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Sample records for app cdnas molecular

  1. Porcine APP cDNAs: molecular cloning and characterization, expression analysis, chromosomal localization and SNP analysis.

    PubMed

    Oerum, Marianne Abildgaard; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Larsen, Knud

    2006-07-01

    The human amyloid precursor protein (APP) is the precursor of Abeta, a peptide with the potential to create amyloid plaques in neurons. Mutations in the human APP gene are associated with the familial form of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, differential expression of three alternative pre-mRNA APP splicing variants of 695, 751, and 770 amino acids is linked to the pathogenesis. In this study, two novel transcript variants of porcine APP have been identified, producing isoforms of 695 and 751 amino acids, respectively. These are highly homologous to APP orthologues from other vertebrate species. Expression analyses revealed that the gene is expressed in all 30 examined porcine tissues and in a selected subset of these, differential representation of the three major APP transcript variants was observed. The APP isoform of 770 amino acids clearly predominates in non-neuronal tissues while in porcine cerebellum, the APP isoforms of 695 and 770 amino acids are expressed at equivalent levels. Employing a somatic cell hybrid panel, the APP gene was mapped to porcine chromosome 13 in either the 13q41 or 13q46-q49 region. A large pig population was screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APP exon 17 and flanking intron sequences. No missense mutations were detected; however, the allele frequencies of two silent mutations and two intron polymorphisms varied significantly among breeds.

  2. The molecular cloning and expression of two CRABP cDNAs from human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, M.S.; Oleksiak, M.F.; McQuaid, T.J.; McAfee, S.G.; Gilchrest, B.A. Boston Univ., MA )

    1992-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is known to have a profound effect on the growth and differentiation of human epidermal cells in vivo and in vitro. One of the proteins thought to be involved in mediating the action of RA is the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP). The authors have used PCR technology to generate cDNAs for two distinct CRABPs from human skin and skin-derived cells. One is highly homologous to the CRABPI cDNAs previously cloned from bovine and murine sources. The second shares extensive deduced amino acid homology with CRABP II, a protein recently described in newborn rat and embryonic chick. Although both mRNAs can be detected in neonatal foreskin, CRABP II mRNA is the predominant one in this tissue, as well as in cultured newborn fibroblasts and keratinocytes. They conclude that CRABP II is the predominant CRABP in human skin, at least in the newborn period, and that it is differentially regulated in fibroblasts versus keratinocytes. The data are consistent with a role for CRABP in regulating the amount of RA delivered to the nucleus.

  3. Molecular cloning of the cDNAs encoding three somatostatin variants in the dogfish (Scylorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Quan, Feng B; Kenigfest, Natalia B; Mazan, Sylvie; Tostivint, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the somatostatin gene family was likely composed of at least three paralogous genes in the common ancestor of all extant jawed vertebrates. These three genes, namely SS1, SS2 and SS5, are thought to have been generated through the two rounds of whole-genome duplications (2R) that took place early during the vertebrate evolution. In the present study, we report the cloning of three distinct somatostatin cDNAs from the dogfish Scylorhinus canicula, a member of the group of cartilaginous fish. We decided to call these cDNAs, at least provisionally, SSa, SSb and SSc, respectively. Two of them, SSa and SSb, encode proteins that both contain the same tetradecapeptide sequence at their C-terminal extremity (AGCKNFFWKTFTSC). This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrate species. The last cDNA, SSc, encodes a protein that contains at its C-terminal extremity the same peptide sequence as that generated by the SS2 gene in teleosts (APCKNFFWKTFTSC). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the SSa and SSc genes likely correspond to the dogfish counterparts of the SS1 and SS2 genes, respectively. In contrast, the phylogenetic status of the SSb gene is less clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that it could correspond to the SS5 gene, but this view will need to be confirmed, for example by synteny analysis. Finally, RT-PCR analysis revealed that SSa, SSb and SSc genes are differentially expressed in dogfish tissues, suggesting that the corresponding peptides may exert distinct functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequencing cDNAs: An Introduction to DNA Sequence Analysis in the Undergraduate Molecular Genetics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galewsky, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a series of molecular genetics laboratories where students pick a single colony from a Drosophila melanogester embryo cDNA library and purify the plasmid, then analyze the insert through restriction digests and gel electrophoresis. (Author/YDS)

  5. Sequencing cDNAs: An Introduction to DNA Sequence Analysis in the Undergraduate Molecular Genetics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galewsky, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a series of molecular genetics laboratories where students pick a single colony from a Drosophila melanogester embryo cDNA library and purify the plasmid, then analyze the insert through restriction digests and gel electrophoresis. (Author/YDS)

  6. Molecular cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding insecticidal peptides from the primitive hunting spider, Plectreurys tristis (Simon).

    PubMed

    Leisy, D J; Mattson, J D; Quistad, G B; Kramer, S J; Van Beek, N; Tsai, L W; Enderlin, F E; Woodworth, A R; Digan, M E

    1996-05-01

    Plectreurys tristis cephalothorax mRNA was isolated and amplified by PCR using degenerate primers corresponding to reverse translated mature Plt-VI toxin. An oligonucleotide corresponding to a portion of the amplified product was then used to screen a P. tristis cDNA library. The cDNAs from 10 positive clones were sequenced. Eight of these cDNAs corresponded to Plt-VI toxin, one to Plt-XI toxin, and one was very similar to Plt-VIII toxin, with the exception of a single amino acid substitution. Analysis of these cDNAs indicated that these toxins are initially synthesized as prepro-forms which undergo signal cleavage followed by additional processing at both their N- and C-termini to produce the mature products.

  7. Arthropod hemocyanins. Molecular cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the tarantula hemocyanin subunits a and e.

    PubMed

    Voit, R; Feldmaier-Fuchs, G

    1990-11-15

    cDNA clones comprising the entire coding region of two out of the seven heterogeneous subunits of hemocyanin from the tarantula, Eurypelma californicum, were isolated from four cDNA libraries constructed from total RNA from the heart tissue of single spiders. Hybridization was first carried out using a tarantula hemocyanin subunit e partial cDNA, and several positive clones were isolated, including one containing a 2.2-kilobase full-length cDNA (lambda M1). The cDNA comprises an open reading frame for 623 amino acids, 34 nucleotides of the 5'noncoding region, and 286 nucleotides of the 3'-noncoding region. To select for other hemocyanin subunits, two 17-mer oligonucleotide mixtures, corresponding to the conserved regions in the copper A and copper B oxygen-binding site of chelicerate hemocyanins, were used as probes. Among the positive clones obtained, full-length cDNAs coding for subunit a were identified. The cDNA sequence determined from clone lambda K1 provides an open reading frame coding for 630 amino acids and includes the 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions. Northern blot analysis revealed single transcripts for subunits a and e, each 2.3 kilobases long. The cDNAs for subunits a and e were both found to lack any leader peptide sequence. This supports the idea that the mature protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and is released by cell rupture.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs of the superoxide dismutase gene family in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Elena; Rashkova, Maya; Anachkov, Nikolay; Denev, Iliya; Toneva, Valentina; Minkov, Ivan; Yahubyan, Galina

    2012-06-01

    Resurrection plants can tolerate almost complete water loss in their vegetative parts. The superoxide dismutases (SODs) are essential enzymes of defense against the oxidative damage caused by water stress. Here, we cloned and characterized cDNAs of the SOD gene family in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis. Seven full-length cDNAs, and their partial genomic clones, were obtained by combination of degenerate PCR, RT-PCR and RACE. The derived amino acid sequences exhibited a very high degree of similarity to cytosolic Cu,Zn-SODs (HrCSD2, HrCSD3), chloroplastic Cu,Zn-SODs (HrCSD5), other Cu,Zn-SODs (HrCSD4), Mn-SODs (HrMSD) and Fe-SODs (HrFSD). One cDNA turned out to be a pseudogene (HrCSD1). All identified SOD genes were found expressed at transcriptional level--the HrCSD2, HrCSD5, HrMSD and HrFSD were constitutively expressed in all organs, while the HrCSD3 and HrCSD4 were organ-specific. The transcripts of the housekeeping SOD genes were detected at significant levels even in air-dry leaves. The multigene SOD family of H. rhodopensis is the first studied SOD family amongst resurrection plant species. Our finding of well expressed SOD transcripts in fully dehydrated leaves correlates with retention of SOD activity, and with the ability of H. rhodopensis to revive upon rehydration. Because of the endemic relict nature of that species, our findings may help to further elucidate the evolutionary relationships among different SOD isoforms from distinct plant species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular cloning of partial cDNAs for rat DNA topoisomerase II isoforms and their differential expression in brain development.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, K; Tsutsui, K; Okada, S; Watanabe, M; Shohmori, T; Seki, S; Inoue, Y

    1993-09-05

    cDNA segments for DNA topoisomerase II were amplified from rat brain RNA after reverse transcription by the polymerase chain reaction, using degenerate oligonucleotide primers deduced from the conserved regions of topoisomerase II of higher eukaryotes. The cDNA product from a successful amplification was homogeneous in length but heterogeneous in sequence. Restriction mapping of the cloned cDNA fragments revealed that they consisted of two distinct sequence groups. DNA sequencing of representative clones from each group, designated A and B, showed that they are highly homologous to cDNAs of human topoisomerase II isoforms, alpha and beta, respectively. Northern blot analysis indicated that the transcript level for rat topoisomerase II alpha was high in embryonic brain and in the cerebellum of 2-day newborns, followed by rapid decrease to a undetectable level at 4 weeks after birth. In contrast, rat topoisomerase II beta transcript was present throughout the embryonic and postnatal stages. In the developing cerebellum, cells expressing topoisomerase II alpha were confirmed exclusively to the outer mitotic zone of the external granular layer, whereas the transcript of topoisomerase II beta was detected over the entire cortical region. These results clearly indicate that the isoform alpha is expressed only in proliferating cells. The differential expression of topoisomerase II isozymes was also observed among developed tissues. Therefore, the isozymes are most likely to be involved in the following different physiological processes: topoisomerase II alpha in cell proliferation, and topoisomerase II beta in some processes unrelated to cell proliferation.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding hemoglobin from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud

    2003-06-11

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) are heme proteins encountered in all five kingdoms of living organisms. In plants, two different classes of Hbs have been identified: nonsymbiotic (class I) from both monocot and dicot species and symbiotic (class II) Hbs from nitrogen-fixing plants. This work reports the cloning and analysis of three nonsymbiotic Hb genes from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). The Hb cDNAs were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus oligonucleotide primers for nonsymbiotic Hbs.A wheat Hb cDNA (TaHb1) was isolated and shows a very high similarity to nonsymbiotic Hbs from Hordeum vulgare (98%) and Zea mays (83%). Another wheat Hb cDNA, designated TaHb2, exhibited strong similarity to truncated bacterial Hbs, the so-called 2-on-2 Hbs. In addition, a third Hb was cloned from potato, StHb. Expression analysis by RT-PCR demonstrated a very high expression level of the TaHb1 gene only in wheat roots. In contrast, the other wheat hemoglobin gene, TaHb2, was demonstrated to be constitutively expressed although differences in expression level in different tissues were observed. The expression of the TaHb1 gene is induced in wheat roots exposed to microaerobic conditions. The potato Hb gene, StHb, was highly expressed in roots and also in tubers and stem tissue although at much reduced levels.

  11. Molecular, biochemical and histochemical characterization of two acetylcholinesterase cDNAs from the German cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Kim, J I; Jung, C S; Koh, Y H; Lee, S H

    2006-08-01

    Full length cDNAs encoding two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; Bgace1 and Bgace2) were cloned and characterized from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Sequence analyses showed that both genes possess all the typical features of ace, and that Bgace1 is orthologous to the insect ace1 whereas Bgace2 is to the insect ace2. Transcript level of Bgace1 was significantly higher (c. 10 fold) than that of Bgace2 in all 11 tissues examined, suggesting that Bgace1 likely encodes a predominant AChE. Multiple AChE bands were identified by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectricfocusing from various tissue preparations, among which ganglia produced distinct two major and two minor AChE bands, indicative of the presence of at least two active AChEs. B. germanica AChEs appeared to be mainly localized in the central nervous system as demonstrated by histochemical activity staining, together with quantitative analysis of Bgace transcripts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the 1st thoracic ganglion confirmed that Bgace1 is predominantly transcribed and further showed that its transcript is found in almost entire region of inter or motor neurones including the cell bodies and axonal/dendritic branches. Bgace2 transcript is found only in the subset of neurones, particularly in the cell body. In addition, certain neurones were observed to express Bgace1 only.

  12. Molecular and functional characterization of cDNAs putatively encoding carboxylesterases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Ge, Pingting; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) belong to a superfamily of metabolic enzymes encoded by a number of genes and are widely distributed in microbes, plants and animals including insects. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotics, degradation of pheromones, regulation of neurodevelopment, and control of animal development. In this study, we characterized a total of 39 full-length cDNAs putatively encoding different CarEs from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most severe insect pests in many regions of the world, and evaluated the role of four CarE genes in insecticide detoxification. Our phylogenetic analysis grouped the 39 CarEs into five different clades including 20 CarEs in clade A, 3 in D, 13 in E, 1 in F and 2 in I. Four CarE genes (LmCesA3, LmCesA20, LmCesD1, LmCesE1), representing three different clades (A, D and E), were selected for further analyses. The transcripts of the four genes were detectable in all the developmental stages and tissues examined. LmCesA3 and LmCesE1 were mainly expressed in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules, whereas LmCesA20 and LmCesD1 were predominately expressed in the muscles and hemolymph, respectively. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesized from each of the four CarE genes followed by the bioassay with each of four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, carbaryl and deltamethrin) increased the nymphal mortalities by 37.2 and 28.4% in response to malathion after LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 were silenced, respectively. Thus, we proposed that both LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 played an important role in detoxification of malathion in the locust. These results are expected to help researchers reveal the characteristics of diverse CarEs and assess the risk of insecticide resistance conferred by CarEs in the locust and other insect species.

  13. A molecular dynamics study of the binary complexes of APP, JIP1, and the cargo binding domain of KLC.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Cooper A; Miller, Bill R; Shah, Soleil S; Parish, Carol A

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are responsible for the formation of amyloid-β peptides. These peptides play a role in Alzheimer's and other dementia-related diseases. The cargo binding domain of the kinesin-1 light chain motor protein (KLC1) may be responsible for transporting APP either directly or via interaction with C-jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 (JIP1). However, to date there has been no direct experimental or computational assessment of such binding at the atomistic level. We used molecular dynamics and free energy estimations to gauge the affinity for the binary complexes of KLC1, APP, and JIP1. We find that all binary complexes (KLC1:APP, KLC1:JIP1, and APP:JIP1) contain conformations with favorable binding free energies. For KLC1:APP the inclusion of approximate entropies reduces the favorability. This is likely due to the flexibility of the 42-residue APP protein. In all cases we analyze atomistic/residue driving forces for favorable interactions. Proteins 2017; 85:221-234. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Isolation and characterization of rat and human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNAs: genomic complexity and molecular evolution of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tso, J Y; Sun, X H; Kao, T H; Reece, K S; Wu, R

    1985-01-01

    Full length cDNAs encoding the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from rat and man have been isolated and sequenced. Many GAPDH gene-related sequences have been found in both genomes based on genomic blot hybridization analysis. Only one functional gene product is known. Results from genomic library screenings suggest that there are 300-400 copies of these sequences in the rat genome and approximately 100 in the human genome. Some of these related sequences have been shown to be processed pseudogenes. We have isolated several rat cDNA clones corresponding to these pseudogenes indicating that some pseudogenes are transcribed. Rat and human cDNAs are 89% homologous in the coding region, and 76% homologous in the first 100 base pairs of the 3'-noncoding region. Comparison of these two cDNA sequences with those of the chicken, Drosophila and yeast genes allows the analysis of the evolution of the GAPDH genes in detail. Images PMID:2987855

  15. Autism, Alzheimer disease, and fragile X: APP, FMRP, and mGluR5 are molecular links.

    PubMed

    Sokol, D K; Maloney, B; Long, J M; Ray, B; Lahiri, D K

    2011-04-12

    The present review highlights an association between autism, Alzheimer disease (AD), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). We propose a conceptual framework involving the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), Aβ precursor protein (APP), and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) based on experimental evidence. The anabolic (growth-promoting) effect of the secreted α form of the amyloid-β precursor protein (sAPPα) may contribute to the state of brain overgrowth implicated in autism and FXS. Our previous report demonstrated that higher plasma sAPPα levels associate with more severe symptoms of autism, including aggression. This molecular effect could contribute to intellectual disability due to repression of cell-cell adhesion, promotion of dense, long, thin dendritic spines, and the potential for disorganized brain structure as a result of disrupted neurogenesis and migration. At the molecular level, APP and FMRP are linked via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Specifically, mGluR5 activation releases FMRP repression of APP mRNA translation and stimulates sAPP secretion. The relatively lower sAPPα level in AD may contribute to AD symptoms that significantly contrast with those of FXS and autism. Low sAPPα and production of insoluble Aβ would favor a degenerative process, with the brain atrophy seen in AD. Treatment with mGluR antagonists may help repress APP mRNA translation and reduce secretion of sAPP in FXS and perhaps autism.

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two juvenile hormone esterase-like carboxylesterase cDNAs in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Zhao, Muzi; Deng, Yanfei; Yang, Yuanjie; Li, Xuguang; Lu, Quanping; Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianlin; Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Precise regulation of methyl farnesoate (MF) titer is of prime importance throughout the crustacean life-cycle. Although the synthetic pathway of MF is well-documented, little is known about its degradation and recycling in crustaceans. Juvenile hormone esterase-like (JHE-like) carboxylesterase (CXE) is a key enzyme in MF degradation, thus playing a significant role in regulating the MF titer. We identified and characterized two cDNAs, Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2, encoding JHE-like CXEs in Chinese mitten crab. Full-length cDNAs of Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2 encode proteins composed of 584 and 597 amino acids, respectively, both of which contain a typical carboxylesterase domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Es-CXEs are highly similar to those of other crustaceans. To further validate their functions, we evaluated the mRNA expression patterns of the Es-CXEs in various tissues and in different physiological conditions. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the two Es-CXEs were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and ovaries, which are the major tissues for MF metabolism. Es-CXE2 expression levels in the hepatopancreas and ovaries were about 100 and 25-fold higher, than the respective Es-CXE1 expressions. During ovarian rapid development stage, the global expressions of Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and down-regulated in the ovaries. After eyestalk ablation (ESA), the mRNA expressions of the two Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas, further indicating their potential in degrading MF. Taken together, our results suggest that Es-CXEs, the key component of the juvenile hormone degradation pathway, may play vital roles in the development and reproduction of the Chinese mitten crab. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase in Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanhong; Liu, Juan; Liang, Liang; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Zheng; Gao, Zhihui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jianhe

    2014-09-01

    Agarwood is an expensive resinous heartwood derived from Aquilaria plants that is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. The major constituents of agarwood oils are sesquiterpenes, which are obtained from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate precursors through the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and/or the cytosolic mevalonate pathway. 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) is the first rate-limiting enzyme for sesquiterpene synthesis in the MEP pathway. In this study, 3 cDNAs of DXS genes were cloned and characterized from the Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. These genes represent 3 phylogenetically distinct clades conserved among plants. Functional complementation in a DXS-deficient Escherichia coli strain EcAB4-2 demonstrated that they are active DXS, which rescued the E. coli mutant. Their expression profiles in different tissues and in response to different treatments were analyzed by real-time PCR. All 3 genes are highly expressed in stem, followed by leaf and root. AsDXS1 was significantly stimulated by mechanical, chemical, and H2O2 treatment, whereas AsDXS2 and AsDXS3 only responded to chemical treatment and mechanical treatment, respectively. All three genes were oscillation in respond to MJ treatment, with expression peaks occurring at different time points. Our results suggest the conservation of DXS in evolution and imply their distinct functions in primary and defensive sesquiterpene metabolism in A. sinensis.

  18. Molecular cloning of skin peptide precursor-encoding cDNAs from tibial gland secretion of the Giant Monkey Frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor (Hylidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    König, Enrico; Clark, Valerie C; Shaw, Chris; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P

    2012-12-01

    The skins of phyllomedusine frogs have long been considered as being tremendously rich sources of bioactive peptides. Previous studies of both peptides and cloning of their precursor encoding cDNAs have relied upon methanolic skin extracts or the dissected skins of recently deceased specimens and have not considered the different glands in isolation. We therefore focused our attention on the tibial gland of the Giant Monkey Frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor and constructed a cDNA library from the skin secretion that was obtained via mechanical stimulation of this macrogland. Using shotgun cloning, four precursors encoding host-defense peptides were identified: two archetypal dermaseptins, a phyllokinin and a phylloseptin that is new for this species but has been recently described from the Waxy Monkey Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagii. Our study is the first to report defensive peptides specifically isolated from anuran tibial glands, confirming the hypothesis that these glands also contribute to chemical defense. Moreover, the discovery of novel compounds for this otherwise very well characterized species suggests that this largely neglected gland might possess a different cocktail of secretions from glands elsewhere in the same animal. We will also discuss some evolutionary implications of our findings with respect to the adaptive plasticity of secretory glands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Tetrahymena metallothionein gene family: twenty-one new cDNAs, molecular characterization, phylogenetic study and comparative analysis of the gene expression under different abiotic stressors.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Patricia; Melgar, Laura María; Díaz, Silvia; Martín-González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-10

    Ciliate metallothioneins (MTs) are included in family 7 of the MT superfamily. This family has been divided into two main subfamilies: 7a or CdMTs and 7b or CuMTs. All ciliate MTs reported have been isolated from different Tetrahymena species and present unique features with regard to standard MTs. Likewise, an expression analysis has been carried out on some of MT genes under metal stress, corroborating their classification into two subfamilies. We isolated 21 new cDNAs from different Tetrahymena species to obtain a wider view of the biodiversity of these conserved genes. Structural analysis (cysteine patterns) and an updated phylogenetic study both corroborated the previous classification into two subfamilies. A new CuMT from a Tetrahymena-related species Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was also included in this general analysis. We detected a certain tendency towards the presentation of a CdMT tri-modular structure in Borealis group species with respect to Australis group. We report for the first time a semi-complete paralog duplication of a CdMT gene originating a new CdMT gene isoform in T. malaccensis. An asymmetry of the codon usage for glutamine residues was detected between Cd- and CuMTs, and the phylogenetic implications are discussed. A comparative gene expression analysis of several MT genes by qRT-PCR revealed differential behavior among them under different abiotic stressors in the same Tetrahymena species. The Tetrahymena metallothionein family represents a quite conserved protein structure group with unique features with respect to standard MTs. Both Cd- and CuMT subfamilies present very defined and differentiated characteristics at several levels: cysteine patterns, modular structure, glutamine codon usage and gene expression under metal stress, among others. Gene duplication through evolution seems to be the major genetic mechanism for creating new MT gene isoforms and increasing their functional diversity.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNAs encoding human alpha-mannosidase II and a previously unrecognized alpha-mannosidase IIx isozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Misago, M; Liao, Y F; Kudo, S; Eto, S; Mattei, M G; Moremen, K W; Fukuda, M N

    1995-01-01

    Golgi alpha-mannosidase II (alpha-MII) is an enzyme involved in the processing of N-linked glycans. Using a previously isolated murine cDNA clone as a probe, we have isolated cDNA clones encompassing the human alpha-MII cDNA open reading frame and initiated isolation of human genomic clones. During the isolation of genomic clones, genes related to that encoding alpha-MII were isolated. One such gene was found to encode an isozyme, designated alpha-MIIx. A 5-kb cDNA clone encoding alpha-MIIx was then isolated from a human melanoma cDNA library. However, comparison between alpha-MIIx and alpha-MII cDNAs suggested that the cloned cDNA encodes a truncated polypeptide with 796 amino acid residues, while alpha-MII consists of 1144 amino acid residues. To reevaluate the sequence of alpha-MIIx cDNA, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with lymphocyte mRNAs. Comparison of the sequence of PCR products with the alpha-MIIx genomic sequence revealed that alternative splicing of the alpha-MIIx transcript can result in an additional transcript encoding a 1139-amino acid polypeptide. Northern analysis showed transcription of alpha-MIIx in various tissues, suggesting that the alpha-MIIx gene is a housekeeping gene. COS cells transfected with alpha-MIIx cDNA containing the full-length open reading frame showed an increase of alpha-mannosidase activity. The alpha-MIIx gene was mapped to human chromosome 15q25, whereas the alpha-MII gene was mapped to 5q21-22. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8524845

  1. Molecular cloning and preliminary expression analysis of banded dogfish (Triakis scyllia) CC chemokine cDNAs by use of suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Endo, Mariko; Haruta, Chiaki; Nakai, Takeshi; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2005-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was carried out by using cDNAs of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) of banded dogfish (Triakis scyllia) after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation. The Trsc-SCYA107, MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 clones contained an open reading frame encoding 97, 99 and 97 amino acids, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acids showed that the banded dogfish MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 sequences shared 42.3% and 40.0% identity with human SCYA20, respectively, while the Trsc-SCYA107 sequence shared 50.6, 44.2 and 42.0% identity with the catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) Scca-SCYA107, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CK4A and CK4B, respectively. The genomic sequences of banded dogfish Trsc-SCYA107, MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 contain four exons and three introns, and MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 shared the same intron/exon organization with that of human. The MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-unstimulated banded dogfish were expressed in gill, kidney and liver, while Trsc-SCYA107 mRNA was detected in various tissues except for brain. However, the constitutive expression of MIP3alpha2 gene was much lower than the Trsc-SCYA107 and MIP3alpha1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of the Trsc-SCYA107 expression in tissues of LPS-stimulated fish showed enhanced expression at 24 h poststimulation in the gill, heart, leydig, spleen and testes, while the expression of MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 was not influenced by LPS-stimulation in vivo. Furthermore, a relative increase in the expression of the Trsc-SCYA107 and MIP3alpha2 genes in PWBCs was observed at 1-12 h poststimulation with PMA and LPS, with maximal expression observed at 3 h, while MIP3alpha1 expression was observed at 3-12 h poststimulation only with PMA.

  2. Design of a Tablet Computer App for Facilitation of a Molecular Blood Culture Test in Clinical Microbiology and Preliminary Usability Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C; Fuchs, Martin; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Hejlesen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Background User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular-based diagnostic test used for rapid identification of pathogens in positive blood cultures. To facilitate the workflow of the MuxBCT, a specialized tablet computer app was developed as an accessory to the diagnostic test. The app aims to reduce the complexity of the test by step-by-step guidance of microscopy and to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). Objective The objective of the study was to describe the design considerations of the MuxBCT app and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation. Methods The MuxBCT tablet app was developed and set up for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory. A near-live simulation study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory to evaluate the usability of the MuxBCT app. The study was designed to achieve a high degree of realism as participants carried out a scenario representing the context of use for the MuxBCT app. As the MuxBCT was under development, the scenario involved the use of molecular blood culture tests similar to the MuxBCT for identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the

  3. Design of a Tablet Computer App for Facilitation of a Molecular Blood Culture Test in Clinical Microbiology and Preliminary Usability Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samson, Lasse L; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C; Fuchs, Martin; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Hejlesen, Ole

    2016-03-18

    User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular-based diagnostic test used for rapid identification of pathogens in positive blood cultures. To facilitate the workflow of the MuxBCT, a specialized tablet computer app was developed as an accessory to the diagnostic test. The app aims to reduce the complexity of the test by step-by-step guidance of microscopy and to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). The objective of the study was to describe the design considerations of the MuxBCT app and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation. The MuxBCT tablet app was developed and set up for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory. A near-live simulation study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory to evaluate the usability of the MuxBCT app. The study was designed to achieve a high degree of realism as participants carried out a scenario representing the context of use for the MuxBCT app. As the MuxBCT was under development, the scenario involved the use of molecular blood culture tests similar to the MuxBCT for identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the participants were debriefed to

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone β-subunit cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Sevilhano, Thais; de Carvalho, Roberto Feitosa; Oliveira, Nélio Alessandro de Jesus; Oliveira, João Ezequiel; Maltarollo, Vinicius Gonçalves; Trossini, Gustavo; Garcez, Riviane; Bartolini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The common gonadotrophic hormone α-subunit (GTHα) has been previously isolated by our research group from A. gigas pituitaries; in the present work the cDNA sequences encoding FSHβ and LHβ subunits have also been isolated from the same species of fish. The FSH β-subunit consists of 126 amino acids with a putative 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 108 amino acid mature peptide, while the LH β-subunit consists of 141 amino acids with a putative 24 amino acid amino acid signal peptide and a 117 amino acid mature peptide. The highest identity, based on the amino acid sequences, was found with the order of Anguilliformes (61%) for FSHβ and of Cypriniformes (76%) for LHβ, followed by Siluriformes, 53% for FSHβ and 75% for LHβ. Interestingly, the identity with the corresponding human amino acid sequences was still remarkable: 45.1% for FSHβ and 51.4% for LHβ. Three dimensional models of ag-FSH and ag-LH, generated by using the crystal structures of h-FSH and h-LH as the respective templates and carried out via comparative modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggested the presence of the so-called “seat-belt”, favored by a disulfide bond formed between the 3rd and 12th cysteine in both β-subunits. The sequences found will be used for the biotechnological synthesis of A. gigas gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH). In a first approach, to ascertain that the cloned transcripts allow the expression of the heterodimeric hormones, ag-FSH has been synthesized in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, preliminarily purified and characterized. PMID:28846736

  5. Bottled SAFT: A Web App Providing SAFT-γ Mie Force Field Parameters for Thousands of Molecular Fluids.

    PubMed

    Ervik, Åsmund; Mejía, Andrés; Müller, Erich A

    2016-09-26

    Coarse-grained molecular simulation has become a popular tool for modeling simple and complex fluids alike. The defining aspects of a coarse grained model are the force field parameters, which must be determined for each particular fluid. Because the number of molecular fluids of interest in nature and in engineering processes is immense, constructing force field parameter tables by individually fitting to experimental data is a futile task. A step toward solving this challenge was taken recently by Mejía et al., who proposed a correlation that provides SAFT-γ Mie force field parameters for a fluid provided one knows the critical temperature, the acentric factor and a liquid density, all relatively accessible properties. Building on this, we have applied the correlation to more than 6000 fluids, and constructed a web application, called "Bottled SAFT", which makes this data set easily searchable by CAS number, name or chemical formula. Alternatively, the application allows the user to calculate parameters for components not present in the database. Once the intermolecular potential has been found through Bottled SAFT, code snippets are provided for simulating the desired substance using the "raaSAFT" framework, which leverages established molecular dynamics codes to run the simulations. The code underlying the web application is written in Python using the Flask microframework; this allows us to provide a modern high-performance web app while also making use of the scientific libraries available in Python. Bottled SAFT aims at taking the complexity out of obtaining force field parameters for a wide range of molecular fluids, and facilitates setting up and running coarse-grained molecular simulations. The web application is freely available at http://www.bottledsaft.org . The underlying source code is available on Bitbucket under a permissive license.

  6. APP Protein Family Signaling at the Synapse: Insights from Intracellular APP-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Guénette, Suzanne; Strecker, Paul; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying amyloid precursor protein family (APP/APP-like proteins, APLP) function in the nervous system can be achieved by studying the APP/APLP interactome. In this review article, we focused on intracellular APP interacting proteins that bind the YENPTY internalization motif located in the last 15 amino acids of the C-terminal region. These proteins, which include X11/Munc-18-interacting proteins (Mints) and FE65/FE65Ls, represent APP cytosolic binding partners exhibiting different neuronal functions. A comparison of FE65 and APP family member mutant mice revealed a shared function for APP/FE65 protein family members in neurogenesis and neuronal positioning. Accumulating evidence also supports a role for membrane-associated APP/APLP proteins in synapse formation and function. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that APP/APLP C-terminal interacting proteins transmit APP/APLP-dependent signals at the synapse. Herein, we compare our current knowledge of the synaptic phenotypes of APP/APLP mutant mice with those of mice lacking different APP/APLP interaction partners and discuss the possible downstream effects of APP-dependent FE65/FE65L or X11/Mint signaling on synaptic vesicle release, synaptic morphology and function. Given that the role of X11/Mint proteins at the synapse is well-established, we propose a model highlighting the role of FE65 protein family members for transduction of APP/APLP physiological function at the synapse.

  7. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of cDNAs encoding the thioredoxin-interacting protein and selenoprotein P genes and histological changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to silver nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Thummabancha, Kubpaphas; Onparn, Nuttaphon; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-02-15

    Herein, Nile tilapia thioredoxin-interacting protein (On-TXNIP) and selenoprotein P (On-SEPP) cDNAs were cloned and characterized. The full-length On-TXNIP cDNA contained 2 arrestin domains, 2 conserved cysteine residues that bind to thioredoxin to inhibit thioredoxin function, and 2 PPXY motifs, which negatively regulate the protein by stimulating binding to E3 ubiquitin ligase. The On-SEPP cDNA contained 17 selenocysteines (Sec) encoded by the TGA codon, which can be recognized as either a stop codon or a Sec codon. The On-SEPP cDNA also carried 2 typical SECIS elements located in the 3'UTR that are important for selenocysteine translation. Evolutionary analyses of both the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes revealed that these genes are closely related to the TXNIP and SEPP genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio), with amino acid similarities of 91.8% and 61.9%, respectively. A normal tissue distribution analysis indicated that the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and the highest expression levels of these genes were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the trunk kidney, respectively. The expression levels of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts were acutely and chronically analyzed following the injection of fish with 1, 10 or 100mg/kg silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Significant up-regulation of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts was observed in the liver, spleen, and head kidney at the early phase of Ag NP exposure (hours 6 through 48). Down-regulation of On-SEPP transcripts was clearly observed in the liver at weeks 1 to 4. Histopathology analysis demonstrated that the fish livers exhibited a dramatic infiltration of Kupffer cells, elevated bi-nucleated cells, expanded sinusoidal blood congestion and severe necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these findings, coupling of the expression analysis of these two cellular stress response genes and histopathological observation of fish exposed to Ag NPs should be

  8. Cytoscape App Store

    PubMed Central

    Lotia, Samad; Montojo, Jason; Dong, Yue; Bader, Gary D.; Pico, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Cytoscape is an open source software tool for biological network visualization and analysis, which can be extended with independently developed apps. We launched the Cytoscape App Store to highlight the important features that apps add to Cytoscape, enable researchers to find and install apps they need and help developers promote their apps. Availability: The App Store is available at http://apps.cytoscape.org. Contact: apico@gladstone.ucsf.edu PMID:23595664

  9. UV Irradiation Accelerates Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Processing and Disrupts APP Axonal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Falzone, Tomas L.; Shen, Zhouxin; Lillo, Concepcion; Killian, Rhiannon L.; Arreola, Angela S.; Niederst, Emily D.; Ng, Kheng S.; Kim, Sonia N.; Briggs, Steven P.; Williams, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression and/or abnormal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular levels of APP or its processing, and the physiological and pathological consequences of altered processing are not well understood. Here, using mouse and human cells, we found that neuronal damage induced by UV irradiation leads to specific APP, APLP1, and APLP2 decline by accelerating their secretase-dependent processing. Pharmacological inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal activity partially protects UV-induced APP processing implying contribution of the endosomal and/or lysosomal compartments in this process. We found that a biological consequence of UV-induced γ-secretase processing of APP is impairment of APP axonal transport. To probe the functional consequences of impaired APP axonal transport, we isolated and analyzed presumptive APP-containing axonal transport vesicles from mouse cortical synaptosomes using electron microscopy, biochemical, and mass spectrometry analyses. We identified a population of morphologically heterogeneous organelles that contains APP, the secretase machinery, molecular motors, and previously proposed and new residents of APP vesicles. These possible cargoes are enriched in proteins whose dysfunction could contribute to neuronal malfunction and diseases of the nervous system including AD. Together, these results suggest that damage-induced APP processing might impair APP axonal transport, which could result in failure of synaptic maintenance and neuronal dysfunction. PMID:24573290

  10. (Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    J. Craig Venter, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, has begun to identify genes expressed in the human brain by partially sequences cDNA clones. We are collaborating with the Venter group and using their sequence data to develop methods for rapid localization of newly identified cDNAs to human chromosomes. We are applying the ABI automated DNA sequencer to the analysis of fluorescently-tagged PCR products for assigning sequences to individual human chromosomes. The steps in our mapping protocol are (1) to design PCR primers from the Venter laboratory-generated sequence data, (2) to test the primers for specific amplification from human genomic DNA, (3) to use the primers for PCR amplification from a somatic cell hybrid cell mapping panel, (4) to determine the presence or absence of the specific amplification products from each cell line DNA by electrophoretic analysis using the ABI sequencer, and (5) to analyze the pattern of amplification results from the hybrid panel to identify the chromosomal origin of the cDNA sequence. We have demonstrated the principle by mapping 12 sequences or Expressed Sequence Tags'' (ESTs), providing primer sequence data for subsequent subchromosomal localizations. We will now concentrate on developing methodology to allow multiplexing the amplification reactions and analysis of the reaction products, to achieve a high throughput with a minimum allocation of resources. This project will generate a data set from which to evaluate strategies to identify functional primer sequences from cDNA sequence data.

  11. APP Causes Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Mice.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Hays, Seth A; Filon, Mikolaj J; Ray, Brian C; Westmark, Pamela R; Gibson, Jay R; Huber, Kimberly M; Wong, Robert K S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and metabolite levels are altered in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and in the mouse model of the disorder, Fmr1(KO) mice. Normalization of APP levels in Fmr1(KO) mice (Fmr1(KO) /APP(HET) mice) rescues many disease phenotypes. Thus, APP is a potential biomarker as well as therapeutic target for FXS. Hyperexcitability is a key phenotype of FXS. Herein, we determine the effects of APP levels on hyperexcitability in Fmr1(KO) brain slices. Fmr1(KO) /APP(HET) slices exhibit complete rescue of UP states in a neocortical hyperexcitability model and reduced duration of ictal discharges in a CA3 hippocampal model. These data demonstrate that APP plays a pivotal role in maintaining an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in neural circuits. A model is proposed whereby APP acts as a rheostat in a molecular circuit that modulates hyperexcitability through mGluR5 and FMRP. Both over- and under-expression of APP in the context of the Fmr1(KO) increases seizure propensity suggesting that an APP rheostat maintains appropriate E/I levels but is overloaded by mGluR5-mediated excitation in the absence of FMRP. These findings are discussed in relation to novel treatment approaches to restore APP homeostasis in FXS.

  12. Understanding Mobile Apps

    MedlinePlus

    ... register for a service or buy something online. Malware and Security Concerns Should I update my apps? ... malware. Could an app infect my phone with malware? Some hackers have created apps that can infect ...

  13. Direct selection of cDNAs using whole chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Rouquier, S; Trask, B J; Taviaux, S; van den Engh, G; Diriong, S; Lennon, G G; Giorgi, D

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a method for direct selection of cDNAs using whole chromosomes as target DNA. Double-strand cDNAs were synthesized from human fetal brain polyadenylated mRNAs. Flow-sorted chromosomes 17 and 19 were amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and used to capture ds cDNAs by an improved magnetic bead capture protocol. To demonstrate the capabilities of this method, the selected cDNAs were used as probes in FISH experiments. The selected cDNA populations specifically painted chromosomes 17 or 19 on metaphase spreads. These results demonstrate that it is possible to do chromosome painting using cDNA probes and that this method is a means to rapidly select expressed sequences encoded by any portion of the genome. Images PMID:7501464

  14. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human GLEPP1, a membrane protein tyrosine phosphatase: characterization of the GLEPP1 protein distribution in human kidney and assignment of the GLEPP1 gene to human chromosome 12p12-p13.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, R C; Wiggins, J E; Goyal, M; Wharram, B L; Thomas, P E

    1995-05-01

    Human glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP1), a receptor-like membrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), was cloned and sequenced from a human renal cortical cDNA library. The human nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences were, respectively, 90 and 97% identical to those of rabbit. Human GLEPP1 is predicted to contain 1188 amino acids. The predicted mature protein is 1159 amino acids long and contains a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a single intracellular PTPase domain. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against a human GLEPP1 fusion protein recognized a protein with distribution restricted to the glomerulus in human kidney and with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 200 kDa. The GLEPP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 12p12-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  15. Apps Developed by Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shing, Sophia; Yuan, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In the days of the digital Wild West, developers from all backgrounds have joined in the gold rush trying to profit from the almost unbridled spending of well-to-do parents on educational products. In 2016, the Apple App Store had over 80,000 educational apps. The proliferation of educational apps has happened at a furious pace and more apps are…

  16. APP Causes Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Mice

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Hays, Seth A.; Filon, Mikolaj J.; Ray, Brian C.; Westmark, Pamela R.; Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Wong, Robert K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and metabolite levels are altered in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and in the mouse model of the disorder, Fmr1KO mice. Normalization of APP levels in Fmr1KO mice (Fmr1KO/APPHET mice) rescues many disease phenotypes. Thus, APP is a potential biomarker as well as therapeutic target for FXS. Hyperexcitability is a key phenotype of FXS. Herein, we determine the effects of APP levels on hyperexcitability in Fmr1KO brain slices. Fmr1KO/APPHET slices exhibit complete rescue of UP states in a neocortical hyperexcitability model and reduced duration of ictal discharges in a CA3 hippocampal model. These data demonstrate that APP plays a pivotal role in maintaining an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in neural circuits. A model is proposed whereby APP acts as a rheostat in a molecular circuit that modulates hyperexcitability through mGluR5 and FMRP. Both over- and under-expression of APP in the context of the Fmr1KO increases seizure propensity suggesting that an APP rheostat maintains appropriate E/I levels but is overloaded by mGluR5-mediated excitation in the absence of FMRP. These findings are discussed in relation to novel treatment approaches to restore APP homeostasis in FXS. PMID:28018172

  17. Smartphone apps for snoring.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M; Robertson, M; Abdullatif, J; Certal, V; Kram, Y A; Ruoff, C M; Brietzke, S E; Capasso, R

    2015-10-01

    To identify and systematically evaluate user-friendly smartphone snoring apps. The Apple iTunes app store was searched for snoring apps that allow recording and playback. Snoring apps were downloaded, evaluated and rated independently by four authors. Two patients underwent polysomnography, and the data were compared with simultaneous snoring app recordings, and one patient used the snoring app at home. Of 126 snoring apps, 13 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The most critical app feature was the ability to graphically display the snoring events. The Quit Snoring app received the highest overall rating. When this app's recordings were compared with in-laboratory polysomnography data, app snoring sensitivities ranged from 64 to 96 per cent, and snoring positive predictive values ranged from 93 to 96 per cent. A chronic snorer used the app nightly for one month and tracked medical interventions. Snoring decreased from 200 to 10 snores per hour, and bed partner snoring complaint scores decreased from 9 to 2 (on a 0-10 scale). Select smartphone apps are user-friendly for recording and playing back snoring sounds. Preliminary comparison of more than 1500 individual snores demonstrates the potential clinical utility of such apps; however, further validation testing is recommended.

  18. Smartphone apps for urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, D J; McKenzie, K; Cui, H W; Noble, J G; Turney, B W

    2015-02-01

    There are an increasing number of healthcare smartphone applications ('apps') available. Urolithiasis presents a major healthcare burden. Patients are increasingly keen to educate themselves regarding the diagnosis and management of their condition. There is no formal regulation of healthcare apps, including a large number of apps relating to urolithiasis. This review aims to examine the range of apps available, and the prevalence of healthcare professional input. Four international smartphone app stores were searched: Apple's App Store, Google Play (Android), BlackBerry App World and the Windows Phone App store. A total of 42 unique apps were downloaded and analysed. Recorded data included the cost (£/$), publisher information, number of ratings, average rating and any documentation of medical professional involvement. Twenty-one (50%) apps required payment for download. The mean cost was £3.58 ($6.04) with range £0.61-£34.90 ($1.03-$58.87). Thirty-three (79%) of the 42 apps were designed to be used by patients. Fifteen (36%) of the 42 apps had clear input from health professionals. Twenty-two apps offered patient information, including dietary advice on lowering calcium intake, which is contrary to current evidence-based practice. We conclude that urolithiasis apps have future potential to inform both patients and healthcare professionals on stone management. However, inaccuracies in the recommendations made by some apps can be misleading or even harmful due to a lack of specialist involvement. We recommend improving the usefulness of these apps by seeking a 'quality stamp' from recognised urological organisations and greater clinician involvement in future app development.

  19. Kunitz-type Bauhinia bauhinioides inhibitors devoid of disulfide bridges: isolation of the cDNAs, heterologous expression and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ana Paula Ulian; Hansen, Daiane; Vieira, Debora F; Oliveira, Cleide; Santana, Lucimeire A; Beltramini, Leila M; Sampaio, Claudio A M; Sampaio, Misako U; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2005-06-01

    Bauhinia bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI) and Bauhinia bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor (BbKI) are cysteine and serine proteinase inhibitors structurally homologous to plant Kunitz-type inhibitors, but are devoid of disulfide bridges. Based on cDNA sequences, we found that BbKI and BbCI are initially synthesized as a prepropeptide comprising an N-terminal signal peptide (19 residues), the mature protein (164 residues) and a C-terminal targeting peptide (10 residues). Partial cDNAs encoding the mature enzymes plus N-terminal His-tags and thrombin cleavage sites were expressed in E. coli and the soluble proteins were purified by one-step nickel affinity chromatography. After thrombin cleavage, both proteins exhibited potent inhibitory activities toward their cognate proteinases like the wild-type proteins. BbCI inhibits human neutrophil elastase ( K i(app) 5.3 nM), porcine pancreatic elastase ( K i(app) 40 nM), cathepsin G ( K i(app) 160 nM) and the cysteine proteinases cruzipain ( K i(app) 1.2 nM), cruzain ( K i(app) 0.3 nM) and cathepsin L ( K i(app) 2.2 nM), while BbKI strongly inhibits plasma kallikrein ( K i(app) 2.4 nM) and plasmin ( K i(app) 33 nM). Circular dichroism spectra of BbCI and BbKI were in agreement with the beta-trefoil fold described for Kunitz inhibitors. The inhibitory potency of both BbCI- and BbKI-type inhibitors suggests that other, non-covalent interactions may compensate for the lack of disulfide bridges.

  20. NGF controls APP cleavage by downregulating APP phosphorylation at Thr668: relevance for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Triaca, Viviana; Sposato, Valentina; Bolasco, Giulia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pelicci, Piergiuseppe; Bruni, Amalia C; Cupidi, Chiara; Maletta, Raffaele; Feligioni, Marco; Nisticò, Robert; Canu, Nadia; Calissano, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    NGF has been implicated in forebrain neuroprotection from amyloidogenesis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of NGF signalling in the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in forebrain neurons using primary cultures of septal neurons and acute septo-hippocampal brain slices. In this study, we show that NGF controls the basal level of APP phosphorylation at Thr668 (T668) by downregulating the activity of the Ser/Thr kinase JNK(p54) through the Tyr kinase signalling adaptor SH2-containing sequence C (ShcC). We also found that the specific NGF receptor, Tyr kinase A (TrkA), which is known to bind to APP, fails to interact with the fraction of APP molecules phosphorylated at T668 (APP(pT668) ). Accordingly, the amount of TrkA bound to APP is significantly reduced in the hippocampus of ShcC KO mice and of patients with AD in which elevated APP(pT668) levels are detected. NGF promotes TrkA binding to APP and APP trafficking to the Golgi, where APP-BACE interaction is hindered, finally resulting in reduced generation of sAPPβ, CTFβ and amyloid-beta (1-42). These results demonstrate that NGF signalling directly controls basal APP phosphorylation, subcellular localization and BACE cleavage, and pave the way for novel approaches specifically targeting ShcC signalling and/or the APP-TrkA interaction in AD therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families.

  2. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  3. APP processing and the APP-KPI domain involvement in the amyloid cascade.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, M; Pérez-Pinera, P; Martínez-Rivera, M; Calatayud, M T; Blázquez Menes, B

    2005-01-01

    Alternative APP mRNA splicing can generate isoforms of APP containing a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. KPI is one of the main serine protease inhibitors. Protein and mRNA KPI(+)APP levels are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and are associated with increased amyloid beta deposition. In the last years increasing evidence on multiple points in the amyloid cascade where KPI(+)APP is involved has been accumulated, admitting an outstanding position in the pathogenesis of AD to the KPI domain. This review focuses on the APP processing, the molecular activity of KPI and its physiological and pathological roles and the KPI involvement in the amyloid cascade through the nerve growth factor, the lipoprotein receptor-related protein, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme and the Notch1 protein.

  4. Isolation and functional analysis of two Cistus creticus cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Pateraki, Irene; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2008-05-01

    Cistus creticus ssp. creticus is an indigenous shrub of the Mediterranean area. The glandular trichomes covering its leaf surfaces secrete a resin called "ladanum", which among others contains a number of specific labdane-type diterpenes that exhibit antibacterial and antifungal action as well as in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic and cytostatic activity against human cancer cell lines. In view of the properties and possible future exploitation of these metabolites, it was deemed necessary to study the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase enzyme (GGDPS, EC 2.5.1.30), a short chain prenyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of the precursor molecule of all diterpenes. In this work, we present the cloning, functional characterisation and expression profile at the gene and protein levels of two differentially expressed C. creticus full-length cDNAs, CcGGDPS1 and CcGGDPS2. Heterologous yeast cell expression system showed that these cDNAs exhibited GGDPS enzyme activity. Gene and protein expression analyses suggest that this enzyme is developmentally and tissue-regulated showing maximum expression in trichomes and smallest leaves (0.5-1.0cm). This work is the first attempt to study the terpenoid biosynthesis at the molecular level in C. creticus ssp. creticus.

  5. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  6. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  7. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  8. Ebola Tracker app.

    PubMed

    Evans, Roger

    2015-01-27

    Developer Bryan Ratledge claims his Ebola Tracker app is the only up to date mapping application of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak centred in West Africa. With this app, you track the Ebola outbreak just as you would track a hurricane, or the weather.

  9. Orthodontic apps for smartphones.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parmjit

    2013-09-01

    The increasing use of technology is rapidly changing our personal and professional lives. Smartphones allow users to access information in ways previously not possible and our patients may be accessing apps to source information about orthodontics and help them through their treatment. To provide an overview of the orthodontic apps currently available on four of the main operating systems with emphasis on those apps targeted towards new and existing orthodontic patients as well as practising clinicians. Four mobile devices were used to search four mobile operating systems (Android, Apple, Blackberry and Windows) using the key words 'braces', 'orthodontist', 'orthodontic' and 'orthodontics'. Android and Apple operating systems derived all of the apps considered relevant to orthodontic clinicians and patients. Clinician apps (11) related to orthodontic meetings (3), publications (3), products (3) and tooth ratio calculators such as Bolton (2). Patient apps (8) related to reminding patients about elastic wear (2) and aligner wear (2), dealing with orthodontic emergencies (2), orthodontic products (1) and a progress tracker of treatment (1). Apps are available for both orthodontic clinicians and patients; however, much of the information contained within them is often not independent and even more often not validated. Patients are increasingly likely to access apps and clinicians should direct patients to those that are most appropriate and useful.

  10. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  11. APP as a Protective Factor in Acute Neuronal Insults

    PubMed Central

    Hefter, Dimitri; Draguhn, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Despite its key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is unknown. Increasing evidence, however, points towards a neuroprotective role of this membrane protein in situations of metabolic stress. A key observation is the up-regulation of APP following acute (stroke, cardiac arrest) or chronic (cerebrovascular disease) hypoxic-ischemic conditions. While this mechanism may increase the risk or severity of AD, APP by itself or its soluble extracellular fragment APPsα can promote neuronal survival. Indeed, different animal models of acute hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and excitotoxicity have revealed protective effects of APP or APPsα. The underlying mechanisms involve APP-mediated regulation of calcium homeostasis via NMDA receptors (NMDAR), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) or internal calcium stores. In addition, APP affects the expression of survival- or apoptosis-related genes as well as neurotrophic factors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the neuroprotective role of APP and APPsα and possible implications for future research and new therapeutic strategies. PMID:28210211

  12. High glucose promotes Aβ production by inhibiting APP degradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Shuting; Song, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal deposition of neuriticplaques is the uniqueneuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Amyloid β protein (Aβ), the major component of plaques, is generated from sequential cleavage of amyloidβ precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase complex. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by chronic hyperglycemia,have increased risk of AD development.However, the role of high blood glucose in APP processing and Aβ generation remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of high glucose on APP metabolism and Aβ generation in cultured human cells. We found that high glucose treatment significantly increased APP protein level in both neuronal-like and non-neuronal cells, and promoted Aβ generation. Furthermore, we found that high glucose-induced increase of APP level was not due to enhancement of APP gene transcription but resulted from inhibition of APP protein degradation. Taken together, our data indicated that hyperglycemia could promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting APP degradation and enhancing Aβ production. More importantly, the elevation of APP level and Aβ generation by high glucose was caused by reduction of APP turnover rate.Thus,our study provides a molecular mechanism of increased risk of developing AD in patients withDMand suggests thatglycemic control might be potentially beneficial for reducing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying the AD progression.

  13. APP as a Protective Factor in Acute Neuronal Insults.

    PubMed

    Hefter, Dimitri; Draguhn, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Despite its key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is unknown. Increasing evidence, however, points towards a neuroprotective role of this membrane protein in situations of metabolic stress. A key observation is the up-regulation of APP following acute (stroke, cardiac arrest) or chronic (cerebrovascular disease) hypoxic-ischemic conditions. While this mechanism may increase the risk or severity of AD, APP by itself or its soluble extracellular fragment APPsα can promote neuronal survival. Indeed, different animal models of acute hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and excitotoxicity have revealed protective effects of APP or APPsα. The underlying mechanisms involve APP-mediated regulation of calcium homeostasis via NMDA receptors (NMDAR), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) or internal calcium stores. In addition, APP affects the expression of survival- or apoptosis-related genes as well as neurotrophic factors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the neuroprotective role of APP and APPsα and possible implications for future research and new therapeutic strategies.

  14. The Cytoscape app article collection

    PubMed Central

    Pico, Alexander R; Bader, Gary D; Demchak, Barry; Guitart Pla, Oriol; Hull, Timothy; Longabaugh, William; Lopes, Christian; Lotia, Samad; Molenaar, Piet; Montojo, Jason; Morris, John H; Ono, Keiichiro; Schwikowski, Benno; Welker, David; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    As a network visualization and analysis platform, Cytoscape relies on apps to provide domain-specific features and functions. There are many resources available to support Cytoscape app development and distribution, including the Cytoscape App Store and an online “cookbook” for app developers. This article collection is another resource to help researchers find out more about relevant Cytoscape apps and to provide app developers with useful implementation tips. The collection will grow over time as new Cytoscape apps are developed and published. PMID:25580224

  15. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives.

  16. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  17. Smartphone apps for orthopaedic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Franko, Orrin I

    2011-07-01

    The use of smartphones and their associated applications (apps) provides new opportunities for physicians, and specifically orthopaedic surgeons, to integrate technology into clinical practice. The purpose of this study was twofold: to review all apps specifically created for orthopaedic surgeons and to survey orthopaedic residents and surgeons in the United States to characterize the need for novel apps. The five most popular smartphone app stores were searched for orthopaedic-related apps: Blackberry, iPhone, Android, Palm, and Windows. An Internet survey was sent to ACGME-accredited orthopaedic surgery departments to assess the level of smartphone use, app use, and desire for orthopaedic-related apps. The database search revealed that iPhone and Android platforms had apps specifically created for orthopaedic surgery with a total of 61 and 13 apps, respectively. Among the apps reviewed, only one had greater than 100 reviews (mean, 27), and the majority of apps had very few reviews, including AAOS Now and AO Surgery Reference, apps published by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and AO Foundation, respectively. The national survey revealed that 84% of respondents (n = 476) have a smartphone, the majority (55%) have an iPhone, and that 53% of people with smartphones already use apps in clinical practice. Ninety-six percent of respondents who use apps reported they would like more orthopaedic apps and would pay an average of nearly $30 for useful apps. The four most requested categories of apps were textbook/reference, techniques/guides, OITE/board review, and billing/coding. The use of smartphones and apps is prevalent among orthopaedic care providers in academic centers. However, few highly ranked apps specifically related to orthopaedic surgery are available, and the types of apps available do not appear to be the categories most desired by residents and surgeons.

  18. Apps for Mathematics Learning: A Review of "Educational" Apps from the iTunes App Store

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highfield, Kate; Goodwin, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly iPads™ are being used in schools and prior-to-school settings, with a plethora of Apps available for mathematics learning. Despite the growing number of Apps available in the iTunes App Store, there has been limited systematic analysis of the pedagogic design of Apps designed for mathematics learning. This paper describes a content…

  19. Apps I Have Loved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    According to a March estimate from Distimo, there were 653,614 apps in the iPhone, Android, iPad, BlackBerry, and Windows Mobile stores alone. So, is it any wonder that these busy people have found a few that come in handy on the job? Mobile apps are as indispensable to district IT executives as they are becoming in the classroom--for professional…

  20. Apps I Have Loved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    According to a March estimate from Distimo, there were 653,614 apps in the iPhone, Android, iPad, BlackBerry, and Windows Mobile stores alone. So, is it any wonder that these busy people have found a few that come in handy on the job? Mobile apps are as indispensable to district IT executives as they are becoming in the classroom--for professional…

  1. Chromosomal loci of 50 human keratinocyte cDNAs assigned by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Morishima, Yohich; Ariyama, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    1995-07-20

    The chromosomal loci of expressed genes provide useful information for a candidate gene approach to the genes responsible for genetic diseases. A large set of randomly isolated cDNAs catalogued by partial sequencing can serve as a resource for accessing and isolating these disease genes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we examined the chromosomal loci of 217 human keratinocyte-derived cDNAs, with independent novel sequence tags at the 3{prime} end region. Among them, we determined the loci of 50 cDNAs. Single-pass sequencing of these from the 5{prime} ends indicated that 39 cDNAs still can be produced for new genes. These cDNAs with identified chromosomal loci are powerful tools that can be used to help elucidate the genes responsible for hereditary skin disorders. 42 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Diet and Physical Activity Apps: Perceived Effectiveness by App Users

    PubMed Central

    Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. Objective This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. Methods First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). Results App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all P<.05). App users were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. Conclusions App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social

  3. Diet and Physical Activity Apps: Perceived Effectiveness by App Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije

    2016-04-07

    Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all P<.05). App users were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social life. It facilitated maintaining a healthy diet

  4. Cloning, characterization and expression of two glutathione S-transferase cDNAs in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufen; Krell, Peter J; Ladd, Tim; Feng, Qili; Zheng, Sichun

    2009-01-01

    Two Choristoneura fumiferana glutathione S-transferase cDNAs (CfGSTs4 and CfGSTd5) were cloned from a cDNA library constructed using mRNA from the midgut cell line, CF-203. These cDNAs encoded two structurally different proteins with a predicted molecular mass of 23 and 24 kDa, respectively. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that CfGSTs4 and CfGSTd5 contained Sigma and Delta GST domain, respectively. CfGSTs4 cDNA was expressed as a recombinant protein with the same molecular mass as predicted. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analyses indicated that both of these genes were expressed in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of the 6th instar larvae, as well as CF-203 cells. CfGSTs4 was highly and almost constantly expressed in all tissues during the 6th instar stage. There were higher levels of CfGSTs4 protein in the midgut and fat body than in the epidermis. CfGSTd5 was expressed in the fat body when the insects underwent pupal molting and was constantly expressed in the epidermis and midgut during 6th instar development. CfGSTs4 expression was not affected by ecdysone agonist tebufenozide (RH5992), whereas CfGSTd5 expression was slightly suppressed by the compound.

  5. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. Objective The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. Methods We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search Results On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. Conclusions The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses

  6. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mark Erik; Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-08-09

    For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses challenges for consumers and clinicians seeking relevant

  7. [Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1991-12-31

    J. Craig Venter, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, has begun to identify genes expressed in the human brain by partially sequences cDNA clones. We are collaborating with the Venter group and using their sequence data to develop methods for rapid localization of newly identified cDNAs to human chromosomes. We are applying the ABI automated DNA sequencer to the analysis of fluorescently-tagged PCR products for assigning sequences to individual human chromosomes. The steps in our mapping protocol are (1) to design PCR primers from the Venter laboratory-generated sequence data, (2) to test the primers for specific amplification from human genomic DNA, (3) to use the primers for PCR amplification from a somatic cell hybrid cell mapping panel, (4) to determine the presence or absence of the specific amplification products from each cell line DNA by electrophoretic analysis using the ABI sequencer, and (5) to analyze the pattern of amplification results from the hybrid panel to identify the chromosomal origin of the cDNA sequence. We have demonstrated the principle by mapping 12 sequences or ``Expressed Sequence Tags`` (ESTs), providing primer sequence data for subsequent subchromosomal localizations. We will now concentrate on developing methodology to allow multiplexing the amplification reactions and analysis of the reaction products, to achieve a high throughput with a minimum allocation of resources. This project will generate a data set from which to evaluate strategies to identify functional primer sequences from cDNA sequence data.

  8. There's an App for that!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Important as training the sales force is, mobile training apps are being used for much more. Visual Eyes Inc., for example, has developed training apps for the U.S. military's combat medical teams that detail specific medical procedures, such as controlling hemorrhaging. Other apps, developed for corporations and government agencies, pass along…

  9. There's an App for that!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Important as training the sales force is, mobile training apps are being used for much more. Visual Eyes Inc., for example, has developed training apps for the U.S. military's combat medical teams that detail specific medical procedures, such as controlling hemorrhaging. Other apps, developed for corporations and government agencies, pass along…

  10. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: structural characterisation, molecular cloning of biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs and engineering of analogues with enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-23

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  11. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:25626077

  12. AppVis: Enabling data-rich apps in app inventor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harunani, Farzeen

    MIT App Inventor has enabled middle school students to learn computing while creating their own apps--including apps that serve community needs. However, few resources exist for building apps that gather and share data. There is a need for new tools and an instructional materials for students to build data-enabled, community-focused apps. We developed an extension for App Inventor, called AppVis, which allows app-makers to publish and retrieve data from iSENSE, our existing web-based collaborative data visualization platform. We used AppVis and supporting instructional materials in two one-week summer camps attended by a total of 33 middle school students. Based on student interview data and analysis of their final apps, our approach was broadly accessible to a diverse population of students. Students were motivated to build apps that could be used by their own communities. This thesis presents the design of AppVis and results from students' work in summer camps.

  13. Transcript Annotation in FANTOM3: Mouse Gene Catalog Based on Physical cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Norihiro; Kasukawa, Takeya; Oyama, Rieko; Gough, Julian; Frith, Martin; Engström, Pär G; Lenhard, Boris; Aturaliya, Rajith N; Batalov, Serge; Beisel, Kirk W; Bult, Carol J; Fletcher, Colin F; Forrest, Alistair R. R; Furuno, Masaaki; Hill, David; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Katayama, Shintaro; Katoh, Masaru; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Quackenbush, John; Ravasi, Timothy; Ring, Brian Z; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Koji; Takenaka, Yoichi; Teasdale, Rohan D; Wells, Christine A; Zhu, Yunxia; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Hume, David A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2006-01-01

    The international FANTOM consortium aims to produce a comprehensive picture of the mammalian transcriptome, based upon an extensive cDNA collection and functional annotation of full-length enriched cDNAs. The previous dataset, FANTOM2, comprised 60,770 full-length enriched cDNAs. Functional annotation revealed that this cDNA dataset contained only about half of the estimated number of mouse protein-coding genes, indicating that a number of cDNAs still remained to be collected and identified. To pursue the complete gene catalog that covers all predicted mouse genes, cloning and sequencing of full-length enriched cDNAs has been continued since FANTOM2. In FANTOM3, 42,031 newly isolated cDNAs were subjected to functional annotation, and the annotation of 4,347 FANTOM2 cDNAs was updated. To accomplish accurate functional annotation, we improved our automated annotation pipeline by introducing new coding sequence prediction programs and developed a Web-based annotation interface for simplifying the annotation procedures to reduce manual annotation errors. Automated coding sequence and function prediction was followed with manual curation and review by expert curators. A total of 102,801 full-length enriched mouse cDNAs were annotated. Out of 102,801 transcripts, 56,722 were functionally annotated as protein coding (including partial or truncated transcripts), providing to our knowledge the greatest current coverage of the mouse proteome by full-length cDNAs. The total number of distinct non-protein-coding transcripts increased to 34,030. The FANTOM3 annotation system, consisting of automated computational prediction, manual curation, and final expert curation, facilitated the comprehensive characterization of the mouse transcriptome, and could be applied to the transcriptomes of other species. PMID:16683036

  14. Cloning and characterization of two glutathione S-transferase cDNAs in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sichun; Deng, Huimin; Ladd, Tim; Tomkins, Bill L; Krell, Peter J; Feng, Qili

    2007-11-01

    Two Choristoneura fumiferana glutathione S-transferase cDNAs were cloned from a cDNA library constructed using mRNA from the midgut cell line, CF-203. These cDNAs (CfGST2, CfGST3) encoded two structurally different proteins with a predicted molecular mass of 21 and 24 kDa, respectively, which was confirmed through protein expression in a bacterial system. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analyses revealed that the transcripts of these two genes were present in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of the 6th instar larvae. CfGST2 was expressed in the fat body when the insects were close to pupal molting, while it was constantly expressed in the other two tissues during the 6th instar stage. CfGST3 gene was expressed highly and constantly in all of the tissues throughout the 6th instar stage. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that CfGST2 and CfGST3 proteins were present mainly in the fat body and epidermis and no protein was detected in the midgut. CfGST2 and CfGST3 were different from CfGST reported before (Feng et al., 1999: Insect Biochem Mol Biol 29:779-793) in amino acid sequence, expression pattern, and responsiveness to tebufenozide.

  15. Computational analysis of full-length mouse cDNAs compared with human genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Kondo, S; Shinagawa, A; Saito, T; Kiyosawa, H; Yamanaka, I; Aizawa, K; Fukuda, S; Hara, A; Itoh, M; Kawai, J; Shibata, K; Hayashizaki, Y

    2001-09-01

    Although the sequencing of the human genome is complete, identification of encoded genes and determination of their structures remain a major challenge. In this report, we introduce a method that effectively uses full-length mouse cDNAs to complement efforts in carrying out these difficult tasks. A total of 61,227 RIKEN mouse cDNAs (21,076 full-length and 40,151 EST sequences containing certain redundancies) were aligned with the draft human sequences. We found 35,141 non-redundant genomic regions that showed a significant alignment with the mouse cDNAs. We analyzed the structures and compositional properties of the regions detected by the full-length cDNAs, including cross-species comparisons, and noted a systematic bias of GENSCAN against exons of small size and/or low GC-content. Of the cDNAs locating the 35,141 genomic regions, 3,217 did not match any sequences of the known human genes or ESTs. Among those 3,217 cDNAs, 1,141 did not show any significant similarity to any protein sequence in the GenBank non-redundant protein database and thus are candidates for novel genes.

  16. Oyster Fisheries App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Guerrero, Geraldo A.; Armstrong, Duane; Underwood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This project is creating a cloud-enabled, HTML 5 web application to help oyster fishermen and state agencies apply Earth science to improve the management of this important natural and economic resource. The Oyster Fisheries app gathers and analyzes environmental and water quality information, and alerts fishermen and resources managers about problems in oyster fishing waters. An intuitive interface based on Google Maps displays the geospatial information and provides familiar interactive controls to the users. Alerts can be tailored to notify users when conditions in specific leases or public fishing areas require attention. The app is hosted on the Amazon Web Services cloud. It is being developed and tested using some of the latest web development tools such as web components and Polymer.

  17. Contemporary hernia smartphone applications (apps).

    PubMed

    Connor, K; Brady, R R W; de Beaux, A; Tulloh, B

    2014-08-01

    Smartphone technology and downloadable applications (apps) have created an unprecedented opportunity for access to medical information and healthcare-related tools by clinicians and their patients. Here, we review the current smartphone apps in relation to hernias, one of the most common operations worldwide. This article presents an overview of apps relating to hernias and discusses content, the presence of medical professional involvement and commercial interests. The most widely used smartphone app online stores (Google Play, Apple, Nokia, Blackberry, Samsung and Windows) were searched for the following hernia-related terms: hernia, inguinal, femoral, umbilical, incisional and totally extraperitoneal. Those with no reference to hernia or hernia surgery were excluded. 26 smartphone apps were identified. Only 9 (35 %) had named medical professional involvement in their design/content and only 10 (38 %) were reviewed by consumers. Commercial interests/links were evident in 96 % of the apps. One app used a validated mathematical algorithm to help counsel patients about post-operative pain. There were a relatively small number of apps related to hernias in view of the worldwide frequency of hernia repair. This search identified many opportunities for the development of informative and validated evidence-based patient apps which can be recommended to patients by physicians. Greater regulation, transparency of commercial interests and involvement of medical professionals in the content and peer-review of healthcare-related apps is required.

  18. Direct selection: a method for the isolation of cDNAs encoded by large genomic regions.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, M; Kere, J; Hinton, L M

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a strategy for the rapid enrichment and identification of cDNAs encoded by large genomic regions. The basis of this "direct selection" scheme is the hybridization of an entire library of cDNAs to an immobilized genomic clone. Nonspecific hybrids are eliminated and selected cDNAs are eluted. These molecules are then amplified and are either cloned or subjected to further selection/amplification cycles. This scheme was tested using a 550-kilobase yeast artificial chromosome clone that contains the EPO gene. Using this clone and a fetal kidney cDNA library, we have achieved a 1000-fold enrichment of EPO cDNAs in one cycle of enrichment. More significantly, we have further investigated one of the "anonymous" cDNAs that was selectively enriched. We confirmed that this cDNA was encoded by the yeast artificial chromosome. Its frequency in the starting library was 1 in 1 x 10(5) cDNAs and after selection comprised 2% of the selected library. DNA sequence analysis of this cDNA and of the yeast artificial chromosome clone revealed that this gene encodes the beta 2 subunit of the human guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins. Restriction mapping and hybridization data position this gene (GNB2) to within 30-70 kilobases of the EPO gene. The selective isolation and mapping of GNB2 confirms the feasibility of this direct selection strategy and suggests that it will be useful for the rapid isolation of cDNAs, including disease-related genes, across extensive portions of the human genome. Images PMID:1946378

  19. APP processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-wu; Thompson, Robert; Zhang, Han; Xu, Huaxi

    2011-01-07

    An important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of aggregations of small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ). Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/aggregation of Aβ in the brain is a primary cause of AD and inhibition of Aβ generation has become a hot topic in AD research. Aβ is generated from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by γ-secretase complex. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by α-secretase within the Aβ domain to release soluble APPα and preclude Aβ generation. Cleavage of APP by caspases may also contribute to AD pathologies. Therefore, understanding the metabolism/processing of APP is crucial for AD therapeutics. Here we review current knowledge of APP processing regulation as well as the patho/physiological functions of APP and its metabolites.

  20. Intracellular APP Sorting and Aβ Secretion are Regulated by Src-mediated Phosphorylation of Mint2

    PubMed Central

    Chaufty, Jeremy; Sullivan, Sarah E.; Ho, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Mint adaptor proteins bind to the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP) and affect the production of pathogenic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that loss of each of the three Mint proteins delays the age-dependent production of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of AD. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying Mints effect on amyloid production are unclear. Because Aβ generation involves the internalization of membrane-bound APP via endosomes and Mints bind directly to the endocytic motif of APP, we proposed that Mints are involved in APP intracellular trafficking, which in turn, affects Aβ generation. Here, we show that APP endocytosis was attenuated in Mint knockout neurons, revealing a role for Mints in APP trafficking. We also show that the endocytic APP sorting processes are regulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 and that internalized APP is differentially sorted between autophagic and recycling trafficking pathways. A Mint2 phospho-mimetic mutant favored endocytosis of APP along the autophagic sorting pathway leading to increased intracellular Aβ accumulation. Conversely, the Mint2 phospho-resistant mutant increased APP localization to the recycling pathway and back to the cell surface thereby enhancing Aβ42 secretion. These results demonstrate that Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 regulates the APP endocytic sorting pathway, providing a mechanism for regulating Aβ secretion. PMID:22787047

  1. Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wiemann, Stefan; Weil, Bernd; Wellenreuther, Ruth; Gassenhuber, Johannes; Glassl, Sabine; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Böcher, Michael; Blöcker, Helmut; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Lauber, Jürgen; Düsterhöft, Andreas; Beyer, Andreas; Köhrer, Karl; Strack, Normann; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Obermaier, Brigitte; