.4 to 41.8%. By contrast, in eight normal human lenses of comparable age, very few apoptotic epithelial cells were observed. We suggest that cataract patients may have deficient defense systems against factors such as oxidative stress and UV at the onset of the disease. Such stress can trigger lens epithelial cell apoptosis that then may initiate cataract development. To test this hypothesis, it is also demonstrated here that hydrogen peroxide at concentrations previously found in some cataract patients induces both lens epithelial cell apoptosis and cortical opacity. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distribution of induced apoptotic lens epithelial cells precedes development of lens opacification. These results suggest that lens epithelial cell apoptosis may be a common cellular basis for initiation of noncongenital cataract formation. PMID:7790371

  16. Apoptotic cell death is initiated during normothermic ischemia in human kidneys.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Tim G A M; de Vries, Bart; Walter, Sarah J; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Oosterhof, Gosse O N; Buurman, Wim A

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic damage plays an important role in post-transplant organ failure. Activation of the apoptotic cascade is crucially involved in post-ischemic inflammation resulting in tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Here we investigate the initiation of the apoptotic cascade during normothermic ischemia in human kidneys using a model for normothermic ischemia with kidneys nephrectomized because of renal cell carcinoma. Ex vivo, kidneys were stored at 37 degrees C, and consecutive biopsies were taken from disease-free tissue. Pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins were assessed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. During normothermic ischemia the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and activated caspase-9 increased with ischemia time, whereas caspase-8 was not activated. The anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and cFLIP decreased in time. Data on Bcl-2 and Bax were supported by immunofluorescence for Bcl-2 and activated Bax. However, activation of the central effector caspase-3, essential for execution of the apoptotic process, was not detected. In conclusion, during normothermic ischemia the apoptotic cascade in the human kidney is initiated, but not fulfilled. Our data show that the duration of ischemia significantly correlates with activation of the apoptotic cascade. These findings provide insight in the initiation of apoptotic cell-death during warm ischemia and may be useful in the assessment of ischemic injury.

  17. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  18. The Use of Lectin Histochemistry for Detecting Apoptotic Cells in the Seminiferous Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Seco-Rovira, Vicente; Beltrán-Frutos, Ester; Hernández-Martínez, Jesús; Ferrer, Concepción; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Lectin histochemistry is commonly used to characterize the pattern of glycoconjugates in cells and tissues. Recent studies show that alterations in these glycoconjugates are associated with the entry of cells into apoptosis. A widely used technique for the detection of apoptotic cell death is TUNEL. In this chapter, we study the sensitivity of both techniques to identify apoptotic cells in the testis of photo-inhibited Syrian hamster.

  19. Measurement of phagocytic engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages using pHrodo succinimidyl ester.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Considerable interest has emerged towards phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, due to its intricate molecular mechanisms and important regulatory functions in development, homoeostasis, and immune tolerance. Impaired clearance of apoptotic cells leads to immune-mediated disorders. Current quantification methods of the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages are potentially flawed by several limitations. Adherent macrophage populations are overlaid with apoptotic targets in suspension and then co-cultured for a definite period, which may give rise to two different features: (1) engulfed and (2) non-engulfed macrophages that are surface-bound cell populations. Rigorous washing to dislodge surface-bound apoptotic cells before assessment of phagocytosis may lead to loss of phagocytes, thereby skewing the apparent magnitude of the overall phagocytic response. There is a need for simple and reliable methods to clearly determine the internalization of apoptotic cells. In this unit, we demonstrate the use of pHrodo-succinimidyl ester (SE), a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, to label the apoptotic cells for monitoring the phagocytosis. After engulfment, the intensity of pHrodo light emission will be elevated due to the pH change inside of macrophages. The shift of pHrodo light emission can be detected by a flow cytometer or using a fluorescence microscope.

  20. Apoptotic cells trigger a membrane-initiated pathway to increase ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Fond, Aaron M.; Lee, Chang Sup; Schulman, Ira G.; Kiss, Robert S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages clear millions of apoptotic cells daily and, during this process, take up large quantities of cholesterol. The membrane transporter ABCA1 is a key player in cholesterol efflux from macrophages and has been shown via human genetic studies to provide protection against cardiovascular disease. How the apoptotic cell clearance process is linked to macrophage ABCA1 expression is not known. Here, we identified a plasma membrane–initiated signaling pathway that drives a rapid upregulation of ABCA1 mRNA and protein. This pathway involves the phagocytic receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), which recognizes phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells, and the intracellular signaling intermediates engulfment cell motility 1 (ELMO1) and Rac1, as ABCA1 induction was attenuated in primary macrophages from mice lacking these molecules. Moreover, this apoptotic cell–initiated pathway functioned independently of the liver X receptor (LXR) sterol–sensing machinery that is known to regulate ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. When placed on a high-fat diet, mice lacking BAI1 had increased numbers of apoptotic cells in their aortic roots, which correlated with altered lipid profiles. In contrast, macrophages from engineered mice with transgenic BAI1 overexpression showed greater ABCA1 induction in response to apoptotic cells compared with those from control animals. Collectively, these data identify a membrane-initiated pathway that is triggered by apoptotic cells to enhance ABCA1 within engulfing phagocytes and with functional consequences in vivo. PMID:26075824

  1. Integrin αVβ5-mediated Removal of Apoptotic Cell Debris by the Eye Lens and Its Inhibition by UV Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chauss, Daniel; Brennan, Lisa A; Bakina, Olga; Kantorow, Marc

    2015-12-18

    Accumulation of apoptotic material is toxic and associated with cataract and other disease states. Identification of mechanisms that prevent accumulation of apoptotic debris is important for establishing the etiology of these diseases. The ocular lens is routinely assaulted by UV light that causes lens cell apoptosis and is associated with cataract formation. To date, no molecular mechanism for removal of toxic apoptotic debris has been identified in the lens. Vesicular debris within lens cells exposed to UV light has been observed raising speculation that lens cells themselves could act as phagocytes to remove toxic apoptotic debris. However, phagocytosis has not been confirmed as a function of the intact eye lens, and no mechanism for lens phagocytosis has been established. Here, we demonstrate that the eye lens is capable of phagocytizing extracellular lens cell debris. Using high throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we establish that lens epithelial cells express members of the integrin αVβ5-mediated phagocytosis pathway and that internalized cell debris co-localizes with αVβ5 and with RAB7 and Rab-interacting lysosomal protein that are required for phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes. We demonstrate that the αVβ5 receptor is required for lens epithelial cell phagocytosis and that UV light treatment of lens epithelial cells results in damage to the αVβ5 receptor with concomitant loss of phagocytosis. These data suggest that loss of αVβ5-mediated phagocytosis by the eye lens could result in accumulation of toxic cell debris that could contribute to UV light-induced cataract formation.

  2. Cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells results in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    He, Xianghui; Li, Baosong; Shao, Yang; Zhao, Na; Hsu, Yiling; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Liwei

    2015-01-30

    The discovery of cancer stem cells and tumor heterogeneity prompted the exploration of additional mechanisms aside from genetic mutations for carcinogenesis and cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cell fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and the gastric epithelial cells in tumorigenesis. Cell fusion between cord blood mesenchymal stem cells and human gastric epithelial cells was performed in vitro. Cell scratch and transwell assays were performed to determine migration and invasion abilities of the hybrids. The expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins and genes were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and real time quantitative PCR. Tumorigenesis of the hybrids was evaluated through in vivo inoculation in nude mice. Hybrids expressed the phenotypes of both donor cells. Aneuploidy was observed in 84.1% of cells. The hybrids showed increased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities compared with the parental cells. In addition, the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin in the hybrids was significantly higher than that of the epithelial cells, and the mRNA expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes, Twist and Slug, in the hybrids was also increased compared with that of the parental epithelial cells. Furthermore, the hybrids formed masses of epithelial origin with glandular structures in BALB/c nude mice. These findings suggest that cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells may result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation.

  3. Genistein affects proliferation and migration of bovine oviductal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    García, Daniela C; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Miceli, Dora C; Roldán-Olarte, Mariela

    2017-03-08

    Genistein is one of the most abundant isoflavones in soybean. This molecule induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different normal and cancer cells. Genistein has been of considerable interest due to its adverse effects on bovine reproduction, altering estrous cycle, implantation and fetal development and producing subfertility or infertility. The objective of this work was to study the effects of genistein on the expression of selected genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. Primary cultures of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were treated with different genistein concentrations (0.2, 2 and 10μM) to analyze CYCLIN B1, BCL-2 and BAX gene expression by Real-time RT-PCR. Results showed that genistein down-regulated CYCLIN B1 expression, affecting cell cycle progression, and caused a decrease in the BCL-2/BAX ratio starting at 2μM of genistein. In addition, in order to determine if genistein affects BOEC migration, in vitro wound healing assays were performed. A significant reduction in cell migration after 12h of culture was observed at both 0.2 and 10μM genistein concentrations. Also, in the presence of genistein the percentage of mitotic cells decreased, although apoptotic cells percentages were not affected. These findings indicate that genistein has an inhibitory effect on BOEC proliferation and migration, suggesting that it could influence the normal physiology of the oviductal epithelium.

  4. Association of mesenchymal cells and immunoglobulins with differentiating epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Keenan, Jeffrey A; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B; Van Meter, Stuart E; Wimalasena, Jay; Elder, Robert F

    2001-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in the physiology and pathology of epithelial tissues. Mesenchymal cells either associate with epithelium basement membrane [pericytes and perivascular monocyte-derived cells (MDC)] or reside within epithelium (MDC and T cells). Although intraepithelial mesenchymal cells were suggested to contribute to the epithelium physiology, their association with particular steps in differentiation of epithelial cells, interactions among themselves, and their fate remain unclear. We studied epitopes of mesenchymal cells and their products (immunoglobulins) in stratified epithelium of uterine ectocervix, which is one of the prototypes of complete cellular differentiation from stem into the aged cells. Results Perivascular CD14 primitive MDC associated with basal (stem) epithelial cells. Thy-1 pericytes of microvasculature secreted intercellular vesicles, which associated with Ki67 postmitotic epithelial cells expressing MHC class I. Intraepithelial T cells showed an association with veiled type MDC [dendritic cell (DC) precursors] among parabasal cells, and exhibited fragmentation after entering intermediate (mature) epithelial layers. Mature DC secreted CD68 and exhibited fragmentation after reaching mid intermediate layers. Binding of IgM was detected at the top of each layer: in the upper parabasal, upper intermediate, and most surface epithelial cells. IgG was confined to the entire superficial layer. Conclusions These data suggest that the phylogenetically and ontogenetically developed hierarchy of mesenchymal cells (MDC, pericytes, T cells) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG) accompanies differentiation of epithelial cells from immature into the mature and aged phenotype. Further studies of an involvement of mesenchymal cells in the regulation of tissue homeostasis may bring novel approaches to the prevention and therapy of tissue dysfunctions characterized by permanent tissue immaturity (muscular dystrophy

  5. [Apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice exposed to phosgene].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Yang, Chen; Li, Bo; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-di

    2005-08-01

    To study apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice with pulmonary edema induced by phosgene exposure. Thirty-two mice were divided into normal group and phosgene group with 16 mice in each group. The mice in phosgene group were exposed to phosgene (11.9 mg/L) for 5 min and those in the control group to air. Four hours after exposure, alveolar type II cells were isolated and cultured to observe their apoptosis by electron microscope and flow cytometry. The lung tissues were also taken for DNA gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in alveolar type II cells under electron microscope in phosgene group, which had higher cell apoptosis rate than the control group [(40.26+/-7.74)% vs (1.58+/-1.01)%, P<0.001] as determined by flow cytometry. Ladder-like DNA fragmentation pattern was observed in DNA gel electrophoresis in phosgene group with apoptosis of the pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells observed by TUNEL. Phosgene can induce pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis in mice, suggesting that the mechanism of phosgene-induced pulmonary edema involves apoptosis of the lung cells.

  6. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    PubMed

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  8. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  9. Differential toxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles toward phagocytic and epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malugin, Alexander; Herd, Heather; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of size and surface functionality of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) on their interaction with cultured cells. The intracellular uptake, phagocytic activity, and possible mechanisms of toxicity induced by SNPs were studied on murine alveolar macrophages and two epithelial cancer cell lines. It was found that phagocytic cells are more susceptible to amorphous SNPs than epithelial cells. SNPs with functionalized surfaces were capable to induce the formation of apoptotic cells to a higher extent than plain particles. Plain SNPs induced plasma membrane damage in phagocytic cells to a higher extent and caused cell death in a shorter period of time than surface-functionalized SNPs. The prevalence of necrotic mode of cell death was observed after treatment with plain SNPs. In the range studied surface functionality played an important role in SNPs toxicity.

  10. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of diffractaic acid in A549 and AGS cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kızıl, Hamit Emre; Aǧar, Güleray

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we determined the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of diffractaic acid by measuring the gene expression changes of topo II α, caspase-3 and p53 on A549 and AGS cancer cells. Real time PCR assay was used to measure the change folds. It was determined that concentrations of 12,5, 50 and 100 µg / ml were antiproliferative and apoptotic for the A549 cancer cell line and 50 µg / ml for the AGS cell line.

  11. Effects of culture media on the susceptibility of cells to apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Anai, Chikara; Kawaguchi, Masatoshi; Eto, Ko

    2014-09-01

    Whether responses of cells to extracellular environments affect the induction of apoptotic cell death is poorly understood. The current study aimed to unravel the different effects of culture media employed in vitro as extracellular environments on the susceptibility of cells to apoptosis. We found that apoptosis is stimulated to the higher levels by culturing human HeLa cells in Opti-MEM with unknown components, a medium that is specifically used for transfections, than by culturing cells in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, a medium that is generally used for maintenance of cells. We showed that apoptosis is suppressed partially by culturing cells in heat-treated Opti-MEM, implicating a heat-sensitive component(s) in stimulating the apoptotic response of cells. Thus, different extracellular environments may contribute to different responses of cells to apoptosis, and this should be considered to evaluate the incidences of apoptotic cell death and could be applied to develop an efficient treatment for curing diseases such as cancer.

  12. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-κB was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-κB activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  13. Isolation of cell type-specific apoptotic bodies by fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Atkin-Smith, Georgia K.; Paone, Stephanie; Zanker, Damien J.; Duan, Mubing; Phan, Than K.; Chen, Weisan; Hulett, Mark D.; Poon, Ivan K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs) are membrane-bound extracellular vesicles that can mediate intercellular communication in physiological and pathological settings. By combining recently developed analytical strategies with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we have developed a method that enables the isolation of ApoBDs from cultured cells to 99% purity. In addition, this approach also enables the identification and isolation of cell type-specific ApoBDs from tissue, bodily fluid and blood-derived samples. PMID:28057919

  14. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Navarro-Villarán, E; González, R; Pereira, S; Soriano-De Castro, L B; Sarrias-Giménez, A; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Serrablo-Requejo, A; Blanco-Fernández, G; Nogales-Muñoz, A; Gila-Bohórquez, A; Pacheco, D; Torres-Nieto, M A; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J; Suárez-Artacho, G; Bernal-Bellido, C; Marín-Gómez, L M; Barcena, J A; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Padilla, C A; Padillo, F J; Muntané, J

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Die another way – non-apoptotic mechanisms of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Stephen W. G.; Ichim, Gabriel; Green, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulated, programmed cell death is crucial for all multicellular organisms. Cell death is essential in many processes, including tissue sculpting during embryogenesis, development of the immune system and destruction of damaged cells. The best-studied form of programmed cell death is apoptosis, a process that requires activation of caspase proteases. Recently it has been appreciated that various non-apoptotic forms of cell death also exist, such as necroptosis and pyroptosis. These non-apoptotic cell death modalities can be either triggered independently of apoptosis or are engaged should apoptosis fail to execute. In this Commentary, we discuss several regulated non-apoptotic forms of cell death including necroptosis, autophagic cell death, pyroptosis and caspase-independent cell death. We outline what we know about their mechanism, potential roles in vivo and define outstanding questions. Finally, we review data arguing that the means by which a cell dies actually matters, focusing our discussion on inflammatory aspects of cell death. PMID:24833670

  16. Airway epithelial cells: current concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Ronald G; Randell, Scott H; Engelhardt, John F; Voynow, Judith; Sunday, Mary E

    2008-09-15

    The adult human bronchial tree is covered with a continuous layer of epithelial cells that play a critical role in maintaining the conduit for air, and which are central to the defenses of the lung against inhaled environmental concomitants. The epithelial sheet functions as an interdependent unit with the other lung components. Importantly, the structure and/or function of airway epithelium is deranged in major lung disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchogenic carcinoma. Investigations regarding the airway epithelium have led to many advances over the past few decades, but new developments in genetics and stem cell/progenitor cell biology have opened the door to understanding how the airway epithelium is developed and maintained, and how it responds to environmental stress. This article provides an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells, gene expression, cell-cell interactions, and less frequent cell types, and discusses the challenges for future areas of investigation regarding the airway epithelium in health and disease.

  17. Growth arrest and induction of apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell death by, Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human ovarian carcinoma Caov-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kheng Leong; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

    2010-03-02

    The decoction of the whole plant of Physalis minima L. is traditionally consumed to treat cancer. Its anticancer property has been previously verified (using in vitro cytotoxicity assays) against NCI-H23 lung, CORL23 lung and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines but the mechanism underlying the anticancer potency towards ovarian carcinoma cells remain unclear. The present study is aimed to systematically determine the cytotoxicity and possible cell death mechanism elicited by the chloroform extract of Physalis minima in human ovarian Caov-3 carcinoma. Cytotoxicity of the extract was measured using the methylene blue assay. The mechanism of cell death was determined using four independent methods, namely DeadEnd assay to label the DNA fragmentation nuclei cells, RT-PCR analysis to determine the mRNA expression level of three apoptotic genes (c-myc, p53 and caspase-3 genes), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis to describe the ultra structural characteristics and annexin V and propidium iodide staining to confirm the types and stages of cell deaths. Cytotoxicity screening of the extract on Caov-3 cells exhibited concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effects. A combination of apoptotic and autophagic programmed cell death was detected. The apoptotic characteristic was initially determined by DNA fragmentation followed by the expression of c-myc and p53 genes that was much earlier than caspase-3. Apoptotic ultra structural changes (including clumping and magination of chromatin, blebbing and convolution of nucleus membrane and formation of apoptotic bodies) and autophagy (Type II non-apoptotic programmed cell death) with distinct vacuolated morphology were detected in TEM analysis. The existence of these programmed cell deaths was then corroborated using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The chloroform extract of Physalis minima exerted anticancer effect due to a combination of apoptotic and autophagic cell death mechanisms on Caov-3 cells. The

  18. Elimination of etimicin in rat kidneys and alterations of its cytotoxicity to tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-D; Zhang, X-L; Yi, N; Zhang, F-C

    2015-05-01

    Etimicin (ETM) can accumulate in kidneys and cause tubular epithelial cell cytotoxicity. This article aims to study ETM elimination in kidneys and its nephrotoxicity, apoptosis, and histopathological insults of renal tubular epithelial cells, after repeated administration. A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into ETM-treated group and vehicle control group. Rats in ETM-treated group were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 mg/kg/day ETM and rats in control group received physiological saline (i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Determination of ETM concentrations accumulated in rat kidneys was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography on the basis of derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and by ultraviolet detector. Apoptotic renal tubular epithelial cells were identified by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay. Histopathological insults in kidneys were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. On day 1 after cessation of ETM administration, the accumulation concentration was 347.50 ± 193.30 μg/g tissue; on day 15, ETM concentration became 16.71 ± 9.99 μg/g tissue. Elimination half-life of ETM in rat kidney was about 3.05 days. Apoptotic renal tubular epithelial cells induced by etimicin was recovered gradually from 1544 ± 138 n/mm(2) on day 1 to 716 ± 208 n/mm(2) on day 15. Histopathological damage was also gradually recovered from vacuolation of tubular epithelial cells as well as renal tubular edema on days 1, 3, and 7 to nearly normal on day 15. From these results, we concluded that renal tubular epithelial cell cytotoxicity induced by ETM can gradually restore with its decreasing concentration in rat kidneys.

  19. Oncogenic Properties of Apoptotic Tumor Cells in Aggressive B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Catriona A.; Petrova, Sofia; Pound, John D.; Voss, Jorine J.L.P.; Melville, Lynsey; Paterson, Margaret; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Gallimore, Awen M.; Cuff, Simone; Wheadon, Helen; Dobbin, Edwina; Ogden, Carol Anne; Dumitriu, Ingrid E.; Dunbar, Donald R.; Murray, Paul G.; Ruckerl, Dominik; Allen, Judith E.; Hume, David A.; van Rooijen, Nico; Goodlad, John R.; Freeman, Tom C.; Gregory, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cells undergoing apoptosis are known to modulate their tissue microenvironments. By acting on phagocytes, notably macrophages, apoptotic cells inhibit immunological and inflammatory responses and promote trophic signaling pathways. Paradoxically, because of their potential to cause death of tumor cells and thereby militate against malignant disease progression, both apoptosis and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are often associated with poor prognosis in cancer. We hypothesized that, in progression of malignant disease, constitutive loss of a fraction of the tumor cell population through apoptosis could yield tumor-promoting effects. Results Here, we demonstrate that apoptotic tumor cells promote coordinated tumor growth, angiogenesis, and accumulation of TAMs in aggressive B cell lymphomas. Through unbiased “in situ transcriptomics” analysis—gene expression profiling of laser-captured TAMs to establish their activation signature in situ—we show that these cells are activated to signal via multiple tumor-promoting reparatory, trophic, angiogenic, tissue remodeling, and anti-inflammatory pathways. Our results also suggest that apoptotic lymphoma cells help drive this signature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon induction of apoptosis, lymphoma cells not only activate expression of the tumor-promoting matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP12 in macrophages but also express and process these MMPs directly. Finally, using a model of malignant melanoma, we show that the oncogenic potential of apoptotic tumor cells extends beyond lymphoma. Conclusions In addition to its profound tumor-suppressive role, apoptosis can potentiate cancer progression. These results have important implications for understanding the fundamental biology of cell death, its roles in malignant disease, and the broader consequences of apoptosis-inducing anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25702581

  20. Oncogenic properties of apoptotic tumor cells in aggressive B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ford, Catriona A; Petrova, Sofia; Pound, John D; Voss, Jorine J L P; Melville, Lynsey; Paterson, Margaret; Farnworth, Sarah L; Gallimore, Awen M; Cuff, Simone; Wheadon, Helen; Dobbin, Edwina; Ogden, Carol Anne; Dumitriu, Ingrid E; Dunbar, Donald R; Murray, Paul G; Ruckerl, Dominik; Allen, Judith E; Hume, David A; van Rooijen, Nico; Goodlad, John R; Freeman, Tom C; Gregory, Christopher D

    2015-03-02

    Cells undergoing apoptosis are known to modulate their tissue microenvironments. By acting on phagocytes, notably macrophages, apoptotic cells inhibit immunological and inflammatory responses and promote trophic signaling pathways. Paradoxically, because of their potential to cause death of tumor cells and thereby militate against malignant disease progression, both apoptosis and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are often associated with poor prognosis in cancer. We hypothesized that, in progression of malignant disease, constitutive loss of a fraction of the tumor cell population through apoptosis could yield tumor-promoting effects. Here, we demonstrate that apoptotic tumor cells promote coordinated tumor growth, angiogenesis, and accumulation of TAMs in aggressive B cell lymphomas. Through unbiased "in situ transcriptomics" analysis-gene expression profiling of laser-captured TAMs to establish their activation signature in situ-we show that these cells are activated to signal via multiple tumor-promoting reparatory, trophic, angiogenic, tissue remodeling, and anti-inflammatory pathways. Our results also suggest that apoptotic lymphoma cells help drive this signature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon induction of apoptosis, lymphoma cells not only activate expression of the tumor-promoting matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP12 in macrophages but also express and process these MMPs directly. Finally, using a model of malignant melanoma, we show that the oncogenic potential of apoptotic tumor cells extends beyond lymphoma. In addition to its profound tumor-suppressive role, apoptosis can potentiate cancer progression. These results have important implications for understanding the fundamental biology of cell death, its roles in malignant disease, and the broader consequences of apoptosis-inducing anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Adherence of skin bacteria to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Steiner, S; Witek, T; Balish, E

    1990-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from human axillae were tested for their capacity to adhere to buccal epithelial cells, immortalized human epithelial (HEp-2) cells, and undifferentiated and differentiated human epithelial cells. In general, both aerobic and anaerobic diphtheroids adhered better to differentiated human epithelial cells than to HEp-2 and undifferentiated human epithelial cells (P less than 0.05). Mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and fibronectin were also assayed for their capacity to inhibit the adherence of diphtheroids to human epithelial cells. A great deal of variability was observed in the capacity of the latter compounds to inhibit the attachment of aerobic diphtheroids to undifferentiated and differentiated epithelial cells. Overall, mannose appeared to be best at inhibiting the adherence of the aerobic diphtheroids to undifferentiated human epithelial cells. Galactose, fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and fibronectin showed a greater capacity to inhibit attachment of aerobic diphtheroids to differentiated than to undifferentiated human epithelial cells. The inhibition of adherence to differentiated human epithelial cells varied with the microorganism and the compound tested; however, the highest and most consistent inhibition of adherence (76.1 to 88.6%) was observed with a 5% solution of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The in vitro adherence and adherence inhibition assays presented here demonstrate that a number of adhesins and receptors are involved in the adherence of skin bacteria to human epithelial cells and receptors on human epithelial cells are apparently altered during differentiation. PMID:2298877

  2. CCN1 induces a reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jianyuan; Norng, Manith; Modak, Cristina; Reavis, Kevin M; Mouazzen, Wasim; Pham, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    CCN1 is a matricellular protein that activates many genes related to wound healing and tissue remodeling in fibroblasts, but its effect on epithelial cells remains unclear. This study examined the role of CCN1 in epithelial wound healing using rat gastric epithelial cells and rat stomach ulcer as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. We found that CCN1 expression is highly upregulated in the epithelial cells adjacent to a wound and remains high until the wound is healed. Upregulation of CCN1 activates a transient epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the epithelial cells at the migrating front and drives wound closure. Once the wound is healed, these epithelial cells and their progeny can resume their original epithelial phenotype. We also found that CCN1-induced E-cadherin loss is not due to transcriptional regulation but rather protein degradation due to the collapse of adherens junctions, which is contributed by beta-catenin translocation. CCN1-activated integrin-linked kinase mediates this process. Finally, our in vivo study showed that locally neutralizing CCN1 drastically impairs wound closure, whereas local injection of recombinant CCN1 protein induces expression of vimentin and smooth muscle alpha-actin in normal gastric mucosal epithelial cells and accelerates re-epithelialization during ulcer healing. In conclusion, our study indicates that CCN1 can induce reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and this feature may have great value for clinical wound healing.

