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Sample records for app cdnas molecular

  1. The molecular cloning and expression of two CRABP cDNAs from human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, M.S.; Oleksiak, M.F.; McQuaid, T.J.; McAfee, S.G.; Gilchrest, B.A. Boston Univ., MA )

    1992-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is known to have a profound effect on the growth and differentiation of human epidermal cells in vivo and in vitro. One of the proteins thought to be involved in mediating the action of RA is the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP). The authors have used PCR technology to generate cDNAs for two distinct CRABPs from human skin and skin-derived cells. One is highly homologous to the CRABPI cDNAs previously cloned from bovine and murine sources. The second shares extensive deduced amino acid homology with CRABP II, a protein recently described in newborn rat and embryonic chick. Although both mRNAs can be detected in neonatal foreskin, CRABP II mRNA is the predominant one in this tissue, as well as in cultured newborn fibroblasts and keratinocytes. They conclude that CRABP II is the predominant CRABP in human skin, at least in the newborn period, and that it is differentially regulated in fibroblasts versus keratinocytes. The data are consistent with a role for CRABP in regulating the amount of RA delivered to the nucleus.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of novel sulphotransferase-like cDNAs from human and rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Falany, C N; Xie, X; Wang, J; Ferrer, J; Falany, J L

    2000-01-01

    The sulphotransferase (SULT) gene family is involved with the conjugation of many small drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. In this report, we describe the cloning and expression of novel cDNAs from human and rat brain, which are structurally related to the SULTs. These cDNAs have been termed 'brain sulphotransferase-like' (BR-STL), because of their similarity to the SULTs and their selective expression in brain tissue. The proteins encoded by the human and rat BR-STL cDNAs (hBR-STL-1 and rBR-STL cDNA respectively), denoted as hBR-STL and rBR-STL, are 98% identical and 99% similar in sequence. The hBR-STL-1 cDNA contains an 852-nt open reading frame encoding a 284-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 33083 Da. Northern-blot analyses of RNA isolated from eight human tissues indicate that the hBR-STL message is selectively expressed in brain. Characterization of different brain regions showed that message levels were highest in cortical brain regions. rBR-STL message levels were relatively low in brains of 1-day-old male and female rats, but increased to adult levels in RNA from 7-day-old rats, and remained at that level in adult animals. The hBR-STL and rBR-STL cDNAs were expressed in both Escherichia coli and Sf9 insect cells in the presence or absence of an N-terminal histidine-affinity tag (His-tag). Polyclonal antibodies were raised in chickens against purified His-tagged hBR-STL, and were used to detect the presence of rBR-STL in adult male and female rat brain cytosol. The high degree of sequence conservation, and the selective localization of the BR-STL message in brain, suggest an important function in the central nervous system. PMID:10698717

  3. Molecular cloning of preproinsulin cDNAs from several osteoglossomorphs and a cyprinid.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahrouki, A A; Irwin, D M; Graham, L C; Youson, J H

    2001-03-28

    Several preproinsulin cDNAs were isolated and characterized from four members of the Osteoglossomorpha (an ancient teleost group); Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (arawana), Pantodon buchholzi (butterfly fish), Notopterus chitala (feather fin knife fish), Hiodon alosoides (goldeye) and Gnathonemus petersii (elephantnose). In addition, we isolated and characterized the preproinsulin cDNA from Catostomus commersoni (white sucker, as a representative of a generalized teleost). The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed conservation of the cystine residues known to be involved in the formation of the disulfide bridges, as well as residues involved in the hexamer formation, except for B-17 in the butterfly fish, the arawana and the goldeye. However, the N-terminus of the B-chain was very weakly conserved among the species studied. Residues known to be significant for maintaining receptor-binding conformation and those known to comprise the receptor-binding domain were all conserved, except for a conservative substitution at B13, aspartate substituted glutamate in the arawana, goldeye, butterfly fish and white sucker, and at B16, phenylalanine substituted tyrosine in the elephantnose. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed a monophyletic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs, and showed that they were not the most basal living teleost. Comparative sequence analysis of preproinsulins among the osteoglossomorphs was useful in assessment of intergroup relationship, relating elephantnose with the feather fin knife fish and the arawana, butterfly fish, and goldeye. This arrangement of species is consistent with relationships based on other more classical parameters, except for the goldeye which was assessed as being sister to all the osteoglossomorphs. The white sucker was grouped with the common carp and both are cyprinids.

  4. Sequencing cDNAs: An Introduction to DNA Sequence Analysis in the Undergraduate Molecular Genetics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galewsky, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a series of molecular genetics laboratories where students pick a single colony from a Drosophila melanogester embryo cDNA library and purify the plasmid, then analyze the insert through restriction digests and gel electrophoresis. (Author/YDS)

  5. Molecular analysis of two cDNAs encoding Xa1 and oxysterol binding proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and subsequent microarray analysis, expression profiles of sorghum genes responsive to greenbug phloem-feeding were obtained and identified. Among the profiles, two cDNAs designated to MM73 and MM95 were identified to encode Xa1 (Xa1) and oxysterol ...

  6. Cloning of cDNAs and molecular characterisation of C-type lectin-like proteins from snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian; Chen, Tianbao; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2012-12-15

    C-type lectin-like proteins (CTLPs) isolated from snake venoms are the largest and most complex non-mammalian vertebrate C-type lectin-like domain family. In the present study, we simultaneously amplified four cDNAs encoding different types of CTLP subunits from the venoms of two different species of snakes by RT-PCR with a single sense primer and a nested universal primer - two CTLP subunit-encoding cDNAs were cloned from Deinagkistrodon acutus venom and two from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom. All four cloned CTLP subunits exhibited typical motifs in their corresponding domain regions but with relatively-low sequence similarities to each other. Compared with previously-published CTLPs, the four cloned CTLPs subunits showed slight variations in the calcium-binding sites and the disulphide bonding patterns. To our knowledge, these data constitute the first example of co-expression of CTLP platelet glycoprotein Ib-binding subunits and coagulation factors in Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom. PMID:23010162

  7. Molecular cloning and sequence determination of cDNAs for alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins Gs, Gi, and Go from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, H; Kozasa, T; Nagata, S; Nakamura, S; Katada, T; Ui, M; Iwai, S; Ohtsuka, E; Kawasaki, H; Suzuki, K

    1986-01-01

    We have cloned cDNAs encoding alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins Gs, Gi, and Go and determined their nucleotide sequences. Purified preparations of Gi and Go alpha subunits (Gi alpha and Go alpha) from rat brain were completely digested with trypsin, and peptides were subjected to amino acid sequence analysis. By screening of a cDNA library from rat C6 glioma cells with a synthetic probe corresponding to a 17 amino acid sequence, a clone encoding the sequence of Go alpha was obtained. Then, the library was rescreened with a Go alpha cDNA probe to isolate several strongly or weakly hybridizing clones. cDNAs encoding the complete sequences of Gi alpha and Gs alpha were thus obtained. From nucleotide sequence analysis, the amino acid sequences of Gs alpha and Gi alpha were deduced; they contain 394 and 355 amino acid residues (including the initiator methionine), respectively. The calculated molecular weights for Gs alpha and Gi alpha were 45,663 and 40,499, respectively. The Go alpha clone encoded a sequence of 310 amino acid residues that lacked the NH2 terminus. The homology of the alpha subunits of Gs, Gi, Go, transducin, and ras-encoded protein is discussed. PMID:3086867

  8. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of cDNAs encoding androgenic gland hormone precursors from two porcellionidae species, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Tominaga, Satoshi; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual characteristics in Crustacea are induced by androgenic gland hormone (AGH), which is produced by the male-specific androgenic gland. Recently, AGH in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare was characterized and its cDNA cloned, the first example in which the structure of AGH was elucidated. We report here the molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding AGH precursors from two additional terrestrial isopods, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus. cDNA fragments encoding Porcellio scaber AGH (Pos-AGH) and P. dilatatus AGH (Pod-AGH) were amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed based on the amino acid sequence of A. vulgare AGH (Arv-AGH). Subsequently, full length cDNAs were obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. Both AGH precursors consisted of a signal peptide, B chain, C peptide and A chain, and exhibited the same organization as that of Arv-AGH. The amino acid sequences of the A and B chains, which comprise mature AGH peptide, were highly conserved among the three species, while that of the C peptide showed only low sequence similarity. In Northern blot analysis, each cDNA fragment used as a probe specifically hybridized with a single band (0.75 kb) in mRNA extracted from whole male reproductive organs. In analysis of the tissue-specific gene expression of these two AGHs by RT-PCR, it was revealed that both AGH transcripts were detected only in cDNA synthesized using total RNA from the testis carrying the androgenic glands, but not in that from testis only, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, or hepatopancreas. PMID:12560604

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of cDNAs encoding androgenic gland hormone precursors from two porcellionidae species, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Tominaga, Satoshi; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual characteristics in Crustacea are induced by androgenic gland hormone (AGH), which is produced by the male-specific androgenic gland. Recently, AGH in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare was characterized and its cDNA cloned, the first example in which the structure of AGH was elucidated. We report here the molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding AGH precursors from two additional terrestrial isopods, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus. cDNA fragments encoding Porcellio scaber AGH (Pos-AGH) and P. dilatatus AGH (Pod-AGH) were amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed based on the amino acid sequence of A. vulgare AGH (Arv-AGH). Subsequently, full length cDNAs were obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. Both AGH precursors consisted of a signal peptide, B chain, C peptide and A chain, and exhibited the same organization as that of Arv-AGH. The amino acid sequences of the A and B chains, which comprise mature AGH peptide, were highly conserved among the three species, while that of the C peptide showed only low sequence similarity. In Northern blot analysis, each cDNA fragment used as a probe specifically hybridized with a single band (0.75 kb) in mRNA extracted from whole male reproductive organs. In analysis of the tissue-specific gene expression of these two AGHs by RT-PCR, it was revealed that both AGH transcripts were detected only in cDNA synthesized using total RNA from the testis carrying the androgenic glands, but not in that from testis only, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, or hepatopancreas.

  10. Molecular cloning of the cDNAs and distribution of the mRNAs encoding two somatostatin precursors in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Trabucchi, M; Tostivint, H; Lihrmann, I; Jégou, S; Vallarino, M; Vaudry, H

    1999-08-01

    The occurrence of two somatostatin precursors, PSS1 and PSS2, yielding S-14 (SS1) and the variant [Pro2, Met13]S-14 (SS2), has been recently reported in the frog Rana ridibunda. The evolutionary significance of frog PSS2 is unclear because its sequence exhibits very little similarity with other known vertebrate somatostatin precursors. In the present study, we report on the characterization of two somatostatin precursor cDNAs from the brain of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens. One of the cDNAs encodes a 115-amino-acid protein that contains the SS1 sequence at its C-terminal extremity and thus is clearly homologous to PSS1. Comparison with other vertebrate PSS1 showed that lungfish PSS1 is more closely related to PSS1 from tetrapods than to PSS1 from fish. The other cDNA encodes a 109-amino-acid protein that contains a somatostatin variant [Pro2]S-14 at its C-terminal extremity. Sequence analysis of this second precursor indicated that it is the lungfish counterpart of frog PSS2. Northern blot analysis showed that lungfish PSS1 mRNA is widely distributed in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs, including the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, PSS2 mRNA was primarily found in the central nervous system but not in the pancreas or gut. In situ hybridization studies showed that the two genes are differentially expressed in various regions of the lungfish brain. The present data indicate that the PSS2 gene, initially discovered in frog, appeared early in vertebrate evolution, before the emergence of the tetrapod lineage. The recent isolation of a [Pro2]S-14 variant in the sturgeon, whose sequence is identical to that of lungfish SS2, suggests that the PSS2 gene may actually be present in the genome of all Osteichthyii.

  11. Molecular cloning of cDNAs and structural model analysis of two gonadotropin beta-subunits of snakehead fish (Channa maculata).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Shen, San-Tai; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2005-09-15

    The cDNAs encoding beta-subunits of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) have been cloned from the pituitary of snakehead fish, Channa maculata, and the three-dimensional structural models of the encoded FSH and LH were investigated. The cloned cDNAs, including 5'-untranslated region (UTR), open-reading frame, and 3'-UTR followed by a poly(A) tail, were obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA end methods. The open-reading frames of FSH-beta cDNA encodes a 120-amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 102 amino acids; while LH-beta cDNA encodes a 140-amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 33 amino acids and a mature protein of 115 amino acids. The amino acid sequence identities of snakehead fish FSH-beta and LH-beta in comparison with other fish are 27.8-81.9% and 45.2-88.8%, respectively; while in comparison with tetrapods are 26.2-28.9% and 37.5-51.2%, respectively. Both FSH-beta and LH-beta of snakehead fish resemble most to those of Perciformes, implying their closer phylogenetic relationship. All 12 cysteine residues are conserved in snakehead fish LH-beta; while 11 cysteine residues are conserved in its FSH-beta. The third cysteine is absent in snakehead fish FSH-beta; instead, a positionally shifted cysteine residue is present at the N-terminus, as found in some phylogenetic related fish. The structure models of snakehead fish FSH and LH, constructed by using the crystal structures of human FSH and human chorionic gonadotropin as respective template, showed that the positionally shifted N-terminal cysteine residue of snakehead fish FSH-beta likely can substitute the third cysteine to form a disulfide bond with the 12th cysteine.

  12. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding two pigment-dispersing hormones and two corresponding genes from the kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Aida, Katsumi

    2002-10-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) controls pigment dispersion in chromatophores. In this study cDNAs encoding 2 PDH precursors of the kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus) (Pej-PDH-I and Pej-PDH-II) were cloned. Both precursors consisted of a signal peptide, a PDH-precursor-related peptide (PPRP), and PDH. The PPRPs were homologous to those in other crustacean species, but not to those of pigment-dispersing factors (PDFs) in insects, which were members of the PDH/PDF family. Two corresponding genes were also cloned. Sequence analyses revealed that the Pej-PDH-I gene had 3 exons separated by 2 introns, while the Pej-PDH-II gene had 2 exons separated by 1 intron. The exon/intron organizations in the PDH genes were different from that of the Drosophila melanogaster PDF gene, which is intronless. Analyses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that both transcripts existed only in the eyestalk, but not in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hindgut, or hepatopancreas.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase in Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanhong; Liu, Juan; Liang, Liang; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Zheng; Gao, Zhihui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jianhe

    2014-09-01

    Agarwood is an expensive resinous heartwood derived from Aquilaria plants that is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. The major constituents of agarwood oils are sesquiterpenes, which are obtained from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate precursors through the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and/or the cytosolic mevalonate pathway. 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) is the first rate-limiting enzyme for sesquiterpene synthesis in the MEP pathway. In this study, 3 cDNAs of DXS genes were cloned and characterized from the Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. These genes represent 3 phylogenetically distinct clades conserved among plants. Functional complementation in a DXS-deficient Escherichia coli strain EcAB4-2 demonstrated that they are active DXS, which rescued the E. coli mutant. Their expression profiles in different tissues and in response to different treatments were analyzed by real-time PCR. All 3 genes are highly expressed in stem, followed by leaf and root. AsDXS1 was significantly stimulated by mechanical, chemical, and H2O2 treatment, whereas AsDXS2 and AsDXS3 only responded to chemical treatment and mechanical treatment, respectively. All three genes were oscillation in respond to MJ treatment, with expression peaks occurring at different time points. Our results suggest the conservation of DXS in evolution and imply their distinct functions in primary and defensive sesquiterpene metabolism in A. sinensis.

  14. Design of a Tablet Computer App for Facilitation of a Molecular Blood Culture Test in Clinical Microbiology and Preliminary Usability Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C; Fuchs, Martin; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Hejlesen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Background User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular-based diagnostic test used for rapid identification of pathogens in positive blood cultures. To facilitate the workflow of the MuxBCT, a specialized tablet computer app was developed as an accessory to the diagnostic test. The app aims to reduce the complexity of the test by step-by-step guidance of microscopy and to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). Objective The objective of the study was to describe the design considerations of the MuxBCT app and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation. Methods The MuxBCT tablet app was developed and set up for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory. A near-live simulation study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory to evaluate the usability of the MuxBCT app. The study was designed to achieve a high degree of realism as participants carried out a scenario representing the context of use for the MuxBCT app. As the MuxBCT was under development, the scenario involved the use of molecular blood culture tests similar to the MuxBCT for identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the

  15. Bottled SAFT: A Web App Providing SAFT-γ Mie Force Field Parameters for Thousands of Molecular Fluids.

    PubMed

    Ervik, Åsmund; Mejía, Andrés; Müller, Erich A

    2016-09-26

    Coarse-grained molecular simulation has become a popular tool for modeling simple and complex fluids alike. The defining aspects of a coarse grained model are the force field parameters, which must be determined for each particular fluid. Because the number of molecular fluids of interest in nature and in engineering processes is immense, constructing force field parameter tables by individually fitting to experimental data is a futile task. A step toward solving this challenge was taken recently by Mejía et al., who proposed a correlation that provides SAFT-γ Mie force field parameters for a fluid provided one knows the critical temperature, the acentric factor and a liquid density, all relatively accessible properties. Building on this, we have applied the correlation to more than 6000 fluids, and constructed a web application, called "Bottled SAFT", which makes this data set easily searchable by CAS number, name or chemical formula. Alternatively, the application allows the user to calculate parameters for components not present in the database. Once the intermolecular potential has been found through Bottled SAFT, code snippets are provided for simulating the desired substance using the "raaSAFT" framework, which leverages established molecular dynamics codes to run the simulations. The code underlying the web application is written in Python using the Flask microframework; this allows us to provide a modern high-performance web app while also making use of the scientific libraries available in Python. Bottled SAFT aims at taking the complexity out of obtaining force field parameters for a wide range of molecular fluids, and facilitates setting up and running coarse-grained molecular simulations. The web application is freely available at http://www.bottledsaft.org . The underlying source code is available on Bitbucket under a permissive license.

  16. Bottled SAFT: A Web App Providing SAFT-γ Mie Force Field Parameters for Thousands of Molecular Fluids.

    PubMed

    Ervik, Åsmund; Mejía, Andrés; Müller, Erich A

    2016-09-26

    Coarse-grained molecular simulation has become a popular tool for modeling simple and complex fluids alike. The defining aspects of a coarse grained model are the force field parameters, which must be determined for each particular fluid. Because the number of molecular fluids of interest in nature and in engineering processes is immense, constructing force field parameter tables by individually fitting to experimental data is a futile task. A step toward solving this challenge was taken recently by Mejía et al., who proposed a correlation that provides SAFT-γ Mie force field parameters for a fluid provided one knows the critical temperature, the acentric factor and a liquid density, all relatively accessible properties. Building on this, we have applied the correlation to more than 6000 fluids, and constructed a web application, called "Bottled SAFT", which makes this data set easily searchable by CAS number, name or chemical formula. Alternatively, the application allows the user to calculate parameters for components not present in the database. Once the intermolecular potential has been found through Bottled SAFT, code snippets are provided for simulating the desired substance using the "raaSAFT" framework, which leverages established molecular dynamics codes to run the simulations. The code underlying the web application is written in Python using the Flask microframework; this allows us to provide a modern high-performance web app while also making use of the scientific libraries available in Python. Bottled SAFT aims at taking the complexity out of obtaining force field parameters for a wide range of molecular fluids, and facilitates setting up and running coarse-grained molecular simulations. The web application is freely available at http://www.bottledsaft.org . The underlying source code is available on Bitbucket under a permissive license. PMID:27556884

  17. Molecular systems evaluation of oligomerogenic APPE693Q and fibrillogenic APPKM670/671NL/PSEN1Δexon9 mouse models identifies shared molecular features with human Alzheimer’s brain molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Readhead, Ben; Haure-Mirande, Jean-Vianney; Zhang, Bin; Haroutunian, Vahram; Gandy, Sam; Schadt, Eric E.; Dudley, Joel T.; Ehrlich, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Identification and characterization of molecular mechanisms that connect genetic risk factors to initiation and evolution of disease pathophysiology represent major goals and opportunities for improving therapeutic and diagnostic outcomes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Integrative genomic analysis of the human AD brain transcriptome holds potential for revealing novel mechanisms of dysfunction that underlie the onset and/or progression of the disease. We performed an integrative genomic analysis of brain tissue derived transcriptomes measured from two lines of mice expressing distinct mutant AD-related proteins. The first line expresses oligomerogenic mutant APPE693Q inside neurons, leading to accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers and behavioral impairment, but never develops parenchymal fibrillar amyloid deposits. The second line expresses APPKM670/671NL/PSEN1Δexon9 in neurons and accumulates fibrillar Aβ amyloid and amyloid plaques accompanied by neuritic dystrophy and behavioral impairment. We performed RNA-sequencing analyses of dentate gyrus and entorhinal cortex from each line and from wild type mice. We then performed an integrative genomic analysis to identify dysregulated molecules and pathways, comparing transgenic mice with wild type controls as well as to each other. We also compared these results with datasets derived from human AD brain. Differential gene and exon expression analysis revealed pervasive alterations in APP/Aβ metabolism, epigenetic control of neurogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and extracellular matrix regulation. Comparative molecular analysis converged on FMR1 (Fragile X Mental Retardation-1), an important negative regulator of APP translation and oligomerogenesis in the post-synaptic space. Integration of these transcriptomic results with human postmortem AD gene networks, differential expression and differential splicing signatures identified significant similarities in pathway dysregulation, including extracellular

  18. UV Irradiation Accelerates Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Processing and Disrupts APP Axonal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Falzone, Tomas L.; Shen, Zhouxin; Lillo, Concepcion; Killian, Rhiannon L.; Arreola, Angela S.; Niederst, Emily D.; Ng, Kheng S.; Kim, Sonia N.; Briggs, Steven P.; Williams, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression and/or abnormal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular levels of APP or its processing, and the physiological and pathological consequences of altered processing are not well understood. Here, using mouse and human cells, we found that neuronal damage induced by UV irradiation leads to specific APP, APLP1, and APLP2 decline by accelerating their secretase-dependent processing. Pharmacological inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal activity partially protects UV-induced APP processing implying contribution of the endosomal and/or lysosomal compartments in this process. We found that a biological consequence of UV-induced γ-secretase processing of APP is impairment of APP axonal transport. To probe the functional consequences of impaired APP axonal transport, we isolated and analyzed presumptive APP-containing axonal transport vesicles from mouse cortical synaptosomes using electron microscopy, biochemical, and mass spectrometry analyses. We identified a population of morphologically heterogeneous organelles that contains APP, the secretase machinery, molecular motors, and previously proposed and new residents of APP vesicles. These possible cargoes are enriched in proteins whose dysfunction could contribute to neuronal malfunction and diseases of the nervous system including AD. Together, these results suggest that damage-induced APP processing might impair APP axonal transport, which could result in failure of synaptic maintenance and neuronal dysfunction. PMID:24573290

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs for anionic and neutral peroxidases from suspension-cultured-cells of sweet potato and their differential expression in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Huh, G H; Lee, S J; Bae, Y S; Liu, J R; Kwak, S S

    1997-07-01

    Two peroxidase (POD) cDNAs, swpal and swpn1, were isolated and characterized from suspension-cultured cells of sweet potato in order to understand the physiological function of POD isozymes. Sequence analysis showed that swpa1 encoded an anionic POD and swpn1 encoded a neutral POD. The swpa1 and swpn1 genes were both highly expressed in suspension-cultured cells in accordance with the high POD activity of these cells. Although both gene transcripts were detected in the stems of intact plants, their transcription levels were much lower than in suspension-cultured cells. During cell growth the pattern of mRNA accumulation of swpa1 differed from that of swpn1, suggesting that expression of these genes is differentially regulated by cell growth stage. In addition, the swpa1 and swpn1 genes responded differently to oxidative stress induced by chilling. The expression of swpa1 was weakly induced by 15 degrees C acclimation and strongly induced by 4 degrees C chilling, whereas the mRNA level of swpn1 was increased by 15 degrees C acclimation and reduced by 4 degrees chilling. This indicates that the two isozymes encoded by swpa1 and swpn1 might contribute to protection against cold-induced oxidative stress through different signaling pathways. In leaves, both genes were induced by wounding with broadly similar expression. patterns. Genomic analysis suggests that the two isozymes are encoded by different loci in the sweet potato genome.

  20. (Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    We have tested and implemented several protocols to increase productivity for mapping expressed sequence tags EST sequences to human chromosomes. These protocols include adopting PRIMER which permits utilization of batch files, as the standard software for PCR primer design; adding a human 21-only cell line to the NIGMS panel No. 1 to improve discrimination in discordancy analyses involving chromosome 21, adding a monochromosomal hybrid panel to facilitate chromosome assignment of sequences that are amplified from more than 1 chromosome; combining the products of multiple PCR reactions for electrophoretic analysis (pseudoplexing); routinely multiplexing PCR reactions; and automating data entry and analysis as much as possible. We have applied these protocols to assign an overall total of 132 human brain CDNA sequences to individual human chromosomes. PCR primers were designed from ESTS and tested for specific amplification from human genomic DNA. DNA was then amplified using DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates. The amplification products were identified using an automated fluorescence detection system. Chromosomal assignments were made by discordancy analysis. The localized cDNAs include 2 for known human genes, 2 that map to 2 different human chromosomes, and 25 for cDNAs matching existing database records.

  1. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of cDNAs encoding the thioredoxin-interacting protein and selenoprotein P genes and histological changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to silver nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Thummabancha, Kubpaphas; Onparn, Nuttaphon; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-02-15

    Herein, Nile tilapia thioredoxin-interacting protein (On-TXNIP) and selenoprotein P (On-SEPP) cDNAs were cloned and characterized. The full-length On-TXNIP cDNA contained 2 arrestin domains, 2 conserved cysteine residues that bind to thioredoxin to inhibit thioredoxin function, and 2 PPXY motifs, which negatively regulate the protein by stimulating binding to E3 ubiquitin ligase. The On-SEPP cDNA contained 17 selenocysteines (Sec) encoded by the TGA codon, which can be recognized as either a stop codon or a Sec codon. The On-SEPP cDNA also carried 2 typical SECIS elements located in the 3'UTR that are important for selenocysteine translation. Evolutionary analyses of both the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes revealed that these genes are closely related to the TXNIP and SEPP genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio), with amino acid similarities of 91.8% and 61.9%, respectively. A normal tissue distribution analysis indicated that the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and the highest expression levels of these genes were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the trunk kidney, respectively. The expression levels of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts were acutely and chronically analyzed following the injection of fish with 1, 10 or 100mg/kg silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Significant up-regulation of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts was observed in the liver, spleen, and head kidney at the early phase of Ag NP exposure (hours 6 through 48). Down-regulation of On-SEPP transcripts was clearly observed in the liver at weeks 1 to 4. Histopathology analysis demonstrated that the fish livers exhibited a dramatic infiltration of Kupffer cells, elevated bi-nucleated cells, expanded sinusoidal blood congestion and severe necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these findings, coupling of the expression analysis of these two cellular stress response genes and histopathological observation of fish exposed to Ag NPs should be

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of cDNAs encoding the thioredoxin-interacting protein and selenoprotein P genes and histological changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to silver nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Thummabancha, Kubpaphas; Onparn, Nuttaphon; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-02-15

    Herein, Nile tilapia thioredoxin-interacting protein (On-TXNIP) and selenoprotein P (On-SEPP) cDNAs were cloned and characterized. The full-length On-TXNIP cDNA contained 2 arrestin domains, 2 conserved cysteine residues that bind to thioredoxin to inhibit thioredoxin function, and 2 PPXY motifs, which negatively regulate the protein by stimulating binding to E3 ubiquitin ligase. The On-SEPP cDNA contained 17 selenocysteines (Sec) encoded by the TGA codon, which can be recognized as either a stop codon or a Sec codon. The On-SEPP cDNA also carried 2 typical SECIS elements located in the 3'UTR that are important for selenocysteine translation. Evolutionary analyses of both the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes revealed that these genes are closely related to the TXNIP and SEPP genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio), with amino acid similarities of 91.8% and 61.9%, respectively. A normal tissue distribution analysis indicated that the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and the highest expression levels of these genes were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the trunk kidney, respectively. The expression levels of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts were acutely and chronically analyzed following the injection of fish with 1, 10 or 100mg/kg silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Significant up-regulation of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts was observed in the liver, spleen, and head kidney at the early phase of Ag NP exposure (hours 6 through 48). Down-regulation of On-SEPP transcripts was clearly observed in the liver at weeks 1 to 4. Histopathology analysis demonstrated that the fish livers exhibited a dramatic infiltration of Kupffer cells, elevated bi-nucleated cells, expanded sinusoidal blood congestion and severe necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these findings, coupling of the expression analysis of these two cellular stress response genes and histopathological observation of fish exposed to Ag NPs should be

  3. (Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    J. Craig Venter, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, has begun to identify genes expressed in the human brain by partially sequences cDNA clones. We are collaborating with the Venter group and using their sequence data to develop methods for rapid localization of newly identified cDNAs to human chromosomes. We are applying the ABI automated DNA sequencer to the analysis of fluorescently-tagged PCR products for assigning sequences to individual human chromosomes. The steps in our mapping protocol are (1) to design PCR primers from the Venter laboratory-generated sequence data, (2) to test the primers for specific amplification from human genomic DNA, (3) to use the primers for PCR amplification from a somatic cell hybrid cell mapping panel, (4) to determine the presence or absence of the specific amplification products from each cell line DNA by electrophoretic analysis using the ABI sequencer, and (5) to analyze the pattern of amplification results from the hybrid panel to identify the chromosomal origin of the cDNA sequence. We have demonstrated the principle by mapping 12 sequences or Expressed Sequence Tags'' (ESTs), providing primer sequence data for subsequent subchromosomal localizations. We will now concentrate on developing methodology to allow multiplexing the amplification reactions and analysis of the reaction products, to achieve a high throughput with a minimum allocation of resources. This project will generate a data set from which to evaluate strategies to identify functional primer sequences from cDNA sequence data.

  4. Understanding Mobile Apps

    MedlinePlus

    ... a device, you’re committed to using the operating system and the type of apps that go with it. The Android, Apple, Microsoft and BlackBerry mobile operating systems have app stores online where you can look ...

  5. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  6. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  7. Apps for hearing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The hearing healthcare scenario is rapidly evolving due to the pervasive use of m-Health solutions, in particular mobile apps. This brings along significant advantages and opportunities (e.g., accessibility, affordability, personalized healthcare, patient empowerment) as well as significant potential risks and threats (e.g., safety, misuse, quality issues, privacy). Our research aims at the identification and assessment of apps in the hearing healthcare domain. In this article we present an overview of the current availability, variety, and penetration of hearing-related apps.

  8. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  9. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives.

  10. Apps I Have Loved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    According to a March estimate from Distimo, there were 653,614 apps in the iPhone, Android, iPad, BlackBerry, and Windows Mobile stores alone. So, is it any wonder that these busy people have found a few that come in handy on the job? Mobile apps are as indispensable to district IT executives as they are becoming in the classroom--for professional…

  11. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families.

  12. Diet and Physical Activity Apps: Perceived Effectiveness by App Users

    PubMed Central

    Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. Objective This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. Methods First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). Results App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all P<.05). App users were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. Conclusions App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social

  13. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. Objective The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. Methods We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search Results On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. Conclusions The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to study APP function

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Collin Y.; Li, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The brains of Alzheimer's disease patients show an increased number of senile plaques compared with normal patients. The major component of the plaques is the β-amyloid peptide, a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Although the processing of APP has been well-described, the physiological functions of APP and its cleavage products remain unclear. This article reviews the multifunctional roles of an APP orthologue, the C. elegans APL-1. Understanding the function of APL-1 may provide insights into the functions and signaling pathways of human APP. In addition, the physiological effects of introducing human β-amyloid peptide into C. elegans are also reviewed. The C. elegans system provides a powerful genetic model to identify genes regulating the molecular mechanisms underlying intracellular β-amyloid peptide accumulation. PMID:22038715

  15. There's an App for that!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Important as training the sales force is, mobile training apps are being used for much more. Visual Eyes Inc., for example, has developed training apps for the U.S. military's combat medical teams that detail specific medical procedures, such as controlling hemorrhaging. Other apps, developed for corporations and government agencies, pass along…

  16. Smokefree Apps | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Get 24/7 help with a Smokefree app for your smartphone. These free apps give you the support and skills you need to get ready to quit and stay smokefree. Explore the apps to discover the features that will be most helpful for your smokefree journey.

  17. [Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1992-11-01

    We have tested and implemented several protocols to increase productivity for mapping expressed sequence tags EST sequences to human chromosomes. These protocols include adopting PRIMER which permits utilization of batch files, as the standard software for PCR primer design; adding a human 21-only cell line to the NIGMS panel No. 1 to improve discrimination in discordancy analyses involving chromosome 21, adding a monochromosomal hybrid panel to facilitate chromosome assignment of sequences that are amplified from more than 1 chromosome; combining the products of multiple PCR reactions for electrophoretic analysis (pseudoplexing); routinely multiplexing PCR reactions; and automating data entry and analysis as much as possible. We have applied these protocols to assign an overall total of 132 human brain CDNA sequences to individual human chromosomes. PCR primers were designed from ESTS and tested for specific amplification from human genomic DNA. DNA was then amplified using DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates. The amplification products were identified using an automated fluorescence detection system. Chromosomal assignments were made by discordancy analysis. The localized cDNAs include 2 for known human genes, 2 that map to 2 different human chromosomes, and 25 for cDNAs matching existing database records.

  18. Oyster Fisheries App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Guerrero, Geraldo A.; Armstrong, Duane; Underwood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This project is creating a cloud-enabled, HTML 5 web application to help oyster fishermen and state agencies apply Earth science to improve the management of this important natural and economic resource. The Oyster Fisheries app gathers and analyzes environmental and water quality information, and alerts fishermen and resources managers about problems in oyster fishing waters. An intuitive interface based on Google Maps displays the geospatial information and provides familiar interactive controls to the users. Alerts can be tailored to notify users when conditions in specific leases or public fishing areas require attention. The app is hosted on the Amazon Web Services cloud. It is being developed and tested using some of the latest web development tools such as web components and Polymer.

  19. Chromosomal loci of 50 human keratinocyte cDNAs assigned by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Morishima, Yohich; Ariyama, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    1995-07-20

    The chromosomal loci of expressed genes provide useful information for a candidate gene approach to the genes responsible for genetic diseases. A large set of randomly isolated cDNAs catalogued by partial sequencing can serve as a resource for accessing and isolating these disease genes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we examined the chromosomal loci of 217 human keratinocyte-derived cDNAs, with independent novel sequence tags at the 3{prime} end region. Among them, we determined the loci of 50 cDNAs. Single-pass sequencing of these from the 5{prime} ends indicated that 39 cDNAs still can be produced for new genes. These cDNAs with identified chromosomal loci are powerful tools that can be used to help elucidate the genes responsible for hereditary skin disorders. 42 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Mobile Apps for Educational Purposes.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of mobile resources, nurse educators and professional development practitioners have the opportunity to harness mobile applications as a tool for their education toolbox. Yet, the overwhelming availability of choices can lead to questions, such as the following: How do we locate apps without spending huge amounts of our valuable time? How do we know which apps to choose? How can we evaluate apps? This article is aimed at addressing these questions. PMID:27575934

  1. Mobile Apps in Cardiology: Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the deadliest diseases worldwide, with 17.3 million deaths in 2008 alone. Among them, heart-related deaths are of the utmost relevance; a fact easily proven by the 7.25 million deaths caused by ischemic heart disease alone in that year. The latest advances in smartphones and mHealth have been used in the creation of thousands of medical apps related to cardiology, which can help to reduce these mortality rates. Objective The aim of this paper is to study the literature on mobile systems and applications currently available, as well as the existing apps related to cardiology from the leading app stores and to then classify the results to see what is available and what is missing, focusing particularly on commercial apps. Methods Two reviews have been developed. One is a literature review of mobile systems and applications, retrieved from several databases and systems such as Scopus, PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Knowledge. The other is a review of mobile apps in the leading app stores, Google play for Android and Apple’s App Store for iOS. Results Search queries up to May 2013 located 406 papers and 710 apps related to cardiology and heart disease. The most researched section in the literature associated with cardiology is related to mobile heart (and vital signs) monitoring systems and the methods involved in the classification of heart signs in order to detect abnormal functions. Other systems with a significant number of papers are mobile cardiac rehabilitation systems, blood pressure measurement, and systems for the detection of heart failure. The majority of apps for cardiology are heart monitors and medical calculators. Other categories with a high number of apps are those for ECG education and interpretation, cardiology news and journals, blood pressure tracking, heart rate monitoring using an external device, and CPR instruction. There are very few guides on cardiac rehabilitation and apps for the management of the

  2. Isolation and characterisation of two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Furnes, Clemens; Kileng, Øyvind; Jensen, Ingvill; Karki, Pralav; Eichacker, Lutz; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase (TG) were identified in a subtractive cDNA library prepared from the head kidney of poly I:C stimulated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Full-length TG-1 and TG-2 cDNA were cloned from the head kidney by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence for TG-1 was 695 aa with an estimated molecular mass of 78.3 kDa, while TG-2 was a 698 aa protein with an estimated molecular mass of 78.8 kDa. The two proteins were named TG-1 and TG-2 and both possess transglutaminase/protease-like homologous domains (TGc) and full conservation of amino acids cysteine, histidine, and aspartate residues that form the catalytic triad. Sequence analysis showed high similarity (93.1%) with Alaska pollock TG, and the TGs were grouped together with TGs from chum salmon, Japanese flounder, Nile tilapia, and red sea bream in addition to Alaska pollock in phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, they showed different tissue distribution with highest constitutive expression in reproductive and immunological organs, indicating important roles in these organs. Furthermore, the up-regulation of TG-1 and TG-2 in head kidney after stimulating Atlantic cod with poly I:C suggested a role of TGs in immune response in Atlantic cod. PMID:24316498

  3. [Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1991-12-31

    J. Craig Venter, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, has begun to identify genes expressed in the human brain by partially sequences cDNA clones. We are collaborating with the Venter group and using their sequence data to develop methods for rapid localization of newly identified cDNAs to human chromosomes. We are applying the ABI automated DNA sequencer to the analysis of fluorescently-tagged PCR products for assigning sequences to individual human chromosomes. The steps in our mapping protocol are (1) to design PCR primers from the Venter laboratory-generated sequence data, (2) to test the primers for specific amplification from human genomic DNA, (3) to use the primers for PCR amplification from a somatic cell hybrid cell mapping panel, (4) to determine the presence or absence of the specific amplification products from each cell line DNA by electrophoretic analysis using the ABI sequencer, and (5) to analyze the pattern of amplification results from the hybrid panel to identify the chromosomal origin of the cDNA sequence. We have demonstrated the principle by mapping 12 sequences or ``Expressed Sequence Tags`` (ESTs), providing primer sequence data for subsequent subchromosomal localizations. We will now concentrate on developing methodology to allow multiplexing the amplification reactions and analysis of the reaction products, to achieve a high throughput with a minimum allocation of resources. This project will generate a data set from which to evaluate strategies to identify functional primer sequences from cDNA sequence data.

  4. A Year with Google Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Robin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2008, the Missouri River Regional Library (MRRL), where the author serves as information technology coordinator, switched over from an internally hosted Microsoft Exchange email server to the Google Apps product. As the person who led the charge to use Google Apps and the person who actually flipped the switch, he was responsible for…

  5. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  6. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:25626077

  7. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: structural characterisation, molecular cloning of biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs and engineering of analogues with enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-02-01

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  8. MateriApps — a Portal Site of Materials Science Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Yusuke; Igarashi, Ryo; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Kato, Takeo; Kawashima, Naoki; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Kouta, Hikaru; Noda, Masashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Terada, Yayoi; Todo, Synge; Tsuchida, Shigehiro; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Kanako

    "MateriApps" is a portal website of computational materials science simulation that has a database containing over 100 application software including density functional theory calculation, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc. On the MateriApps website, researchers can find applications suitable for their own research in materials science by browsing the website or searching by keywords. We also provide forums and tutorial courses of applications. In order to avoid troublesome installation procedures and provide users an environment in which they can try out various applications easily, we develop and freely distribute "MateriApps LIVE!," a live Linux system, in which several applications introduced in MateriApps are pre-installed.

  9. Creating Innovative Student Projects with App Smashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The potential for using various apps to improve student learning is tremendous. Yet, despite the iPad's possibilities, apps are often limited in their functionality. No one has created that magical, one-size-fits-all app that accomplishes all of the tasks that you had in mind. Luckily, there is an answer to this common problem: app smashing.…

  10. The AppScale Cloud Platform

    PubMed Central

    Krintz, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    AppScale is an open source distributed software system that implements a cloud platform as a service (PaaS). AppScale makes cloud applications easy to deploy and scale over disparate cloud fabrics, implementing a set of APIs and architecture that also makes apps portable across the services they employ. AppScale is API-compatible with Google App Engine (GAE) and thus executes GAE applications on-premise or over other cloud infrastructures, without modification. PMID:23828721

  11. Urologists' usage and perceptions of urological apps.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Niall J; Risk, Rachel; Clark, Ross; Meddings, Robert N

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey of urologists to document their patterns of app usage and perceptions of app quality, and to assess their interest in future app usage. The survey was sent to all urologists on the mailing list of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) (n=1613). A total of 115 responses were received (a response rate of 7%). Most respondents (89%) owned mobile devices capable of downloading apps. Most respondents (79%) used apps and about half (49%) used urological apps; the latter accessed a mean of 2.4 urological apps per month. Significantly more younger (defined as <45 years old) than older urologists used urological apps (P<0.001). Respondents' perception of the overall quality of apps produced for both urologists and patients was relatively low. The respondents' interest in future app usage was strong. There was greatest interest in apps such as logbooks or revalidation ones (87%), reference apps (86%) and ones which aided decision-making (85%). There was considerable support for the implementation of measures to provide urological app quality assurance; most respondents believed app peer review (78%) and validation (78%) would be beneficial and 48% supported regulatory oversight. There appears to be a need for high quality urological apps and opportunities therefore exist for national urological associations and academic units to lead developments.

  12. Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wiemann, Stefan; Weil, Bernd; Wellenreuther, Ruth; Gassenhuber, Johannes; Glassl, Sabine; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Böcher, Michael; Blöcker, Helmut; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Lauber, Jürgen; Düsterhöft, Andreas; Beyer, Andreas; Köhrer, Karl; Strack, Normann; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Obermaier, Brigitte; Tampe, Jens; Heubner, Dagmar; Wambutt, Rolf; Korn, Bernhard; Klein, Michaela; Poustka, Annemarie

    2001-01-01

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%–5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL database under the accession nos. given in Table 2.] PMID:11230166

  13. Psych-related iPhone apps.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Anthony Mark; Goozee, Rhianna

    2014-02-01

    iPhone apps are a widely utilised technology that have recently been identified as a useful medium for health research, clinical interventions and education. While some researchers have discussed advances in app technology, others promote specific apps that are not free to access. To our knowledge, no study has conducted a review of current, free iPhone apps related to psychology, psychiatry and mental health. Therefore, we conducted a pilot, web-based review exploring free iPhone apps using a replicable search strategy within the iTunes Store search function. A selection of apps were selected and subjectively assessed in terms of their usability, utility, graphics, and associated costs for the consumer. We concluded that the apps reviewed, though novel, are limited in their scope and utility. We also note a significant gap in more scientific, evidence-based app technology, and pose some pertinent ethical questions when developing future psych-related apps.

  14. Membrane tethering of APP c-terminal fragments is a prerequisite for T668 phosphorylation preventing nuclear sphere generation.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Hassan; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Schröder, Elisabeth; Knauer, Shirley; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    A central molecular hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which causes the generation of different c-terminal fragments like C99, AICD57, or AICD50 that fully or in part contain the APP transmembrane domain. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-tethered C99 is phosphorylated by JNK3A at residue T668 (APP695 numbering) to a higher extent than AICD57, whereas AICD50 is not capable of being phosphorylated. The modification decreases the turnover of APP, while the blockade of APP cleavage increases APP phosphorylation. Generation of nuclear spheres, complexes consisting of the translocated AICD, FE65 and other proteins, is significantly reduced as soon as APP c-terminal fragments are accessible for phosphorylation. This APP modification, which we identified as significantly reduced in high plaque-load areas of the human brain, is linearly dependent on the level of APP expression. Accordingly, we show that APP abundance is likewise capable of modulating nuclear sphere generation. Thus, the precise and complex regulation of APP phosphorylation, abundance, and cleavage impacts the generation of nuclear spheres, which are under discussion of being of relevance in neurodegeneration and dementia. Future pharmacological manipulation of nuclear sphere generation may be a promising approach for AD treatment.

  15. 77 FR 72337 - Apps for Vehicles Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Apps for Vehicles Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... Vehicles: improving safety and fuel efficiency through technology innovation''. DATES: See, 1. Key Challenge Dates & Deadlines in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The Apps for Vehicles Challenge...

  16. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  17. mHealthApps: A Repository and Database of Mobile Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Background The market of mobile health (mHealth) apps has rapidly evolved in the past decade. With more than 100,000 mHealth apps currently available, there is no centralized resource that collects information on these health-related apps for researchers in this field to effectively evaluate the strength and weakness of these apps. Objective The objective of this study was to create a centralized mHealth app repository. We expect the analysis of information in this repository to provide insights for future mHealth research developments. Methods We focused on apps from the two most established app stores, the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. We extracted detailed information of each health-related app from these two app stores via our python crawling program, and then stored the information in both a user-friendly array format and a standard JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. Results We have developed a centralized resource that provides detailed information of more than 60,000 health-related apps from the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. Using this information resource, we analyzed thousands of apps systematically and provide an overview of the trends for mHealth apps. Conclusions This unique database allows the meta-analysis of health-related apps and provides guidance for research designs of future apps in the mHealth field. PMID:25786060

  18. Illuminating Apps for Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennex, Lesia; Bodenlos, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science is chock-full of wonderful experiences for students. Do children see iPads as a tool for learning about science? Using Prensky (2010) as a guide, the researchers decided to see if "assessing students with their own" tools (p.178) using iPad apps would support learning discrete knowledge for electricity and light…

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  20. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  1. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  2. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  3. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  4. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  5. Use of smartphone apps by paediatric trainees.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, Srinivas; Halton, Fiona; Goodyear, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Over 70% of the population owns a smartphone and there are now millions of apps available. This study looks at smartphone and app use among paediatric trainees, in particular whether they are accessing medical apps to help with clinical practice. PMID:26255919

  6. Are You Connected to the Best Apps?

    PubMed

    Gaudette, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    While the vast majority of pharmacists use computers to access medical information, many prefer a mobile device to find information quickly. This review discusses pharmacists' use of mobile device applications (apps) and highlights an assortment of apps that are particularly helpful. Epocrates, which provides drug information and clinical content, was the first popular smartphone app developed in this area and was used to introduce the concept. Today, apps that provide a wide range of drug information can be supplemented with apps that fine-tune specific information about drug monitoring, disease states, and cost. PMID:26629799

  7. Apps of Steel: Are Exercise Apps Providing Consumers with Realistic Expectations?: A Content Analysis of Exercise Apps for Presence of Behavior Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Logan T.; Van Wagenen, Sarah A.; Brown, Brittany A.; Hedin, Riley J.; Seino-Stephan, Yukiko; Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the presence of health behavior theory constructs in iPhone apps targeting physical activity. Methods. This study used a content analysis of 127 apps from Apple's (App Store) "Health & Fitness" category. Coders downloaded the apps and then used an established theory-based instrument to rate each app's inclusion of…

  8. Could People Get Quality Apps They Intend to Get? Taking Finding Stroke Apps for Example.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Fu, Chen; Chang, Hong; Wu, Ying; Chang, Polun

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate what apps could people get and what quality these apps were when different searching keywords were used to search in different platforms. We took Stroke apps as an example with "Stroke" "Cerebrovascular Disease" and "Zhongfeng" (in Chinese) as the keywords. Two reviewers evaluated apps independently with revised MARS scale. It was interesting to see that people would get different apps from different platforms with different keywords. The results show that a good mechanism is needed to safeguard people obtain right apps from any source with any term in China. PMID:27332472

  9. Could People Get Quality Apps They Intend to Get? Taking Finding Stroke Apps for Example.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Fu, Chen; Chang, Hong; Wu, Ying; Chang, Polun

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate what apps could people get and what quality these apps were when different searching keywords were used to search in different platforms. We took Stroke apps as an example with "Stroke" "Cerebrovascular Disease" and "Zhongfeng" (in Chinese) as the keywords. Two reviewers evaluated apps independently with revised MARS scale. It was interesting to see that people would get different apps from different platforms with different keywords. The results show that a good mechanism is needed to safeguard people obtain right apps from any source with any term in China.

  10. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. PMID:27443418

  11. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps.

  12. Two cDNAs from potato are able to complement a phosphate uptake-deficient yeast mutant: identification of phosphate transporters from higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Leggewie, G; Willmitzer, L; Riesmeier, J W

    1997-01-01

    Acquisition as well as translocation of phosphate are essential processes for plant growth. In many plants, phosphate uptake by roots and distribution within the plant are presumed to occur via a phosphate/proton cotransport mechanism. Here, we describe the isolation of two cDNAs, StPT1 and StPT2, from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that show homology to the phosphate/proton cotransporter PHO84 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The predicted products of both cDNAs share 35% identity with the PHO84 sequence. The deduced structure of the encoded proteins revealed 12 membrane-spanning domains with a central hydrophilic region. The molecular mass was calculated to be 59 kD for the StPT1 protein and 58 kD for the StPT2 protein. When expressed in a PHO84-deficient yeast strain, MB192, both cDNAs complemented the mutant. Uptake of radioactive orthophosphate by the yeast mutant expressing either StPT1 or StPT2 was dependent on pH and reduced in the presence of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The K(m) for Pi uptake of the StPT1 and StPT2 proteins was determined to be 280 and 130 microM, respectively. StPT1 is expressed in roots, tubers, and source leaves as well as in floral organs. Deprivation of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur changed spatial expression as well as the expression level of StPT1. StPT2 expression was detected mainly in root organs when plants were deprived of Pi and to a lesser extent under sulfur deprivation conditions. No expression was found under optimized nutrition conditions or when other macronutrients were lacking. PMID:9090882

  13. Insights into metazoan evolution from alvinella pompejana cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alvinella pompejana is a representative of Annelids, a key phylum for evo-devo studies that is still poorly studied at the sequence level. A. pompejana inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents and is currently known as one of the most thermotolerant Eukaryotes in marine environments, withstanding the largest known chemical and thermal ranges (from 5 to 105°C). This tube-dwelling worm forms dense colonies on the surface of hydrothermal chimneys and can withstand long periods of hypo/anoxia and long phases of exposure to hydrogen sulphides. A. pompejana specifically inhabits chimney walls of hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise. To survive, Alvinella has developed numerous adaptations at the physiological and molecular levels, such as an increase in the thermostability of proteins and protein complexes. It represents an outstanding model organism for studying adaptation to harsh physicochemical conditions and for isolating stable macromolecules resistant to high temperatures. Results We have constructed four full length enriched cDNA libraries to investigate the biology and evolution of this intriguing animal. Analysis of more than 75,000 high quality reads led to the identification of 15,858 transcripts and 9,221 putative protein sequences. Our annotation reveals a good coverage of most animal pathways and networks with a prevalence of transcripts involved in oxidative stress resistance, detoxification, anti-bacterial defence, and heat shock protection. Alvinella proteins seem to show a slow evolutionary rate and a higher similarity with proteins from Vertebrates compared to proteins from Arthropods or Nematodes. Their composition shows enrichment in positively charged amino acids that might contribute to their thermostability. The gene content of Alvinella reveals that an important pool of genes previously considered to be specific to Deuterostomes were in fact already present in the last common ancestor of the Bilaterian animals, but have been

  14. GABAA receptor beta subunit heterogeneity: functional expression of cloned cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Ymer, S; Schofield, P R; Draguhn, A; Werner, P; Köhler, M; Seeburg, P H

    1989-01-01

    Cloned cDNAs encoding two new beta subunits of the rat and bovine GABAA receptor have been isolated using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on a highly conserved peptide sequence in the second transmembrane domain of GABAA receptor subunits. The beta 2 and beta 3 subunits share approximately 72% sequence identity with the previously characterized beta 1 polypeptide. Northern analysis showed that both beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs are more abundant in the brain than beta 1 mRNA. All three beta subunit encoding cDNAs were also identified in a library constructed from adrenal medulla RNA. Each beta subunit, when co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with an alpha subunit, forms functional GABAA receptors. These results, together with the known alpha subunit heterogeneity, suggest that a variety of related but functionally distinct GABAA receptor subtypes are generated by different subunit combinations. Images PMID:2548852

  15. PCR cloning and characterization of multiple ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNAs from tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.; Gianfagna, T.

    1998-01-01

    Four ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) cDNAs were cloned from tomato fruit and leaves by the PCR techniques. Three of them (agp S1, agp S2, and agp S3) encode the large subunit of AGP, the fourth one (agp B) encodes the small subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs show very high identities (96-98%) to the corresponding potato AGP isoforms, although there are major differences in tissue expression profiles. All four tomato AGP transcripts were detected in fruit and leaves; the predominant ones in fruit are agp B and agp S1, whereas in leaves they are agp B and agp S3. Genomic southern analysis suggests that the four AGP transcripts are encoded by distinct genes.

  16. Identification of cDNAs by direct hybridization using cosmid probes

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.G.; Lieuallen, K.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to quickly obtain as many chromosome-specific cDNAs with as much map and sequence detail as possible. Many techniques have been proposed to isolate and identify genes within defined genomic regions; the technique discussed here is direct hybridization of a relatively complex genomic probe, an entire cosmid clone, to cDNA libraries. This method continues to be a straightforward technique with a fair number of successes.

  17. Isolation of Light-Enhanced cDNAs of Cercospora kikuchii

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Upchurch, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Cercospora kikuchii is a fungal pathogen of soybeans which produces a photosensitizing phytotoxic polyketide metabolite, cercosporin. Cercosporin synthesis in culture is modulated by several environmental factors. In addition to the light requirement for toxin action, cercosporin biosynthesis is also highly light regulated. As a first step towards identifying genes involved in cercosporin regulation and biosynthesis, we have used subtractive hybridization to isolate light-enhanced cDNA clones. Six distinct cDNA clones representing genes from a wild-type C. kikuchii strain for which transcript accumulation is positively regulated by light were isolated. To assess the relationship of these light-enhanced cDNAs to cercosporin biosynthesis, we compared corresponding steady-state RNA levels in the wild type and in three mutant strains altered in toxin biosynthesis. Two of the mutant C. kikuchii strains which fail to accumulate cercosporin in response to light also fail to exhibit light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to all six light-enhanced cDNAs. Cercosporin accumulation in the third mutant strain, S2, is regulated by medium composition as well as light. S2 fails to accumulate cercosporin in complete medium, a medium which allows significant cercosporin accumulation by the wild-type strain. When cultured in complete medium, this mutant strain also fails to show the wild-type, light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to five of the six light-enhanced cDNAs. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that transcript accumulation for two of the six light-enhanced cDNAs strongly paralleled cercosporin accumulation in light-grown wild-type culture. Images PMID:16348553

  18. Isolation of Light-Enhanced cDNAs of Cercospora kikuchii.

    PubMed

    Ehrenshaft, M; Upchurch, R G

    1991-09-01

    Cercospora kikuchii is a fungal pathogen of soybeans which produces a photosensitizing phytotoxic polyketide metabolite, cercosporin. Cercosporin synthesis in culture is modulated by several environmental factors. In addition to the light requirement for toxin action, cercosporin biosynthesis is also highly light regulated. As a first step towards identifying genes involved in cercosporin regulation and biosynthesis, we have used subtractive hybridization to isolate light-enhanced cDNA clones. Six distinct cDNA clones representing genes from a wild-type C. kikuchii strain for which transcript accumulation is positively regulated by light were isolated. To assess the relationship of these light-enhanced cDNAs to cercosporin biosynthesis, we compared corresponding steady-state RNA levels in the wild type and in three mutant strains altered in toxin biosynthesis. Two of the mutant C. kikuchii strains which fail to accumulate cercosporin in response to light also fail to exhibit light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to all six light-enhanced cDNAs. Cercosporin accumulation in the third mutant strain, S2, is regulated by medium composition as well as light. S2 fails to accumulate cercosporin in complete medium, a medium which allows significant cercosporin accumulation by the wild-type strain. When cultured in complete medium, this mutant strain also fails to show the wild-type, light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to five of the six light-enhanced cDNAs. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that transcript accumulation for two of the six light-enhanced cDNAs strongly paralleled cercosporin accumulation in light-grown wild-type culture.

  19. Characterization of direct selected cDNAs from the BRCA1 region of 17q21

    SciTech Connect

    Welcsh, P.L.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.L.; Spillman, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    A gene involved in the development of early-onset familial breast and ovarian cancer, BRCA1, has been mapped to human chromosome 17q21. Polymorphisms closely linked to BRCA1 has been sublocalized to a region of 17q21 which is defined by the markers D17S856 and D17S78. A physical map of this region, that consists of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and cosmid contigs, has been constructed and used to isolate potential coding sequences via direct selection. We have identified at least 23 unique transcripts in a 600 kb interval corresponding to approximately one gene every 30 kb. We have determined the expression profile of these cDNAs by generating cDNA-specific primers which have been used in a screen of cDNAs derived from wide variety of tissues and cell types. Full length cDNA clones are being obtained from cDNA libraries in which the genes have been shown to be expressed by a variety of techniques which include direct screening, 5{prime} and 3{prime} RACE, anchor PCR as well as modified selection procedures. We are currently screening for mutations in these candidate cDNAs in affected family members known to harbor a germ-line BRCA1 mutation and in sporadic breast and ovarian tumors. Mutation screening is being performed by Southern and Northern blotting, DNA sequencing, and SSCP analysis of germline DNA and cDNA. Finally, we are analyzing these candidate cDNAs in a number of breast and ovarian cancer cell lines for induction by known mitogenic factors such as estrogen and progesterone by Northern blotting and RT-PCR.

  20. Isolation and expression analysis of cDNAs that are associated with alternate bearing in Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalık

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Olive cDNA libraries to isolate candidate genes that can help enlightening the molecular mechanism of periodicity and / or fruit production were constructed and analyzed. For this purpose, cDNA libraries from the leaves of trees in “on year” and in “off year” in July (when fruits start to appear) and in November (harvest time) were constructed. Randomly selected 100 positive clones from each library were analyzed with respect to sequence and size. A fruit-flesh cDNA library was also constructed and characterized to confirm the reliability of each library’s temporal and spatial properties. Results Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the cDNA libraries confirmed cDNA molecules that are associated with different developmental stages (e. g. “on year” leaves in July, “off year” leaves in July, leaves in November) and fruits. Hence, a number of candidate cDNAs associated with “on year” and “off year” were isolated. Comparison of the detected cDNAs to the current EST database of GenBank along with other non - redundant databases of NCBI revealed homologs of previously described genes along with several unknown cDNAs. Of around 500 screened cDNAs, 48 cDNA elements were obtained after eliminating ribosomal RNA sequences. These independent transcripts were analyzed using BLAST searches (cutoff E-value of 1.0E-5) against the KEGG and GenBank nucleotide databases and 37 putative transcripts corresponding to known gene functions were annotated with gene names and Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Transcripts in the biological process were found to be related with metabolic process (27%), cellular process (23%), response to stimulus (17%), localization process (8.5%), multicellular organismal process (6.25%), developmental process (6.25%) and reproduction (4.2%). Conclusions A putative P450 monooxigenase expressed fivefold more in the “on year” than that of “off year” leaves in July. Two putative dehydrins expressed

  1. Redefining Cheminformatics with Intuitive Collaborative Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alex M; Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers has recently been extended to include a growing ecosystem of increasingly sophisticated chemistry software packages, commonly known as apps. The capabilities that these apps can offer to the practicing chemist are approaching those of conventional desktop-based software, but apps tend to be focused on a relatively small range of tasks. To overcome this, chemistry apps must be able to seamlessly transfer data to other apps, and through the network to other devices, as well as to other platforms, such as desktops and servers, using documented file formats and protocols whenever possible. This article describes the development and state of the art with regard to chemistry-aware apps that make use of facile data interchange, and some of the scenarios in which these apps can be inserted into a chemical information workflow to increase productivity. A selection of contemporary apps is used to demonstrate their relevance to pharmaceutical research. Mobile apps represent a novel approach for delivery of cheminformatics tools to chemists and other scientists, and indications suggest that mobile devices represent a disruptive technology for drug discovery, as they have been to many other industries. PMID:23198002

  2. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  3. A Guide to Help Consumers Choose Apps and Avoid App Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Ellen; Zimmerman, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology has transformed the way consumers access and use information. The exponential growth of mobile apps makes finding suitable, easy-to-use nutrition and health-related apps challenging. A guide for consumers helps them ask important questions before downloading apps. The guide can be adapted for other Extension disciplines.

  4. Isolation of differentially expressed cDNAs during ferret tracheal development: application of differential display PCR.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, A; Presente, A; Dudus, L; Engelhardt, J F

    1996-01-01

    The technique of differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used to identify cDNA sequences, which are temporally expressed during ferret tracheal airway development. Such differentially expressed cDNAs may ultimately prove to be useful markers in elucidating mechanisms of epithelial differentiation and submucosal gland development in the airway. Using two sets of oligonucleotide primers 15 differentially amplified cDNAs were isolated by comparative reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR of 6-h and 3-day postnatal tracheal poly-A mRNA. In situ hybridization was used to assess the reliability of this method and confirm the differential mRNA expression patterns of cloned cDNAs. Results of in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that 10 of the 15 cDNA sequences gave a temporally regulated pattern of expression, which was concordant with that of the differential display. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the 15 isolated cDNAs revealed that the majority of clones were amplified from two inverted decamer primers. These findings demonstrate the lack of poly-T priming in the differential display reaction, which suggests that this method may yield substantially more information regarding the coding sequence of cloned genes. In support of this observation, 6 of the 15 cDNA sequences contained one complete open reading frame. Although the majority of cDNAs demonstrated no homology to sequence data bases at the DNA or amino acid level, clone FT-4, which demonstrated a differential expression pattern limited to 3-day tracheal time points, was composed of a 10-amino acid repeat domain that was structurally similar to neuropeptide anthoRFamide and barley D hordein seed protein. A second interesting clone, FT-3, demonstrated an infrequent pattern of expression within a subset of epithelial cells limited to early developmental time points (6 h) and was dramatically reduced by 3 days postnatally. Several additional clones with no homologies to previously cloned genes

  5. Tilapia prolactin: molecular cloning of two cDNAs and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rentier-Delrue, F; Swennen, D; Prunet, P; Lion, M; Martial, J A

    1989-05-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding tilapia prolactin (tiPRL) from a cDNA library prepared from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) anterior pituitary glands. A trout PRL cDNA fragment was used as hybridization probe to select the recombinant plasmids carrying the tiPRL coding sequence. Two types of PRL cDNA were isolated and their complete nucleotide sequence determined. The larger cDNA (tiPRL-I) codes for a polypeptide of 212 amino acids, including a putative signal sequence of 24 amino acids, and contains a 3' untranslated region of 787 bp. The second prolactin cDNA (tiPRL-II) encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids, including a presumptive signal peptide of 23 amino acids, and contains a noncoding region of 512 bp. tiPRL-I and tiPRL-II cDNA sequences are 81% similar, whereas the encoded proteins share 69% amino acid identity at optimal alignment. Mature tiPRL-I was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli carrying a plasmid in which the tiPRL-I cDNA was under the control of the phi 10 promoter of T7 bacteriophage. The new recombinant protein representing about 45% of the total cellular proteins was found in inclusion bodies and cross-reacted with salmon PRL antiserum. PMID:2670495

  6. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Background One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. Objective The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. Methods We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Results Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. Conclusions A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research. PMID:26290093

  7. Expert Involvement Predicts mHealth App Downloads: Multivariate Regression Analysis of Urology Apps

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Luís; Cavadas, Vitor; Fraga, Avelino; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-01-01

    Background Urological mobile medical (mHealth) apps are gaining popularity with both clinicians and patients. mHealth is a rapidly evolving and heterogeneous field, with some urology apps being downloaded over 10,000 times and others not at all. The factors that contribute to medical app downloads have yet to be identified, including the hypothetical influence of expert involvement in app development. Objective The objective of our study was to identify predictors of the number of urology app downloads. Methods We reviewed urology apps available in the Google Play Store and collected publicly available data. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression evaluated the effect of publicly available app variables on the number of apps being downloaded. Results Of 129 urology apps eligible for study, only 2 (1.6%) had >10,000 downloads, with half having ≤100 downloads and 4 (3.1%) having none at all. Apps developed with expert urologist involvement (P=.003), optional in-app purchases (P=.01), higher user rating (P<.001), and more user reviews (P<.001) were more likely to be installed. App cost was inversely related to the number of downloads (P<.001). Only data from the Google Play Store and the developers’ websites, but not other platforms, were publicly available for analysis, and the level and nature of expert involvement was not documented. Conclusions The explicit participation of urologists in app development is likely to enhance its chances to have a higher number of downloads. This finding should help in the design of better apps and further promote urologist involvement in mHealth. Official certification processes are required to ensure app quality and user safety. PMID:27421338

  8. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  9. Many Smartphone 'Fertility Apps' May Not Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... awareness apps found most don't use accurate methods that are based on scientific evidence. Also, many have a disclaimer saying they shouldn't be used to prevent pregnancy, Duane's study found. The ... use evidence-based methods. Each of the remaining 40 apps was assessed ...

  10. Cool Apps: Productivity at Your Fingertips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    In addition to listing apps and their value, this article focuses on ways people can be more productive by adopting certain workflows in several ways. Apps listed herein include those useful in calendaring, printing, photo-editing, image-recognition, image scanning, electronic signatures, and making and sharing lists and notes.

  11. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  12. Is There an App for that?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Karen H.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Thompson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Everyday technologies (e.g., iPods, iPads, and Smart Phones) other applications (apps) that can serve as supports to students with intellectual and related developmental disabilities. The extent to which apps that are currently on the market are aligned with the support needs of children was evaluated using the subscale framework of the…

  13. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  14. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  15. Smart apps for the smart plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Ellur, Sunderraj; Kujur, Abha Rani; Joseph, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have the ability to benefit plastic surgeons in all aspects of patient care and education. With the sheer number of applications available and more being created everyday, it is easy to miss out on apps which could be of great relevance. Moreover, the range of android applications available has not been extensively discussed in the literature. To this end, we have compiled an exhaustive list of android smartphone applications, which we feel can help our day to day functioning. The apps have been extensively reviewed and neatly described along with all their potential uses. In addition, we have made an effort to highlight ‘non-medical’ or efficiency apps which can improve departmental functioning. These apps have not been described in prior articles, and their functionality might not be known to all. We believe that the technology savvy plastic surgeon can make maximum use of these apps to his benefit. PMID:25991890

  16. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M., Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the {approx}1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5{prime} regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family.

  17. APP interacts with LRP4 and agrin to coordinate the development of the neuromuscular junction in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Y; Liu, Yun; Tennert, Christian; Sugiura, Yoshie; Karakatsani, Andromachi; Kröger, Stephan; Johnson, Eric B; Hammer, Robert E; Lin, Weichun; Herz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    ApoE, ApoE receptors and APP cooperate in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the ApoE receptor LRP4 and APP are also required for normal formation and function of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study, we show that APP interacts with LRP4, an obligate co-receptor for muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Agrin, a ligand for LRP4, also binds to APP and co-operatively enhances the interaction of APP with LRP4. In cultured myotubes, APP synergistically increases agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering. Deletion of the transmembrane domain of LRP4 (LRP4 ECD) results in growth retardation of the NMJ, and these defects are markedly enhanced in APP(-/-);LRP4(ECD/ECD) mice. Double mutant NMJs are significantly reduced in size and number, resulting in perinatal lethality. Our findings reveal novel roles for APP in regulating neuromuscular synapse formation through hetero-oligomeric interaction with LRP4 and agrin and thereby provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern NMJ formation and maintenance. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00220.001. PMID:23986861

  18. There’s an App for That: Content Analysis of Paid Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    Hall, P. Cougar; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Barrett, James

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of Apple’s iPhone provided a platform for developers to design third-party apps, which greatly expanded the functionality and utility of mobile devices for public health. Objective This study provides an overview of the developers’ written descriptions of health and fitness apps and appraises each app’s potential for influencing behavior change. Methods Data for this study came from a content analysis of health and fitness app descriptions available on iTunes during February 2011. The Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) and the Precede-Proceed Model (PPM) were used as frameworks to guide the coding of 3336 paid apps. Results Compared to apps with a cost less than US $0.99, apps exceeding US $0.99 were more likely to be scored as intending to promote health or prevent disease (92.55%, 1925/3336 vs 83.59%, 1411/3336; P<.001), to be credible or trustworthy (91.11%, 1895/3336 vs 86.14%, 1454/3349; P<.001), and more likely to be used personally or recommended to a health care client (72.93%, 1517/2644 vs 66.77%, 1127/2644; P<.001). Apps related to healthy eating, physical activity, and personal health and wellness were more common than apps for substance abuse, mental and emotional health, violence prevention and safety, and sexual and reproductive health. Reinforcing apps were less common than predisposing and enabling apps. Only 1.86% (62/3336) of apps included all 3 factors (ie, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing). Conclusions Development efforts could target public health behaviors for which few apps currently exist. Furthermore, practitioners should be cautious when promoting the use of apps as it appears most provide health-related information (predisposing) or make attempts at enabling behavior, with almost none including all theoretical factors recommended for behavior change. PMID:22584372

  19. PolyApps - Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-05

    The polyApps software is an Umbra add-on C++ library that provides a polyhedral mesh library. Geometric shapes are defined by vertices, planes, edges, and faces. The library has a number of unique features that are useful for working with live scanners such as the SwissRanger. It includes a PolvApps multiple image texture casting capability that is compatible with the Umbra "Camera", and Umbra "lmageApps" class image connectors. The meshes are designed to be dynamic, allowing constant changing of their characteristics. Using these objects, live robot camera data can be cast onto arbitrary polygon meshes.

  20. PolyApps - Version 1.0

    2010-08-05

    The polyApps software is an Umbra add-on C++ library that provides a polyhedral mesh library. Geometric shapes are defined by vertices, planes, edges, and faces. The library has a number of unique features that are useful for working with live scanners such as the SwissRanger. It includes a PolvApps multiple image texture casting capability that is compatible with the Umbra "Camera", and Umbra "lmageApps" class image connectors. The meshes are designed to be dynamic, allowingmore » constant changing of their characteristics. Using these objects, live robot camera data can be cast onto arbitrary polygon meshes.« less

  1. Analyses of cDNAs from growth and slug stages of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Hideko; Morio, Takahiro; Saito, Tamao; Kohara, Yuji; Koriki, Eiko; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Maeda, Mineko; Williams, Jeffrey G; Takeuchi, Ikuo; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    2004-01-01

    Dictyostelium is a favored model for studying problems in cell and developmental biology. To comprehend the genetic potential and networks that direct growth and multicellular development, we are performing a large-scale analysis of Dictyostelium cDNAs. Here, we newly determine 7720 nucleotide sequences of cDNAs from the multicellular, slug stage (S) and 10 439 from the unicellular, vegetative stage (V). The combined 26 954 redundant ESTs were computer assembled using the PHRAP program to yield 5381 independent sequences. These 5381 predicted genes represent about half of the estimated coding potential of the organism. One-third of them were classified into 12 functional categories. Although the overall classification patterns of the V and S libraries were very similar, stage-specific genes exist in every category. The majority of V-specific genes function in some aspect of protein translation, while such genes are in a minority in the S-specific and common populations. Instead, genes for signal transduction and multicellular organization are enriched in the population of S-specific genes. Genes encoding the enzymes of basic metabolism are mainly found in the common gene population. These results therefore suggest major differences between growing and developing Dictyostelium cells in the nature of the genes transcribed. PMID:15010511

  2. Analyses of cDNAs from growth and slug stages of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Urushihara, Hideko; Morio, Takahiro; Saito, Tamao; Kohara, Yuji; Koriki, Eiko; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Maeda, Mineko; Williams, Jeffrey G.; Takeuchi, Ikuo; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    2004-01-01

    Dictyostelium is a favored model for studying problems in cell and developmental biology. To comprehend the genetic potential and networks that direct growth and multicellular development, we are performing a large-scale analysis of Dictyostelium cDNAs. Here, we newly determine 7720 nucleotide sequences of cDNAs from the multicellular, slug stage (S) and 10 439 from the unicellular, vegetative stage (V). The combined 26 954 redundant ESTs were computer assembled using the PHRAP program to yield 5381 independent sequences. These 5381 predicted genes represent about half of the estimated coding potential of the organism. One-third of them were classified into 12 functional categories. Although the overall classification patterns of the V and S libraries were very similar, stage-specific genes exist in every category. The majority of V-specific genes function in some aspect of protein translation, while such genes are in a minority in the S-specific and common populations. Instead, genes for signal transduction and multicellular organization are enriched in the population of S-specific genes. Genes encoding the enzymes of basic metabolism are mainly found in the common gene population. These results therefore suggest major differences between growing and developing Dictyostelium cells in the nature of the genes transcribed. PMID:15010511

  3. A simple and rapid method for cloning insect vitellogenin cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Hatakeyama, M; Oishi, K

    2000-03-01

    We describe a simple and rapid method for cloning insect vitellogenin (Vg) cDNAs. The method relies on the facts that insect Vg amino acid sequences can be aligned confidently along their entire lengths and that a short, highly conserved GL/ICG motif and up to nine cysteine residues that follow at conserved locations are present near the C-termini. An adaptor-ligated double-strand cDNA library is constructed from poly(A)+ RNA prepared from vitellogenic female fat body tissues using a commercial kit, and subjected to PCR with each of the degenerate nucleotide sequences for the GL/ICG motif and the adaptor sequence as primers. The PCR products (0.7-0.9 kb, representing the 3' portion) are cloned, the nucleotide sequences are determined, and the deduced amino acid sequences are aligned with the known insect Vg sequences starting from the GL/ICG motif. Gene-specific primers corresponding to the sequences near the 5'-termini of the initial clones and the adaptor sequence are employed to obtain the remaining 5' portion of the Vg cDNAs. The method was successfully applied to the bean bug Plautia stali (Heteroptera), revealing three Vg genes.

  4. Identification and characterization of chalcone synthase cDNAs (NnCHS) from Nelumbo nucifera.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Yu, A Q; Wang, M L; Zheng, X W; Diao, Y; Xie, K Q; Zhou, M Q; Hu, Z L

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first committed step in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway. In this study, six full-length cDNAs (NnCHS) encoding CHS from Nelumbo nucifera were successfully isolated, using rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) assay. The obtained cDNAs were 1426 bp in size, containing a 1167 bp open reading frame coding 389 amino acids. Exons-intron architecture of NnCHS gene was illustrated, consisting two exons inserted by a 426 bp intron. The putative NnCHS possessed all the conserved active sites for CHS function as well as the family signature. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NnCHS shared high homology with CHS from high plants, and the homology-based structural modeling showed that NnCHS had the typical structure of CHS. Moreover, Real-time PCR assays demonstrated that NnCHS mRNAs were expressed in various tissues of N. nucifera, with the highest expression in red flower and lowest level in the leaves. Moreover, patterns of NnCHS expression illustrated short-time wounding or low temperature significantly induced the up-regulation of NnCHS mRNA. PMID:26718438

  5. APP induces neuronal apoptosis through APP-BP1-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Z

    2004-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive dementia. This mini-review focuses on how the amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in AD and Down syndrome as the regulator of the APP-BP1/hUba3 activated neddylation pathway. It is argued that the physiological function of APP is to downregulate the level of beta-catenin. However, this APP function is abnormally amplified in patients with familial AD (FAD) mutations in APP and presenilins, resulting in the hyperactivation of neddylation and the decrease of beta-catenin below a threshold level. Evidence in the literature is summarized to show that dysfunction of APP in downregulating beta-catenin may underlie the mechanism of neuronal death in AD and Down syndrome. PMID:15192323

  6. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed. PMID:26828544

  7. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed.

  8. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Liu, Di; Yu, Ya Min; Zhao, Hui Tong; Chen, Zhi Rou; Li, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Background China’s mHealth market is on track to become a global leader by industry size. The Chinese mobile app market and health care system have peculiarities that distinguish them from other app markets. To date, Chinese mHealth apps have not been systematically investigated. Objective The objective of this study was to provide an overview of Chinese mHealth apps as of December 2015. Methods We identified and investigated the most downloaded apps from the iOS and Android platforms. For each app, we analyzed and recorded its main service offered, mHealth initiative, disease and specialty focus, app cost, target user, Web app availability, and emphasis on information security. Standard descriptive statistics were used. Results A total of 234 apps met the inclusion criteria and were investigated. The apps targeting nonhealth care professionals focused on providing telemedicine and appointment-making services. The apps targeting health care professionals focused on education and peer reviewed articles. The most common disease-specific apps focused primarily on diabetes, hypertension, and hepatitis management. Most apps were free and available on both iOS and Android platforms. Conclusions The primary mHealth initiatives targeted by the apps reflect Chinese patients’ demand for access to medical care. Disease-specific apps are also representative of disease prevalence in China. Government press releases suggest that new policies on the horizon may shift the industry. PMID:27573724

  9. Finding a Depression App: A Review and Content Analysis of the Depression App Marketplace

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Nelson; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Johnson, Andrew; Bender, Jacqueline Lorene; Hamilton-Page, Michelle; Jadad, Alejandro (Alex) R

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is highly prevalent and causes considerable suffering and disease burden despite the existence of wide-ranging treatment options. Mobile phone apps offer the potential to help close this treatment gap by confronting key barriers to accessing support for depression. Objectives Our goal was to identify and characterize the different types of mobile phone depression apps available in the marketplace. Methods A search for depression apps was conducted on the app stores of the five major mobile phone platforms: Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Nokia, and Windows. Apps were included if they focused on depression and were available to people who self-identify as having depression. Data were extracted from the app descriptions found in the app stores. Results Of the 1054 apps identified by the search strategy, nearly one-quarter (23.0%, 243/1054) unique depression apps met the inclusion criteria. Over one-quarter (27.7%, 210/758) of the excluded apps failed to mention depression in the title or description. Two-thirds of the apps had as their main purpose providing therapeutic treatment (33.7%, 82/243) or psychoeducation (32.1%, 78/243). The other main purpose categories were medical assessment (16.9%, 41/243), symptom management (8.2%, 20/243), and supportive resources (1.6%, 4/243). A majority of the apps failed to sufficiently describe their organizational affiliation (65.0%, 158/243) and content source (61.7%, 150/243). There was a significant relationship (χ 2 5=50.5, P<.001) between the main purpose of the app and the reporting of content source, with most medical assessment apps reporting their content source (80.5%, 33/41). A fifth of the apps featured an e-book (20.6%, 50/243), audio therapy (16.9%, 41/243), or screening (16.9%, 41/243) function. Most apps had a dynamic user interface (72.4%, 176/243) and used text as the main type of media (51.9%, 126/243), and over a third (14.4%, 35/243) incorporated more than one form of media. Conclusion

  10. Data mining cDNAs reveals 3 new ssRNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Deodoro C.S.G.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Ng, Julienne; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Dang, Phat M.; Werren, John H.

    2010-01-01

    We report three novel small RNA viruses uncovered from cDNA libraries from parasitoid wasps in the genus Nasonia. The genome of this kind of virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA with a 3′ poly(A), which facilitates cloning from cDNAs. Two of the viruses, NvitV-1 and NvitV-2, possess a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that associates them with the family Iflaviridae of the order Picornavirales. A third virus, NvitV-3, is most similar to the Nora virus from Drosophila. A RT-PCR method developed for NvitV-1 indicates that it is a persistent commensal infection of Nasonia. PMID:20167021

  11. Planet App: Kids' Book Apps Are Everywhere. But Are They Any Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A proper picture book app lets a parent and child read, listen to, or explore a book in a fun and interactive manner. Typical options offered in these apps include turning off the sound (so that a parent or child can read on their own), changing from one language to another, and small interactive features, such as making the characters move. To…

  12. APP interacts with LRP4 and agrin to coordinate the development of the neuromuscular junction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong Y; Liu, Yun; Tennert, Christian; Sugiura, Yoshie; Karakatsani, Andromachi; Kröger, Stephan; Johnson, Eric B; Hammer, Robert E; Lin, Weichun; Herz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    ApoE, ApoE receptors and APP cooperate in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Intriguingly, the ApoE receptor LRP4 and APP are also required for normal formation and function of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study, we show that APP interacts with LRP4, an obligate co-receptor for muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Agrin, a ligand for LRP4, also binds to APP and co-operatively enhances the interaction of APP with LRP4. In cultured myotubes, APP synergistically increases agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering. Deletion of the transmembrane domain of LRP4 (LRP4 ECD) results in growth retardation of the NMJ, and these defects are markedly enhanced in APP−/−;LRP4ECD/ECD mice. Double mutant NMJs are significantly reduced in size and number, resulting in perinatal lethality. Our findings reveal novel roles for APP in regulating neuromuscular synapse formation through hetero-oligomeric interaction with LRP4 and agrin and thereby provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern NMJ formation and maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00220.001 PMID:23986861

  13. Effects of Heparin and Enoxaparin on APP Processing and Aβ Production in Primary Cortical Neurons from Tg2576 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hao; Hung, Amos C.; Klaver, David W.; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Freeman, Craig; Narkowicz, Christian; Jacobson, Glenn A.; Small, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by accumulation of Aβ, which is produced through sequential cleavage of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Enoxaparin, a low molecular weight form of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin, has been reported to lower Aβ plaque deposition and improve cognitive function in AD transgenic mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined whether heparin and enoxaparin influence APP processing and inhibit Aβ production in primary cortical cell cultures. Heparin and enoxaparin were incubated with primary cortical cells derived from Tg2576 mice, and the level of APP and proteolytic products of APP (sAPPα, C99, C83 and Aβ) was measured by western blotting. Treatment of the cells with heparin or enoxaparin had no significant effect on the level of total APP. However, both GAGs decreased the level of C99 and C83, and inhibited sAPPα and Aβ secretion. Heparin also decreased the level of β-secretase (BACE1) and α-secretase (ADAM10). In contrast, heparin had no effect on the level of ADAM17. Conclusions/Significance The data indicate that heparin and enoxaparin decrease APP processing via both α- and β-secretase pathways. The possibility that GAGs may be beneficial for the treatment of AD needs further study. PMID:21829577

  14. Soluble amyloid precursor protein (APP) regulates transthyretin and Klotho gene expression without rescuing the essential function of APP.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Wang, Baiping; Wang, Zilai; Guo, Qinxi; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Hammer, Robert E; Südhof, Thomas C; Zheng, Hui

    2010-10-01

    Amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates a large secreted ectodomain fragment (APPsβ), β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, and an APP intracellular domain (AICD). Whereas Aβ is viewed as critical for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, the role of other APP processing products remains enigmatic. Of interest, the AICD has been implicated in transcriptional regulation, and N-terminal cleavage of APPsβ has been suggested to produce an active fragment that may mediate axonal pruning and neuronal cell death. We previously reported that mice deficient in APP and APP-like protein 2 (APLP2) exhibit early postnatal lethality and neuromuscular synapse defects, whereas mice with neuronal conditional deletion of APP and APLP2 are viable. Using transcriptional profiling, we now identify transthyretin (TTR) and Klotho as APP/APLP2-dependent genes whose expression is decreased in loss-of-function states but increased in gain-of-function states. Significantly, by creating an APP knockin allele that expresses only APPsβ protein, we demonstrate that APPsβ is not normally cleaved in vivo and is fully capable of mediating the APP-dependent regulation of TTR and Klotho gene expression. Despite being an active regulator of gene expression, APPsβ did not rescue the lethality and neuromuscular synapse defects of APP and APLP2 double-KO animals. Our studies identify TTR and Klotho as physiological targets of APP that are regulated by soluble APPsβ independent of developmental APP functions. This unexpected APP-mediated signaling pathway may play an important role in maintaining TTR and Klotho levels and their respective functions in Aβ sequestration and aging. PMID:20855613

  15. Mobile App Rating Scale: A New Tool for Assessing the Quality of Health Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond “star”-ratings. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. Results There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). Conclusions The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps. PMID:25760773

  16. App Store for EHRs and Patients Both.

    PubMed

    Franckle, Travers; Haas, Daniel; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    The Substitutable Medical Applications, Reusable Technologies (SMART) Platforms project ( www.smartplatforms.org ) seeks to develop an iPhone-like health information technology platform with substitutable apps constructed around core services. It is funded by a grant from the Office of the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology's Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program. SMART technologies enable existing electronic health records and HIT platforms to run substitutable apps. Substitutability is the capability inherent in a system of replacing one application with another of similar functionality. We created a patient-facing SMART instance using the open source Indivo personally controlled health record (PCHR). The SMART "read-only" API has been deployed on multiple systems, including the Cerner installation at Boston Children's Hospital and the World Vista EHR. We sought to SMART-enable Indivo, the open source reference PCHR upon which HealthVault and other PCHRs were modeled. PCHRs provide patients with a secure repository of their health information that can be exposed to apps across a programming interface. We updated the open source Indivo PCHR to support the SMART API, enabling Indivo to act as a patient-facing apps platform, running the same or similar versions of apps that face clinicians.

  17. App Store for EHRs and Patients Both.

    PubMed

    Franckle, Travers; Haas, Daniel; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    The Substitutable Medical Applications, Reusable Technologies (SMART) Platforms project ( www.smartplatforms.org ) seeks to develop an iPhone-like health information technology platform with substitutable apps constructed around core services. It is funded by a grant from the Office of the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology's Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program. SMART technologies enable existing electronic health records and HIT platforms to run substitutable apps. Substitutability is the capability inherent in a system of replacing one application with another of similar functionality. We created a patient-facing SMART instance using the open source Indivo personally controlled health record (PCHR). The SMART "read-only" API has been deployed on multiple systems, including the Cerner installation at Boston Children's Hospital and the World Vista EHR. We sought to SMART-enable Indivo, the open source reference PCHR upon which HealthVault and other PCHRs were modeled. PCHRs provide patients with a secure repository of their health information that can be exposed to apps across a programming interface. We updated the open source Indivo PCHR to support the SMART API, enabling Indivo to act as a patient-facing apps platform, running the same or similar versions of apps that face clinicians. PMID:24303239

  18. Cloning mammary cell cDNAs from 17q12-q23 using interspecific somatic cell hybrids and subtractive hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Cerosaletti, K.M.; Shapero, M.H.; Fournier, R.E.K.

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned human genes that are encoded in the region 17q12-q23 and expressed in breast tissue using interspecific somatic cell hybrids and subtractive hybridization. Two mouse microcell hybrids containing fragments of human chromosome 17 with a nonoverlap region at 17q12-q23 were generated by microcell transfer. Radiolabeled cDNA was synthesized from the hybrid cell containing the 17q12-q23 interval and was subtracted with an excess of RNA from the hybrid cell lacking the interval. Resulting cDNA probes enriched for sequences from 17q12-q23 were used to screen a human premenopausal breast cDNA library, and 60 cDNAs were identified. Three of these cDNAs mapped to the hybrid cell nonoverlap region. These cDNAs were expressed in mammary epithelial cell hybrids, although none appeared to be breast-specific. Sequence analysis of the cDNAs revealed that clone 93A represents a previously unidentified gene, clone 98C has homology to an expressed sequence tag from goat mammary tissue, and clone 200A is identical to the human homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster flightless-I gene. These genes map outside a 1-cM region linked to early onset familial breast cancer but may be useful genetic markers in the 17q12-q23 region. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Beebook: light field mapping app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi

  20. The Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and Fe65, an APP-Binding Protein, Regulate Cell Movement

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Shasta L.; Ikin, Annat F.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Greengard, Paul

    2001-01-01

    FE65 binds to the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP), but the function of this interaction has not been identified. Here, we report that APP and FE65 are involved in regulation of cell movement. APP and FE65 colocalize with actin and Mena, an Abl-associated signaling protein thought to regulate actin dynamics, in lamellipodia. APP and FE65 specifically concentrate with β1-integrin in dynamic adhesion sites known as focal complexes, but not in more static adhesion sites known as focal adhesions. Overexpression of APP accelerates cell migration in an MDCK cell wound–healing assay. Coexpression of APP and FE65 dramatically enhances the effect of APP on cell movement, probably by regulating the amount of APP at the cell surface. These data are consistent with a role for FE65 and APP, possibly in a Mena-containing macromolecular complex, in regulation of actin-based motility. PMID:11425871

  1. The "Free from Housing Accessibility Problems" App.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Oskar; Slaug, Björn; Haak, Maria; Mårtensson, Knut; Schmidt, Steven M; Oswald, Frank; Rimland, Joseph M; Tomsone, Signe; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerns the development of a computerized tool targeting housing accessibility issues. A user-centered approach involving professionals from the housing sector and senior citizens from four European countries resulted in a fully functional prototype of a mobile application (app) including an apartment database. The app raises awareness on housing accessibility and has the potential to support decision making and strengthen all citizens regardless of functional capacity to be more active in their endeavors for a satisfying housing solution. Further refinements and additional features are needed to enhance the potential benefits; they include addressing potential challenges facing senior citizens, developing interactive features that allow users to provide input and adapting to different national contexts to make the app applicable for the European market. PMID:27534351

  2. Compliance of blood donation apps with mobile OS usability guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Pozo, José Rivera; Bajta, Manal El; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to employ the guidelines of Android, iOS, Blackberry and Windows Phone to analyze the usability compliance of free blood donation (BD) apps. An analysis process based on a systematic review protocol is used to select free BD apps. An assessment is conducted using a questionnaire composed of 13 questions concerning the compliance of free BD apps with Android, Blackberry, iOS and Windows Phone usability guidelines. A total of 133 free BD apps have been selected from the 188 BD apps identified. Around 63% of the free BD apps selected have a good compliance with mobile OS usability recommendations. Around 72% of Android, 57% of Windows Phone, 33% of iOS and 33% of Blackberry BD apps have a high usability score. The aspect of BD app behavior should be improved along with some style components: the use of pictures to explain ideas and the adaptation of the app to both horizontal and vertical orientations. Structure patterns should also be used to improve the structure aspect of a BD app. Usability is a quality aspect that should be improved in current BD apps. Our study provides smartphone users with a list of usable free BD apps and BD app developers with recommendations. PMID:25845672

  3. Compliance of blood donation apps with mobile OS usability guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Pozo, José Rivera; Bajta, Manal El; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to employ the guidelines of Android, iOS, Blackberry and Windows Phone to analyze the usability compliance of free blood donation (BD) apps. An analysis process based on a systematic review protocol is used to select free BD apps. An assessment is conducted using a questionnaire composed of 13 questions concerning the compliance of free BD apps with Android, Blackberry, iOS and Windows Phone usability guidelines. A total of 133 free BD apps have been selected from the 188 BD apps identified. Around 63% of the free BD apps selected have a good compliance with mobile OS usability recommendations. Around 72% of Android, 57% of Windows Phone, 33% of iOS and 33% of Blackberry BD apps have a high usability score. The aspect of BD app behavior should be improved along with some style components: the use of pictures to explain ideas and the adaptation of the app to both horizontal and vertical orientations. Structure patterns should also be used to improve the structure aspect of a BD app. Usability is a quality aspect that should be improved in current BD apps. Our study provides smartphone users with a list of usable free BD apps and BD app developers with recommendations.

  4. Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159289.html Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That Study ... HealthDay News) -- A new smartphone app may help lung cancer patients live longer and better by monitoring ...

  5. Secreted glypican binds to the amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease (APP) and inhibits APP-induced neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Williamson, T G; Mok, S S; Henry, A; Cappai, R; Lander, A D; Nurcombe, V; Beyreuther, K; Masters, C L; Small, D H

    1996-12-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease has been shown to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro. The effect of APP on neurite outgrowth can be enhanced if APP is presented to neurons in substrate-bound form, in the presence of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. To identify specific heparan sulfate proteoglycans that bind to APP, conditioned medium from neonatal mouse brain cells was subjected to affinity chromatography with recombinant APP695 as a ligand. Glypican bound strongly to the APP affinity column. Purified glypican bound to APP with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 2.8 nM and inhibited APP-induced neurite outgrowth from chick sympathetic neurons. The effect of glypican was specific for APP, as glypican did not inhibit laminin-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, treatment of cultures with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-xyloside, a competitive inhibitor of proteoglycan glycanation, inhibited APP-induced neurite outgrowth but did not inhibit laminin-induced neurite outgrowth. This result suggests that endogenous proteoglycans are required for substrate-bound APP to stimulate neurite outgrowth. Secreted glypican may act to inhibit APP-induced neurite outgrowth in vivo by competing with endogenous proteoglycans for binding to APP.

  6. cDNAs for a chymotrypsinogen-like protein from two strains of Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y C; Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; McGaughey, W H; Dowdy, A K

    1997-12-01

    Gut proteinases are involved in the solubilization and activation of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis and may also be involved in resistance development. Approximately threefold lower chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity was observed in a Bt(entomocidus)-resistant strain of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, than that in the Bt-susceptible strain. Because chymotrypsin-like proteinases are involved in Bt protoxin activation in P. interpunctella, we compared cDNA sequences, mRNA expression levels, and genomic DNA for chymotrypsin-like enzymes in Bt-susceptible and Bt-resistant strains of P. interpunctella. To isolate cDNA coding for chymotrypsinogen-like proteinases, a probe was developed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a cDNA library from the Bt-susceptible strain using a vector primer and a degenerate primer corresponding to a conserved sequence in the active site of serine proteinases. This probe was used to screen cDNA libraries from resistant and susceptible strains. Predicted amino acid sequences from cDNA clones of each strain share similarity with sequences of chymotrypsin-like proteinases and are most similar to a chymotrypsin-like proteinase from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. cDNAs for putative chymotrypsinogen-like proteins, from both Bt-susceptible and Bt-resistant strains of P. interpunctella share an identical open reading frame of 846 nucleotides. The encoded proteins contain amino acid sequence motifs of serine proteinase active sites, disulfide-bridge cysteine residues, and both zymogen activation and signal peptides. A difference between these cDNAs was observed only in the untranslated region where a substitution of guanine for adenine occurred in the Bt-resistant strain. Southern and Northern blotting analyses indicated that there are no major differences in chymotrypsinogen-like genomic organization and mRNA expression in the two strains. These data suggest that chymotrypsinogen

  7. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large and small subunits from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Xi; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], the world's seventh most important food crop, is also a major industrial raw material for starch and ethanol production. In the plant starch biosynthesis pathway, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step and plays a pivotal role in regulating this process. In spite of the importance of sweet potato as a starch source, only a few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of starch biosynthesis in sweet potato and almost no intensive research has been carried out on the AGPase gene family in this species. In this study, cDNAs encoding two small subunits (SSs) and four large subunits (LSs) of AGPase isoforms were cloned from sweet potato and the genomic organizations of the corresponding AGPase genes were elucidated. Expression pattern analysis revealed that the two SSs were constitutively expressed, whereas the four LSs displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues and at different developmental stages. Co-expression of SSs with different LSs in Escherichia coli yielded eight heterotetramers showing different catalytic activities. Interactions between different SSs and LSs were confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid experiment. Our findings provide comprehensive information about AGPase gene sequences, structures, expression profiles, and subunit interactions in sweet potato. The results can serve as a foundation for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of starch synthesis in tuberous roots, and should contribute to future regulation of starch biosynthesis to improve sweet potato starch yield.

  8. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large and small subunits from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Xi; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], the world's seventh most important food crop, is also a major industrial raw material for starch and ethanol production. In the plant starch biosynthesis pathway, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step and plays a pivotal role in regulating this process. In spite of the importance of sweet potato as a starch source, only a few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of starch biosynthesis in sweet potato and almost no intensive research has been carried out on the AGPase gene family in this species. In this study, cDNAs encoding two small subunits (SSs) and four large subunits (LSs) of AGPase isoforms were cloned from sweet potato and the genomic organizations of the corresponding AGPase genes were elucidated. Expression pattern analysis revealed that the two SSs were constitutively expressed, whereas the four LSs displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues and at different developmental stages. Co-expression of SSs with different LSs in Escherichia coli yielded eight heterotetramers showing different catalytic activities. Interactions between different SSs and LSs were confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid experiment. Our findings provide comprehensive information about AGPase gene sequences, structures, expression profiles, and subunit interactions in sweet potato. The results can serve as a foundation for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of starch synthesis in tuberous roots, and should contribute to future regulation of starch biosynthesis to improve sweet potato starch yield. PMID:26499957

  9. 77 FR 12796 - Commerce Business Apps Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Commerce Business Apps Challenge AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OS), Department... help U.S. businesses grow and create jobs. Recently, the White House launched the BusinessUSA Initiative ( www.Business.USA.gov ) to help further these goals. This notice announces the Commerce...

  10. North Tyneside Perspective on Primary Science APP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilty, Ged

    2010-01-01

    The status of primary science as a core subject has been gradually corroded in recent years, with the abolition of targets for science and the focus of the primary national strategy on literacy and numeracy. The NAIGS Committee were very well positioned within local authorities to pilot APP, but first had to write the criteria. Towards the end of…

  11. Ebola - What You Need to Know app.

    PubMed

    Evans, Roger

    2015-02-01

    This app is the pocket companion to the Ebola in Africa section of the International SOS website. With headquarters in London and Singapore, International SOS is a company that provides medical, clinical and security services in 81 countries for organisations with international operations. PMID:25627521

  12. Athletic Training Education: There's an App for That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Kim; Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Mobile applications (apps) are growing in popularity due to the increased use of smartphones. Many available apps are educational in nature and may provide both students and educators freedom for learning to occur outside of the typical classroom environment. Objective: To provide a description of relevant apps along with a brief synopsis…

  13. Using the Modern Technology That Is the "App"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardelli, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    A few years ago, the sight of the letters APP would have made teachers in England think of the Assessing Pupils' Progress assessment approach introduced by the government. Now, when they see those same letters they mostly think about smartphone and tablet applications, shortened to "apps." With the thousands of apps available in the…

  14. Cleaning up That Mess: A Framework for Classifying Educational Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherner, Todd; Dix , Judy; Lee, Corey

    2014-01-01

    As tablet technologies continue to evolve, the emergence of educational applications (apps) is impacting the work of teacher educators. Beyond online lists of best apps for education and recommendations from colleagues, teacher educators have few resources available to support their teaching of how to select educational apps. In response, this…

  15. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  16. Educational Behavior Apps and Wearable Devices: Current Research and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…

  17. Using Apps to Support Disciplinary Literacy and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castek, Jill; Beach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Apps, specialized programs used on mobile computers, can be used in innovative ways to enhance science and literacy learning. With the skilled guidance of their teachers, students can exploit app affordances for learning and acquire disciplinary literacies unique to science. This article showcases apps that help students to access information,…

  18. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  19. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Antonarakis, S.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Comparison of fibroin cDNAs from webspinning insects: insight into silk formation and function.

    PubMed

    Collin, Matthew A; Edgerly, Janice S; Hayashi, Cheryl Y

    2011-09-01

    Embiopterans (webspinning insects) are renowned for their prolific use of silk. These organisms spin silk to construct elaborate networks of tubes in which they live, forage, and reproduce. The silken galleries are essential for protecting these soft-bodied insects from predators and other environmental hazards. Despite the ecological importance of embiopteran silk, very little is known about its constituent proteins. Here, we characterize the silk protein cDNAs from four embiopteran species to better understand the function and evolution of these adaptive molecules. We show that webspinner fibroins (silk proteins) are highly repetitive in sequence and possess several conserved characteristics, despite differences in habitat preferences across species. The most striking similarities are in the codon usage biases of the fibroin genes, particularly in the repetitive regions, as well as sequence conservation of the carboxyl-terminal regions of the fibroins. Based on analyses of the silk genes, we propose hypotheses regarding codon bias and its effect on the translation and replication of these unusual genes. Furthermore, we discuss the significance of specific fibroin motifs to the mechanical and structural characteristics of silk fibers. Lastly, we report that the conservation of webspinner fibroin carboxyl-terminal regions suggests that fiber formation may occur through a mechanism analogous to that found in Lepidoptera. From these results, insight is gained into the tempo and mode of evolution that has shaped embiopteran fibroins.

  1. Three opsin-encoding cDNAS from the compound eye of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Chase, M R; Bennett, R R; White, R H

    1997-09-01

    Three distinct opsin-encoding cDNAs, designated MANOP1, MANOP2 and MANOP3, were isolated from the retina of the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. MANOP1 codes for a protein with 377 amino acid residues. It is similar in sequence to members of a phylogenetic group of long-wavelength-sensitive arthropod photopigments, most closely resembling the opsins of ants, a praying mantis, a locust and the honeybee. MANOP2 and MANOP3 opsins have 377 and 384 residues respectively. They belong to a related group of insect visual pigments that include the ultraviolet-sensitive rhodopsins of flies as well as other insect rhodopsins that are also thought to absorb at short wavelengths. The retina of Manduca sexta contains three rhodopsins, P520, P450 and P357, with absorbance peaks, respectively, at green, blue and ultraviolet wavelengths. There is evidence that MANOP1 encodes the opsin of P520. We suggest that MANOP2 encodes P357 and that MANOP3, representing a class of blue-sensitive insect photopigments, encodes P450. PMID:9343857

  2. Characterization of two cDNAs encoding auxin-binding proteins in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, N; Roux, C; Pradier, J M; Perrot-Rechenmann, C

    1997-03-01

    The isolation and the characterization of two tobacco cDNAs, Nt-ERabp1 and Nt-ERabp2, homologous to Zm-ERabp1, encoding the major auxin-binding protein from maize coleoptiles, are described. Their predicted amino acid sequences correspond to proteins of ca. 21 kDa, in which the characteristic regions common to ABP1-related polypeptides are well-conserved. Southern analysis indicates that the genes corresponding to Nt-ERabp1 cDNA and Nt-ERabp2 cDNA derive respectively from Nicotiana tomentosiformis and Nicotiana sylvestris, the diploid progenitors of Nicotiana tabacum. Analysis of mRNA distribution in tobacco plants indicates that these two genes are preferentially expressed in flowers and growing seedlings. Whatever the tissue tested, Nt-ERabp1 mRNA is more abundant than Nt-ERabp2 mRNA. Furthermore, RT-PCR reveals developmental and organ-specific expression of these two genes in flower parts of tobacco plants. In particular, regulation of Nt-ERabp1 mRNA accumulation appears to be correlated with elongation growth of each floral organ. Recombinant Nt-ERabp1, produced in Escherichia coli, is recognized by antibodies raised against Zm-ERabp1.

  3. Sequence analysis and comparison of cDNAs of the zein multigene family .

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, D E; Messing, J; Rubenstein, I

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of two zein cDNAs in hybrid plasmids A20 and B49 have been determined. The insert in A20 is 921 bp long including a 5' non-coding region of 60 nucleotides, preceded by what is believed to be an artifactual sequence of 41 nucleotides, and a 3' non-coding region of 87 nucleotides. The B49 insert is 467 bp long and includes approximately one-half the protein coding sequence as well as a 3' non-coding region of 97 nucleotides. These sequences have been compared with the previously published sequence of another zein clone, A30 . A20 and A30 , both encoding 19 000 mol. wt. zeins , have approximately 85% homology at the nucleotide level. The B49 sequence, corresponding to a 22 000 mol. wt. zein, has approximately 65% homology to either A20 or A30 . All three zeins share common features including nearly identical amino acid compositions. In addition, the tandem repeats of 20 amino acids first seen in A30 are also present in A20 and B49 . PMID:6897917

  4. Smartphone Apps for Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using mobile technologies such as smartphones for improving the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the current clinical evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of smartphone apps in this population. Objective To review the published literature of smartphone apps applied for the care of patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Methods An electronic database search of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted on May 24, 2015. All eligible studies were systematically reviewed, and proportional meta-analyses were applied to pooled data on recruitment, retention, and adherence to examine the overall feasibility of smartphone interventions for schizophrenia. Results Our search produced 226 results from which 7 eligible articles were identified, reporting on 5 studies of smartphone apps for patients with schizophrenia. All examined feasibility, and one assessed the preliminary efficacy of a smartphone intervention for schizophrenia. Study lengths varied between 6 and 130 days. Overall retention was 92% (95% CI 82-98%). Participants consistently used the smartphone apps on more than 85% of days during the study period, averaging 3.95 interactions per person per day. Furthermore, participants responded to 71.9% of automated prompts (95% CI 65.7-77.8%). Participants reported a range of potential benefits from the various interventions, and user experience was largely positive. Conclusions Although small, the current published literature demonstrates strong evidence for the feasibility of using smartphones to enhance the care of people with schizophrenia. High rates of engagement and satisfaction with a broad range of apps suggest the nascent potential of this mobile technology. However, there remains limited

  5. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health‐related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps for people with eating disorders had four main functions. Most common was the provision of advice, the quality of which ranged from sound to potentially harmful. Five apps included self‐assessment tools but only two used methods that would generally be viewed as reliable. Four apps had the self‐monitoring of eating habits as a major feature. Entering information into these apps could be accomplished with varying degrees of ease, but viewing it was more difficult. One app allowed the transfer of information between patients and clinicians. Discussion The enthusiasm for apps outstrips the evidence supporting their use. Given their popularity, it is suggested that clinicians evaluate app use as part of routine assessment. The clinical utility of the existing apps is not clear. Some are capable of tracking key features over time, but none has the functions required for analytic self‐monitoring as in cognitive behavioral treatments. The full potential of apps has yet to be realized. Specialized apps could be designed to augment various forms of treatment, and there is the possibility that they could deliver an entire personalized intervention. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:1038–1046) PMID:25728705

  6. cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Nishihara, Masashiro; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2003-02-20

    cDNAs encoding lycopene epsilon -cyclase, lycopene beta-cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase and zeaxanthin epoxidase were isolated from a Gentiana lutea petal cDNA library. The function of all cDNAs was analyzed by complementation in Escherichia coli. Transcript levels during different stages of flower development of G. lutea were determined and compared to the carotenoid composition. Expression of all genes increased by a factor of up to 2, with the exception of the lycopene epsilon -cyclase gene. The transcript amount of the latter was strongly decreased. These results indicate that during flower development, carotenoid formation is enhanced. Moreover, metabolites are shifted away from the biosynthetic branch to lutein and are channeled into beta-carotene and derivatives.

  7. Characterization of midgut trypsin-like enzymes and three trypsinogen cDNAs from the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y C; Baker, J E

    1999-12-01

    Protein digestion in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), results from the action of a complex of serine proteinases present in the midgut. In this study we partially characterized trypsin-like enzyme activity against N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide (BApNA) in midgut preparations and cloned and sequenced three cDNAs for trypsinogen-like proteins. BApNAase activity in R. dominica midgut was significantly reduced by serine proteinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors of trypsin, whereas BApNAase activity was not sensitive to specific inhibitors of chymotrypsin or aspartic proteinases. However, trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E-64) inhibited BApNAase activity by about 30%. BApNAase was most active in a broad pH range from about pH 7 to 9.5. The gut of R. dominica is a tubular tract approximately 2.5 mm in length. BApNAase activity was primarily located in the midgut region with about 1.5-fold more BApNAase activity in the anterior region compared to that in the posterior region. Proteinases with apparent molecular masses of 23-24 kDa that were visualized on casein zymograms following electrophoresis were inhibited by TLCK. Three cDNAs for trypsinogen-like proteins were cloned and sequenced from mRNA of R. dominica midgut. The full cDNA sequences consisted of open reading frames encoding 249, 293, and 255 amino acid residues for RdoT1, RdoT2, and RdoT3, respectively. cDNAs RdoT1, RdoT2, and RdoT3 shared 77-81% sequence identity. The three encoded trypsinogens shared 54-62% identity in their amino acid sequences and had 16-18 residues of signal peptides and 12-15 residues of activation peptides. The three predicted mature trypsin-like enzymes had molecular masses of 23.1, 28, and 23.8 kDa for RdoT1, RdoT2, and RdoT3, respectively. Typical features of these trypsin-like enzymes included the conserved N-terminal residues IVGG62-65, the catalytic amino acid triad of serine proteinase active sites

  8. Expression cloning of multiple human cDNAs that complement the phenotypic defects of ataxia-telangiectasia group D fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Meyn, M.S.; Lu-Kuo, J.M.; Herzing, L.B.K. )

    1993-12-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an inherited human disease of unknown etiology associated with neurologic degeneration, immune dysfunction, cancer risk, and genetic instability. A-T cells are sensitive to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic drugs, offering the possibility of cloning A-T genes by phenotypic complementation. The authors have used this sensitivity to isolate the first human cDNAs reported to complement A-T cells in culture. Complementation group D A-T fibroblasts were transfected with an episomal vector-based human cDNA library, [approximately]610,000 resultant transformants were treated with the radiomimetic drug streptonigrin-resistent, and nine unrelated cDNAs were recovered from 20 surviving stretptonigrin-resistant clones. Five cDNAs were mapped, but none localized to 11q23, the site of A-T D fibroblasts on secondary transfection. One cDNA was identified as a fragment of dek, a gene involved in acute myeloid leukemia. The dek cDNA fragment and pCAT4.5, a 4.5-kb cDNA that mapped to 17p11, independently complemented three different phenotypic abnormalities of A-T D fibroblasts (mutagen sensitivity, hyperrecombination, and radio-resistant DNA synthesis). The pCAT4.5 cDNA did not complement the mutagen sensitivity of an A-T group C fibroblast line, suggesting that it represents a candidate disease gene for group D A-T. These results indicate that phenotypic complementation alone is insufficient evidence to prove that a candidate cDNA is an A-T disease gene. The complementing cDNAs may represent previously uncharacterized genes that function in the same pathway as does the A-T gene product(s) in the regulation of cellular responses to DNA damage. 38 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. An Over Expression APP Model for Anti-Alzheimer Disease Drug Screening Created by Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yiqing; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Rong; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Ling; Song, Rongjing; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Yizhuang; Hu, Ruobi; Wang, Xi; Huang, Huakang; Lei, Zhen; Niu, Gang; Irwin, David M.; Tan, Huanran

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), famous for their ability to precisely and efficiently modify specific genomic loci, have been employed in numerous transgenic model organism and cell constructions. Here we employ the ZFNs technology, with homologous recombination (HR), to construct sequence-specific Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) knock-in cells. With the use of ZFNs, we established APP knock in cell lines with gene-modification efficiencies of about 7%. We electroporated DNA fragment containing the promoter and the protein coding regions of the zinc finger nucleases into cells, instead of the plasmids, to avoid problems associated with off target homologous recombination, and adopted a pair of mutated FokI cleavage domains to reduce the toxic effects of the ZFNs on cell growth. Since over-expression of APP, or a subdomain of it, might lead to an immediately lethal effect, we used the Cre-LoxP System to regulate APP expression. Our genetically transformed cell lines, w5c1 and s12c8, showed detectable APP and Amyloid β (Aβ) production. The Swedish double mutation in the APP coding sequence enhanced APP and Aβ abundance. What is more, the activity of the three key secretases in Aβ formation could be modulated, indicating that these transgenic cells have potential for drug screening to modify amyloid metabolism in cells. Our transformed cells could readily be propagated in culture and should provide an excellent experimental medium for elucidating aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, especially those concerning the amyloidogenic pathways involving mutations in the APP coding sequence. The cellular models may also serve as a tool for deriving potentially useful therapeutic agents. PMID:24223114

  10. An over expression APP model for anti-Alzheimer disease drug screening created by zinc finger nuclease technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Li, Hui; Mao, Yiqing; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Rong; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Ling; Song, Rongjing; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Yizhuang; Hu, Ruobi; Wang, Xi; Huang, Huakang; Lei, Zhen; Niu, Gang; Irwin, David M; Tan, Huanran

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), famous for their ability to precisely and efficiently modify specific genomic loci, have been employed in numerous transgenic model organism and cell constructions. Here we employ the ZFNs technology, with homologous recombination (HR), to construct sequence-specific Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) knock-in cells. With the use of ZFNs, we established APP knock in cell lines with gene-modification efficiencies of about 7%. We electroporated DNA fragment containing the promoter and the protein coding regions of the zinc finger nucleases into cells, instead of the plasmids, to avoid problems associated with off target homologous recombination, and adopted a pair of mutated FokI cleavage domains to reduce the toxic effects of the ZFNs on cell growth. Since over-expression of APP, or a subdomain of it, might lead to an immediately lethal effect, we used the Cre-LoxP System to regulate APP expression. Our genetically transformed cell lines, w5c1 and s12c8, showed detectable APP and Amyloid β (Aβ) production. The Swedish double mutation in the APP coding sequence enhanced APP and Aβ abundance. What is more, the activity of the three key secretases in Aβ formation could be modulated, indicating that these transgenic cells have potential for drug screening to modify amyloid metabolism in cells. Our transformed cells could readily be propagated in culture and should provide an excellent experimental medium for elucidating aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, especially those concerning the amyloidogenic pathways involving mutations in the APP coding sequence. The cellular models may also serve as a tool for deriving potentially useful therapeutic agents.

  11. APP Metabolism Regulates Tau Proteostasis in Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Steven; Evans, Lewis D.B.; Andersson, Therese; Portelius, Erik; Smith, James; Dias, Tatyana B.; Saurat, Nathalie; McGlade, Amelia; Kirwan, Peter; Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John; Zetterberg, Henrik; Livesey, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. We identified marked increases in intracellular tau in genetic forms of AD that either mutated APP or increased its dosage, suggesting that APP metabolism is coupled to changes in tau proteostasis. Manipulating APP metabolism by β-secretase and γ-secretase inhibition, as well as γ-secretase modulation, results in specific increases and decreases in tau protein levels. These data demonstrate that APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis and suggest that the relationship between APP processing and tau is not mediated solely through extracellular Aβ signaling to neurons. PMID:25921538

  12. Clinical management apps: creating partnerships between providers and patients.

    PubMed

    Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Smith, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The market for health applications, or apps, on mobile devices is growing rap­idly, with over 40,000 currently in use. One type of app technology--clinical manage­ment apps--enable patients and providers to work together to manage chronic conditions, particularly diabetes and asthma. These apps are mostly used by health plans and large health care organizations with an interest in improving outcomes and controlling costs. Challenges to broader adoption of apps include the lack of objective research to evalu­ate outcomes, uncertainty about how to pay for and encourage the use of cost-effective apps, and the absence of a regulatory framework that standardizes development to ensure performance. If this infrastructure is developed, apps may serve as a catalyst to stimulate the transformation of health care generally and target low-income populations to expand access to care and help reduce health disparities. PMID:24312989

  13. Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Tetsuji; Ota, Toshio; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Wakamatsu, Ai; Kimura, Kouichi; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Hatano, Naoto; Kawai, Yuri; Ishii, Shizuko; Saito, Kaoru; Kojima, Shin-ichi; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Ono, Tetsuyoshi; Okano, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Aotsuka, Satoshi; Sasaki, Naokazu; Hattori, Atsushi; Okumura, Koji; Nagai, Keiichi; Sugano, Sumio; Isogai, Takao

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an in silico method of selection of human full-length cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. Fullness rates were increased to about 80% by combination of the oligo-capping method and ATGpr, software for prediction of translation start point and the coding potential. Then, using 5'-end single-pass sequences, cDNAs having the signal sequence were selected by PSORT ('signal sequence trap'). We also applied 'secretion or membrane protein-related keyword trap' based on the result of BLAST search against the SWISS-PROT database for the cDNAs which could not be selected by PSORT. Using the above procedures, 789 cDNAs were primarily selected and subjected to full-length sequencing, and 334 of these cDNAs were finally selected as novel. Most of the cDNAs (295 cDNAs: 88.3%) were predicted to encode secretion or membrane proteins. In particular, 165(80.5%) of the 205 cDNAs selected by PSORT were predicted to have signal sequences, while 70 (54.2%) of the 129 cDNAs selected by 'keyword trap' preserved the secretion or membrane protein-related keywords. Many important cDNAs were obtained, including transporters, receptors, and ligands, involved in significant cellular functions. Thus, an efficient method of selecting secretion or membrane protein-encoding cDNAs was developed by combining the above four procedures.

  14. Cellular signaling roles of TGF beta, TNF alpha and beta APP in brain injury responses and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mattson, M P; Barger, S W; Furukawa, K; Bruce, A J; Wyss-Coray, T; Mark, R J; Mucke, L

    1997-02-01

    beta-Amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) are remarkably pleiotropic neural cytokines/neurotrophic factors that orchestrate intricate injury-related cellular and molecular interactions. The links between these three factors include: their responses to injury; their interactive effects on astrocytes, microglia and neurons; their ability to induce cytoprotective responses in neurons; and their association with cytopathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease. Astrocytes and microglia each produce and respond to TGF beta and TNF alpha in characteristic ways when the brain is injured. TGF beta, TNF alpha and secreted forms of beta APP (sAPP) can protect neurons against excitotoxic, metabolic and oxidative insults and may thereby serve neuroprotective roles. On the other hand, under certain conditions TNF alpha and the fibrillogenic amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) derivative of beta APP can promote damage of neuronal and glial cells, and may play roles in neurodegenerative disorders. Studies of genetically manipulated mice in which TGF beta, TNF alpha or beta APP ligand or receptor levels are altered suggest important roles for each factor in cellular responses to brain injury and indicate that mediators of neural injury responses also have the potential to enhance amyloidogenesis and/or to interfere with neuroregeneration if expressed at abnormal levels or modified by strategic point mutations. Recent studies have elucidated signal transduction pathways of TGF beta (serine/threonine kinase cascades), TNF alpha (p55 receptor linked to a sphingomyelin-ceramide-NF kappa B pathway), and secreted forms of beta APP (sAPP; receptor guanylate cyclase-cGMP-cGMP-dependent kinase-K+ channel activation). Knowledge of these signaling pathways is revealing novel molecular targets on which to focus neuroprotective therapeutic strategies in disorders ranging from stroke to Alzheimer's disease

  15. Isolation and characterization of bovine and mouse terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase cDNAs expressible in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koiwai, O; Yokota, T; Kageyama, T; Hirose, T; Yoshida, S; Arai, K

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated nearly full-length cDNA clones of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) from calf thymus and mouse lymphoma cDNA libraries. The libraries were constructed using the pcD vector system which permits the expression of cDNA inserts in mammalian cells. The bovine TdT cDNA clone contains an open reading frame coding for 520 amino acids, Mr 59,678. The mouse TdT cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 1,587 bp, whose translated cDNA encodes a 60,004 dalton protein. The mouse TdT cDNA clone contains 60 bp in the 3' end region of the coding sequence not found in the bovine TdT cDNA sequence, otherwise, the clones share about 80% homology. A possible nuclear-localization-sequence (Pro-Arg-Lys-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg) was conserved in the N-terminal region in the mouse and bovine cDNA clones. Bovine and mouse cDNAs transfected into COS7 monkey fibroblasts directed the synthesis of enzymatically active protein of Mr 60,000 which was detected immunologically using polyclonal rabbit antibody against bovine TdT. Bovine TdT expressed in COS7 cells by nearly full-length cDNA clone was localized in the nucleus and the translational product of pOK103 lacking the nuclear-localization-sequence was localized in the cytoplasm. Images PMID:3755527

  16. Isolation and characterization of human cerebellum cDNAs containing polymorphic CAG trinucleotide repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, S.; Onodera, O.; Tanaka, H.

    1994-09-01

    It has been discovered that neurologic diseases such as X linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Huntington`s disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) are caused by unstable expansions of CAG repeats, which shed a light on a new mechanism of human hereditary diseases. The genetic anticipation, a common genetic feature in these diseases, can be explained by the trinucleotide repeat expansions, and an inverse correlation between the ages of onset and the numbers of trinucleotide repeats is demonstrated in these diseases. Furthermore, there have been diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) and Machado-Joseph disease showing similar genetic anticipation, which suggests that their causative mutations are unstable expansions of trinucleotide repeats. To identify candidate genes for neurodegenerative diseases which are expressed in human cerebellum and contain CAG repeats, we screened a human cerebellum cDNA library with an oligonucleotide (CAG){sub 10}, labelled with [{gamma}{sup 32}P]ATP. Out of 78 clones we have isolated, 43 clones were partially sequenced and 31 clones were shown to contain CAG or CTG tinucleotide repeats. From homology searches, 12 of the 59 clones were identified to contain known sequences including human MAR/SAR DNA binding protein, human glial fibrillary acidic protein, human myelin transcription factor 1, human neuronal growth protein 43 and human myocyte-specific enhancer 2. From 6 clones out of the 43 novel genes, we were able to develop primer pairs flanking CAG repeats and determined chromosomal localizations with human and rodent hybrid mapping panels. These CAG repeats were shown to be polymorphic and mapped to 1, 15, 17 and 18. These novel cDNAs will be useful as candidate genes for hereditary neurologic diseases showing genetic anticipation.

  17. Isolation and characterisation of two cDNAs encoding the neuromedin U receptor from goldfish brain.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Kaiya, H; Miyazato, M; Konno, N; Wakasugi, T; Uchiyama, M; Shioda, S; Murakami, N; Matsuda, K

    2011-03-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neuromedin U (NMU) exerts an anorexigenic effect in a goldfish model. However, little is known about the NMU receptor and its signalling system in fish. In the present study, we isolated and cloned two cDNAs encoding different proteins comprising 429 and 388 amino acid residues from the goldfish brain based on the nucleotide sequences of human NMU receptor 1 (NMU-R1) and receptor 2 (NMU-R2). Hydropathy and phylogenetic analyses suggested that these two proteins were orthologues of NMU-R1 and -R2 of goldfish. We established two human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines stably expressing putative NMU-R1 and -R2, respectively, and showed that NMU induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in these cells. We examined the presence of NMU-R1 and -R2 in the goldfish brain by western blotting analysis using affinity-purified antisera raised against peptide fragments derived from these receptors. NMU-R1-specific and NMU-R2-specific antisera detected a 49-kDa and 45-kDa immunopositive bands, respectively, in the brain extract. The mass of each band corresponded to that of the deduced respective primary structures. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that NMU-R1 and -R2 transcripts were detected in several tissues. In particular, both mRNAs were strongly expressed in the goldfish brain. By contrast, NMU-R2 mRNA was also expressed in the gut. These results indicate for the first time that NMU-R orthologues exist in goldfish, and suggest physiological roles of NMU and its receptor system in fish.

  18. Nature apps: Waiting for the revolution.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Paul; Ladle, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Apps are small task-orientated programs with the potential to integrate the computational and sensing capacities of smartphones with the power of cloud computing, social networking, and crowdsourcing. They have the potential to transform how humans interact with nature, cause a step change in the quantity and resolution of biodiversity data, democratize access to environmental knowledge, and reinvigorate ways of enjoying nature. To assess the extent to which this potential is being exploited in relation to nature, we conducted an automated search of the Google Play Store using 96 nature-related terms. This returned data on ~36 304 apps, of which ~6301 were nature-themed. We found that few of these fully exploit the full range of capabilities inherent in the technology and/or have successfully captured the public imagination. Such breakthroughs will only be achieved by increasing the frequency and quality of collaboration between environmental scientists, information engineers, computer scientists, and interested publics. PMID:26458392

  19. Audio App Brings a Better Nights Sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscientist Seth Horowitz was part of a NASA-funded team at State University of New York Stony Brook demonstrating that low-amplitude vestibular stimulation could induce sleep. After recognizing the same stimulation could be applied through sound, Horowitz founded Sleep Genius, located in Park City, Utah, and released a mobile app of the same name that helps people to get a more restful sleep.

  20. Medical apps: public and academic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krieger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Medical apps have featured in popular websites and mainstream news media in recent months. However, there has been almost no mention of these tools in journals focusing on relevant ethical or social issues, including conflict of interest, the role of politics in science, and technological oversight. This essay examines the role that these philosophical issues might play in answering both public and academic questions about these pieces of emergent technology.

  1. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. Results To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. Conclusion The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence

  2. Interrater Reliability of mHealth App Rating Measures: Analysis of Top Depression and Smoking Cessation Apps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    Background There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. Objective We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. Methods We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff’s alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. Results The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. Conclusions We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their

  3. Poly(U) RNA-templated synthesis of AppA.

    PubMed

    Puthenvedu, Deepa; Janas, Teresa; Majerfeld, Irene; Illangasekare, Mali; Yarus, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Simple nucleotide templating activities are of interest as potential primordial reactions. Here we describe the acceleration of 5'-5' AppA synthesis by 3'-5' poly(U) under normal solution conditions. This reaction is apparently templated via complementary U:A base-pairing, despite the involvement of two different RNA backbones, because poly(U), unlike other polymers, significantly stimulates AppA synthesis. These interactions occur in moderate (K(+)) and (Mg(2+)) and are temperature sensitive, being more efficient at 10°C than at 4°C, but absent at 20°C. The reaction is only slightly pH sensitive, despite potentially relevant substrate pKa's. Kinetic data explicitly support production of AppA by interaction of stacked 2MeImpA and pA nucleotides paired with a single molecule of U template. At a lower rate, AppA can also be produced by a chemical reaction between 2MeImpA and pA, without participation of poly(U). Molecular modeling suggests that 5'-5' joining between stacked or concurrently paired A's can occur without major departures from normal U-A helical coordinates. So, coenzyme-like 5'-5' purine dinucleotides might be readily synthesized from 3'-5' RNAs with complementary sequences.

  4. An interactive app for color deficient viewers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Cheryl; Perdu, Nicolas; Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos E.; Süsstrunk, Sabine; Sharma, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Color deficient individuals have trouble seeing color contrasts that could be very apparent to individuals with normal color vision. For example, for some color deficient individuals, red and green apples do not have the striking contrast they have for those with normal color vision, or the abundance of red cherries in a tree is not immediately clear due to a lack of perceived contrast. We present a smartphone app that enables color deficient users to visualize such problematic color contrasts in order to help them with daily tasks. The user interacts with the app through the touchscreen. As the user traces a path around the touchscreen, the colors in the image change continuously via a transform that enhances contrasts that are weak or imperceptible for the user under native viewing conditions. Specifically, we propose a transform that shears the data along lines parallel to the dimension corresponding to the affected cone sensitivity of the user. The amount and direction of shear are controlled by the user's finger movement over the touchscreen allowing them to visualize these contrasts. Using the GPU, this simple transformation, consisting of a linear shear and translation, is performed efficiently on each pixel and in real-time with the changing position of the user's finger. The user can use the app to aid daily tasks such as distinguishing between red and green apples or picking out ripe bananas.

  5. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Metabolites APP Intracellular Fragment (AICD), Aβ42, and Tau in Nuclear Roles*

    PubMed Central

    Multhaup, Gerhard; Huber, Otmar; Buée, Luc; Galas, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites (amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides) and Tau are the main components of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the two histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. Consequently, intense research has focused upon deciphering their physiological roles to understand their altered state in Alzheimer disease pathophysiology. Recently, the impact of APP metabolites (APP intracellular fragment (AICD) and Aβ) and Tau on the nucleus has emerged as an important, new topic. Here we discuss (i) how AICD, Aβ, and Tau reach the nucleus and how AICD and Aβ control protein expression at the transcriptional level, (ii) post-translational modifications of AICD, Aβ, and Tau, and (iii) what these three molecules have in common. PMID:26296890

  6. Apps Seeking Theories: Results of a Study on the Use of Health Behavior Change Theories in Cancer Survivorship Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Background Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. Objective This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. Methods The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. Results A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen’s kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (P<.001) and for the Android apps, 77.4 (P<.001). For the most part, the scores for inclusion of theory-based health behavior change characteristics in the iOS platform cancer survivorship apps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Conclusions Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these

  7. Pro-Cognitive Effects of Non-Peptide Analogues of Soluble Amyloid Peptide Precursor Fragment sAPP.

    PubMed

    Tiunova, A A; Komissarova, N V; Nenaidenko, V G; Makhmutova, A A; Beznosko, B K; Bachurin, S O; Anokhin, K V

    2016-08-01

    We studied pro-cognitive effect of two heterocyclic low-molecular-weight compounds that serve as non-peptide analogues of soluble fragment of amyloid peptide precursor (sAPP). Intracerebroventricular and systemic administration of peptide mimetics P2 and P5 improved weak memory on the model of passive avoidance in chicks and in the object location task in mice. Both compounds were effective if administered close to the moment of training or 4 h after it. The time windows and dose range for the pro-cognitive effects of the mimetics were similar to those observed in previous studies with sAPP peptide fragments. PMID:27590763

  8. Appy Hour: Health Sciences Professionals Learn About Apps.

    PubMed

    Casucci, Tallie; Gregory, Joan M; Shipman, Jean P

    2016-01-01

    Appy Hour is a recurring event hosted by an academic health sciences library featuring apps that are informally presented and demonstrated by invited speakers. The audience is encouraged to ask questions during the presentation of the featured app(s). This event provides learning and networking opportunities for health sciences faculty, staff, students, and health care professionals. This article illustrates the process for hosting the event, shares lessons learned, and discusses possible future directions to gain a wider audience. PMID:27391175

  9. Double-Edged Roles of Nitric Oxide Signaling on APP Processing and Amyloid-β Production In Vitro: Preliminary Evidence from Sodium Nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng-Xu; Guo, Hui-Shu; Wang, Che; Wei, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Zhao-Fei; Chen, Yin-Wang; Le, Wei-Dong; Li, Song

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is thought to be caused in part by the age-related accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Recent findings have revealed that nitric oxide (NO) modulates the processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and alters Aβ production; however, the previously presented data are contradictory and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still incomplete. Here, using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with wild-type APPwt695, we found that NO, derived from NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bi-directionally modulates APP processing in vitro. The data from ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests indicated that SNP at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 μM) inhibits BACE1 expression, thus consequently suppresses APP β-cleavage and decreases Aβ production. In contrast, SNP at higher concentrations (10 and 20 μM) biases the APP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by an increased BACE1 but a decreased ADAM10 expression, together with an elevated Aβ secretion. This bi-directional modulating activity of SNP on APP processing was completely blocked by specific NO scavenger c-PTIO, indicating NO-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the anti-amyloidogenic activity of SNP is sGC/cGMP/PKG-dependent as evidenced by its reversal by sGC/PKG inhibitions, whereas the amyloidogenic activity of SNP is peroxynitrite-related and can be reversed by peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid. In summary, these present findings predict a double-edged role of NO in APP processing in vitro. Low (physiological) levels of NO inhibit the amyloidogenic processing of APP, whereas extra-high (pathological) concentrations of NO favor the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. This preliminary study may provide further evidence to clarify the molecular roles of NO and NO-related signaling in AD and supply potential molecular targets for AD treatment.

  10. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding equine infectious anemia virus tat and putative Rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R M; Derse, D; Rice, N R

    1990-01-01

    We isolated and characterized six cDNA clones from an equine infectious anemia virus-infected cell line that displays a Rev-defective phenotype. With the exception of one splice site in one of the clones, all six cDNAs exhibited the same splicing pattern and consisted of four exons. Exon 1 contained the 5' end of the genome; exon 2 contained the tat gene from mid-genome; exon 3 consisted of a small section of env, near the 5' end of the env gene; and exon 4 contained the putative rev open reading frame from the 3' end of the genome. The structures of the cDNAs predict a bicistronic message in which Tat is encoded by exons 1 and 2 and the presumptive Rev protein is encoded by exons 3 and 4. tat translation appears to be initiated at a non-AUG codon within the first 15 codons of exon 1. Equine infectious anemia virus-specific tat activity was expressed in transient transfections with cDNA expression plasmids. The predicted wild-type Rev protein contains 30 env-derived amino acids and 135 rev open reading frame residues. All of the cDNAs had a frameshift in exon 4, leading to a truncated protein and thus providing a plausible explanation for the Rev-defective phenotype of the original cells. We used peptide antisera to detect the faulty protein, thus confirming the cDNA sequence, and to detect the normal protein in productively infected cells. Images PMID:2164593

  11. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  12. mHealth Apps and Their Risks - Taking Stock.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; von Jan, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of health related apps and the great potential they hold for improving health care, the risks as well as potential hazards posed by such apps are often not adequately appreciated by users. Based on an analysis of scientific literature as well as anecdotal evidence, this contribution addresses the most common risks and pitfalls of health related apps (e.g. related to physical integrity as well as bodily and mental wellbeing) that users may encounter and sketches some remedies. While certainly not exhaustive, the mentioned aspects may serve as a starting point to raise awareness about potential risks of health related apps. PMID:27350511

  13. smartApps Package v 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert

    2009-12-04

    The smartApps package provides high-speed communication links between multiple Umbra sessions and/or SMART sessions. Modules within Packages/smartApps: Packages/smartApps/smartBlackboard: The original Broadcast module connected Umbra connectors to the SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation) blackboard using UDP and TCP connections. Connectors are added to the module for each connection. Originally written by Scott Gladwell and maintained and updated by Robert J. Anderson. Packages/smartApps/smartBroadcast: A highly efficient version of packet based communication for connecting distributed SMART and Umbra systems together using UDP broadcasts.

  14. smartApps Package v 4.8

    2009-12-04

    The smartApps package provides high-speed communication links between multiple Umbra sessions and/or SMART sessions. Modules within Packages/smartApps: Packages/smartApps/smartBlackboard: The original Broadcast module connected Umbra connectors to the SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation) blackboard using UDP and TCP connections. Connectors are added to the module for each connection. Originally written by Scott Gladwell and maintained and updated by Robert J. Anderson. Packages/smartApps/smartBroadcast: A highly efficient version of packet based communication for connecting distributedmore » SMART and Umbra systems together using UDP broadcasts.« less

  15. RFLP analysis for APP 717 mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeldenrust, S R; Murrell, J; Farlow, M; Ghetti, B; Roses, A D; Benson, M D

    1993-06-01

    Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) has been shown to be associated with three distinct point mutations within the same codon of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene. The mutation identified in the Indiana kindred is a G-->T transversion at the first position of the codon for amino acid 717, resulting in a substitution of phenylalanine for valine in the APP protein. Screening of persons at risk for the APP Phe-717 mutation using a variation of the polymerase chain reaction identified nine positives among 34 tested. In addition, DNA from 145 FAD subjects were tested for the three known APP 717 mutations.

  16. Impaired theta-gamma coupling in APP-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhong, Wewei; Brankačk, Jurij; Weyer, Sascha W.; Müller, Ulrike C.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is critically involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, but its physiological functions remain elusive. Importantly, APP knockout (APP-KO) mice exhibit cognitive deficits, suggesting that APP plays a role at the neuronal network level. To investigate this possibility, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the posterior parietal cortex, dorsal hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex of freely moving APP-KO mice. Spectral analyses showed that network oscillations within the theta- and gamma-frequency bands were not different between APP-KO and wild-type mice. Surprisingly, however, while gamma amplitude coupled to theta phase in all recorded regions of wild-type animals, in APP-KO mice theta-gamma coupling was strongly diminished in recordings from the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but not in LFPs recorded from the prefrontal cortex. Thus, lack of APP reduces oscillatory coupling in LFP recordings from specific brain regions, despite not affecting the amplitude of the oscillations. Together, our findings reveal reduced cross-frequency coupling as a functional marker of APP deficiency at the network level. PMID:26905287

  17. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the “Health on the Net” label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  18. The App Map: A Tool for Systematic Evaluation of Apps for Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelson, Madeleine Heins

    2015-01-01

    As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…

  19. Public Health Guidelines for Physical Activity: Is There an App for That? A Review of Android and Apple App Stores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity participation is an important behavior for modifying lifestyle-related disease risk. Mobile health apps for chronic disease management and prevention are being developed at a rapid rate. However, it is unclear whether these apps are evidence-based. Current public health recommendations for physical activity participation for adults highlight the importance of engaging in 150 minutes weekly of purposeful exercise, and muscle strengthening activities on at least 2 days of the week. Objective The aims of the present review were to (1) identify available evidence-based physical activity apps, and (2) identify technological features that could be leveraged to improve health outcomes. Methods iTunes and Google Play mobile app stores were searched using keyword and category searching during a single day (February 18, 2014) for physical activity apps available in English. The description pages of eligible apps were reviewed by 4 independent reviewers for evidence-based content, technological, and descriptive features. An a priori subset of apps was downloaded for further review (n=6 affiliated with a non-commercial agency; n=10 top rated; n=10 random selection), and developers were contacted for information regarding evidence-informed content. Results The initial search yielded 2400 apps, of which 379 apps (n=206 iTunes; n=173 Google Play) were eligible. Primary results demonstrated no apps (n=0) adhering to evidence-based guidelines for aerobic physical activity, and 7 out of 379 implementing evidence-based guidelines for resistance training physical activity. Technological features of apps included social networking (n=207), pairing with a peripheral health device (n=61), and measuring additional health parameters (n=139). Secondary results revealed 1 app that referenced physical activity guidelines (150 minutes/weekly of exercise), and demonstrated that apps were based on various physical activity reports (n=4) or personal expertise (n=2

  20. Molecular cloning of cDNAs of human liver and placenta NADH-cytochrome b/sub 5/ reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Yubisui, T.; Naitoh, Y.; Zenno, S.; Tamura, M.; Takeshita, M.; Sakaki, Y.

    1987-06-01

    A cDNA coding for human liver NADH-cytochrome b/sub 5/ reductase was cloned from a human liver cDNA library constructed in phage lambdagt11. The library was screened by using an affinity-purified rabbit antibody against NADH-cytochrome b/sub 5/ reductase of human erythrocytes. A cDNA about 1.3 kilobase pairs long was isolated. By using the cDNA as a probe, another cDNA (pb/sub 5/R141) of 1817 base pairs was isolated that hybridized with a synthetic oligonucleotide encoding Pro-Asp-Ile-Lys-Tyr-Pro, derived from the amino acid sequence at the amino-terminal region of the enzyme from human erythrocytes. Furthermore, by using the pb/sub 5/R141 as a probe, cDNA clones having more 5' sequence were isolated from a human placenta cDNA library. The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of these cDNA clones overlapped each other and consisted of a sequence that completely coincides with that of human erythrocytes and a sequence of 19 amino acid residues extended at the amino-terminal side. The latter sequence closely resembles that of the membrane-binding domain of steer liver microsomal enzyme

  1. Interactions between APP secretases and inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Magdalena; Walter, Jochen; Gentleman, Steve M

    2008-01-01

    There is now a large body of evidence linking inflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association manifests itself neuropathologically in the presence of activated microglia and astrocytes around neuritic plaques and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in the brains of AD patients. It is considered that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is derived from the processing of the longer amyloid precursor protein (APP), could be the most important stimulator of this response, and therefore determining the role of the different secretases involved in its generation is essential for a better understanding of the regulation of inflammation in AD. The finding that certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can affect the processing of APP by inhibiting β- and γ-secretases, together with recent revelations that these enzymes may be regulated by inflammation, suggest that they could be an interesting target for anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review we will discuss some of these issues and the role of the secretases in inflammation, independent of their effect on Aβ formation. PMID:18564425

  2. 76 FR 49485 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Lifeline Facebook App Challenge”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``Lifeline Facebook App Challenge...: The ``Lifeline Facebook App Challenge'' is a challenge aimed at multidisciplinary teams of technology... Facebook as a platform for connecting individuals together through an application (app) that will...

  3. Surrogate biochemistry: use of Escherichia coli to identify plant cDNAs that impact metabolic engineering of carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C E; Cervantes-Cervantes, M; Wurtzel, E T

    2003-02-01

    Carotenoids synthesized in plants but not animals are essential for human nutrition. Therefore, ongoing efforts to metabolically engineer plants for improved carotenoid content benefit from the identification of genes that affect carotenoid accumulation, possibly highlighting potential challenges when pyramiding traits represented by multiple biosynthetic pathways. We employed a heterologous bacterial system to screen for maize cDNAs encoding products that alter carotenoid accumulation either positively or negatively. Genes encoding carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes from the bacterium Erwinia uredovora were introduced into Escherichia coli cells that were subsequently transfected with a maize endosperm cDNA expression library; and these doubly transformed cells were then screened for altered carotenoid accumulation. DNA sequencing and characterization of one cDNA class conferring increased carotenoid content led to the identification of maize cDNAs encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. A cDNA that caused a reduced carotenoid content in E. coli was also identified. Based on DNA sequence analysis, DNA hybridization, and further functional testing, this latter cDNA was found to encode the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a rate-controlling enzyme in starch biosynthesis that has been of interest for enhancing plant starch content.

  4. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  5. Availability and quality of mobile health app privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Taylor, Patrick L; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) customers shopping for applications (apps) should be aware of app privacy practices so they can make informed decisions about purchase and use. We sought to assess the availability, scope, and transparency of mHealth app privacy policies on iOS and Android. Over 35,000 mHealth apps are available for iOS and Android. Of the 600 most commonly used apps, only 183 (30.5%) had privacy policies. Average policy length was 1755 (SD 1301) words with a reading grade level of 16 (SD 2.9). Two thirds (66.1%) of privacy policies did not specifically address the app itself. Our findings show that currently mHealth developers often fail to provide app privacy policies. The privacy policies that are available do not make information privacy practices transparent to users, require college-level literacy, and are often not focused on the app itself. Further research is warranted to address why privacy policies are often absent, opaque, or irrelevant, and to find a remedy. PMID:25147247

  6. [Diabetes mellitus: Which risks do smartphone apps have?].

    PubMed

    Keuthage, Winfried

    2015-08-01

    Medical apps are increasingly used by patients and doctors. However, it lacks systematic studies that deal with potential hazards. In a recent study, two-thirds of the examined insulin bolus calculator apps were associated with some major risks for the patient.

  7. "Apps"--An Innovative Way to Share Extension Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Joseph S.; Franke-Dvorak, Tanya C.; Price, Randy R.

    2012-01-01

    Extension professionals across the country are continuously seeking innovative ways to reach clientele and to disseminate timely, educational information. A new avenue to reach clientele includes the use of smartphone "apps." The "Machinery Sizing" app, which was developed to ease the estimation of tractor horsepower to…

  8. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  9. Mobile Distance Learning with Smartphones and Apps in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vázquez-Cano, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the results of researcher' ongoing activities regarding the use of smartphones and a specific subject-app used at the Spanish National University of Distance Education (UNED) have been reported. The purpose of this trial is to assess the app's didactic use and potential to enhance student learning in university subjects in…

  10. Availability and quality of mobile health app privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Taylor, Patrick L; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) customers shopping for applications (apps) should be aware of app privacy practices so they can make informed decisions about purchase and use. We sought to assess the availability, scope, and transparency of mHealth app privacy policies on iOS and Android. Over 35,000 mHealth apps are available for iOS and Android. Of the 600 most commonly used apps, only 183 (30.5%) had privacy policies. Average policy length was 1755 (SD 1301) words with a reading grade level of 16 (SD 2.9). Two thirds (66.1%) of privacy policies did not specifically address the app itself. Our findings show that currently mHealth developers often fail to provide app privacy policies. The privacy policies that are available do not make information privacy practices transparent to users, require college-level literacy, and are often not focused on the app itself. Further research is warranted to address why privacy policies are often absent, opaque, or irrelevant, and to find a remedy.

  11. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  12. BookMeUp: Creating a Book Suggestion App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The rise of apps and mobile devices has opened the door to small, dedicated software programs that are focused on singular tasks. From the author's perspective as head of digital access and web service manager at Montana State University, these apps offered an opportunity to build a focused digital service aimed at allowing someone to enter a…

  13. Mobile Apps to Support and Assess Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Anke; Palomo-Duarte, Manuel; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Ladrón, Juan Miguel; Márquez, Andrea Calderón

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades there have been many attempts to integrate all kinds of mobile devices and apps to support formal as well as informal learning processes. However, most of the available apps still support mainly individual learning, using mobile devices to deliver content rather than providing learners with the opportunity to interact with…

  14. Validation of a Tool Evaluating Educational Apps for Smart Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an evaluation tool of educational apps for smart education. Based on literature reviews, a potential model for evaluating educational apps was suggested. An evaluation tool consisting of 57 survey items was delivered to 156 students in middle and high schools. An exploratory factor analysis was…

  15. Enhancing Pharmacy Student Learning and Perceptions of Medical Apps

    PubMed Central

    Aungst, Timothy Dy; Brown, Nicole V; Cui, Yan; Tam, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps in health care is growing. Current and future practitioners must be equipped with the skills to navigate and utilize apps in patient care, yet few strategies exist for training health care professional students on the usage of apps. Objective To characterize first-year pharmacy student use of medical apps, evaluate first-year pharmacy student's perception of skills in finding, evaluating, and using medical apps before and after a focused learning experience, and assess student satisfaction and areas for improvement regarding the learning experience. Methods Students listened to a recorded, Web-based lecture on finding, evaluating, and using mobile apps in patient care. A 2-hour, interactive workshop was conducted during which students were led by an instructor through a discussion on strategies for finding and using apps in health care. The students practiced evaluating 6 different health care–related apps. Surveys were conducted before and after the focused learning experience to assess students' perceptions of medical apps and current use and perspectives on satisfaction with the learning experience and role of technology in health care. Results This educational intervention is the first described formal, interactive method to educate student pharmacists on medical apps. With a 99% response rate, surveys conducted before and after the learning experience displayed perceived improvement in student skills related to finding (52/119, 44% before vs 114/120, 95% after), evaluating (18/119, 15% before vs 112/120, 93% after), and using medical apps in patient care (31/119, 26% before vs 108/120, 90% after) and the health sciences classroom (38/119, 32% before vs 104/120, 87% after). Students described satisfaction with the educational experience and agreed that it should be repeated in subsequent years (89/120, 74% agreed or strongly agreed). Most students surveyed possessed portable electronic devices (107/119, 90% mobile phone) and

  16. GeoMapApp: A Cross-Platform app for Geophysical Data Exploration and Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Apps that provide convenient, integrated access to a range of geophysical data have wide applicability in both research and teaching. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory provides casual and specialist users alike with intuitive access to hundreds of built-in geoscience data sets covering geophysics, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and cryospherics. Users can also import their own data tables, spreadsheets, shapefiles, grids, and images. Simple manipulation and analysis tools combined with layering capabilities and engaging visualisations provide a powerful app with which to explore and interrogate geoscience data in its proper geospatial context thus helping users to more easily gain deeper insight and understanding from real-world data. The backbone of GeoMapApp is a regularly-updated multi-resolution elevation base map covering the oceans and continents and includes measurements ranging from Space Shuttle terrestrial data to ultra-high-resolution surveys of coral reefs and seafloor hydrothermal vent fields. Examples of built-in geophysical data sets include interactive earthquake locations and focal mechanism (CMT) solutions; underway cruise track profiles; plate tectonic velocities, seafloor crustal age and heat flow; multi-channel seismic reflection profiles; gravity, magnetic, and geoid anomalies; sidescan; subduction zone interface depths; and, EarthScope station locations. Dynamic links point to data sources and additional information. There are dedicated menus for GeoPRISMS, MARGINS, and Ridge2000 data sets. A versatile profiling tool provides instant access to data cross-sections, and contouring and 3-D views are also offered. Tabular data - both imported and built-in - can be displayed in a variety of ways and users can quickly select data points directly from the map. Layer opacity and on/off toggles allow easy data set

  17. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data. PMID:25954370

  18. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps.

    PubMed

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data.

  19. Characterization of cDNAs of the human pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein family, a new subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q.X.; Tease, L.A.; Shupert, W.L.; Chan, W.Y. )

    1990-03-20

    Three highly homologous cDNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific {beta}1-glycoprotein (SP1) were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. These cDNAs share >90% nucleotide homology in their coding sequences, and >79% of the encoded amino acids are homologous. Proteins encoded by these cDNAs are very similar to members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family and contain repeating domains, conserved disulfided bridges, and {beta}-sheet structure typical of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. However, the high degree of sequence homology and relatively lesser degree of glycosylation among the SP1 proteins suggest that they exist as a unique family instead of being members of the CEA family. Both soluble and potentially membrane-bound forms of SP1 proteins were present in the placenta. Northern blot analysis using specific probes confirmed the expression of multiple mRNA species in human term placenta.

  20. Using Mobile App Development Tools to Build a GIS Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mital, A.; Catchen, M.; Mital, K.

    2014-12-01

    Our group designed and built working web, android, and IOS applications using different mapping libraries as bases on which to overlay fire data from NASA. The group originally planned to make app versions for Google Maps, Leaflet, and OpenLayers. However, because the Leaflet library did not properly load on Android, the group focused efforts on the other two mapping libraries. For Google Maps, the group first designed a UI for the web app and made a working version of the app. After updating the source of fire data to one which also provided historical fire data, the design had to be modified to include the extra data. After completing a working version of the web app, the group used webview in android, a built in resource which allowed porting the web app to android without rewriting the code for android. Upon completing this, the group found Apple IOS devices had a similar capability, and so decided to add an IOS app to the project using a function similar to webview. Alongside this effort, the group began implementing an OpenLayers fire map using a simpler UI. This web app was completed fairly quickly relative to Google Maps; however, it did not include functionality such as satellite imagery or searchable locations. The group finished the project with a working android version of the Google Maps based app supporting API levels 14-19 and an OpenLayers based app supporting API levels 8-19, as well as a Google Maps based IOS app supporting both old and new screen formats. This project was implemented by high school and college students under an SGT Inc. STEM internship program

  1. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated.

  2. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  3. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  4. Apps and EFL: A Case Study on the Use of Smartphone Apps to Learn English by Four Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindog, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study explores, describes and analyzes the utilization of smartphone apps by four Japanese university students to support learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Findings indicate that intermediate language learners use apps to access content and communicate on SNS and are not keen on studying discrete language parts. Participants…

  5. Radiology: "killer app" for next generation networks?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Kevin M

    2004-03-01

    The core principles of digital radiology were well developed by the end of the 1980 s. During the following decade tremendous improvements in computer technology enabled realization of those principles at an affordable cost. In this decade work can focus on highly distributed radiology in the context of the integrated health care enterprise. Over the same period computer networking has evolved from a relatively obscure field used by a small number of researchers across low-speed serial links to a pervasive technology that affects nearly all facets of society. Development directions in network technology will ultimately provide end-to-end data paths with speeds that match or exceed the speeds of data paths within the local network and even within workstations. This article describes key developments in Next Generation Networks, potential obstacles, and scenarios in which digital radiology can become a "killer app" that helps to drive deployment of new network infrastructure. PMID:15255516

  6. Mobile Apps for Weight Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health concern. Mobile apps for weight loss/management are found to be effective for improving health outcomes in adults and adolescents, and are pursued as a cost-effective and scalable intervention for combating overweight and obesity. In recent years, the commercial market for ‘weight loss apps’ has expanded at rapid pace, yet little is known regarding the evidence-based quality of these tools for weight control. Objective To characterize the inclusion of evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of commercial mobile apps for weight loss/management. Methods An electronic search was conducted between July 2014 and July 2015 of the official app stores for four major mobile operating systems. Three raters independently identified apps with a stated goal of weight loss/management, as well as weight loss/management apps targeted to pediatric users. All discrepancies regarding selection were resolved through discussion with a fourth rater. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form and the evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of included apps was assessed. Evidence-based strategies included: self-monitoring, goal-setting, physical activity support, healthy eating support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies, and social support. Results A total of 393 apps were included in this review. Self-monitoring was most common (139/393, 35.3%), followed by physical activity support (108/393, 27.5%), weight assessment (100/393, 25.4%), healthy eating support (91/393, 23.2%), goal-setting (84/393, 21.4%), motivational strategies (28/393, 7.1%), social support (21/393, 5.3%), and personalized feedback (7/393, 1.8%). Of apps, 0.8% (3/393) underwent scientific evaluation and 0.3% (1/393) reported health care expert involvement. No apps were comprehensive in the

  7. Negative Subtraction Hybridization: An efficient method to isolate large numbers of condition-specific cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anamika; Macwana, Sunita; Ayoubi, Patricia; Hall, Leo T; Prade, Rolf; Mort, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Background The construction of cDNA libraries is a useful tool to understand gene expression in organisms under different conditions, but random sequencing of unbiased cDNA collections is laborious and can give rise to redundant EST collections. We aimed to isolate cDNAs of messages induced by switching Aspergillus nidulans from growth on glucose to growth on selected polysaccharides. Approximately 4,700 contigs from 12,320 ESTs were already available from a cDNA library representing transcripts isolated from glucose-grown A. nidulans during asexual development. Our goals were to expand the cDNA collection without repeated sequencing of previously identified ESTs and to find as many transcripts as possible that are specifically induced in complex polysaccharide metabolism. Results We have devised a Negative Subtraction Hybridization (NSH) method and tested it in A. nidulans. NSH entails screening a plasmid library made from cDNAs prepared from cells grown under a selected physiological condition with labeled cDNA probes prepared from another physiological condition. Plasmids with inserts that failed to hybridize to cDNA probes through two rounds of screening (i.e. negatives) indicate that they are transcripts present at low concentration in the labeled probe pool. Thus, these transcripts will be predominantly condition-specific, along with some rare transcripts. In a screen for transcripts induced by switching the carbon source from glucose to 12 selected polysaccharides, 3,532 negatives were isolated from approximately 100,000 surveyed colonies using this method. Negative clones were end-sequenced and assembled into 2,039 contigs, of which 1,722 were not present in the previously characterized glucose-grown cDNA library. Single-channel microarray hybridization experiments confirmed that the majority of the negatives represented genes that were differentially induced by a switch from growth in glucose to one or more of the polysaccharides. Conclusions The Negative

  8. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was given a theory score to reflect the extent to which health behavior theory was integrated into the app. The highest possible score was 60. Out of the 10 apps evaluated, My Diet Coach obtained the highest theory score of 15. MapMyFitness and Yumget received the lowest scores of 0. The average theory score among the apps was 5.6. Conclusions Most of the calorie counting apps in the sample contained minimal health behavior theory. PMID:26935898

  9. Bradykinins and their precursor cDNAs from the skin of the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Orr, David F; Bjourson, Anthony J; McClean, Stephen; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David G; Rao, Pingfan; Shaw, Chris

    2002-09-01

    Bradykinin and (Thr(6))-bradykinin have been identified in the defensive skin secretion of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis. The homologous cDNAs for both peptides were cloned from a skin library using a 3'- and 5'-RACE strategy. Kininogen-1 (BOK-1) contained an open-reading frame of 167 amino acid residues encoding four repeats of bradykinin, and kininogen-2 (BOK-2) contained an open-reading frame of 161 amino acid residues encoding two repeats of (Thr(6))-bradykinin. Alignment of both precursor nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed a high degree of structural similarity. These amphibian skin kininogens/preprobradykinins are not biologically analogous to mammalian kininogens.

  10. The Drosophila gene collection: Identification of putative full-length cDNAs for 70 percent of D. melanogaster genes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, Mark; Liao, Guochun; Brokstein, Peter; Hong, Ling; Carninci, Piero; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Champe, Mark; Pacleb, Joanne; Wan, Ken; Yu, Charles; Carlson, Joe; George, Reed; Celniker, Susan; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2002-08-12

    Collections of full-length nonredundant cDNA clones are critical reagents for functional genomics. The first step toward these resources is the generation and single-pass sequencing of cDNA libraries that contain a high proportion of full-length clones. The first release of the Drosophila Gene Collection Release 1 (DGCr1) was produced from six libraries representing various tissues, developmental stages, and the cultured S2 cell line. Nearly 80,000 random 5prime expressed sequence tags (EST) from these libraries were collapsed into a nonredundant set of 5849 cDNAs, corresponding to {approx}40 percent of the 13,474 predicted genes in Drosophila. To obtain cDNA clones representing the remaining genes, we have generated an additional 157,835 5prime ESTs from two previously existing and three new libraries. One new library is derived from adult testis, a tissue we previously did not exploit for gene discovery; two new cap-trapped normalized libraries are derived from 0-22hr embryos and adult heads. Taking advantage of the annotated D. melanogaster genome sequence, we clustered the ESTs by aligning them to the genome. Clusters that overlap genes not already represented by cDNA clones in the DGCr1 were analyzed further, and putative full-length clones were selected for inclusion in the new DGC. This second release of the DGC (DGCr2) contains 5061 additional clones, extending the collection to 10,910 cDNAs representing >70 percent of the predicted genes in Drosophila.

  11. Behavior Change Techniques in Popular Alcohol Reduction Apps: Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Objective Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. Methods We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms “alcohol” and “drink”, and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Results Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were “facilitate self-recording” (54%, 33/61), “provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation” (43%, 26/61), “provide feedback on performance” (41%, 25/61), “give options for additional and later support” (25%, 15/61) and “offer/direct towards appropriate written materials” (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change

  12. cDNAs encoding for storage proteins in the tubers of taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott).

    PubMed

    Hirai, M; Nakamura, K; Imai, T; Sato, T

    1993-06-01

    Two major protein groups of taro (Colocasia esculenta) tuber were purified, and their antisera were used for the screening of the cDNA library constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of taro tuber. A cDNA clone obtained by screening with an anti-12 kD protein antiserum had an insert 1058 bp-long, and an open reading frame for a peptide of 268 amino acids. The analyses of the N-terminal amino acid sequence and in vitro translation product suggested that the protein was synthesized as a peptide with a molecular weight of 27 kD, and then processed into two mature peptides with a molecular weight of 12.5 and 13.9 kD and an extra peptide with a molecular weight of 0.6 kD. The cDNA clones obtained using the anti-25 kD protein antiserum were highly homologous with each other. One of them had an insert 958 bp-long and an open reading frame for a peptide with 209 amino acids. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of this clone indicated that the 25 kD proteins were homologous to the trypsin inhibitors of soybean and winged bean as well as sporamins, the storage proteins of sweet potato.

  13. The Med AppJam: a model for an interprofessional student-centered mHealth app competition.

    PubMed

    Youm, Julie; Wiechmann, Warren

    2015-03-01

    The Med AppJam is a 2-week long competition where students from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine are partnered with students from the University of California, Irvine School of Information and Computer Sciences in interprofessional teams to develop mobile health applications for use by clinicians and patients. The success of the Med AppJam comes from the unique opportunity for students to mutually contribute their content expertise to improve the clinical landscape while expanding their technology literacy and savvy. Since 2012, about 285 computer science students and over 90 medical students have collaborated to design and develop 53 iOS mHealth apps during the event. The Med AppJam model has been replicated in an Autism AppJam, a competition focused on the needs of a specific population, and with high school students in a mini Pre-Med AppJam using a paper prototyping approach. It is proposed that other medical schools consider implementation of a local Med AppJam as a viable model for engaging students in technology for healthcare. PMID:25682357

  14. The Med AppJam: a model for an interprofessional student-centered mHealth app competition.

    PubMed

    Youm, Julie; Wiechmann, Warren

    2015-03-01

    The Med AppJam is a 2-week long competition where students from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine are partnered with students from the University of California, Irvine School of Information and Computer Sciences in interprofessional teams to develop mobile health applications for use by clinicians and patients. The success of the Med AppJam comes from the unique opportunity for students to mutually contribute their content expertise to improve the clinical landscape while expanding their technology literacy and savvy. Since 2012, about 285 computer science students and over 90 medical students have collaborated to design and develop 53 iOS mHealth apps during the event. The Med AppJam model has been replicated in an Autism AppJam, a competition focused on the needs of a specific population, and with high school students in a mini Pre-Med AppJam using a paper prototyping approach. It is proposed that other medical schools consider implementation of a local Med AppJam as a viable model for engaging students in technology for healthcare.

  15. Evaluation of COTS Rad Detection Apps

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Mobile applications are currently under distribution to smart phones utilizing the built-in charge coupled-device (CCD) camera as a radiation detector. The CCD detector has a very low but measurable gamma interaction cross section so the mechanism is feasible, especially for higher dose rate environments. Given that in a large release of radioactive material these ‘crowd sourced’ measurements will be put forth for consideration, a testing and evaluation of the accuracy and uncertainty of the Apps is a critical endeavor. Not only is the accuracy of the reported measurement of concern to the immediate user’s safety, a quantitative uncertainty is required for a government response such as the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) to accept the values for consideration in the determination of regions exceeding protective action guidelines. Already, prompted by the Fukushima nuclear material releases, several repositories of this crowd-sourced data have been created (http://japan.failedrobot.com, http://www.stubbytour.com/nuc/index_en.asp, and http://www.rdtn.org) although the question remains as to the reliability of measurements incorporated into these repositories. In cases of conflict between the real-time published crowd-sourced data and governmental protective actions prepared literature should be on-hand documenting why the difference, if any, exists. Four applications for iOS devices were obtained along with hardware to benchmark their performance. Gamma/X-Ray Detector by Stephan Hotto, Geiger Camera by Senscare, and RadioactivityCounter App by Hotray LTD are all the applications available for distribution within the US that utilize the CCD camera sensor for detection of radiation levels. The CellRad app under development by Idaho National Laboratory for the Android platform was evaluated. In addition, iRad Geiger with the associated hardware accessory was also benchmarked. Radiation fields were generated in a Cs-137 JL Shepherd

  16. Characterization of cDNAs encoding serine proteases and their transcriptional responses to Cry1Ab protoxin in the gut of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine proteases, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, are the primary digestive enzymes in lepidopteran larvae, and are also involved in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protoxin activation and protoxin/toxin degradation. We isolated and sequenced 34 cDNAs putatively encoding trypsins, chymotrypsins and th...

  17. iPad Apps That Promote Mathematical Knowledge? "Yes, They Exist!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Having trouble finding the right app? In this article, Kevin Larkin discusses the difficulties teachers encounter when searching the App Store for high quality, appropriate apps that support students' mathematical learning. Kevin provides a useful link to a collection of over 100 app reviews.

  18. Persian mHealth Apps: A Cross Sectional Study Based on Use Case Classification.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Marjan Ghazi; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Nouria, Rasool; Yasini, Mobin

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health apps play an important role in healthcare processes and health promotion. In recent years many Persian mhealth apps were developed and are available in various national app markets. Cafebazaar is the largest Persian app store that contains more than 3500 android apps in medical and health & fitness categories. In this study some characteristics of 200 top Persian medical apps of Cafebazaar were investigated and then categorized by their use cases. Results showed that only 6% of apps declare the involvement of at least one health professional in the conception or development of the apps. In 35% of studied apps, no contact information was provided for the users and 10.5% applied reliable sources for their content. 13 distinct use cases were found in all 200 apps of which two were new to an already published use-case model. This study shows that Persian mHealth apps, like other existing apps in the world, have a long way to improve and reach some basic standards. Lack of regulatory agencies and absence of a dynamic evaluation system for mHealth apps might be the main reason of these defects. This study also shows that 20 use cases existing in international health related apps are not yet used in Persian apps and therefore there is a reach potential of creating new apps in mHealth field. PMID:27577377

  19. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  20. Identification and characterization of the cDNAs encoding the two subunits of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) calcineurin: their implications in stress and immune response.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Jia, Zirui; Chen, Xiaoli; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

    2015-03-01

    Calcineurin (CN), the only Ca(2+)/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine protein phosphatase, is a key effector participating in Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction pathways in a number of cellular processes under normal, stress and pathological conditions. However, the expression and the relevance of CN in stress and immune response have not been characterized in crustaceans. Here, we identified the cDNAs that encode the two subunits of CN (termed EsCN-A and EsCN-B, respectively) in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and analysed their expression patterns in response to stress and immune challenges. The catalytic subunit EsCN-A is comprised of 511 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of 57.5 kDa and shows 80% sequence identity with human beings CN-A alpha isoform, while the regulatory subunit EsCN-B protein is composed of 170 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 19.3 kDa and shares 88% sequence identity with human beings CN-B type 1. Tissue distribution analysis reveals that both EsCN-A and EsCN-B mRNA transcripts are expressed in all tested tissues with the greatest expression in hepatopancreas and the lowest expression in haemocytes. In addition, both EsCN-A and EsCN-B genes could be significantly up-regulated but with different expression patterns by ambient salinity (15‰ and 30‰ salinities) and pH (pH 6 and 8.5) stresses in gill, hepatopancreas, haemocytes, intestine and muscle. Furthermore, EsCN-A and EsCN-B were up-regulated by LPS and Poly(I:C) immune stimulations in E. sinensis haemocytes in vitro. Moreover, EsCN-A and EsCN-B mRNA were significantly up-regulated in haemocytes, gill, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle in response to Edwardsiella tarda challenge in vivo. Finally, we revealed the importance of EsCN in LPS-induced nitric oxide production in E. sinensis haemocytes. Together our observations suggest that EsCN, the important downstream effector of CaM-mediated signalling pathway(s), may possess vital roles in stress

  1. Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs.

    PubMed

    González-Tablas, Ana I; Tapiador, Juan E

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN) composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user's security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place. PMID:27187385

  2. Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs

    PubMed Central

    González-Tablas, Ana I.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN) composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user’s security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place. PMID:27187385

  3. Want Better Heart Health? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... when guided and encouraged by smartphone apps and Internet sites that help set goals and track progress, ... Washington in Seattle. "Our results showed that both Internet-based and mobile-based intervention were effective in ...

  4. NASA Viz iPad App Expands Coverage Across Universe

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NASA Visualization Explorer app has broadened its scope to includemore awe-inspiring discoveries beamed back to Earth from the agency'sentire fleet of satellites, spacecraft and space tele...

  5. Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs.

    PubMed

    González-Tablas, Ana I; Tapiador, Juan E

    2016-05-11

    We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN) composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user's security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place.

  6. Heart Attack Help? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnose strokes: Often, that means using a bedside "robot" that allows the off-site doctor to monitor ... app could be a nice alternative to a robot. There would, however, be a number of technical ...

  7. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  8. Melanoma detection using a mobile phone app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, Luciano E.; Ennser, K.

    2016-03-01

    Mobile phones have had their processing power greatly increased since their invention a few decades ago. As a direct result of Moore's Law, this improvement has made available several applications that were impossible before. The aim of this project is to develop a mobile phone app, integrated with its camera coupled to an amplifying lens, to help distinguish melanoma. The proposed device has the capability of processing skin mole images and suggesting, using a score system, if it is a case of melanoma or not. This score system is based on the ABCDE signs of melanoma, and takes into account the area, the perimeter and the colors present in the nevus. It was calibrated and tested using images from the PH2 Dermoscopic Image Database from Pedro Hispano Hospital. The results show that the system created can be useful, with an accuracy of up to 100% for malign cases and 80% for benign cases (including common and atypical moles), when used in the test group.

  9. The Analysis Of Smartphone Apps In Geomatics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, T.-A.; Wu, H.-M.; Shih, T.-Y.; Tsai, F.

    2014-04-01

    Geomatics is a discipline of collecting, processing and analysing geospatial data. Data collection is a core process of geomatics which usually adopt precise equipment to measure geospatial data. With the development of technology, a smartphone in this present era is not simply for communication; several low cost measurement devices such as Global Positioning System (GPS), gyro and camera are assembled in a smartphone. Although the devices assembled in a smartphone could not meet the needs of accuracy requirement for many geomatics applications, millions of mobile applications (Apps) can be downloaded and installed from Google Play and Apple Store freely, and a variety of sensors can be chosen for user. Considering that the popularity and convenience of a smartphone, and assuming that the accuracy of those collected data is acceptable for learning purposes, it is expected that a smartphone can be employed in geomatics for hand-on education. For example, Vespucci OSM Editor is an App to edit the OpenStreetMap on Android. The user may have the hand-on experience on GPS positioning, web services and mapping via Vespucci OSM Editor. The aim of this paper is to collect and analyze different Apps for geomatics education. The Apps are classified into four categories, namely, surveying, remote sensing, GPS and Geographic Information System (GIS). In this paper, more than 20 free Apps are collected and analysed for different hand-on studies in geomatics education. Finally, all the related Apps are listed on a website for updating.

  10. Pyrosequencing of Mytilus galloprovincialis cDNAs: Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Craft, John A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Temperton, Ben; Dempsey, Kate E.; Ashelford, Kevin; Tiwari, Bela; Hutchinson, Tom H.; Chipman, J. Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Background Mytilus species are important in marine ecology and in environmental quality assessment, yet their molecular biology is poorly understood. Molecular aspects of their reproduction, hybridisation between species, mitochondrial inheritance, skewed sex ratios of offspring and adaptation to climatic and pollution factors are priority areas. Methodology/Principal Findings To start to address this situation, expressed genetic transcripts from M. galloprovincialis were pyrosequenced. Transcripts were isolated from the digestive gland, foot, gill and mantle of both male and female mussels. In total, 175,547 sequences were obtained and for foot and mantle, 90% of the sequences could be assembled into contiguous fragments but this reduced to 75% for the digestive gland and gill. Transcripts relating to protein metabolism and respiration dominated including ribosomal proteins, cytochrome oxidases and NADH dehydrogenase subunits. Tissue specific variation was identified in transcripts associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism, with the digestive gland and gill having the greatest transcript abundance. Using fragment recruitment it was also possible to identify sites of potential small RNAs involved in mitochondrial transcriptional regulation. Sex ratios based on Vitelline Envelop Receptor for Lysin and Vitelline Coat Lysin transcript abundances, indicated that an equal sex distribution was maintained. Taxonomic profiling of the M. galloprovincialis tissues highlighted an abundant microbial flora associated with the digestive gland. Profiling of the tissues for genes involved in intermediary metabolism demonstrated that the gill and digestive gland were more similar to each other than to the other two tissues, and specifically the foot transcriptome was most dissimilar. Conclusions Pyrosequencing has provided extensive genomic information for M. galloprovincialis and generated novel observations on expression of different tissues, mitochondria and associated

  11. mHealth in Urology: A Review of Experts’ Involvement in App Development

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Azevedo, Nuno; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Cavadas, Vitor; Osório, Luís; Fraga, Avelino; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smartphones are increasingly playing a role in healthcare and previous studies assessing medical applications (apps) have raised concerns about lack of expert involvement and low content accuracy. However, there are no such studies in Urology. We reviewed Urology apps with the aim of assessing the level of participation of healthcare professionals (HCP) and scientific Urology associations in their development. Material and Methods A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Apple's App Store and Google's Play Store, for Urology apps, available in English. Apps were reviewed by three graders to determine the app’s platform, target customer, developer, app type, app category, price and the participation of a HCP or a scientific Urology association in the development. Results The search yielded 372 apps, of which 150 were specific for Urology. A fifth of all apps had no HCP involvement (20.7%) and only a third had been developed with a scientific Urology association (34.7%). The lowest percentage of HCP (13.4%) and urological association (1.9%) involvement was in apps designed for the general population. Furthermore, there was no contribution from an Urology society in "Electronic Medical Record" nor in "Patient Information" apps. A limitation of the study is that only Android and iOS apps were reviewed. Conclusions Despite the increasing Mobile Health (mHealth) market, this is the first study that demonstrates the lack of expert participation in the design of Urology apps, particularly in apps designed for the general public. Until clear regulation is enforced, the urological community should help regulate app development. Maintaining a register of certified apps or issuing an official scientific seal of approval could improve overall app quality. We propose that urologists become stakeholders in mHealth, shaping future app design and promoting peer-review app validation. PMID:25984916

  12. Smartphone apps to support hospital prescribing and pharmacology education: a review of current provision

    PubMed Central

    Haffey, Faye; Brady, Richard R W; Maxwell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors write the majority of hospital prescriptions but many indicate they feel underprepared to assume this responsibility and around 10% of prescriptions contain errors. Medical smartphone apps are now widely used in clinical practice and present an opportunity to provide support to inexperienced prescribers. This study assesses the contemporary range of smartphone apps with prescribing or related content. Six smartphone app stores were searched for apps aimed at the healthcare professional with drug, pharmacology or prescribing content. Three hundred and six apps were identified. 34% appeared to be for use within the clinical environment in order to aid prescribing, 14% out with the clinical setting and 51% of apps were deemed appropriate for both clinical and non-clinical use. Apps with drug reference material, such as textbooks, manuals or medical apps with drug information were the commonest apps found (51%), followed by apps offering drug or infusion rate dose calculation (26%). 68% of apps charged for download, with a mean price of £14.25 per app and a range of £0.62–101.90. A diverse range of pharmacology-themed apps are available and there is further potential for the development of contemporary apps to improve prescribing performance. Personalized app stores may help universities/healthcare organizations offer high quality apps to students to aid in pharmacology education. Users of prescribing apps must be aware of the lack of information regarding the medical expertise of app developers. This will enable them to make informed choices about the use of such apps in their clinical practice. PMID:23488599

  13. Cloning of stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs of divergent teleost species: Monomeric STC supports monophyly of the ancient teleosts, the osteoglossomorphs.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yutaka; Irwin, David M; Youson, John H

    2006-10-01

    Molecular cloning of teleost stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs was undertaken in two species of order Osteoglossiformes of subdivision Osteoglossomorpha and one species of each of orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes within the subdivision Euteleostei. The elephantnose (Gnathonemus petersii) and the butterflyfish (Pantadon buchholzi) are basal teleosts in different osteoglossiforme suborders yet their 218 amino acid (aa) mature hormones, from prehormones of 249 and 251aa, respectively, have only 10 cysteine residues. A substitution for cysteine at the intermonomeric disulfide linkage site, implies that their STCs exist as monomeric peptides, as is the case with STC from another osteoglossormorph, arawana [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. The STC cDNA of the generalized teleost and cyprinid, the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), encodes a prehormone of 249aa with a signal peptide of 31aa and a mature protein of 218aa that possesses 11 cysteine residues. The latter feature is consistent with a previous analysis that white sucker mature STC is a glycosylated, homodimeric peptide [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. An open reading frame of the STC cDNA of the derived teleost and perciforme, the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), encodes a prehormone of 255aa with a signal peptide of 33aa and a mature protein of 222aa. The position of the 11 cysteines in smallmouth bass STC suggests that it exists as a homodimeric peptide. A phylogenetic analysis, using the new STC-1 amino acid sequences and those in the gene data base provided strong support for monophyly of the Osteoglossomorpha and indicated, with positioning of

  14. IDEAS and App Development Internship in Hardware and Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alrayes, Rabab D.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, I will discuss the tasks and projects I have completed while working as an electrical engineering intern during the spring semester of 2016 at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In the field of software development, I completed tasks for the G-O Caching Mobile App and the Asbestos Management Information System (AMIS) Web App. The G-O Caching Mobile App was written in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript on the Cordova framework, while the AMIS Web App is written in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and C# on the AngularJS framework. My goals and objectives on these two projects were to produce an app with an eye-catching and intuitive User Interface (UI), which will attract more employees to participate; to produce a fully-tested, fully functional app which supports workforce engagement and exploration; to produce a fully-tested, fully functional web app that assists technicians working in asbestos management. I also worked in hardware development on the Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System (IDEAS) wearable technology project. My tasks on this project were focused in PCB design and camera integration. My goals and objectives for this project were to successfully integrate fully functioning custom hardware extenders on the wearable technology headset to minimize the size of hardware on the smart glasses headset for maximum user comfort; to successfully integrate fully functioning camera onto the headset. By the end of this semester, I was able to successfully develop four extender boards to minimize hardware on the headset, and assisted in integrating a fully-functioning camera into the system.

  15. Valuable Features in Mobile Health Apps for Patients and Consumers: Content Analysis of Apps and User Ratings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The explosion of mobile phones with app capabilities coupled with increased expectations of the patient-consumers’ role in managing their care presents a unique opportunity to use mobile health (mHealth) apps. Objectives The aim of this paper is to identify the features and characteristics most-valued by patient-consumers (“users”) that contribute positively to the rating of an app. Methods A collection of 234 apps associated with reputable health organizations found in the medical, health, and fitness categories of the Apple iTunes store and Google Play marketplace was assessed manually for the presence of 12 app features and characteristics. Regression analysis was used to determine which, if any, contributed positively to a user’s rating of the app. Results Analysis of these 12 features explained 9.3% (R 2=.093 n=234, P<.001) of the variation in an app’s rating, with only 5 reaching statistical significance. Of the 5 reaching statistical significance, plan or orders, export of data, usability, and cost contributed positively to a user’s rating, while the tracker feature detracted from it. Conclusions These findings suggest that users appreciate features that save time over current methods and identify an app as valuable when it is simple and intuitive to use, provides specific instructions to better manage a condition, and shares data with designated individuals. Although tracking is a core function of most health apps, this feature may detract from a user’s experience when not executed properly. Further investigation into mHealth app features is worthwhile given the inability of the most common features to explain a large portion of an app’s rating. In the future, studies should focus on one category in the app store, specific diseases, or desired behavior change, and methods should include measuring the quality of each feature, both through manual assessment and evaluation of user reviews. Additional investigations into understanding

  16. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

  17. APP independent and dependent effects on neurite outgrowth are modulated by the receptor associated protein (RAP).

    PubMed

    Billnitzer, Andrew J; Barskaya, Irina; Yin, Cailing; Perez, Ruth G

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its secreted form, sAPP, contribute to the development of neurons in hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Full-length APP binds the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which stimulates APP endocytosis. LRP also contributes to neurite growth. Furthermore, the receptor associated protein (RAP) binds LRP in a manner that blocks APP-LRP interactions. To elucidate APP contributions to neurite growth for full-length APP and sAPP, we cultured wild type (WT) and APP knockout (KO) neurons in sAPPα and/or RAP and measured neurite outgrowth at 1 day in vitro. Our data reveal that WT neurons had less axonal outgrowth including less axon branching. RAP treatment potentiated the inhibitory effects of APP. KO neurons had significantly more outgrowth and branching, especially in response to RAP, effects which were also associated with ERK2 activation. Our results affirm a major inhibitory role by full-length APP on all aspects of axonal and dendritic outgrowth, and show that RAP-LRP binding stimulated axon growth independently of APP. These findings support a major role for APP as an inhibitor of neurite growth and reveal novel signaling functions for LRP that may be disrupted by Alzheimer's pathology or therapies aimed at APP processing.

  18. Cloning of T-cell antigen receptor beta chain cDNAs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Hordvik, I; Jacob, A L; Charlemagne, J; Endresen, C

    1996-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cDNAs encoding the T-cell antigen receptor beta chain (TCRB) were isolated from leukocyte RNA by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-five distinct cDNA fragments covering the variable (V) - diversity (D) - joining (J) junction and part of the constant (C) region were characterized; the sequences of which indicate interchangeable V/D/J usage and expression in the context of one TCRBC gene. Full-length TCRBC sequence information was derived from a leukocyte cDNA library. Key residues of the salmon TCRBC region are in good agreement with those of other species. One distinct exception is the absence of the hinge region cysteine residue which is involved in covalent bonding between the alpha and beta chain in mammalian TCRs. As in amphibian and avian species, the salmon TCRBC membrane proximal region is considerably shorter than the mammalian. An octamer sequence (GGACAGGG) very similar to amphibian, avian, and mammalian D sequences could be recognized in the VDJ junctions from salmon. The pattern of VDJ variability also indicates that mechanisms like trimming and addition occur in fish as in higher vertebrates. Compared with mammals, a relatively high frequency (32%) of the VDJ junctions in salmon were out of frame. PMID:8881032

  19. Preservation of gene expression ratios among multiple complex cDNAs after PCR amplification: application to differential gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, W; Cai, L; Wright, M B; Walker, G; Salgam, P; Vater, A; Lindpaintner, K

    2000-01-01

    Comparative gene expression studies are often limited by low availability of tissue and poor quality of extractable mRNA. Collective PCR amplification of minute quantities of mRNA has great potential for overcoming these limitations. However, there remains significant concern about the effects of amplification on the absolute and relative abundance of individual mRNAs that could complicate subsequent gene expression studies. To address this problem, we systematically compared the relative abundance of many specific mRNAs from complex cDNA preparations (from tissue and cultured cells) both before and after amplification by PCR. Our results demonstrated that, as expected, the absolute abundance of different mRNAs in a cDNA library is altered in an unpredictable manner by PCR amplification. However, we found that the concentration ratios of specific mRNAs among different cDNA preparations were routinely well conserved after PCR amplification. Thus, for the purpose of comparative expression studies for specific mRNAs in two (or more) complex cDNAs, PCR-amplified cDNA is equally useful as unamplified cDNA. These results provide a rigorous experimental validation and offer a theoretical treatment to support the utility of PCR amplified cDNA for differential gene expression studies. We conclude that the inherent difficulties in performing differential screening studies such as gene chip and array analyses on limited amounts of biological materials can be overcome by a PCR amplification step without compromising data quality.

  20. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2016-01-01

    Background A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. Objective This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Methods Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems—the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS—based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. Results A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused

  1. Developing Smartphone Apps for Education, Outreach, Science, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherwax, A. T.; Fitzsimmons, Z.; Czajkowski, J.; Breimer, E.; Hellman, S. B.; Hunter, S.; Dematteo, J.; Savery, T.; Melsert, K.; Sneeringer, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increased popularity of mobile phone apps provide scientists with a new avenue for sharing and distributing data and knowledge with colleagues, while also providing meaningful education and outreach products for consumption by the general public. Our initial development of iPhone and Android apps centered on the distribution of exciting auroral images taken at the South Pole for education and outreach purposes. These portable platforms, with limited resources when compared to computers, presented a unique set of design and implementation challenges that we will discuss in this presentation. For example, the design must account for limited memory; screen size; processing power; battery life; and potentially high data transport costs. Some of these unique requirements created an environment that enabled undergraduate and high-school students to participate in the creation of these apps. Additionally, during development it became apparent that these apps could also serve as data analysis and engineering tools. Our presentation will further discuss our plans to use apps not only for Education and Public Outreach, but for teaching, science and engineering.

  2. Innovative genomic collaboration using the GENESIS (GEM.app) platform.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Michael; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu; Postrel, Richard; Schüle, Rebecca; Zuchner, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing has led to an unparalleled pace of Mendelian disease gene discovery in recent years. To address the challenges of analysis and sharing of large datasets, we had previously introduced the collaborative web-based GEM.app software [Gonzalez et al., ]. Here, we are presenting the results of using GEM.app over nearly 3 years and introducing the next generation of this platform. First, GEM.app has been renamed to GENESIS since it is now part of "The Genesis Project" (501c3), a not-for-profit foundation that is committed to providing the best technology to enable research scientists and to connecting patients and clinicians to genomic information. Second, GENESIS (GEM.app) has grown to nearly 600 registered users from 44 countries, who have collectively achieved 62 gene identifications or published studies that have expanded phenotype/genotype correlations. Our concept of user-driven data sharing and matchmaking is now the main cause for gene discoveries within GENESIS. In many of these findings, researchers from across the globe have been connected, which gave rise to the genetic evidence needed to successfully pinpoint-specific gene mutations that explained patients' disease. Here, we present an overview of the various novel insights that have been made possible through the data-sharing capabilities of GENESIS/GEM.app. PMID:26173844

  3. Innovative genomic collaboration using the GENESIS (GEM.app) platform

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Michael; Falk, Marni; Gai, Xiaowu; Schüle, Rebecca; Zuchner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has lead to an unparalleled pace of Mendelian disease gene discovery in recent years. To address the challenges of analysis and sharing of large datasets, we had previously introduced the collaborative web-based GEM.app software (Gonzalez et al., 2013). Here we are presenting the results of using GEM.app over nearly three years and introducing the next generation of this platform. Firstly, GEM.app has been renamed to GENESIS since it is now part of ‘The Genesis Project’ (501c3), a non-for-profit foundation that is committed to providing the best technology to enable research scientists and to connecting patients and clinicians to genomic information. Secondly, GENESIS (GEM.app) has grown to nearly 600 registered users from 44 countries, who have collectively achieved 62 gene identifications or published studies that have expanded phenotype/genotype correlations. Our concept of user driven data sharing and matchmaking is now the main cause for gene discoveries within GENESIS. In many of these findings, researchers from across the globe have been connected, which gave rise to the genetic evidence needed to successfully pinpoint specific gene mutations that explained patients’ disease. Here we present an overview of the various novel insights that have been made possible through the data sharing capabilities of GENESIS/GEM.app. PMID:26173844

  4. Innovative genomic collaboration using the GENESIS (GEM.app) platform.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Michael; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu; Postrel, Richard; Schüle, Rebecca; Zuchner, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing has led to an unparalleled pace of Mendelian disease gene discovery in recent years. To address the challenges of analysis and sharing of large datasets, we had previously introduced the collaborative web-based GEM.app software [Gonzalez et al., ]. Here, we are presenting the results of using GEM.app over nearly 3 years and introducing the next generation of this platform. First, GEM.app has been renamed to GENESIS since it is now part of "The Genesis Project" (501c3), a not-for-profit foundation that is committed to providing the best technology to enable research scientists and to connecting patients and clinicians to genomic information. Second, GENESIS (GEM.app) has grown to nearly 600 registered users from 44 countries, who have collectively achieved 62 gene identifications or published studies that have expanded phenotype/genotype correlations. Our concept of user-driven data sharing and matchmaking is now the main cause for gene discoveries within GENESIS. In many of these findings, researchers from across the globe have been connected, which gave rise to the genetic evidence needed to successfully pinpoint-specific gene mutations that explained patients' disease. Here, we present an overview of the various novel insights that have been made possible through the data-sharing capabilities of GENESIS/GEM.app.

  5. Mobile App to Assess Universal Access Compliance.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, Colette

    2016-01-01

    terms of compliance with National Building Regulations, within a tight budget as well as within minimal timeframes, an innovative mobile application was developed by Universal Design Africa. This App heralds the dawn of a new method to measure universal access compliance. The operation and format of this technology and its application could be adapted to meet all forms of compliance and information gathering, including international regulations and best practice.

  6. Mobile App to Assess Universal Access Compliance.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, Colette

    2016-01-01

    terms of compliance with National Building Regulations, within a tight budget as well as within minimal timeframes, an innovative mobile application was developed by Universal Design Africa. This App heralds the dawn of a new method to measure universal access compliance. The operation and format of this technology and its application could be adapted to meet all forms of compliance and information gathering, including international regulations and best practice. PMID:27534362

  7. Amyloid and tau pathology of familial Alzheimer's disease APP/PS1 mouse model in a senescence phenotype background (SAMP8).

    PubMed

    Porquet, D; Andrés-Benito, P; Griñán-Ferré, C; Camins, A; Ferrer, I; Canudas, A M; Del Valle, J; Pallàs, Mercè

    2015-02-01

    The amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has provided robust neuropathological hallmarks of familial AD-like pattern at early ages, whereas senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) has a remarkable early senescence phenotype with pathological similarities to AD. The aim of this study was the investigation and characterization of cognitive and neuropathological AD markers in a novel mouse model that combines the characteristics of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model with a senescence-accelerated background of SAMP8 mice. Initially, significant differences were found regarding amyloid plaque formation and cognitive abnormalities. Bearing these facts in mind, we determined a general characterization of the main AD brain molecular markers, such as alterations in amyloid pathway, neuroinflammation, and hyperphosphorylation of tau in these mice along their lifetimes. Results from this analysis revealed that APP/PS1 in SAMP8 background mice showed alterations in the pathways studied in comparison with SAMP8 and APP/PS1, demonstrating that a senescence-accelerated background exacerbated the amyloid pathology and maintained the cognitive dysfunction present in APP/PS1 mice. Changes in tau pathology, including the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β), differs, but not in a parallel manner, with amyloid disturbances. PMID:25663420

  8. Large-scale identification and characterization of alternative splicing variants of human gene transcripts using 56 419 completely sequenced and manually annotated full-length cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Barrero, Roberto A.; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Jin, Lihua; Motono, Chie; Hata, Hiroko; Isogai, Takao; Nagai, Keiichi; Otsuki, Tetsuji; Kuryshev, Vladimir; Shionyu, Masafumi; Yura, Kei; Go, Mitiko; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Wiemann, Stefan; Nomura, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio; Gojobori, Takashi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    We report the first genome-wide identification and characterization of alternative splicing in human gene transcripts based on analysis of the full-length cDNAs. Applying both manual and computational analyses for 56 419 completely sequenced and precisely annotated full-length cDNAs selected for the H-Invitational human transcriptome annotation meetings, we identified 6877 alternative splicing genes with 18 297 different alternative splicing variants. A total of 37 670 exons were involved in these alternative splicing events. The encoded protein sequences were affected in 6005 of the 6877 genes. Notably, alternative splicing affected protein motifs in 3015 genes, subcellular localizations in 2982 genes and transmembrane domains in 1348 genes. We also identified interesting patterns of alternative splicing, in which two distinct genes seemed to be bridged, nested or having overlapping protein coding sequences (CDSs) of different reading frames (multiple CDS). In these cases, completely unrelated proteins are encoded by a single locus. Genome-wide annotations of alternative splicing, relying on full-length cDNAs, should lay firm groundwork for exploring in detail the diversification of protein function, which is mediated by the fast expanding universe of alternative splicing variants. PMID:16914452

  9. High-frequency transformation method and library transducing vectors for cloning mammalian cDNAs by trans-complementation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, K; Okazaki, N; Kume, K; Jinno, S; Tanaka, K; Okayama, H

    1990-01-01

    We describe a highly efficient alkali cation method and library transducing vectors for cloning mammalian cDNAs by trans-complementation of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants. cDNA libraries constructed with the pcD or pcD2 vector are transduced into yeast by cotransfection with a linearized vector, which allows an enhanced homologous recombination between the yeast vector and the library plasmid leading to the efficient formation of concatemers containing pcD molecules. The transformation frequencies obtained by the method are 10(6) colonies per 10(8) cells transfected with 2 micrograms of library and 1 microgram of vector, 50-60% of which contain pcD molecules. The high-efficiency alkali cation method circumvents many of the shortcomings of the spheroplast method generally used for Schiz. pombe transfection. The vectors are maximized for the efficiency of library transduction and minimized for the rearrangements of pcD molecules during propagation in yeast. This system allows rapid screening of multi-million cDNA clone libraries for rare cDNAs in a routine scale of experiments. Using this system, various mammalian cDNAs that are extremely difficult, time-consuming, or unclonable to clone by other methods have been cloned. Images PMID:2251111

  10. Large-scale collection and analysis of full-length cDNAs from Brachypodium distachyon and integration with Pooideae sequence resources.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Keiichi; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Takahashi, Fuminori; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive collection of full-length cDNAs is essential for correct structural gene annotation and functional analyses of genes. We constructed a mixed full-length cDNA library from 21 different tissues of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21, and obtained 78,163 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from both ends of ca. 40,000 clones (including 16,079 contigs). We updated gene structure annotations of Brachypodium genes based on full-length cDNA sequences in comparison with the latest publicly available annotations. About 10,000 non-redundant gene models were supported by full-length cDNAs; ca. 6,000 showed some transcription unit modifications. We also found ca. 580 novel gene models, including 362 newly identified in Bd21. Using the updated transcription start sites, we searched a total of 580 plant cis-motifs in the -3 kb promoter regions and determined a genome-wide Brachypodium promoter architecture. Furthermore, we integrated the Brachypodium full-length cDNAs and updated gene structures with available sequence resources in wheat and barley in a web-accessible database, the RIKEN Brachypodium FL cDNA database. The database represents a "one-stop" information resource for all genomic information in the Pooideae, facilitating functional analysis of genes in this model grass plant and seamless knowledge transfer to the Triticeae crops.

  11. PicSafe Medi: a clinical photography app review.

    PubMed

    Lo, Michelle Chin I; Brinkworth, Simon; Knights, Christina; Mackie, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Medical photographs are used in many clinical settings; however, there are significant risks associated with using the camera feature on mobile devices, namely, breaches of security. PicSafe Medi is an app that allows healthcare professionals to take clinical photographs using smart devices whilst addressing the concerns of patient confidentiality. We review the app to assess its functionality in a UK clinical setting, taking into account UK guidelines such as those offered by the General Medical Council, UK legislation, the Institute of Medical Illustrators and the Department of Health. PMID:26828558

  12. Perioperative Smartphone Apps and Devices for Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Lingappan, Arul M; Ahumada, Luis M; Rehman, Mohamed A; Gálvez, Jorge A

    2015-09-01

    Smartphones have grown in ubiquity and computing power, and they play an ever-increasing role in patient-centered health care. The "medicalized smartphone" not only enables web-based access to patient health resources, but also can run patient-oriented software applications and be connected to health-related peripheral devices. A variety of patient-oriented smartphone apps and devices are available for use to facilitate patient-centered care throughout the continuum of perioperative care. Ongoing advances in smartphone technology and health care apps and devices should expand their utility for enhancing patient-centered care in the future. PMID:26265239

  13. PicSafe Medi: a clinical photography app review.

    PubMed

    Lo, Michelle Chin I; Brinkworth, Simon; Knights, Christina; Mackie, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Medical photographs are used in many clinical settings; however, there are significant risks associated with using the camera feature on mobile devices, namely, breaches of security. PicSafe Medi is an app that allows healthcare professionals to take clinical photographs using smart devices whilst addressing the concerns of patient confidentiality. We review the app to assess its functionality in a UK clinical setting, taking into account UK guidelines such as those offered by the General Medical Council, UK legislation, the Institute of Medical Illustrators and the Department of Health.

  14. Perioperative Smartphone Apps and Devices for Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Lingappan, Arul M; Ahumada, Luis M; Rehman, Mohamed A; Gálvez, Jorge A

    2015-09-01

    Smartphones have grown in ubiquity and computing power, and they play an ever-increasing role in patient-centered health care. The "medicalized smartphone" not only enables web-based access to patient health resources, but also can run patient-oriented software applications and be connected to health-related peripheral devices. A variety of patient-oriented smartphone apps and devices are available for use to facilitate patient-centered care throughout the continuum of perioperative care. Ongoing advances in smartphone technology and health care apps and devices should expand their utility for enhancing patient-centered care in the future.

  15. Developing a smartphone app to support the nursing community.

    PubMed

    Colton, Scott; Hunt, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare professionals are turning increasingly to the digital sector to access information they need for their work. Mobile technology, such as smartphones and tablets, provides a unique opportunity to place high-quality information directly into users' hands. This article describes the ongoing development of a smartphone app, Preparing for Caring, designed to prepare the future workforce by enabling mentors and nursing students to access supportive material during practice-based learning episodes. The article explores the rationale for designing the app and discusses the challenges and benefits of developing this resource from the perspectives of student, mentor and healthcare manager.

  16. Field Geologist: An Android App for Measuring Rock Outcroppings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, J.; Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Field geologist is a mobile Android app that measures, plots, and exports strike and data in the field. When the phone is placed on the steepest part of the rock, it automatically detects dip, string, latitude and longitude. It includes a drop-down menu to record the type of rock. The app's initial screen displays a compass with an interior dip/strike symbol that always points toward the dip direction. Tapping the compass stores a data point in the phone's database. The points can be displayed on a Google map and uploaded to a server, from where they can be retrieved in CSV format and imported into a spreadsheet.

  17. Developing a smartphone app to support the nursing community.

    PubMed

    Colton, Scott; Hunt, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare professionals are turning increasingly to the digital sector to access information they need for their work. Mobile technology, such as smartphones and tablets, provides a unique opportunity to place high-quality information directly into users' hands. This article describes the ongoing development of a smartphone app, Preparing for Caring, designed to prepare the future workforce by enabling mentors and nursing students to access supportive material during practice-based learning episodes. The article explores the rationale for designing the app and discusses the challenges and benefits of developing this resource from the perspectives of student, mentor and healthcare manager. PMID:26938912

  18. Truncating mutations in APP cause a distinct neurological phenotype.

    PubMed

    Klein, Steven; Goldman, Alexander; Lee, Hane; Ghahremani, Shahnaz; Bhakta, Viraj; Nelson, Stanley F; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2016-09-01

    Dominant missense mutations in the amyloid β (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) gene have been implicated in early onset Alzheimer disease. These mutations alter protein structure to favor the pathologic production of Aβ. We report that homozygous nonsense mutations in APP are associated with decreased somatic growth, microcephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, thinning of the corpus callosum, and seizures. We compare the phenotype of this case to those reported in mouse models and demonstrate multiple similarities, strengthening the role of amyloid precursor protein in normal brain function and development. Ann Neurol 2016;80:456-460. PMID:27422356

  19. cDNAs of aminopeptidase-like protein genes from Plodia interpunctella strains with different susceptibilities to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y C; Kramer, K J; Oppert, B; Dowdy, A K

    2000-03-01

    Aminopeptidase N has been reported to be a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxin-binding protein in several lepidopteran insects. cDNAs of aminopeptidase-like proteins from both Bt-susceptible RC688s and Bt-resistant HD198r strains of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, were cloned and sequenced. They contain 3345 and 3358 nucleotides, respectively, and each has a 3048 bp open reading frame that encodes 1016 amino acids. Putative protein sequences include 10 potential glycosylation sites and a zinc metal binding site motif of HEXXH, which is typical of the active site of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Sequence analysis indicated that the deduced protein sequences are most similar to an aminopeptidase from Heliothis virescens with 62% sequence identity and highly similar to three other lepidopteran aminopeptidases from Plutella xylostella, Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori with sequence identities of 51-52%. Four nucleotide differences were observed in the open reading frames that translated into two amino acid differences in the putative protein sequences. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed an aminopeptidase gene coding difference between RC688s and HD198r strains of P. interpunctella in the PCR amplification of a specific allele (PASA) using preferential primers designed from a single base substitution. The gene mutation for Asp185-->Glu185 was also confirmed in two additional Bt-resistant P. interpunctella strains. This mutation is located within a region homologous to the conserved Cry1Aa toxin binding regions from Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella. The aminopeptidase-like mRNA expression levels in the Bt-resistant strain were slightly higher than those in the Bt-susceptible strain. The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession numbers AF034483 for susceptible strain RC688s and AF034484 for resistant strain HD198r).

  20. Visualization of viral candidate cDNAs in infectious brain fractions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by representational difference analysis.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Manuelidis, L

    1996-08-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), a neurodegenerative and dementing disease of later life, is caused by a viruslike entity that is incompletely characterized. As in scrapie, all more purified infectious brain preparations contain nucleic acids. However, it has not been possible to visualize unique bands that may derive from a viral genome. We here used a subtractive strategy known as representational difference analysis (RDA) to uncover such sequences. To reduce the complexity of starting target nucleic acids, sucrose gradients were first used to select nuclease resistant particles with a defined 120S size. In CJD this single 120S gradient peak is highly enriched for infectivity, and contains reduced amounts of PrP (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92, 5124-8, 1995). Parallel 120S fractions from uninfected brain were made to generate subtractor sequences. 120S particles were lysed in GdnSCN, and ng amounts of released RNA were purified for random-primed cDNA synthesis. To capture representative fragments of 100-500 bp, cDNAs were cleaved with Mbo I for adaptor ligation and amplification. In the first experiment with moderate RDA selection, it was possible to visualize clones from CJD cDNA that did not hybridize to control cDNA. In the second experiment, more exhaustive subtractions yielded a discrete set of CJD derived gel bands. Competitive hybridization showed a subset of these bands were not present in either the control 120S cDNA or in the hamster genome. This represents the first demonstration of apparently CJD-specific nucleic acid bands in more purified infectious preparations. Although exhaustive cloning, sequencing and correlative titration studies need to be done, it is encouraging that most of the viral candidates selected thus far have no significant homology with any previously described sequence in the database.

  1. Solid-phase differential display and bacterial expression systems in selection and functional analysis of cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, S; Odeberg, J; Larsson, M; Røsok, O; Ree, A H; Lundeberg, J

    1999-01-01

    Differential gene expression can be expected during activation and differentiation of cells as well as during pathological conditions, such as cancer. A number of strategies have been described to identify and understand isolated differentially expressed genes. The differential display methodology has rapidly become a widely used technique to identify differentially expressed mRNAs. In this chapter we described a variant of the differential display method based on solid-phase technology. The solid-phase procedure offers an attractive alternative to solution-based differential display because minute amounts of sample can be analyzed in considerably less time than previously. The employed solid support, monodisperse super paramagnetic beads, which circumvents precipitation and centrifugations steps, has also allowed for optimization of the critical enzymatic and preparative steps in the differential display methodology. We also described how bacterial expression can be used as a means to elucidate gene function. An efficient dual-expression system was presented, together with a basic concept describing how parallel expression of selected portions of cDNAs can be used for production of cDNA-encoded proteins as parts of affinity-tagged fusion proteins. The fusion proteins are suitable both for the generation of antibodies reactive to the target cDNA-encoded protein and for the subsequent affinity enrichment of such antibodies. Affinity-enriched antibodies have proved to be valuable tools in various assays, including immunoblotting and immunocytochemical staining, and can thus be used to localize the target cDNA-encoded protein to certain cells in a tissue section or even to a specific cell compartment or organelle within a cell. High-resolution localization of a cDNA-encoded protein would provide valuable information toward the understanding of protein function. PMID:10349662

  2. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N. Kamel; Brewer, Ann C.; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of ‘apps as a medical device’ and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of ‘apps as a medical device’. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers’ general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. ‘Happtique Health App Certification Program’ (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many “similar” quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web

  3. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Brewer, Ann C; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of 'apps as a medical device' and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of 'apps as a medical device'. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers' general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. 'Happtique Health App Certification Program' (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many "similar" quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web, when people

  4. APP processing induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) yields several APP fragments in human and rat neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    De Chiara, Giovanna; Marcocci, Maria Elena; Civitelli, Livia; Argnani, Rafaela; Piacentini, Roberto; Ripoli, Cristian; Manservigi, Roberto; Grassi, Claudio; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2010-11-15

    Lifelong latent infections of the trigeminal ganglion by the neurotropic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are characterized by periodic reactivation. During these episodes, newly produced virions may also reach the central nervous system (CNS), causing productive but generally asymptomatic infections. Epidemiological and experimental findings suggest that HSV-1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is related to an overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ) and other neurotoxic peptides, which occurs during amyloidogenic endoproteolytic processing of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). The aim of our study was to identify the effects of productive HSV-1 infection on APP processing in neuronal cells. We found that infection of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and rat cortical neurons is followed by multiple cleavages of APP, which result in the intra- and/or extra-cellular accumulation of various neurotoxic species. These include: i) APP fragments (APP-Fs) of 35 and 45 kDa (APP-F35 and APP-F45) that comprise portions of Aβ; ii) N-terminal APP-Fs that are secreted; iii) intracellular C-terminal APP-Fs; and iv) Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42). Western blot analysis of infected-cell lysates treated with formic acid suggests that APP-F35 may be an Aβ oligomer. The multiple cleavages of APP that occur in infected cells are produced in part by known components of the amyloidogenic APP processing pathway, i.e., host-cell β-secretase, γ-secretase, and caspase-3-like enzymes. These findings demonstrate that HSV-1 infection of neuronal cells can generate multiple APP fragments with well-documented neurotoxic potentials. It is tempting to speculate that intra- and extracellular accumulation of these species in the CNS resulting from repeated HSV-1 reactivation could, in the presence of other risk factors, play a co-factorial role in the development of AD.

  5. Learning by Doing: How to Develop a Cross-Platform Web App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Minh; Ghimire, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    As mobile devices become prevalent, there is always a need for apps. How hard is it to develop an app, especially a cross-platform app? The paper shares an experience in a project that involved the development of a student services web app that can be run on cross-platform mobile devices. The paper first describes the background of the project,…

  6. Glucocorticoids facilitate astrocytic amyloid-β peptide deposition by increasing the expression of APP and BACE1 and decreasing the expression of amyloid-β-degrading proteases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Li, Maoquan; Tang, Jun; Song, Min; Xu, Xueqing; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Li, Junxia; Bai, Yun

    2011-07-01

    In most cases, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown. Elevated basal cortisol levels in AD patients suggest that glucocorticoids (GC) may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of AD. Amyloid plaques are the hallmark of AD, and they are considered to play an early role in the AD process. However, little is known about how their formation is regulated by stress and GC. Astrocyte accumulation is one of the earliest neuropathological changes in AD. Here, we report that GC elevated amyloid-β (Aβ) production in primary cultures of astrocytes by increasing amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 gene expression. Notably, GC administered to normal, middle-aged mice promoted the expression of APP and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 in astrocytes, as determined by double immunofluorescence. Additionally, confocal microscopy and ELISA revealed that GC markedly reduced Aβ degradation and clearance by astrocytes in vitro, indicating a decreased neuroprotective capacity of the astrocytes. This may have been due to the decrease of several Aβ-degrading proteases, such as insulin-degrading enzyme and matrix metalloproteinase-9. These effects occurred through the activation of GC receptors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC can enhance the production of Aβ, reduce its degradation in astrocytes, and provide a molecular mechanism linking stress factors to AD. Our study suggests that GC can facilitate AD pathogenesis and that reducing GC in the elderly and early AD patients would be beneficial.

  7. Shaking up Expectations: The OCLS Shake It! App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivers, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    The author, a digital access architect in the information systems department of the Orange County Library System in Florida, was given the challenge of creating a library mobile app around the 2009 holiday season. At that time, Sheri Chambers, digital content manager in the information systems department, and Debbie Moss, assistant director of the…

  8. Enacting Viewing Skills with Apps to Promote Collaborative Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Kay Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper comprises discussion on the research findings of this study into how apps can be used in the classroom to collaboratively promote construction of mathematical knowledge in children in ways that fundamentally transform the instructional environment. The study results identify how children enact viewing skills through digital texts to…

  9. Chemistry on the Go: Review of Chemistry Apps on Smartphones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Diana; Huang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    touch-controlled computers such as smartphones and iPods are seeing dramatic growth with increasing adoption rates. This review covers about 30 popular and mostly free apps that can be used to learn chemistry and to serve as reference or research tools. The target…

  10. There's an APP for That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Bradley; Finch, James

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how one science teacher based an activity on designing smartphone apps to clearly and concisely communicate the interdependent relationships of a biological ecosystem. The teacher designed the activity to address several aspects of the latest science standards. Students needed to understand their ecosystem and synthesize new…

  11. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  12. Exploring Mobile Apps for English Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Li, Jiaying

    2015-01-01

    Many recent studies have shown that mobile learning can provide potential possibilities for foreign language learners to practice language skills on their smart mobile phones and tablet PCs (e.g. Chang & Hsu, 2011; Egbert, Akasha, Huff, & Lee, 2011; Hoven & Palalas, 2011; Stockwell, 2010). A number of apps have been created and used…

  13. MyShake - A smartphone app to detect earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    We designed an android app that harnesses the accelerometers in personal smartphones to record earthquake-shaking data for research, hazard information and warnings. The app has the function to distinguish earthquake shakings from daily human activities based on the different patterns behind the movements. It also can be triggered by the traditional earthquake early warning (EEW) system to record for a certain amount of time to collect earthquake data. When the app is triggered by the earthquake-like movements, it sends the trigger information back to our server which contains time and location of the trigger, at the same time, it stores the waveform data on local phone first, and upload to our server later. Trigger information from multiple phones will be processed in real time on the server to find the coherent signal to confirm the earthquakes. Therefore, the app provides the basis to form a smartphone seismic network that can detect earthquake and even provide warnings. A planned public roll-out of MyShake could collect millions of seismic recordings for large earthquakes in many regions around the world.

  14. Effects of Using an Ipod App to Manage Recreation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphold, Nicole M.; Douglas, Karen H.; Loseke, Dannell L.

    2016-01-01

    A withdrawal design study evaluated the effectiveness of using constant time delay to teach six adults with a developmental disability to program and use an iPod touch® as an electronic photographic activity schedule (ePAS). The ePAS, created with the First Then Visual Schedule app, consisted of photographs of different exercises to complete…

  15. Apps. Accessibility and Usability by People with Visual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo-Moreno, Eva María; López-Delgado, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of ICT devices, such as smartphones and tablets, needs development of properly software or apps to facilitate socio-educative life of citizens in smart cities: Adaptive educational resources, leisure and entertainment facilities or mobile payment services, among others. Undoubtedly, all that is opening a new age with more…

  16. Apps for Physical Education: Teacher Tested, Kid Approved!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amber; Rodenbeck, Myshel; Clegg, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers have been encouraged to use technology in their classes to enhance student motivation and learning. The purpose of this article is to share iOS applications (apps) that K-12 physical education teachers and students have found useful.

  17. SpeakApps 2: Speaking Practice in a Foreign Language through ICT Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Christine; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    SpeakApps 2 is a project with support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Accompanying Measures. It follows up on the work and results reached during the KA2 project "SpeakApps: Oral production and interaction in a foreign language through ICT tools". The overarching aim of SpeakApps 2 is to further enhance Europeans' language learning…

  18. Choosing iPad Apps with a Purpose: Aligning Skills and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Selma

    2014-01-01

    With the number of apps available today, browsing the iTunes store can become overwhelming for any teacher. A teacher can quickly try free apps, but to have full access, cost is often involved. Purchasing numerous apps can be expensive and time consuming and, most important, may not produce an outcome of acquiring tools that are well aligned with…

  19. Tablet-Based Math Assessment: What Can We Learn from Math Apps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayton-Hodges, Gabrielle A.; Feng, Gary; Pan, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a survey of mathematics education apps in the Apple App Store, conducted as part of a research project to develop a tablet-based assessment prototype for elementary mathematics. This survey was performed with the goal of understanding the design principles and techniques used in mathematics apps designed for tablets. We…

  20. Moving Phones Tick Slower: Creating an Android App to Demonstrate Time Dilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Bret; Zhai, Yunxiao

    2016-05-01

    Smartphones and tablets are packed with sensors that allow us to take experimental data, essentially making them mobile physics labs. Apps exist that make it easy to capture and analyze data from these sensors, allowing users to study diverse phenomena such as free fall acceleration, the speed of sound, radioactivity, and many others. Commonly, the use of apps in the physics classroom focuses on existing apps rather than on the creation of apps themselves. This is for a good reason-writing an app usually requires advanced knowledge of programming languages and experience with app design. These skills are generally regarded as beyond the typical physics student. However, there are app development environments, such as MIT App Inventor 2 for Android, which make the process of creating an app and utilizing the sensors much more accessible to students. Putting the ability to create and configure apps within the reach of students can also help integrate computation into the curriculum. In this article, we discuss our creation of an Android app, Time Dilation Calculator, done as part of a senior undergraduate capstone project, which uses App Inventor and a mobile device's global positioning system (GPS) receiver to calculate the time dilation effect of special relativity.

  1. A Detailed Rubric for Assessing the Quality of Teacher Resource Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherner, Todd; Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Fegely, Alex; Santaniello, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of the iPhone and rise of mobile technologies, educational apps represent one of the fastest growing markets, and both the mobile technology and educational app markets are predicted to continue experiencing growth into the foreseeable future. The irony, however, is that even with a booming market for educational apps, very little…

  2. Conducting Cognitive Exercises for Early Dementia with the Use of Apps on iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2015-01-01

    A list of iTunes apps was compiled for usage with early stage or mild dementia participants. The method in choosing these apps and determining salient features of the most successful apps was reported. The results will advance the knowledge base on innovative use of smart technology in clinical settings.

  3. A Student's Guide to Critical Reading Using APPS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautman, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of smart phone apps forms a mnemonic device and checklist for students who are learning critical thinking and reading skills. "Use your apps" reminds students to consider the importance of Author, Audience, Assumptions, Point of View, Perspective, and Scale when reading any text. "APPS" also lends itself to class…

  4. Oceanographic data at your fingertips: the SOCIB App for smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Sebastian; Sebastian, Kristian; Troupin, Charles; Pau Beltran, Joan; Frontera, Biel; Gómara, Sonia; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, http://www.socib.es), is a multi-platform Marine Research Infrastructure that generates data from nearshore to the open sea in the Western Mediterranean Sea. In line with SOCIB principles of discoverable, freely available and standardized data, an application (App) for smartphones has been designed, with the objective of providing an easy access to all the data managed by SOCIB in real-time: underwater gliders, drifters, profiling buoys, research vessel, HF Radar and numerical model outputs (hydrodynamics and waves). The Data Centre, responsible for the aquisition, processing and visualisation of all SOCIB data, developed a REpresentational State Transfer (REST) application programming interface (API) called "DataDiscovery" (http://apps.socib.es/DataDiscovery/). This API is made up of RESTful web services that provide information on : platforms, instruments, deployments of instruments. It also provides the data themselves. In this way, it is possible to integrate SOCIB data in third-party applications, developed either by the Data Center or externally. The existence of a single point for the data distribution not only allows for an efficient management but also makes easier the concepts and data access for external developers, who are not necessarily familiar with the concepts and tools related to oceanographic or atmospheric data. The SOCIB App for Android (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.socib) uses that API as a "data backend", in such a way that it is straightforward to manage which information is shown by the application, without having to modify and upload it again. The only pieces of information that do not depend on the services are the App "Sections" and "Screens", but the content displayed in each of them is obtained through requests to the web services. The API is not used only for the smartphone app: presently, most of SOCIB applications for data visualisation

  5. SoilInfo App: global soil information on your palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengl, Tomislav; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    ISRIC ' World Soil Information has released in 2014 and app for mobile de- vices called 'SoilInfo' (http://soilinfo-app.org) and which aims at providing free access to the global soil data. SoilInfo App (available for Android v.4.0 Ice Cream Sandwhich or higher, and Apple v.6.x and v.7.x iOS) currently serves the Soil- Grids1km data ' a stack of soil property and class maps at six standard depths at a resolution of 1 km (30 arc second) predicted using automated geostatistical mapping and global soil data models. The list of served soil data includes: soil organic carbon (), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg/m3), cation exchange capacity of the fine earth fraction (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105992). New soil properties and classes will be continuously added to the system. SoilGrids1km are available for download under a Creative Commons non-commercial license via http://soilgrids.org. They are also accessible via a Representational State Transfer API (http://rest.soilgrids.org) service. SoilInfo App mimics common weather apps, but is also largely inspired by the crowdsourcing systems such as the OpenStreetMap, Geo-wiki and similar. Two development aspects of the SoilInfo App and SoilGrids are constantly being worked on: Data quality in terms of accuracy of spatial predictions and derived information, and Data usability in terms of ease of access and ease of use (i.e. flexibility of the cyberinfrastructure / functionalities such as the REST SoilGrids API, SoilInfo App etc). The development focus in 2015 is on improving the thematic and spatial accuracy of SoilGrids predictions, primarily by using finer resolution covariates (250 m) and machine learning algorithms (such as random forests) to improve spatial predictions.

  6. Pharmacy Apps: a new frontier on the digital landscape?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J.; Collings, Matthew; Fletcher, William; Mujtaba, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the course of recent years smartphone and tablet technology has evolved rapidly. Similarly, the sphere of healthcare is constantly developing and striving to embrace the newest forms of technology in order to optimise function. Many opportunities for mobile applications (i.e. ‘apps’) pertinent to the healthcare sector are now emerging. Objective This study will consider whether registered pharmacists within the United Kingdom (UK) believe it appropriate to use mobile apps during the provision of healthcare within the community setting. Methods Further to Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) ethical approval, the 30 item questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists (n=600) practising within inner city Manchester, Liverpool and Newcastle. The questions were formatted as multiple choice, Likert scales or the open answer type. On questionnaire completion and return, data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (v18). Results The majority of respondents (78.4% of 211 participants) confirmed that they were confident when using mobile apps on their technology platform. In general, mobile apps were perceived to be useful in facilitating patient consultations (55%) and supporting healthcare education (80%). The main barrier for mobile app use within the workplace was company policy, deemed significant in the case of regional / national chain pharmacies (p<0.001). Pharmacists alluded to the fact that whilst mobile apps demonstrate potential in modern day practise, they will have a greater impact in the future (p<0.001). Conclusion The data indicate that although pharmacists are supportive of mobile apps in healthcare, a number of factors (i.e. risk, company policy and lack of regulation) may preclude their use in modern day pharmacy practise. Clearly, limitations of the technology must be addressed in order to maximise uptake within

  7. Application of Low-Cost Methodologies for Mobile Phone App Development

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Beng Yeong; Ho, Roger; Cheok, Christopher Cheng Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background The usage of mobile phones and mobile phone apps in the recent decade has indeed become more prevalent. Previous research has highlighted a method of using just the Internet browser and a text editor to create an app, but this does not eliminate the challenges faced by clinicians. More recently, two methodologies of app development have been shared, but there has not been any disclosures pertaining to the costs involved. In addition, limitations such as the distribution and dissemination of the apps have not been addressed. Objective The aims of this research article are to: (1) highlight a low-cost methodology that clinicians without technical knowledge could use to develop educational apps; (2) clarify the respective costs involved in the process of development; (3) illustrate how limitations pertaining to dissemination could be addressed; and (4) to report initial utilization data of the apps and to share initial users’ self-rated perception of the apps. Methods In this study, we will present two techniques of how to create a mobile app using two of the well-established online mobile app building websites. The costs of development are specified and the methodology of dissemination of the apps will be shared. The application of the low-cost methodologies in the creation of the “Mastering Psychiatry” app for undergraduates and “Déjà vu” app for postgraduates will be discussed. A questionnaire survey has been administered to undergraduate students collating their perceptions towards the app. Results For the Mastering Psychiatry app, a cumulative total of 722 users have used the mobile app since inception, based on our analytics. For the Déjà vu app, there has been a cumulative total of 154 downloads since inception. The utilization data demonstrated the receptiveness towards these apps, and this is reinforced by the positive perceptions undergraduate students (n=185) had towards the low-cost self-developed apps. Conclusions This is one of

  8. Using Smartphone Apps in STD Interviews to Find Sexual Partners

    PubMed Central

    Pennise, Melissa; Herpin, Kate; Owens, John; Bedard, Brenden A.; Weimer, Anita C.; Kennedy, Byron S.; Younge, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly used to facilitate casual sexual relationships, increasing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In STD investigations, traditional contact elicitation methods can be enhanced with smartphone technology during field interviews. Methods In 2013, the Monroe County Department of Public Health conducted a large, multi-infection STD investigation among men who have sex with men (MSM) using both index case and cluster interviews. When patients indicated meeting sexual partners online, disease intervention specialists (DISs) had access to smartphone apps and were able to elicit partners through access to inboxes and profiles where traditional contact information was lacking. Social network mapping was used to display the extent of the investigation and the impact of access to smartphones on the investigation. Results A total of 14 index patient interviews and two cluster interviews were conducted; 97 individuals were identified among 117 sexual dyads. On average, eight partners were elicited per interview (range: 1–31). The seven individuals who used apps to find partners had an average of three Internet partners (range: 1–5). Thirty-six individuals either had a new STD (n=7) or were previously known to be HIV-positive (n=29). Of the 117 sexual dyads, 21 (18%) originated either online (n=8) or with a smartphone app (n=13). Of those originating online or with a smartphone app, six (29%) partners were located using the smartphone and two (10%) were notified of their exposure via a website. Three of the new STD/HIV cases were among partners who met online. Conclusion Smartphone technology used by DISs in the field improved contact elicitation and resulted in successful partner notification and case finding. PMID:25931628

  9. Diabetes Applications for Arabic Speakers: A Critical Review of Available Apps for Android and iOS Operated Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Alhuwail, Dari

    2016-01-01

    Today, 415 million adults have diabetes; more than 35 million of diabetic adults live in the Middle East and North Africa region. Smartphone penetration in the region is high and applications, or apps, for diabetics have shown promising results in recent years. This study took place between September and December 2015 and reviewed all currently available smartphone diabetes apps for Arabic speakers in both the Apple App and Google Play stores. There were only few diabetes apps for Arabic speakers; only eighteen apps were discovered and considered for this study. Most apps were informational. Only three apps offered utilities such as glucose reading conversion. The apps had issues related to information quality and adherence to latest evidence-based medical advice. There is a need for more evidence-based Arabic diabetes apps with improved functionality. Future research of Arabic diabetes apps should also focus on the involvement and engagement of the patients in the design of these apps. PMID:27332269

  10. Diabetes Applications for Arabic Speakers: A Critical Review of Available Apps for Android and iOS Operated Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Alhuwail, Dari

    2016-01-01

    Today, 415 million adults have diabetes; more than 35 million of diabetic adults live in the Middle East and North Africa region. Smartphone penetration in the region is high and applications, or apps, for diabetics have shown promising results in recent years. This study took place between September and December 2015 and reviewed all currently available smartphone diabetes apps for Arabic speakers in both the Apple App and Google Play stores. There were only few diabetes apps for Arabic speakers; only eighteen apps were discovered and considered for this study. Most apps were informational. Only three apps offered utilities such as glucose reading conversion. The apps had issues related to information quality and adherence to latest evidence-based medical advice. There is a need for more evidence-based Arabic diabetes apps with improved functionality. Future research of Arabic diabetes apps should also focus on the involvement and engagement of the patients in the design of these apps.

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency Increases Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Lefterov, Iliya; Fitz, Nicholas F.; Cronican, Andrea A.; Fogg, Allison; Lefterov, Preslav; Kodali, Ravindra; Wetzel, Ronald; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels, accompanied by cognitive decline. Previously, we showed that human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) decreases Aβ40 aggregation and toxicity. Here we demonstrate that apoA-I in lipidated or non-lipidated form prevents the formation of high molecular weight aggregates of Aβ42 and decreases Aβ42 toxicity in primary brain cells. To determine the effects of apoA-I on AD phenotype in vivo, we crossed APP/PS1ΔE9 to apoA-IKO mice. Using a Morris water maze, we demonstrate that the deletion of mouse Apoa-I exacerbates memory deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice. Further characterization of APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-IKO mice showed that apoA-I deficiency did not affect amyloid precursor protein processing, soluble Aβ oligomer levels, Aβ plaque load, or levels of insoluble Aβ in brain parenchyma. To examine the effect of Apoa-I deletion on cerebral amyloid angiopathy, we measured insoluble Aβ isolated from cerebral blood vessels. Our data show that in APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-IKO mice, insoluble Aβ40 is increased more than 10-fold, and Aβ42 is increased 1.5-fold. The increased levels of deposited amyloid in the vessels of cortices and hippocampi of APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-IKO mice, measured by X-34 staining, confirmed the results. Finally, we demonstrate that lipidated and non-lipidated apoA-I significantly decreased Aβ toxicity against brain vascular smooth muscle cells. We conclude that lack of apoA-I aggravates the memory deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice in parallel to significantly increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:20739292

  12. How to Find Good Apps: An Evaluation Rubric for Instructional Apps for Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ok, Min Wook; Kim, Min Kyung; Kang, Eun Young; Bryant, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Computers can be an effective teaching method for students with learning disabilities (LD). The use of mobile devices as education tools for students with disabilities has received considerable attention in special education recently. Parents, teachers, and professionals look for effective applications (i.e., apps) that meet the needs of their…

  13. SUBFIELD AND LAYER-SPECIFIC DEPLETION IN CALBINDIN-D28K, CALRETININ AND PARVALBUMIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF APP/PS1 TRANSGENIC MICE

    PubMed Central

    Popovi, Miroljub; Caballero-Bleda, María; Kadish, Inga; van Groen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The depletion of neuronal calcium binding proteins deprives neurons of the capacity to buffer high levels of intracellular Ca2+ and this leaves them vulnerable to pathological processes, such as those present in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the calcium binding proteins, calbindin-D28K, calretinin and parvalbumin in the dentate gyrus (DG) of APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their non-Tg littermates, as well as the relation with the deposition of human Aβ. We measured the expression of these three proteins at seven different rostro-caudal levels, and in the molecular, granular and polymorphic layers of the DG. We found that, except in the most caudal part of the DG, there is a substantial loss of calbindin-D28K immunoreactivity in all three layers of the DG in APP/PS1 mice compared to the non-Tg mice. Significant loss of calretinin immunoreactivity is present in most of the polymorphic layer of the DG of APP/PS1 mice compared to the non-Tg mice, as well as in the rostral and intermediate part of the inner molecular layer. Compared to the non-Tg mice parvalbumin immunoreactivity is significantly reduced throughout the whole polymorphic layer as well as in the rostral and intermediate part of the granular layer of DG in APP/PS1 mice. The relatively preservation of calbindin immunoreactivity in the caudal part of molecular and granular layers as well as calretinin immunoreactivity in the caudal part of polymorphic layer of the DG is likely related to the lower Aβ expression in those parts of DG. The present data suggest an involvement of calcium-dependent pathways in the pathogenesis of AD and indicate that there exists a subfield and layer-specific decrease in immunoreactivity which is related to the type of calcium-binding protein in APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, it seems that APP expression affects more the calbindin expression then parvalbumin and calretinin expression in the DG of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. PMID

  14. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Maiko; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Noda, Yasuha; Ueda, Karin; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Okawa, Katsuya; Ihara, Masafumi; Shimohama, Shun; Uemura, Kengo; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported that a high fat diet (HFD) promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2)/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ). On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage. PMID:26414661

  15. Global Outreach of a Locally-Developed Mobile Phone App for Undergraduate Psychiatry Education

    PubMed Central

    Cheok, Christopher CS; Ho, Roger CM

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there have been massive developments in both Web-based and mobile phone technologies. Mobile phones are well accepted by students, trainees, and doctors. A review of the current literature has identified the following specialties that have used mobile phones in education: pediatrics, ophthalmology, nephrology, plastic surgery, orthopedics, pharmacology, and urology. However, to date, there are no published papers examining the application of the latest mobile phone technologies for psychiatry education internationally. Objectives The main objectives of this study are (1) to determine the feasibility and receptiveness of a locally-developed psychiatry mobile phone app and user perspectives (both quantitative and qualitative) towards it, and (2) to determine the receptiveness of a locally-developed app for psychiatry education internationally. Methods A Web-based app that contained textbook contents, videos, and quizzes was developed using HTML5 technologies in 2012. Native apps were subsequently developed in 2013. Information about the apps was disseminated locally to Singaporean medical students, but the respective native apps were made available on the app stores. A user perspective survey was conducted locally to determine student’s perception of the app. Results From the inception of the app until the time of preparation of this manuscript, there have been a cumulative total of 28,500 unique visits of the responsive HTML5 Web-based mobile phone app. There have been a cumulative total of 2200 downloads of the Mastering Psychiatry app from the Apple app store and 7000 downloads of the same app from the Android app store. The initial user perspective survey conducted locally highlighted that approximately a total of 95.2% (177/186) of students felt that having a psychiatry mobile phone app was deemed to be useful. Further chi-squared analysis demonstrated that there was a significant difference between males and females in their

  16. The Amyloid Precursor Protein-A Novel Player within the Molecular Array of Presynaptic Nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Volknandt, Walter

    2015-01-01

    More than 20 years ago the amyloid precursor protein (APP) was identified as the precursor protein of the Aβ peptide, the main component of senile plaques in brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pathophysiology of AD, characterized by a massive loss of synapses, cognitive decline, and behavioral changes was in principle attributed to the accumulation of Aβ. Within the last decades, much effort has gone into understanding the molecular basis of the progression of AD. However, little is known about the actual physiological function of APPs. Allocating APP to the proteome of the structurally and functionally dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a hitherto unknown player within the setting of the presynapse. The molecular array of presynaptic nanomachines comprising the life cycle of synaptic vesicles, exo- and endocytosis, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and mitochondrial activity provides a balance between structural and functional maintenance and diversity. The generation of genetically designed mouse models further deciphered APP as an essential player in synapse formation and plasticity. Deletion of APP causes an age-dependent phenotype: while younger mice revealed almost no physiological impairments, this condition was changed in the elderly mice. Interestingly, the proteomic composition of neurotransmitter release sites already revealed substantial changes at young age. These changes point to a network that incorporates APP into a cluster of nanomachines. Currently, the underlying mechanism of how APP acts within these machines is still elusive. Within the scope of this review, we shall construct a network of APP interaction partners within the PAZ. Furthermore, we intend to outline how deletion of APP affects this network during space and time leading to impairments in learning and memory. These alterations may provide a molecular link to the pathogenesis of AD and the physiological function of APP in the central nervous system.

  17. The Amyloid Precursor Protein—A Novel Player within the Molecular Array of Presynaptic Nanomachines

    PubMed Central

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-01-01

    More than 20 years ago the amyloid precursor protein (APP) was identified as the precursor protein of the Aβ peptide, the main component of senile plaques in brains affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The pathophysiology of AD, characterized by a massive loss of synapses, cognitive decline, and behavioral changes was in principle attributed to the accumulation of Aβ. Within the last decades, much effort has gone into understanding the molecular basis of the progression of AD. However, little is known about the actual physiological function of APPs. Allocating APP to the proteome of the structurally and functionally dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a hitherto unknown player within the setting of the presynapse. The molecular array of presynaptic nanomachines comprising the life cycle of synaptic vesicles, exo- and endocytosis, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and mitochondrial activity provides a balance between structural and functional maintenance and diversity. The generation of genetically designed mouse models further deciphered APP as an essential player in synapse formation and plasticity. Deletion of APP causes an age-dependent phenotype: while younger mice revealed almost no physiological impairments, this condition was changed in the elderly mice. Interestingly, the proteomic composition of neurotransmitter release sites already revealed substantial changes at young age. These changes point to a network that incorporates APP into a cluster of nanomachines. Currently, the underlying mechanism of how APP acts within these machines is still elusive. Within the scope of this review, we shall construct a network of APP interaction partners within the PAZ. Furthermore, we intend to outline how deletion of APP affects this network during space and time leading to impairments in learning and memory. These alterations may provide a molecular link to the pathogenesis of AD and the physiological function of APP in the central nervous system

  18. Behavioral Functionality of Mobile Apps in Health Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    Background Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. Methods We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. Results The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. Conclusions The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices. PMID:25803705

  19. The Use of Mobile Phone and Medical Apps among General Practitioners in Hangzhou City, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Liu, Juanjuan; Yin, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones and mobile phone apps have expanded new forms of health professionals’ work. There are many studies on the use of mobile phone apps for different specialists. However, there are no studies on the current use of mobile phone apps among general practitioners (GPs). Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which GPs own smartphones with apps and use them to aid their clinical activities. Methods A questionnaire survey of GPs was undertaken in Hangzhou, Eastern China. Data probing GPs’ current use of medical apps in their clinical activities and factors influencing app use were collected and analyzed Results 125 GPs participated in the survey. 90.4% of GPs owned a mobile phone, with 48.7% owning an iPhone and 47.8% owning an Android phone. Most mobile phone owners had 1-3 medical-related apps, with very few owning more than 4. There was no difference in number of apps between iPhone and Android owners (χ2=1.388, P=0.846). 36% of GPs reported using medical-related apps on a daily basis. The majority of doctors reported using apps to aid clinical activities less than 30 minutes per day. Conclusions A high level of mobile phone ownership and usage among GPs was found in this study, but few people chose medical-related apps to support their clinical practice. PMID:27220417

  20. Do Arabic weight-loss apps adhere to evidence-informed practices?

    PubMed

    Alnasser, Aroub A; Amalraj, Raja E; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman S; Marais, Debbi

    2016-09-01

    Mobile technology has been used successfully for promoting health and weight loss and for treating obesity. There is a high prevalence of smartphone and tablet users among the Saudi population. This study aimed to identify whether current Arabic weight-loss apps had features that adhered to evidence-informed practices. The six most relevant app stores were systematically searched using the Arabic words for weight and diet (n = 298). All apps that met the inclusion criteria (n = 65) were downloaded and examined for adherence to 13 evidence-informed practices. Latent class analysis identified two subgroups of apps: self-monitoring (15 % of apps) and advice-giving apps (85 %). The median number of evidence-informed practices was 1 (1, 2), with no apps having more than six and only nine apps including four to six. Meal planning was the most common feature (38 % of apps). These findings identify serious weaknesses in the currently available Arabic weight-loss apps. Thus, existing and future apps should include more features based on the best available evidence in the context of Arab culture. PMID:27528528

  1. Current Status and Quality Assessment of Cardiovascular Diseases Related Smartphone Apps in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qian; Wang, Yanling; Sun, Liu; Lu, Sai; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To examine current status and quality of CVD related apps available for download in China, a total of 151 apps from the top popular six app stores were analyzed. Data analysis uncovered a range of issues including missing of key variables in the pre-formatted daily records, no platform for interaction with relevant healthcare professionals and undesirable user-interface design. More importantly, these apps had low levels of adherence to internationally recognized guidelines in CVD management. Overall quality score of these apps was below the average (8.08/20). This study identified areas for improvement concerning the existing CVD related apps. Information may guide the further advancement of CVD related apps and benefit CVD management in China. PMID:27332467

  2. mHealth and mobile medical Apps: a framework to assess risk and promote safer use.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-01-01

    The use of mobile medical apps by clinicians and others has grown considerably since the introduction of mobile phones. Medical apps offer clinicians the ability to access medical knowledge and patient data at the point of care, but several studies have highlighted apps that could compromise patient safety and are potentially dangerous. This article identifies a range of different kinds of risks that medical apps can contribute to and important contextual variables that can modify these risks. We have also developed a simple generic risk framework that app users, developers, and other stakeholders can use to assess the likely risks posed by a specific app in a specific context. This should help app commissioners, developers, and users to manage risks and improve patient safety. PMID:25223398

  3. Conservation of the prohormone convertase gene family in metazoa: analysis of cDNAs encoding a PC3-like protein from hydra.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S J; Oliva, A A; LaMendola, J; Grens, A; Bode, H; Steiner, D F

    1992-01-01

    A subclass of proteolytic enzymes that correctly cleave precursor proteins at paired basic residues and are structurally related to the bacterial subtilisins has recently been identified. In yeast, a single membrane-bound proteolytic processing enzyme encoded by the kex2 gene has been found, whereas in higher vertebrates cDNAs encoding four distinct enzymes (PC2, PC3, furin, and PACE 4) have been identified. Like kex2, furin (also known as PACE) contains a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, but PC2, PC3, and PACE 4 lack this feature. All five enzymes exhibit striking similarities in their catalytic domains, and this suggests that they have arisen from a common ancestral subtilisin-like gene. We report here the identification of cDNAs encoding a protein that is similar in structure to PC3 from a simple metazoan, Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). cDNAs encoding two isoforms of this PC3-like enzyme were obtained that differ only in their carboxyl-terminal sequences, probably due to alternative splicing of a common pre-mRNA. Neither form contains a transmembrane domain. Predicted amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that the hydra PC3-like enzyme is 55.4% and 56.7% identical in the catalytic domain to mouse PC3 and human furin, respectively. RNA blot analyses revealed that the PC3-like RNA is expressed predominantly in the hydra body column and not in the head region, although the hydra head contains a high density of nerve cells, which synthesize a variety of neuropeptides. For this reason, we suspect that another proprotein cleavage enzyme isoform may be expressed in head nerve cells. The isolation of a PC3-like cDNA from hydra is consistent with the presence of neuroendocrine cells and indicates that the PC/furin gene family has been well conserved in all metazoa. A simplified nomenclature for the group of mammalian processing proteases is proposed. Images PMID:1495957

  4. Review and Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based iPhone Apps

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence for the positive impact of mindfulness on wellbeing. Mindfulness-based mobile apps may have potential as an alternative delivery medium for training. While there are hundreds of such apps, there is little information on their quality. Objective This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of mindfulness-based iPhone mobile apps and to evaluate their quality using a recently-developed expert rating scale, the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). It also aimed to describe features of selected high-quality mindfulness apps. Methods A search for “mindfulness” was conducted in iTunes and Google Apps Marketplace. Apps that provided mindfulness training and education were included. Those containing only reminders, timers or guided meditation tracks were excluded. An expert rater reviewed and rated app quality using the MARS engagement, functionality, visual aesthetics, information quality and subjective quality subscales. A second rater provided MARS ratings on 30% of the apps for inter-rater reliability purposes. Results The “mindfulness” search identified 700 apps. However, 94 were duplicates, 6 were not accessible and 40 were not in English. Of the remaining 560, 23 apps met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The median MARS score was 3.2 (out of 5.0), which exceeded the minimum acceptable score (3.0). The Headspace app had the highest average score (4.0), followed by Smiling Mind (3.7), iMindfulness (3.5) and Mindfulness Daily (3.5). There was a high level of inter-rater reliability between the two MARS raters. Conclusions Though many apps claim to be mindfulness-related, most were guided meditation apps, timers, or reminders. Very few had high ratings on the MARS subscales of visual aesthetics, engagement, functionality or information quality. Little evidence is available on the efficacy of the apps in developing mindfulness. PMID:26290327

  5. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula. PMID:26969319

  6. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Dab and Numb attenuate Aβ levels via γ-secretase mediated APP processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β-protein (Aβ), the key component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by cleavage of β-secretase and then γ-secretase. APP adaptor proteins with phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains, including Dab (gene: DAB) and Numb (gene: NUMB), can bind to and interact with the conserved YENPTY-motif in the APP C-terminus. Here we describe, for the first time, the effects of RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb expression on APP processing and Aβ production. RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express either FL-APP (H4-FL-APP cells) or APP-C99 (H4-APP-C99 cells) increased levels of APP-C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and lowered Aβ levels in both cell lines by inhibiting γ-secretase cleavage of APP. Finally, RNAi knock-down of APP also reduced levels of Numb in H4-APP cells. These findings suggest that pharmacologically blocking interaction of APP with Dab and Numb may provide novel therapeutic strategies of AD. The notion of attenuating γ-secretase cleavage of APP via the APP adaptor proteins, Dab and Numb, is particularly attractive with regard to therapeutic potential, given that side effects of γ-secretase inhibition owing to impaired proteolysis of other γ-secretase substrates, e.g. Notch, might be avoided. PMID:23211096

  7. Sound level measurements using smartphone "apps": useful or inaccurate?

    PubMed

    Nast, Daniel R; Speer, William S; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2014-01-01

    Many recreational activities are accompanied by loud concurrent sounds and decisions regarding the hearing hazards associated with these activities depend on accurate sound measurements. Sound level meters (SLMs) are designed for this purpose, but these are technical instruments that are not typically available in recreational settings and require training to use properly. Mobile technology has made such sound level measurements more feasible for even inexperienced users. Here, we assessed the accuracy of sound level measurements made using five mobile phone applications or "apps" on an Apple iPhone 4S, one of the most widely used mobile phones. Accuracy was assessed by comparing application-based measurements to measurements made using a calibrated SLM. Whereas most apps erred by reporting higher sound levels, one application measured levels within 5 dB of a calibrated SLM across all frequencies tested. PMID:25209033

  8. Groundwater app to determine flow direction and gradient.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Derek; Munster, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    A computational program, called the groundwater flow calculator, was created to quickly and easily determine the hydraulic gradient and direction of groundwater flow. The groundwater flow calculator automates the hand-drawn process by Ralph Heath in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Supply Paper 2220. In addition, a mobile app was developed to allow this procedure to run on a smart phone for use in the field.

  9. Open Drug Discovery Teams: A Chemistry Mobile App for Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Clark, Alex M; Williams, Antony J

    2012-08-01

    The Open Drug Discovery Teams (ODDT) project provides a mobile app primarily intended as a research topic aggregator of predominantly open science data collected from various sources on the internet. It exists to facilitate interdisciplinary teamwork and to relieve the user from data overload, delivering access to information that is highly relevant and focused on their topic areas of interest. Research topics include areas of chemistry and adjacent molecule-oriented biomedical sciences, with an emphasis on those which are most amenable to open research at present. These include rare and neglected diseases, and precompetitive and public-good initiatives such as green chemistry. The ODDT project uses a free mobile app as user entry point. The app has a magazine-like interface, and server-side infrastructure for hosting chemistry-related data as well as value added services. The project is open to participation from anyone and provides the ability for users to make annotations and assertions, thereby contributing to the collective value of the data to the engaged community. Much of the content is derived from public sources, but the platform is also amenable to commercial data input. The technology could also be readily used in-house by organizations as a research aggregator that could integrate internal and external science and discussion. The infrastructure for the app is currently based upon the Twitter API as a useful proof of concept for a real time source of publicly generated content. This could be extended further by accessing other APIs providing news and data feeds of relevance to a particular area of interest. As the project evolves, social networking features will be developed for organizing participants into teams, with various forms of communication and content management possible.

  10. Open Drug Discovery Teams: A Chemistry Mobile App for Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Clark, Alex M; Williams, Antony J

    2012-08-01

    The Open Drug Discovery Teams (ODDT) project provides a mobile app primarily intended as a research topic aggregator of predominantly open science data collected from various sources on the internet. It exists to facilitate interdisciplinary teamwork and to relieve the user from data overload, delivering access to information that is highly relevant and focused on their topic areas of interest. Research topics include areas of chemistry and adjacent molecule-oriented biomedical sciences, with an emphasis on those which are most amenable to open research at present. These include rare and neglected diseases, and precompetitive and public-good initiatives such as green chemistry. The ODDT project uses a free mobile app as user entry point. The app has a magazine-like interface, and server-side infrastructure for hosting chemistry-related data as well as value added services. The project is open to participation from anyone and provides the ability for users to make annotations and assertions, thereby contributing to the collective value of the data to the engaged community. Much of the content is derived from public sources, but the platform is also amenable to commercial data input. The technology could also be readily used in-house by organizations as a research aggregator that could integrate internal and external science and discussion. The infrastructure for the app is currently based upon the Twitter API as a useful proof of concept for a real time source of publicly generated content. This could be extended further by accessing other APIs providing news and data feeds of relevance to a particular area of interest. As the project evolves, social networking features will be developed for organizing participants into teams, with various forms of communication and content management possible. PMID:23198003

  11. IFEQ, app developed based on the J-SHIS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, H.; Hao, K. X.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    Raise an awareness of earthquake disaster prevention is an important issue in Japan. To do that, we have developed an app IFEQ on smartphone based on the APIs provided by the J-SHIS that is an integrated system of Seismic Hazard Assessment. IFEQ can simulate a real situation of earthquake disaster you might experience at current spot. The hint of the IFEQ came from a question "What should I do IF a big EarthQuake hit now?" An earthquake risk situation is estimated by a location information that is acquired from GPS, the detail comprehensive information of a 250m mesh obtained through J-SHIS APIs by the geomorphological classification and a probability of intensity 6 lower (JMA) within 30 years. A user's photo was displayed with a risk situation surrounded by simply one touch. IFEQ helps oneself to overcome a gap between exist scenes and a horrible disaster by enhancing imagination. The results show people have more ideas to handle with the risk situation after using the App IFEQ. IFEQ App's features are summarized as below: 1. Visualizing an image photo with possible risks from a coming earthquake at present spot. 2. Displaying an exceedance probability within 30-years and a maximum seismic intensity within 10,000-years on present location. 3. User can obtain some advices of how to prepare for possible risks. 4. A risk with five ranks is given, especially for items of Building Collapse, Liquefaction and Landslide. IFEQ can be downloaded freely from http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/app-ifearthquake J-SHIS APIs can be obtained from http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en/category/opencat/api

  12. Open Drug Discovery Teams: A Chemistry Mobile App for Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Clark, Alex M; Williams, Antony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Open Drug Discovery Teams (ODDT) project provides a mobile app primarily intended as a research topic aggregator of predominantly open science data collected from various sources on the internet. It exists to facilitate interdisciplinary teamwork and to relieve the user from data overload, delivering access to information that is highly relevant and focused on their topic areas of interest. Research topics include areas of chemistry and adjacent molecule-oriented biomedical sciences, with an emphasis on those which are most amenable to open research at present. These include rare and neglected diseases, and precompetitive and public-good initiatives such as green chemistry. The ODDT project uses a free mobile app as user entry point. The app has a magazine-like interface, and server-side infrastructure for hosting chemistry-related data as well as value added services. The project is open to participation from anyone and provides the ability for users to make annotations and assertions, thereby contributing to the collective value of the data to the engaged community. Much of the content is derived from public sources, but the platform is also amenable to commercial data input. The technology could also be readily used in-house by organizations as a research aggregator that could integrate internal and external science and discussion. The infrastructure for the app is currently based upon the Twitter API as a useful proof of concept for a real time source of publicly generated content. This could be extended further by accessing other APIs providing news and data feeds of relevance to a particular area of interest. As the project evolves, social networking features will be developed for organizing participants into teams, with various forms of communication and content management possible. PMID:23198003

  13. kinApps Package v 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert

    2009-12-11

    The kinApps package provides modeling support for kinematically linked mechanisms within the Umbra framework. This includes features such as forward kinematics and automatically computed inverse kinematics. Objects have a base class that defines the parent/child relationship via Umbra "posrots". Derived classes support shapes, collision models, lighting, moving joints, billboards, point features, etc. An interactive graphical user interface allows the operator to create and develop up kinematic worlds with multiple moving mechanisms.

  14. Pan-Neuronal Expression of APL-1, an APP-Related Protein, Disrupts Olfactory, Gustatory, and Touch Plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Collin Y.; Cheng, Ruby; Tolen, Lana; Shah, Vishal; Gillani, Aneela; Nasrin, Afsana

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease show age-related cognitive decline. Postmortem autopsy of their brains shows the presence of large numbers of senile plaques, whose major component is the β-amyloid peptide. The β-amyloid peptide is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition to the neurodegeneration associated with β-amyloid aggregation in Alzheimer's disease patients, mutations in APP in mammalian model organisms have also been shown to disrupt several behaviors independent of visible amyloid plaque formation. However, the pathways in which APP function are unknown and difficult to unravel in mammals. Here we show that pan-neuronal expression of APL-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of APP, disrupts several behaviors, such as olfactory and gustatory learning behavior and touch habituation. These behaviors are mediated by distinct neural circuits, suggesting a broad impact of APL-1 on sensory plasticity in C. elegans. Furthermore, we found that disruption of these three behaviors requires activity of the TGFβ pathway and reduced activity of the insulin pathway. These results suggest pathways and molecular components that may underlie behavioral plasticity in mammals and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22836251

  15. Trypsinogen-like cDNAs and quantitative analysis of mRNA levels from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y C; Kramer, K J; Dowdy, A K; Baker, J E

    2000-11-01

    Two cDNA fragments encoding full-length trypsinogen-like proteins were cloned from larvae of two strains (RC688s and HD198r) of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), which differed in their sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis protoxins. One cDNA fragment contained 874 nucleotides, including a 780-nucleotide open reading frame that encoded a trypsinogen-like protein (PiT2b). Another cDNA fragment amplified from both P. interpunctella strains contained 864 nucleotides including a 780 bp open reading frame encoding a second trypsinogen-like protein (PiT2c). The cDNA sequence of PiT2b shared 89% sequence identity with PiT2a, a trypsinogen-like protein cloned previously from this species. The cDNA sequences of PiT2a and PiT2c shared 83% identity. The cDNA sequence identity between PiT2b and PiT2c was 80%. The cDNA for PiT2b from strain RC688s was different at six nucleotide positions from that of PiT2b from strain HD198r. Five nucleotide replacements occurred in the open reading frame leading to amino acid changes at all five positions. There were five nucleotide differences in the cDNAs for PiT2c trypsinogen-like proteins from the two strains. Two nucleotide substitutions in the open reading frame resulted in replacements of two amino acid residues in the deduced protein sequences. Amino acid sequences for PiT2a and PiT2b shared 84% identity, but only 50% identity was observed between PiT2c and the other two trypsinogen-like proteins. The deduced amino acid sequences for PiT2b and PiT2c included both signal and zymogen activation peptides and amino acid sequence motifs which are conserved in seven homologous trypsinogen-like proteins from other insects. Typical features of the putative trypsinogen-like proteins from P. interpunctella included the serine proteinase active site triad (His(81), Asp(133), and Ser(233)), three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges, and three residues, Asp(227), Gly(250), and Gly(260), that help to confer trypsin

  16. Health App Use Among US Mobile Phone Owners: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile phone health apps may now seem to be ubiquitous, yet much remains unknown with regard to their usage. Information is limited with regard to important metrics, including the percentage of the population that uses health apps, reasons for adoption/nonadoption, and reasons for noncontinuance of use. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine health app use among mobile phone owners in the United States. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1604 mobile phone users throughout the United States. The 36-item survey assessed sociodemographic characteristics, history of and reasons for health app use/nonuse, perceived effectiveness of health apps, reasons for stopping use, and general health status. Results A little over half (934/1604, 58.23%) of mobile phone users had downloaded a health-related mobile app. Fitness and nutrition were the most common categories of health apps used, with most respondents using them at least daily. Common reasons for not having downloaded apps were lack of interest, cost, and concern about apps collecting their data. Individuals more likely to use health apps tended to be younger, have higher incomes, be more educated, be Latino/Hispanic, and have a body mass index (BMI) in the obese range (all P<.05). Cost was a significant concern among respondents, with a large proportion indicating that they would not pay anything for a health app. Interestingly, among those who had downloaded health apps, trust in their accuracy and data safety was quite high, and most felt that the apps had improved their health. About half of the respondents (427/934, 45.7%) had stopped using some health apps, primarily due to high data entry burden, loss of interest, and hidden costs. Conclusions These findings suggest that while many individuals use health apps, a substantial proportion of the population does not, and that even among those who use health apps, many stop using them. These data suggest that app developers need to

  17. Viral gene transfer of APPsα rescues synaptic failure in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fol, Romain; Braudeau, Jerome; Ludewig, Susann; Abel, Tobias; Weyer, Sascha W; Roederer, Jan-Peter; Brod, Florian; Audrain, Mickael; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Buchholz, Christian J; Korte, Martin; Cartier, Nathalie; Müller, Ulrike C

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by synaptic failure, dendritic and axonal atrophy, neuronal death and progressive loss of cognitive functions. It is commonly assumed that these deficits arise due to β-amyloid accumulation and plaque deposition. However, increasing evidence indicates that loss of physiological APP functions mediated predominantly by neurotrophic APPsα produced in the non-amyloidogenic α-secretase pathway may contribute to AD pathogenesis. Upregulation of APPsα production via induction of α-secretase might, however, be problematic as this may also affect substrates implicated in tumorigenesis. Here, we used a gene therapy approach to directly overexpress APPsα in the brain using AAV-mediated gene transfer and explored its potential to rescue structural, electrophysiological and behavioral deficits in APP/PS1∆E9 AD model mice. Sustained APPsα overexpression in aged mice with already preexisting pathology and amyloidosis restored synaptic plasticity and partially rescued spine density deficits. Importantly, AAV-APPsα treatment also resulted in a functional rescue of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze. Moreover, we demonstrate a significant reduction of soluble Aβ species and plaque load. In addition, APPsα induced the recruitment of microglia with a ramified morphology into the vicinity of plaques and upregulated IDE and TREM2 expression suggesting enhanced plaque clearance. Collectively, these data indicate that APPsα can mitigate synaptic and cognitive deficits, despite established pathology. Increasing APPsα may therefore be of therapeutic relevance for AD.

  18. Apps for immunization: Leveraging mobile devices to place the individual at the center of care

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kumanan; Atkinson, Katherine M; Westeinde, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology and applications (apps) have disrupted several industries including healthcare. The advantage of apps, being personally focused and permitting bidirectional communication, make them well suited to address many immunization challenges. As of April 25, 2015 searching the Android app store with the words ‘immunize app’ and ‘immunization app’ in Canada yielded 225 apps. On the Apple App Store a similar search produced 98 results. These include apps that provide immunization related information, permit vaccine tracking both for individuals and for animals, assist with the creation of customized schedules and identification of vaccine clinics and serve as sources of education. The diverse functionality of mobile apps creates the potential for transformation of immunization practice both at a personal level and a system level. For individuals, mobile apps offer the opportunity for better record keeping, assistance with the logistics of vaccination, and novel ways of communicating with and receiving information from public health officials. For the system, mobile apps offer the potential to improve the quality of information residing in immunization information systems and program evaluation, facilitate harmonization of immunization information between individuals, health care providers and public health as well as reduce vaccine hesitancy. As mobile technology continues to rapidly evolve there will emerge new ways in which apps can enhance immunization practice. PMID:26110351

  19. Calpain Activation in Alzheimer's Model Mice Is an Artifact of APP and Presenilin Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takashi; Matsuba, Yukio; Yamazaki, Naomi; Hashimoto, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    Intraneuronal calcium stimulates the calpain-dependent conversion of p35 to p25, a CDK5 activator. It is widely believed that amyloid β peptide (Aβ) induces this conversion that, in turn, has an essential role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, in vivo studies on p25 generation used transgenic mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin (PS). Here, using single App knock-in mice, we show that p25 generation is an artifact caused by membrane protein overexpression. We show that massive Aβ42 accumulation without overexpression of APP or presenilin does not produce p25, whereas p25 generation occurred with APP/PS overexpression and in postmortem mouse brain. We further support this finding using mice deficient for calpastatin, the sole calpain-specific inhibitor protein. Thus, the intracerebral environment of the APP/PS mouse brain and postmortem brain is an unphysiological state. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We recently estimated using single App knock-in mice that accumulate amyloid β peptide without transgene overexpression that 60% of the phenotypes observed in Alzheimer's model mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) or APP and presenilin are artifacts (Saito et al., 2014). The current study further supports this estimate by invalidating key results from papers that were published in Cell. These findings suggest that more than 3000 publications based on APP and APP/PS overexpression must be reevaluated. PMID:27656030

  20. Cloning of two individual cDNAS encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase from Gentiana lutea, their tissue-specific expression and physiological effect in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Kauder, Friedrich; Römer, Susanne; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) cDNAs have been cloned from a petal library of Gentiana lutea. Both cDNAs carry a putative transit sequence for chloroplast import and differ mainly in their length and the 5'-flanking regions. GlNCED1 was evolutionary closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana NCED6 whereas GlNCED2 showed highest homology to tomato NCED1 and A. thaliana NCED3. The amounts of GlNCED2 transcript were below Northern detection in G. lutea. In contrast, GlNCED1 was specifically expressed at higher levels in developing flowers when petals start appearing. By genetic engineering of tobacco with coding regions of either gene under a constitutive promoter, their function was further analyzed. Although mRNA of both genes was detectable in the corresponding transgenic plants, a physiological effect was only found for GlNCED1 but not for GlNCED2. In germination experiments of GlNCED1 transgenic lines, delayed radicle formation and cotyledon appearance were observed. However, the transformants exhibited no improved tolerance against desiccation stress. In contrast to other plants with over-expressed NCEDs, prolonged delay of seed germination is the only abscisic-acid-related phenotypic effect in the GlNCED1 transgenic lines.

  1. Primary structure of human corticosteroid binding globulin, deduced from hepatic and pulmonary cDNAs, exhibits homology with serine protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, G.L.; Smith, C.L.; Goping, I.S.; Underhill, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs for corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) prepared from human liver and lung mRNAs. The results indicate that CBG mRNA is relatively abundant in the liver but is also present in the lung, testis, and kidney. The liver CBG cDNA contains an open reading frame for a 405-amino acid (M/sub r/ 45,149) polypeptide. This includes a predominantly hydrophobic, leader sequence of 22 residues that precedes the known NH/sub 2/-terminal sequence of human CBG. We, therefore, predict that the mature protein is composed of 383 amino acids and is a polypeptide of M/sub r/ 42,646. A second, in-frame, 72-base-pair cistron of unknown significance exists between the TAA termination codon for CBG and a possible polyadenylylation signal (AATAAA) located 16 nucleotides before the polyadenylylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of mature CBG contains two cysteine residues and consensus sequences for the attachment of six possible N-linked oligosaccharide chains. The sequences of the human lung and liver CBG cDNAs differ by only one nucleotide within the proposed leader sequence,and they attribute this to a point mutation. No sequence homology was found between CBG and other steroid binding proteins, but there is a remarkable similarity between the amino acid sequences of CBG and of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, and this extends to other members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) superfamily

  2. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs that code for Na(+)-channel-blocking toxins of the scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann.

    PubMed

    Becerril, B; Vázquez, A; García, C; Corona, M; Bolivar, F; Possani, L D

    1993-06-30

    With the purpose of studying the organization and characteristics of the genes that code for toxins present in the venom of the Mexican scorpion, Centruroides noxius Hoffmann (CnH), we prepared a lambda gt11 cDNA library from the venom glands. Using specific oligodeoxyribonucleotides (oligos) designed according to known amino acid (aa) sequences of CnH toxins (STox), we detected several positive clones, determined their nucleotide (nt) sequences and deduced their aa sequences. A comparative analysis of these sequences with previously reported STox revealed that CnH cDNAs code for a family of very similar STox. The cDNA coding for a known STox, II-10, was cloned. Additionally, three other complete (new) nt sequences were obtained for cDNAs encoding peptides similar to STox 1 from CnH or variants 2 and 3 from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing. Southern blot genomic DNA analysis showed a minimum size of approximately 600 bp as EcoRI fragments for elements of this family. PCR amplifications of CnH genomic DNA and hybridization of PCR products with specific probes indicated that the genomic structural regions that code for these genes do not contain introns, or at least not large introns.

  3. Differential role of APP and APLPs for neuromuscular synaptic morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Klevanski, Maja; Saar, Martina; Baumkötter, Frederik; Weyer, Sascha W; Kins, Stefan; Müller, Ulrike C

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of mouse models indicated that APP and the related APLPs are important for synapse formation and function. The synaptic role of APP is, however, complex due to partially overlapping functions within the gene family. APP/APLPs are proteolytically cleaved and have both adhesive and signaling properties. Mice lacking individual APP family members are viable, whereas APP/APLP2 and APLP1/APLP2 double knockout (DKO) mice die shortly after birth. Here, we analyzed the morphology of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of lethal APLP1/APLP2-DKO mice in comparison to lethal APP/APLP2-DKO mutants and viable single KO mice. We report that, surprisingly, the NMJ phenotype of APLP1/APLP2-DKO mice shows striking differences as compared to APP/APLP2-DKO mice. Unexpectedly, APLP1/APLP2-DKO mice exhibit normal endplate patterning and lack presynaptic nerve terminal sprouting. However, at the level of individual synapses we show that APLP1/APLP2-DKO mice exhibit reduced size of pre- and postsynaptic compartments and reduced colocalization. As APP/APLP2-DKO and APLP1/APLP2-DKO mice show similar penetrance of early postnatal lethality, this suggests that deficits at the level of individual synapses due to impaired synaptic apposition and/or deficits in transmitter release may cause lethality. Using an in vitro cell-adhesion assay, we observed that APP trans-dimerization is considerably less efficient than APLP2 trans-interaction. Thus, differences between APP/APLP2 and APP/APLP1 NMJ formation may be in part explained by differences in APP/APLP2 trans-dimerization properties. Collectively, our study further highlights the distinct and essential role of APLP2 at NMJ synapses that cannot be compensated by APP. PMID:24998676

  4. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Felzen, Marc; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the perspective of medical experts and end-users. Objective The study aims to assess the quality of current mobile apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and real incident support from expert as well as end-user perspective. Methods Two independent medical experts evaluated the medical content of CPR apps from the Google Play store and the Apple App store. The evaluation was based on pre-defined minimum medical content requirements according to current Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines. In a second phase, non-medical end-users tested usability and appeal of the apps that had at least met the minimum requirements. Usability was assessed with the System Usability Scale (SUS); appeal was measured with the self-developed ReactionDeck toolkit. Results Out of 61 apps, 46 were included in the experts’ evaluation. A consolidated list of 13 apps resulted for the following layperson evaluation. The interrater reliability was substantial (kappa=.61). Layperson end-users (n=14) had a high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation 1 [ICC1]=.83, P<.001, 95% CI 0.75-0.882 and ICC2=.79, P<.001, 95% CI 0.695-0.869). Their evaluation resulted in a list of 5 recommendable apps. Conclusions Although several apps for resuscitation training and real incident support are available, very few are designed according to current BLS guidelines and offer an acceptable level of usability and hedonic quality for laypersons. The results of this study are intended to optimize the development of CPR mobile apps. The app ranking supports the informed selection of mobile apps for training situations and CPR campaigns as well as for real incident support. PMID:24647361

  5. Geoscience data visualization and analysis using GeoMapApp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, Vicki; Carbotte, Suzanne; Ryan, William; Chan, Samantha

    2013-04-01

    Increased availability of geoscience data resources has resulted in new opportunities for developing visualization and analysis tools that not only promote data integration and synthesis, but also facilitate quantitative cross-disciplinary access to data. Interdisciplinary investigations, in particular, frequently require visualizations and quantitative access to specialized data resources across disciplines, which has historically required specialist knowledge of data formats and software tools. GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) is a free online data visualization and analysis tool that provides direct quantitative access to a wide variety of geoscience data for a broad international interdisciplinary user community. While GeoMapApp provides access to online data resources, it can also be packaged to work offline through the deployment of a small portable hard drive. This mode of operation can be particularly useful during field programs to provide functionality and direct access to data when a network connection is not possible. Hundreds of data sets from a variety of repositories are directly accessible in GeoMapApp, without the need for the user to understand the specifics of file formats or data reduction procedures. Available data include global and regional gridded data, images, as well as tabular and vector datasets. In addition to basic visualization and data discovery functionality, users are provided with simple tools for creating customized maps and visualizations and to quantitatively interrogate data. Specialized data portals with advanced functionality are also provided for power users to further analyze data resources and access underlying component datasets. Users may import and analyze their own geospatial datasets by loading local versions of geospatial data and can access content made available through Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Map Services (WMS). Once data are loaded in GeoMapApp, a variety options are provided to export data and/or 2D/3D

  6. Using the FAIMS Mobile App for field data recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballsun-Stanton, Brian; Klump, Jens; Ross, Shawn

    2016-04-01

    Multiple people creating data in the field poses a hard technical problem: our ``web 2.0'' environment presumes constant connectivity, data ``authority'' held by centralised servers, and sees mobile devices as tools for presentation rather than origination. A particular design challenge is the remoteness of the sampling locations, hundreds of kilometres away from network access. The alternative, however, is hand collection with a lengthy, error prone, and expensive digitisation process. This poster will present a field-tested open-source solution to field data recording. This solution, originally created by a community of archaeologists, needed to accommodate diverse recording methodologies. The community could not agree on standard vocabularies, workflows, attributes, or methodologies, but most agreed that at app to ``record data in the field'' was desirable. As a result, the app is generalised for field data collection; not only can it record a range of data types, but it is deeply customisable. The NeCTAR / ARC funded FAIMS Project, therefore, created an app which allows for arbitrary data collection in the field. In order to accomplish this ambitious goal, FAIMS relied heavily on OSS projects including: spatialite and gdal (for GIS support), sqlite (for a lightweight key-attribute-value datastore), Javarosa and Beanshell (for UI and scripting), Ruby, and Linux. Only by standing on the shoulders of giants, FAIMS was able to make a flexible and highly generalisable field data collection system that CSIRO geoscientists were able to customise to suit most of their completely unanticipated needs. While single-task apps (i.e. those commissioned by structural geologists to take strikes and dips) will excel in their domains, other geoscientists (palaeoecologists, palaeontologists, anyone taking samples) likely cannot afford to commission domain- and methodology-specific recording tools for their custom recording needs. FAIMS shows the utility of OSS software

  7. Infant Feeding Websites and Apps: A Systematic Assessment of Quality and Content

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen J; Russell, Catherine G; Elliott, Rosalind; Laws, Rachel; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet websites and smartphone apps have become a popular resource to guide parents in their children’s feeding and nutrition. Given the diverse range of websites and apps on infant feeding, the quality of information in these resources should be assessed to identify whether consumers have access to credible and reliable information. Objective This systematic analysis provides perspectives on the information available about infant feeding on websites and smartphone apps. Methods A systematic analysis was conducted to assess the quality, comprehensibility, suitability, and readability of websites and apps on infant feeding using a developed tool. Google and Bing were used to search for websites from Australia, while the App Store for iOS and Google Play for Android were used to search for apps. Specified key words including baby feeding, breast feeding, formula feeding and introducing solids were used to assess websites and apps addressing feeding advice. Criteria for assessing the accuracy of the content were developed using the Australian Infant Feeding Guidelines. Results A total of 600 websites and 2884 apps were screened, and 44 websites and 46 apps met the selection criteria and were analyzed. Most of the websites (26/44) and apps (43/46) were noncommercial, some websites (10/44) and 1 app were commercial and there were 8 government websites; 2 apps had university endorsement. The majority of the websites and apps were rated poor quality. There were two websites that had 100% coverage of information compared to those rated as fair or poor that had low coverage. Two-thirds of the websites (65%) and almost half of the apps (47%) had a readability level above the 8th grade level. Conclusions The findings of this unique analysis highlight the potential for website and app developers to merge user requirements with evidence-based content to ensure that information on infant feeding is of high quality. There are currently no apps available to

  8. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. Objective This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Methods Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Results In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over

  9. An Empirical Assessment of a Technology Acceptance Model for Apps in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Briz-Ponce, Laura; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    The evolution and the growth of mobile applications ("apps") in our society is a reality. This general trend is still upward and the app use has also penetrated the medical education community. However, there is a lot of unawareness of the students' and professionals' point of view about introducing "apps" within Medical School curriculum. The aim of this research is to design, implement and verify that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be employed to measure and explain the acceptance of mobile technology and "apps" within Medical Education. The methodology was based on a survey distributed to students and medical professionals from University of Salamanca. This model explains 46.7% of behavioral intention to use mobile devise or "apps" for learning and will help us to justify and understand the current situation of introducing "apps" into the Medical School curriculum. PMID:26411928

  10. Medical apps for smartphones: lack of evidence undermines quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Buijink, Arthur Willem Gerard; Visser, Benjamin Jelle; Marshall, Louise

    2013-06-01

    Increasing numbers of healthcare professionals are using smartphones and their associated applications (apps) in daily clinical care. While these medical apps hold great potential for improving clinical practice, little is known about the possible dangers associated with their use. Breaches of patient confidentiality, conflicts of interests and malfunctioning clinical decision-making apps could all negatively impact on patient care. We propose several strategies to enhance the development of evidence-based medical apps while retaining their open nature. The increasing use of medical apps calls for broader discussion across medicine's organising and accrediting bodies. The field of medical apps is currently one of the most dynamic in medicine, with real potential to change the way evidence-based healthcare is delivered in the future. Establishing appropriate regulatory procedures will enable this potential to be fulfilled, while at all times ensuring the safety of the patient.

  11. Roles of Smartphone App Use in Improving Social Capital and Reducing Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships among smartphone app use, social capital, and social isolation. It focused on two different smartphone apps--communication and social networking site (SNS) apps--and their effects on bonding and bridging social capital. Generational differences in smartphone use were also considered. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that individuals' use of communication apps was helpful for increasing social capital and that this effect of using communication apps was stronger among those of the millennial generation than among older users. Moreover, bonding and bridging social capital was found to reduce individuals' social isolation significantly. These results imply the notable role of smartphone apps in reducing social isolation and improving the personal lives of individuals.

  12. An Empirical Assessment of a Technology Acceptance Model for Apps in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Briz-Ponce, Laura; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    The evolution and the growth of mobile applications ("apps") in our society is a reality. This general trend is still upward and the app use has also penetrated the medical education community. However, there is a lot of unawareness of the students' and professionals' point of view about introducing "apps" within Medical School curriculum. The aim of this research is to design, implement and verify that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be employed to measure and explain the acceptance of mobile technology and "apps" within Medical Education. The methodology was based on a survey distributed to students and medical professionals from University of Salamanca. This model explains 46.7% of behavioral intention to use mobile devise or "apps" for learning and will help us to justify and understand the current situation of introducing "apps" into the Medical School curriculum.

  13. Gay apps for seeking sex partners in China: Implications for MSM sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H.; Best, John M.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Wei, Chongyi; Han, Larry; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-gay stigma and harsh local environments in many low and middle-income countries (LMIC) encourage men who have sex with men (MSM) partner-seeking mobile application (gay app) use. To investigate the sexual risk profiles of gay app users and guide future HIV prevention programs, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 1,342 MSM in China examining associations between gay app use and sexual behaviors, including HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing. Compared to non-app users, app users were more likely to be younger, better educated, “out” about their sexual orientation, and single. They were also more likely to report multiple recent sex partners and HIV testing, but there was no difference in condomless sex between the two groups. Future research among MSM in LMIC is needed to characterize gay app use and explore its potential for future public health interventions. PMID:25572834

  14. A genetic interaction between the APP and Dab1 genes influences brain development

    PubMed Central

    Pramatarova, Albéna; Chen, Kelian; Howell, Brian W.

    2008-01-01

    The Dab1 docking protein is required for the proper organization of brain laminae and for a signal transduction pathway initiated by Reelin binding to the ApoER2 and VLDLR receptors on the cell surface of neurons. Dab1 physically interacts with APP, however, it is not known whether the APP gene influences Dab1 function. Here we demonstrate a genetic interaction between Dab1 and APP. Dab1-hypomorphic animals have neuronal ectopias in the neocortex and reduced cerebellar volume, possibly a consequence of Purkinje cell misplacement. These phenotypes are exacerbated in transgenic animals overexpressing a mutant form of APP, APPswe, which is characterized by increased processing at the β-secretase site. The Dab1-hypomorphic phenotype is improved in the cerebellum of animals that are deficient for APP. Together this suggests that APP expression constrains the consequences of Dab1 activity during brain development. PMID:18029196

  15. Roles of Smartphone App Use in Improving Social Capital and Reducing Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships among smartphone app use, social capital, and social isolation. It focused on two different smartphone apps--communication and social networking site (SNS) apps--and their effects on bonding and bridging social capital. Generational differences in smartphone use were also considered. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that individuals' use of communication apps was helpful for increasing social capital and that this effect of using communication apps was stronger among those of the millennial generation than among older users. Moreover, bonding and bridging social capital was found to reduce individuals' social isolation significantly. These results imply the notable role of smartphone apps in reducing social isolation and improving the personal lives of individuals. PMID:26075923

  16. Geosocial-Networking App Usage Patterns of Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men: Survey Among Users of Grindr, A Mobile Dating App

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Geosocial-networking apps like Grindr have been used increasingly among men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet anonymous partners. These mobile dating apps employ global positioning system technology to facilitate connections with other users based on their current location. These new technologies have generated quicker and easier modes for men who have sex with men to meet potential partners based on attraction and physical proximity. Objective The aim of this study is to describe geosocial-networking app use and recent sexual behaviors of MSM in the Atlanta metropolitan statistical area. Methods Our sample was recruited from Grindr, the most commonly used of these mobile apps among MSM, using broadcast advertising. Advertisements were displayed over the course of a 72-hour period and participants were directed to a Web-based survey. Results In total, 604 men clicked through the advertisement, and 92 users completed the survey. One-third (38.0%) of the men reported using these mobile apps to meet new sexual partners, and one-fifth (18.5%) used them to “kill time” when bored. Men reporting currently being in a relationship were less likely to report using these mobile apps to meet other MSM to date or to find a boyfriend or romantic partner, but more likely to report using these mobile apps to meet other MSM to have sex, X 2 24=12.1, P=.016. Respondents had current accounts on 3.11 mobile apps (SD 1.84) on average, with Grindr being the most common (100%), followed by Scruff (52.5%), and Jack’d (45.7%). Most men were most active in the late night (40.2%), and on weekdays (64.1%). Each day, on average, men reported opening these mobile apps 8.38 times (SD 8.10) and spent 1.31 hours (SD 1.15) on these mobile apps. The age respondents began using these mobile apps was associated with the age at their first instance of insertive anal sex (r80=.527, P<.001) and receptive anal sex (r76=.527, P<.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that MSM use

  17. Cytochrome P450c17 (steroid 17. cap alpha. -hydroxylase/17,20 lyase): cloning of human adrenal and testis cDNAs indicates the same gene is expressed in both tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B.; Picado-Leonard, J.; Haniu, M.; Bienkowski, M.; Hall, P.F.; Shively, J.E.; Miller, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (steroid 17..cap alpha..-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. The authors sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence, a 128-fold degenerate 17-mer was synthesized and used to screen a porcine adrenal cDNA library. This yielded a 380-base cloned cDNA, which in turn was used to isolate several human adrenal cDNAs. The longest of these, lambda hac 17-2, is 1754 base pairs long and includes the full-length coding region, the complete 3'-untranslated region, and 41 bases of the 5'-untranslated region. This cDNA encodes a protein of 508 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 57,379.82. High-stringency screening of a human testicular cDNA library yielded a partial clone containing 1303 identical bases. RNA gel blots and nuclease S1-protection experiments confirm that the adrenal and testicular P450c17 mRNAs are indistinguishable. These data indicate that the testis possesses a P450c17 identical to that in the adrenal. The human amino acid sequence is 66.7% homologous to the corresponding regions of the porcine sequence, and the human cDNA and amino acid sequences are 80.1 and 70.3% homologous, respectively, to bovine adrenal P450c17 cDNA. Both comparisons indicate that a central region comprising amino acid residues 160-268 is hypervariable among these species of P450c17.

  18. Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-β peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-β. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

  19. Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-β peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-β. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:23827971

  20. Security Recommendations for mHealth Apps: Elaboration of a Developer's Guide.

    PubMed

    Morera, Enrique Pérez; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña; López-Coronado, Miguel; Arambarri, Jon

    2016-06-01

    Being the third fastest-growing app category behind games and utilities, mHealth apps are changing the healthcare model, as medicine today involves the data they compile and analyse, information known as Big Data. However, the majority of apps are lacking in security when gathering and dealing with the information, which becomes a serious problem. This article presents a guide regarding security solution, intended to be of great use for developers of mHealth apps. In August 2015 current mobile health apps were sought out in virtual stores such as Android Google Play, Apple iTunes App Store etc., in order to classify them in terms of usefulness. After this search, the most widespread weaknesses in the field of security in the development of these mobile apps were examined, based on sources such as the "OWASP Mobile Security Project, the initiative recently launched by the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), and other articles of scientific interest. An informative, elemental guide has been created for the development of mHealth apps. It includes information about elements of security and its implementation on different levels for all types of mobile health apps based on the data that each app manipulates, the associated calculated risk as a result of the likelihood of occurrence and the threat level resulting from its vulnerabilities - high level (apps for monitoring, diagnosis, treatment and care) from 6 ≤ 9, medium level (calculator, localizer and alarm) from 3 ≤ 6 and low level (informative and educational apps) from 0 ≤ 3. The guide aims to guarantee and facilitate security measures in the development of mobile health applications by programmers unconnected to the ITC and professional health areas. PMID:27147515

  1. Security Recommendations for mHealth Apps: Elaboration of a Developer's Guide.

    PubMed

    Morera, Enrique Pérez; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña; López-Coronado, Miguel; Arambarri, Jon

    2016-06-01

    Being the third fastest-growing app category behind games and utilities, mHealth apps are changing the healthcare model, as medicine today involves the data they compile and analyse, information known as Big Data. However, the majority of apps are lacking in security when gathering and dealing with the information, which becomes a serious problem. This article presents a guide regarding security solution, intended to be of great use for developers of mHealth apps. In August 2015 current mobile health apps were sought out in virtual stores such as Android Google Play, Apple iTunes App Store etc., in order to classify them in terms of usefulness. After this search, the most widespread weaknesses in the field of security in the development of these mobile apps were examined, based on sources such as the "OWASP Mobile Security Project, the initiative recently launched by the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), and other articles of scientific interest. An informative, elemental guide has been created for the development of mHealth apps. It includes information about elements of security and its implementation on different levels for all types of mobile health apps based on the data that each app manipulates, the associated calculated risk as a result of the likelihood of occurrence and the threat level resulting from its vulnerabilities - high level (apps for monitoring, diagnosis, treatment and care) from 6 ≤ 9, medium level (calculator, localizer and alarm) from 3 ≤ 6 and low level (informative and educational apps) from 0 ≤ 3. The guide aims to guarantee and facilitate security measures in the development of mobile health applications by programmers unconnected to the ITC and professional health areas.

  2. Modulation of human neural stem cell differentiation in Alzheimer (APP23) transgenic mice by phenserine.

    PubMed

    Marutle, Amelia; Ohmitsu, Masao; Nilbratt, Mats; Greig, Nigel H; Nordberg, Agneta; Sugaya, Kiminobu

    2007-07-24

    In a previous study, we found that human neural stem cells (HNSCs) exposed to high concentrations of secreted amyloid-precursor protein (sAPP) in vitro differentiated into mainly astrocytes, suggesting that pathological alterations in APP processing during neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) may prevent neuronal differentiation of HNSCs. Thus, successful neuroplacement therapy for AD may require regulating APP expression to favorable levels to enhance neuronal differentiation of HNSCs. Phenserine, a recently developed cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI), has been reported to reduce APP levels in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found reductions of APP and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the hippocampus of APP23 mice after 14 days treatment with (+)-phenserine (25 mg/kg) lacking ChEI activity. No significant change in APP gene expression was detected, suggesting that (+)-phenserine decreases APP levels and reactive astrocytes by posttranscription regulation. HNSCs transplanted into (+)-phenserine-treated APP23 mice followed by an additional 7 days of treatment with (+)-phenserine migrated and differentiated into neurons in the hippocampus and cortex after 6 weeks. Moreover, (+)-phenserine significantly increased neuronal differentiation of implanted HNSCs in hippocampal and cortical regions of APP23 mice and in the CA1 region of control mice. These results indicate that (+)-phenserine reduces APP protein in vivo and increases neuronal differentiation of HNSCs. Combination use of HNSC transplantation and treatment with drugs such as (+)-phenserine that modulate APP levels in the brain may be a useful tool for understanding mechanisms regulating stem cell migration and differentiation during neurodegenerative conditions in AD.

  3. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for hormones and/or receptors of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, thyroid hormone, and corticosteroid and the gender-, tissue-, and developmental-specific expression of their mRNA transcripts in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Filby, Amy L; Tyler, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid hormones, and corticosteroids play central roles in a wide range of body functions but, in fish, information on their interactions is limited. These axes of the endocrine system are also potential targets for disruption of signaling pathways by hormone-mimicking chemicals, but have received little study. Molecular approaches offer an effective way to help unravel these endocrine interactions but require the appropriate gene-specific assays to do so. In this study, the cDNAs for a suite of hormones and/or receptors involved in signaling for the effects of GH and IGF-I [GH, GH receptor (GHR), IGF-I, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR)], thyroid hormones [thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRalpha) and beta (TRbeta)], and corticosteroids [glucocorticoid receptor (GR)] were cloned from the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; fhm), and the tissue-, developmental-, and gender-related expression of their mRNA transcripts established. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy, we obtained full-length 1123-bp GH, 817-bp IGF-I, 1584-bp TRbeta, and 2571-bp GR cDNAs, coding for 210 amino acid (aa) GH, 161 aa IGF-I, 378 aa TRbeta, and 745 aa GR putative proteins, and partial-length 158-bp GHR, 811-bp IGF-IR, and 446-bp TRalpha cDNAs. Real-time PCR analyses revealed broad tissue expression for the target mRNAs; all targets were expressed in brain, pituitary, gill, liver, gonad, intestine, and muscle, with the exception of GH that was expressed only in the pituitary and gonad. Expression patterns in both juvenile and adult fhm were complex, with both temporal-, tissue-, and sex-specific characteristics. For example, hepatic expressions of GHR, IGF-I, and IGF-IR were far higher in males than in females, possibly reflecting the sex-related dimorphism in growth that occurs in this species, and TRalpha and TRbeta showed divergent expression patterns during development (where TRbeta predominated) and in adult tissues implying some

  4. Comparison of a User-Centered Design, Self-Management App to Existing mHealth Apps for Persons Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Jocelyn Patterson; Iribarren, Sarah J; Bakken, Suzanne; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Brown III, William

    2015-01-01

    Background There is preliminary evidence that mobile health (mHealth) apps are feasible, attractive, and an effective platform for the creation of self-management tools for persons living with HIV (PLWH). As a foundation for the current study, we conducted formative research using focus groups, participatory design sessions, and usability evaluation methods to inform the development of a health management app for PLWH. The formative research resulted in identification of the following functional requirements of a mHealth app for self-management: (1) communication between providers and peers, (2) medication reminders, (3) medication log, (4) lab reports, (5) pharmacy information, (6) nutrition and fitness, (7) resources (eg, social services, substance use, video testimonials), (8) settings, and (9) search function. Objective The purpose of this study was to conduct an ecological review of the existing apps for PLWH and to compare the functionality of existing apps with the app specifications identified in our formative work. Methods We searched two mobile app stores (Google Play and iTunes) and found a total of 5606 apps. We reviewed the apps, narrowed our search terms, and found a total of 112 apps. Of these, we excluded 97 (86.6%) apps that were either not in English (10/112, 8.9%), not HIV focused (32/112, 28.9%), or focused only on HIV prevention (2/112, 7.8%); targeted health care providers (26/112, 23.2%); provided information only on conference schedules and events (7/112, 6.3%), fundraisers (7/112, 6.3%), specific clinics (7/112, 6.3%), international or narrow local resources (3/112, 2.7%); or were identified in the first search but were no longer on the market at the next review (4/112, 3.6%). The 15 apps meeting inclusion criteria were then evaluated for inclusion of the nine functionalities identified in our earlier work. Results Of the 15 apps that we included in our final review, none had all of the functionalities that were identified in our formative

  5. Icariin Decreases the Expression of APP and BACE-1 and Reduces the β-amyloid Burden in an APP Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Shen, Cong; Chu, Jin; Zhang, Ruyi; Li, Yali; Li, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and pharmacological mechanisms of icariin, which is the main component in the traditional Chinese herb Epimedium, on β-amyloid (Aβ) production in an amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic (Tg) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: APPV717I Tg mice were randomly divided into a model group and icariin-treated (30 and 100 μmol/kg per day) groups. Learning-memory abilities were determined by Morris water maze and object recognition tests. Aβ contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunohistochemistry. Amyloid plaques were detected by Congo red staining and Bielschowsky silver staining. The levels of expression of APP and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1) were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Ten-month-old Tg mice showed obvious learning-memory impairments, and significant increases in Aβ contents, amyloid plaques, and APP and BACE-1 levels in the hippocampus. The intragastric administration of icariin to Tg mice for 6 months (from 4 to 10 months of age) improved the learning-memory abilities and significantly decreased the Aβ contents, amyloid plaques, and APP and BACE-1 levels in the hippocampus. Conclusion: Icariin reduced the Aβ burden and amyloid plaque deposition in the hippocampus of APP transgenic mice by decreasing the APP and BACE-1 levels. These novel findings suggest that icariin may be a promising treatment in patients with AD. PMID:24550686

  6. Guidelines and Recommendations for Developing Interactive eHealth Apps for Complex Messaging in Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Kayla Joanne; Maclean, Skye Tamara; Callegari, Emma Teresa; Garland, Suzanne Marie; Reavley, Nicola Jane; Varigos, George Andrew; Wark, John Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background The now ubiquitous catchphrase, “There’s an app for that,” rings true owing to the growing number of mobile phone apps. In excess of 97,000 eHealth apps are available in major app stores. Yet the effectiveness of these apps varies greatly. While a minority of apps are developed grounded in theory and in conjunction with health care experts, the vast majority are not. This is concerning given the Hippocratic notion of “do no harm.” There is currently no unified formal theory for developing interactive eHealth apps, and development is especially difficult when complex messaging is required, such as in health promotion and prevention. Objective This paper aims to provide insight into the creation of interactive eHealth apps for complex messaging, by leveraging the Safe-D case study, which involved complex messaging required to guide safe but sufficient UV exposure for vitamin D synthesis in users. We aim to create recommendations for developing interactive eHealth apps for complex messages based on the lessons learned during Safe-D app development. Methods For this case study we developed an Apple and Android app, both named Safe-D, to safely improve vitamin D status in young women through encouraging safe ultraviolet radiation exposure. The app was developed through participatory action research involving medical and human computer interaction researchers, subject matter expert clinicians, external developers, and target users. The recommendations for development were created from analysis of the development process. Results By working with clinicians and implementing disparate design examples from the literature, we developed the Safe-D app. From this development process, recommendations for developing interactive eHealth apps for complex messaging were created: (1) involve a multidisciplinary team in the development process, (2) manage complex messages to engage users, and (3) design for interactivity (tailor recommendations, remove barriers to

  7. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices. PMID:26165522

  8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  9. Visualization of APP and BACE-1 approximation in neurons: new insights into the amyloidogenic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Das, Utpal; Wang, Lina; Ganguly, Archan; Saikia, Junmi M.; Wagner, Steven L.; Koo, Edward H.; Roy, Subhojit

    2016-01-01

    Cleavage of APP (amyloid precursor protein) by BACE-1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1) is the rate-limiting step in amyloid-beta (Aβ) production and a neuropathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus physical approximation of this substrate-enzyme pair is a critical event with broad biological and therapeutic implications. Despite much research, neuronal locales of APP/BACE-1 convergence and APP-cleavage remain unclear. Here we report an optical assay – based on fluorescence complementation – to visualize in-cellulo APP/BACE-1 interactions as a simple on/off signal. Combined with other assays tracking the fate of internalized APP in hippocampal neurons, we found that APP/BACE-1 interact in both biosynthetic and endocytic compartments; particularly along recycling-microdomains such as dendritic spines and presynaptic boutons. In axons, APP and BACE-1 are co-transported, and also interact during transit. Finally, our assay reveals that the AD-protective “Icelandic” mutation greatly attenuates APP/BACE-1 interactions, suggesting a mechanistic basis for protection. Collectively, the data challenge canonical models and provide concrete insights into long-standing controversies in the field. PMID:26642089

  10. Visualizing APP and BACE-1 approximation in neurons yields insight into the amyloidogenic pathway.

    PubMed

    Das, Utpal; Wang, Lina; Ganguly, Archan; Saikia, Junmi M; Wagner, Steven L; Koo, Edward H; Roy, Subhojit

    2016-01-01

    Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by BACE-1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1) is the rate-limiting step in amyloid-β (Aβ) production and a neuropathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; thus, physical approximation of this substrate-enzyme pair is a crucial event with broad biological and therapeutic implications. Despite much research, neuronal locales of APP and BACE-1 convergence and APP cleavage remain unclear. Here we report an optical assay, based on fluorescence complementation, for visualizing in cellulo APP-BACE-1 interactions as a simple on/off signal. Combining this with other assays tracking the fate of internalized APP in hippocampal neurons, we found that APP and BACE-1 interacted in both biosynthetic and endocytic compartments, particularly along recycling microdomains such as dendritic spines and presynaptic boutons. In axons, APP and BACE-1 were cotransported, and they also interacted during transit. Finally, our assay revealed that the Alzheimer's disease-protective 'Icelandic' mutation greatly attenuates APP-BACE-1 interactions, suggesting a mechanistic basis for protection. Collectively, the data challenge canonical models and provide concrete insights into long-standing controversies in the field. PMID:26642089

  11. mHealth Quality: A Process to Seal the Qualified Mobile Health Apps.

    PubMed

    Yasini, Mobin; Beranger, Jérôme; Desmarais, Pierre; Perez, Lucas; Marchand, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    A large number of mobile health applications (apps) are currently available with a variety of functionalities. The user ratings in the app stores seem not to be reliable to determine the quality of the apps. The traditional methods of evaluation are not suitable for fast paced nature of mobile technology. In this study, we propose a collaborative multidimensional scale to assess the quality of mHealth apps. During our process, the app quality is assessed in various aspects including medical reliability, legal consistency, ethical consistency, usability aspects, personal data privacy and IT security. A hypothetico-deductive approach was used in various working groups to define the audit criteria based on the various use cases that an app could provide. These criteria were then implemented into a web based self-administered questionnaires and the generation of automatic reports were considered. This method is on the one hand specific to each app because it allows to assess each health app according to its offered functionalities. On the other hand, this method is automatic, transferable to all apps and adapted to the dynamic nature of mobile technology. PMID:27577372

  12. Putting education in "educational" apps: lessons from the science of learning.

    PubMed

    Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Zosh, Jennifer M; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gray, James H; Robb, Michael B; Kaufman, Jordy

    2015-05-01

    Children are in the midst of a vast, unplanned experiment, surrounded by digital technologies that were not available but 5 years ago. At the apex of this boom is the introduction of applications ("apps") for tablets and smartphones. However, there is simply not the time, money, or resources available to evaluate each app as it enters the market. Thus, "educational" apps-the number of which, as of January 2015, stood at 80,000 in Apple's App Store (Apple, 2015)-are largely unregulated and untested. This article offers a way to define the potential educational impact of current and future apps. We build upon decades of work on the Science of Learning, which has examined how children learn best. From this work, we abstract a set of principles for two ultimate goals. First, we aim to guide researchers, educators, and designers in evidence-based app development. Second, by creating an evidence-based guide, we hope to set a new standard for evaluating and selecting the most effective existing children's apps. In short, we will show how the design and use of educational apps aligns with known processes of children's learning and development and offer a framework that can be used by parents and designers alike. Apps designed to promote active, engaged, meaningful, and socially interactive learning-four "pillars" of learning-within the context of a supported learning goal are considered educational. PMID:25985468

  13. Popular Mobile Phone Apps for Diet and Weight Loss: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roehrer, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Background A review of the literature has revealed that the rates of overweight and obesity have been increasing in Australia over the last two decades and that wellness mobile phone apps play a significant role in monitoring and managing individuals’ weight. Although mobile phone app markets (iTunes and Google Play) list thousands of mobile phone health apps, it is not always clear whether those apps are supported by credible sources. Likewise, despite the prevailing use of mobile phone apps to aid with weight management, the usability features of these apps are not well characterized. Objective The research explored how usability taxonomy could inform the popularity of downloaded, socially focused wellness mobile phone apps, in particular weight loss and diet apps. The aim of the study was to investigate the Australian mobile phone app stores (iTunes and Google Play) in order to examine the usability features of the most popular (ie, most downloaded) wellness apps. Methods The design of this study comprises 3 main stages: stage 1, identifying apps; stage 2, development of weight loss and diet evaluation framework; and stage 3, application of the evaluation framework. Each stage includes specific data collection, analysis tools, and techniques. Results The study has resulted in the development of a justified evaluation framework for weight loss and diet mobile phone apps. Applying the evaluation framework to the identified apps has shown that the most downloaded iTunes and Google Play apps are not necessarily the most usable or effective. In addition, the research found that search algorithms for iTunes and Google Play are biased toward apps’ titles and keywords that do not accurately define the real functionality of the app. Moreover, the study has also analyzed the apps’ user reviews, which served as justification for the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions The analysis has shown that ease of use, reminder, bar code scanning, motivation, usable for

  14. Correlation of statin-increased platelet APP ratios and reduced blood lipids in AD patients.

    PubMed

    Baskin, F; Rosenberg, R N; Fang, X; Hynan, L S; Moore, C B; Weiner, M; Vega, G L

    2003-06-24

    Platelets, like neurons, contain 120- to 130- and 110-kd amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). Their ratio is reduced in AD, further reductions correlating with reduced Mini-Mental Status Examination scores [r(11) = 0.69, p < 0.05]. As statins alter APP processing, platelet APPs were analyzed in patients with AD given anticholesterol drugs for 6 weeks. APP ratios increased [t(37) = -3.888, p = 0.0004], proportionally with reduced cholesterol [r(36) = -0.45, p = 0.005]. Longer trials may reveal slowed cognitive loss, validating this index. PMID:12821755

  15. DISC1 regulates trafficking and processing of APP and Aβ generation.

    PubMed

    Shahani, N; Seshadri, S; Jaaro-Peled, H; Ishizuka, K; Hirota-Tsuyada, Y; Wang, Q; Koga, M; Sedlak, T W; Korth, C; Brandon, N J; Kamiya, A; Subramaniam, S; Tomoda, T; Sawa, A

    2015-07-01

    We report the novel regulation of proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by DISC1, a major risk factor for psychiatric illnesses, such as depression and schizophrenia. RNAi knockdown of DISC1 in mature primary cortical neurons led to a significant increase in the levels of intracellular α-C-terminal fragment of APP (APP-CTFα) and the corresponding N-terminal-secreted ectodomain product sAPPα. DISC1 knockdown also elicited a significant decrease in the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ)42 and Aβ40. These aberrant proteolytic events were successfully rescued by co-expression of wild-type DISC1, but not by mutant DISC1 lacking the amino acids required for the interaction with APP, suggesting that APP-DISC1 protein interactions are crucial for the regulation of the C-terminal proteolysis. In a genetically engineered model in which a major full-length DISC1 isoform is depleted, consistent changes in APP processing were seen: an increase in APP-CTFα and decrease in Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels. Finally, we found that knockdown of DISC1 increased the expression of APP at the cell surface and decreased its internalization. The presented DISC1 mechanism of APP proteolytic processing and Aβ peptide generation, which is central to Alzheimer's disease pathology, suggests a novel interface between neurological and psychiatric conditions.

  16. Co-Designing Mobile Apps to Assist in Clinical Nursing Education: A Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Andrews, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Mobile applications (apps) to train health professionals is gaining momentum as the benefits of mobile learning (mLearning) are becoming apparent in complex clinical environments. However, most educational apps are generic, off-the-shelf pieces of software that do not take into consideration the unique needs of nursing students. The proposed study will apply a user-centred design process to create a tailored mobile app for nursing students to learn and apply clinical skills in practice. The app will be piloted and evaluated to understand how nursing students use mobile technology in clinical settings to support their learning and educational needs. PMID:27332433

  17. Putting education in "educational" apps: lessons from the science of learning.

    PubMed

    Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Zosh, Jennifer M; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gray, James H; Robb, Michael B; Kaufman, Jordy

    2015-05-01

    Children are in the midst of a vast, unplanned experiment, surrounded by digital technologies that were not available but 5 years ago. At the apex of this boom is the introduction of applications ("apps") for tablets and smartphones. However, there is simply not the time, money, or resources available to evaluate each app as it enters the market. Thus, "educational" apps-the number of which, as of January 2015, stood at 80,000 in Apple's App Store (Apple, 2015)-are largely unregulated and untested. This article offers a way to define the potential educational impact of current and future apps. We build upon decades of work on the Science of Learning, which has examined how children learn best. From this work, we abstract a set of principles for two ultimate goals. First, we aim to guide researchers, educators, and designers in evidence-based app development. Second, by creating an evidence-based guide, we hope to set a new standard for evaluating and selecting the most effective existing children's apps. In short, we will show how the design and use of educational apps aligns with known processes of children's learning and development and offer a framework that can be used by parents and designers alike. Apps designed to promote active, engaged, meaningful, and socially interactive learning-four "pillars" of learning-within the context of a supported learning goal are considered educational.

  18. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species. PMID:25843102

  19. Aerosol physical properties in the stratosphere (APPS) radiometer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Woodin, E. A.; Anderson, T. J.; Magee, R. J.; Karthas, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The measurement concepts and radiometer design developed to obtain earth-limb spectral radiance measurements for the Aerosol Physical Properties in the Stratosphere (APPS) measurement program are presented. The measurements made by a radiometer of this design can be inverted to yield vertical profiles of Rayleigh scatterers, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, aerosol extinction, and aerosol physical properties, including a Junge size-distribution parameter, and a real and imaginary index of refraction. The radiometer design provides the capacity for remote sensing of stratospheric constituents from space on platforms such as the space shuttle and satellites, and therefore provides for global measurements on a daily basis.

  20. Arsenic affects expression and processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in primary neuronal cells overexpressing the Swedish mutation of human APP.

    PubMed

    Zarazúa, Sergio; Bürger, Susanne; Delgado, Juan M; Jiménez-Capdeville, Maria E; Schliebs, Reinhard

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated water and soil, mining waste, glass manufacture, select agrochemicals, as well as sea food, affects millions of people world wide. Recently, an involvement of arsenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been hypothesized (Gong and O'Bryant, 2010). The present study stresses the hypothesis whether sodium arsenite, and its main metabolite, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), may affect expression and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), using the cholinergic cell line SN56.B5.G4 and primary neuronal cells overexpressing the Swedish mutation of APP, as experimental approaches. Exposure of cholinergic SN56.B5.G4 cells with either sodium arsenite or DMA decreased cell viability in a concentration- and exposure-time dependent manner, and affected the activities of the cholinergic enzymes acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase. Both sodium arsenite and DMA exposure of SN56.B5.G4 cells resulted in enhanced level of APP, and sAPP in the membrane and cytosolic fractions, respectively. To reveal any effect of arsenic on APP processing, the amounts of APP cleavage products, sAPPβ, and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, released into the culture medium of primary neuronal cells derived from transgenic Tg2576 mice, were assessed by ELISA. Following exposure of neuronal cells by sodium arsenite for 12h, the membrane-bound APP level was enhanced, the amount of sAPPβ released into the culture medium was slightly higher, while the levels of Aβ peptides in the culture medium were considerably lower as compared to that assayed in the absence of any drug. The sodium arsenite-induced reduction of Aβ formation suggests an inhibition of the APP γ-cleavage step by arsenite. In contrast, DMA exposure of neuronal cells considerably increased formation of Aβ and sAPPβ, accompanied by enhanced membrane APP level. The DMA-induced changes in APP processing may be the result of the enhanced APP expression. Alternatively, increased Aβ production

  1. To Use or Not? Evaluating ASPECTS of Smartphone Apps and Mobile Technology for Clinical Care in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Torous, John B; Chan, Steven R; Yellowlees, Peter M; Boland, Robert

    2016-06-01

    In this commentary, we discuss smartphone apps for psychiatry and the lack of resources to assist clinicians in evaluating the utility, safety, and efficacy of apps. Evaluating an app requires new considerations that are beyond those employed in evaluating a medication or typical clinical intervention. Based on our software engineering, informatics, and clinical knowledge and experiences, we propose an evaluation framework, "ASPECTS," to spark discussion about apps and aid clinicians in determining whether an app is Actionable, Secure, Professional, Evidence-based, Customizable, and TranSparent. Clinicians who use the ASPECTS guide will be more informed and able to make more thorough evaluations of apps. PMID:27136691

  2. The Most Popular Smartphone Apps for Weight Loss: A Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Janet E

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in mobile phone technology have led to the development of smartphones with the capability to run apps. The availability of a plethora of health- and fitness-related smartphone apps has the potential, both on a clinical and public health level, to facilitate healthy behavior change and weight management. However, current top-rated apps in this area have not been extensively evaluated in terms of scientific quality and behavioral theory evidence base. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the most popular dietary weight-loss smartphone apps on the commercial market using comprehensive quality assessment criteria, and to quantify the behavior change techniques (BCTs) incorporated. Methods The top 200-rated Health & Fitness category apps from the free and paid sections of Google Play and iTunes App Store in Australia (n=800) were screened in August 2014. To be included in further analysis, an app had to focus on weight management, include a facility to record diet intake (self-monitoring), and be in English. One researcher downloaded and used the eligible apps thoroughly for 5 days and assessed the apps against quality assessment criteria which included the following domains: accountability, scientific coverage and content accuracy of information relevant to weight management, technology-enhanced features, usability, and incorporation of BCTs. For inter-rater reliability purposes, a second assessor provided ratings on 30% of the apps. The accuracy of app energy intake calculations was further investigated by comparison with results from a 3-day weighed food record (WFR). Results Across the eligible apps reviewed (n=28), only 1 app (4%) received full marks for accountability. Overall, apps included an average of 5.1 (SD 2.3) out of 14 technology-enhanced features, and received a mean score of 13.5 (SD 3.7) out of 20 for usability. The majority of apps provided estimated energy requirements (24/28, 86%) and used a food

  3. Isolation of cDNAs partially encoding four Xenopus Wnt-1/int-1-related proteins and characterization of their transient expression during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Christian, J L; Gavin, B J; McMahon, A P; Moon, R T

    1991-02-01

    To begin to study the functions of the Wnt-1/int-1 gene family during vertebrate development, we have isolated four Xenopus laevis cDNAs encoding the partial sequence of proteins homologous to Wnt-1/int-1. Xwnt-3, Xwnt-4, Xwnt-5A, and Xwnt-8 demonstrate between 35 and 50% amino acid identity with X. laevis Wnt-1/int-1 and most cysteine residues are conserved. Xwnt-4 and Xwnt-3 transcripts are detected only during the neurula through tadpole stages of development. Expression of Xwnt-8 is observable during gastrulation, declines during neurulation, and is undetectable by the tadpole stage of development. Xwnt-5A transcripts are most prevalent in RNA from oocytes and tadpoles, although low level expression is detected at all stages examined. The temporal changes in expression of these transcripts imply a unique role for each Xwnt during embryogenesis.

  4. Rescue of a Recombinant Machupo Virus from Cloned cDNAs and In Vivo Characterization in Interferon (αβ/γ) Receptor Double Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Smith, Jennifer; Miller, Milagros; Smith, Jeanon; Yun, Nadezhda; Poussard, Allison; Grant, Ashley; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Walker, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Machupo virus (MACV) is the etiological agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), a reemerging and neglected tropical disease associated with high mortality. The prototypical strain of MACV, Carvallo, was isolated from a human patient in 1963, but minimal in vitro and in vivo characterization has been reported. To this end, we utilized reverse genetics to rescue a pathogenic MACV from cloned cDNAs. The recombinant MACV (rMACV) had in vitro growth properties similar to those of the parental MACV. Both viruses caused similar disease development in alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptor knockout mice, including neurological disease development and high mortality. In addition, we have identified a novel murine model with mortality and neurological disease similar to BHF disease reported in humans and nonhuman primates. PMID:24284323

  5. Rescue of a recombinant Machupo virus from cloned cDNAs and in vivo characterization in interferon (αβ/γ) receptor double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michael; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Smith, Jennifer; Miller, Milagros; Smith, Jeanon; Yun, Nadezhda; Poussard, Allison; Grant, Ashley; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Walker, Aida; Paessler, Slobodan

    2014-02-01

    Machupo virus (MACV) is the etiological agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), a reemerging and neglected tropical disease associated with high mortality. The prototypical strain of MACV, Carvallo, was isolated from a human patient in 1963, but minimal in vitro and in vivo characterization has been reported. To this end, we utilized reverse genetics to rescue a pathogenic MACV from cloned cDNAs. The recombinant MACV (rMACV) had in vitro growth properties similar to those of the parental MACV. Both viruses caused similar disease development in alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptor knockout mice, including neurological disease development and high mortality. In addition, we have identified a novel murine model with mortality and neurological disease similar to BHF disease reported in humans and nonhuman primates.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the cDNAs Encoding Toxin-Like Peptides from the Venom Glands of Tarantula Grammostola rosea

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ono, Seigo; Kubo, Tai

    2012-01-01

    Tarantula venom glands produce a large variety of bioactive peptides. Here we present the identification of venom components obtained by sequencing clones isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the venom glands of the Chilean common tarantula, Grammostola rosea. The cDNA sequences of about 1500 clones out of 4000 clones were analyzed after selection using several criteria. Forty-eight novel toxin-like peptides (GTx1 to GTx7, and GTx-TCTP and GTx-CRISP) were predicted from the nucleotide sequences. Among these peptides, twenty-four toxins are ICK motif peptides, eleven peptides are MIT1-like peptides, and seven are ESTX-like peptides. Peptides similar to JZTX-64, aptotoxin, CRISP, or TCTP are also obtained. GTx3 series possess a cysteine framework that is conserved among vertebrate MIT1, Bv8, prokineticins, and invertebrate astakines. GTx-CRISP is the first CRISP-like protein identified from the arthropod venom. Real-time PCR revealed that the transcripts for TCTP-like peptide are expressed in both the pereopodal muscle and the venom gland. Furthermore, a unique peptide GTx7-1, whose signal and prepro sequences are essentially identical to those of HaTx1, was obtained. PMID:22500178

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs for the gamma- and epsilon-subunits of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase from the sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Morikami, A; Ehara, G; Yuuki, K; Nakamura, K

    1993-08-15

    Mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthases purified from dicotyledonous plants contain six different subunits named alpha, beta, gamma, delta, delta', and epsilon. Our previous N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses indicated that the gamma- and epsilon-subunits of the sweet potato mitochondrial F1 correspond to the gamma- and epsilon-subunits of animal mitochondrial F1, respectively (Kimura, T., Nakamura, K., Kajiura, H., Hattori, H., Nelson, N., and Asahi, T. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 3183-3186). A cDNA clone for the gamma-subunit of the sweet potato mitochondrial F1 was identified by oligonucleotide hybridization selection of a cDNA library, and a cDNA clone for the epsilon-subunit was isolated by reverse polymerase chain reaction and hybridization selection of a cDNA library by the polymerase chain reaction product. The 1.4-kilobase long cDNA for the gamma-subunit contained a 978-base pair open reading frame coding for a precursor for the gamma-subunit. The mature gamma-subunit is composed of 281 amino acids, and its sequence showed significantly higher similarities with the gamma-subunit of animal mitochondrial F1 and bacterial F1 compared with the gamma-subunit of chloroplast CF1 from plants. The precursor for the gamma-subunit contained N-terminal presequence of 45 amino acid residues. By contrast, the 0.46-kilobase long cDNA for the epsilon-subunit contained a coding sequence of 207-base pairs for the mature epsilon-subunit of 69 amino acid residues that is preceded by an ATG codon suggesting that the epsilon-subunit is synthesized without the cleavable presequence for mitochondrial import. The amino acid sequence of the epsilon-subunit of sweet potato mitochondrial F1 showed similarities of 25 and 36% amino acid positional identity with the epsilon-subunits of mitochondrial F1 from yeast and bovine, respectively.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of Red Clover Polyphenol Oxidase cDNAs and Expression of Active Protein in Escherichia coli and Transgenic Alfalfa1[w

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Michael L.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Thoma, Sharon L.; Samac, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves contain high levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and o-diphenol substrates. Wounding of leaves during harvest and ensiling results in browning of leaf tissues from activity of PPO on the o-diphenols. In association with browning, leaf proteins remain undegraded during ensiling, presumably due to PPO-generated o-quinone inhibition of leaf proteases. We cloned three red clover PPO cDNAs, PPO1, PPO2, and PPO3, from a leaf cDNA library. Sequence comparisons among the three red clover PPO clones indicated they are 87% to 90% identical at the nucleotide level (80%–83% amino acid identity). All three encode proteins predicted to localize to the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. RNA-blotting and immunoblotting experiments indicated PPO1 is expressed primarily in young leaves, PPO2 in flowers and petioles, and PPO3 in leaves and possibly flowers. We expressed mature PPO1 in Escherichia coli. A portion of the expressed protein was soluble and functional in an assay for PPO activity. We also expressed the red clover PPO cDNAs under the control of a constitutive promoter in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The expressed red clover PPO proteins were active in alfalfa extracts as evidenced by o-diphenol-dependant extract browning and quantitative assays of PPO activity. Proteolysis in leaf extracts of alfalfa expressing red clover PPO1 was dramatically reduced in the presence of an o-diphenol compared to controls. Transgenic alfalfa expressing red clover PPO should prove an excellent model system to further characterize the red clover PPO enzymes and PPO-mediated inhibition of postharvest proteolysis in forage plants. PMID:15466227

  9. Smoking Cessation Apps for Smartphones: Content Analysis With the Self-Determination Theory

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ghee-Young; Park, Dong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphones are increasingly receiving attention from public health scholars and practitioners as a means to assist individuals’ health management. A number of smartphone apps for smoking cessation are also available; however, little effort has been made to evaluate the content and functions of these apps employing a theoretical framework. Objective The present study aims to analyze and evaluate the contents of smoking cessation apps available in South Korea employing the self-determination theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework for analysis. This study analyzes the extent to which smoking cessation apps have features that satisfy the basic needs identified in the SDT, which stimulate autonomous motivation. The type of motivational goal content manifested in the apps and how the goal content was framed are also explored. By assessing the features of smoking cessation apps based on the SDT, this study aims to offer direction for improvement for these apps. Methods Out of 309 apps identified from the iTunes store and Google Play (excluding 27 duplications), 175 apps were randomly drawn and analyzed. The coding scheme was drafted by the authors based on the SDT and gain/loss framing theory and was further finely tuned through the process of coder training and by establishing intercoder reliability. Once the intercoder reliability was established, the coders divided up the rest of the sample and coded them independently. Results The analysis revealed that most apps (94.3%, 165/175) had at least one feature that tapped at least 1 of the 3 basic needs. Only 18 of 175 apps (10.3%) addressed all 3 basic needs. For goal content, money (53.7%, 94/175) showed the highest frequency, followed by health (32.0%, 56/175), time (7.4%, 13/175), and appearance (1.1%, 2/175), suggesting that extrinsic goals are more dominantly presented in smoking cessation apps. For the framing of goal content, gain framing appeared more frequently (41.7%, 73/175). Conclusions The

  10. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    PubMed

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  11. Glial expression of the {beta}-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in global ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Banati, R.B.; Gehrmann, J.; Kreutzberg, G.W. ||

    1995-07-01

    The {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) bears characteristics of an acute-phase protein and therefore is likely to be involved in the glial response to brain injury. In the brain, APP is rapidly synthesized by activated glial cells in response to comparatively mild neuronal lesions, e.g., a remote peripheral nerve injury. Perfusion deficits in the brain result largely in neuronal necrosis and are a common condition in elderly patients. This neuronal necrosis is accompanied by a pronounced reaction of astrocytes and microglia, which can also be observed in animal models. We have therefore studied in the rat, immunocytochemically, the induction of APP after 30 min of global ischemia caused by four-vessel occlusion. The postischemic brain injuries were examined at survival times from 12 h to 7 days. From day 3 onward, APP immunoreactivity was strongly induced in the CA{sub 1} and CA{sub 4} regions of the rat dorsal hippocampus as well as in the dorsolateral striatum. In these areas, the majority of APP-immunoreactive cells were reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes, as shown by double-immunofluorescence labeling for GFAP and APP. Additionally, small ramified cells, most likely activated microglia, expressed APP immunoreactivity. In contrast, in the parietal cortex, APP immunoreactivity occurred focally in clusters of activated microglia rather than in astrocytes, as demonstrated by double-immunofluorescence labeling for APP and the microglia-binding lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B{sub 4}. In conclusion, following global ischemia, APP is induced in reactive glial cells with spatial differences in the distribution pattern of APP induction in actrocytes and microglia. 51 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  13. Can you build an iPhone app without writing a single line of code?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

    2011-12-01

    At the last ESIP summer meeting, a study was conducted to explore different commercial tools now available that allow one to create a mobile app without writing a single line of code. The proposed research comprised of two components. First, systematically evaluate different tools to create mobile apps along the dimensions of features and price. Second, create an iPhone app prototype for the ESIP community using some of these tools. The initial assessment classified the currently available tools to create mobile app tools into two categories. The tools that fall under the first category require no programming, but the content for the mobile apps are fed to it either via a web site RSS feed or entered manually. Consequently, these tools only support limited user interactivity. These tools follow the business model of website hosting services. This business model offers a set of templates to the end users with limited customization features to create their content in order to publish to websites. The second category of tools requires programming, but the code can be written in popular languages such as Javascript (compatible with most mobile platforms) rather than mobile app specific languages. For the second component of the study, two ESIP iPhone app prototypes were created. The first prototype required no programming and used the AppMakr tool. Objective C was used to create the second iPhone prototype from scratch and the source code for this prototype is available on the ESIP website. The study concluded that existing tools do make it easy to create a simple mobile app especially if one already has a well designed website. The associated costs are adequate but not cheap. However, if the mobile app has requirements that require interactivity and specialized customization then one needs to work with a mobile app developer.

  14. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone.

    PubMed

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Mueller, Benjamin F; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network. PMID:27092780

  15. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Benjamin F.; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network. PMID:27092780

  16. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor improves long-term memory in APP/PS1 transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease as well as in wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Susanna; Lindholm, Päivi; Galli, Emilia; Lahtinen, Hanna-Maija; Koivisto, Henna; Hämäläinen, Elina; Saarma, Mart; Tanila, Heikki

    2015-09-15

    Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects and repairs dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease, which motivated us to investigate its therapeutic effect in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We employed an established APP/PS1 mouse model of AD and gave intrahippocampal injections of CDNF protein or CDNF transgene in an AAV2 viral vector to 1-year-old animals. We performed a behavioral test battery 2 weeks after the injections and collected tissue samples after the 3-week test period. Intrahippocampal CDNF-therapy improved long-term memory in both APP/PS1 mice and wild-type controls, but did not affect spontaneous exploration, object neophobia or early stages of spatial learning. The memory improvement was not associated with decreased brain amyloid load or enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. Intracranial CDNF treatment has beneficial effects on long-term memory and is well tolerated. The CDNF molecular mechanisms of action on memory await further studies.

  17. Earth Science Mobile App Development for Non-Programmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, D.; Crecelius, S.; Lewis, P.; Chambers, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    A number of cloud based visual development tools have emerged that provide methods for developing mobile applications quickly and without previous programming experience. The MY NASA DATA (MND) team would like to begin a discussion on how we can best leverage current mobile app technologies and available Earth science datasets. The MY NASA DATA team is developing an approach based on two main ideas. The first is to teach our constituents how to create mobile applications that interact with NASA datasets; the second is to provide web services or Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that create sources of data that educators, students and scientists can use in their own mobile app development. This framework allows data providers to foster mobile application development and interaction while not becoming a software clearing house. MY NASA DATA's research has included meetings with local data providers, educators, libraries and individuals. A high level of interest has been identified from initial discussions and interviews. This overt interest combined with the marked popularity of mobile applications in our societies has created a new channel for outreach and communications with and between the science and educational communities.

  18. THELMA: a mobile app for crowdsourcing environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.; Hintz, Christopher J.; Almomen, Faris; Adounvo, Christian; D'Amato, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The collection of environmental light pollution data related to sea turtle nesting sites is a laborious and time consuming effort entailing the use of several pieces of measurement equipment, their transportation and calibration, the manual logging of results in the field, and subsequent transfer of the data to a computer for post-collection analysis. Serendipitously, the current generation of mobile smart phones (e.g., iPhone® 5) contains the requisite measurement capability, namely location data in aided GPS coordinates, magnetic compass heading, and elevation at the time an image is taken, image parameter data, and the image itself. The Turtle Habitat Environmental Light Measurement App (THELMA) is a mobile phone app whose graphical user interface (GUI) guides an untrained user through the image acquisition process in order to capture 360° of images with pointing guidance. It subsequently uploads the user-tagged images, all of the associated image parameters, and position, azimuth, elevation metadata to a central internet repository. Provision is also made for the capture of calibration images and the review of images before upload. THELMA allows for inexpensive, highly-efficient, worldwide crowdsourcing of calibratable beachfront lighting/light pollution data collected by untrained volunteers. This data can be later processed, analyzed, and used by scientists conducting sea turtle conservation in order to identify beach locations with hazardous levels of light pollution that may alter sea turtle behavior and necessitate human intervention after hatchling emergence.

  19. Increased exploratory activity of APP23 mice in a novel environment is reversed by siRNA.

    PubMed

    Senechal, Yann; Prut, Laetitia; Kelly, Peter H; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Natt, Francois; Hoyer, Daniel; Wiessner, Christoph; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2008-12-01

    Genetic abnormalities in amyloid precursor protein (APP) are associated with Down's syndrome and familial Alzheimer's disease where hallmark plaques contain A beta peptides derived from APP. Both APP and its derivatives are implicated in neurodegenerative processes and may play important physiological and pathophysiological roles in synaptic function. Here, we show that young APP23 transgenic mice overexpressing human APP with the Swedish double mutation display altered novelty seeking behavior before the age of plaque onset. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against APP, we investigate the direct contribution of APP and its derivatives to this behavioral deficit. After validating siRNAs targeting human APP in vitro, siRNAs were infused directly into the brain of APP23 mice for 2 weeks. Behavioral analysis shows that infusion of siRNA targeted against APP completely reverses increased exploratory activity in APP23 mice. Collectively, these data suggest that excessive APP and/or its derivatives, causes a hyperactive phenotype in APP23 mice when placed in a novel environment, which is fully reversible and not linked to plaque deposits.

  20. Mobile Phone Apps for the Prevention of Unintended Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun, Victoria; Muessig, Kathryn E

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 50% of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, meaning that the pregnancy is mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted. Unintended pregnancy increases health risks for mother and child, leads to high economic costs for society, and increases social disparities. Mobile phone ownership is rapidly increasing, providing opportunities to reach at-risk populations with reproductive health information and tailored unintended pregnancy prevention interventions through mobile phone apps. However, apps that offer support for unintended pregnancy prevention remain unevaluated. Objective To identify, describe, and evaluate mobile phone apps that purport to help users prevent unintended pregnancy. Methods We conducted an extensive search of the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for apps that explicitly included or advertised pregnancy prevention or decision-making support in the context of fertility information/tracking, birth control reminders, contraceptive information, pregnancy decision-making, abortion information or counseling, sexual communication/negotiation, and pregnancy tests. We excluded apps that targeted medical professionals or that cost more than US $1.99. Eligible apps were downloaded and categorized by primary purpose. Data extraction was performed on a minimum of 143 attributes in 3 domains: (1) pregnancy prevention best practices, (2) contraceptive methods and clinical services, and (3) user interface. Apps were assigned points for their inclusion of features overall and for pregnancy prevention best practices and contraceptive information. Results Our search identified 6805 app descriptions in iTunes and Google Play. Of these, 218 unique apps met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Apps were grouped into 9 categories: fertility trackers (n=72), centers and resources (n=38), birth control reminders (n=35), general sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information (n=17), SRH information targeted specifically to young

  1. Distributed Hydrologic Modeling Apps for Decision Support in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, N. R.; Latu, K.; Christiensen, S.; Jones, N.; Nelson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in computation resources and greater availability of water resources data represent an untapped resource for addressing hydrologic uncertainties in water resources decision-making. The current practice of water authorities relies on empirical, lumped hydrologic models to estimate watershed response. These models are not capable of taking advantage of many of the spatial datasets that are now available. Physically-based, distributed hydrologic models are capable of using these data resources and providing better predictions through stochastic analysis. However, there exists a digital divide that discourages many science-minded decision makers from using distributed models. This divide can be spanned using a combination of existing web technologies. The purpose of this presentation is to present a cloud-based environment that will offer hydrologic modeling tools or 'apps' for decision support and the web technologies that have been selected to aid in its implementation. Compared to the more commonly used lumped-parameter models, distributed models, while being more intuitive, are still data intensive, computationally expensive, and difficult to modify for scenario exploration. However, web technologies such as web GIS, web services, and cloud computing have made the data more accessible, provided an inexpensive means of high-performance computing, and created an environment for developing user-friendly apps for distributed modeling. Since many water authorities are primarily interested in the scenario exploration exercises with hydrologic models, we are creating a toolkit that facilitates the development of a series of apps for manipulating existing distributed models. There are a number of hurdles that cloud-based hydrologic modeling developers face. One of these is how to work with the geospatial data inherent with this class of models in a web environment. Supporting geospatial data in a website is beyond the capabilities of standard web frameworks and it

  2. Apps and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Adolescents’ Use of Mobile Phone and Tablet Apps That Support Personal Management of Their Chronic or Long-Term Physical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Debbie; Hall, Andrew; McDonagh, Janet E; Stones, Simon R; Thomson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of physical chronic or long-term conditions in adolescents aged 10-24 years is rising. Mobile phone and tablet mobile technologies featuring software program apps are widely used by these adolescents and their healthy peers for social networking or gaming. Apps are also used in health care to support personal condition management and they have considerable potential in this context. There is a growing body of literature on app use in health contexts, thereby making a systematic review of their effectiveness very timely. Objective To systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of mobile apps designed to support adolescents’ management of their physical chronic or long-term conditions. Methods We conducted a review of the English-language literature published since 2003 in five relevant bibliographical databases using key search terms. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts using data extraction and quality assessment tools. Results The search returned 1120 hits. Of the 19 eligible full-text papers, four met our review criteria, reporting one pilot randomized controlled trial and three pretest/post-test studies. Samples ranged from 4 to 18 participants, with a combined sample of 46 participants. The apps reported were targeted at type 1 diabetes, asthma, and cancer. Two papers provided data for calculating effect size. Heterogeneity in terms of study design, reported outcomes, follow-up times, participants’ ages, and health conditions prevented meta-analyses. There was variation in whether adolescents received guidance in using the app or were solely responsible for navigating the app. Three studies reported some level of patient involvement in app design, development, and/or evaluation. Health professional involvement in the modelling stages of apps was reported in all studies, although it was not always clear whether specific clinical (as opposed to academic) expertise in working with adolescents was

  3. Cognitive Factors of Using Health Apps: Systematic Analysis of Relationships Among Health Consciousness, Health Information Orientation, eHealth Literacy, and Health App Use Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaehee

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in smartphone health apps has been increasing recently. However, we have little understanding of the cognitive and motivational factors that influence the extent of health-app use. Objective This study aimed to examine the effects of four cognitive factors—health consciousness, health information orientation, eHealth literacy, and health-app use efficacy—on the extent of health-app use. It also explored the influence of two different use patterns—information and information-behavior use of health apps—with regard to the relationships among the main study variables. Methods We collected and analyzed 765 surveys in South Korea. According to the results, there was a negligible gender difference: males (50.6%, 387/765) and females (49.4%, 378/765). All participants were adults whose ages ranged from 19 to 59. In order to test the proposed hypotheses, we used a path analysis as a specific form of structural equation modeling. Results Through a path analysis, we discovered that individuals’ health consciousness had a direct effect on their use of health apps. However, unlike the initial expectations, the effects of health information orientation and eHealth literacy on health-app use were mediated by health-app use efficacy. Conclusions The results from the path analysis addressed a significant direct effect of health consciousness as well as strong mediating effects of health-app use efficacy. These findings contribute to widening our comprehension of the new, digital dimensions of health management, particularly those revolving around mobile technology. PMID:24824062

  4. The Use of Mobile Apps to Enhance Student Learning in Introduction to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diliberto-Macaluso, Kristen; Hughes, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of mobile applications or apps on student learning in an introduction to psychology course. Students were assigned to complete a learner-centered worksheet activity on the brain and central nervous system using either an interactive 3-D Brain app or their online course textbook. We measured student learning…

  5. Impact of Contextuality on Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study Based on a Language Learning App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. The scope of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of contextualized mobile language learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to analyze the effect of contextual app features on students'…

  6. Mobile phone health apps for diabetes management: current evidence and future developments.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S; Cafazzo, J A

    2013-12-01

    Can an app help manage diabetes? We discuss how the advent of mobile health apps in connecting patients to providers is creating new opportunities for the management of diabetes. Although there are promising outcomes, there is still much to be learned about how such technology could be fully exploited.

  7. Smartphones in ecology and evolution: a guide for the app-rehensive.

    PubMed

    Teacher, Amber G F; Griffiths, David J; Hodgson, David J; Inger, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Smartphones and their apps (application software) are now used by millions of people worldwide and represent a powerful combination of sensors, information transfer, and computing power that deserves better exploitation by ecological and evolutionary researchers. We outline the development process for research apps, provide contrasting case studies for two new research apps, and scan the research horizon to suggest how apps can contribute to the rapid collection, interpretation, and dissemination of data in ecology and evolutionary biology. We emphasize that the usefulness of an app relies heavily on the development process, recommend that app developers are engaged with the process at the earliest possible stage, and commend efforts to create open-source software scaffolds on which customized apps can be built by nonexperts. We conclude that smartphones and their apps could replace many traditional handheld sensors, calculators, and data storage devices in ecological and evolutionary research. We identify their potential use in the high-throughput collection, analysis, and storage of complex ecological information.

  8. Exergame Apps and Physical Activity: The Results of the ZOMBIE Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Joan; Majeske, Paul; Frank, Rebecca; Brown, Devin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are thousands of health and fitness smartphone apps currently available, little research exists regarding the effects of mobile app technology on physical activity behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test whether Exergame smartphone applications increase physical activity levels. Methods: This was a…

  9. Children's Literature Book Apps: Exploring New Paths for Books and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woote, Deborah A.; McCuiston, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Apps are no longer technical innovation but rather a cultural phenomenon that touches upon potentially every aspect of daily life in Western culture (Stichnothe, 2014, p.198). In this article, Colleen O'Connell, the director for digital books at HarperCollins, is interviewed about the background of book apps and their potential for teaching and…

  10. A Framework for Mobile Apps in Colleges and Universities: Data Mining Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Archana; Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2016-01-01

    The Enterprise mobility communication technology provides easy and quick accessibility to data and information integrated into one single touch point device. This device incorporates or integrates all the processes into small applications or App and thus increases the workforce capability of knowledge workers. "App" which is a small set…

  11. WhatsApp Goes to School: Mobile Instant Messaging between Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhnik, Dan; Deshen, Mor

    2014-01-01

    WhatsApp is a Smartphone application for instant messaging. Lately the application's popularity has risen. One of the unique features of the application is its ability to enhance communication within a group. Classroom communication between teaching faculty and high school students using WhatsApp has not yet, to our knowledge, been researched…

  12. Mobile phone health apps for diabetes management: current evidence and future developments.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S; Cafazzo, J A

    2013-12-01

    Can an app help manage diabetes? We discuss how the advent of mobile health apps in connecting patients to providers is creating new opportunities for the management of diabetes. Although there are promising outcomes, there is still much to be learned about how such technology could be fully exploited. PMID:24106313

  13. Content Analysis of Diet-Related Mobile Apps: A Self-Regulation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zahry, Nagwan R; Cheng, Ying; Peng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Diet-related mobile apps hold promise in helping individuals self-regulate their eating behaviors. Nevertheless, little is known about the extent to which diet-related mobile apps incorporate the established behavior change theories and evidence-based practices that promote dietary self-regulation. Guided by the self-regulation aspect of Bandura's social cognitive theory and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this study conducts a content analysis of diet-related mobile apps for iPhone (N = 400). In terms of the adherence to the self-regulation aspect of the social cognitive theory, results show that although 72.5% of the apps incorporate at least one theoretical construct, few apps tap all three processes of self-regulation (i.e., self-observation/monitoring, judgment process, and self-reaction). Additionally, outcome expectation is manifested in a majority of the diet-related apps. In terms of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, while the diet-related apps equally emphasize setting goals for calorie intake or nutrient consumption, more apps feature nutrient tracking than calorie tracking. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:26940817

  14. Using Coding Apps to Support Literacy Instruction and Develop Coding Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…

  15. Exploring the Application of a Conceptual Framework in a Social MALL App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Timothy; Bárcena, Elena; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a prototype social Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) app based on Kukulska-Hulme's (2012) conceptual framework. This research allows the exploration of time, place and activity type as key factors in the design of MALL apps, and is the first step toward a systematic analysis of such a framework in this type…

  16. Mobile Apps for Reflection in Learning: A Design Research in K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Teemu; Keune, Anna; Veermans, Marjaana; Toikkanen, Tarmo

    2016-01-01

    This study takes a design-based research approach to explore how applications designed for mobile devices could support reflection in learning in K-12 education. Use of mobile devices is increasing in schools. Most of the educational apps support single-person use of interactive learning materials, simulations and learning games. Apps designed to…

  17. Smartphones in ecology and evolution: a guide for the app-rehensive

    PubMed Central

    Teacher, Amber G F; Griffiths, David J; Hodgson, David J; Inger, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones and their apps (application software) are now used by millions of people worldwide and represent a powerful combination of sensors, information transfer, and computing power that deserves better exploitation by ecological and evolutionary researchers. We outline the development process for research apps, provide contrasting case studies for two new research apps, and scan the research horizon to suggest how apps can contribute to the rapid collection, interpretation, and dissemination of data in ecology and evolutionary biology. We emphasize that the usefulness of an app relies heavily on the development process, recommend that app developers are engaged with the process at the earliest possible stage, and commend efforts to create open-source software scaffolds on which customized apps can be built by nonexperts. We conclude that smartphones and their apps could replace many traditional handheld sensors, calculators, and data storage devices in ecological and evolutionary research. We identify their potential use in the high-throughput collection, analysis, and storage of complex ecological information. PMID:24455154

  18. Using Math Apps for Improving Student Learning: An Exploratory Study in an Inclusive Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Meilan; Trussell, Robert P.; Gallegos, Benjamin; Asam, Rasmiyeh R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a quick expansion of tablet computers in households and schools. One of the educational affordances of tablet computers is using math apps to engage students in mathematics learning. However, given the short history of the mobile devices, little research exists on the effectiveness of math apps, particularly for struggling…

  19. Overexpression of Swedish mutant APP in aged astrocytes attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Ii, Miyuki; Nakano, Sachiko; Tatsumi, Chihiro; Kubota, Kaori; Takasaki, Kotaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein, has different aspects, namely, performs essential physiological functions and produces β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Overexpression of neuronal APP is responsible for synaptic dysfunction. In the central nervous system, astrocytes - a major glial cell type - have an important role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Although APP is expressed in astrocytes, it remains unclear whether astrocytic overexpression of mutant APP affects synaptic transmission. In this study, the effect of astrocytic overexpression of a mutant APP on the excitatory synaptic transmission was investigated using coculture system of the transgenic (Tg) cortical astrocytes that express the human APP695 polypeptide with the double mutation K670N + M671L found in a large Swedish family with early onset Alzheimer's disease, and wild-type hippocampal neuron. Significant secretion of Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 was observed in cultured cortical astrocytes from the Tg2576 transgenic mouse that genetically overexpresses Swedish mutant APP. Under the condition, Tg astrocytes did not affect excitatory synaptic transmission of cocultured wild-type neurons. However, aged Tg astrocytes cultured for 9 weeks elicited a significant decrease in excitatory synaptic transmission in cocultured neurons. Moreover, a reduction in the number of readily releasable synaptic vesicles accompanied a decrease in the number of excitatory synapses in neurons cocultured with aged Tg astrocytes. These observations indicate that astrocytic expression of the mutant APP is involved in the downregulation of synaptic transmission with age. PMID:26733247

  20. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Anna; Rao, Sanjay; McGrath, Patrick J; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  1. One Screen, Many Fingers: Young Children's Collaborative Literacy Play with Digital Puppetry Apps and Touchscreen Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the digital literacy practices that emerge when young children play together with digital apps on touchscreen devices. Children's collaborative composing with a digital puppetry app on a touchscreen--with many hands all busy dragging, resizing, and animating puppet characters, and many voices making sound effects, narrating,…

  2. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Patrick J.; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  3. Content Analysis of Diet-Related Mobile Apps: A Self-Regulation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zahry, Nagwan R; Cheng, Ying; Peng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Diet-related mobile apps hold promise in helping individuals self-regulate their eating behaviors. Nevertheless, little is known about the extent to which diet-related mobile apps incorporate the established behavior change theories and evidence-based practices that promote dietary self-regulation. Guided by the self-regulation aspect of Bandura's social cognitive theory and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this study conducts a content analysis of diet-related mobile apps for iPhone (N = 400). In terms of the adherence to the self-regulation aspect of the social cognitive theory, results show that although 72.5% of the apps incorporate at least one theoretical construct, few apps tap all three processes of self-regulation (i.e., self-observation/monitoring, judgment process, and self-reaction). Additionally, outcome expectation is manifested in a majority of the diet-related apps. In terms of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, while the diet-related apps equally emphasize setting goals for calorie intake or nutrient consumption, more apps feature nutrient tracking than calorie tracking. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  4. Information Use and Barriers on a Mobile App in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies such as iPhone apps make it possible for learners to freely access course content management systems, library Web sites, as well as reference services from anywhere, anytime. This paper reviewed the current status of mobile learning and suggested possible factors influencing the use of mobile apps in online learning. The author…

  5. From Cloud to Mobile: Drawing down Big Info into Little Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herther, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    With the release of Google's App Inventor for Android, though still officially in beta, the company sought to make app development "simple but powerful" so that teachers could create study tips and quizzes, anyone could create geographic information systems (GIS) to help people find their way to some destination, and people could communicate over…

  6. Mobile App Design for Teaching and Learning: Educators' Experiences in an Online Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-Chang; Ching, Yu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    This research explored how educators with limited programming experiences learned to design mobile apps through peer support and instructor guidance. Educators were positive about the sense of community in this online course. They also considered App Inventor a great web-based visual programming tool for developing useful and fully functioning…

  7. Loss of presenilin function is associated with a selective gain of APP function

    PubMed Central

    Deyts, Carole; Clutter, Mary; Herrera, Stacy; Jovanovic, Natalia; Goddi, Anna; Parent, Angèle T

    2016-01-01

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) is an essential γ-secretase component, the enzyme responsible for amyloid precursor protein (APP) intramembraneous cleavage. Mutations in PS1 lead to dominant-inheritance of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD). Although expression of FAD-linked PS1 mutations enhances toxic Aβ production, the importance of other APP metabolites and γ-secretase substrates in the etiology of the disease has not been confirmed. We report that neurons expressing FAD-linked PS1 variants or functionally deficient PS1 exhibit enhanced axodendritic outgrowth due to increased levels of APP intracellular C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF). APP expression is required for exuberant neurite outgrowth and hippocampal axonal sprouting observed in knock-in mice expressing FAD-linked PS1 mutation. APP-CTF accumulation initiates CREB signaling cascade through an association of APP-CTF with Gαs protein. We demonstrate that pathological PS1 loss-of-function impinges on neurite formation through a selective APP gain-of-function that could impact on axodendritic connectivity and contribute to aberrant axonal sprouting observed in AD patients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15645.001 PMID:27196744

  8. There’s an App for That? Highlighting the Difficulty in Finding Clinically Relevant Smartphone Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wiechmann, Warren; Kwan, Daniel; Bokarius, Andrew; Toohey, Shannon L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of personal mobile devices in the medical field has grown quickly, and a large proportion of physicians use their mobile devices as an immediate resource for clinical decision-making, prescription information and other medical information. The iTunes App Store (Apple, Inc.) contains approximately 20,000 apps in its “Medical” category, providing a robust repository of resources for clinicians; however, this represents only 2% of the entire App Store. The App Store does not have strict criteria for identifying content specific to practicing physicians, making the identification of clinically relevant content difficult. The objective of this study is to quantify the characteristics of existing medical applications in the iTunes App Store that could be used by emergency physicians, residents, or medical students. Methods We found applications related to emergency medicine (EM) by searching the iTunes App Store for 21 terms representing core content areas of EM, such as “emergency medicine,” “critical care,” “orthopedics,” and “procedures.” Two physicians independently reviewed descriptions of these applications in the App Store and categorized each as the following: Clinically Relevant, Book/Published Source, Non-English, Study Tools, or Not Relevant. A third physician reviewer resolved disagreements about categorization. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results We found a total of 7,699 apps from the 21 search terms, of which 17.8% were clinical, 9.6% were based on a book or published source, 1.6% were non-English, 0.7% were clinically relevant patient education resources, and 4.8% were study tools. Most significantly, 64.9% were considered not relevant to medical professionals. Clinically relevant apps make up approximately 6.9% of the App Store’s “Medical” Category and 0.1% of the overall App Store. Conclusion Clinically relevant apps represent only a small percentage (6.9%) of the total App volume within the

  9. Using a Mobile App to Promote Smoking Cessation in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential of interactive health education for preventive health applications has been widely demonstrated. However, use of mobile apps to promote smoking cessation in hospitalized patients has not been systematically assessed. Objective This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a mobile app for the hazards of smoking education delivered via touch screen tablets to hospitalized smokers. Methods Fifty-five consecutive hospitalized smokers were recruited. Patient sociodemographics and smoking history was collected at baseline. The impact of the mobile app was assessed by measuring cognitive and behavioral factors shown to promote smoking cessation before and after the mobile app use including hazards of smoking knowledge score (KS), smoking attitudes, and stages of change. Results After the mobile app use, mean KS increased from 27(3) to 31(3) (P<0.0001). Proportion of patients who felt they “cannot quit smoking” reduced from 36% (20/55) to 18% (10/55) (P<0.03). Overall, 13% (7/55) of patients moved toward a more advanced stage of change with the proportion of patients in the preparation stage increased from 40% (22/55) to 51% (28/55). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that knowledge gains and mobile app acceptance did not depend on age, gender, race, computer skills, income, or education level. The main factors affecting knowledge gain were initial knowledge level (P<0.02), employment status (P<0.05), and high app acceptance (P<0.01). Knowledge gain was the main predictor of more favorable attitudes toward the mobile app (odds ratio (OR)=4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 20.0)). Attitudinal surveys and qualitative interviews identified high acceptance of the mobile app by hospitalized smokers. Over 92% (51/55) of the study participants recommended the app for use by other hospitalized smokers and 98% (54/55) of the patients were willing to use such an app in the future. Conclusions Our results suggest that a

  10. Colorimetric evaluation of iPhone apps for colour vision tests based on the Ishihara test.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; AlMerdef, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Given the versatility of smart phone displays, it was inevitable that applications (apps) providing colour vision testing would appear as an option. In this study, the colorimetric characteristics of five available iPhone apps for colour vision testing are assessed as a prequel to possible clinical evaluation. The colours of the displays produced by the apps are assessed with reference to the colours of a printed Ishihara test. The visual task is assessed on the basis of the colour differences and the alignment to the dichromatic confusion lines. The apps vary in quality and while some are colorimetrically acceptable, there are also some problems with their construction in making them a clinically useful app rather than curiosity driven self-testing. There is no reason why, in principle, a suitable test cannot be designed for smart phones.

  11. Formative research for mhealth HIV adherence: the iHAART app

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Rochelle K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Boyer, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research was conducted to adapt and develop an mHealth app for HIV patients with histories of substance abuse. The app provides reactive, visual representations of adherence rates, viral load and CD4 counts. Two sets of focus groups were conducted with 22 participants. The first concentrated on use of reminder system and opinions about ideal adherence features. Results informed adaptation of an existing system, which was then presented to participants in the second set of focus groups. We describe participant responses to candidate app characteristics and their understanding of the HIV disease state based on these changing images. Qualitative results indicate that a balance of provided and requested information is important to maintain interest and support adherence. App characteristics and information can provoke positive and negative reactions and these emotional responses may affect adherence. Conclusion: User understanding of, and reaction to, app visual content was essential to adaptation and design. PMID:26644783

  12. Colorimetric evaluation of iPhone apps for colour vision tests based on the Ishihara test.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; AlMerdef, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Given the versatility of smart phone displays, it was inevitable that applications (apps) providing colour vision testing would appear as an option. In this study, the colorimetric characteristics of five available iPhone apps for colour vision testing are assessed as a prequel to possible clinical evaluation. The colours of the displays produced by the apps are assessed with reference to the colours of a printed Ishihara test. The visual task is assessed on the basis of the colour differences and the alignment to the dichromatic confusion lines. The apps vary in quality and while some are colorimetrically acceptable, there are also some problems with their construction in making them a clinically useful app rather than curiosity driven self-testing. There is no reason why, in principle, a suitable test cannot be designed for smart phones. PMID:27146711

  13. Screening of APP interaction proteins by DUALmembrane yeast two-hybrid system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You; Li, Yinan; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative disease. There is a growing interest in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) over the years due to its involvement in AD. Besides its role in pathological mechanisms of AD, APP participates in many signaling pathways as well. APP functions through protein-protein interactions, and in this report staufen 1 (STAU1) is demonstrated to have interaction with APP, using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation in mammalian system. STAU1 belongs to the double-stranded RNA binding protein family and can mediate mRNA degradation in mammalian system, implicating that APP may be involved in the regulation of mRNA as well. PMID:26045787

  14. Effects of Body Image on College Students' Attitudes Toward Diet/Fitness Apps on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Sun Jin; Park, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Considering the increasing use of diet/fitness apps, this study aimed to investigate how four factors related to body image—evaluations of and orientations toward both appearance and fitness—impact college students' perception of the usefulness of such apps. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study tested a path model examining the relationships among the four body-image-oriented factors, perceived usefulness (PU) of diet/fitness apps, and behavioral intention to use such apps. Results from a path analysis revealed that while college students' evaluation of appearance and fitness decreased the PU of diet/fitness apps, their orientation toward fitness increased the same outcome variable. PMID:25584729

  15. Low Quality of Free Coaching Apps With Respect to the American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines: A Review of Current Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Leavitt, Trevor; Bromwell, Jennifer; Harris III, Charles; Vincent, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Low physical activity level is a significant contributor to chronic disease, weight dysregulation, and mortality. Nearly 70% of the American population is overweight, and 35% is obese. Obesity costs an estimated US$ 147 billion annually in health care, and as many as 95 million years of life. Although poor nutritional habits remain the major culprit, lack of physical activity significantly contributes to the obesity epidemic and related lifestyle diseases. Objective Over the past 10 years, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, and there is an ever-increasing number of mobile apps that are being developed to facilitate physical activity, particularly for active people. However, no systematic assessment has been performed about their quality with respect to following the parameters of sound fitness principles and scientific evidence, or suitability for a variety of fitness levels. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap and assess the quality of mobile coaching apps on iOS mobile devices. Methods A set of 30 popular mobile apps pertaining to physical activity programming was identified and reviewed on an iPhone device. These apps met the inclusion criteria and provided specific prescriptive fitness and exercise programming content. The content of these apps was compared against the current guidelines and fitness principles established by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). A weighted scoring method based on the recommendations of the ACSM was developed to generate subscores for quality of programming content for aerobic (0-6 scale), resistance (0-6 scale), and flexibility (0-2 scale) components using the frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT) principle. An overall score (0-14 scale) was generated from the subscores to represent the overall quality of a fitness coaching app. Results Only 3 apps scored above 50% on the aerobic component (mean 0.7514, SD 1.2150, maximum 4.1636), 4 scored above 50% on the resistance/strength component (mean

  16. Transgenic APP expression during postnatal development causes persistent locomotor hyperactivity in the adult

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transgenic mice expressing disease-associated proteins have become standard tools for studying human neurological disorders. Transgenes are often expressed using promoters chosen to drive continuous high-level expression throughout life rather than temporal and spatial fidelity to the endogenous gene. This approach has allowed us to recapitulate diseases of aging within the two-year lifespan of the laboratory mouse, but has the potential for creating aberrant phenotypes by mechanisms unrelated to the human disorder. Results We show that overexpression of the Alzheimer’s-related amyloid precursor protein (APP) during early postnatal development leads to severe locomotor hyperactivity that can be significantly attenuated by delaying transgene onset until adulthood. Our data suggest that exposure to transgenic APP during maturation influences the development of neuronal circuits controlling motor activity. Both when matched for total duration of APP overexpression and when matched for cortical amyloid burden, animals exposed to transgenic APP as juveniles are more active in locomotor assays than animals in which APP overexpression was delayed until adulthood. In contrast to motor activity, the age of APP onset had no effect on thigmotaxis in the open field as a rough measure of anxiety, suggesting that the interaction between APP overexpression and brain development is not unilateral. Conclusions Our findings indicate that locomotor hyperactivity displayed by the tet-off APP transgenic mice and several other transgenic models of Alzheimer’s disease may result from overexpression of mutant APP during postnatal brain development. Our results serve as a reminder of the potential for unexpected interactions between foreign transgenes and brain development to cause long-lasting effects on neuronal function in the adult. The tet-off APP model provides an easy means of avoiding developmental confounds by allowing transgene expression to be delayed until the

  17. Environmental enrichment ameliorated high-fat diet-induced Aβ deposition and memory deficit in APP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Kubota, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuki; Asada, Megumi; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Hayashida, Naoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Ito, Hidefumi; Shimohama, Shun; Kihara, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is tightly associated with metabolic dysfunctions. In particular, a potential link between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and AD has been suggested epidemiologically, clinically, and experimentally, and some studies have suggested that exercise or dietary intervention reduces risk of cognitive decline. However, there is little solid molecular evidence for the effective intervention of metabolic dysfunctions for prevention of AD. In the present study, we established the AD model mice with diabetic conditions through high-fat diet (HFD) to examine the effect of environmental enrichment (EE) on HFD-induced AD pathophysiology. Here, we demonstrated that HFD markedly deteriorated memory impairment and increased β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers as well as Aβ deposition in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, which was reversed by exposure to an enriched environment for 10 weeks, despite the continuation of HFD. These studies provide solid evidence that EE is a useful intervention to ameliorate behavioral changes and AD pathology in HFD-induced aggravation of AD symptoms in APP transgenic mice.

  18. Learning Discloses Abnormal Structural and Functional Plasticity at Hippocampal Synapses in the APP23 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middei, Silvia; Roberto, Anna; Berretta, Nicola; Panico, Maria Beatrice; Lista, Simone; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Nistico, Robert

    2010-01-01

    B6-Tg/Thy1APP23Sdz (APP23) mutant mice exhibit neurohistological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease but show intact basal hippocampal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine whether spatial learning differently modifies the structural and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal synapses in APP23 and wild-type mice. While…

  19. Preferences for a Mobile HIV Prevention App for Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Sarah J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stekler, Joanne D; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at least three times per year, but actual testing frequency is much less frequent. Though mHealth is a popular vehicle for delivering HIV interventions, there are currently no mobile phone apps that target MSM with the specific aim of building an HIV testing plan, and none that focuses on developing a comprehensive prevention plan and link MSM to additional HIV prevention and treatment resources. Previous research has suggested a need for more iterative feedback from the target population to ensure use of these interventions. Objective The purpose of this study is to understand MSM’s preferences for functionality, format, and design of a mobile phone-based HIV prevention app and to examine MSM’s willingness to use an app for HIV prevention. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with 38 gay and bisexual men, with two in-person groups in Atlanta, two in Seattle, and one online focus group discussion with gay and bisexual men in rural US regions. These discussions addressed MSM’s general preferences for apps, HIV testing barriers and facilitators for MSM, and ways that an HIV prevention app could address these barriers and facilitators to increase the frequency of HIV testing and prevention among MSM. During focus group discussions, participants were shown screenshots and provided feedback on potential app functions. Results Participants provided preferences on functionality of the app, including the type and delivery of educational content, the value of interactive engagement, and the importance of social networking as an app component. Participants also discussed preferences on how the language should be framed for the delivery of information, identifying that an app needs to be simultaneously fun and professional. Privacy and altruistic motivation were considered to be

  20. imageApps Package v 4.8

    2009-12-11

    The imageApps package provides a number of image processing modules that are compatible with the Umbra/Camera package. Each module works with an connector and generally generates an output image. Modules include the following: imageBlobber: Rapid image segmentation into color blob regions. imageSegmenter: Another image segmentation module. imageAverage: A simple FIR image filter. imageMovingAverage: A simple IIR image filter. imageColorGrid: Used for tracking calibration color blobs. imageCrop: Simple cropping function. imageDifference: Used for detecting motion inmore » image objects. imageSnake: Incorporates the (patent pending) polygon snake algorithm developed under the LDRD. camcal: A calibration module for performing visual targeting (originally developed under Automated Visual Direction LDRD)« less

  1. LESSONS LEARNED Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition (Summer 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Christine F.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of the lessons learned document for the BEOWulf Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition is to capture the project’s lessons learned in a formal document for use by other project managers on similar future projects. This document may be used as part of new project planning for similar projects in order to determine what problems occurred and how those problems were handled and may be avoided in the future. Additionally, this document details what went well with the project and why, so that other project managers may capitalize on these actions. Project managers may also use this document to determine who the project team members were in order to solicit feedback for planning their projects in the future. This document will be formally communicated with the organization and will become a part of the organizational assets and archives.

  2. Biochemical isolation of Argonaute protein complexes by Ago-APP

    PubMed Central

    Hauptmann, Judith; Schraivogel, Daniel; Bruckmann, Astrid; Manickavel, Sudhir; Jakob, Leonhard; Eichner, Norbert; Pfaff, Janina; Urban, Marc; Sprunck, Stefanie; Hafner, Markus; Tuschl, Thomas; Deutzmann, Rainer; Meister, Gunter

    2015-01-01

    During microRNA (miRNA)-guided gene silencing, Argonaute (Ago) proteins interact with a member of the TNRC6/GW protein family. Here we used a short GW protein-derived peptide fused to GST and demonstrate that it binds to Ago proteins with high affinity. This allows for the simultaneous isolation of all Ago protein complexes expressed in diverse species to identify associated proteins, small RNAs, or target mRNAs. We refer to our method as “Ago protein Affinity Purification by Peptides“ (Ago-APP). Furthermore, expression of this peptide competes for endogenous TNRC6 proteins, leading to global inhibition of miRNA function in mammalian cells. PMID:26351695

  3. Specific interactions between amyloid-β peptide and curcumin derivatives: Ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, Hiromi; Kadoya, Ryushi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Murakawa, Takeru; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, it is effective to inhibit the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases. However, because the secretases also play important roles to produce vital proteins for human body, inhibitors for the secretases may have side effects. To propose new agents for protecting the cleavage site of APP from the attacking of the γ-secretase, we have investigated here the specific interactions between a short APP peptide and curcumin derivatives, using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations.

  4. Development of ‘Twazon’: An Arabic App for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Marais, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Background Weight gain and its related illnesses have become a major public health issue across the world, with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries seeing dramatic increases in obesity and overweight, and yet there is very little information on how to intervene with this demographic due to cultural and linguistic barriers. As the use of smartphones and apps has also increased in the region, information communication technologies could be a cost-effective means of facilitating the delivery of behavior-modification interventions directly to the target population. Although there are existing apps that offer lifestyle-modification tools, they do not give consideration to the evidence-based practices for weight management. This offers an opportunity to create an Arabic language weight loss app that offers localized content and adheres to evidence-informed practices that are needed for effective weight loss. Objective This paper describes the process of developing an Arabic weight loss app designed to facilitate the modification of key nutritional and physical activity behaviors among Saudi adults, while taking into consideration cultural norms. Methods The development of the Twazon app involved: (1) reviewing all available Arabic weight loss apps and compared with evidence-based practices for weight loss, (2) conducting a qualitative study with overweight and obese Saudi women to ascertain their preferences, (3) selecting which behavioral change strategies and guidelines to be used in the app, (4) creating the Saudi Food Database, (5) deciding on graphic design for both iPhone operating system and Android platforms, including user interface, relational database, and programming code, and (6) testing the beta version of the app with health professionals and potential users. Results The Twazon app took 23 months to develop and included the compilation of an original Saudi Food database. Eight subjects gave feedback regarding the content validity and usability of the app

  5. Barriers, Benefits, and Beliefs of Brain Training Smartphone Apps: An Internet Survey of Younger US Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Torous, John; Staples, Patrick; Fenstermacher, Elizabeth; Dean, Jason; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2016-01-01

    Background: While clinical evidence for the efficacy of brain training remains in question, numerous smartphone applications (apps) already offer brain training directly to consumers. Little is known about why consumers choose to download these apps, how they use them, and what benefits they perceive. Given the high rates of smartphone ownership in those with internet access and the younger demographics, we chose to approach this question first with a general population survey that would capture primarily this demographic. Method: We conducted an online internet-based survey of the US population via mTurk regarding their use, experience, and perceptions of brain training apps. There were no exclusion criteria to partake although internet access was required. Respondents were paid 20 cents for completing each survey. The survey was offered for a 2-week period in September 2015. Results: 3125 individuals completed the survey and over half of these were under age 30. Responses did not significantly vary by gender. The brain training app most frequently used was Lumosity. Belief that a brain-training app could help with thinking was strongly correlated with belief it could also help with attention, memory, and even mood. Beliefs of those who had never used brain-training apps were similar to those who had used them. Respondents felt that data security and lack of endorsement from a clinician were the two least important barriers to use. Discussion: Results suggest a high level of interest in brain training apps among the US public, especially those in younger demographics. The stability of positive perception of these apps among app-naïve and app-exposed participants suggests an important role of user expectations in influencing use and experience of these apps. The low concern about data security and lack of clinician endorsement suggest apps are not being utilized in clinical settings. However, the public’s interest in the effectiveness of apps suggests a common

  6. Earthquake Early Warning Beta Users: Java, Modeling, and Mobile Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds warning prior to ground shaking at a user's location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce, or minimize, the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is undergoing testing in the United States by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, the USGS, and beta users in California and the Pacific Northwest. The beta users receive earthquake information very rapidly in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences of performance and potential uses within their organization. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. Actions could include: personal safety approaches, such as drop cover, and hold on; automated processes and procedures, such as opening elevator or fire stations doors; or situational awareness. Users are beginning to determine which policy and technological changes may need to be enacted, and funding requirements to implement their automated controls. The use of models and mobile apps are beginning to augment the basic Java desktop applet. Modeling allows beta users to test their early warning responses against various scenarios without having to wait for a real event. Mobile apps are also changing the possible response landscape, providing other avenues for people to receive information. All of these combine to improve business continuity and resiliency.

  7. Mint proteins are required for synaptic activity-dependent amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking and amyloid β generation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah E; Dillon, Gregory M; Sullivan, Josefa M; Ho, Angela

    2014-05-30

    Aberrant amyloid β (Aβ) production plays a causal role in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. A major cellular pathway for Aβ generation is the activity-dependent endocytosis and proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, the molecules controlling activity-dependent APP trafficking in neurons are less defined. Mints are adaptor proteins that directly interact with the endocytic sorting motif of APP and are functionally important in regulating APP endocytosis and Aβ production. We analyzed neuronal cultures from control and Mint knockout neurons that were treated with either glutamate or tetrodotoxin to stimulate an increase or decrease in neuronal activity, respectively. We found that neuronal activation by glutamate increased APP endocytosis, followed by elevated APP insertion into the cell surface, stabilizing APP at the plasma membrane. Conversely, suppression of neuronal activity by tetrodotoxin decreased APP endocytosis and insertion. Interestingly, we found that activity-dependent APP trafficking and Aβ generation were blocked in Mint knockout neurons. We showed that wild-type Mint1 can rescue APP internalization and insertion in Mint knockout neurons. In addition, we found that Mint overexpression increased excitatory synaptic activity and that APP was internalized predominantly to endosomes associated with APP processing. We demonstrated that presenilin 1 (PS1) endocytosis requires interaction with the PDZ domains of Mint1 and that this interaction facilitates activity-dependent colocalization of APP and PS1. These findings demonstrate that Mints are necessary for activity-induced APP and PS1 trafficking and provide insight into the cellular fate of APP in endocytic pathways essential for Aβ production.

  8. Identification of the human and bovine ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase cDNAs based on complementation of a bacterial mutant.

    PubMed

    Leal, Nicole A; Park, Sanghee D; Kima, Peter E; Bobik, Thomas A

    2003-03-14

    In humans, deficiencies in coenzyme B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) lead to methylmalonyl aciduria, a rare disease that is often fatal in newborns. Such deficiencies can result from inborn errors in the MCM structural gene or from mutations that impair the assimilation of dietary cobalamins into coenzyme B12 (Ado-B12), the required cofactor for MCM. ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ATR) catalyzes the terminal step in the conversion of cobalamins into Ado-B12. Substantial evidence indicates that inherited defects in this enzyme lead to methylmalonyl aciduria, but the corresponding ATR gene has not been identified. Here we report the identification of the bovine and human ATR cDNAs as well as the corresponding human gene. A bovine liver cDNA expression library was screened for clones that complemented an ATR-deficient bacterial strain for color formation on aldehyde indicator medium, and four positive clones were isolated. The DNA sequences of two clones were determined and found to be identical. Sequence similarity searching was then used to identify a homologous human cDNA (89% identity) and its corresponding gene that is located on chromosome XII. The bovine and human cDNAs were independently cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme assays showed that expression strains produced 87 and 98 nmol/min/mg ATR activity, respectively. These specific activities are in line with values reported previously for bacterial ATR enzymes. Subsequent studies showed that the human cDNA clone complemented an ATR-deficient bacterial mutant for Ado-B12-dependent growth on 1,2-propanediol. This demonstrated that the human ATR is active under physiological conditions albeit in a heterologous host. In addition, Western blots were used to show that ATR expression is altered in cell lines derived from cblB methylmalonyl aciduria patients compared with cell lines from normal individuals. We propose that inborn errors in the human ATR gene identified here result in

  9. Mobile Apps for Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review of Features and Content Quality

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Mark Erik; Proudfoot, Judith; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background With continued increases in smartphone ownership, researchers and clinicians are investigating the use of this technology to enhance the management of chronic illnesses such as bipolar disorder (BD). Smartphones can be used to deliver interventions and psychoeducation, supplement treatment, and enhance therapeutic reach in BD, as apps are cost-effective, accessible, anonymous, and convenient. While the evidence-based development of BD apps is in its infancy, there has been an explosion of publicly available apps. However, the opportunity for mHealth to assist in the self-management of BD is only feasible if apps are of appropriate quality. Objective Our aim was to identify the types of apps currently available for BD in the Google Play and iOS stores and to assess their features and the quality of their content. Methods A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and assessment of apps. We searched the Australian Google Play and iOS stores for English-language apps developed for people with BD. The comprehensiveness and quality of information was assessed against core psychoeducation principles and current BD treatment guidelines. Management tools were evaluated with reference to the best-practice resources for the specific area. General app features, and privacy and security were also assessed. Results Of the 571 apps identified, 82 were included in the review. Of these, 32 apps provided information and the remaining 50 were management tools including screening and assessment (n=10), symptom monitoring (n=35), community support (n=4), and treatment (n=1). Not even a quarter of apps (18/82, 22%) addressed privacy and security by providing a privacy policy. Overall, apps providing information covered a third (4/11, 36%) of the core psychoeducation principles and even fewer (2/13, 15%) best-practice guidelines. Only a third (10/32, 31%) cited their information source. Neither comprehensiveness of psychoeducation information (r=-.11

  10. HuD regulates coding and noncoding RNA to induce APP → Aβ processing

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Ju; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mitchell, Sarah J.; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Guo, Rong; Noh, Ji Heon; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Lee, Eun Kyung; Faghihi, Mohammad A.; Wahlestedt, Claes; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pletnikova, Olga; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora; Resnick, Susan M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Mattson, Mark P.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The primarily neuronal RNA-binding protein HuD is implicated in learning and memory. Here, we report the identification of several HuD target transcripts linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. HuD interacted with the 3’-untranslated regions (UTRs) of APP mRNA (encoding amyloid precursor protein) and BACE1 mRNA (encoding β-site APP-cleaving enzyme) and increased the half-lives of these mRNAs. HuD also associated with and stabilized the long noncoding (lnc)RNA BACE1AS, which partly complements BACE1 mRNA and enhances BACE1 expression. Consistent with HuD promoting production of APP and APP-cleaving enzyme, the levels of APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ were higher in the brain of HuD-overexpressing mice. Importantly, cortex (superior temporal gyrus) from AD patients displayed significantly higher levels of HuD, and accordingly elevated APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ than did cortical tissue from healthy age-matched individuals. We propose that HuD jointly promotes the production of APP and the cleavage of its amyloidogenic fragment, Aβ. PMID:24857657

  11. Personalised mobile health and fitness apps: lessons learned from myFitnessCompanion®.

    PubMed

    Gay, Valerie; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones and tablets are slowly but steadily changing the way we look after our health and fitness. Today, many high quality mobile apps are available for users and health professionals and cover the whole health care chain, i.e. information collection, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Our team has developed a mobile health and fitness app called myFitnessCompanion® which has been available via Android market since February 2011. The objective of this paper is to share our experience with rolling out a mobile health and fitness app. We discuss the acceptance of health apps by end-users and healthcare industry. We discuss how mobile health apps will be distributed in the near future, the use of Personal Health Record (PHR) systems such as Microsoft HealthVault and the impact of regulations (FDA) on the future of mobile health apps. The paper is based on seven years of experience by the authors as mobile health and fitness application developers and we discuss the challenges and opportunities for app developers in the health industry.

  12. Quantified sex: a critical analysis of sexual and reproductive self-tracking using apps.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Digital health technologies are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare, health education and voluntary self-surveillance, self-quantification and self-care practices. This paper presents a critical analysis of one digital health device: computer apps used to self-track features of users' sexual and reproductive activities and functions. After a review of the content of such apps available in the Apple App Store and Google Play™ store, some of their sociocultural, ethical and political implications are discussed. These include the role played by these apps in participatory surveillance, their configuration of sexuality and reproduction, the valorising of the quantification of the body in the context of neoliberalism and self-responsibility, and issues concerning privacy, data security and the use of the data collected by these apps. It is suggested that such apps represent sexuality and reproduction in certain defined and limited ways that work to perpetuate normative stereotypes and assumptions about women and men as sexual and reproductive subjects. Furthermore there are significant ethical and privacy implications emerging from the use of these apps and the data they produce. The paper ends with suggestions concerning the 'queering' of such technologies in response to these issues.

  13. A mobile app for delivering in-field soil data for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, John P.; Stojanovic, Vladeta; Falconer, Ruth E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade precision agriculture has grown from a concept to an emerging technology, largely due to the maturing of GPS and mobile mapping. We investigated methods for reliable delivery and display of appropriate and context aware in-field farm data on mobile devices by developing a prototype android mobile app. The 3D app was developed using OpenGL ES 2.0 and written in Java, using the Android Development Tools (ADT) SDK. The app is able to obtain GPS coordinates and automatically synchronise the view and load relevant data based on the user's location. The intended audience of the mobile app is farmers and agronomists. Apps are becoming an essential tool in an agricultural professional's arsenal however most existing apps are limited to 2D display of data even though the modern chips in mobile devices can support the display of 3D graphics at interactive rates using technologies such as webGL. This project investigated the use of games techniques in the delivery and 3D display of field data, recognising that this may be a departure from the way the field data is currently delivered and displayed to farmers and agronomists. Different interactive 3D visualisation methods presenting spatial and temporal variation in yield values were developed and tested. It is expected that this app can be used by farmers and agronomists to support decision making in the field of precision agriculture and this is a growing market in UK and Europe.

  14. Usability Pitfalls of Diabetes mHealth Apps for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Bešter, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has high prevalence in the ageing population and is often accompanied by other comorbidities, such as Alzheimer's disease, and general disabilities, such as poor eyesight. These comorbidities have redefined ways in which patients use mHealth apps, including diabetes apps. The latter have proven benefits for monitoring blood glucose levels and insulin tracking in the general population. In this paper, we analyse a diabetes monitoring app DeStress Assistant (DeSA), which was developed as a part of an EU project and tested in a hospital setting. Due to the increasing number of older adults, we wanted to ensure the app was suitable for that demographic. Based on a number of supervised tests, we show that the app, which was developed with the help of workshops and feedback from tech-savvy patients and clinicians, is difficult to use by elderly users. We demonstrate that with a small number of changes it is possible to raise the usability of the app in a number of categories. We summarise the lessons learned in the discussion. Our findings demonstrate that special care needs to be taken when developing mHealth apps for the elderly population. PMID:27034957

  15. Download Alert: Understanding Gastroenterology Patients' Perspectives on Health-Related Smartphone Apps

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Jasmine K; Le, Thai; Munson, Sean; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to understand patients' willingness to use different types of health-related smartphone apps and to explore their attitudes on the overall value, usability, feasibility, credibility, intrusiveness, and obtrusiveness of these apps. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to adult patients presenting to gastroenterology clinics at an academic medical center. The 25-question survey consisted of 5-point Likert-type scale statements, multiple-choice questions, and open-ended questions. Results: Participants were mainly White (N=94, 78%) and smartphone owners (N=125, 93%). The mean age was 40.8 years (N=121, s.d.=13.2). Participants were willing to use most types of apps unless it monitored their location or social networking activity. Half were less willing to use an app if it required a visible accessory. Most participants were willing to use a health-related app up to 5 min a day indefinitely but unwilling to pay out-of-pocket for it. Participants generally disagreed that an app would be hard to learn how to use, interfere with their daily routine, or be embarrassing to use in public. Overall, participants felt that health-related apps could help them and their doctors better manage their medical problems, but were neutral in trusting their quality. Most worried that personal information used for an app would fall into the wrong hands. Conclusion: Gastroenterology patients were willing to use and valued most types of health-related apps. They perceived this technology as feasible, usable, and relatively unobtrusive unless a visible accessory was required. However, many were concerned about their privacy. PMID:26133109

  16. Independent Relationship between Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Dimerization and γ-Secretase Processivity

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo In; Premraj, Sasha; Cruz, Pedro E.; Ladd, Thomas B.; Kwak, Yewon; Koo, Edward H.; Felsenstein, Kevin M.; Golde, Todd E.; Ran, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Altered production of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is closely associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). APP has a number of homo- and hetero-dimerizing domains, and studies have suggested that dimerization of β-secretase derived APP carboxyl terminal fragment (CTFβ, C99) impairs processive cleavage by γ-secretase increasing production of long Aβs (e.g., Aβ1-42, 43). Other studies report that APP CTFβ dimers are not γ-secretase substrates. We revisited this issue due to observations made with an artificial APP mutant referred to as 3xK-APP, which contains three lysine residues at the border of the APP ectodomain and transmembrane domain (TMD). This mutant, which dramatically increases production of long Aβ, was found to form SDS-stable APP dimers, once again suggesting a mechanistic link between dimerization and increased production of long Aβ. To further evaluate how multimerization of substrate affects both initial γ-secretase cleavage and subsequent processivity, we generated recombinant wild type- (WT) and 3xK-C100 substrates, isolated monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms of these proteins, and evaluated both ε-cleavage site utilization and Aβ production. These show that multimerization significantly impedes γ-secretase cleavage, irrespective of substrate sequence. Further, the monomeric form of the 3xK-C100 mutant increased long Aβ production without altering the initial ε-cleavage utilization. These data confirm and extend previous studies showing that dimeric substrates are not efficient γ-secretase substrates, and demonstrate that primary sequence determinants within APP substrate alter γ-secretase processivity. PMID:25350374

  17. Attitudes and Behaviours to Antimicrobial Prescribing following Introduction of a Smartphone App

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Preet; Jones, Alisdair; Aldous, Alicia; Kranzer, Katharina; Halpin, Eamus; Fifer, Helen; Macrae, Bruce; Curtis, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our hospital replaced the format for delivering portable antimicrobial prescribing guidance from a paper-based pocket guide to a smartphone application (app). We used this opportunity to assess the relationship between its use and the attitudes and behaviours of antimicrobial prescribers. Methods We used 2 structured cross-sectional questionnaires issued just prior to and 3 months following the launch of the smartphone app. Ordinal Likert scale responses to both frequencies of use and agreement statements permitted quantitative assessment of the relationship between variables. Results The smartphone app was used more frequently than the pocket guide it replaced (p < 0.01), and its increased use was associated with sentiments that the app was useful, easy to navigate and its content relevant. Users who used the app more frequently were more likely to agree that the app encouraged them to challenge inappropriate prescribing by their colleagues (p = 0.001) and were more aware of the importance of antimicrobial stewardship (p = 0.005). Reduced use of the app was associated with agreement that senior physicians’ preferences for antimicrobial prescribing would irrespectively overrule guideline recommendations (p = 0.0002). Conclusions Smartphone apps are an effective and acceptable format to deliver guidance on antimicrobial prescribing. Our findings suggest that they may empower users to challenge incorrect prescribing, breaking well-established behaviours, and thus supporting vital stewardship efforts in an era of increased antimicrobial resistance. Future work will need to focus on the direct impact on drug prescriptions as well as identifying barriers to implementing smartphone apps in other clinical settings. PMID:27111775

  18. Feasibility of "CopeSmart": A Telemental Health App for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Early intervention is important in order to improve mental health outcomes for young people. Given the recent rise in mobile phone ownership among adolescents, an innovative means of delivering such intervention is through the use of mobile phone applications (apps). Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of “CopeSmart”, a telemental health app developed to foster positive mental health in adolescents through emotional self-monitoring and the promotion of positive coping strategies. Methods Forty-three adolescents (88% female) aged 15-17 years downloaded the app and used it over a one-week period. They then completed self-report questionnaires containing both open-ended and closed-ended questions about their experiences of using the app. The app itself captured data related to user engagement. Results On average participants engaged with the app on 4 of the 7 days within the intervention period. Feedback from users was reasonably positive, with 70% of participants reporting that they would use the app again and 70% reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Thematic analysis of qualitative data identified themes pertaining to users’ experiences of the app, which were both positive (eg, easy to use, attractive layout, emotional self-monitoring, helpful information, notifications, unique) and negative (eg, content issues, did not make user feel better, mood rating issues, password entry, interface issues, engagement issues, technical fixes). Conclusions Overall findings suggest that telemental health apps have potential as a feasible medium for promoting positive mental health, with the majority of young people identifying such technologies as at least somewhat useful and displaying a moderate level of engagement with them. Future research should aim to evaluate the efficacy of such technologies as tools for improving mental health outcomes in young people. PMID:26552425

  19. Phosphorylation of the amino-terminal region of X11L regulates its interaction with APP

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Megumi; Tanaka, Emi; Taru, Hidenori; Tomita, Susumu; Gandy, Sam; Nairn, Angus C.; Nakaya, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Summary X11-like (X11L) is neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) and regulates its metabolism. The phosphotyrosine interaction/binding (PI/PTB) domain of X11L interacts with the cytoplasmic region of APP695. We found that X11L-APP interaction is enhanced in osmotically stressed cells and X11L modification is required for the enhancement. Amino acids 221-250 (X11L221-250) are required for the enhanced association with APP in osmotically stressed cells; this motif is 118 amino acids closer to the amino-terminal end of the protein than the PI/PTB domain (amino acids 368-555). We identified two phosphorylatable seryl residues, Ser236 and Ser238, in X11L221-250 and alanyl substitution of either seryl residue diminished the enhanced association with APP. In brain Ser238 was found to be phosphorylated and phosphorylation of X11L was required for the interaction of X11L and APP. Both seryl residues in X11L221-250 are conserved in neuronal X11, but not in X11L2, a non-neuronal X11 family member that did not exhibit enhanced APP association in osmotically stressed cells. These findings indicate that the region of X11L that regulates association with APP is located outside of, and amino-terminal to, the PI/PTB domain. Modification of this regulatory region may alter the conformation of the PI/PTB domain to modulate APP binding. PMID:19222704

  20. Modulation of APP Expression Reduces Aβ Deposition in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Asuni, Ayodeji A.; Guridi, Maitea; Pankiewicz, Joanna E.; Sanchez, Sandrine; Sadowski, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Prolonged accumulation of Aβ in the brain underlies the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is regarded as a principal target for development of disease-modifying therapeutics. Methods Using CHO APP751SW cells we identified and characterized effects of 2-[(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-phenol (2-PMAP) on APP steady-state level and Aβ production. Outcomes of 2-PMAP treatment on Aβ accumulation and associated memory deficit were studied in APPSW/PS1dE9 AD transgenic model mice. Results In CHO APP751SW cells, 2-PMAP in a dose-response manner lowered the steady-state APP level and inhibited Aβx-40 and Aβx-42 production with minimum effective concentration ≤0.5μM. The inhibitory effect of 2-PMAP on translational efficiency of APP mRNA into protein was directly confirmed using 35S-methionine/cysteine metabolic labeling technique, while APP mRNA level remained unaltered. Administration of 2-PMAP to APPSW/PS1dE9 mice reduced brain levels of full length APP and its C-terminal fragments along with lowering levels of soluble Aβx-40 and Aβx-42. Four-month chronic treatment of APPSW/PS1dE9 mice revealed no observable toxicity and improved animals’ memory performance. 2-PMAP treatment also caused significant reduction in brain Aβ deposition determined by both unbiased quantification of Aβ plaque load and biochemical analysis of formic acid extracted Aβx-40 and Aβx-42 levels and the level of oligomeric Aβ. Interpretation We demonstrate the potential of modulating APP steady-state expression level as a safe and effective approach for reducing Aβ deposition in AD transgenic model mice. PMID:24687915

  1. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  2. Diet App Use by Sports Dietitians: A Survey in Five Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fairbairn, Kirsty A; Green, Peter; Perry, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the hundreds of diet apps available for use on smartphones (mobile phones), no studies have examined their use as tools for dietary assessment and tracking in sports nutrition. Objective The aim is to examine the prevalence and perceptions of using smartphone diet apps for dietary assessment and tracking among sports dietitians. Methods A cross-sectional online survey to examine the use and perception of diet apps was developed and distributed to sports dietitians in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States (US). Results The overall response rate from the 1709 sports dietitians invited to participate was 10.3% (n=180). diet apps were used by 32.4% (57/176) of sports dietitians to assess and track the dietary intake of athletes. Sports dietitians from the US were more likely to use smartphone diet apps than sports dietitians from other countries (OR=5.61, 95% CI 1.84-17.08, P=.002). Sports dietitians used 28 different diet apps, with 56% (32/57) choosing MyFitnessPal. Overall, sports dietitians held a positive perception of smartphone diet apps, with the majority of respondents viewing diet apps as “better” (25/53, 47%) or “equivalent” (22/53, 41%) when compared with traditional dietary assessment methods. Conclusions Nearly one-third of sports dietitians used mobile phone diet apps in sports nutrition practice, and viewed them as useful in helping to assess and track the dietary intake of athletes. PMID:25616274

  3. Evaluation of Neuropathological Effects of a High-Fat Diet in a Presymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease Stage in APP/PS1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Ettcheto, Miren; Petrov, Dmitry; Pedrós, Ignacio; Alva, Norma; Carbonell, Teresa; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Pallas, Merce; Auladell, Carme; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2016-07-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently an incurable aging-related neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies give support to the hypotheses that AD should be considered as a metabolic disease. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between hippocampal neuropathological amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation and obesity at an early presymptomatic disease stage (3 months of age). For this purpose, we used APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) in order to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms involved in both disorders. The results showed that the hippocampus from APP/PS1 mice fed with a HFD had an early significant decrease in Aβ signaling pathway specifically in the insulin degrading enzyme protein levels, an enzyme involved in (Aβ) metabolism, and α-secretase. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the occurrence of plaques in the hippocampus of these mice. Furthermore, APP/PS1 mice showed a significant hippocampal decrease in PGC-1α levels, a cofactor involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. However, HFD does not provoke changes in neither insulin receptors gene expression nor enzymes involved in the signaling pathway. Moreover, there are no changes in any enzymes (kinases) involved in tau phosphorylation, such as CDK5, and neither in brain oxidative stress production. These results suggest that early changes in brains of APP/PS1 mice fed with a HFD are mediated by an increase in Aβ1 ‒ 42, which induces a decrease in PKA levels and alterations in the p-CREB/ NMDA2B /PGC1-α pathway, favoring early AD neuropathology in mice.

  4. Evaluation of Neuropathological Effects of a High-Fat Diet in a Presymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease Stage in APP/PS1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Ettcheto, Miren; Petrov, Dmitry; Pedrós, Ignacio; Alva, Norma; Carbonell, Teresa; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Pallas, Merce; Auladell, Carme; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2016-07-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently an incurable aging-related neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies give support to the hypotheses that AD should be considered as a metabolic disease. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between hippocampal neuropathological amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation and obesity at an early presymptomatic disease stage (3 months of age). For this purpose, we used APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) in order to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms involved in both disorders. The results showed that the hippocampus from APP/PS1 mice fed with a HFD had an early significant decrease in Aβ signaling pathway specifically in the insulin degrading enzyme protein levels, an enzyme involved in (Aβ) metabolism, and α-secretase. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the occurrence of plaques in the hippocampus of these mice. Furthermore, APP/PS1 mice showed a significant hippocampal decrease in PGC-1α levels, a cofactor involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. However, HFD does not provoke changes in neither insulin receptors gene expression nor enzymes involved in the signaling pathway. Moreover, there are no changes in any enzymes (kinases) involved in tau phosphorylation, such as CDK5, and neither in brain oxidative stress production. These results suggest that early changes in brains of APP/PS1 mice fed with a HFD are mediated by an increase in Aβ1 ‒ 42, which induces a decrease in PKA levels and alterations in the p-CREB/ NMDA2B /PGC1-α pathway, favoring early AD neuropathology in mice. PMID:27567882

  5. Comparison of Mobile Apps for the Leading Causes of Death Among Different Income Zones: A Review of the Literature and App Stores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The advances achieved in technology, medicine, and communications in the past decades have created an excellent scenario for the improvement and expansion of eHeath and mHealth in particular. Mobile phones, smartphones, and tablets are exceptional means for the application of mobile health, especially for those diseases and health conditions that are the deadliest worldwide. Objective The main aim of this paper was to compare the amount of research and the number of mobile apps dedicated to the diseases and conditions that are the leading causes of death according to the World Health Organization grouped by different income regions. These diseases and conditions were ischemic heart disease; stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases; lower respiratory infections; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; diarrheal diseases; HIV/AIDS; trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers; malaria; and Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Methods Two reviews were conducted. In the first, the systems IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed were used to perform a literature review of applications related to the mentioned diseases. The second was developed in the currently most important mobile phone apps stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, and Windows Phone Apps+Games. Results Search queries up to June 2013 located 371 papers and 557 apps related to the leading causes of death, and the following findings were obtained. Alzheimer disease and other dementias are included in the diseases with more apps, although it is not among the top 10 causes of death worldwide, whereas lower respiratory infections, the third leading cause of death, is one of the less researched and with fewer apps. Two diseases that are the first and second of low-income countries (lower respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases) have very little research and few commercial applications. HIV/AIDS, in the top 6 of low-income and middle-income zones, is one of the diseases with more

  6. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Victor BA; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). Objective The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. Methods We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. Results The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. Conclusions There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend

  7. What Overweight Women Want From a Weight Loss App: A Qualitative Study on Arabic Women

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Marais, Debbi

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are international public health issues. With mobile and app use growing globally, the development of weight loss apps are increasing along with evidence that interventions using technology have been effective in the treatment of obesity. Although studies have been conducted regarding what content health professionals would recommend within weight loss apps, there are limited studies that explore users’ viewpoints. There is specifically a paucity of research that takes the cultural background of the user into consideration, especially in Middle Eastern countries where the lives and weight loss intervention needs of women not only vary vastly from the West, but the obesity rate is also increasing exponentially. Objective The current study sought to explore the proposed features of an Arabic weight loss app by seeking the experiences and opinions of overweight and obese Saudi Arabian users in order to design a mobile phone app to fit their needs. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of volunteer overweight and obese Saudi women (BMI ≥ 25) who were older than 18 years and who owned a mobile phone. The most common Arabic and English weight loss mobile apps were downloaded to initiate dialogue about app usage and to get their opinions on what an ideal weight loss app would look like and the features it would include. All transcribed, translated discussions were thematically analyzed, categorized for each of the main topics of the discussion, and specific quotations were identified. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 39 participants. Most participants owned an Android mobile phone and only a few participants were aware of the availability of health-related apps. Barriers to weight loss were identified including: motivation, support (social and professional), boring diets, customs, and lifestyle. Diverse themes emerged as suggestions for an ideal weight loss app including: Arabic

  8. Supporting Cancer Patients in Illness Management: Usability Evaluation of a Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David R; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile phones and tablets currently represent a significant presence in people’s everyday lives. They enable access to different information and services independent of current place and time. Such widespread connectivity offers significant potential in different app areas including health care. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the usability of the Connect Mobile app. The mobile app enables mobile access to the Connect system, an online system that supports cancer patients in managing health-related issues. Along with symptom management, the system promotes better patient-provider communication, collaboration, and shared decision making. The Connect Mobile app enables access to the Connect system over both mobile phones and tablets. Methods The study consisted of usability tests of a high fidelity prototype with 7 cancer patients where the objectives were to identify existing design and functionality issues and to provide patients with a real look-and-feel of the mobile system. In addition, we conducted semistructured interviews to obtain participants’ feedback about app usefulness, identify the need for new system features and design requirements, and measure the acceptance of the mobile app and its features within everyday health management. Results The study revealed a total of 27 design issues (13 for mobile apps and 14 for tablet apps), which were mapped to source events (ie, errors, requests for help, participants' concurrent feedback, and moderator observation). We also applied usability heuristics to identify violations of usability principles. The majority of violations were related to enabling ease of input, screen readability, and glanceability (15 issues), as well as supporting an appropriate match between systems and the real world (7 issues) and consistent mapping of system functions and interactions (4 issues). Feedback from participants also showed the cancer patients’ requirements for support systems and how these needs are

  9. Practical considerations in the design and development of smartphone apps for behavior change

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Walter R.; Vilardaga, Roger; Wolfe, Nathanael; Bricker, Jonathan B.; McDonell, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The fast adoption of smartphone applications (apps) by behavioral scientists pose a new host of opportunities as well as knowledge and interdisciplinary challenges. Therefore, this brief report will discuss the lessons we have learned during the development and testing of smartphone apps for behavior change, and provide the reader with guidance and recommendations about this design and development process. We hope that the guidance and perspectives presented in this brief report will empower behavioral scientists to test the efficacy of smartphone apps for behavior change, further advance the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders and help move the field towards personalized behavior change technologies. PMID:25485231

  10. Practical considerations in the design and development of smartphone apps for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Roth, Walter R; Vilardaga, Roger; Wolfe, Nathanael; Bricker, Jonathan B; McDonell, Michael G

    2014-10-01

    The fast adoption of smartphone applications (apps) by behavioral scientists pose a new host of opportunities as well as knowledge and interdisciplinary challenges. Therefore, this brief report will discuss the lessons we have learned during the development and testing of smartphone apps for behavior change, and provide the reader with guidance and recommendations about this design and development process. We hope that the guidance and perspectives presented in this brief report will empower behavioral scientists to test the efficacy of smartphone apps for behavior change, further advance the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders and help move the field towards personalized behavior change technologies. PMID:25485231

  11. There's an App for That: A Guide for Healthcare Practitioners and Researchers on Smartphone Technology.

    PubMed

    Trevena, Lyndal

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone technology is nascent compared to other technologies; however, it has shown an unprecedented uptake amongst lay consumers and professionals. This article presents the history, components, and key features of smartphones, as well as their related concepts and how they work, and it also delineates the process of smartphone applications (apps) development and publishing in the app stores. It also describes and discusses smartphone technology utilisation for health consumers, healthcare professionals, and health researchers, as well as the regulations of health-related apps.

  12. Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein (βAPP) Processing in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhai; Bhattacharjee, Surjyadipta; Jones, Brandon M; Hill, James M; Clement, Christian; Sambamurti, Kumar; Dua, Prerna; Lukiw, Walter J

    2015-08-01

    Amyloid is a generic term for insoluble, often intensely hydrophobic, fibrous protein aggregates that arise from inappropriately folded versions of naturally-occurring polypeptides. The abnormal generation and accumulation of amyloid, often referred to as amyloidogenesis, has been associated with the immune and pro-inflammatory pathology of several progressive age-related diseases of the human central nervous system (CNS) including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This 'research perspective' paper reviews some of the research history, biophysics, molecular-genetics and environmental factors concerning the contribution of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, derived from beta-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP), to AD and AMD that suggests an extensive similarity in immune and inflammatory degenerative mechanisms between these two CNS diseases.

  13. Combining Persuasive Technology With Behavioral Theory to Support Weight Maintenance Through a Mobile Phone App: Protocol for the MotiMate App

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of health-focused mobile phone apps available for download increases daily, with weight management apps being among the most proliferative. However, most lack theoretic grounding or evidence of efficacy. There is a significant body of literature which provides evidence for behaviors which are associated with successful weight loss maintenance. Behavioral theory also provides further insight regarding successful behavior change and maintenance. Objective We aimed to apply this knowledge to the development of the functionality of an app targeting weight loss maintenance. Methods We have subsequently undertaken the development of a persuasive and behavior targeting mobile app (MotiMate) to assist in maintenance of weight loss. MotiMate combines persuasive and behavior change theories in a practical targeted tool through its motivational messages, personalized feedback, and intelligent supportive tools to manage weight, food, exercise, mood and stress. Results The development and trial of MotiMate received funding support in May 2014. All 88 volunteers started the trial by December 2014 and were in the process of completing their final visits when this paper was submitted (May 2015). Data analysis is currently underway. Conclusions The paper has presented a scientifically informed mobile phone app to support weight loss maintenance. Further evaluation of its efficacy is in progress. Trial Registration ANZCTR 12614000474651; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366120 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJeQiKxi). PMID:26747725

  14. An analysis of mRNAs for a group of heat shock proteins of soybean using cloned cDNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Schoffl, F.; Key, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Hybridization studies carried out with poly(A)/sup +/ RNA and its corresponding cDNA showed the presence of a new highly abundant RNA class after heat shock (hs) at 40/sup 0/C in soybean hypocotyl compared to tissue incubated under normal conditions at 28/sup 0/C. cDNA clones complementary to RNAs of this class were isolated; eleven clones were characterized and used in the analysis of these abundant RNAs. The most abundant hs-sequences were found to be 800-900 nucleotides in length and present in about 19,000 copies per cell. Extensive sequence homology among hs-induced RNAs was indicated by cross-hybridization of cDNA clones and by common protein patterns generated in hybrid release translations. The existence of at least two different nucleotide sequences common to several different hs-poly(A)/sup +/ mRNAs was documented by different, nonoverlapping protein patterns obtained by in vitro synthesis with hybrid selected RNAs. Four clones contained a sequence common to mRNAs for a least 13 proteins of 15,000-18,000 daltons; another sequence common to mRNA for three to four proteins of 21,000-23,000 daltons was selected by one clone. Two other clones selected a major hs-protein of about 18,000 daltons. The mRNAs of these low molecular weight hs-proteins accumulated rapidly after induction at either 40/sup 0/C or 42.5/sup 0/C and decreased rapidly during subsequent incubation at 28/sup 0/C.

  15. Cloning and functional characterization of the ovine Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) full-length cDNAs: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Lampidonis, Antonis D; Argyrokastritis, Alexandros; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Ntouroupi, Triantafyllia G; Margaritis, Lukas H; Bizelis, Iosif; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2008-06-15

    Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) is a highly regulated enzyme that mediates lipolysis in adipocytes. HSL enzymatic activity is increased by adrenergic agonists, such as catecholamines and glucagons, which induce cyclic AMP (cAMP) intracellular production, subsequently followed by the activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA) and its downstream signalling cascade reactions. Since HSL constitutes the key enzyme in the regulation of lipid stores and the only enzyme being subjected to hormonal regulation [in terms of the recently identified Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL)], the ovine Hormone Sensitive Lipase (ovHSL) full-length cDNA clones were isolated, using a Polymerase Chain Reaction-based (PCR) strategy. The two isolated isoforms ovHSL-A and ovHSL-B contain two highly homologous Open Reading Frame (ORF) regions of 2.089 Kb and 2.086 Kb, respectively, the latter having been missed the 688th triplet coding for glutamine (DeltaQ(688)). The putative 695 and 694 amino acid respective sequences bear strong homologies with other HSL protein family members. Southern blotting analysis revealed that HSL is represented as a single copy gene in the ovine genome, while Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) approaches unambiguously dictated its variable transcriptional expression profile in the different tissues examined. Interestingly, as undoubtedly corroborated by both RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis, ovHSL gene expression is notably enhanced in the adipose tissue during the fasting period, when lipolysis is highly increased in ruminant species. Based on the crystal structure of an Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme, a three-dimensional (3D) molecular model of the ovHSL putative catalytic domain was constructed, thus providing an inchoative insight into understanding the enzymatic activity and functional regulation mechanisms of the ruminant HSL gene product(s).

  16. Assessing Self-Control and Geosocial Networking App Behavior Among an Online Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Beymer, Matthew R; Rossi, Aimee Drolet; Shu, Suzanne B

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking phone applications (GSN apps) used to meet sexual partners have become popular in the men who have sex with men (MSM) communities of the USA since 2009. Previous studies have shown greater incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia and lower testing frequency for HIV testing among GSN app users when compared to non-users. The present study aims to determine the type, number, and frequency of apps used, as well as the association between dispositional self-control and health-related behaviors. Participants (n = 146) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk program to respond to a brief GSN app marketing survey. Multivariate regression was used to determine differences in app priorities, length of app use, and number of sexual partners between high self-control and low self-control participants. A majority of the participants reported using Grindr (78 %) followed by Scruff (19 %), Growlr (12 %), and Jack'd (12 %). Most individuals used one app only (58 %), but a significant proportion reported using two apps (28 %) or three or more apps (14 %). Respondents with low self-control were more likely to report a higher number of hours using GSN apps and a higher number of sexual partners, controlling for race/ethnicity, education, employment, and HIV status. Given the popularity of this burgeoning communication medium, these findings have important implications for developing prevention resources for different segments of GSN app users. PMID:27184573

  17. Keratinocytes from APP/APLP2-deficient mice are impaired in proliferation, adhesion and migration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Siemes, Christina; Quast, Thomas; Kummer, Christiane; Wehner, Sven; Kirfel, Gregor; Mueller, Ulrike; Herzog, Volker . E-mail: Herzog@uni-bonn.de

    2006-07-01

    Growing evidence shows that the soluble N-terminal form (sAPP{alpha}) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) represents an epidermal growth factor fostering keratinocyte proliferation, migration and adhesion. APP is a member of a protein family including the two mammalian amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. In the mammalian epidermis, only APP and APLP2 are expressed. APP and APLP2-deficient mice die shortly after birth but do not display a specific epidermal phenotype. In this report, we investigated the epidermis of APP and/or APLP2 knockout mice. Basal keratinocytes showed reduced proliferation in vivo by about 40%. Likewise, isolated keratinocytes exhibited reduced proliferation rates in vitro, which could be completely rescued by either exogenously added recombinant sAPP{alpha}, or by co-culture with dermal fibroblasts derived from APP knockout mice. Moreover, APP-knockout keratinocytes revealed reduced migration velocity resulting from severely compromised cell substrate adhesion. Keratinocytes from double knockout mice died within the first week of culture, indicating essential functions of APP-family members for survival in vitro. Our data indicate that sAPP{alpha} has to be considered as an essential epidermal growth factor which, however, in vivo can be functionally compensated to a certain extent by other growth factors, e.g., factors released from dermal fibroblasts.

  18. Novel N-terminal Cleavage of APP Precludes Aβ Generation in ACAT-Defective AC29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Henri J.; Puglielli, Luigi; Ellis, Blake C.; Ingano, Laura A. MacKenzie

    2009-01-01

    A common pathogenic event that occurs in all forms of Alzheimer’s disease is the progressive accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in brain regions responsible for higher cognitive functions. Inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), which generates intracellular cholesteryl esters from free cholesterol and fatty acids, reduces the biogenesis of the Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Here we have used AC29 cells, defective in ACAT activity, to show that ACAT activity steers APP either toward or away from a novel proteolytic pathway that replaces both α and the amyloidogenic β cleavages of APP. This alternative pathway involves a novel cleavage of APP holoprotein at Glu281, which correlates with reduced ACAT activity and Aβ generation in AC29 cells. This sterol-dependent cleavage of APP occurs in the endosomal compartment after internalization of cell surface APP. The resulting novel C-terminal fragment APP-C470 is destined to proteasomal degradation limiting the availability of APP for the Aβ generating system. The proportion of APP molecules that are directed to the novel cleavage pathway is regulated by the ratio of free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in cells. These results suggest that subcellular cholesterol distribution may be an important regulator of the cellular fate of APP holoprotein and that there may exist several competing proteolytic systems responsible for APP processing within the endosomal compartment. PMID:18618086

  19. APP and APLP2 interact with the synaptic release machinery and facilitate transmitter release at hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    Fanutza, Tomas; Del Prete, Dolores; Ford, Michael J; Castillo, Pablo E; D’Adamio, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause familial Alzheimer’s disease, interacts with the synaptic release machinery, suggesting a role in neurotransmission. Here we mapped this interaction to the NH2-terminal region of the APP intracellular domain. A peptide encompassing this binding domain -named JCasp- is naturally produced by a γ-secretase/caspase double-cut of APP. JCasp interferes with the APP-presynaptic proteins interaction and, if linked to a cell-penetrating peptide, reduces glutamate release in acute hippocampal slices from wild-type but not APP deficient mice, indicating that JCasp inhibits APP function.The APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) also binds the synaptic release machinery. Deletion of APP and APLP2 produces synaptic deficits similar to those caused by JCasp. Our data support the notion that APP and APLP2 facilitate transmitter release, likely through the interaction with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Given the link of APP to Alzheimer’s disease, alterations of this synaptic role of APP could contribute to dementia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09743.001 PMID:26551565

  20. APP and APLP2 interact with the synaptic release machinery and facilitate transmitter release at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Fanutza, Tomas; Del Prete, Dolores; Ford, Michael J; Castillo, Pablo E; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2015-11-09

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause familial Alzheimer's disease, interacts with the synaptic release machinery, suggesting a role in neurotransmission. Here we mapped this interaction to the NH2-terminal region of the APP intracellular domain. A peptide encompassing this binding domain -named JCasp- is naturally produced by a γ-secretase/caspase double-cut of APP. JCasp interferes with the APP-presynaptic proteins interaction and, if linked to a cell-penetrating peptide, reduces glutamate release in acute hippocampal slices from wild-type but not APP deficient mice, indicating that JCasp inhibits APP function.The APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) also binds the synaptic release machinery. Deletion of APP and APLP2 produces synaptic deficits similar to those caused by JCasp. Our data support the notion that APP and APLP2 facilitate transmitter release, likely through the interaction with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Given the link of APP to Alzheimer's disease, alterations of this synaptic role of APP could contribute to dementia.

  1. Assessing Self-Control and Geosocial Networking App Behavior Among an Online Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Beymer, Matthew R; Rossi, Aimee Drolet; Shu, Suzanne B

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking phone applications (GSN apps) used to meet sexual partners have become popular in the men who have sex with men (MSM) communities of the USA since 2009. Previous studies have shown greater incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia and lower testing frequency for HIV testing among GSN app users when compared to non-users. The present study aims to determine the type, number, and frequency of apps used, as well as the association between dispositional self-control and health-related behaviors. Participants (n = 146) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk program to respond to a brief GSN app marketing survey. Multivariate regression was used to determine differences in app priorities, length of app use, and number of sexual partners between high self-control and low self-control participants. A majority of the participants reported using Grindr (78 %) followed by Scruff (19 %), Growlr (12 %), and Jack'd (12 %). Most individuals used one app only (58 %), but a significant proportion reported using two apps (28 %) or three or more apps (14 %). Respondents with low self-control were more likely to report a higher number of hours using GSN apps and a higher number of sexual partners, controlling for race/ethnicity, education, employment, and HIV status. Given the popularity of this burgeoning communication medium, these findings have important implications for developing prevention resources for different segments of GSN app users.

  2. A Survey on the Willingness to Use Physical Activity Smartphone Applications (Apps) in Patients with Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liu; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Zhang, Yiling; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the willingness of using physical activity smartphone apps among patients with chronic diseases. 218 outpatients from a tertiary hospital in Beijing were involved using a questionnaire. Over half of the patients (53.7%) were willing to use smartphone apps to promote physical activities. The individuals more likely to use physical activity apps tended to be younger (≤44 years), be more educated, perceiving their disease need exercise instruction or professional support, current smartphone user, having previous experience of using physical activity apps, and accepting paid apps (P<0.05). The results could help health educator suggest chronic disease patients to use apps to do more exercises. Further research could be focus on evaluate the effects of using physical activity apps in chronic disease patients. PMID:27332468

  3. Cloning of two cDNAs encoding a family of ATP sulfurylase from Camellia sinensis related to selenium or sulfur metabolism and functional expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Deng, Wei-Wei; Ye, Ai-Hua; Yu, Mei; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Jiang, Chang-Jun

    2008-01-01

    ATP sulfurylase, the first enzyme in the sulfate assimilation pathway of plants, catalyzes the formation of adenosine phosphosulfate from ATP and sulfate. Here we report the cloning of two cDNAs encoding ATP sulfurylase (APS1 and APS2) from Camellia sinensis. They were isolated by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR reactions. The expression of APS1 and APS2 are correlated with the presence of ATP sulfurylase enzyme activity in cell extracts. APS1 is a 1415-bp cDNA with an open reading frame predicted to encode a 360-amino acid, 40.5kD protein; APS2 is a 1706-bp cDNA with an open reading frame to encode a 465-amino acid, 51.8kD protein. The predicted amino acid sequences of APS1 and APS2 have high similarity to ATP sulfurylases of Medicago truncatula and Solanum tuberosum, with 86% and 84% identity respectively. However, they share only 59.6% identity with each other. The enzyme extracts prepared from recombinant Escherichia coli containing Camellia sinensis APS genes had significant enzyme activity.

  4. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. PMID:26322853

  5. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system.

  6. Low conservation and species-specific evolution of alternative splicing in humans and mice: comparative genomics analysis using well-annotated full-length cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sakate, Ryuichi; Sato, Yoshiharu; Seki, Masahide; Irie, Takuma; Takeuchi, Nono; Ueda, Takuya; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Sugano, Sumio; Gojobori, Takashi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    Using full-length cDNA sequences, we compared alternative splicing (AS) in humans and mice. The alignment of the human and mouse genomes showed that 86% of 199 426 total exons in human AS variants were conserved in the mouse genome. Of the 20 392 total human AS variants, however, 59% consisted of all conserved exons. Comparing AS patterns between human and mouse transcripts revealed that only 431 transcripts from 189 loci were perfectly conserved AS variants. To exclude the possibility that the full-length human cDNAs used in the present study, especially those with retained introns, were cloning artefacts or prematurely spliced transcripts, we experimentally validated 34 such cases. Our results indicate that even retained-intron type transcripts are typically expressed in a highly controlled manner and interact with translating ribosomes. We found non-conserved AS exons to be predominantly outside the coding sequences (CDSs). This suggests that non-conserved exons in the CDSs of transcripts cause functional constraint. These findings should enhance our understanding of the relationship between AS and species specificity of human genes. PMID:18838389

  7. Insect insulin receptors: insights from sequence and caste expression analyses of two cloned hymenopteran insulin receptor cDNAs from the fire ant.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-L; Pietrantonio, Patricia V

    2011-10-01

    The insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling (IIS) pathway in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) is linked to reproductive division of labour and foraging behaviour. Two insulin receptor genes are present in the released genomes of other social hymenopterans. Limited information is available on the IIS pathway role in ants. The predicted insulin receptor sequences from the recently released draft genome of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are incomplete and biologically significant data are also lacking. To elucidate the role of the IIS pathway in the fire ant, two putative insulin receptors (SiInR-1 and SiInR-2) were cloned; the first InR cDNAs cloned from social insects. Analyses of putative post-translational modification sites in SiInRs revealed the potential for differential regulation. We investigated the transcriptional expression of both receptors at different developmental stages, castes and queen tissues. In last instar larvae and pharate pupae of workers and reproductive, transcriptional abundance of both receptors was negatively correlated with body size and nutritional status. The expression level of both receptors in different queen tissues appears to correlate with requirements for queen reproductive physiology and behaviours. This study contributes new information to the understanding of social insects because in fire ants juvenile hormone acts as a gonadotropin and workers are fully sterile, contrary to honey bees.

  8. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding S-RNases from almond (Prunus dulcis): primary structural features and sequence diversity of the S-RNases in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, K; Sassa, H; Tao, R; Yamane, H; Dandekar, A M; Gradziel, T M; Hirano, H

    1998-11-01

    cDNAs encoding three S-RNases of almond (Prunus dulcis), which belongs to the family Rosaceae, were cloned and sequenced. The comparison of amino acid sequences between the S-RNases of almond and those of other rosaceous species showed that the amino acid sequences of the rosaceous S-RNases are highly divergent, and intra-subfamilial similarities are higher than inter-subfamilial similarities. Twelve amino acid sequences of the rosaceous S-RNases were aligned to characterize their primary structural features. In spite of their high level of diversification, the rosaceous S-RNases were found to have five conserved regions, C1, C2, C3, C5, and RC4 which is Rosaceae-specific conserved region. Many variable sites fall into one region, named RHV. RHV is located at a similar position to that of the hypervariable region a (HVa) of the solanaceous S-RNases, and is assumed to be involved in recognizing S-specificity of pollen. On the other hand, the region corresponding to another solanaceous hypervariable region (HVb) was not variable in the rosaceous S-RNases. In the phylogenetic tree of the T2/S type RNase, the rosaceous S-RNase fall into two subfamily-specific groups (Amygdaloideae and Maloideae). The results of sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis imply that the present S-RNases of Rosaceae have diverged again relatively recently, after the divergence of subfamilies. PMID:9862480

  9. Characterization of two fungal-elicitor-induced rice cDNAs encoding functional homologues of the rab-specific GDP-dissociation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Kim, C Y; Cheong, N E; Choi, Y O; Lee, K O; Lee, S H; Park, J B; Nakano, A; Bahk, J D; Cho, M J; Lee, S Y

    1999-11-01

    By using the mRNA differential display approach to isolate defense signaling genes active at the early stage of fungal infection two cDNA fragments with high sequence homology to rab-specific GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) were identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.) suspension cells. Using polymerase-chain-reaction products as probes, two full-length cDNA clones were isolated from a cDNA library of fungal-elicitor-treated rice, and designated as OsGDI1 and OsGDI2. The deduced amino acid sequences of the isolated cDNAs exhibited substantial homology to Arabidopsis rab-GDIs. Northern analysis revealed that transcripts detected with the 3'-gene-specific DNA probes accumulated to high levels within 30 min after treatment with a fungal elicitor derived from Magnaporthe grisea. The functionality of the OsGDIs was demonstrated by their ability to rescue the Sec19 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is defective in vesicle transport. The proteins, expressed in Escherchia coli, cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody prepared against bovine rab-GDI. Like bovine rab-GDI, the OsGDI proteins efficiently dissociated rab3A from bovine synaptic membranes. Using the two-hybrid system, it was shown that the OsGDIs specifically interact with the small GTP-binding proteins belonging to the rab subfamily. The specific interaction was also demonstrated in vitro by glutathione S-transferase resin pull-down assay.

  10. Isolation of 10 differentially expressed cDNAs in p53-induced apoptosis: activation of the vertebrate homologue of the drosophila seven in absentia gene.

    PubMed Central

    Amson, R B; Nemani, M; Roperch, J P; Israeli, D; Bougueleret, L; Le Gall, I; Medhioub, M; Linares-Cruz, G; Lethrosne, F; Pasturaud, P; Piouffre, L; Prieur, S; Susini, L; Alvaro, V; Millasseau, P; Guidicelli, C; Bui, H; Massart, C; Cazes, L; Dufour, F; Bruzzoni-Giovanelli, H; Owadi, H; Hennion, C; Charpak, G; Telerman, A

    1996-01-01

    We report the isolation of 10 differentially expressed cDNAs in the process of apoptosis induced by the p53 tamor suppressor. As a global analytical method, we performed a differential display of mRNA between mouse M1 myeloid leukemia cells and derived clone LTR6 cells, which contain a stably transfected temperature-sensitive mutant of p53. At 32 degrees C wild-type p53 function is activated in LTR6 cells, resulting in programmed cell death. Eight genes are activated (TSAP; tumor suppressor activated pathway), and two are inhibited (TSIP, tumor suppressor inhibited pathway) in their expression. None of the 10 sequences has hitherto been recognized as part of the p53 signaling pathway. Three TSAPs are homologous to known genes. TSAP1 corresponds to phospholipase C beta 4. TSAP2 has a conserved domain homologous to a multiple endocrine neoplasia I (ZFM1) candidate gene. TSAP3 is the mouse homologue of the Drosophila seven in absentia gene. These data provide novel molecules involved in the pathway of wild-type p53 activation. They establish a functional link between a homologue of a conserved developmental Drosophila gene and signal transduction in tumor suppression leading to programmed cell death. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8632996

  11. Development of full-length cDNAs from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa Subsp. pekinensis) and identification of marker genes for defence response.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Issei; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Shin-I, Sadasu; Narusaka, Mari; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    Arabidopsis belongs to the Brassicaceae family and plays an important role as a model plant for which researchers have developed fine-tuned genome resources. Genome sequencing projects have been initiated for other members of the Brassicaceae family. Among these projects, research on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) started early because of strong interest in this species. Here, we report the development of a library of Chinese cabbage full-length cDNA clones, the RIKEN BRC B. rapa full-length cDNA (BBRAF) resource, to accelerate research on Brassica species. We sequenced 10 000 BBRAF clones and confirmed 5476 independent clones. Most of these cDNAs showed high homology to Arabidopsis genes, but we also obtained more than 200 cDNA clones that lacked any sequence homology to Arabidopsis genes. We also successfully identified several possible candidate marker genes for plant defence responses from our analysis of the expression of the Brassica counterparts of Arabidopsis marker genes in response to salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. We compared gene expression of these markers in several Chinese cabbage cultivars. Our BBRAF cDNA resource will be publicly available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center and will help researchers to transfer Arabidopsis-related knowledge to Brassica crops.

  12. Cloning of the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gene: Identification of cDNAs associated with CpG islands mapped near translocation breakpoint in two female patients

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D.; Kere, J.

    1994-09-01

    The gene for the X chromosomal developmental disorder anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) has been mapped to Xq12-q13 by linkage analysis and is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving band Xq12-q13. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig (2.0 Mb) spanning two translocation breakpoints has been assembled by sequence-tagged site (STS)-based chromosomal walking. The two translocation breakpoints (X:autosome translocations from the affected female patients) have been mapped less than 60 kb apart within a YAC contig. Unique probes and intragenic STSs (mapped between the two translocations) have been developed and a somatic cell hybrid carrying the translocated X chromosome from the AK patient has been analyzed by isolating unique probes that span the breakpoint. Several STSs made from intragenic sequences have been found to be conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, but we have detected no mRNAs in a number of tissues tested. However, a probe and STS developed from the DNA spanning the AK breakpoint is conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, and we have detected expressed sequences in skin cells and cDNA libraries. In addition, unique sequences have been obtained from two CpG islands in the region that maps proximal to the breakpoints. cDNAs containing these sequences are being studied as candidates for the gene affected in the etiology of EDA.

  13. Characterization of cDNAs encoding two distinct miraculin-like proteins and stress-related modulation of the corresponding mRNAs in Citrus jambhiri lush.

    PubMed

    Tsukuda, Shintaro; Gomi, Kenji; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2006-01-01

    Two distinct full-length cDNAs from rough lemon that encoded miraculin-like proteins were isolated by random amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs), based on sequence information from subtractive PCR previously described, and designated as RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2. The transcripts of both RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2 were not detected in leaves, or stems but accumulated in fruits. Transcripts accumulated to higher levels in leaves after wounding, inoculation with conidia of Alternaria alternata, or treatment with methyl jasmonate vapors. Treatment with methyl salicylate antagonized the signaling pathway of wounding. Treatment with methyl salicylate at 2 h after wounding significantly reduced wounding-induced gene expression of both RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2. Protein products of these genes were obtained by using a prokaryotic expression system, and had protease inhibitor activity. RlemMLP2, but not RlemMLP1, contained a thaumatin motif, and only RlemMLP2 showed anti-fungal activity against Alternaria citri. Cellular localization analysis with RlemMLP1 or RlemMLP2 fused to a green fluorescence protein gene following transient translation using a particle bombardment in onion cells indicated that both RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2 were localized to the cytosol. These evidences revealed that rough lemon RlemMLPs are likely to have defensive function against pathogens at least when host cells are broken by their infections. PMID:16463104

  14. Characterization of cDNAs encoding the chick retinoic acid receptor gamma 2 and preferential distribution of retinoic acid receptor gamma transcripts during chick skin development.

    PubMed

    Michaille, J J; Blanchet, S; Kanzler, B; Garnier, J M; Dhouailly, D

    1994-12-01

    Retinoic acid receptors alpha, beta and gamma (RAR alpha, beta and gamma) are ligand-inductible transcriptional activators which belong to the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. At least two major isoforms (1 and 2) of each RAR arise by differential use of two promoters and alternative splicing. In mouse, the three RAR genes are expressed in stage- and tissue-specific patterns during embryonic development. In order to understand the role of the different RARs in chick, RAR gamma 2 cDNAs were isolated from an 8.5-day (stage 35 of Hamburger and Hamilton) chick embryo skin library. The deduced chick RAR gamma 2 amino acid sequence displays uncommon features such as 21 specific amino acid replacements, 12 of them being clustered in the amino-terminal region (domains A2 and B), and a truncated acidic carboxy-terminal region (F domain). However, the pattern of RAR gamma expression in chick embryo resembles that reported in mouse, particularly in skin where RAR gamma expression occurs in both the dermal and epidermal layers at the beginning of feather formation, and is subsequently restricted to the differentiating epidermal cells. Northern blot analysis suggests that different RAR gamma isoforms could be successively required during chick development.

  15. Insight into inhibition of the human amyloid beta protein precursor (APP: PDB ID ) using (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamine (LR) models: structure elucidation of a family of ZnX2-LR complexes.

    PubMed

    Basu Baul, Tushar S; Kundu, Sajal; Singh, Palwinder; Shaveta; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C

    2015-02-01

    The amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and its neurotoxic cleavage product amyloid beta (Aβ) are a cause of Alzheimer's disease and appear essential for neuronal development and cell homeostasis. Proteolytic processing of APP is influenced by metal ions and protein ligands, however the structural and functional mechanism of APP regulation is not known so far. In this context, molecular modeling studies were performed to understand the molecular behavior of (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamines (LR) with an E2 domain of the APP in its complex with zinc (APP; PDB ID: ). Docking results indeed confirmed that the LR interacts with Zn in the binding site of the protein between two α-helical chains. In view of these findings, LR was further investigated for complexation reactions with Zn(2+) in order to establish the structural models in solution and in the solid state. Five new Zn(2+) complexes of compositions viz. [Zn(Br)2(L2-Me)] (), [Zn(Br)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(i)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(NO3)2(L2-OMe)(H2O)] () and [Zn(L4-Me)2(H2O)2](NO3)2 () were synthesized and their structures were ascertained by microanalysis, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The zinc atom in complex exhibits a distorted tetrahedral geometry while the crystal structures of complexes and show distorted square pyramidal geometries. The zinc cation in and has an octahedral coordination environment, but in the zinc coordination geometry is less distorted. The Zn(ii) cations take part in one ( and ) or two () 5-membered metallacycles imposed by the NN or NNO chelation modes of LR. The significant intermolecular ππ interactions are also discussed.

  16. Usabilty Evaluation of a Prototype Mobile App for Health Management for Persons Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Rebecca; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown Iii, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Iribarren, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) have the potential to support self-management and improve health outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLWH). In this paper, we report on the final step in a three-stage user-centered design process for the development of a mHealth app for PLWH. We conducted a usability evaluation with 10 targeted end-users and a heuristic evaluation with 5 persons with informatics expertise to assess the usability of a prototype mHealth app for PLWH to manage their health. At the end of our usability evaluation, we finalized a Design Document that included the user interface design and functional specifications of the mHealth app. The functional areas which were identified at the end of our iterative process included: Communication, Reminders, Medication Logs, Lab Reports, Pharmacy Info, Nutrition and Fitness, Resources and Settings. PMID:27332247

  17. Development of an accommodative smartphone app for medical guidelines in pediatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Schmucker, Michael; Heid, Jörn; Haag, Martin

    2014-01-01

    One of the outcomes of a training concept for physicians and nurses concerning pediatric emergencies at the Heidelberg University Hospital was that the work and procedures in childhood emergencies could be simplified by replacing the existing paper-based guidelines with a smartphone app. Since the project funds for this were already used up, a group of students from the master program "Medical Informatics" of Heidelberg and Heilbronn Universities took over the development of the app. Particular attention was given to the need for compatibility with the variety of devices (device size and screen resolution) and platform independence. The guidelines themselves were scripted in HTML5, JavaScript and CSS (responsive web design); managed by a container programmed in Sencha Touch. Even though the app is not yet available in the App-Store due to the limited timeframe, the students gained a great deal of valuable experience in developing platform independent software for mobile devices. PMID:24825689

  18. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery. PMID:26917964

  19. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery. PMID:26917964

  20. Efficacy of three-dimensional visualization in mobile apps for patient education regarding orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pulijala, Y; Ma, M; Ju, X; Benington, P; Ayoub, A

    2016-09-01

    'Sur-face' is an interactive mobile app illustrating different orthognathic surgeries and their potential complications. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Sur-face by comparing two methods of delivering patient information on orthognathic surgeries and their related potential complications: a mobile app with interactive three-dimensional (3D) animations and a voice recording containing verbal instructions only. For each method, the participants' acquired knowledge was assessed using a custom-designed questionnaire. Participants in the 'app' group performed significantly better (P<0.0034) than those in the 'voice' group and retained more knowledge, suggesting that interactive visualizations play a key role in improving understanding of the orthognathic surgical procedure and its associated complications. This study emphasizes the impact of 3D visualizations in delivering information regarding orthognathic surgery and highlights the advantage of delivering validated patient information through mobile apps. PMID:27157633

  1. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery.

  2. Comparision and analysis of top 10 exercise android Apps in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Sun, Liu; Xu, Yahong; Xiao, Qian; Chang, Polun; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Medical guidelines highly recommend physical activity and aerobic exercise in the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease. The use of exercise-promoting application software may improve clinical outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. The study aimed to compare and analyze the functions of the top 10 exercise Android Apps which had more than 1,000,000 downloads from the main four Android App stores in mainland China. The results showed that most of these popular apps had pedometer, exercise plan preset, user data presentation, user encouragement and community sharing functions while a few of them had exercise video clips or animation support and wearable devices. Given these data, the conclusion is that these popular apps fulfill some of the functions recommended by medical guidelines, however, lack of some functions such as pre-exercise risk assessment, the exercise intensity recording, specific instructions by professionals, and monitoring functions for CVD patients.

  3. Efficacy of three-dimensional visualization in mobile apps for patient education regarding orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pulijala, Y; Ma, M; Ju, X; Benington, P; Ayoub, A

    2016-09-01

    'Sur-face' is an interactive mobile app illustrating different orthognathic surgeries and their potential complications. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Sur-face by comparing two methods of delivering patient information on orthognathic surgeries and their related potential complications: a mobile app with interactive three-dimensional (3D) animations and a voice recording containing verbal instructions only. For each method, the participants' acquired knowledge was assessed using a custom-designed questionnaire. Participants in the 'app' group performed significantly better (P<0.0034) than those in the 'voice' group and retained more knowledge, suggesting that interactive visualizations play a key role in improving understanding of the orthognathic surgical procedure and its associated complications. This study emphasizes the impact of 3D visualizations in delivering information regarding orthognathic surgery and highlights the advantage of delivering validated patient information through mobile apps.

  4. Acceptance Factors of Mobile Apps for Diabetes by Patients Aged 50 or Older: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Julius; Bellmann, Maike; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile apps for people with diabetes offer great potential to support therapy management, increase therapy adherence, and reduce the probability of the occurrence of accompanying and secondary diseases. However, they are rarely used by elderly patients due to a lack of acceptance. Objective We investigated the question “Which factors influence the acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older?” Particular emphasis was placed on the current use of mobile devices/apps, acceptance-promoting/-inhibiting factors, features of a helpful diabetes app, and contact persons for technical questions. This qualitative study was the third of three substudies investigating factors influencing acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older. Methods Guided interviews were chosen in order to get a comprehensive insight into the subjective perspective of elderly diabetes patients. At the end of each interview, the patients tested two existing diabetes apps to reveal obstacles in (first) use. Results Altogether, 32 patients with diabetes were interviewed. The mean age was 68.8 years (SD 8.2). Of 32 participants, 15 (47%) knew apps, however only 2 (6%) had already used a diabetes app within their therapy. The reasons reported for being against the use of apps were a lack of additional benefits (4/8, 50%) compared to current therapy management, a lack of interoperability with other devices/apps (1/8, 12%), and no joy of use (1/8, 12%). The app test revealed the following main difficulties in use: nonintuitive understanding of the functionality of the apps (26/29, 90%), nonintuitive understanding of the menu navigation/labeling (19/29, 66%), font sizes and representations that were too small (14/29, 48%), and difficulties in recognizing and pressing touch-sensitive areas (14/29, 48%). Furthermore, the patients felt the apps lacked individually important functions (11/29, 38%), or felt the functions that were offered were unnecessary for their own

  5. Mobile Health Apps to Facilitate Self-Care: A Qualitative Study of User Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kevin; Burford, Oksana; Emmerton, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Consumers are living longer, creating more pressure on the health system and increasing their requirement for self-care of chronic conditions. Despite rapidly-increasing numbers of mobile health applications (‘apps’) for consumers’ self-care, there is a paucity of research into consumer engagement with electronic self-monitoring. This paper presents a qualitative exploration of how health consumers use apps for health monitoring, their perceived benefits from use of health apps, and suggestions for improvement of health apps. Materials and Methods ‘Health app’ was defined as any commercially-available health or fitness app with capacity for self-monitoring. English-speaking consumers aged 18 years and older using any health app for self-monitoring were recruited for interview from the metropolitan area of Perth, Australia. The semi-structured interview guide comprised questions based on the Technology Acceptance Model, Health Information Technology Acceptance Model, and the Mobile Application Rating Scale, and is the only study to do so. These models also facilitated deductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Implicit and explicit responses not aligned to these models were analyzed inductively. Results Twenty-two consumers (15 female, seven male) participated, 13 of whom were aged 26–35 years. Eighteen participants reported on apps used on iPhones. Apps were used to monitor diabetes, asthma, depression, celiac disease, blood pressure, chronic migraine, pain management, menstrual cycle irregularity, and fitness. Most were used approximately weekly for several minutes per session, and prior to meeting initial milestones, with significantly decreased usage thereafter. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis reduced the data to four dominant themes: engagement in use of the app; technical functionality of the app; ease of use and design features; and management of consumers’ data. Conclusions The semi-structured interviews provided

  6. Exploring the Usability of a Mobile App for Adolescent Obesity Management

    PubMed Central

    Dowdall, Grainne; Burls, Amanda; Perry, Ivan J; Curran, Noirin

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global epidemic. Behavioral change approaches towards improving nutrition, increasing physical activity level, improving sleep, and reducing sitting time are recommended as best practices in adolescent obesity management. However, access to evidence-based treatment is limited and portable technologies such as mobile apps may provide a useful platform to deliver such lifestyle interventions. No evidence-based validated app exists for obesity intervention; therefore, a novel mobile app (Reactivate) was developed for use in the Temple Street W82GO Healthy Lifestyles Program (W82GO). Objective This study aimed to test the usability (technical effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) of the Reactivate mobile app in obese adolescents. Methods Ten adolescents (7 males and 3 females, aged 12-17 years) who had been treated for obesity (>98th percentile for body mass index) at the Temple Street Children's University Hospital were recruited. Participants were given 8 tasks to complete in order to test the technical effectiveness of the app. A research assistant timed the user while completing each task in order to test the relative user efficiency of the app (time-on-task). The tasks fell into 5 categories and required the user to enter personal settings, find and answer surveys, create a message, use the goal setting feature, and enter details regarding their weight and height. In exploration of user satisfaction, each participant completed the standardized software usability measurement inventory (SUMI), which measures 5 aspects of user satisfaction: efficiency, effect, helpfulness, controllability, and learnability. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the mean relative user efficiency and SUMI scores. Results Mean age was 14.26 (SD 1.58) years. All adolescents completed each of the tasks successfully. The mean relative user efficiency scores were two to three times that of an expert user. Users responded that they would use

  7. Mobile Phone App Aimed at Improving Iron Intake and Bioavailability in Premenopausal Women: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Lynn; Lim, Karen; Byrne, Linda K; Nowson, Caryl; Rigo, Manuela; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Booth, Alison O

    2015-01-01

    Background Low iron intake can lead to iron deficiency, which can result in impaired health and iron-deficiency anemia. A mobile phone app, combining successful dietary strategies to increase bioavailable iron with strategies for behavior change, such as goal setting, monitoring, feedback, and resources for knowledge acquisition, was developed with the aim to increase bioavailable iron intake in premenopausal women. Objective To evaluate the content, usability, and acceptability of a mobile phone app designed to improve intake of bioavailable dietary iron. Methods Women aged 18-50 years with an Android mobile phone were invited to participate. Over a 2-week period women were asked to interact with the app. Following this period, semistructured focus groups with participants were conducted. Focus groups were audio recorded and analyzed via an inductive open-coding method using the qualitative analysis software NVivo 10. Themes were identified and frequency of code occurrence was calculated. Results Four focus groups (n=26) were conducted (age range 19-36 years, mean 24.7, SD 5.2). Two themes about the app’s functionality were identified (frequency of occurrence in brackets): interface and design (134) and usability (86). Four themes about the app’s components were identified: goal tracker (121), facts (78), photo diary (40), and games (46). A number of suggestions to improve the interface and design of the app were provided and will inform the ongoing development of the app. Conclusions This research indicates that participants are interested in iron and their health and are willing to use an app utilizing behavior change strategies to increase intake of bioavailable iron. The inclusion of information about the link between diet and health, monitoring and tracking of the achievement of dietary goals, and weekly reviews of goals were also seen as valuable components of the app and should be considered in mobile health apps aimed at adult women. PMID:26416479

  8. Visualizing MARGINS Data in Undergraduate Courses using GeoMapApp (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, L. R.

    2009-12-01

    Undergraduates can explore continental margins and plate boundaries through two exercises, Profiling Earth's Surface using GeoMapApp and What Kind of Continental Margin am I? Active or Passive? Both activities introduce students to GeoMapApp, an easy-to-use mapping program focused on marine geology and geophysics developed at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. In the Profiling Earth's Surface exercise, students relate large-scale continental and oceanic landforms to lithospheric plates, the underlying asthenosphere, earthquakes, and volcanoes. After using GeoMapApp to create a profile showing elevation, students add additional geologic features by hand. In the What Kind of Continental Margin am I? activity, students use GeoMapApp to investigate earthquake data to locate subducting slabs; examine topographic data to determine volcanic arc locations relative to trenches; and integrate earthquake, volcano, and bathymetric data to distinguish between passive and active margins. A webinar recorded in the summer of 2009, Teaching with MARGINS Data and GeoMapApp, illustrates how to use this and two other related activities. Students in introductory-level courses are likely to take about an hour to complete each exercise. To use GeoMapApp, students must download the freely available software to their Mac or PC (www.geomapapp.org) and maintain an internet connection to access base maps and datasets. On-line tutorials describing specific GeoMapApp functions are available to assist both students and faculty. Both activities were created in direct response to the NSF-funded Mini-Lessons initiative to develop undergraduate teaching modules to utilize MARGINS resources, including scientific data and visualization tools such as GeoMapApp. The exercises and the webinar are part of the MARGINS Data in the Classroom collection available at the on-line Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College (serc.carleton.edu/margins).

  9. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region

    PubMed Central

    Kamino, Kouzin; Orr, Harry T.; Payami, Haydeh; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Alonso, Ma. Elisa; Pulst, Stefan M.; Anderson, Leojean; O'dahl, Sheldon; Nemens, Ellen; White, June A.; Sadovnick, Adele D.; Ball, Melvyn J.; Kaye, Jeffery; Warren, Andrew; McInnis, Melvin; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Sharma, Vikram; Kukull, Walter; Larson, Eric; Heston, Leonard L.; Martin, George M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    1992-01-01

    A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. A combination of direct sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis was used. Sporadic AD and normal controls were also examined by the same methods. Five sequence variants were identified. One variant at APP codon 693 resulted in a Glu→Gly change. This is the same codon as the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis–Dutch type Glu→Gln mutation. Another single-base change at APP codon 708 did not alter the amino acid encoded at this site. Two point mutations and a 6-bp deletion were identified in the intronic sequences surrounding exon 17. None of the variants could be unambiguously determined to be responsible for FAD. The larger families were also analyzed by testing for linkage of FAD to a highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (D21S210) that is tightly linked to APP. Highly negative LOD scores were obtained for the family groups tested, and linkage was formally excluded beyond θ = .10 for the Volga German kindreds, θ = .20 for early-onset non-Volga Germans, and θ = .10 for late-onset families. LOD scores for linkage of FAD to markers centromeric to APP (D21S1/S11, D21S13, and D21S215) were also negative in the three family groups. These studies show that APP mutations account for AD in only a small fraction of FAD kindreds. ImagesFigure 4p1009-a PMID:1415269

  10. Comparing applets and oranges: barriers to evidence-based practice for app-based psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Poor-quality pharmaceuticals and medical devices rarely make it to market; however, the same cannot be said for app-based interventions. With a high availability but low evidence base for mHealth, apps are an increasingly uncertain prospect to users and healthcare professionals alike. Although in a first-best situation, the burden of proof concerning app safety, clinical and cost-effectiveness 'should' ultimately lie with app developers; a number of barriers to evidence generation, including the fact that 'acceptable evidence' itself is largely open to interpretation, mean that it may be folly to expect this paucity of real-world effectiveness research to improve. While the health technology assessment of established therapeutic modalities including pharmaceuticals and talking therapies benefits from the existence of approved evaluative guidelines, unfortunately the same cannot be said for app-based interventions, specifically with regard to outcomes measurement. As such, it would seem that in order to prevent the comparative assessment of apps simply becoming an exercise comparing apples and oranges, there is a clear need for consensus and guidance for app developers, as to which patient-reported outcome measures, among the hundreds available, are of clinical use to those making decisions, and should therefore be used when developing app-based interventions. By negating the fear that any evidence collected may be of poor quality, we can reincentivise developers to engage in evidence generation, and in doing so, maximise the likelihood of evidence-based decision-making taking a firm hold. However, only by dispelling the ambiguity around what acceptable evidence can and should look like, can we begin to do so. PMID:27431656

  11. APP expression, distribution and accumulation are altered by aluminum in a rodent model for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Walton, J R; Wang, M-X

    2009-11-01

    Up-regulated expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) occurs early in the cascade of events that leads to amyloid plaque formation in the human brain. APP gene up-regulation, mediated by activated NF-kappaB, is a response to stress from nM concentrations of aluminum ions, aluminum-disregulated iron ions, reactive-oxygen species, cytokines, and physical trauma. We examined in vivo effects of aluminum on APP in aged rats, obtained from previously-reported longitudinal studies, that chronically ingested aluminum in amounts equivalent to total dietary aluminum levels that Americans routinely ingest. These rats exhibited two outcomes: one group remained cognitively-intact, scoring as well on a memory-discrimination task in old age as in middle age. The other developed cognitive deterioration, obtaining significantly lower mean performance scores in old age than in middle age and exhibiting abnormal behaviors associated with dementia. We compared the expression, distribution and accumulation of APP in hippocampal and cortical tissue of these two rat groups. Compared to results from cognitively-intact rats, hippocampal and cortical tissue from the cognitively-deteriorated rats showed elevated APP gene expression, significantly more dense APP deposits in cytoplasm of neural cells, and APP-immunoreactive neurites that were swollen and varicose. This study shows aluminum routinely derived from chronic oral ingestion, that gradually accumulates in brain regions important for memory-processing, is sufficient to increase APP levels in neural cells of those regions. Aluminum may thus launch the cascade that results in the formation of amyloid plaques in human brain.

  12. APP/PS1 transgenic mice treated with aluminum: an update of Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Jia, L; Jiao, X; Guo, W L; Ji, J W; Yang, H L; Niu, Q

    2012-01-01

    There is still no animal model available that can mimic all the cognitive, behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological abnormalities observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We undertook to consider the interaction between genetic factors, including amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1), and environmental factors, such as Aluminum (Al) in determining susceptibility outcomes when studying the pathogenesis of AD. In this article, we provide an AD model in APP/PS1 transgenic mice triggered by Al. The animal model was established via intracerebral ventricular microinjection of aluminum chloride once a day for 5 days in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Twenty wild type (WT) mice and 20 APP/PS1 transgenic (TG) mice were separately divided into 2 groups (control and Al group), and a stainless steel injector with stopper was used for microinjection into the left-lateral cerebral ventricle of each mouse. The Morris water maze task was used to evaluate behavioral function of learning and memory ability on the 20th day after the last injection. This AD model's brain was analyzed by: (1) amyloid beta immunohistochemical staining; (2) Tunnel staining; (3) apoptotic rates; (4) caspase-3 gene expression. Here, decrease of cognitive ability and neural cells loss were shown in APP/PS1 transgenic mice exposed to Al, which were more extensive than those in APP/PS1 TG alone and WT mice exposed to Al alone. These findings indicate that there is a close relationship between over-expression of APP and PS1 genes and Al overload. It is also suggested that APP/PS1 TG mice exposed to Al have potential value for improving AD models.

  13. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Kamino, K.; Anderson, L.; O'dahl, S.; Nemens, E.; Bird, T.D.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Wijsman, E.M.; Kukall, W.; Larson, E. ); Heston, L.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. A combination of direct sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis was used. Sporadic AD and normal controls were also examined by the same methods. Five sequence variants were identified. One variant at APP codon 693 resulted in a Glu[yields]Gly change. This is the same codon as the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type Glu[yields]Gln mutation. Another single-base change at APP codon 708 did not alter the amino acid encoded at this site. Two point mutations and a 6-bp deletion were identified in the intronic sequences surrounding exon 17. None of the variants could be unambigously determined to be responsible for FAD. The larger families were also analyzed by testing for linkage of FAD to a highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (D21S210) that is tightly linked to APP. Highly negative LOD scores were obtained for the family groups tested, and linkage was formally excluded beyond [theta] = .10 for the Volga German kindreds, [theta] = .20 for early-onset non-Volga Germans, and [theta] = .10 for late-onset families. LOD scores for linkage of FAD to markers centromeric to APP (D21S1/S11, D21S13, and D21S215) were also negative in the three family groups. These studies show that APP mutations account for AD in only a small fraction of FAD kindreds. 49 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. NetMatchStar: an enhanced Cytoscape network querying app

    PubMed Central

    Rinnone, Fabio; Micale, Giovanni; Bonnici, Vincenzo; Bader, Gary D.; Shasha, Dennis; Ferro, Alfredo; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    We present NetMatchStar, a Cytoscape app to find all the occurrences of a query graph in a network and check for its significance as a motif with respect to seven different random models. The query can be uploaded or built from scratch using Cytoscape facilities. The app significantly enhances the previous NetMatch in style, performance and functionality. Notably NetMatchStar allows queries with wildcards. PMID:26594341

  15. Altered APP Carboxyl-Terminal Processing Under Ferrous Iron Treatment in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The key step in the generation of Aβ is cleavage of APP by beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Levels of BACE1 are increased in vulnerable regions of the AD brain, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we reported the effects of ferrous ions at subtoxic concentrations on the mRNA levels of BACE1 and a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in PC12 cells and the cell responses to ferrous ions. The cell survival in PC12 cells significantly decreased with 0 to 0.3 mM FeCl2, with 0.6 mM FeCl2 treatment resulting in significant reductions by about 75%. 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining showed that the nuclei appeared fragmented in 0.2 and 0.3 mM FeCl2. APP-α-carboxyl terminal fragment (APP-α-CTF) associations with ADAM10 and APP-β-CTF with BACE1 were increased. Levels of ADAM10 and BACE1 mRNA increased in response to the concentrations of 0.25 mM, respectively. In addition, p-ERK and p-Bad (S112, S155) expressions were increased, suggesting that APP-CTF formation is related to ADAM10/BACE1 expression. Levels of Bcl-2 protein were increased, but significant changes were not observed in the expression of Bax. These data suggest that ion-induced enhanced expression of AMDA10/BACE1 could be one of the causes for APP-α/β-CTF activation. PMID:23776394

  16. Developing an emergency ultrasound app - a collaborative project between clinicians from different universities.

    PubMed

    Foss, Kim Thestrup; Subhi, Yousif; Aagaard, Rasmus; Bessmann, Ebbe Lahn; Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Graumann, Ole; Laursen, Christian B; Weile, Jesper; Todsen, Tobias

    2015-06-20

    Focused emergency ultrasound is rapidly evolving as a clinical skill for bedside examination by physicians at all levels of education. Ultrasound is highly operator-dependent and relevant training is essential to ensure appropriate use. When supplementing hands-on focused ultrasound courses, e-learning can increase the learning effect. We developed an emergency ultrasound app to enable onsite e-learning for trainees. In this paper, we share our experiences in the development of this app and present the final product.

  17. Tethys: A Platform for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Support Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J.; Swain, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interactive nature of web applications or "web apps" makes it an excellent medium for conveying complex scientific concepts to lay audiences and creating decision support tools that harness cutting edge modeling techniques. However, the technical expertise required to develop web apps represents a barrier for would-be developers. This barrier can be characterized by the following hurdles that developers must overcome: (1) identify, select, and install software that meet the spatial and computational capabilities commonly required for water resources modeling; (2) orchestrate the use of multiple free and open source (FOSS) projects and navigate their differing application programming interfaces; (3) learn the multi-language programming skills required for modern web development; and (4) develop a web-secure and fully featured web portal to host the app. Tethys Platform has been developed to lower the technical barrier and minimize the initial development investment that prohibits many scientists and engineers from making use of the web app medium. It includes (1) a suite of FOSS that address the unique data and computational needs common to water resources web app development, (2) a Python software development kit that streamlines development, and (3) a customizable web portal that is used to deploy the completed web apps. Tethys synthesizes several software projects including PostGIS, 52°North WPS, GeoServer, Google Maps™, OpenLayers, and Highcharts. It has been used to develop a broad array of web apps for water resources modeling and decision support for several projects including CI-WATER, HydroShare, and the National Flood Interoperability Experiment. The presentation will include live demos of some of the apps that have been developed using Tethys to demonstrate its capabilities.

  18. Presentation of Anatomical Variations Using the Aurasma Mobile App.

    PubMed

    Hong, Trudy; Bézard, Georg; Lozanoff, Beth K; Labrash, Steven; Lozanoff, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations is critical to avoid clinical complications and it enables an understanding of morphogenetic mechanisms. Depictions are comprised of photographs or illustrations often limiting appreciation of three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for presenting anatomical variations utilizing video clips emphasizing 3D anatomical relationships delivered on personal electronic devices. An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) was an incidental finding in a routine dissection of an 89-year-old man cadaver during a medical student instructional laboratory. The specimen was photographed and physical measurements were recorded. Three-dimensional models were lofted and rendered with Maya software and converted as Quicktime animations. Photographs of the first frame of the animations were recorded and registered with Aurasma Mobile App software (www.aurasma.com). Resulting animations were viewed on mobile devices. The ARSA model can be manipulated on the mobile device enabling the student to view and appreciate spatial relationships. Model elements can be de-constructed to provide even greater spatial resolution of anatomical relationships. Animations provide a useful approach for visualizing anatomical variations. Future work will be directed at creating a library of variants and underlying mechanism of formation for presentation through the Aurasma application. PMID:26793410

  19. Presentation of Anatomical Variations Using the Aurasma Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Bézard, Georg; Lozanoff, Beth K; Labrash, Steven; Lozanoff, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations is critical to avoid clinical complications and it enables an understanding of morphogenetic mechanisms. Depictions are comprised of photographs or illustrations often limiting appreciation of three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for presenting anatomical variations utilizing video clips emphasizing 3D anatomical relationships delivered on personal electronic devices. An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) was an incidental finding in a routine dissection of an 89-year-old man cadaver during a medical student instructional laboratory. The specimen was photographed and physical measurements were recorded. Three-dimensional models were lofted and rendered with Maya software and converted as Quicktime animations. Photographs of the first frame of the animations were recorded and registered with Aurasma Mobile App software (www.aurasma.com). Resulting animations were viewed on mobile devices. The ARSA model can be manipulated on the mobile device enabling the student to view and appreciate spatial relationships. Model elements can be de-constructed to provide even greater spatial resolution of anatomical relationships. Animations provide a useful approach for visualizing anatomical variations. Future work will be directed at creating a library of variants and underlying mechanism of formation for presentation through the Aurasma application. PMID:26793410

  20. Optimal processing for gel electrophoresis images: Applying Monte Carlo Tree Search in GelApp.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Ghezal, Ali; Hsueh, Ya-Chih; Boudier, Thomas; Gan, Samuel Ken-En; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2016-08-01

    In biomedical research, gel band size estimation in electrophoresis analysis is a routine process. To facilitate and automate this process, numerous software have been released, notably the GelApp mobile app. However, the band detection accuracy is limited due to a band detection algorithm that cannot adapt to the variations in input images. To address this, we used the Monte Carlo Tree Search with Upper Confidence Bound (MCTS-UCB) method to efficiently search for optimal image processing pipelines for the band detection task, thereby improving the segmentation algorithm. Incorporating this into GelApp, we report a significant enhancement of gel band detection accuracy by 55.9 ± 2.0% for protein polyacrylamide gels, and 35.9 ± 2.5% for DNA SYBR green agarose gels. This implementation is a proof-of-concept in demonstrating MCTS-UCB as a strategy to optimize general image segmentation. The improved version of GelApp-GelApp 2.0-is freely available on both Google Play Store (for Android platform), and Apple App Store (for iOS platform).