  3. Isolation of epithelial cells with hepatobiliary phenotype.

    PubMed

    Castorina, Sergio; Luca, Tonia; Torrisi, Antonella; Privitera, Giovanna; Panebianco, Mariangela

    2008-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver after partial hepatectomy or chemical injury is well known. In human liver, the resident progenitor cells are called "hepatic progenitor cells" (HPCs) while the term "oval cells" should be discouraged in order to indicate the stem cell compartment. The aim of our study was first to analyse the cellular aspects of liver regeneration through differentiation in cholangiocytes and hepatocytes, and then to characterise resident progenitor cells, using "primary cultured hepatocytes" derived from healthy adult human livers. Human hepatocytes were isolated from fresh surgical specimens of patients who underwent hepatic resections in our Clinical Centre surgery operating room. Hepatic differentiation and function were analysed by immunocytochemistry techniques and the presence of liver epithelial cell populations within normal adult human liver, was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry analysis. These cells expanded in vitro and showed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation. Human liver stem cells expressed several mesenchymal markers, such as CD44, but not haematopoietic stem cell markers. In addition, these cells expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, CK7 and CK19, indicating a partial commitment to hepatic and biliary cells. Interestingly the expression of both hepatocytes and biliary markers in HPCs reflects the bipotential nature of the hepatic stem cells toward both the hepatic and biliary lineage. According to their immature and bipotential phenotype, hepatic epithelial cells might represent a pool of precursors in the healthy human adult liver.

  4. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Neil R; Shaykhiev, Renat; Walters, Matthew S; Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G

    2011-05-04

    The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  5. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem

  6. Effect of Apoptotic Cell Recognition on Macrophage Polarization and Mycobacterial Persistence

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Fulco, Tatiana; Andrade, Priscila Ribeiro; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; Pinto, Thiago Gomes Toledo; Ferreira, Paula Fernandez; Ferreira, Helen; da Costa Nery, José Augusto; Real, Suzana Côrte; Borges, Valéria Matos; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Sampaio, Elizabeth Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae infection modifies host macrophage programming, creating a protective niche for bacterial survival. The milieu regulating cellular apoptosis in the tissue plays an important role in defining susceptible and/or resistant phenotypes. A higher density of apoptotic cells has been demonstrated in paucibacillary leprosy lesions than in multibacillary ones. However, the effect of apoptotic cell removal on M. leprae-stimulated cells has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cell removal (efferocytosis) induces different phenotypes in proinflammatory (Mϕ1) and anti-inflammatory (Mϕ2) macrophages in the presence of M. leprae. We stimulated Mϕ1 and Mϕ2 cells with M. leprae in the presence or absence of apoptotic cells and subsequently evaluated the M. leprae uptake, cell phenotype, and cytokine pattern in the supernatants. In the presence of M. leprae and apoptotic cells, Mϕ1 macrophages changed their phenotype to resemble the Mϕ2 phenotype, displaying increased CD163 and SRA-I expression as well as higher phagocytic capacity. Efferocytosis increased M. leprae survival in Mϕ1 cells, accompanied by reduced interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-6 levels and increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-10 secretion. Mϕ1 cells primed with M. leprae in the presence of apoptotic cells induced the secretion of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in autologous T cells compared with cultures stimulated with M. leprae or apoptotic cells alone. Efferocytosis did not alter the Mϕ2 cell phenotype or cytokine secretion profile, except for TGF-β. Based on these data, we suggest that, in paucibacillary leprosy patients, efferocytosis contributes to mycobacterial persistence by increasing the Mϕ2 population and sustaining the infection. PMID:25024361

  7. Approaches to augment CAR T-cell therapy by targeting the apoptotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Hannah

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells have shown impressive results in patients with B-cell leukaemia. Yet, in patients with lymphoma durable responses are still rare and heavy preconditioning required. Apoptosis resistance is considered a hallmark of cancer, often conveyed by a halted apoptosis signalling. Tumours regularly skew the balance of the components of the apoptotic machinery either through up-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins or silencing pro-apoptotic ones. Malignant B-cells frequently up-regulate anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins leading to therapy resistance. CAR T-cells kill tumour cells via apoptosis induction and their efficacy may be affected by the level of Bcl-2 family proteins. Hence, there is an interesting possibility to increase the effect of CAR T-cell therapy by combining it with apoptosis inhibitor blockade agents. Compounds that inhibit Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-xL) and Bcl-2-like protein 2 (Bcl-w), can restore execution of apoptosis in tumour cells or sensitize them to other apoptosis-dependent treatments. Hence, there is a great interest to combine such agents with CAR T-cell therapy to potentiate the effect of CAR T-cell killing. This review will focus on the potential of targeting the apoptotic machinery to sensitize tumour cells to CAR T-cell killing. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Some ABCA3 mutations elevate ER stress and initiate apoptosis of lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Nina; Kaltenborn, Eva; Hector, Andreas; Woischnik, Markus; Schams, Andrea; Holzinger, Andreas; Kern, Sunčana; Griese, Matthias

    2011-01-07

    ABCA3 transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter of the A subfamily) is localized to the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, organelles for assembly and storage of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII). It transports surfactant phospholipids into lamellar bodies and absence of ABCA3 function disrupts lamellar body biogenesis. Mutations of the ABCA3 gene lead to fatal neonatal surfactant deficiency and chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of children. ABCA3 mutations can result in either functional defects of the correctly localized ABCA3 or trafficking/folding defects where mutated ABCA3 remains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were transfected with vectors expressing wild-type ABCA3 or one of the three ABCA3 mutant forms, R43L, R280C and L101P, C-terminally tagged with YFP or hemagglutinin-tag. Localization/trafficking properties were analyzed by immunofluorescence and ABCA3 deglycosylation. Uptake of fluorescent NBD-labeled lipids into lamellar bodies was used as a functional assay. ER stress and apoptotic signaling were examined through RT-PCR based analyses of XBP1 splicing, immunoblotting or FACS analyses of stress/apoptosis proteins, Annexin V surface staining and determination of the intracellular glutathion level. We demonstrate that two ABCA3 mutations, which affect ABCA3 protein trafficking/folding and lead to partial (R280C) or complete (L101P) retention of ABCA3 in the ER compartment, can elevate ER stress and susceptibility to it and induce apoptotic markers in the cultured lung epithelial A549 cells. R43L mutation, resulting in a functional defect of the properly localized ABCA3, had no effect on intracellular stress and apoptotic signaling. Our data suggest that expression of partially or completely ER localized ABCA3 mutant proteins can increase the apoptotic cell death of the affected cells, which are factors that might contribute to the pathogenesis of genetic ILD.

  9. Reversible transdifferentiation of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Danto, S I; Shannon, J M; Borok, Z; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1995-05-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells have been thought to be the progenitors of terminally differentiated type I (AT1) cells in the adult animal in vivo. In this study, we used an AT1 cell-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb VIII B2) to investigate expression of the AT1 cell phenotype accompanying reversible changes in expression of the AT2 cell phenotype. AT2 cells were isolated and cultured either on attached collagen gels or on gels detached 1 or 4 days after plating and maintained thereafter as floating gels. Monolayers on both attached and floating gels were harvested on days 4 and 8 and analyzed by electron microscopy for changes in morphology and binding of mAb VIII B2. Results indicate that: (1) alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) on attached gels develop characteristics of the AT1 cell phenotype, (2) AEC on gels detached on day 1 maintain features of the AT2 cell phenotype (and do not react with mAb VIII B2), and (3) the expression of AT1 cell phenotypic traits seen by day 4 on attached gels is reversed after detachment. We conclude that commitment to the AT1 and AT2 cell lineages requires continuous regulatory input to maintain the differentiated states, and that transdifferentiation between AT2 and AT1 cells may be reversible.

  10. Tolerance to apoptotic cells is regulated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Buvana; Liu, Haiyun; Shinde, Rahul; Chandler, Phillip; Baban, Babak; Tanaka, Masato; Munn, David H.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Karlsson, Mikael C. I.; McGaha, Tracy L.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to self-antigens present in apoptotic cells is critical to maintain immune-homeostasis and prevent systemic autoimmunity. However, mechanisms that sustain self-tolerance are poorly understood. Here we show that systemic administration of apoptotic cells to mice induced splenic expression of the tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). IDO expression was confined to the splenic marginal zone and was abrogated by depletion of CD169+ cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO skewed the immune response to apoptotic cells, resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokine production and increased effector T-cell responses toward apoptotic cell-associated antigens. Presymptomatic lupus-prone MRLlpr/lpr mice exhibited abnormal elevated IDO expression in the marginal zone and red pulp and inhibition of IDO markedly accelerated disease progression. Moreover, chronic exposure of IDO-deficient mice to apoptotic cells induced a lupus-like disease with serum autoreactivity to double-stranded DNA associated with renal pathology and increased mortality. Thus, IDO limits innate and adaptive immunity to apoptotic self-antigens and IDO-mediated regulation inhibits inflammatory pathology caused by systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:22355111

  11. Apoptotic Capacity and Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhensheng; Liu, Hongliang; Han, Peng; Gao, Fengqin; Dahlstrom, Kristina R.; Li, Guojun; Owzar, Kouros; Zevallos, Jose P.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke and alcohol drinking are the major risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Smoking and drinking cause DNA damage leading to apoptosis, and insufficient apoptotic capacity may favor development of cancer because of the dysfunction of removing damaged cells. In the present study, we investigated the association between camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptotic capacity and risk of SCCHN in a North American population. Methods In a case-control study of 708 SCCHN patients and 685 matched cancer-free controls, we measured apoptotic capacity in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in response to in vitro exposure to CPT by using the flow cytometry-based method. Results We found that the mean level of apoptotic capacity in the cases (45.9±23.3%) was significantly lower than that in the controls (49.0±23.1%) (P = 0.002). When we used the median level of apoptotic capacity in the controls as the cutoff value for calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORs), subjects with a reduced apoptotic capacity had an increased risk (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13–1.78, P = 0.002), especially for those who were age ≥57 (1.73, 1.25–2.38, 0.0009), men (1.76, 1.36–2.27, < 0.0001) and ever drinkers (1.67, 1.27–2.21, 0.0003), and these variables significantly interacted with apoptotic capacity (Pinteraction = 0.015, 0.005 and 0.009, respectively). A further fitted prediction model suggested that the inclusion of apoptotic capacity significantly improved in the prediction of SCCHN risk. Conclusion Individuals with a reduced CPT-induced apoptotic capacity may be at an increased risk of developing SCCHN, and apoptotic capacity may be a biomarker for susceptibility to SCCHN. PMID:28033527

  12. Pallbearer and friends: lending a hand in the clearance of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Michael R.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2010-01-01

    Engulfment and prompt removal of apoptotic cells occurs from embryogenesis throughout the lifespan of multi-cellular organisms. A new player, Pallbearer, has recently been identified in Drosophila as being important for efficient engulfment by macrophages. Pallbearer is a component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex involved in ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for proteasomal degradation. This work provides the first link between the cellular processes of ubiquitylation/proteasomal degradation and the ability to efficiently clear apoptotic cells. PMID:18280734

  13. Loss of functional E-cadherin renders cells more resistant to the apoptotic agent taxol in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Maria Jose; Beraldi, Eliana; Mateus, Ana Rita; Nakajima, Takashi; Gleave, Martin; Yokota, Jun; Carneiro, Fatima; Huntsman, David; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo . E-mail: gsuriano@ipatimup.pt

    2005-10-15

    Experimental evidence supports a role for E-cadherin in suppressing invasion, metastasis, and proliferation. Germline mutations of the E-cadherin represent the genetic cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In this type of tumor, isolated cancer cells permeate the basal membrane and paradoxically survive in the gastric wall in the absence of contact with neighbor epithelial cells or with the extracellular matrix. This suggests that upon E-cadherin deregulation, cells acquired resistance to apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, CHO cells stably expressing either wild-type E-cadherin or the HDGC-related germline mutations T340A and V832M were seeded either on a thin layer of collagen type I or on plastic and then subjected to the apoptotic agent taxol. We found that in vitro functional E-cadherin renders cells more sensitive to the effect of taxol. Our results also indicate that this effect is associated to decreased level of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein.

  14. Glutamate dehydrogenase requirement for apoptosis induced by aristolochic acid in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry; Bonala, Radha; Johnson, Francis; Grollman, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AA) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adduct formation, is well-documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. Epithelial cell death is a critical characteristic of these pathological conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms of AA-induced cytotoxicity, we explored AA-interacting proteins in tubular epithelial cells (TEC). We found that AA interacts with a mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and moderately inhibits its activity. We report that AA induces cell death in GDH-knockdown TEC preferentially via non-apoptotic means, whereas in GDH-positive cells, death was executed by both the non-apoptotic and apoptotic mechanisms. Apoptosis is an energy-reliant process and demands higher adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) consumption than does the non-apoptotic cell death. We found that, after AAI treatment, the ATP depletion is more pronounced in GDH-knockdown cells. When we reduced ATP in TEC cells by inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, cell death mode switched from apoptosis and necrosis to necrosis only. In addition, in cells incubated at low glucose and no glutamine conditions, oxaloacetate and pyruvate reduced AAI-induced apoptosis our data suggest that AAI-GDH interactions in TEC are critical for the induction of apoptosis by direct inhibition of GDH activity. AA binding may also induce changes in GDH conformation and promote interactions with other molecules or impair signaling by GDH metabolic products, leading to apoptosis.

  15. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  16. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  17. Apoptotic cells can induce non-autonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Garijo, Ainhoa; Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cells can produce signals to instruct cells in their local environment, including ones that stimulate engulfment and proliferation. We identified a novel mode of communication by which apoptotic cells induce additional apoptosis in the same tissue. Strong induction of apoptosis in one compartment of the Drosophila wing disc causes apoptosis of cells in the other compartment, indicating that dying cells can release long-range death factors. We identified Eiger, the Drosophila tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homolog, as the signal responsible for apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AiA). Eiger is produced in apoptotic cells and, through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, is able to propagate the initial apoptotic stimulus. We also show that during coordinated cell death of hair follicle cells in mice, TNF-α is expressed in apoptotic cells and is required for normal cell death. AiA provides a mechanism to explain cohort behavior of dying cells that is seen both in normal development and under pathological conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01004.001 PMID:24066226

  18. Force mapping in epithelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    du Roure, Olivia; Saez, Alexandre; Buguin, Axel; Austin, Robert H.; Chavrier, Philippe; Siberzan, Pascal; Ladoux, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    We measure dynamic traction forces exerted by epithelial cells on a substrate. The force sensor is a high-density array of elastomeric microfabricated pillars that support the cells. Traction forces induced by cell migration are deduced from the measurement of the bending of these pillars and are correlated with actin localization by fluorescence microscopy. We use a multiple-particle tracking method to estimate the mechanical activity of cells in real time with a high-spatial resolution (down to 2 μm) imposed by the periodicity of the post array. For these experiments, we use differentiated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Our data provide definite information on mechanical forces exerted by a cellular assembly. The maximum intensity of the forces is localized on the edge of the epithelia. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes cell motility and induces strong scattering activity of MDCK cells. Thus, we compare forces generated by MDCK cells in subconfluent epithelia versus isolated cells after hepatocyte growth factor treatment. Maximal-traction stresses at the edge of a monolayer correspond to higher values than those measured for a single cell and may be due to a collective behavior. PMID:15695588

  19. Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vona, Giovanna; Sabile, Abdelmajid; Louha, Malek; Sitruk, Veronique; Romana, Serge; Schütze, Karin; Capron, Frédérique; Franco, Dominique; Pazzagli, Mario; Vekemans, Michel; Lacour, Bernard; Bréchot, Christian; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new assay, ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells), which allows the counting and the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in patients with carcinoma, using peripheral blood sample volumes as small as 1 ml. Using this assay, epithelial tumor cells can be isolated individually by filtration because of their larger size when compared to peripheral blood leukocytes. ISET parameters were defined using peripheral blood spiked with tumor cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, MCF-7, HeLa, and LNCaP). ISET can detect a single, micropipetted tumor cell, added to 1 ml of blood. We also demonstrate that fluorescence in situ hybridization can be used to perform chromosomal analyses on tumor cells collected using ISET. Polymerase chain reaction-based genetic analyses can be applied to ISET-isolated cells, and, as an example, we demonstrate homozygous p53 deletion in single Hep3B cells after filtration and laser microdissection. Finally, we provide evidence for the in vivo feasibility of ISET in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing tumor resection. ISET, but not reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, allowed analysis of cell morphology, counting of tumor cells, and demonstration of tumor microemboli spread into peripheral blood during surgery. Overall, ISET constitutes a novel approach that should open new perpectives in molecular medicine. PMID:10623654

  20. Interleukin-38 is released from apoptotic cells to limit inflammatory macrophage responses.

    PubMed

    Mora, Javier; Schlemmer, Andrea; Wittig, Ilka; Richter, Florian; Putyrski, Mateusz; Frank, Ann-Christin; Han, Yingying; Jung, Michaela; Ernst, Andreas; Weigert, Andreas; Brüne, Bernhard

    2016-02-17

    Different modes of cell death regulate immunity. Whereas necrotic (necroptotic, pyroptotic) cell death triggers inflammation, apoptosis contributes to its resolution. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines are key players in this interaction. A number of IL-1 family cytokines are produced by necrotic cells to induce sterile inflammation. However, release of IL-1 family proteins from apoptotic cells to regulate inflammation was not described. Here we show that IL-38, a poorly characterized IL-1 family cytokine, is produced selectively by human apoptotic cells to limit inflammation. Depletion of IL-38 in apoptotic cells provoked enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 levels and AP1 activation in co-cultured human primary macrophages, subsequently inducing Th17 cell expansion at the expense of IL-10-producing T cells. IL-38 was N-terminally processed in apoptotic cells to generate a mature cytokine with distinct properties. Both full-length and truncated IL-38 bound to X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1). However, whereas the IL-38 precursor induced an increase in IL-6 production by human macrophages, truncated IL-38 reduced IL-6 production by attenuating the JNK/AP1 pathway downstream of IL1RAPL1. In conclusion, we identified a mechanism of apoptotic cell-dependent immune regulation requiring IL-38 processing and secretion, which might be relevant in resolution of inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer.

  1. How to analyze mitochondrial morphology in healthy cells and apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Stéphane G

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria constantly undergo fusion and fission events. A proper balance of fusion and fission is essential in healthy cells, as disrupting this balance is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial fission has also been shown to play an important role during apoptosis. Hence, the machineries that control mitochondrial morphology have both nonapoptotic and apoptotic functions. Seminal work in yeast has identified some of the key components of these machineries. However, the list is certainly not complete and new factors that are specific to metazoans are being identified every year. In this review, we describe methodologies to test whether a particular candidate gene plays a role in the control of mitochondrial morphology in healthy cells and apoptotic cells using Caenorhabditis elegans. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing. Images PMID:3771800

  3. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, A.; Anon, E.; Ghibaudo, M.; du Roure, O.; Di Meglio, J.-M.; Hersen, P.; Silberzan, P.; Buguin, A.; Ladoux, B.

    2010-05-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  4. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; du Roure, O; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A; Ladoux, B

    2010-05-19

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  5. Induction of apoptotic cell death by mycelium extracts of Phellinus linteus in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun; Huh, Man Kyu; Ryu, Chung-Ho; Choi, Byung Tae; Jeong, Young-Kee

    2004-08-01

    Phellinus linteus is a well-known Oriental medicinal fungus that has various biological activities, including immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mycelium extracts of P. linteus (MEPL) on the growth of human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells. Upon treatment with MEPL, a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation was observed and cells developed many of the hallmark features of apoptosis, including condensation of chromatin and an increase in the sub-G1 population. The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of MEPL were associated with a marked induction of the Bax and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Western blotting and in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the processing/activation of caspases accompanies the generation of MEPL-mediating apoptotic cell death. In addition, the proteolytic cleavage of specific target proteins such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and beta-catenin were observed. Taken together, the present results suggest that apoptotic signals evoked by MEPL in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells may converge caspase-3 activation through an up-regulation of Bax rather than a down-regulation of Bcl-2.

  6. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptotic-like blebbing in lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, S.; Shimizu, M.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    DMPK, the product of the DM locus, is a member of the same family of serine-threonine protein kinases as the Rho-associated enzymes. In DM, membrane inclusions accumulate in lens fiber cells producing cataracts. Overexpression of DMPK in cultured lens epithelial cells led to apoptotic-like blebbing of the plasma membrane and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Enzymatically active DMPK was necessary for both effects; inactive mutant DMPK protein did not produce either effect. Active RhoA but not constitutive GDP-state mutant protein produced similar effects as DMPK. The similar actions of DMPK and RhoA suggest that they may function in the same regulatory network. The observed effects of DMPK may be relevant to the removal of membrane organelles during normal lens differentiation and the retention of intracellular membranes in DM lenses. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptotic-like blebbing in lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, S.; Shimizu, M.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    DMPK, the product of the DM locus, is a member of the same family of serine-threonine protein kinases as the Rho-associated enzymes. In DM, membrane inclusions accumulate in lens fiber cells producing cataracts. Overexpression of DMPK in cultured lens epithelial cells led to apoptotic-like blebbing of the plasma membrane and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Enzymatically active DMPK was necessary for both effects; inactive mutant DMPK protein did not produce either effect. Active RhoA but not constitutive GDP-state mutant protein produced similar effects as DMPK. The similar actions of DMPK and RhoA suggest that they may function in the same regulatory network. The observed effects of DMPK may be relevant to the removal of membrane organelles during normal lens differentiation and the retention of intracellular membranes in DM lenses. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Effect of Cadmium on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Jun; Kim, Ju Yeon; Jang, An Soo; Kim, Shin Hye; Rah, Yoon Chan; Park, Mina; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) exposure can occur through passive smoking, ambient air pollution, and food. Even low exposure can affect hearing and cause lung disease. Here we investigated whether cadmium causes cytotoxicity, induces inflammation, or increases mucin gene expression in immortalized human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Cell viability was investigated using the MTT assay following Cd(2+) treatment. Increases in apoptosis and necrosis were determined, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured. We analyzed the expression of an inflammatory cytokine (COX-2) gene and a mucin gene (MUC5AC) using RT-PCR. Exposure to >20 µM Cd(2+) caused a significant decrease in cell viability. Hoechst 33258 staining showed apoptotic morphology of heterogeneous intensity, condensation, and fragmentation after Cd(2+) exposure. Cd(2+) was shown to increase cell death by apoptosis and necrosis by annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Cd(2+) exposure increased ROS production and COX-2 and MUC5AC expressions. Our findings suggest that environmental cadmium exposure is related to the development of otitis media.

  9. Apoptosis in Cellular Society: Communication between Apoptotic Cells and Their Neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Yuhei; Nakajima, Yu-ichiro; Kuranaga, Erina

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the cell-intrinsic suicide programs and is an essential cellular behavior for animal development and homeostasis. Traditionally, apoptosis has been regarded as a cell-autonomous phenomenon. However, recent in vivo genetic studies have revealed that apoptotic cells actively influence the behaviors of surrounding cells, including engulfment, proliferation, and production of mechanical forces. Such interactions can be bidirectional, and apoptosis is non-autonomously induced in a cellular community. Of note, it is becoming evident that active communication between apoptotic cells and living cells contributes to physiological processes during tissue remodeling, regeneration, and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on the mutual interactions between apoptotic cells and their neighbors in cellular society and discuss issues relevant to future studies of apoptosis. PMID:27999411

  10. Apoptosis in Cellular Society: Communication between Apoptotic Cells and Their Neighbors.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yuhei; Nakajima, Yu-Ichiro; Kuranaga, Erina

    2016-12-20

    Apoptosis is one of the cell-intrinsic suicide programs and is an essential cellular behavior for animal development and homeostasis. Traditionally, apoptosis has been regarded as a cell-autonomous phenomenon. However, recent in vivo genetic studies have revealed that apoptotic cells actively influence the behaviors of surrounding cells, including engulfment, proliferation, and production of mechanical forces. Such interactions can be bidirectional, and apoptosis is non-autonomously induced in a cellular community. Of note, it is becoming evident that active communication between apoptotic cells and living cells contributes to physiological processes during tissue remodeling, regeneration, and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on the mutual interactions between apoptotic cells and their neighbors in cellular society and discuss issues relevant to future studies of apoptosis.

  11. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...ovarian cancer by defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system . Cancer Cell 1, 53-62. Quartuccio, S.M., Lantvit, D.D., Bosland, M.C., and

  12. Cell density determines epithelial migration in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, P; Misfeldt, D S

    1980-01-01

    The dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK) has been shown to exhibit a density-correlated inhibition of growth at approxmately 6.6 X 10(5) cells per cm2. When a confluent monolayer at its maximal density was wounded by removal of a wide swath of cells, migration of the cell sheet into the denuded area occurred. Precise measurements of the rate of migration for 5 day showed that the cells accelerated at a uniform rate of 0.24 micrometer . hr-2 and, by extrapolation, possessed an apparent initial velocity of 2.8 micrometer . hr-1 at the time of wounding. The apparent initial velocity was considered to be the result of a brief (< 10 hr) and rapid acceleration dependent on cell density. To verify this, wounds were made at different densities below the maximum. In these experiments, the cells did not migrate until a "threshold" density of 2.0 X 10(5) cells per cm2 was reached regardless of the density at the time of wounding. At the threshold density, the cell sheet began to accelerate at the previously measured rate (0.24 micrometer . hr-2). Any increase in density by cell division was balanced by cell migration, so that the same threshold density was maintained by the migrating cells. Each migrating cell sustained the movement of the cell sheet at a constant rate of acceleration. It is proposed that an acceleration is, in general, characteristic of the vectorial movement of an epithelial cell sheet. Images PMID:6933523

  13. Relaxin has anti-apoptotic effects on human trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SV neo cells.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Romana S Z; Nakabayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Kaho; Yamada, Ai Y; Hazama, Rhoichi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human relaxin on apoptosis in the human trophoblast derived HTR-8/SV neo cell line, which is a possible model of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). HTR-8/SV neo cells, cultured in phenol red free RPMI1640 medium, were treated with different doses of human recombinant (rH2) relaxin in serum-deprived conditions. RT-PCR was used for evaluating relaxin receptor: RXFP1 and RXFP2 expression in HTR-8/SV neo cells. The cell death was examined by TUNEL assay. Furthermore, we investigated caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bcl-2 expressions by Western blot analysis to recognize the translational effects of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins. RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA expression was observed in HTR-8/SV neo cells. Compared with untreated control cultures, treatment with rH2 relaxin, decreased TUNEL-positive rate in HTR-8/SV neo cells was observed. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment with rH2 relaxin decreased the expression of caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, but in contrast increased Bcl-2 expression in those cells. These results suggest that rH2 relaxin has anti-apoptotic effects on HTR8/SV neo cells by decreasing pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression and up-regulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers Hax1-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic events in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Li, Haijie; Wu, Jianxin; Irioda, Ana Carolina; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Luo, Xuelai

    2016-11-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major process in pathogenesis of a number of heart diseases, including ischemic heart diseases and cardiac failure. Ensuring survival of cardiac cells by blocking apoptotic events is an important strategy to improve cardiac function. Although the role of ER disruption in inducing apoptosis has been demonstrated, we do not yet fully understand how it influences the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery in cardiac cell models. Recent investigations have provided evidences that the prosurvival protein HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (Hax1) protein is intimately associated with the pathogenesis of heart disease, mitochondrial biology, and protection from apoptotic cell death. To study the role of Hax1 upon ER stress induction, Hax1 was overexpressed in cardiac cells subjected to ER stress, and cell death parameters as well as mitochondrial alterations were examined. Our results demonstrated that the Hax1 is significantly downregulated in cardiac cells upon ER stress induction. Moreover, overexpression of Hax1 protected from apoptotic events triggered by Tunicamycin-induced ER stress. Upon treatment with Tunicamycin, Hax1 protected from mitochondrial fission, downregulation of mitofusins 1 and 2 (MFN1 and MFN2), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Hax1 inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis at both the pre- and post-mitochondrial levels. These findings may offer an opportunity to develop new agents that inhibit cell death in the diseased heart.

  15. The Mannose Receptor Is Involved in the Phagocytosis of Mycobacteria-Induced Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, macrophages may undergo apoptosis, which has been considered an innate immune response. The pathways underlying the removal of dead cells in homeostatic apoptosis have been extensively studied, but little is known regarding how cells that undergo apoptotic death during mycobacterial infection are removed. This study shows that macrophages induced to undergo apoptosis with mycobacteria cell wall proteins are engulfed by J-774A.1 monocytic cells through the mannose receptor. This demonstration was achieved through assays in which phagocytosis was inhibited with a blocking anti-mannose receptor antibody and with mannose receptor competitor sugars. Moreover, elimination of the mannose receptor by a specific siRNA significantly diminished the expression of the mannose receptor and the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. As shown by immunofluorescence, engulfed apoptotic bodies are initially located in Rab5-positive phagosomes, which mature to express the phagolysosome marker LAMP1. The phagocytosis of dead cells triggered an anti-inflammatory response with the production of TGF-β and IL-10 but not of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α. This study documents the previously unreported participation of the mannose receptor in the removal of apoptotic cells in the setting of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The results challenge the idea that apoptotic cell phagocytosis in TB has an immunogenic effect. PMID:27413759

  16. Epithelial BMP signaling is required for proper specification of epithelial cell lineages and gastric endocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Maloum, Faïza; Allaire, Joannie M.; Gagné-Sansfaçon, Jessica; Roy, Evelyne; Belleville, Karine; Sarret, Philippe; Morisset, Jean; Carrier, Julie C.; Mishina, Yuji; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling within the gastrointestinal tract is complex. BMP ligands and their receptors are expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments, suggesting bidirectional signaling between these two entities. Despite an increasing interest in BMP signaling in gut physiology and pathologies, the distinct contribution of BMP signaling in the epithelium vs. the mesenchyme in gastrointestinal homeostasis remains to be established. We aimed to investigate the role of epithelial BMP signaling in gastric organogenesis, gland morphogenesis, and maintenance of epithelial cell functions. Using the Cre/loxP system, we generated a mouse model with an early deletion during development of BMP receptor 1A (Bmpr1a) exclusively in the foregut endoderm. Bmpr1aΔGEC mice showed no severe abnormalities in gastric organogenesis, gland epithelial proliferation, or morphogenesis, suggesting only a minor role for epithelial BMP signaling in these processes. However, early loss of BMP signaling in foregut endoderm did impact on gastric patterning, leading to an anteriorization of the stomach. In addition, numbers of parietal cells were reduced in Bmpr1aΔGEC mice. Epithelial BMP deletion significantly increased the numbers of chromogranin A-, ghrelin-, somatostatin-, gastrin-, and serotonin-expressing gastric endocrine cells. Cancer never developed in young adult (<100 days) Bmpr1a-inactivated mice although a marker of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia was upregulated. Using this model, we have uncovered that BMP signaling negatively regulates the proliferation and commitment of endocrine precursor cells. Our data also indicate that loss of BMP signaling in epithelial gastric cells alone is not sufficient to induce gastric neoplasia. PMID:21415412

  17. Anti-apoptotic effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Jun, Hyoung-Oh; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Min, Bon Hong; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-12-01

    Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that is known to protect various retinal cells. It was also reported to be overexpressed in several types of malignant tumors, whose chemoresistance correlates with the expression of clusterin. Herein, we investigated the effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells. Firstly, evaluation of clusterin expression demonstrated that it was highly expressed in human retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines (SNUOT-Rb1 and Y79) particularly in the area between viable cells around vessels and necrotic zones in the relatively avascular area in human retinoblastoma tissues. Furthermore, the effects of cisplatin on retinoblastoma cells were evaluated. Cisplatin (1 µg/ml) significantly affected cell viability of SNUOT-Rb1 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Notably, the cell death due to cisplatin was prevented by 5 µg/ml of clusterin administered 4 h prior to cisplatin treatment by inhibiting cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of clusterin exerted its anti-apoptotic effect on cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and effectively prevented cisplatin-induced cell death. These data suggest that clusterin, found to be expressed in human retinoblastoma, may exert anti-apoptotic effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis and prevent cell death. Therefore, clusterin can contribute to cisplatin resistance of retinoblastoma.

  18. Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

  19. Apoptotic Cells Activate the “Phoenix Rising” Pathway to Promote Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Huang, Qian; Chen, Jiang; Peng, Yuanlin; Roop, Dennis; Bedford, Joel S; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regenerate damaged tissues is a common characteristic of multicellular organisms. We report a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. Key players in this process were caspases 3 and 7, proteases activated during the execution phase of apoptosis that contribute to cell death. Mice lacking either of these caspases were deficient in skin wound healing and in liver regeneration. Prostaglandin E2, a promoter of stem or progenitor cell proliferation and tissue regeneration, acted downstream of the caspases. We propose to call the pathway by which executioner caspases in apoptotic cells promote wound healing and tissue regeneration in multicellular organisms the “Phoenix Rising” pathway. PMID:20179271

  20. Impaired Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Szondy, Zsuzsa; Garabuczi, Éva; Joós, Gergely; Tsay, Gregory J.; Sarang, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis every day. Removal of the dead cells by phagocytosis (a process called efferocytosis) must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the consequent release of pro-inflammatory cell contents that damages the tissue environment and provokes autoimmunity. In addition, detection and removal of apoptotic cells generally induces an anti-inflammatory response. As a consequence improper clearance of apoptotic cells, being the result of either genetic anomalies and/or a persistent disease state, contributes to the establishment and progression of a number of human chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune and neurological disorders, inflammatory lung diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, or atherosclerosis. During the past decade, our knowledge about the mechanism of efferocytosis has significantly increased, providing therapeutic targets through which impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and the consequent inflammation could be influenced in these diseases. PMID:25136342

  1. Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

  2. PKC{eta} confers protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic JNK activity in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem-Dai, Noa; Oberkovitz, Galia; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Livneh, Etta

    2009-09-10

    Apoptosis is frequently regulated by different protein kinases including protein kinase C family enzymes. Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were demonstrated for several of the different PKC isoforms. Here we show that the novel PKC isoform, PKC{eta}, confers protection against apoptosis induced by the DNA damaging agents, UVC irradiation and the anti-cancer drug - Camptothecin, of the breast epithelial adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The induced expression of PKC{eta} in MCF-7 cells, under the control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter, resulted in increased cell survival and inhibition of cleavage of the apoptotic marker PARP-1. Activation of caspase-7 and 9 and the release of cytochrome c were also inhibited by the inducible expression of PKC{eta}. Furthermore, JNK activity, required for apoptosis in MCF-7, as indicated by the inhibition of both caspase-7 cleavage and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the presence of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, was also suppressed by PKC{eta} expression. Hence, in contrast to most PKC isoforms enhancing JNK activation, our studies show that PKC{eta} is an anti-apoptotic protein, acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity. Thus, PKC{eta} could represent a target for intervention aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments.

  3. Pro-apoptotic Bim suppresses breast tumor cell metastasis and is a target gene of SNAI2.

    PubMed

    Merino, D; Best, S A; Asselin-Labat, M-L; Vaillant, F; Pal, B; Dickins, R A; Anderson, R L; Strasser, A; Bouillet, P; Lindeman, G J; Visvader, J E

    2015-07-23

    Evasion of cell death is fundamental to the development of cancer and its metastasis. The role of the BCL-2-mediated (intrinsic) apoptotic program in these processes remains poorly understood. Here we have investigated the relevance of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM to breast cancer progression using the MMTV-Polyoma middle-T (PyMT) transgenic model. BIM deficiency in PyMT females did not affect primary tumor growth, but substantially increased the survival of metastatic cells within the lung. These data reveal a role for BIM in the suppression of breast cancer metastasis. Intriguingly, we observed a striking correlation between the expression of BIM and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition transcription factor SNAI2 at the proliferative edge of the tumors. Overexpression and knockdown studies confirmed that these two genes were coordinately expressed, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis further revealed that Bim is a target of SNAI2. Taken together, our findings suggest that SNAI2-driven BIM-induced apoptosis may temper metastasis by governing the survival of disseminating breast tumor cells.

  4. Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex induce apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krzymińska, Sylwia; Koczura, Ryszard; Mokracka, Joanna; Puton, Tomasz; Kaznowski, Adam

    2010-09-01

    Strains of the Enterobacter cloacae complex are becoming increasingly important human pathogen. The aim of the study was to identify, by sequencing the hsp60 gene, the species of clinical isolates phenotypically identified as E. cloacae and to examine them for virulence-associated properties: the ability of adhesion, invasion to HEp-2 cells and the induced apoptosis of infected epithelial cells. The majority of the strains were identified as Enterobacter hormaechei with E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii being the most frequent subspecies. Other strains belonged to E. hormaechei subsp. oharae, E. cloacae cluster III, and E. cloacae cluster IV. The strains were examined for virulence-associated properties: the ability to adhesion and invasion to HEp-2 cells and the apoptosis induction of infected epithelial cells. All strains revealed adherence ability and most of them (71%) were invasive to epithelial cells. Analyses of cellular morphology and DNA fragmentation in the HEp-2 cells exhibited typical features of cells undergoing apoptosis. We observed morphological changes, including condensation of nuclear chromatin, formation of apoptotic bodies and blebbing of cell membrane. The lowest apoptotic index did not exceed 6%, whereas the highest reached 49% at 24h and 98% at 48 h after infection. Forty strains (73%) induced fragmentation of nuclear DNA and characteristic intranucleosomal pattern with the size of about 180-200 bp in DNA extracted from infected cells at 48 h after infection. The results indicated that the bacteria of the E. cloacae complex may adhere to and penetrate into epithelial cells and induce apoptosis, which could be an important mechanism contributing to the development diseases.

  5. Sterile inflammation of endothelial cell-derived apoptotic bodies is mediated by interleukin-1α

    PubMed Central

    Berda-Haddad, Yaël; Robert, Stéphane; Salers, Paul; Zekraoui, Leila; Farnarier, Catherine; Dinarello, Charles A.; Dignat-George, Françoise; Kaplanski, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Sterile inflammation resulting from cell death is due to the release of cell contents normally inactive and sequestered within the cell; fragments of cell membranes from dying cells also contribute to sterile inflammation. Endothelial cells undergoing stress-induced apoptosis release membrane microparticles, which become vehicles for proinflammatory signals. Here, we show that stress-activated endothelial cells release two distinct populations of particles: One population consists of membrane microparticles (<1 μm, annexin V positive without DNA and no histones) and another larger (1–3 μm) apoptotic body-like particles containing nuclear fragments and histones, representing apoptotic bodies. Contrary to present concepts, endothelial microparticles do not contain IL-1α and do not induce neutrophilic chemokines in vitro. In contrast, the large apoptotic bodies contain the full-length IL-1α precursor and the processed mature form. In vitro, these apoptotic bodies induce monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and IL-8 chemokine secretion in an IL-1α–dependent but IL-1β–independent fashion. Injection of these apoptotic bodies into the peritoneal cavity of mice induces elevated serum neutrophil-inducing chemokines, which was prevented by cotreatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist. Consistently, injection of these large apoptotic bodies into the peritoneal cavity induced a neutrophilic infiltration that was prevented by IL-1 blockade. Although apoptosis is ordinarily considered noninflammatory, these data demonstrate that nonphagocytosed endothelial apoptotic bodies are inflammatory, providing a vehicle for IL-1α and, therefore, constitute a unique mechanism for sterile inflammation. PMID:22143786

  6. Apoptotic activity of the marine diatom Cocconeis scutellum and eicosapentaenoic acid in BT20 cells.

    PubMed

    Nappo, Michela; Berkov, Strahil; Massucco, Carlotta; Di Maria, Valentina; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Avila, Conxita; Messina, Patrizia; Zupo, Valerio; Zupo, Simona

    2012-04-01

    The marine diatoms Cocconeis scutellum Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae) are known to trigger apoptosis in the androgenic gland of the Mediterranean crustacean Hippolyte inermis Leach (Decapoda), affecting the shrimp's sex reversal. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible apoptotic effect of extracts and fractions from these microalgae also on human tissues. The chemical profile of C. scutellum was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, afterwards, organic extracts and fractions from the diatoms were used to treat to breast cancer BT20 cells. Double labeling with annexin V-FITC and isotonic propidium iodide (PI) along with flow cytometry analysis enabled the evaluate of cell apoptosis and viability, whereas hypotonic PI staining was used to analyze the cell cycle in BT20 lines. The involvement of specific caspases was studied by Western blotting. Results demonstrated that the diethyl ether extract and, in particular, fraction 3, the richest fraction in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the diethyl ether extract, selectively induced apoptosis (up to 89.2% at 1 μg/well of fraction 3) and decreased viability in BT20 cells. The apoptotic effect was displayed in a concentration and time-dependent manner, by activating caspases-8 and 3, and arresting the progression of the cell cycle from S to G2-M phase. EPA alone showed similar apoptotic effects in BT20 cells. The study demonstrates the apoptotic activity of C. scutellum diatoms on breast cancer cells and suggests their potential use as a source of apoptotic compounds.

  7. FSAP-mediated nucleosome release from late apoptotic cells is inhibited by autoantibodies present in SLE.

    PubMed

    Marsman, Gerben; Stephan, Femke; de Leeuw, Karina; Bulder, Ingrid; Ruinard, Jessica T; de Jong, Jan; Westra, Johanna; Bultink, Irene E M; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Aarden, Lucien A; Luken, Brenda M; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2016-03-01

    Inefficient clearance of apoptotic cells and the subsequent exposure of the immune system to nuclear contents are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated in serum upon contact with dead cells, and releases nucleosomes from late apoptotic cells into the extracellular environment. We investigated whether FSAP-mediated nucleosome release from late apoptotic cells is affected in SLE patients. Nucleosome release in sera of 27 SLE patients and 30 healthy controls was investigated by incubating late apoptotic Jurkat cells with serum and analyzing the remaining DNA content by flow cytometry. We found that nucleosome release in sera of SLE patients with high disease activity was significantly decreased when compared with that in SLE sera obtained during low disease activity or from healthy individuals. Upon removal of IgG/IgM antibodies from SLE sera, nucleosome release was restored. Similarly, monoclonal antinuclear antibodies inhibited nucleosome release in healthy donor serum or by plasma-purified FSAP. This inhibition was lost when Fab fragments were used, suggesting that antigen cross-linking is involved. In conclusion, FSAP-mediated nucleosome release from late apoptotic cells is greatly impaired in SLE patient sera, possibly hampering the clearance of these cells and thereby propagating inflammation.

  8. Terpinen-4-ol induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human leukemic HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Khaw-On, Patompong

    2013-01-01

    Terpinen-4-ol, a monoterpene, is found as the main component of essential oil extracts from many plants. In this study apoptotic and autophagic types of cell death induced by terpinen-4-ol and associated mechanisms were investigated in human leukemic HL-60 cells. The cytotoxicity of human leukemic U937 and HL-60 cells was determined by MTT assay. Cytochrome c release, expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and cleaved Bid were determined by Western blotting. Cell morphology was examined under a transmission electron microscope. LC3-I/II, ATG5 and Beclin-1 levels were detected by immunoblotting. Terpinen-4-ol exhibited cytotoxicity to human leukemic HL-60 but not U937 cells. The apoptotic response to terpinen-4-ol in HL-60 cells was due to induction of cytochrome c release from mitochondria and cleavage of Bid protein after the stimulation of caspase-8. There was a slightly decrease of Bcl-xl protein level. The characteristic cell morphology of autophagic cell death was demonstrated with multiple autophagosomes in the cytoplasm. At the molecular level, the results from Western blot analysis showed that terpinen-4-ol significantly induced accumulation of LC3-I/II, ATG5 and Beclin-1, regulatory proteins required for autophagy in mammalian cells. Terpinen-4-ol induced-human leukemic HL-60 cell death was via both autophagy and apoptosis.

  9. Cell death stages in single apoptotic and necrotic cells monitored by Raman microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brauchle, Eva; Thude, Sibylle; Brucker, Sara Y.; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Although apoptosis and necrosis have distinct features, the identification and discrimination of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in vitro is challenging. Immunocytological and biochemical assays represent the current gold standard for monitoring cell death pathways; however, these standard assays are invasive, render large numbers of cells and impede continuous monitoring experiments. In this study, both room temperature (RT)-induced apoptosis and heat-triggered necrosis were analyzed in individual Saos-2 and SW-1353 cells by utilizing Raman microspectroscopy. A targeted analysis of defined cell death modalities, including early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis, was facilitated based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy. Spectral shifts were identified in the two cell lines that reflect biochemical changes specific for either RT-induced apoptosis or heat-mediated necrosis. A supervised classification model specified apoptotic and necrotic cell death based on single cell Raman spectra. To conclude, Raman spectroscopy allows a non-invasive, continuous monitoring of cell death, which may help shedding new light on complex pathophysiological or drug-induced cell death processes. PMID:24732136

  10. Cell death stages in single apoptotic and necrotic cells monitored by Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchle, Eva; Thude, Sibylle; Brucker, Sara Y.; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Although apoptosis and necrosis have distinct features, the identification and discrimination of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in vitro is challenging. Immunocytological and biochemical assays represent the current gold standard for monitoring cell death pathways; however, these standard assays are invasive, render large numbers of cells and impede continuous monitoring experiments. In this study, both room temperature (RT)-induced apoptosis and heat-triggered necrosis were analyzed in individual Saos-2 and SW-1353 cells by utilizing Raman microspectroscopy. A targeted analysis of defined cell death modalities, including early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis, was facilitated based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy. Spectral shifts were identified in the two cell lines that reflect biochemical changes specific for either RT-induced apoptosis or heat-mediated necrosis. A supervised classification model specified apoptotic and necrotic cell death based on single cell Raman spectra. To conclude, Raman spectroscopy allows a non-invasive, continuous monitoring of cell death, which may help shedding new light on complex pathophysiological or drug-induced cell death processes.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) triggers apoptosis in normal prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Alexandre; Ivashchenko, Yuri; Kraft, Andrew S

    2002-02-07

    TRAIL is a pro-apoptotic cytokine believed to selectively kill cancer cells without harming normal ones. However, we found that in normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) TRAIL is capable of inducing apoptosis as efficiently as in some tumor cell lines. At the same time, TRAIL did not cause apoptosis in several other human primary cell lines: aorta smooth muscle cells, foreskin fibroblasts, and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Compared to these primary cells, PrEC were found to contain significantly fewer TRAIL receptors DcR1 and DcR2 which are not capable of conducting the apoptotic signal. This result suggests that the unusual sensitivity of PrEC to TRAIL may result from their deficiency in anti-apoptotic decoy receptors. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide significantly enhanced TRAIL toxicity toward PrEC as measured by tetrazolium conversion but had little or no effect on other TRAIL-induced apoptotic responses. Although cycloheximide did not further accelerate the processing of caspases 3 and 8, it significantly enhanced cleavage of the caspase 3 substrate gelsolin, indicating that in PrEC a protein(s) with a short half-life may inhibit the activity of the executioner caspases toward specific substrates. As the majority of prostate cancers are derived from epithelial cells, our data suggest the possibility that TRAIL could be a useful treatment for the early stages of prostate cancer.

  12. In vitro ultraviolet–induced damage in human corneal, lens, and retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun-Yi; Sivak, Jacob G.; Jones, Lyndon W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to develop suitable in vitro methods to detect ocular epithelial cell damage when exposed to UV radiation, in an effort to evaluate UV-absorbing ophthalmic biomaterials. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC), lens epithelial cells (HLEC), and retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured and Ultraviolet A/Ultraviolet B (UVA/UVB) blocking filters and UVB-only blocking filters were placed between the cells and a UV light source. Cells were irradiated with UV radiations at various energy levels with and without filter protections. Cell viability after exposure was determined using the metabolic dye alamarBlue and by evaluating for changes in the nuclei, mitochondria, membrane permeability, and cell membranes of the cells using the fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33342, rhodamine 123, calcein AM, ethidium homodimer-1, and annexin V. High-resolution images of the cells were taken with a Zeiss 510 confocal laser scanning microscope. Results The alamarBlue assay results of UV-exposed cells without filters showed energy level-dependent decreases in cellular viability. However, UV treated cells with 400 nm LP filter protection showed the equivalent viability to untreated control cells at all energy levels. Also, UV irradiated cells with 320 nm LP filter showed lower cell viability than the unexposed control cells, yet higher viability than UV-exposed cells without filters in an energy level-dependent manner. The confocal microscopy results also showed that UV radiation can cause significant dose-dependent degradations of nuclei and mitochondria in ocular cells. The annexin V staining also showed an increased number of apoptotic cells after UV irradiation. Conclusions The findings suggest that UV-induced HCEC, HLEC, and ARPE-19 cell damage can be evaluated by bioassays that measure changes in the cell nuclei, mitochondria, cell membranes, and cell metabolism, and these assay methods provide a valuable in vitro model for evaluating the

  13. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Respond Directly to Apoptotic Cells by Secreting Immune Regulatory IL-10 or IFN-α

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Joanne; Miles, Katherine; Trüb, Marta; MacMahon, Roisin; Gray, Mohini

    2016-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a pivotal role in driving the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus, via the secretion of IFN-α in response to nuclear self-antigens complexed with autoantibodies. Apoptotic cells, generated at sites of inflammation or secondary lymphoid organs, are exposed to activated pDCs and also express the same nuclear antigens on their cell surface. Here, we show that in the absence of autoantibodies, activated pDCs directly respond to apoptotic cell-expressed chromatin complexes by secreting IL-10 and IL-6, which also induces T cells to secrete IL-10. Conversely, when activated by the viral mimetic CpG-A, apoptotic cells enhance their secretion of IFN-α. This study demonstrates that activated pDCs respond directly to apoptotic cells and may maintain tolerance via IL-10, or promote inflammation through secretion of IFN-α, depending on the inflammatory context. PMID:28018356

  14. Apoptosis induction of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells by noscapine

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mohammad Rasoul; Rashidi, Zahra; Chobsaz, Farzaneh; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Endometriosis is a complex gynecologic disease with unknown etiology. Noscapine has been introduced as a cancer cell suppressor. Endometriosis was considered as a cancer like disorder, The aim of present study was to investigate noscapine apoptotic effect on human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, endometrial biopsies from endometriosis patients (n=9) were prepared and digested by an enzymatic method (collagenase I, 2 mg/ml). Stromal and epithelial cells were separated by sequential filtration through a cell strainer and ficoll layering. The cells of each sample were divided into five groups: control (0), 10, 25, 50 and 100 micromole/liter (µM) concentration of noscapine and were cultured for three different periods of times; 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration was measured by Griess reagent. Cell death was analyzed by Acridine Orange (AO)–Ethidium Bromide (EB) double staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Viability of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells significantly decreased in 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentration in 24, 48, 72 hr (P<0.05) and apoptotic index increased in 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentrations in 48 hr significantly (P<0.05). Concentrations of NO didn’t show a significant decrease. Conclusion: Noscapine increased endometriotic epithelial and stromal cell death and can be suggested as a treatment for endometriosis. PMID:27803780

  15. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    breast is highly expressed by luminal epithelial cells and is less expressed by basal cells19,20. In contrast, CD49f (a6 integrin) has an inverse pattern...mouse stretched on its back. The hose and nose cone from the anesthetic vaporizer are securely attached to one side of the plate, and a heated pad is...the mouse by a nose cone. Check that the mouse has reached surgical anesthesia by loss of pedal withdrawal reflex . ! cautIon Institutional review

  16. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

  17. Apoptosis of Epithelial Cells and Macrophages due to Nonpigmented Serratia marcescens Strains

    PubMed Central

    Krzymińska, Sylwia; Ochocka, Katarzyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strains are opportunistic pathogens that are increasingly recognized as a cause of severe nosocomial infections. In this study we observed interactions between nonpigmented strains with human epithelial and macrophage-like cells. The strains revealed hemolytic activity only after the contact of the cells with erythrocytes. The contact of the bacteria with the host cells was also essential to their cytotoxicity. Moreover, all strains revealed adherence ability and were invasive to epithelial cells. Analyses of cellular morphology and DNA fragmentation of the HEp-2 and J774 cells exhibited typical features of cells undergoing apoptosis. We observed morphological changes, including condensation of nuclear chromatin and formation of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. The lowest apoptotic index in HEp-2 cells did not exceed 25%, whereas the highest reached 59% at 24 h and 72% at 48 h after infection. Most of the strains (60%) induced fragmentation of nuclear DNA. The process depended on the activation of caspases, and was completely blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. This study provided new insights into the mechanisms of nonpigmented S. marcescens pathogenesis. The results revealed that the strains produce cell-contact toxins that facilitate bacterial invasion, induce hemolysis, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis of host cells. PMID:22649305

  18. Detection of Bone Marrow Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Krause, Diane S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the ability of bone marrow derived cells to adopt the morphology and protein expression of epithelial cells in vivo have expanded rapidly over the last decade, and hundreds of publications report that bone marrow derived cells can become epithelial cells of multiple organs including lung, liver, GI tract, skin, pancreas and others. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature related to engraftment of bone marrow derived cells as epithelial cells in the lung. Over 40 manuscripts focused on whether bone marrow cells can differentiate into lung epithelial cells have been published, nearly all of which claim to identify marrow derived epithelial cells. A few investigations have concluded that no such cells are present and that the phenomenon of marrow derived epithelial cells is based on detection artifacts. Here we discuss the problems that exist in published papers identifying marrow derived epithelial cells, and propose standards for detection methods that provide the most definitive data. Identification of BM derived epithelial cells requires reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection, which must include cell identification based on the presence of an epithelial marker and the absence of blood cell markers as well as a marker for donor BM origin. In order for these studies to be rigorous, they must also use approaches to rule out cell overlap by microscopy or single cell isolation. Once these stringent criteria for identification of marrow derived epithelial cells are used universally, then the field can move forward to address the critical questions regarding which bone marrow derived cells are responsible for engraftment as epithelial cells, the mechanisms by which this occurs, whether these cells play a role in normal tissue repair, and whether specific cell subsets can be used for therapeutic benefit. PMID:20447442

  19. Control of local immunity by airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weitnauer, M; Mijošek, V; Dalpke, A H

    2016-03-01

    The lung is ventilated by thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbial compounds, most of them harmless contaminants. Airway epithelial cells are known to have innate sensor functions, thus being able to detect microbial danger. To avoid chronic inflammation, the pulmonary system has developed specific means to control local immune responses. Even though airway epithelial cells can act as proinflammatory promoters, we propose that under homeostatic conditions airway epithelial cells are important modulators of immune responses in the lung. In this review, we discuss epithelial cell regulatory functions that control reactivity of professional immune cells within the microenvironment of the airways and how these mechanisms are altered in pulmonary diseases. Regulation by epithelial cells can be divided into two mechanisms: (1) mediators regulate epithelial cells' innate sensitivity in cis and (2) factors are produced that limit reactivity of immune cells in trans.

  20. An electrochemical-TUNEL method for sensitive detection of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanhu; Zhang, Ziyi; Zhou, Shiwei; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2016-01-21

    An electrochemical-TUNEL method was developed for a cell sensor. A 3-D bio-interface based on CNT@PDA-FA was employed in the cytosensor, which significantly improved the cell capture. By coupling with a QD-based nanoprobe and electrochemical stripping analysis, the cytosensor exhibited attractive performance for detection of apoptotic cells.

  1. GSIV serine/threonine kinase can induce apoptotic cell death via p53 and pro-apoptotic gene Bax upregulation in fish cells.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Horng-Cherng; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that GSIV induces apoptotic cell death through upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Bak in Grouper fin cells (GF-1 cells). However, the role of viral genome-encoded protein(s) in this death process remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the Giant seaperch iridovirus (GSIV) genome encoded a serine/threonine kinase (ST kinase) protein, and induced apoptotic cell death via a p53-mediated Bax upregulation approach and a downregulation of Bcl-2 in fish cells. The ST kinase expression profile was identified through Western blot analyses, which indicated that expression started at day 1 h post-infection (PI), increased up to day 3, and then decreased by day 5 PI. This profile indicated the role of ST kinase expression during the early and middle phases of viral replication. We then cloned the ST kinase gene and tested its function in fish cells. The ST kinase was transiently expressed and used to investigate possible novel protein functions. The transient expression of ST kinase in GF-1 cells resulted in apoptotic cell features, as revealed with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays and Hoechst 33258 staining at 24 h (37 %) and 48 h post-transfection (PT) (49 %). Then, through studies on the mechanism of cell death, we found that ST kinase overexpression could upregulate the anti-stress gene p53 and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax at 48 h PT. Interestingly, this upregulation of p53 and Bax also correlated to alterations in the mitochondria function that induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activated the initiator caspase-9 and the effector caspase-3 in the downstream. Moreover, when the p53-dependent transcriptional downstream gene was blocked by a specific transcriptional inhibitor, it was found that pifithrin-α not only reduced Bax expression, but also averted cell death in GF-1 cells during the ST kinase overexpression. Taken altogether, these

  2. Effects of Malnutrition on Neutrophil/Mononuclear Cell Apoptotic Functions in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Fatma Betul; Berrak, Su Gülsün; Aydogan, Gonul; Tulunay, Aysin; Timur, Cetin; Canpolat, Cengiz; Eksioglu Demiralp, Emel

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies claim that apoptosis may explain immune dysfunction observed in malnutrition. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of malnutrition on apoptotic functions of phagocytic cells in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Twenty-eight ALL patients (13 with malnutrition) and thirty controls were enrolled. Neutrophil and mononuclear cell apoptosis of ALL patients and the control group were studied on admission before chemotherapy and repeated at a minimum of three months after induction of chemotherapy or when the nutritional status of leukemic children improved. The apoptotic functions of both ALL groups on admission were significantly lower than those of the control group. The apoptotic functions were lower in ALL patients with malnutrition than those in ALL patients without malnutrition, but this was not statistically significant. The repeated apoptotic functions of both ALL groups were increased to similar values with the control group. This increase was found to be statistically significant. The apoptotic functions in ALL patients were not found to be affected by malnutrition. However, after dietary intervention, increased apoptotic functions in both ALL patient groups deserve mentioning. Dietary intervention should always be recommended as malnutrition or cachexia leads to multiple complications. Enhanced apoptosis might originate also from remission state of cancer.

  3. Lactobacillus Decelerates Cervical Epithelial Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Vielfort, Katarina; Weyler, Linda; Söderholm, Niklas; Engelbrecht, Mattias; Löfmark, Sonja; Aro, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:23675492

  4. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic dendritic cells as a novel therapy for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; Wierts, Laura; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; van Santbrink, Peter J; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C A

    2015-03-01

    Modulation of immune responses may form a powerful approach to treat atherosclerosis. It was shown that clearance of apoptotic cells results in tolerance induction to cleared Ags by dendritic cells (DCs); however, this seems impaired in atherosclerosis because Ag-specific tolerance is lacking. This could result, in part, from decreased emigration of DCs from atherosclerotic lesions because of the high-cholesterol environment. Nonetheless, local induction of anti-inflammatory responses by apoptotic cell clearance seems to dampen atherosclerosis, because inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance worsens atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed whether i.v. administration of oxLDL-induced apoptotic DCs (apop(ox)-DCs) and, as a control, unpulsed apoptotic DCs could modulate atherosclerosis by inducing tolerance. Adoptive transfer of apop(ox)-DCs into low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice either before or during feeding of a Western-type diet resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+) tolerogenic splenic DCs, with a concomitant increase in regulatory T cells. Interestingly, both types of apoptotic DCs induced an immediate 40% decrease in Ly-6C(hi) monocyte numbers and a 50% decrease in circulating CCL2 levels, but only apop(ox)-DC treatment resulted in long-term effects on monocytes and CCL2 levels. Although initial lesion development was reduced by 40% in both treatment groups, only apop(ox)-DC treatment prevented lesion progression by 28%. Moreover, progressed lesions of apop(ox)-DC-treated mice showed a robust 45% increase in collagen content, indicating an enhanced stability of lesions. Our findings clearly show that apoptotic DC treatment significantly decreases lesion development, but only apop(ox)-DCs can positively modulate lesion progression and stability. These findings may translate into a safe treatment for patients with established cardiovascular diseases using patient-derived apop(ox)-DCs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of

  5. Induction of apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells by jacaranda seed oil derived fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao; Motonaga, Chihiro; Yokoyama, Marino; Ikezaki, Aya; Kakihara, Tomoka; Hayasegawa, Rintaro; Yamasaki, Kaede; Sakono, Masanobu; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Various fatty acids are attracting considerable interest for their anticancer effects. Among them, fatty acids containing conjugated double bonds show one of the most potent cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Here, we focused on the cancer cell killing activity of jacaranda seed oil. The seed oil of jacaranda harvested from Miyazaki in Japan contained 30.9% cis-8, trans-10, cis-12 octadecatrienoic acid, called jacaric acid (JA). Fatty acid prepared from this oil (JFA) and JA strongly induced cell death in human leukemia HL-60 cells. On the other hand, linoleic acid and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (<10 μM) did not affect cell proliferation and viability. An increase in the sub-G₁ population and internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA was observed in JA- and JFA-treated cells, indicating induction of apoptotic cell death. Finally, the cytotoxic effects of JA and JFA were completely abolished by α-tocopherol. Taken together, these data suggest that jacaranda seed oil has potent apoptotic activity in HL-60 cells through induction of oxidative stress.

  6. Uptake of apoptotic cells drives the growth of a pathogenic trypanosome in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Nascimento, Danielle O.; Soares, Milena B. P.; Bozza, Patricia T.; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C.; de Mello, Fernando G.; Dosreis, George A.; Lopes, Marcela F.

    2000-01-01

    After apoptosis, phagocytes prevent inflammation and tissue damage by the uptake and removal of dead cells. In addition, apoptotic cells evoke an anti-inflammatory response through macrophages. We have previously shown that there is intense lymphocyte apoptosis in an experimental model of Chagas' disease, a debilitating cardiac illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we show that the interaction of apoptotic, but not necrotic T lymphocytes with macrophages infected with T. cruzi fuels parasite growth in a manner dependent on prostaglandins, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and polyamine biosynthesis. We show that the vitronectin receptor is critical, in both apoptotic-cell cytoadherence and the induction of prostaglandin E2/TGF-β release and ornithine decarboxylase activity in macrophages. A single injection of apoptotic cells in infected mice increases parasitaemia, whereas treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors almost completely ablates it in vivo. These results suggest that continual lymphocyte apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages have a role in parasite persistence in the host, and that cyclooxygenase inhibitors have potential therapeutic application in the control of parasite replication and spread in Chagas' disease.

  7. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-01-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8−/− mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE. PMID:23832117

  8. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-09-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE.

  9. Skeletal muscle stem cells express anti-apoptotic ErbB receptors during activation from quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, Jon P. . E-mail: j.p.golding@open.ac.uk; Calderbank, Emma; Partridge, Terence A.; Beauchamp, Jonathan R.

    2007-01-15

    To be effective for tissue repair, satellite cells (the stem cells of adult muscle) must survive the initial activation from quiescence. Using an in vitro model of satellite cell activation, we show that erbB1, erbB2 and erbB3, members of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase family, appear on satellite cells within 6 h of activation. We show that signalling via erbB2 provides an anti-apoptotic survival mechanism for satellite cells during the first 24 h, as they progress to a proliferative state. Inhibition of erbB2 signalling with AG825 reduced satellite cell numbers, concomitant with elevated caspase-8 activation and TUNEL labelling of apoptotic satellite cells. In serum-free conditions, satellite cell apoptosis could be largely prevented by a mixture of erbB1, erbB3 and erbB4 ligand growth factors, but not by neuregulin alone (erbB3/erbB4 ligand). Furthermore, using inhibitors specific to discrete intracellular signalling pathways, we identify MEK as a pro-apoptotic mediator, and the erbB-regulated factor STAT3 as an anti-apoptotic mediator during satellite cell activation. These results implicate erbB2 signalling in the preservation of a full compliment of satellite cells as they activate in the context of a damaged muscle.

  10. Lysosome biogenesis mediated by vps-18 affects apoptotic cell degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui; Chen, Didi; Fang, Zhou; Xu, Jing; Sun, Xiaojuan; Song, Song; Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Chonglin

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate clearance of apoptotic cells (cell corpses) is an important step of programmed cell death. Although genetic and biochemical studies have identified several genes that regulate the engulfment of cell corpses, how these are degraded after being internalized in engulfing cell remains elusive. Here, we show that VPS-18, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of yeast Vps18p, is critical to cell corpse degradation. VPS-18 is expressed and functions in engulfing cells. Deletion of vps-18 leads to significant accumulation of cell corpses that are not degraded properly. Furthermore, vps-18 mutation causes strong defects in the biogenesis of endosomes and lysosomes, thus affecting endosomal/lysosomal protein degradation. Importantly, we demonstrate that phagosomes containing internalized cell corpses are unable to fuse with lysosomes in vps-18 mutants. Our findings thus provide direct evidence for the important role of endosomal/lysosomal degradation in proper clearance of apoptotic cells during programmed cell death.

  11. Melanosis coli. A consequence of anthraquinone-induced apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, N. I.; Bennett, R. E.; Axelsen, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A condition closely resembling human melanosis coli was induced in the guinea pig large intestine by daily oral administration of the anthraquinone danthron. Each treatment caused a transient, dose-related wave of apoptosis of the colonic surface epithelial cells. Most of the resulting apoptotic bodies were phagocytosed by intraepithelial macrophages and carried by them through fenestrae in the epithelial basement membrane to the lamina propria. Here, the apoptotic bodies were transformed into typical lipofuscin pigment in macrophage heterolysosomes. Continued danthron administration caused progressive accumulation of pigmented macrophages in the bowel wall, whereas ongoing migration of pigmented macrophages to regional lymph nodes resulted, after danthron was ceased, in sequential loss of the pigmented cells from the superficial and deep lamina propria. Examination of colonic biopsies from patients with melanosis coli shows increased numbers of apoptotic bodies in the surface epithelium and lamina propria, suggesting implication of the same cellular processes in the formation of the pigment in man. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3381879

  12. Pro‑apoptotic effects of pycnogenol on HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Harati, Kamran; Slodnik, Pawel; Chromik, Ansgar Michael; Behr, Björn; Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Uhl, Waldemar; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien

    2015-04-01

    Complete surgical resection with clear margins remains the mainstay of therapy for localised fibrosarcomas. Nevertheless, metastatic fibrosarcomas still represent a therapeutic dilemma. Commonly used chemotherapeutic agents like doxorubicin have proven to be effective in <30% of all cases of disseminated fibrosarcoma. Especially elderly patients with cardiac subdisease are not suitable for systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin. Therefore we tested the apoptotic effects of the well-tolerated pine bark extract pycnogenol and its constituents on human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080). Ten healthy subjects (six females, four males, mean age 24.8 ± 6 years) received a single dose of 300 mg pycnogenol orally. Blood plasma samples were obtained before and 6 h after intake of pycnogenol. HT1080 cells were treated with these plasma samples. Additionally, HT1080 were incubated separately with catechin, epicatechin and taxifolin that are known as the main constituents of pycnogenol. Vital, apoptotic and necrotic cells were quantified using flow cytometric analysis. Gene expression was analyzed by RNA microarray. The results showed that single application of taxifolin, catechin and epicatechin reduced cell viability of HT1080 cells only moderately. A single dose of 300 mg pycnogenol given to 10 healthy adults produced plasma samples that led to significant apoptotic cell death ex vivo whereas pycnogenol-negative serum displayed no apoptotic activity. Microarray analysis revealed remarkable expression changes induced by pycnogenol in a variety of genes, which are involved in different apoptotic pathways of cancer cells [Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), DUSP1, RHOA, laminin γ1 (LAMC1), fibronectin 1 (FN1), catenin α1 (CTNNA1), ITGB1]. In conclusion, metabolised pycnogenol induces apoptosis in human fibrosarcoma cells. Pycnogenol exhibits its pro-apoptotic activity as a mixture and is more effective than its main constituents catechin, epicatechin and taxifolin indicating that the

  13. Cell reintegration: Stray epithelial cells make their way home.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tyler J; Bergstralh, Dan T

    2017-06-01

    Ongoing work shows that misplaced epithelial cells have the capacity to reintegrate back into tissue layers. This movement appears to underlie tissue stability and may also control aspects of tissue structure. A recent study reveals that cell reintegration in at least one tissue, the Drosophila follicular epithelium, is based on adhesion molecules that line lateral cell surfaces. In this article we will review these observations, discuss their implications for epithelial tissue development and maintenance, and identify future directions for study. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. Results All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells. Conclusions The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools. PMID:24915897

  15. Spontaneous Production of Immunoglobulin M in Human Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fanlei; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Jie; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Jing; Shao, Wenwei; Liao, Qinyuan; Ma, Teng; Geng, Li; Yin, C. Cameron; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that B-1 B cells are the main cell type that is responsible for the production of natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) and can respond to infection by increasing IgM secretion. However, we unexpectedly found that some epithelial cells also can express rearranged IgM transcript that has natural IgM characteristics, such as germline-encoded and restricted rearrangement patterns. Here we studied IgM expression in human non-B cells and found that IgM was frequently expressed by many human epithelial cancer cells as well as non-cancer epithelial cells. Moreover, CD79A and CD79B, two molecules that are physically linked to membranous IgM on the surface of B cells to form the B cell antigen receptor complex, were also expressed on the cell surface of epithelial cancer cells and co-located with IgM. Like the natural IgM, the epithelial cancer cell-derived IgM recognized a series of microbial antigens, such as single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, lipopolysaccharide, and the HEp-2 cell antigen. More important, stimulation of the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which mimics bacterial infection, substantially increased the secretion of IgM in human epithelial cancer cells. These findings indicate that human epithelial cancer cells as well as non-cancer epithelial cells can spontaneously produce IgM with natural antibody activity. PMID:23251529

  16. Divergent members of a single autoreactive B cell clone retain specificity for apoptotic blebs.

    PubMed

    Neeli, Indira; Richardson, Mekel M; Khan, Salar N; Nicolo, Danielle; Monestier, Marc; Radic, Marko Z

    2007-03-01

    Specificity for double-stranded DNA can arise due to somatic mutations within one of the branches of an autoreactive B cell clone. However, it is not known whether a different autospecificity predates anti-dsDNA and whether separate offshoots of an expanding B cell clone retain or evolve alternative specificities. We compared 3H9, an anti-dsDNA IgG, to 4H8 and 1A11, antibodies produced by hybridomas representing an alternative branch of the 3H9 B cell clone. All three IgG bound chromatin in ELISA and apoptotic cells in confocal microscopy, yet only 3H9 bound dsDNA, as measured by plasmon resonance. Moreover, we demonstrate that despite the unique specificity of 3H9 for dsDNA, all three clone members exhibited indistinguishable binding to chromatin. The binding to chromatin and apoptotic cells was unaffected by N-linked glycosylation in L chain CDR1, a modification that results from a replacement of serine 26 with asparagine in 4H8 and 1A11. These data provide the first evidence that specificity for nucleosome epitopes on apoptotic cells provides the initial positive stimulus for somatic variants that comprise a B cell clone, including those that subsequently acquire specificity for dsDNA. Conversely, selection of autoreactive B cells for binding to apoptotic cells leads to clonal expansion, antibody diversification, and the development of linked sets of anti-nuclear autoantibodies.

  17. Caspase dependent apoptotic inhibition of melanoma and lung cancer cells by tropical Rubus extracts.

    PubMed

    George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M

    2016-05-01

    Rubus fairholmianus Gard. inhibits human melanoma (A375) and lung cancer (A549) cell growth by the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. Herbal products have a long history of clinical use and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. The plants and plant derived products became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years. The effects of R. fairholmianus root acetone extract (RFRA) on the proliferation of A375 and A549 cells was examined in this study. RFRA led to a decrease in cell viability, proliferation and an increase in cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner when compared with control and normal skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The morphology of treated cells supported apoptotic cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that RFRA induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells and the percentages of early and late apoptotic populations significantly increased. Moreover, the apoptotic inducing ability of RFRA when analysing effector caspase 3/7 activity, indicated a marked increase in treated cells. In summary, we have shown the anticancer effects of RFRA in A375 and A549 cancer cells via induction of caspase dependent apoptosis in vitro. The extract is more effective against melanoma; which may suggest the usefulness of RFRA-based anticancer therapies.

  18. Apoptotic neurons induce proliferative responses of progenitor cells in the postnatal neocortex.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Volodymyr; Mihhailova, Jevgenia; Salmon, Patrick; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2015-11-01

    Apoptotic cell death is the leading cause of neuronal loss after neonatal brain injury. Little is known about the intrinsic capacity of the immature cerebral cortex for replacing dead cells. Here we test the hypothesis that neuronal apoptosis is able to trigger compensatory proliferation in surrounding cells. In order to establish a "pure" apoptotic cell death model and to avoid the confounding effects of broken blood-brain barrier and inflammatory reactions, we used a diphtheria toxin (DT) and diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) system to induce ablation of layer IV neurons in the rodent somatosensory cortex during the early postnatal period. We found that DT-triggered apoptosis is a slowly progressing event lasting about for 7 days. While dying cells expressed the morphological features of apoptosis, we could not detect immunoreactivity for activated caspase-3 in these cells. Microglia activation and proliferation represented the earliest cellular responses to apoptotic cell death. In addition, we found that induced apoptosis triggered a massive proliferation of undifferentiated progenitor cell pool including Sox2 as well as NG2 cells. The default differentiation pattern of proliferating progenitors appears to be the glial phenotype; we could not find evidence for newly generated neurons in response to apoptotic neuronal death. These results suggest that mitotically active progenitor populations are intrinsically capable to contribute to the repair process of injured cortical tissue and may represent a potential target for neuronal replacement strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Nuclear Receptors and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: Stimulating the Macrophage’s Appetite

    PubMed Central

    A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages occurs as a coordinated process to ensure tissue homeostasis. Macrophages play a dual role in this process; first, a rapid and efficient phagocytosis of the dying cells is needed to eliminate uncleared corpses that can promote inflammation. Second, after engulfment, macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype, to avoid unwanted immune reactions against cell components. Several nuclear receptors, including liver X receptor and proliferator-activated receptor, have been linked to these two important features of macrophages during apoptotic cell clearance. This review outlines the emerging implications of nuclear receptors in the response of macrophages to cell clearance. These include activation of genes implicated in metabolism, to process the additional cellular content provided by the engulfed cells, as well as inflammatory genes, to maintain apoptotic cell clearance as an “immunologically silent” process. Remarkably, genes encoding receptors for the so-called “eat-me” signals are also regulated by activated nuclear receptors after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of macrophages to clear dead cells. PMID:24860573

  20. Apoptotic and autophagic cell death induced by glucolaxogenin in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, L; Escobar, M L; Sandoval-Ramírez, J; López-Muñoz, H; Fernández-Herrera, M A; Hernández-Vázquez, J M V; Hilario-Martínez, C; Zenteno, E

    2015-12-01

    The antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of glucolaxogenin and its ability to induce apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells are reported. We ascertained that glucolaxogenin exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa, CaSki and ViBo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of DNA distribution in the cell-cycle phase of tumor cells treated with glucolaxogenin suggests that the anti-proliferative activity of this steroid is not always dependent on the cell cycle. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by detection of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in supernatants from tumor cell cultures treated with the steroid. Glucolaxogenin exhibited null cytotoxic activity. With respect to the apoptotic activity, the generation of apoptotic bodies, the presence of active caspase-3 and annexin-V, as well as the DNA fragmentation observed in all tumor lines after treatment with glucolaxogenin suggests that this compound does indeed induce cell death by apoptosis. Also, a significantly increased presence of the LC3-II, LC3 and Lamp-1 proteins was evidenced with the ultrastructural existence of autophagic vacuoles in cells treated with this steroidal glycoside, indicating that glucolaxogenin also induces autophagic cell death. It is important to note that this compound showed no cytotoxic effect and did not affect the proliferative capacity of mononuclear cells obtained from normal human peripheral blood activated by phytohaemagglutinin. Thus, glucolaxogenin is a compound with anti-proliferative properties that induces programmed cell death in cancer cell lines, though it is selective with respect to normal lymphocytic cells. These findings indicate that this glycoside could have a selective action on tumor cells and, therefore, be worthy of consideration as a therapeutic candidate with anti-tumor potential.

  1. Monocytes from Sjögren's syndrome patients display increased vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 expression and impaired apoptotic cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hauk, V; Fraccaroli, L; Grasso, E; Eimon, A; Ramhorst, R; Hubscher, O; Pérez Leirós, C

    2014-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction. Clinical observations and results from animal models of SS support the role of aberrant epithelial cell apoptosis and immune homeostasis loss in the glands as triggering factors for the autoimmune response. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) promotes potent anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammatory and autoimmune disease models, including the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of SS. With the knowledge that VIP modulates monocyte function through vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VPAC) and that immune homeostasis maintenance depends strongly upon a rapid and immunosuppressant apoptotic cell clearance by monocytes/macrophages, in this study we explored VPAC expression on monocytes from primary SS (pSS) patients and the ability of VIP to modulate apoptotic cell phagocytic function and cytokine profile. Monocytes isolated from individual pSS patients showed an increased expression of VPAC2 subtype of VIP receptors, absent in monocytes from control subjects, with no changes in VPAC1 expression. VPAC2 receptor expression could be induced further with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in pSS monocytes and VIP inhibited the effect. Moreover, monocytes from pSS patients showed an impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic epithelial cells, as evidenced by reduced engulfment ability and the failure to promote an immunosuppressant cytokine profile. However, VIP neither modulated monocyte/macrophage phagocytic function nor did it reverse their inflammatory profile. We conclude that monocytes from pSS patients express high levels of VPAC2 and display a deficient clearance of apoptotic cells that is not modulated by VIP. PMID:24827637

  2. Interaction of apoptotic cells with macrophages upregulates COX-2/PGE2 and HGF expression via a positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ji Yeon; Youn, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Woo, So-Yeon; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of apoptotic cells by macrophages is crucial for resolution of inflammation, immune tolerance, and tissue repair. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play important roles in the tissue repair process. We investigated the characteristics of macrophage COX-2 and PGE2 expression mediated by apoptotic cells and then determined how macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo orchestrate the interaction between COX-2/PGE2 and HGF signaling pathways. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells and primary peritoneal macrophages to apoptotic cells resulted in induction of COX-2 and PGE2. The COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 suppressed apoptotic cell-induced PGE2 production. Both NS-398 and COX-2-siRNA, as well as the PGE2 receptor EP2 antagonist, blocked HGF expression in response to apoptotic cells. In addition, the HGF receptor antagonist suppressed increases in COX-2 and PGE2 induction. The in vivo relevance of the interaction between the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF pathways through a positive feedback loop was shown in cultured alveolar macrophages following in vivo exposure of bleomycin-stimulated lungs to apoptotic cells. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF in macrophages following exposure to apoptotic cells represents a mechanism for mediating the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic consequences of apoptotic cell recognition.

  3. Phosphatidylserine-dependent ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes TGF-β1 secretion and the resolution of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Mai-Lan N.; Fadok, Valerie A.; Henson, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    Ingestion of apoptotic cells in vitro by macrophages induces TGF-β1 secretion, resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect and suppression of proinflammatory mediators. Here, we show in vivo that direct instillation of apoptotic cells enhanced the resolution of acute inflammation. This enhancement appeared to require phosphatidylserine (PS) on the apoptotic cells and local induction of TGF-β1. Working with thioglycollate-stimulated peritonea or LPS-stimulated lungs, we examined the effect of apoptotic cell uptake on TGF-β1 induction. Viable or opsonized apoptotic human Jurkat T cells, or apoptotic PLB-985 cells, human monomyelocytes that do not express PS during apoptosis, failed to induce TGF-β1. PS liposomes, or PS directly transferred onto the PLB-985 surface membranes, restored the TGF-β1 induction. Apoptotic cell instillation into LPS-stimulated lungs reduced proinflammatory chemokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Additionally, total inflammatory cell counts in the BALF were markedly reduced 1–5 days after apoptotic cell instillation, an effect that could be reversed by opsonization or coinstillation of TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. This reduction resulted from early decrease in neutrophils and later decreases in lymphocytes and macrophages. In conclusion, apoptotic cell recognition and clearance, via exposure of PS and ligation of its receptor, induce TGF-β1 secretion, resulting in accelerated resolution of inflammation. PMID:11781349

  4. Promoter methylation in epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell populations isolated from breast milk.

    PubMed

    Browne, Eva P; Dinc, Signem E; Punska, Elizabeth C; Agus, Sami; Vitrinel, Ayca; Erdag, Gulay Ciler; Anderton, Douglas L; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among Turkish women and both the incidence and associated mortality appear to be increasing. Of particular concern is the percentage of young women diagnosed with breast cancer; roughly 20% of all breast cancer diagnoses in Turkey are in women younger than 40 years. Increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is a promising molecular biomarker, and human milk provides exfoliated breast epithelial cells appropriate for DNA methylation analyses. Comparisons between DNA methylation patterns in epithelial (epithelial-enriched) and nonepithelial (epithelial-depleted) cell fractions from breast milk have not been reported previously. In the present study, we examined promoter methylation of 3 tumor suppressor genes in epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell fractions isolated from breast milk of 43 Turkish women. Percentage methylation in the promoter region of Rass association domain family 1 (RASSF1), secreted frizzle related protein 1 (SFRP1), and glutathione-S-transferase class pi 1 was determined by pyrosequencing of the epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell fractions. Pyrosequencing identified a few subjects with significantly increased methylation in 1 or more genes. There was little correlation between the 2 cell fractions within individuals; only 1 woman had increased methylation for 1 gene (SFRP1) in both her enriched and depleted cell fractions. Methylation was positively associated with age for SFRP1 (epithelial-depleted fraction) and with body mass index for RASSF1 (epithelial-enriched cell fraction), respectively. Overall, results show that the methylation signals vary between different cell types in breast milk and suggest that breast milk can be used to assess DNA methylation patterns associated with increased breast cancer risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Scrib is required for epithelial cell identity and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamben, Idella F; Rachel, Rivka A; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E

    2013-12-01

    The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depend on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, αSMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of αSMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGFβ signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGFβ target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGFβ signaling.

  6. Enhanced activation of dendritic cells by autologous apoptotic microvesicles in MRL/lpr mice.

    PubMed

    Dieker, Jürgen; Hilbrands, Luuk; Thielen, Astrid; Dijkman, Henry; Berden, Jo H; van der Vlag, Johan

    2015-04-16

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with a persistent circulation of modified autoantigen-containing apoptotic debris that might be capable of breaking tolerance. We aimed to evaluate apoptotic microvesicles obtained from lupus or control mice for the presence of apoptosis-associated chromatin modifications and for their capacity to stimulate dendritic cells (DC) from lupus and control mice. Apoptotic microvesicles were in vitro generated from splenocytes, and ex vivo isolated from plasma of both MRL/lpr lupus mice and normal BALB/c mice. Microvesicles were analyzed using flow cytometry. Bone marrow-derived (BM)-DC cultured from MRL/lpr or BALB/c mice were incubated with microvesicles and CD40 expression and cytokine production were determined as measure of activation. Microvesicles derived from apoptotic splenocytes or plasma of MRL/lpr mice contained more modified chromatin compared to microvesicles of BALB/c mice, and showed enhanced activation of DC, either from MRL/lpr or BALB/c mice, and consecutively an enhanced DC-mediated activation of splenocytes. The content of apoptosis-modified chromatin in microvesicles of apoptotic splenocytes correlated with their potency to induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by DC. Microvesicle-activated MRL/lpr DC showed a significant higher production of IL-6 and tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β) compared to BALB/c DC, and were more potent in the activation of splenocytes. Apoptotic microvesicles from MRL/lpr mice are more potent activators of DC, and DC from MRL/lpr mice appear relatively more sensitive to activation by apoptotic microvesicles. Our findings indicate that aberrations at the level of apoptotic microvesicles and possibly DC contribute to the autoimmune response against chromatin in MRL/lpr mice.

  7. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Appendix……………………………………………………………………………… 11 Eirew,P., Stingl,J., Raouf,A., Turashvili,G., Aparicio ,S., Emerman,J.T., and Eaves,C.J. A method for... Aparicio , Joanne Emerman and Connie Eaves. A method for quantifying normal human mammary epithelial stem cells with in vivo regenerative ability...Abstracts Peter Eirew, John Stingl, Afshin Raouf, Gulisa Turshvili, Sam Aparicio , Joanne Emerman and Connie Eaves, “Identification of Human Mammary

  8. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3.

  9. The role of intrinsic apoptotic signaling in hemorrhagic shock-induced microvascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Devendra A; Tharakan, Binu; Hunter, Felicia A; Childs, Ed W

    2014-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock leads to endothelial cell barrier dysfunction resulting in microvascular hyperpermeability. Hemorrhagic shock-induced microvascular hyperpermeability is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic injuries. The results from our laboratory have illustrated a possible pathophysiological mechanism showing involvement of mitochondria-mediated "intrinsic" apoptotic signaling in regulating hemorrhagic shock-induced microvascular hyperpermeability. Hemorrhagic shock results in overexpression of Bcl-2 family of pro-apoptotic protein, BAK, in the microvascular endothelial cells. The increase in BAK initiates "intrinsic" apoptotic signaling cascade with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in the cytoplasm and activation of downstream effector caspase-3, leading to loss of endothelial cell barrier integrity. Thus, this review article offers a brief overview of important findings from our past and present research work along with new leads for future research. The summary of our research work will provide information leading to different avenues in developing novel strategies against microvascular hyperpermeability following hemorrhagic shock.

  10. The role of phosphatidylserine in recognition of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Fadok, V A; Bratton, D L; Frasch, S C; Warner, M L; Henson, P M

    1998-07-01

    Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is a surface change common to many apoptotic cells. Normally restricted to the inner leaflet, phosphatidylserine appears as a result of decreased aminophospholipid translocase activity and activation of a calcium-dependent scramblase. Phosphatidylserine exposure has several potential biological consequences, one of which is recognition and removal of the apoptotic cell by phagocytes. It is still not clear which receptors mediate PS recognition on apoptotic cells; however, several interesting candidates have been proposed. These include the Class B scavenger and thrombospondin receptor CD36, an oxLDL receptor (CD68), CD14, annexins, beta2 glycoprotein I, gas-6 and a novel activity expressed on macrophages stimulated with digestible particles such as beta-glucan. Whether PS is the sole ligand recognized by phagocytes or whether it associated with other molecules to form a complex ligand remains to be determined.

  11. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  12. Activation of Rho GTPases by Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Induces Macropinocytosis and Scavenging Activity in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Carla; Falzano, Loredana; Fabbri, Alessia; Stringaro, Annarita; Logozzi, Mariaantonia; Travaglione, Sara; Contamin, Stéphanette; Arancia, Giuseppe; Malorni, Walter; Fais, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    Macropinocytosis, a ruffling-driven process that allows the capture of large material, is an essential aspect of normal cell function. It can be either constitutive, as in professional phagocytes where it ends with the digestion of captured material, or induced, as in epithelial cells stimulated by growth factors. In this case, the internalized material recycles back to the cell surface. We herein show that activation of Rho GTPases by a bacterial protein toxin, the Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), allowed epithelial cells to engulf and digest apoptotic cells in a manner similar to that of professional phagocytes. In particular, we have demonstrated that 1) the activation of all Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 by CNF1 was essential for the capture and internalization of apoptotic cells; and 2) such activation allowed the discharge of macropinosomal content into Rab7 and lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 acidic lysosomal vesicles where the ingested particles underwent degradation. Taken together, these findings indicate that CNF1-induced “switching on” of Rho GTPases may induce in epithelial cells a scavenging activity, comparable to that exerted by professional phagocytes. The activation of such activity in epithelial cells may be relevant, in mucosal tissues, in supporting or integrating the scavenging activity of resident macrophages. PMID:11452003

  13. Hsp72 mediates TAp73α anti-apoptotic effects in small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Ulrika; Muppani, Naveen Reddy; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Joseph, Bertrand

    2011-08-01

    The transcription factor p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Due to alternative promoters and carboxy-terminal splicing, the P73 gene gives rise to a range of different isoforms. Interestingly, a particular increase in expression of the TAp73α isoform has been reported in various tumours. In addition, TAp73α has been shown to inhibit Bax activation and mitochondrial dysfunctions and thereby to confer small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism by which TAp73α exerts its pro-survival effect is yet unclear. Here we report that TAp73α, but not TAp73β, regulates the expression of inducible Hsp72/HSPA1A. Hsp72 proved to be required for the survival effects of TAp73α as antisense knockdown of Hsp72 resulted in an abolishment of the anti-apoptotic effect of TAp73α in SCLC cells upon Etoposide treatment. Importantly, depletion of Hsp72 allowed activation of Bax, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in SCLC cells even in the presence of TAp73α. Finally, we revealed that TAp73β counteracts the anti-apoptotic effect of TAp73α by preventing Hsp72 induction. Our results thus provide additional evidence for the potential oncogenic role of TAp73α, and extend the understanding of the mechanism for its anti-apoptotic effect.

  14. Quercetin Blocks Airway Epithelial Cell Chemokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nanua, Suparna; Zick, Suzanna M.; Andrade, Juan E.; Sajjan, Umadevi S.; Burgess, John R.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2006-01-01

    Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, is an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that quercetin blocks airway epithelial cell chemokine expression via PI 3-kinase–dependent mechanisms. Pretreatment with quercetin and the PI 3–kinase inhibitor LY294002 each reduced TNF-α–induced IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (also called CCL2) expression in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Quercetin also inhibited TNF-α–induced PI 3-kinase activity, Akt phosphorylation, intracellular H2O2 production, NF-κB transactivation, IL-8 promoter activity, and steady-state mRNA levels, consistent with the notion that quercetin inhibits chemokine expression by attenuating NF-κB transactivation via a PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway. Quercetin also reduced TNF-α–induced chemokine secretion in the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, while inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)-2α, suggesting that quercetin attenuates chemokine expression by post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional mechanisms. Finally, we tested the effects of quercetin in cockroach antigen–sensitized and –challenged mice. These mice show MCP-1–dependent airways hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Quercetin significantly reduced lung MCP-1 and methacholine responsiveness. We conclude that quercetin blocks airway cell chemokine expression via transcriptional and post-transcriptional pathways. PMID:16794257

  15. Rho family GTPase Chp/RhoV induces PC12 apoptotic cell death via JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Chernoff, Jonathan; Korobko, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate numerous cellular processes including apoptosis. Chp/RhoV is an atypical Rho GTPase which functions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of Chp in regulation of cell viability using PC12 cells with inducible expression of Chp as a model. We found that expression of Chp results in apoptosis in PC12 cells. Chp-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of JNK signaling and both death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as justified by caspase-8 and caspase-9 activation, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of JNK by SP600125 rescued PC12 cells from Chp-triggered cell death and attenuated activation of caspases-9 and -3/7 suggesting that activation of JNK mediates pro-apoptotic effect of Chp. Expression of Chp resulted in increased phosphorylation of c-Jun in PC12 cells, and Chp expression in HE K293 cells upregulated AP-1-dependent transcription in a JNK-dependent manner. Together results of our study reveal the role of Chp GTPase as a putative regulator of JNK-dependent apoptotic death in PC12 cells, similarly to previously described pro-apoptotic activity of the related Cdc42 and Rac1 GTPases. PMID:21686277

  16. Rho family GTPase Chp/RhoV induces PC12 apoptotic cell death via JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Shepelev, Mikhail V; Chernoff, Jonathan; Korobko, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate numerous cellular processes including apoptosis. Chp/RhoV is an atypical Rho GTPase which functions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of Chp in regulation of cell viability using PC12 cells with inducible expression of Chp as a model. We found that expression of Chp results in apoptosis in PC12 cells. Chp-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of JNK signaling and both death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as justified by caspase-8 and caspase-9 activation, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of JNK by SP600125 rescued PC12 cells from Chp-triggered cell death and attenuated activation of caspases-9 and -3/7 suggesting that activation of JNK mediates pro-apoptotic effect of Chp. Expression of Chp resulted in increased phosphorylation of c-Jun in PC12 cells, and Chp expression in HE K293 cells upregulated AP-1-dependent transcription in a JNK-dependent manner. Together results of our study reveal the role of Chp GTPase as a putative regulator of JNK-dependent apoptotic death in PC12 cells, similarly to previously described pro-apoptotic activity of the related Cdc42 and Rac1 GTPases.

  17. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  18. [Research progress of corneal epithelial basal cells and basement membrane].

    PubMed

    Qu, J H; Sun, X G

    2016-09-11

    The cylinder cells at the bottom of corneal epithelial cells are basal cells. Their cytoplasm contains keratin intermediate filament which is important in secretion of basement membrane. Corneal epithelial dysfunction due to diabetes or ocular surgery is intimately related with basal cell abnormality. Corneal epithelial basement membrane is a highly specific extracellular matrix which is made up of lamina lucida and lamina densa. It plays an extremely important role in renewal and restoration. Many ocular abnormalities and diseases have been described to relate to the corneal epithelial basement membrane, such as traumatic recurrent corneal erosion, corneal dystrophy and keratoconus. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 703-707).

  19. Nanoemulsion-based mucosal adjuvant induces apoptosis in human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska, Beata U.; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Coulter, Alexa D.; Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Gamian, Andrzej; Myc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Nanoemulsions (NEs) are adjuvants that enhance antigen penetration of the nasal mucosa, increase cellular uptake of antigens by both epithelial and dendritic cells, and promote the migration of antigen-loaded dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes within 24-hours of vaccine administration. The objective of this study was to elucidate cell death caused by W805EC NE and identify caspases and genes associated with death pathways. Consistent with this aim, we show that exposure of human epithelial cells (EC), both RPMI 2650 and FaDu, to NE results in the activation of caspases (1, 3/7, 6, 8, and 9) and the expression of genes involved in apoptotic as well as authophagy and necrosis pathways. Interestingly, the NE activates caspase 8 which promotes “immunogenic apoptosis”. The rescue assay was employed to investigate the fate of RPMI 2650 cells treated with W805EC NE. After four hour treatment with as little as 0.03% of NE no cells were rescued at 72 hours. Remarkably, immediately after four-hour treatment, the cells morphologically resembled untreated cells and most of the cells were alive. Altogether, these results suggest that NE induces death of human ECs through multiple pathways. Epithelial cell death caused by W805EC may have further implications on antigen uptake, processing, and presentation by DC's. PMID:25817825

  20. Henipavirus pathogenesis in human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2013-03-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection.

  1. Henipavirus Pathogenesis in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J. Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection. PMID:23302882

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor in human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pujolsa, Laura; Mullol, Joaquim; Picado, Cèsar

    2009-01-01

    Inhaled and intranasal glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common and effective drugs for controlling symptoms and airway inflammation in respiratory diseases such as allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with/without nasal polyps, and asthma, and the respiratory epithelium is a primary target of GC anti-inflammatory actions. GC effects are mediated through the GC receptor (GR). In humans, one single GR gene gives rise to two main GR products, namely GRalpha and GRbeta, which are subject to translational and posttranslational modifications. GRalpha is expressed in virtually all human cells and tissues, including respiratory epithelial cells, and - at least in vitro - is downregulated by GC. GRalpha mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of GC by activating transcription of anti-inflammatory genes through binding of GRalpha to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) located in the promoter region of target genes, repressing transcription of proinflammatory genes through direct interaction between GRalpha and proinflammatory transcription factors, such as AP-1 and NF-kappaB (transrepression), and also by destabilizing the mRNA of proinflammatory mediators. GRbeta acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of GRalpha-mediated transactivation and transrepression in certain in vitro studies with transfected cells. The GRbeta message is expressed at low levels in numerous tissues and its protein is mainly expressed in inflammatory cells, although it has also been detected in airway epithelial cells. Increased GRbeta expression has been reported in bronchial asthma and nasal polyposis, and after incubation of cells with certain proinflammatory stimuli. However, the role of GRbeta in modulating GC sensitivity in vivo has been highly debated and is as yet unclear.

  3. Coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multilineage stroma via polyploid giant cells during immortalization and transformation of mullerian epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Sood, Anil; Bast, Robert C.; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. However, the origins of stromal cells have been quite controversial. To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. Here we show that immortalized or HRAS-transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl2. The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS-transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. PMID:27382431

  4. Intravenous infusion of apoptotic cells simultaneously with allogeneic hematopoietic grafts alters anti-donor humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Perruche, Sylvain; Kleinclauss, François; Bittencourt, Marcelo de Carvalho; Paris, Dominique; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2004-08-01

    Intravenous infusion of apoptotic donor or third-party leukocytes simultaneously with an allogeneic donor bone marrow (BM) graft favors engraftment across major histocompatibility barriers. While verifying that such apoptotic cell infusion might not also be associated with antibody (Ab)-mediated allo-immune responses, we found, rather strikingly, that apoptotic cell infusion could in fact successfully prevent a humoral allo-immunization against a BM graft in mice. Indeed, among recipients having rejected their BM graft, prior apoptotic cell infusion was associated with a near absence of Ab-mediated allo-responses, while such an immunization was frequently observed in the absence of apoptotic cell infusion. This was also observed when infusing host apoptotic cells, thus showing that the prevention of immunization was linked to the apoptotic state of the cells rather than mediated by residual anti-recipient activity. In vivo anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) treatment resulted in the loss of this apoptotic cell infusion-associated protective effect on humoral allo-responses. Further studies will determine whether apoptotic cell infusion, in addition to hematopoietic graft facilitation might also contribute to preventing deleterious Ab-mediated allo-responses in various transplantation settings.

  5. Differential apoptotic response in HPV-infected cancer cells of the uterine cervix after doxorubicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Seung Chul; An, Won Geun; Lee, Chang Hun; Choi, Kyung Un; Song, Jin Mi; Jung, Jin Seup; Lee, Kyu Sup; Yoon, Man Soo

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differential apoptotic response in uterine cervical cancer cells with and without HPV infection after chemotherapy. CaSki (HPV 16-positive) and C33A (mutant p53 and HPV-negative) cells were used. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue cell exclusion test. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometric analysis. Differential apoptotic responses were evaluated using Western blot analysis after chemotherapy. Decreased cell viability and apoptosis were displayed in CaSki and C33A cells after chemotherapy using doxorubicin (DOX). Regarding apoptosis-related molecules, the appearance of cleaved PARP expression was more prominent in CaSki cells. p53 and p21 expression in CaSki cells were increased. On the other hand, JNK expression was different in C33A cells (increased) and CaSki cells (decreased). CaSki cells and C33A cells showed differential apoptotic responses after chemotherapy using DOX. CaSki cells seem to be related with p53/p21 expression, but C33A cells seem to be related with PARP-JNK expression, which is involved in the mitochondrial pathway.

  6. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  7. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rego, António; Duarte, Ana M.; Azevedo, Flávio; Sousa, Maria J.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Chaves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria. PMID:28357256

  8. Apoptotic cell death increases with senescence in normal human dermal fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Mammone, Thomas; Gan, David; Foyouzi-Youssefi, Reyhaneh

    2006-11-01

    Normal human dermal fibroblasts have a limited life-span in vitro and stop proliferation after a fixed number of cell divisions. This process by which cells stop proliferation is called senescence. Senescence is also characterized by a decrease in the total cell number. In this study, we characterized an increase in cell death in normal human dermal fibroblasts in vitro as a function of increasing cell passage. With increasing passage, human fibroblasts showed an increase in the number of dead cells and increased DNA fragmentation as determined by flow cytometry. Serial passage of human fibroblasts also resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, represented by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. The apoptotic markers caspase-3 and cytochrome c were both found to increase in senescent cells. These results suggest the activation of an apoptotic pathway within a population of human fibroblasts as a function of cell passage.

  9. Carbocisteine inhibits oxidant-induced apoptosis in cultured human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Motoki; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2009-09-01

    Increased oxidant levels have been associated with exacerbations of COPD, and L-carbocisteine, a mucolytic agent, reduces the frequency of exacerbations. The mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of L-carbocisteine on oxidant-induced COPD exacerbations were examined in an in vitro study of human airway epithelial cells. In order to examine the antioxidant effects of L-carbocisteine, human tracheal epithelial cells were treated with L-carbocisteine and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Cell apoptosis was assessed using a cell death detection ELISA, and the pathways leading to cell apoptosis were examined by measurement of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by western blot analysis with fluorescent detection. The proportion of apoptotic cells in human tracheal epithelium was increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, following exposure to H(2)O(2). Treatment with L-carbocisteine reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells. In contrast, H(2)O(2) did not increase the concentration of LDH in supernatants of epithelial cells. Exposure to H(2)O(2) activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and L-carbocisteine inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced activation of these caspases. L-carbocisteine activated Akt phosphorylation, which modulates caspase activation, and the inhibitors of Akt, LY294002 and wortmannin, significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of L-carbocisteine on H(2)O(2)-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that in human airway epithelium, L-carbocisteine may inhibit cell damage induced by H(2)O(2) through the activation of Akt phosphorylation. L-carbocisteine may have antioxidant effects, as well as mucolytic activity, in inflamed airways.

  10. Bax targets mitochondria by distinct mechanisms before or during apoptotic cell death: a requirement for VDAC2 or Bak for efficient Bax apoptotic function

    PubMed Central

    Ma, S B; Nguyen, T N; Tan, I; Ninnis, R; Iyer, S; Stroud, D A; Menard, M; Kluck, R M; Ryan, M T; Dewson, G

    2014-01-01

    In non-apoptotic cells, Bak constitutively resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. In contrast, Bax is in a dynamic equilibrium between the cytosol and mitochondria, and is commonly predominant in the cytosol. In response to an apoptotic stimulus, Bax and Bak change conformation, leading to Bax accumulation at mitochondria and Bak/Bax oligomerization to form a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane that is responsible for cell death. Using blue native-PAGE to investigate how Bax oligomerizes in the mitochondrial outer membrane, we observed that, like Bak, a proportion of Bax that constitutively resides at mitochondria associates with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)2 prior to an apoptotic stimulus. During apoptosis, Bax dissociates from VDAC2 and homo-oligomerizes to form high molecular weight oligomers. In cells that lack VDAC2, constitutive mitochondrial localization of Bax and Bak was impaired, suggesting that VDAC2 has a role in Bax and Bak import to, or stability at, the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, following an apoptotic stimulus, Bak and Bax retained the ability to accumulate at VDAC2-deficient mitochondria and to mediate cell death. Silencing of Bak in VDAC2-deficient cells indicated that Bax required either VDAC2 or Bak in order to translocate to and oligomerize at the mitochondrial outer membrane to efficiently mediate apoptosis. In contrast, efficient Bak homo-oligomerization at the mitochondrial outer membrane and its pro-apoptotic function required neither VDAC2 nor Bax. Even a C-terminal mutant of Bax (S184L) that localizes to mitochondria did not constitutively target mitochondria deficient in VDAC2, but was recruited to mitochondria following an apoptotic stimulus dependent on Bak or upon over-expression of Bcl-xL. Together, our data suggest that Bax localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane via alternate mechanisms, either constitutively via an interaction with VDAC2 or after activation via interaction with Bcl-2 family

  11. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  12. Epithelial Cell Innate Response to Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Naglik, J.R.; Moyes, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of treatments and diseases such as AIDS resulting in increasing numbers of patients with suppressed immune systems, fungal diseases are an escalating problem. Candida albicans is the most common of these fungal pathogens, causing infections in many of these patients. It is therefore important to understand how immunity to this fungus is regulated and how it might be manipulated. Although work has been done to identify the receptors, fungal moieties, and responses involved in anti-Candida immunity, most studies have investigated interactions with myeloid or lymphoid cells. Given that the first site of contact of C. albicans with its host is the mucosal epithelial surface, recent studies have begun to focus on interactions of C. albicans with this site. The results are startling yet in retrospect obvious, indicating that epithelial cells play an important role in these interactions, initiating responses and even providing a level of protection. These findings have obvious implications, not just for fungal pathogens, but also for identifying how host organisms can distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microbes. This review highlights some of these recent findings and discusses their importance in the wider context of infection and immunity. PMID:21441481

  13. Combined low doses of PPARgamma and RXR ligands trigger an intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Cione, Erika; Qi, Hongyan; Pingitore, Attilio; Perri, Mariarita; Catalano, Stefania; Vizza, Donatella; Panno, Maria Luisa; Genchi, Giuseppe; Fuqua, Suzanne A W; Andò, Sebastiano

    2009-09-01

    Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and retinoid X receptor (RXR) induces antitumor effects in cancer. We evaluated the ability of combined treatment with nanomolar levels of the PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone (BRL) and the RXR ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9RA) to promote antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. BRL and 9RA in combination strongly inhibit of cell viability in MCF-7, MCF-7TR1, SKBR-3, and T-47D breast cancer cells, whereas MCF-10 normal breast epithelial cells are unaffected. In MCF-7 cells, combined treatment with BRL and 9RA up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of both the tumor suppressor p53 and its effector p21(WAF1/Cip1). Functional experiments indicate that the nuclear factor-kappaB site in the p53 promoter is required for the transcriptional response to BRL plus 9RA. We observed that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in MCF-7 cells displays an ordinated sequence of events, including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, strong caspase 9 activation, and, finally, DNA fragmentation. An expression vector for p53 antisense abrogated the biological effect of both ligands, which implicates involvement of p53 in PPARgamma/RXR-dependent activity in all of the human breast malignant cell lines tested. Taken together, our results suggest that multidrug regimens including a combination of PPARgamma and RXR ligands may provide a therapeutic advantage in breast cancer treatment.

  14. Riproximin modulates multiple signaling cascades leading to cytostatic and apoptotic effects in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Asim; Zepp, Michael; Adwan, Hassan; Berger, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Riproximin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), has shown significant cytotoxic effects in diverse types of cancer cells. To better understand its therapeutic potential, elaborated investigations on the mechanistic aspects of riproximin deem crucial. In this study, we focused on riproximin-mediated changes in cellular properties and corresponding molecular pathways in breast cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of riproximin was determined by MTT assay, while the clonogenic and migratory effects were determined by colony formation, migration, and scratch assays. Cytostatic and apoptotic effects were studied by flow cytometry and nuclear staining procedures. Alterations at molecular levels were scrutinized by means of microarray and qRT-PCR methodologies. Riproximin induced significant cytotoxic effects in the selected human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Profound inhibition of migration and colony formation were observed in both cell lines in response to riproximin exposure. Concomitantly, a significant arrest in S phase and nuclear fragmentation were observed as causes for its cytostatic and apoptotic effects, respectively. Genetic profiling revealed pronounced induction of the anticancer cytokine IL24/MDA-7 and ER-stress-related GADD genes. In addition, prominent inhibition of the genes relevant to migration (RHO GTPases), anti-apoptotic activities (BCL family), and cell cycle (cyclins) was also noticed. Riproximin, with its significant antineoplastic effects, modulates multiple cytostatic and apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells. Results from these investigations highlight the future therapeutic potential of this naturally occurring compound for breast cancer.

  15. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). Objective: To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. Materials and Methods: OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. Results: We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50–500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16–84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. SUMMARY OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; RT-PCR: Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. PMID:27563220

  16. Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells: impact on intestinal epithelial barrier functions.

    PubMed

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Mahé, Maxime M; Teusan, Raluca; Léger, Jean; Guisle, Isabelle; Houlgatte, Rémi; Neunlist, Michel

    2009-11-02

    Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently unknown. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying the impact of EGC upon IEC transcriptome by performing microarray studies. EGC induced significant changes in gene expression profiling of proliferating IEC after 24 hours of co-culture. 116 genes were identified as differentially expressed (70 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated) in IEC cultured with EGC compared to IEC cultured alone. By performing functional analysis of the 116 identified genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we showed that EGC induced a significant regulation of genes favoring both cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion as well as cell differentiation. Consistently, functional studies showed that EGC induced a significant increase in cell adhesion. EGC also regulated genes involved in cell motility towards an enhancement of cell motility. In addition, EGC profoundly modulated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and cell survival, although no clear functional trend could be identified. Finally, important genes involved in lipid and protein metabolism of epithelial cells were shown to be differentially regulated by EGC. This study reinforces the emerging concept that EGC have major protective effects upon the IEB. EGC have a profound impact upon IEC transcriptome and induce a shift in IEC phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. This concept needs to be further validated under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  17. Rapid reuptake of granzyme B leads to emperitosis: an apoptotic cell-in-cell death of immune killer cells inside tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; He, M-f; Chen, Y-h; Wang, M-y; Yu, X-M; Bai, J; Zhu, H-y; Wang, Y-y; Zhao, H; Mei, Q; Nie, J; Ma, J; Wang, J-f; Wen, Q; Ma, L; Wang, Y; Wang, X-n

    2013-10-10

    A cell-in-cell process refers to the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. Different from non-apoptotic death processes of internalized cells termed entosis or cannibalism, we previously reported an apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurring during heterotypic cell-in-cell formation. In this study, we further demonstrated that the apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurred only in internalized immune killer cells expressing granzyme B (GzmB). Vacuole wrapping around the internalized cells inside the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes, which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However, internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes, resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary, internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor cells. Our results thus demonstrated the critical involvement of immune cells with cytotoxic property in apoptotic cell-in-cell death, which we termed as emperitosis taken from emperipolesis and apoptosis. Whereas entosis or cannibalism may serve as a feed-on mechanism to exacerbate and nourish tumor cells, emperitosis of immune killer cells inside tumor cells may serve as an in-cell danger sensation model to prevent the killing of target cells from inside, implying a unique mechanism for tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance.

  18. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L.; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts to repair epithelial injury. Indeed, single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. In contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate was inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may play a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

  19. Analysis of cellular senescence induced by lipopolysaccharide in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Oh; Huh, Ae Jung; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, June Myung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, it was examined the possibility of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causing cellular senescence in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Then, it was clarified how this cellular senescence phenomenon is associated with oxidative stress effect induced by LPS and whether antioxidants could inhibit reduced cellular viability by oxidant stress effect of LPS. In cell viability using cell counting kit-8, exposure to LPS decreased cellular viability and induced growth arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. The pre-apoptotic concentration of LPS was determined by caspase activation using a Caspase-Glo 3/7 luminescence assay kit. This concentration of LPS caused morphologic characteristics shown in senescent cells and elevated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In addition, lysosomal content associated with senescence was increased by LPS at the pre-apoptotic concentration. However, this concentration of LPS did not shorten the telomere length. Exposure to LPS resulted in the formation of hydrogen peroxide in a concentration-dependent manner. The ability of LPS to reduce cellular viability was inhibited by the presence of glutathione. This study revealed that LPS could induce cellular senescence in lung alveloar epithelial cells, and these phenomena were closely associated with hydrogen peroxide production by LPS. Taken together, it is suggested that LPS-induced cellular senescence may play an important role in limiting the tissue repair response after sepsis.

  20. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  1. Monitoring the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Zao; Lu, Nan; He, Xiangwei; Zhou, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model organism for studying the mechanisms -controlling cell death, including apoptosis, a cell suicide event, and necrosis, pathological cell deaths caused by environmental insults or genetic alterations. C. elegans has also been established as a model for understanding how dying cells are cleared from animal bodies. In particular, the transparent nature of worm bodies and eggshells make C. elegans particularly amenable for live-cell microscopy. Here we describe methods for identifying apoptotic and necrotic cells in living C. elegans embryos, larvae, and adults and for monitoring their clearance during development. We further discuss specific methods to distinguish engulfed from unengulfed apoptotic cells, and methods to monitor cellular and molecular events occurring during phagosome maturation. These methods are based on Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) microscopy or fluorescence microscopy using GFP-based reporters.

  2. Improvement of DC vaccine with ALA-PDT induced immunogenic apoptotic cells for skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jie; Fan, Zhixia; Zhou, Feifan; Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Yang, Degang; Zhang, Linglin; Chen, Wei R; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-07-10

    Dendritic cell (DC) based vaccines have emerged as a promising immunotherapy for cancers. However, most DC vaccines so far have achieved only limited success in cancer treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an established cancer treatment strategy, can cause immunogenic apoptosis to induce an effective antitumor immune response. In this study, we developed a DC-based cancer vaccine using immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT. The maturation of DCs induced by PDT-treated apoptotic cells was evaluated using electron microscopy, FACS, and ELISA. The anti-tumor immunity of ALA-PDT-DC vaccine was tested with a mouse model. We observed the maturations of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT treated tumor cells, including morphology maturation (enlargement of dendrites and increase of lysosomes), phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, DC80, and CD86), and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12, and to induce T cell proliferation). Most interestingly, PDT-induced apoptotic tumor cells are more capable of potentiating maturation of DCs than PDT-treated or freeze/thaw treated necrotic tumor cells. ALA-PDT-DC vaccine mediated by apoptotic cells provided protection against tumors in mice, far stronger than that of DC vaccine obtained from freeze/thaw treated tumor cells. Our results indicate that immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells can be more effective in enhancing a DC-based cancer vaccine, which could improve the clinical application of PDT-DC vaccines.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal proteins induce cell-cycle arrest and caspase-dependant apoptotic cell death in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Keong; Wong, Rebecca Shin-Yee; Mohamed, Shar Mariam; Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi Tengku; Abdullah, Maha; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) parasporal proteins with selective anticancer activity have recently garnered interest. This study determines the efficacy and mode of cell death of Bt 18 parasporal proteins against 3 leukemic cell lines (CEM-SS, CCRF-SB and CCRF-HSB-2).Cell-based biochemical analysis aimed to determine cell viability and the percentage of apoptotic cell death in treated cell lines; ultrastructural analysis to study apoptotic changes and Western blot to identify the parasporal proteins' binding site were performed. Bt 18 parasporal proteins moderately decreased viability of leukemic cells but not that of normal human T lymphocytes. Further purification of the proteins showed changes in inhibition selectivity. Phosphatidylserine externalization, active caspase-3, cell cycle, and ultrastructural analysis confirmed apoptotic activity and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Western blot analysis demonstrated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a binding protein. We suggest that Bt 18 parasporal proteins inhibit leukemic cell viability by cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase binding initiates apoptosis.

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  5. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer.

  6. Proinflammatory Cytokines Activate the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grunnet, Lars G.; Aikin, Reid; Tonnesen, Morten F.; Paraskevas, Steven; Blaabjerg, Lykke; Størling, Joachim; Rosenberg, Lawrence; Billestrup, Nils; Maysinger, Dusica; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proinflammatory cytokines are cytotoxic to β-cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and islet graft failure. The importance of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cytokine-induced β-cell death is unclear. Here, cytokine activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the role of the two proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, Bad and Bax, were examined in β-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Human and rat islets and INS-1 cells were exposed to a combination of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, and/or tumor necrosis factor-α). Activation of Bad was determined by Ser136 dephosphorylation, mitochondrial stress by changes in mitochondrial metabolic activity and cytochrome c release, downstream apoptotic signaling by activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The inhibitors FK506 and V5 were used to investigate the role of Bad and Bax activation, respectively. RESULTS We found that proinflammatory cytokines induced calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of Bad Ser136, mitochondrial stress, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. Inhibition of Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation or Bax was found to inhibit cytokine-induced intrinsic proapoptotic signaling. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway contributes significantly to cytokine-induced β-cell death and suggest a functional role of calcineurin-mediated Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation and Bax activity in cytokine-induced apoptosis. PMID:19470609

  7. Toward the early evaluation of therapeutic effects: an electrochemical platform for ultrasensitive detection of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Ting-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2011-10-15

    The ability for early evaluation of therapeutic effects is a significant challenge in leukemia research. To address this challenge, we developed a novel electrochemical platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of apoptotic cells in response to therapy. In order to construct the platform, a novel three-dimensional (3-D) architecture was initially fabricated after combining nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles via a layer-by-layer method. The formed architecture provided an effective matrix for annexin V with high stability and bioactivity to enhance sensitivity. On the basis of the specific recognition between annexin V and phosphatidylserine on the apoptotic cell membrane, the annexin V/3-D architecture interface showed a predominant capability for apoptotic cell capture. Moreover, a lectin-based nanoprobe was designed by noncovalent assembly of concanavalin A on CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-labeled silica nanospheres with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) as a linker. This nanoprobe incorporated both the specific carbohydrate recognition and the multilabeled QDs-based signal amplification. By coupling with the QDs-based nanoprobe and electrochemical stripping analysis, the proposed sandwich-type cytosensor showed an excellent analytical performance for the ultrasensitive detection of apoptotic cells (as low as 48 cells), revealing great potential toward the early evaluation of therapeutic effects.

  8. Cigarette smoke induces genetic instability in airway epithelial cells by suppressing FANCD2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hays, L E; Zodrow, D M; Yates, J E; Deffebach, M E; Jacoby, D B; Olson, S B; Pankow, J F; Bagby, G C

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are commonly found in bronchogenic carcinoma cells, but the molecular causes of chromosomal instability (CIN) and their relationship to cigarette smoke has not been defined. Because the Fanconi anaemia (FA)/BRCA pathway is essential for maintenance of chromosomal stability, we tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoke suppresses that activity of this pathway. Here, we show that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited translation of FANCD2 mRNA (but not FANCC or FANCG) in normal airway epithelial cells and that this suppression of FANCD2 expression was sufficient to induce both genetic instability and programmed cell death in the exposed cell population. Cigarette smoke condensate also suppressed FANCD2 function and induced CIN in bronchogenic carcinoma cells, but these cells were resistant to CSC-induced apoptosis relative to normal airway epithelial cells. We, therefore, suggest that CSC exerts pressure on airway epithelial cells that results in selection and emergence of genetically unstable somatic mutant clones that may have lost the capacity to effectively execute an apoptotic programme. Carcinogen-mediated suppression of FANCD2 gene expression provides a plausible molecular mechanism for CIN in bronchogenic carcinogenesis. PMID:18475298

  9. Release of HIV-1 sequestered in the vesicles of oral and genital mucosal epithelial cells by epithelial-lymphocyte interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yasen, Aizezi; Herrera, Rossana; Rosbe, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles. Intraepithelial HIV-1 remained infectious for 9 days without viral release. Release of sequestered intraepithelial HIV-1 was induced by the calcium ionophore ionomycin and by cytochalasin D, which increase intracellular calcium and disrupt the cortical actin of epithelial cells, respectively. Cocultivation of epithelial cells containing HIV-1 with activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes led to the disruption of epithelial cortical actin and spread of virus from epithelial cells to lymphocytes. Treatment of epithelial cells with proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon gamma also induced reorganization of cortical actin and release of virus. Inhibition of MVB formation by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of its critical protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) expression reduced viral sequestration in epithelial cells and its transmission from epithelial cells to lymphocytes by ~60–70%. Furthermore, inhibition of vacuole formation of epithelial cells by siRNA-inactivated rabankyrin-5 expression also significantly reduced HIV-1 sequestration in epithelial cells and spread of virus from epithelial cells to lymphocytes. Interaction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 of epithelial cells with the function-associated antigen-1

  10. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  11. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  12. Revisiting the Road Map of Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Chloé; Miller, Corey N; Küchler, Rita; Brors, Benedikt; Anderson, Mark S; Kyewski, Bruno; Pinto, Sheena

    2017-10-09

    The basic two-step terminal differentiation model of the medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) lineage from immature MHC class II (MHCII)(lo) to mature MHCII(hi) mTECs has recently been extended to include a third stage, namely the post-Aire MHCII(lo) subset as identified by lineage-tracing models. However, a suitable surface marker distinguishing the phenotypically overlapping pre- from the post-Aire MHCII(lo) stage has been lacking. In this study, we introduce the lectin Tetragonolobus purpureas agglutinin (TPA) as a novel cell surface marker that allows for such delineation. Based on our data, we derived the following sequence of mTEC differentiation: TPA(lo)MHCII(lo) → TPA(lo)MHCII(hi) → TPA(hi)MHCII(hi) → TPA(hi)MHCII(lo) Surprisingly, in the steady-state postnatal thymus TPA(lo)MHCII(lo) pre-Aire rather than terminally differentiated post-Aire TPA(hi)MHCII(lo) mTECs were marked for apoptosis at an exceptionally high rate of ∼70%. Hence, only the minor cycling fraction of the MHCII(lo) subset (<20%) potentially qualified as mTEC precursors. FoxN1 expression inversely correlated with the fraction of slow cycling and apoptotic cells within the four TPA subsets. TPA also further subdivided human mTECs, although with different subset distribution. Our revised road map emphazises close parallels of terminal mTEC development with that of skin, undergoing an alternative route of cell death, namely cornification rather than apoptosis. The high rate of apoptosis in pre-Aire MHCII(lo) mTECs points to a "quality control" step during early mTEC differentiation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Able to Trigger Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Martinelli, Daniela; Valente, Sabatino; Alimandi, Maurizio; Raffa, Salvatore; Santino, Iolanda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some bacterial pathogens to activate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition normally is a consequence of the persistence of a local chronic inflammatory response or depends on a direct interaction of the pathogens with the host epithelial cells. In this study we monitored the abilities of the K. pneumoniae to activate the expression of genes related to EMT-like processes and the occurrence of phenotypic changes in airway epithelial cells during the early steps of cell infection. We describe changes in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased HIF-1α mRNA expression in cells exposed to K. pneumoniae infection. We also describe the upregulation of a set of transcription factors implicated in the EMT processes, such as Twist, Snail and ZEB, indicating that the morphological changes of epithelial cells already appreciable after few hours from the K. pneumoniae infection are tightly regulated by the activation of transcriptional pathways, driving epithelial cells to EMT. These effects appear to be effectively counteracted by resveratrol, an antioxidant that is able to exert a sustained scavenging of the intracellular ROS. This is the first report indicating that strains of K. pneumoniae may promote EMT-like programs through direct interaction with epithelial cells without the involvement of inflammatory cells. PMID:26812644

  14. IgH-2 cells: a reptilian model for apoptotic studies.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Erika B; Mesner, Peter W

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of proper cell number in tissues depends upon a balance between cell proliferation and cell death. The process of apoptosis has thus far been studied in a variety of multicellular organisms from humans to higher plants. In order to broaden our perspective and identify another metazoan system with which to deepen our understanding of the function and evolution of the apoptotic machinery, we have characterized cell death in a reptilian cell line. We show that the death of IgH-2 Iguana (Iguana iguana) heart cells [Clark, H.F., Cohen, M.M., Karzon, D.T., 1970. Characterization of reptilian cell lines established at incubation temperatures of 23 to 36 degrees. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133, 1039-1047.] is, in response to DNA damaging agents, accompanied by classic morphological changes of apoptosis including detachment from the substrate, cell shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and externalization of the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine. Our biochemical studies show that the death of IgH-2 cells is accompanied by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and activation of caspases. Our studies with the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk implicate caspases in the apoptotic process we observe. This work represents the first detailed molecular and biochemical analysis of apoptosis in cells of an organism of class Reptilia and establishes IgH-2 cells as a suitable model system with which to investigate the phenomenon of caspase dependent apoptosis and the apoptotic machinery in a reptilian model.

  15. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rebecca N.; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.; Duncan, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell–Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell–derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell–Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell–derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  16. A recombinant fungal compound induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nimri, Lili; Spivak, Orly; Tal, Dana; Schälling, Dominik; Peri, Irena; Graeve, Lutz; Salame, Tomer M; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty

    2017-04-25

    Finding intracellular pathways and molecules that can prevent the proliferation of colon cancer cells can provide significant bases for developing treatments for this disease. Ostreolysin (Oly) is a protein found in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, and we have produced a recombinant version of this protein (rOly).We measured the viability of several colon cancer cells treated with rOly. Xenografts and syngeneic colon cancer cells were injected into in vivo mouse models, which were then treated with this recombinant protein.rOly treatment induced a significant reduction in viability of human and mouse colon cancer cells. In contrast, there was no reduction in the viability of normal epithelial cells from the small intestine. In the search for cellular targets of rOly, we showed that it enhances the anti-proliferative activity of drugs targeting cellular tubulin. This was accompanied by a reduction in the weight and volume of tumours in mice injected with rOly as compared to their respective control mice in two in vivo models.Our results advance the functional understanding of rOly as a potential anti-cancer treatment associated with pro-apoptotic activities preferentially targeting colon cancer cells.

  17. A recombinant fungal compound induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Nimri, Lili; Spivak, Orly; Tal, Dana; Schälling, Dominik; Peri, Irena; Graeve, Lutz; Salame, Tomer M.; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Finding intracellular pathways and molecules that can prevent the proliferation of colon cancer cells can provide significant bases for developing treatments for this disease. Ostreolysin (Oly) is a protein found in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, and we have produced a recombinant version of this protein (rOly). We measured the viability of several colon cancer cells treated with rOly. Xenografts and syngeneic colon cancer cells were injected into in vivo mouse models, which were then treated with this recombinant protein. rOly treatment induced a significant reduction in viability of human and mouse colon cancer cells. In contrast, there was no reduction in the viability of normal epithelial cells from the small intestine. In the search for cellular targets of rOly, we showed that it enhances the anti-proliferative activity of drugs targeting cellular tubulin. This was accompanied by a reduction in the weight and volume of tumours in mice injected with rOly as compared to their respective control mice in two in vivo models. Our results advance the functional understanding of rOly as a potential anti-cancer treatment associated with pro-apoptotic activities preferentially targeting colon cancer cells. PMID:28416764

  18. Cytoplasmic myosin exposed apoptotic cells appear with caspase-3 activation and enhance CLL cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lu; Magli, Amanda R.; Catera, Rosa; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Griffin, Daniel O.; Rothstein, Thomas L.; Barrientos, Jacqueline; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Allen, Steven L.; Rai, Kanti R.; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Chu, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    The degree of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) binding to myosin exposed apoptotic cells (MEACs) correlates with worse patient outcomes, suggesting a link to disease activity. Therefore, we studied MEAC formation and the effects of MEAC binding on CLL cells. In cell line studies, both intrinsic (spontaneous or camptothecin-induced) and extrinsic (FasL- or anti-Fas-induced) apoptosis created a high percent of MEACs over time in a process associated with caspase-3 activation, leading to cytoplasmic myosin cleavage and trafficking to cell membranes. The involvement of common apoptosis pathways suggests that most cells can produce MEACs and indeed CLL cells themselves form MEACs. Consistent with the idea that MEAC formation may be a signal to remove dying cells, we found that natural IgM antibodies bind to MEACs. Functionally, co-culture of MEACs with CLL cells, regardless of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene mutation status, improved leukemic cell viability. Based on inhibitor studies, this improved viability involved BCR signaling molecules. These results support the hypothesis that stimulation of CLL cells with antigen, such as those on MEACs, promotes CLL cell viability, which in turn could lead to progression to worse disease. PMID:26220042

  19. Ouabain modulates epithelial cell tight junction

    PubMed Central

    Larre, Isabel; Lazaro, Amparo; Contreras, Ruben G.; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Ponce, Arturo; Flores-Benitez, David; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Castillo, Aída; Shoshani, Liora; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial cells treated with high concentrations of ouabain (e.g., 1 μM) retrieve molecules involved in cell contacts from the plasma membrane and detach from one another and their substrates. On the basis of this observation, we suggested that ouabain might also modulate cell contacts at low, nontoxic levels (10 or 50 nM). To test this possibility, we analyzed its effect on a particular type of cell–cell contact: the tight junction (TJ). We demonstrate that at concentrations that neither inhibit K+ pumping nor disturb the K+ balance of the cell, ouabain modulates the degree of sealing of the TJ as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the flux of neutral 3 kDa dextran (JDEX). This modulation is accompanied by changes in the levels and distribution patterns of claudins 1, 2, and 4. Interestingly, changes in TER, JDEX, and claudins behavior are mediated through signal pathways containing ERK1/2 and c-Src, which have distinct effects on each physiological parameter and claudin type. These observations support the theory that at low concentrations, ouabain acts as a modulator of cell–cell contacts. PMID:20534449

  20. Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1.

    PubMed

    Gudipaty, S A; Lindblom, J; Loftus, P D; Redd, M J; Edes, K; Davey, C F; Krishnegowda, V; Rosenblatt, J

    2017-03-02

    Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state. Here we show that mammalian epithelial cell division occurs in regions of low cell density where cells are stretched. By experimentally stretching epithelia, we find that mechanical stretch itself rapidly stimulates cell division through activation of the Piezo1 channel. To stimulate cell division, stretch triggers cells that are paused in early G2 phase to activate calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, thereby activating the cyclin B transcription that is necessary to drive cells into mitosis. Although both epithelial cell division and cell extrusion require Piezo1 at the steady state, the type of mechanical force controls the outcome: stretch induces cell division, whereas crowding induces extrusion. How Piezo1-dependent calcium transients activate two opposing processes may depend on where and how Piezo1 is activated, as it accumulates in different subcellular sites with increasing cell density. In sparse epithelial regions in which cells divide, Piezo1 localizes to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, whereas in dense regions in which cells extrude, it forms large cytoplasmic aggregates. Because Piezo1 senses both mechanical crowding and stretch, it may act as a homeostatic sensor to control epithelial cell numbers, triggering extrusion and apoptosis in crowded regions and cell division in sparse regions.

  1. Proteinase 3 on apoptotic cells disrupts immune silencing in autoimmune vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Millet, Arnaud; Martin, Katherine R; Bonnefoy, Francis; Saas, Philippe; Mocek, Julie; Alkan, Manal; Terrier, Benjamin; Kerstein, Anja; Tamassia, Nicola; Satyanarayanan, Senthil Kumaran; Ariel, Amiram; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Guillevin, Loïc; Cassatella, Marco A; Mueller, Antje; Thieblemont, Nathalie; Lamprecht, Peter; Mouthon, Luc; Perruche, Sylvain; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2015-11-02

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that is associated with granulomatous inflammation and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We previously determined that PR3 on the surface of apoptotic neutrophils interferes with induction of antiinflammatory mechanisms following phagocytosis of these cells by macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that enzymatically active membrane-associated PR3 on apoptotic cells triggered secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) and chemokines. This response required the IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling pathway and was dependent on the synthesis of NO, as macrophages from animals lacking these pathways did not exhibit a PR3-associated proinflammatory response. The PR3-induced microenvironment facilitated recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and neutrophils, which were observed in close proximity within granulomatous lesions in the lungs of GPA patients. In different murine models of apoptotic cell injection, the PR3-induced microenvironment instructed pDC-driven Th9/Th2 cell generation. Concomitant injection of anti-PR3 ANCAs with PR3-expressing apoptotic cells induced a Th17 response, revealing a GPA-specific mechanism of immune polarization. Accordingly, circulating CD4+ T cells from GPA patients had a skewed distribution of Th9/Th2/Th17. These results reveal that PR3 disrupts immune silencing associated with clearance of apoptotic neutrophils and provide insight into how PR3 and PR3-targeting ANCAs promote GPA pathophysiology.

  2. Proteinase 3 on apoptotic cells disrupts immune silencing in autoimmune vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Arnaud; Martin, Katherine R.; Bonnefoy, Francis; Saas, Philippe; Mocek, Julie; Alkan, Manal; Terrier, Benjamin; Kerstein, Anja; Tamassia, Nicola; Satyanarayanan, Senthil Kumaran; Ariel, Amiram; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Guillevin, Loïc; Cassatella, Marco A.; Mueller, Antje; Thieblemont, Nathalie; Lamprecht, Peter; Mouthon, Luc; Perruche, Sylvain; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that is associated with granulomatous inflammation and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We previously determined that PR3 on the surface of apoptotic neutrophils interferes with induction of antiinflammatory mechanisms following phagocytosis of these cells by macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that enzymatically active membrane-associated PR3 on apoptotic cells triggered secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) and chemokines. This response required the IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling pathway and was dependent on the synthesis of NO, as macrophages from animals lacking these pathways did not exhibit a PR3-associated proinflammatory response. The PR3-induced microenvironment facilitated recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and neutrophils, which were observed in close proximity within granulomatous lesions in the lungs of GPA patients. In different murine models of apoptotic cell injection, the PR3-induced microenvironment instructed pDC-driven Th9/Th2 cell generation. Concomitant injection of anti-PR3 ANCAs with PR3-expressing apoptotic cells induced a Th17 response, revealing a GPA-specific mechanism of immune polarization. Accordingly, circulating CD4+ T cells from GPA patients had a skewed distribution of Th9/Th2/Th17. These results reveal that PR3 disrupts immune silencing associated with clearance of apoptotic neutrophils and provide insight into how PR3 and PR3-targeting ANCAs promote GPA pathophysiology. PMID:26436651

  3. Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Binds to Phosphatidylserine Exposing Cells with Implications in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Activated Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10–30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal. PMID:25000564

  4. Using Small Molecules to Dissect Non-apoptotic Programmed Cell Death: Necroptosis, Ferroptosis, and Pyroptosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Liao, Daohong; Liu, Xiaohui; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2015-12-01

    Genetically programmed cell death is a universal and fundamental cellular process in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis and necroptosis, two common forms of programmed cell death, play vital roles in maintenance of homeostasis in metazoans. Dysfunction of the regulatory machinery of these processes can lead to carcinogenesis or autoimmune diseases. Inappropriate death of essential cells can lead to organ dysfunction or even death; ischemia-reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative disorders are examples of this. Recently, novel forms of non-apoptotic programmed cell death have been identified. Although these forms of cell death play significant roles in both physiological and pathological conditions, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying them are still poorly understood. Here, we discuss progress in using small molecules to dissect three forms of non-apoptotic programmed cell death: necroptosis, ferroptosis, and pyroptosis.

  5. The apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Güney, G; Kutlu, H M; Işcan, A

    2013-06-01

    Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component β-escin or escin. We have evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras 5RP7 cell line by analyzing cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and caspase-3 dependent activity. We have also shown structural and ultrastructural changes in these cell using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has significant inhibitory effects on cell growth and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased after treatment with escin, and the micrographs confirmed that escin damaged these cells and induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Control of signaling-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells by the tumor suppressor p53

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Byun, Sanguine; Kwon, Eunjeong; Hwang, So-Young; Chu, Kiki; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Jo, Seung-Hee; Weins, Astrid; Hakroush, Samy; Cebulla, Angelika; Sykes, David B.; Greka, Anna; Mundel, Peter; Fisher, David E.; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W.

    2016-01-01

    The inefficient clearance of dying cells can lead to abnormal immune responses, such as unresolved inflammation and autoimmune conditions. We show that tumor suppressor p53 controls signaling-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through its target, Death Domain1α (DD1α), which suggests that p53 promotes both the proapoptotic pathway and postapoptotic events. DD1α appears to function as an engulfment ligand or receptor that engages in homophilic intermolecular interaction at intercellular junctions of apoptotic cells and macrophages, unlike other typical scavenger receptors that recognize phosphatidylserine on the surface of dead cells. DD1α-deficient mice showed in vivo defects in clearing dying cells, which led to multiple organ damage indicative of immune dysfunction. p53-induced expression of DD1α thus prevents persistence of cell corpses and ensures efficient generation of precise immune responses. PMID:26228159

  7. Heterogeneity and stochastic growth regulation of biliary epithelial cells dictate dynamic epithelial tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kamimoto, Kenji; Kaneko, Kota; Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Okada, Hajime; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2016-07-19

    Dynamic remodeling of the intrahepatic biliary epithelial tissue plays key roles in liver regeneration, yet the cellular basis for this process remains unclear. We took an unbiased approach based on in vivo clonal labeling and tracking of biliary epithelial cells in the three-dimensional landscape, in combination with mathematical simulation, to understand their mode of proliferation in a mouse liver injury model where the nascent biliary structure formed in a tissue-intrinsic manner. An apparent heterogeneity among biliary epithelial cells was observed: whereas most of the responders that entered the cell cycle upon injury exhibited a limited and tapering growth potential, a select population continued to proliferate, making a major contribution in sustaining the biliary expansion. Our study has highlighted a unique mode of epithelial tissue dynamics, which depends not on a hierarchical system driven by fixated stem cells, but rather, on a stochastically maintained progenitor population with persistent proliferative activity.

  8. Artocarpus communis Induces Autophagic Instead of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, natural plant extracts have played an important role in traditional medicine for curing and preventing diseases. Studies have revealed that Artocarpus communis possess various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities. A. communis offers economic value as a source of edible fruit, yields timber, and is widely used in folk medicines. However, little is known about its molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of A. communis methanol extract (AM) and its dichloromethane fraction (AD) in two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. Colony assay showed the long-term inhibitory effect of both extracts on cell growth. DNA laddering and immunoblotting analyses revealed that both extracts did not induce apoptosis in the hepatoma cell lines. AM and AD-treated cells demonstrated different cell cycle distribution compared to UV-treated cells, which presented apoptotic cell death with high sub-G1 ratio. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that AM and AD triggered autophagosome accumulation. Immunoblotting showed a significant expression of autophagy-related proteins, which indicated the autophagic cell death (ACD) of hepatoma cell lines. This study therefore demonstrates that A. communis AM and its dichloromethane fraction can induce ACD in HCC cells and elucidates the potential of A. communis extracts for development as anti tumor therapeutic agents that utilize autophagy as mechanism in mediating cancer cell death.

  9. Pro-apoptotic cell death genes, hid and reaper, from the tephritid pest species, Anastrepha suspensa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pro-apoptotic proteins from the reaper, hid, grim (RHG) family are primary regulators of programmed cell death in Drosophila due to their antagonistic effect on inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, thereby releasing IAP inhibition of caspases that effect apoptosis. Using a degenerate PCR approach ...

  10. Isolation and prevention of calcium oxalate-induced apoptotic death and oxidative stress in MDCK cells by diosgenin.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sarmistha; Goswami, Gagan; Pandrangi, Anupama

    2014-12-05

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) has been shown to be the most frequent constituent of kidney stones. The interactions of cells with COM crystals produce a variety of physiological and pathological changes including the development of oxidative stress, cellular injury and apoptosis. On the other hand, diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, is well known for its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether diosgenin protects MDCK renal epithelial cells from COM-induced apoptotic death. Diosgenin was isolated from fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum by silica gel column chromatography. It was obtained in high yields (1.23%) and the purity was ascertained by HPTLC analysis. Characterization of diosgenin was done by mp, UV-visible spectrophotometry, elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analysis. Cells were co-incubated with COM (80μg/cm(2)) and diosgenin (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10μg/mL) for 24h. It was found that diosgenin attenuated the apoptotic death induced by COM as measured in terms of cell viability, caspase -9/3 activities and DNA fragmentation percent. The inhibitory role of diosgenin on caspase -9/3 activities was also analyzed using molecular docking experiments, which showed interactions to their active sites by H-bonds. Diosgenin also attenuated the increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion induced by COM crystals. In conclusion, the preventive effect of diosgenin is associated to the inhibition of oxidative stress and caspases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-03-22

    Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell-cell and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A.; Navarro-Villarán, E.; González, R.; Pereira, S.; Soriano-De Castro, L.B.; Sarrias-Giménez, A.; Barrera-Pulido, L.; Álamo-Martínez, J.M.; Serrablo-Requejo, A.; Blanco-Fernández, G.; Nogales-Muñoz, A.; Gila-Bohórquez, A.; Pacheco, D.; Torres-Nieto, M.A.; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J.; Suárez-Artacho, G.; Bernal-Bellido, C.; Marín-Gómez, L.M.; Barcena, J.A.; Gómez-Bravo, M.A.; Padilla, C.A.; Padillo, F.J.; Muntané, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10 nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells. PMID:26233703

  13. Pure populations of murine macrophages from cultured embryonic stem cells. Application to studies of chemotaxis and apoptotic cell clearance.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Lihui; Pound, John D; Willems, Jorine J L P; Taylor, A Helen; Forrester, Lesley M; Gregory, Christopher D

    2012-11-30

    Embryonic stem cells provide a potentially convenient source of macrophages in the laboratory. Given the propensity of macrophages for plasticity in phenotype and function, standardised culture and differentiation protocols are required to ensure consistency in population output and activity in functional assays. Here we detail the development of an optimised culture protocol for the production of murine embryonic stem cell-derived macrophages (ESDM). This protocol provides improved yields of ESDM and we demonstrate that the cells are suitable for application to the study of macrophage responses to apoptotic cells. ESDM so produced were of higher purity than commonly used primary macrophage preparations and were functional in chemotaxis assays and in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Maturation of ESDM was found to be associated with reduced capacity for directed migration and increased capacity for phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. These results show ESDM to be functionally active in sequential phases of interaction with apoptotic cells and establish these macrophage populations as useful models for further study of molecular mechanisms underlying the recognition and removal of apoptotic cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Curcumin induces apoptotic cell death via Oct4 inhibition and GSK-3β activation in NCCIT cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Ho; Park, Young Gyun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jungho; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-06-01

    Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a key regulator of pluripotent embryonic stem cell maintenance. However, increasing evidence has suggested that Oct4 is also expressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs) and is associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance. Curcumin (CUR) is a widely used cancer chemopreventive agent, and it has been used to treat several diseases including cancers. Here, we investigated whether CUR-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting Oct4 levels and examining molecular mechanisms in NCCIT human embryonic carcinoma cells. CUR significantly inhibited Oct4 transcription levels in a dose-dependent manner by dual luciferase experiment, also decreased mRNA and protein levels in NCCIT human embryonic carcinoma cells, which express high levels of endogenous Oct4. Interestingly, we found that CUR treatment increased apoptotic cell death including subG0/G1 contents, cleavage caspases, and pro-apoptotic protein, as confirmed with a series of loss-of-function experiments using Oct4 siRNA. Furthermore, CUR induced marked total level of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β), resulting in an increase in apoptotic cell death, was evaluated using chemical inhibitor of GSK3-3β. These data suggest that CUR induces apoptotic cell death through Oct4 inhibition and GSK-3β activation. Thus, CUR may be a useful cancer chemopreventive agent to suppress tumor progression or to improve chemoresistance by eliminating CSCs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death induced by Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in A431 skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grace Nirmala, J; Evangeline Celsia, S; Swaminathan, Akila; Narendhirakannan, R T; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2017-10-05

    Vitis vinifera. L is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world and are rich in antioxidant abundant polyphenols. The present study was carried out to assess the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in an in vitro model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell lines. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were incubated with A431 cells to evaluate the antiproliferative, apoptotic effects and the morphological apoptotic changes induced by the extracts. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also measured after incubating the cells with extracts. At the inhibitory concentration (IC50), grape seed extract (111.11 µg/mL) and grape peel extract (319.14 µg/mL) were incubated for 24 h with A431 cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were able to impart cytotoxic effects, induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphological changes in A431 cells significantly (p < 0.01) and this effect is associated with the interference with mitochondrial membrane potential. This reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential probably initiated the apoptotic cascade in the extracts treated cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed phytochemicals can selectively target cancer cells and the phytochemicals that are occluded can serve as potential anticancer agents providing better efficacy in killing cancer cells.

  16. Non-apoptotic toxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward murine cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanhita; Bonfield, Tracey; Tartakoff, Alan M

    2013-01-01

    Although P. aeruginosa is especially dangerous in cystic fibrosis (CF), there is no consensus as to how it kills representative cell types that are of key importance in the lung. This study concerns the acute toxicity of the sequenced strain, PAO1, toward a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Toxicity requires brief contact with the target cell, but is then delayed for more than 12 h. None of the classical toxic effectors of this organism is required and cell death occurs without phagocytosis or acute perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton. Apoptosis is not required for toxicity toward either RAW 264.7 cells or for alveolar macrophages. Transcriptional profiling shows that encounter between PAO1 and RAW 264.7 cells elicits an early inflammatory response, followed by growth arrest. As an independent strategy to understand the mechanism of toxicity, we selected variant RAW 264.7 cells that resist PAO1. Upon exposure to P. aeruginosa, they are hyper-responsive with regard to classical inflammatory cytokine production and show transient downregulation of transcripts that are required for cell growth. They do not show obvious morphologic changes. Although they do not increase interferon transcripts, when exposed to PAO1 they dramatically upregulate a subset of the responses that are characteristic of exposure to g-interferon, including several guanylate-binding proteins. The present observations provide a novel foundation for learning how to equip cells with resistance to a complex challenge.

  17. Corneal epithelial stem cells: deficiency and regulation.

    PubMed

    Secker, Genevieve A; Daniels, Julie T

    2008-09-01

    The corneal epithelium is continuously renewed by a population of stem cells that reside in the corneoscleral junction, otherwise known as the limbus. These limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) are imperative for corneal maintenance with deficiencies leading to in-growth of conjunctival cells, neovascularisation of the corneal stroma and eventual corneal opacity and visual loss. One such disease that has traditionally been thought to be due to LESC deficiency is aniridia, a pan-ocular congenital eye disease due to mutations in the PAX6 gene. Corneal changes or aniridia related keratopathy (ARK) seen in aniridia are typical of LESC deficiency. However, the pathophysiology behind ARK is still ill defined, with current theories suggesting it may be caused by a deficiency in the stem cell niche and adjacent corneal stroma, with altered wound healing responses also playing a role (Ramaesh et al, International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 37:547-557, 2005) or abnormal epidermal differentiation of LESC (Li et al., The Journal of Pathology 214:9, 2008). PAX6 is considered the master control gene for the eye and is required for normal eye development with expression continuing in the adult cornea, thus inferring a role for corneal repair and regeneration (Sivak et al., Developments in Biologicals 222:41-54, 2000). Studies of models of Pax6 deficiency, such as the small eyed (sey) mouse, should help to reveal the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms involved in normal LESC function.

  18. STUDIES ON AN EPITHELIAL (GLAND) CELL JUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, Werner R.; Kanno, Yoshinobu

    1964-01-01

    Membrane permeability of an epithelial cell junction (Drosophila salivary gland) was examined with intracellular microelectrodes and with fluorescent tracers. In contrast to the non-junctional cell membrane surface, which has a low permeability to ions (10-4 mho/cm2), the junctional membrane surface is highly permeable. In fact, it introduces no substantial restriction to ion flow beyond that in the cytoplasm; the resistance through a chain of cells (150 Ω cm) is only slightly greater than in extruded cytoplasm (100 Ω cm). The diffusion resistance along the intercellular space to the exterior, on the other hand, is very high. Here, there exists an ion barrier of, at least, 104Ω cm2. As a result, small ions and fluorescein move rather freely from one cell to the next, but do not leak appreciably through the intercellular space to the exterior. The organ here, rather than the single cell, appears to be the unit of ion environment. The possible underlying structural aspects are discussed. PMID:14206423

  19. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  20. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID

  1. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L.; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus. PMID

  2. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-04-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus.

  3. Apoptotic regulation and mutagenesis in human cells exposes to charged particles of importance for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Gauny, S.; Hain, J.; Wu, P.; Wiese, C.

    Exposure to ionizing radiation can elicit two modes of cell death - necrosis or apoptosis. In human lymphoid cells, the predominant mechanism of radiation- induced cell death is apoptosis. The most likely exposure of individual human cells to heavy ions (e.g. Fe or Si) during spaceflight will result from single particle traversals. Here we report the fluence-response for apoptosis in human TK6 B- lymp hoblasts and provide evidence that single Fe ion traversals can stimulate an apoptotic response. The apoptotic response to charged particle exposures includes scrambling of the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane, activation of caspase signaling cascades and degradation of DNA into oligonucleosomes. We have also explored the importance of apoptotic regulation on the frequency and spectrum of mutations arising after exposure to charged particles. We used isogenic derivatives of TK6 cells stably transfected with pSFFV-neo-bcl-xL (encoding the anti-apoptotic gene BCL-XL and the neomycin resistance gene) or with pSFFV neo (encoding only- the neomycin resistance gene). TK6-bclxL cells were more susceptible to mutations at the TK1 locus than TK6-neo cells following exposure to protons, silicon ions or Fe ions. Molecular analysis demonstrated that most Fe-ion-induced mutations arose by loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In TK6-bclxL cells, more of the LOH occurred via mitotic recombination than in TK6-neo cells where the predominant mode of LOH was via deletion. We are currently mapping the LOH tracts to further define the biological bases for the differential sensitivity to Fe-ion-induced mutagenesis as a function of the genotype of the cell at risk. Supported by NASA grant T-964W to A. Kronenberg

  4. Human NK cells activated by EBV+ lymphoblastoid cells overcome anti-apoptotic mechanisms of drug resistance in haematological cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Azaceta, Gemma; Muntasell, Aura; Aguiló, Nacho; Núñez, David; Gálvez, Eva M; Naval, Javier; Anel, Alberto; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; Marzo, Isabel; Villalba, Martín; Pardo, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells recognize and eliminate transformed or infected cells that have downregulated MHC class-I and express specific activating ligands. Recent evidence indicates that allogeneic NK cells are useful to eliminate haematological cancer cells independently of MHC-I expression. However, it is unclear if transformed cells expressing mutations that confer anti-apoptotic properties and chemoresistance will be susceptible to NK cells. Allogeneic primary human NK cells were activated using different protocols and prospectively tested for their ability to eliminate diverse mutant haematological and apoptotic-resistant cancer cell lines as well as patient-derived B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with chemotherapy multiresistance. Here, we show that human NK cells from healthy donors activated in vitro with Epstein Barr virus positive (EBV+)-lymphoblastoid cells display an enhanced cytotoxic and proliferative potential in comparison to other protocols of activation such a K562 cells plus interleukin (IL)2. This enhancement enables them to kill more efficiently a variety of haematological cancer cell lines, including a panel of transfectants that mimic natural mutations leading to oncogenic transformation and chemoresistance (e.g., overexpression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 or downregulation of p53, Bak/Bax or caspase activity). The effect was also observed against blasts from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients showing multi-resistance to chemotherapy. Our findings demonstrate that particular in vitro activated NK cells may overcome anti-apoptotic mechanisms and oncogenic alterations frequently occurring in transformed cells, pointing toward the use of EBV+-lymphoblastoid cells as a desirable strategy to activate NK cells in vitro for the purpose of treating haematological neoplasia with poor prognosis. PMID:25949911

  5. Multi-functionality and plasticity characterize epithelial cells in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Buzgariu, W; Al Haddad, S; Tomczyk, S; Wenger, Y; Galliot, B

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular features. These multifunctional contractile cells maintain homeostasis by providing a protective physical barrier, by digesting nutrients, by selecting a stable microbiota, and by rapidly closing wounds. In addition, epithelial cells are highly plastic, supporting the adaptation of Hydra to physiological and environmental changes, such as long starvation periods where survival relies on a highly dynamic autophagy flux. Epithelial cells also play key roles in developmental processes as evidenced by the organizer activity they develop to promote budding and regeneration. We propose here an integrative view of the homeostatic and developmental aspects of epithelial plasticity in Hydra. PMID:26716072

  6. Cadmium induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl(2) and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl(2) concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis.

  7. Cadmium Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P.; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl2 and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl2 concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22448262

  8. Detecting apoptotic cells and monitoring their clearance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nan; Yu, Xiaomeng; He, Xiangwei; Zhou, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is a genetically controlled process of cell suicide that plays an important role in animal development and in maintaining homeostasis. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an excellent model organism for studying the mechanisms controlling apoptosis and the subsequent clearance of apoptotic cells, aided with cell-biological and genetic tools. In particular, the transparent nature of worm bodies and eggshells makes C. elegans particularly amiable for live cell microscopy. Here we describe a few methods for identifying apoptotic cells in living C. elegans embryos and adults and for monitoring their clearance during embryonic development. These methods are based on Differential Interference Contrast microscopy and on fluorescence microscopy using GFP-based reporters.

  9. Impact of alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa on alveolar macrophage apoptotic cell clearance

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Christophe; Serban, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Acute infection with P. aeruginosa profoundly inhibits alveolar macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) via direct effect of virulence factors. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa evades host defense by decreased virulence, which includes the production or, in the case of mucoidy, overproduction of alginate. The impact of alginate on innate immunity, in particular on macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells is not known. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa strains that exhibit reduced virulence impair macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells and we investigated if the polysaccharide alginate produced by mucoid P. aeruginosa is sufficient to inhibit alveolar macrophage efferocytosis. Rat alveolar or human peripheral blood monocyte (THP-1)-derived macrophages cell lines were exposed in vitro to exogenous alginate or to wild type or alginate-overproducing mucoid P. aeruginosa prior to challenge with apoptotic human Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The importance of LPS contamination and that of structural integrity of alginate polymers was tested using alginate of different purities and alginate lyase, respectively. Alginate inhibited alveolar macrophage efferocytosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was augmented but not exclusively attributed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in alginates. Alginate-producing P. aeruginosa inhibited macrophage efferocytosis by more than 50%. Although alginate lyase did not significantly restore efferocytosis in the presence of exogenous alginate, it had a marked beneficial effect on efferocytosis of alveolar macrophages exposed to mucoid P. aeruginosa. Despite decreased virulence, mucoid P. aeruginosa may contribute to ongoing airway inflammation through significant inhibition of alveolar clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The mechanism by which mucoid bacteria inhibit efferocytosis may involve alginate production and

  10. Impact of alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa on alveolar macrophage apoptotic cell clearance.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Charles A; Petrusca, Daniela N; Poirier, Christophe; Serban, Karina A; Anderson, Gregory G; Petrache, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Acute infection with P. aeruginosa profoundly inhibits alveolar macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) via direct effect of virulence factors. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa evades host defense by decreased virulence, which includes the production or, in the case of mucoidy, overproduction of alginate. The impact of alginate on innate immunity, in particular on macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells is not known. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa strains that exhibit reduced virulence impair macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells and we investigated if the polysaccharide alginate produced by mucoid P. aeruginosa is sufficient to inhibit alveolar macrophage efferocytosis. Rat alveolar or human peripheral blood monocyte (THP-1)-derived macrophage cell lines were exposed in vitro to exogenous alginate or to wild type or alginate-overproducing mucoid P. aeruginosa prior to challenge with apoptotic human Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The importance of LPS contamination and that of structural integrity of alginate polymers was tested using alginate of different purities and alginate lyase, respectively. Alginate inhibited alveolar macrophage efferocytosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was augmented but not exclusively attributed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in alginates. Alginate-producing P. aeruginosa inhibited macrophage efferocytosis by more than 50%. A mannuronic-specific alginate lyase did not restore efferocytosis inhibited by exogenous guluronic-rich marine alginate, but had a marked beneficial effect on efferocytosis of alveolar macrophages exposed to mucoid P. aeruginosa. Despite decreased virulence, mucoid P. aeruginosa may contribute to chronic airway inflammation through significant inhibition of alveolar clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The mechanism by which mucoid bacteria inhibit efferocytosis may involve alginate

  11. Contribution of apoptotic cell death to renal injury.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, A; Lorz, C; Justo, P; Catalán, M P; Egido, J

    2001-01-01

    Cell number abnormalities are frequent in renal diseases, and range from the hypercellularity of postinfectious glomerulonephritis to the cell depletion of chronic renal atrophy. Recent research has shown that apoptosis and its regulatory mechanisms contribute to cell number regulation in the kidney. The role of apoptosis ranges from induction to repair and progression of renal injury. Death ligands and receptors, such as TNF and FasL, proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and caspases have all been shown to participate in apoptosis regulation in the course of renal injury. These proteins represent potential therapeutic targets, which should be further explored.

  12. Paraquat induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like cellular response resulting in fibrogenesis and the prevention of apoptosis in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsushi; Aki, Toshihiko; Unuma, Kana; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying delayed progressive pulmonary fibrosis, a characteristic of subacute paraquat (PQ) poisoning. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a cause of organ fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is suggested to be a powerful mediator of EMT. We thus examined the possibility that EMT is involved in pulmonary fibrosis during PQ poisoning using A549 human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. The cells were treated with various concentrations of PQ (0-500 μM) for 2-12 days. Short-term (2 days) high-dose (>100 μM) treatments with PQ induced cell death accompanied by the activation of caspase9 as well as a decrease in E-cadherin (an epithelial cell marker), suggesting apoptotic cell death with the features of anoikis (cell death due to the loss of cell-cell adhesion). In contrast, long-term (6-12 days) low-dose (30 μM) treatments with PQ resulted in a transformation into spindle-shaped mesenchymal-like cells with a decrease of E-cadherin as well as an increase of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The mesenchymal-like cells also secreted the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin into the culture medium. The administration of a TGF-β1 receptor antagonist, SB431542, almost completely attenuated the mesenchymal transformation as well as fibronectin secretion, suggesting a crucial role of TGF-β1 in EMT-like cellular response and subsequent fibrogenesis. It is noteworthy that despite the suppression of EMT-fibrogenesis, apoptotic death was observed in cells treated with PQ+SB431542. EMT-like cellular response and subsequent fibrogenesis were also observed in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells exposed to PQ in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Taken together, our experimental model reflects well the etiology of PQ poisoning in human and shows the involvement of EMT-like cellular response in both fibrogenesis and resistance to cell death during subacute PQ

  13. Collective epithelial migration and cell rearrangements drive mammary branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Andrew J; Brenot, Audrey; Duong, Myhanh; Chan, Bianca S; Werb, Zena

    2008-04-01

    Epithelial organs are built through the movement of groups of interconnected cells. We observed cells in elongating mammary ducts reorganize into a multilayered epithelium, migrate collectively, and rearrange dynamically, all without forming leading cellular extensions. Duct initiation required proliferation, Rac, and myosin light-chain kinase, whereas repolarization to a bilayer depended on Rho kinase. We observed that branching morphogenesis results from the active motility of both luminal and myoepithelial cells. Luminal epithelial cells advanced collectively, whereas myoepithelial cells appeared to restrain elongating ducts. Significantly, we observed that normal epithelium and neoplastic hyperplasias are organized similarly, suggesting common mechanisms of epithelial growth.

  14. A single intravenous infusion of apoptotic cells, an alternative cell-based therapy approach facilitating hematopoietic cell engraftment, did not induce autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Perruche, Sylvain; Kleinclauss, François; Angonin, Régis; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Deconinck, Eric; Reininger, Luc; Boucraut, José; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2003-08-01

    Previously, we reported that intravenous infusion of apoptotic leukocytes facilitated bone marrow (BM) engraftment across major histocompatibility barriers. This cell-based therapeutic approach is of great interest for stem cell therapy across histocompatibility barriers. Autoimmunity associated with apoptotic cell administration may, however, limit the use of this approach. Indeed, autoantigens are concentrated on the surface of apoptotic cells, and defective clearance of apoptotic bodies is associated with the occurrence of systemic autoimmune disease. In consequence, we assessed the autoimmune responses raised against ubiquitous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and cardiolipin autoantigens following a single intravenous infusion of apoptotic cells simultaneously to allogeneic BM administration. No difference was observed between levels of natural circulating immunoglobulin M (IgM) (anti-dsDNA and anti-cardiolipin) autoantibodies found in mice receiving allogeneic BM alone and those found in mice receiving apoptotic cells also. Pathogenic IgG autoantibody titers after apoptotic cell infusion were 9- to 200-fold lower than autoantibody titers found in lupus-prone mice and not different from titers detected in BM grafted mice. Kinetic analysis of autoantibodies after transplantation did not demonstrate any immunization against tested autoantigens after apoptotic cell infusion. Finally, neither immune complex deposition nor specific lesions were observed in the renal glomeruli of mice infused with apoptotic cells 9 months post-BM transplantation. Overall, these results show no specific toxicity of a single infusion of apoptotic cells administrated simultaneously to BM and may also shed light on factors influencing the immunogenic properties of apoptotic cells.

  15. Interactions of pro-apoptotic BH3 proteins with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins measured in live MCF-7 cells using FLIM FRET.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W

    2012-10-01

    Increased interactions between pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins at mitochondria result in tumor initiation, progression and resistance to traditional chemotherapy. Drugs that mimic the BH3 region are expected to release BH3-only proteins from anti-apoptotic proteins, inducing apoptosis in some cancer cells and sensitizing others to chemotherapy. Recently, we applied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer to measure protein:protein interactions for the Bcl-2 family of proteins in live MCF-7 cells using fluorescent fusion proteins. While the BH3-proteins bound to Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 inhibited binding of only Bad and tBid, but not Bim. We have extended our studies by investigating ABT-263, a clinical drug based on ABT-737. We show that the inhibitory effects and pattern of the two drugs are comparable for both Bcl-XL and Bcl-2. Furthermore, we show that mutation of a conserved residue in the BH3 region in Bad and tBid disrupted their interactions with Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, while the corresponding BimEL mutant showed no decrease in binding to these anti-apoptotic proteins. Therefore, in MCF-7 cells, Bim has unique binding properties compared with other BH3-only proteins that resist displacement from Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 by BH3 mimetics.

  16. Osteopontin traffic in hypoxic renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Dierk J; Sansome, Christine; Romanov, Victor I; Kowalski, Aaron J; Denhardt, David T; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a secretory RGD-containing phosphoprotein, is induced in acute renal injury where it plays a renoprotective role. To investigate in depth the mode of OPN secretion under stress conditions, we analyzed OPN traffic in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). Western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopy revealed trace amounts of OPN in intact cells, whereas cytoplasmic OPN levels were significantly increased after 24-48 h hypoxia. Immunoelectron microscopy of RPTEC showed predominantly apical localization of gold-labeled OPN under normal conditions. Hypoxia (24 h) increased 2.5-fold immunodetectable gold-labeled OPN at the apical plasma membrane; further reoxygenation (2 h) augmented apical and basolateral labeling 2- and 10-fold, respectively. Analysis of apical and basolateral medium conditioned by RPTEC grown on semipermeable membranes using a specially developed ELISA showed a global decrease in secreted OPN after hypoxia, which recovered following 2 h reoxygenation. Agents known to disrupt the function of the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A, monensin) or actin cytoskeleton (cytochalasin B) significantly inhibited OPN-GFP secretion in normoxic cells. In cells recovering from hypoxia, however, OPN secretion required functional Golgi apparatus, but was not affected by cytochalasin B. These findings demonstrate that stress inhibits OPN secretion by the process dependent on the functional Golgi apparatus and actin cytoskeleton; recovery restores OPN secretion, although its polarity may become perturbed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Apoptotic and proinflammatory effect of combustion-generated organic nanoparticles in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pedata, Paola; Bergamasco, Nadia; D'Anna, Andrea; Minutolo, Patrizia; Servillo, Luigi; Sannolo, Nicola; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa

    2013-06-07

    Air pollution exposure in industrialized cities is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Combustion exhausts emitted from motor vehicles and industries represent a major source of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. Flame-generated organic carbon nanoparticles (OC NPs) provide interesting model nanoparticles that simulate fresh combustion emissions near roadways or combustion sources. These model nanoparticles can be produced by controlling flame operating conditions and used to test possible toxicological mechanisms responsible for the observed health effects. OC NPs were used to investigate their possible effect on endothelial cells (EC) growth and production of proinflammatory lipid mediators. Results indicated a dose and time-dependent reduction in cell viability following incubation of EC with OC NPs for 24 and 48h. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that EC treated with OC NPs showed a cell proliferation index significantly lower than that of control cells and an increased apoptotic cell death. The annexin assay confirmed the increased apoptotic cell death. Moreover, OC NPs also induced a time-dependent increase of proinflammatory lysophospholipid production. These results, establishing that OC NPs induce EC proinflammatory lysophosholipid production and apoptotic cell death, provide the first evidence of the detrimental effect of OC NPs on EC.

  18. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  19. Troglitazone Enhances the Apoptotic Response of DLD-1 Colon Cancer Cells to Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunju; Ko, Si-Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Park, Jeon Han

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate whether the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) enhances the apoptotic response of DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Materials and Methods The effects of troglitazone, PDT, and troglitazone in combination with PDT on cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in DLD-1 cells. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the tetrazolium-based MTT assay, and apoptosis was evaluated via cell staining with propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-FITC. The levels of pro-caspase-3 were measured via Western blot analyses. Results Treatment of troglitazone and PDT induced the growth retardation and cell death of DLD-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. The combination treatment significantly suppressed cell growth and increased the apoptotic response of DLD-1 and resulted in apoptosis rather than necrosis, as shown by PI/annexin V staining and degradation of procaspase-3. Conclusion Conclusion: These results document the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of PDT in combination with the PPARγ ligand troglitazone and provide a strong rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of combination treatment in colon cancer. PMID:27593880

  20. Apoptotic Effects of Chrysin in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Boon Yin; Chua, Siang Ling; Balaram, Prabha

    2010-01-01

    Chrysin is a natural flavonoid currently under investigation due to its important biological anti-cancer properties. In most of the cancer cells tested, chrysin has shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis, and is more potent than other tested flavonoids in leukemia cells, where chrysin is likely to act via activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt signaling in the cells. Moreover, structure-activity relationships have revealed that the chemical structure of chrysin meets the key structural requirements of flavonoids for potent cytotoxicity in leukemia cells. It is possible that combination therapy or modified chrysin could be more potent than single-agent use or administration of unmodified chrysin. This study may help to develop ways of improving the effectiveness of chrysin in the treatment of leukemia and other human cancers in vitro. PMID:20559509

  1. Detection of Apoptotic Versus Autophagic Cell Death by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sica, Valentina; Maiuri, M Chiara; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Different modes of regulated cell death (RCD) can be initiated by distinct molecular machineries and their morphological manifestations can be difficult to discriminate. Moreover, cells responding to stress often activate an adaptive response centered around autophagy, and whether such a response is cytoprotective or cytotoxic cannot be predicted based on morphological parameters only. Molecular definitions are therefore important to understand various RCD subroutines from a mechanistic perspective. In vitro, various forms of RCD including apoptosis and autophagic cell death can be easily discriminated from each other with assays that involve chemical or pharmacological interventions targeting key components of either pathway. Here, we detail a straightforward method to discriminate apoptosis from autophagic cell death by flow cytometry, based on the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and the genetic inhibition of ATG5.

  2. Selenium supplementation modulates apoptotic processes in thyroid follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Nettore, Immacolata C; De Nisco, Emma; Desiderio, Silvio; Passaro, Carmela; Maione, Luigi; Negri, Mariarosaria; Albano, Luigi; Pivonello, Rosario; Pivonello, Claudia; Portella, Giuseppe; Ungaro, Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Macchia, Paolo E

    2017-03-02

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient modulating several physiopathological processes in the human body. The aim of the study is to characterize the molecular effects determined by Se-supplementation in thyroid follicular cells, using as model the well-differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL5. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the effects of Se on cell growth, mortality and proliferation and on modulation of pro- and antiapoptotic pathways. The results indicate that Se-supplementation improves FRTL5 growth rate. Furthermore, Se reduces the proportion of cell death and modulates both proapoptotic (p53 and Bim) and antiapoptotic (NF-kB and Bcl2) mRNA levels. In addition, incubation with high doses of Na-Se might prevent the ER-stress apoptosis induced by tunicamycin, as assessed by membrane integrity maintenance, reduction in caspase 3/7 activities, and reduction in Casp-3 and PARP cleavage. Taken together, these results provide molecular evidences indicating the role of Se supplementation on cell death and apoptosis modulation in thyroid follicular cells. These observations may be useful to understand the effects of this micronutrient on the physiopathology of the thyroid gland. © 2017 The Authors BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  3. Inhibition of nitric oxide-induced apoptosis by nicotine in oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Abhijit G; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur K; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2007-11-01

    Development of oral cancer is clearly linked to the usage of smokeless tobacco. The molecular mechanisms involved in this process are however not well understood. Toward this goal, we investigated the effect of smokeless tobacco exposure on apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. Exposure of oral epithelial cells to smokeless tobacco extract (STE) induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, until a threshold level of nicotine is achieved upon which apoptosis is inhibited. 1 mM of nicotine is able to inhibit apoptosis significantly induced by STE in these oral cells. Exposure of cells to nicotine alone has no effect on apoptosis, but nicotine inhibits apoptosis induced by other agents present in STE. In this study we show that, the anti-apoptotic action of nicotine is specifically associated with down-regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production. Using specific inducers of NO, we have demonstrated that inhibition of apoptosis by nicotine is through down-regulation of NO production. Further, we observed that nicotine clearly acts as a sink of NO radicals, shown using peroxynitrite generator (SIN-1) in conjunction or absence of radical scavengers. Nicotine thus causes most damage in transformed epithelial cells as depicted by accumulation of nitrotyrosine in a 3-NT ELISA assay. Inhibition of apoptosis is a hallmark in tumor progression and propels development of cancer. It may further result in functional loss of apoptotic effector mechanisms in the transformed cells. Thus, our data clearly indicates that inhibition of NO-induced apoptosis by nicotine may lead to tobacco-induced oral carcinogenesis, and implies careful development of modalities in tobacco cessation programs.

  4. ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Andreas W; Gardai, Shyra J; Li, Suzhao; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Morimoto, Konosuke; Janssen, William J; Vandivier, R William; Wang, Nan; Greenberg, Steven; Dale, Benjamin M; Qin, Chunbo; Henson, Peter M; Tall, Alan R

    2006-08-14

    The mammalian ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and A7 (ABCA1 and -A7) show sequence similarity to CED-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans gene that mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells. Using RNA interference or gene targeting, we show that knock down of macrophage ABCA7 but not -A1 results in defective engulfment of apoptotic cells. In response to apoptotic cells, ABCA7 moves to the macrophage cell surface and colocalizes with the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in phagocytic cups. The cell surface localization of ABCA7 and LRP1 is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. C1q is an opsonin of apoptotic cells that acts via phagocyte LRP1 to induce extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. We show that ERK signaling is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and that ERK phosphorylation in response to apoptotic cells or C1q is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. These studies reveal a major role of ABCA7 and not -A1 in the clearance of apoptotic cells and therefore suggest that ABCA7 is an authentic orthologue of CED-7.

  5. ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, Andreas W.; Gardai, Shyra J.; Li, Suzhao; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Morimoto, Konosuke; Janssen, William J.; Vandivier, R. William; Wang, Nan; Greenberg, Steven; Dale, Benjamin M.; Qin, Chunbo; Henson, Peter M.; Tall, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and A7 (ABCA1 and -A7) show sequence similarity to CED-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans gene that mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells. Using RNA interference or gene targeting, we show that knock down of macrophage ABCA7 but not -A1 results in defective engulfment of apoptotic cells. In response to apoptotic cells, ABCA7 moves to the macrophage cell surface and colocalizes with the low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 1 (LRP1) in phagocytic cups. The cell surface localization of ABCA7 and LRP1 is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. C1q is an opsonin of apoptotic cells that acts via phagocyte LRP1 to induce extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. We show that ERK signaling is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and that ERK phosphorylation in response to apoptotic cells or C1q is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. These studies reveal a major role of ABCA7 and not -A1 in the clearance of apoptotic cells and therefore suggest that ABCA7 is an authentic orthologue of CED-7. PMID:16908670

  6. Seeding of recipient-originated epithelial cells attenuates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in rat tracheal allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xun; Yan, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhipei; Li, Xiaofei

    2015-06-01

    The specific role and mechanism of epithelium in the progression of obliterative airway disease (OAD) after tracheal allotransplantation remain poorly understood. In this study, we used rat heterotopic tracheal transplantation to investigate the mechanism of epithelial cell seeding during the process of OAD. Prospective, basic science. Research laboratory. In total, 120 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and 90 Wistar rats were used. Tracheas from SD rats were implanted into SD rats (syngeneic, n = 30) or Wistar rats (allogeneic, n = 30), and SD rat tracheas (seeded with Wistar rat-derived epithelial cells 6 days after transplantation) were transplanted into Wistar rats (seeded allogeneic, n = 30). Grafts were harvested at 7, 14, or 30 days after transplantation for histologic, quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction or Western blot analyses. Syngrafts retained normal histologic structures, while the corresponding allografts demonstrated less ciliated epithelia and more lumenal occlusion. Seeding of epithelial cells ameliorated the histologic changes, reduced the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcriptional factors and mesenchymal markers, and dampened the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylation of smad3. Seeding of recipient epithelial cells inhibits the progression of OAD by attenuating EMT via TGF-β-Smad signaling in rat heterotopic tracheal allografts. Clinically, the injection of recipient-originated epithelial cells might provide new insights into the treatment for OAD after tracheal allotransplantation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.J.; Low, R.B.; Woodcock-Mitchell, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Detailed information regarding the synthesis rates of individual protein components is important in understanding the assembly and dynamics of the cytoskeletal matrix of eukaryotic cells. As an approach to this topic, the dual isotope technique of Clark and Zak, was employed to measure fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) in growing and quiescent cultures of MDCK epithelial cells. Cell protein was labeled to equilibrium with (14C)leucine over several days and then pulse-labeled for 4 hours with (3H)leucine. FSRs (as percent per hour) were calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of cell extracts or individual proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the 3H/14C ratio of free leucine in the medium. Synthesis of total cell protein rose from approximately 1.4%/hour in quiescent cells to 3.5%/hour in the growing cultures. The latter rate was sufficient to account for the rate of protein accumulation and a low level of turnover in the growing cultures. The FSR of the buffered-Triton soluble extract was higher and the cytoskeletal FSR significantly lower than that for total protein in quiescent monolayers. This difference, however, was not observed in growing cultures. A distinct pattern of differences was seen in the FSRs of individual cytoskeletal proteins in the quiescent cultures. Vimentin synthesis was significantly lower than that of the keratins and the keratin FSRs were not obviously matched in pairwise fashion. Unexpectedly, the FSRs of alpha- and beta-tubulin diverged in quiescent cells with alpha-tubulin turnover exceeding beta-tubulin. Likewise, components of the microfilament lattice showed unequal fractional synthesis rates, myosin and alpha-actinin being faster than actin. In addition, the FSR for globular actin exceeded that of the cytoskeletal associated form.

  8. Technical note: Isolation and characterization of porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dahanayaka, S; Rezaei, R; Porter, W W; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Bazer, F W; Hou, Y Q; Wu, Z L; Wu, G

    2015-11-01

    Within the mammary gland, functional synthesis of milk is performed by its epithelial (alveolar) cells. The availability of a stable mammary epithelial cell line is essential for biochemical studies to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nutritional regulation of lactation. Therefore, porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) were isolated from mammary glands of a 9-mo-old nonpregnant and nonlactating gilt and cultured to establish a nonimmortalized cell line. These cells were characterized by expression of cytokeratin-18 (an intermediate filament specific for epithelial cells), β-casein (a specific marker for mammary epithelial cells), and α-lactalbumin. In culture, the PMEC doubled in number every 24 h and maintained a cobblestone morphology, typical for cultured epithelial cells, for at least 15 passages. Addition of 0.2 to 2 μg/mL prolactin to culture medium for 3 d induced the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by PMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we have successfully developed a useful PMEC line for future studies of cellular and molecular regulation of milk synthesis by mammary epithelial cells of the sow.

  9. Effect of cigarette smoke and dexamethasone on Hsp72 system of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gál, Krisztina; Cseh, Aron; Szalay, Balázs; Rusai, Krisztina; Vannay, Adám; Lukácsovits, József; Heemann, Uwe; Szabó, Attila J; Losonczy, György; Tamási, Lilla; Müller, Veronika

    2011-07-01

    Smoking is the leading risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Corticosteroids are abundantly used in these patients; however, the interaction of smoking and steroid treatment is not fully understood. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) play a central role in the maintenance of cell integrity, apoptosis and cellular steroid action. To better understand cigarette smoke-steroid interaction, we examined the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and/or dexamethasone (DEX) on changes of intracellular heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) in lung cells. Alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to increasing doses (0; 0.1; 1; and 10 μM/μl) of DEX in the medium in the absence(C) and presence of CSE. Apoptosis, necrosis, Hsp72 messenger-ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cells were measured, and the role of Hsp72 on steroid effect examined. CSE reduced the number of viable cells by significantly increasing the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells. DEX dose-dependently decreased the ratio of apoptosis when CSE was administered, without change in necrosis. CSE - DEX co-treatment dose-dependently increased Hsp72 mRNA and protein expression, with the highest level measured in CSE + DEX (10) cells, while significantly lower levels were noted in all respective C groups. Pretreatment with Hsp72 silencing RNA confirmed that increased survival observed following DEX administration in CSE-treated cells was mainly mediated via the Hsp72 system. CSE significantly decreases cell survival by inducing apoptosis and necrosis. DEX significantly increases Hsp72 mRNA and protein expression only in the presence of CSE resulting in increased cellular protection and survival. DEX exerts its cell protective effects by decreasing apoptotic cell death via the Hsp72 system in CSE-treated alveolar epithelial cells.

  10. Anti-apoptotic proteins on guard of melanoma cell survival.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Mariusz L; Czyz, Malgorzata

    2013-04-30

    Apoptosis plays a pivotal role in sustaining proper tissue development and homeostasis. Evading apoptosis by cancer cells is a part of their adaption to microenvironment and therapies. Cellular integrity is predominantly maintained by pro-survival members of Bcl-2 family and IAPs. Melanoma cells are characterized by a labile and stage-dependent phenotype. Pro-survival molecules can protect melanoma cells from apoptosis and mediate other processes, thus enhancing aggressive phenotype. The essential role of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-X(L), livin, survivin and XIAP was implicated for melanoma, often in a tumor stage-dependent fashion. In this review, the current knowledge of pro-survival machinery in melanoma is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Some ABCA3 mutations elevate ER stress and initiate apoptosis of lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background ABCA3 transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter of the A subfamily) is localized to the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, organelles for assembly and storage of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII). It transports surfactant phospholipids into lamellar bodies and absence of ABCA3 function disrupts lamellar body biogenesis. Mutations of the ABCA3 gene lead to fatal neonatal surfactant deficiency and chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of children. ABCA3 mutations can result in either functional defects of the correctly localized ABCA3 or trafficking/folding defects where mutated ABCA3 remains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Methods Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were transfected with vectors expressing wild-type ABCA3 or one of the three ABCA3 mutant forms, R43L, R280C and L101P, C-terminally tagged with YFP or hemagglutinin-tag. Localization/trafficking properties were analyzed by immunofluorescence and ABCA3 deglycosylation. Uptake of fluorescent NBD-labeled lipids into lamellar bodies was used as a functional assay. ER stress and apoptotic signaling were examined through RT-PCR based analyses of XBP1 splicing, immunoblotting or FACS analyses of stress/apoptosis proteins, Annexin V surface staining and determination of the intracellular glutathion level. Results We demonstrate that two ABCA3 mutations, which affect ABCA3 protein trafficking/folding and lead to partial (R280C) or complete (L101P) retention of ABCA3 in the ER compartment, can elevate ER stress and susceptibility to it and induce apoptotic markers in the cultured lung epithelial A549 cells. R43L mutation, resulting in a functional defect of the properly localized ABCA3, had no effect on intracellular stress and apoptotic signaling. Conclusion Our data suggest that expression of partially or completely ER localized ABCA3 mutant proteins can increase the apoptotic cell death of the affected cells, which are factors that might contribute to the

  12. Manganese induces mitochondrial dynamics impairment and apoptotic cell death: a study in human Gli36 cells.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Miglietta, Esteban A; Villarreal, Alejandro; Ramos, Alberto J; Kotler, Mónica L

    2013-10-25

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element due to its participation in many physiological processes. However, overexposure to this metal leads to a neurological disorder known as Manganism whose clinical manifestations and molecular mechanisms resemble Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence implicate astrocytes as an early target of Mn neurotoxicity being the mitochondria the most affected organelles. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mitochondrial dynamics alterations in Mn-exposed human astrocytes. Therefore, we employed Gli36 cells which express the astrocytic markers GFAP and S100B. We demonstrated that Mn triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway revealed by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and by caspase-9 activation. This apoptotic program may be in turn responsible of caspase-3/7 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation. In addition, we determined that Mn induces deregulation in mitochondria-shaping proteins (Opa-1, Mfn-2 and Drp-1) expression levels in parallel with the disruption of the mitochondrial network toward to an exacerbated fragmentation. Since mitochondrial dynamics is altered in several neurodegenerative diseases, these proteins could become future targets to be considered in Manganism treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SERCA2 Regulates Non-CF and CF Airway Epithelial Cell Response to Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shama; Nichols, David P.; Strand, Matthew; Rancourt, Raymond C.; Randell, Scott H.; White, Carl W.; Ahmad, Aftab

    2011-01-01

    Calcium mobilization can regulate a wide range of essential functions of respiratory epithelium, including ion transport, ciliary beat frequency, and secretion of mucus, all of which are modified in cystic fibrosis (CF). SERCA2, an important controller of calcium signaling, is deficient in CF epithelium. We conducted this study to determine whether SERCA2 deficiency can modulate airway epithelial responses to environmental oxidants such as ozone. This could contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary exacerbations, which are important and frequent clinical events in CF. To address this, we used air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of non-CF and CF cell lines, as well as differentiated cultures of cells derived from non-CF and CF patients. We found that ozone exposure caused enhanced membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in CF airway epithelial cell lines relative to non-CF. Ozone exposure caused increased proinflammatory cytokine production in CF airway epithelial cell lines. Elevated proinflammatory cytokine production also was observed in shRNA-mediated SERCA2 knockdown cells. Overexpression of SERCA2 reversed ozone-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Ozone-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was NF-κB- dependent. In a stable NF-κB reporter cell line, SERCA2 inhibition and knockdown both upregulated cytomix-induced NF-κB activity, indicating importance of SERCA2 in modulating NF-κB activity. In this system, increased NF-κB activity was also accompanied by increased IL-8 production. Ozone also induced NF-κB activity and IL-8 release, an effect that was greater in SERCA2-silenced NF-κB-reporter cells. SERCA2 overexpression reversed cytomix-induced increased IL-8 release and total nuclear p65 in CFTR-deficient (16HBE-AS) cells. These studies suggest that SERCA2 is an important regulator of the proinflammatory response of airway epithelial cells and could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22096575

  14. Apoptotic Cell Death in Rat Lung Following Mustard Gas Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Andres, Devon Katherine; Keyser, Brian M; Melber, Ashley A; Benton, Betty Jean; Hamilton, Tracey A; Kniffin, Denise M; Martens, Magaret E; Ray, Radharaman

    2017-03-30

    To investigate apoptosis as a mechanism of sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation injury in animals, we studied different caspases (caspase-8, -9, -3 and -6) in the lungs from a ventilated rat SM aerosol inhalation model. SM activated all four caspases in cells obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as early as 6 hr after exposure. Caspase-8, which is known to initiate the extrinsic Fas-mediated pathway of apoptosis, was increased 5-fold between 6 to 24 hr, decreasing to the unexposed-control level at 48 hr. The initiator, caspase-9, in the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as well as the executioner caspases, caspase-3 and -6, all peaked (p<0.01) at 24 hr; caspase-3 and -6 remained elevated, but caspase-9 decreased to unexposed-control level at 48 hr. To study further the Fas pathway, we examined soluble as well as membrane-bound Fas ligand (sFas-L, mFas-L, respectively) and Fas receptor (Fas-R) in both BALF cells and BALF. SFas-L increased significantly at 24 hr after SM exposure in both BALF cells (p<0.01) and BALF (p<0.05). However, mFas-L increased only in BALF cells between 24 to 48 hr (p<0.1, <0.001, respectively). Fas-R increased only in BALF cells by 6 hr (p<0.01) after SM exposure. Apoptosis in SM-inhaled rat lung specimens was also confirmed by both immunohistochemical staining using cleaved caspse-3 and -9 antibodies and TUNEL staining as early as 6 hr in the proximal trachea and bronchi, but not before 48 hr in distal airways. These findings suggest pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels and logical therapeutic target(s) for SM inhalation injury in animals.

  15. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Mariela; Ramos, Yanilda; Rodríguez-Valentín, Madeline; López-Acevedo, Sheila; Cubano, Luis A.; Zou, Jin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa), is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses. PMID:28628644

  16. Cell Chirality Induces Collective Cell Migration in Epithelial Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    During early development, epithelial cells form a monolayer sheet and migrate in a uniform direction. Here, we address how this collective migration can occur without breaking the cell-to-cell attachments. Repeated contraction and expansion of the cell-to-cell interfaces enables the cells to rearrange their positions autonomously within the sheet. We show that when the interface tension is strengthened in a direction that is tilted from the body axis, cell rearrangements occur in such a way that unidirectional movement is induced. We use a vertex model to demonstrate that such anisotropic tension can generate the unidirectional motion of cell sheets. Our results suggest that cell chirality facilitates collective cell migration during tissue morphogenesis.

  17. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-07-15

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite.

  18. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  19. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

  20. Eclalbasaponin II induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Jin; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Seung; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2016-09-01

    Triterpenoids echinocystic acid and its glycosides, isolated from several Eclipta prostrata, have been reported to possess various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-diabetic activity. However, the cytotoxicity of the triterpenoids in human cancer cells and their molecular mechanism of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that eclalbasaponin II with one glucose moiety has potent cytotoxicity in three ovarian cancer cells and two endometrial cancer cells compared to an aglycone echinocystic acid and eclalbasaponin I with two glucose moiety. Eclalbasaponin II treatment dose-dependently increased sub G1 population. Annexin V staining revealed that eclalbasaponin II induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. In addition, eclalbasaponin II-induced cell death was associated with characteristics of autophagy; an increase in acidic vesicular organelle content and elevation of the levels of LC3-II. Interestingly, autophagy inhibitor BaF1 suppressed the eclalbasaponin II-induced apoptosis. Moreover, eclalbasaponin II activated JNK and p38 signaling and inhibited the mTOR signaling. We further demonstrated that pre-treatment with a JNK and p38 inhibitor and mTOR activator attenuated the eclalbasaponin II-induced autophagy. This suggests that eclalbasaponin II induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death through the regulation of JNK, p38, and mTOR signaling in human ovarian cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural compound Alternol induces oxidative stress-dependent apoptotic cell death preferentially in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuzhe; Chen, Ruibao; Huang, Yan; Li, Guodong; Huang, Yiling; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Zhu, Bao-Ting; Thrasher, J Brantley; Zhang, Xu; Li, Benyi

    2014-06-01

    Prostate cancers at the late stage of castration resistance are not responding well to most of current therapies available in clinic, reflecting a desperate need of novel treatment for this life-threatening disease. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of a recently isolated natural compound, Alternol, in multiple prostate cancer cell lines with the properties of advanced prostate cancers in comparison to prostate-derived nonmalignant cells. As assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay, significant cell death was observed in all prostate cancer cell lines except DU145 but not in nonmalignant (RWPE-1 and BPH1) cells. Further analyses revealed that Alternol-induced cell death was an apoptotic response in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as evidenced by the appearance of apoptosis hallmarks such as caspase-3 processing and PARP cleavage. Interestingly, Alternol-induced cell death was completely abolished by reactive oxygen species scavengers N-acetylcysteine and dihydrolipoic acid. We also demonstrated that the proapoptotic Bax protein was activated after Alternol treatment and was critical for Alternol-induced apoptosis. Animal xenograft experiments in nude mice showed that Alternol treatment largely suppressed tumor growth of PC-3 xenografts but not Bax-null DU-145 xenografts in vivo. These data suggest that Alternol might serve as a novel anticancer agent for patients with late-stage prostate cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Tie-mediated signal from apoptotic cells protects stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yalan; Su, Tin Tin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Many types of normal and cancer stem cells are resistant to killing by genotoxins, but the mechanism for this resistance is poorly understood. Here we show that adult stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster germline and midgut are resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemically induced apoptosis and dissect the mechanism for this protection. We find that upon IR the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie/Tie-2 is activated, leading to the upregulation of microRNA bantam that represses FOXO-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIA-BLO orthologue, Hid in germline stem cells. Knockdown of the IR-induced putative Tie ligand, Pvf1, a functional homologue of human Angiopoietin, in differentiating daughter cells renders germline stem cells sensitive to IR, suggesting that the dying daughters send a survival signal to protect their stem cells for future repopulation of the tissue. If conserved in cancer stem cells, this mechanism may provide therapeutic options for the eradication of cancer. PMID:25959206

  3. Induction of apoptotic cell death by betulin in multidrug-resistant human renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Kim, Taesoo; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-08-01

    Betulin, a triterpene from the bark of various species of birch tree, has various biological effects, including antiviral, antifungal and anticancer activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the apoptotic effect of betulin in RCC4 multidrug-resistant human renal carcinoma cells. To evaluate anticancer activity, we performed cell viability and caspase activity assays, a proteome profiler array and western blot analysis in RCC4 cells. Betulin significantly decreased RCC4 cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Betulin activated caspase family proteins, including caspase-3, -7, -8 and -9, and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including PARP and Bcl-2 family members. In an apoptosis array, betulin activated the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors TRAIL R1/DR4 and R2/DR5, and tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), suggesting that betulin treatment leads to induction of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in RCC4 cells. Notably, betulin significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and PARP cleavage in etoposide-treated RCC4 cells, and downregulated the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Taken together, our findings suggest that the anticancer effects of betulin involve induction of apoptosis and sensitisation of RCC4 cells, providing potentially useful information applicable to the use of betulin in renal cancer treatment.

  4. Icaritin induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaopei; Meng, Xiangwen; Jin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: GBM represents the most aggressive type of glioma which is featured by extremely aggressive invasion and destructive malignancy with a high proliferation rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-tumor effect of icaritin in human GBM cell line U87. Methods: The effect of icaritin on In vitro cell viability was determined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. The inducing effect of icaritin on cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, apoptosis, autophagy and intracellular ROS generation was assessed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic cell death was also confirmed by TUNEL assay. The expression levels of target or marker molecules were examined by western blot. The activity of caspase-3, -8 and -9 was detected with ELISA kit. Results: Our results showed that icaritin significantly induced both caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy in human GBM cell line U87. Additionally, our findings revealed that icaritin exerted anti-tumor effect by modulating Stat3 through generating ROS and subsequent activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTOR. Further investigation also showed that icaritin-induced autophagy served as a pro-death function and possibly contributed to icaritin-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Icaritin potently inhibit the cell growth of human GBM cell line U87 through inducing both caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. Base on our findings, icaritin can be considered as a promising candidate therapeutic agent for treatment of GBM, though further studies are needed. PMID:27904667

  5. SGLT-1-mediated glucose uptake protects human intestinal epithelial cells against Giardia duodenalis-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linda C H; Huang, Ching-Ying; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Sayer, Heather; Turner, Jerrold R; Buret, Andre G

    2008-07-01

    Infection with Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common causes of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Mechanisms of pathogenesis and host response in giardiasis remain incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that exposure to G. duodenalis products induce apoptosis in enterocytes. We recently discovered that sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-1-mediated glucose uptake modulates enterocytic cell death induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to examine whether enhanced epithelial SGLT-1 activity may constitute a novel mechanism of host defense against G. duodenalis-induced apoptosis. SGLT-1-transfected Caco-2 cells were exposed to G. duodenalis products in low (5mM) or high (25mM) glucose media. In low glucose environments, G. duodenalis-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in these cells. These apoptotic phenomena were abolished in the presence of high glucose. A soluble proteolytic fraction of G. duodenalis was found to upregulate SGLT-1-mediated glucose uptake in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in association with increased apical SGLT-1 expression on epithelial cells. Kinetic analysis showed that this phenomenon resulted from an increase in the maximal rate of sugar transport (V(max)) by SGLT-1, with no change in the affinity constant (K(m)). The addition of phloridzin (a competitive inhibitor for glucose binding to SGLT-1) abolished the anti-apoptotic effects exerted by high glucose. Together, the findings indicate that SGLT-1-dependent glucose uptake may represent a novel epithelial cell rescue mechanism against G. duodenalis-induced apoptosis.

  6. Phytosphingosine induces apoptotic cell death via caspase 8 activation and Bax translocation in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon-Taek; Kang, Jung A; Choi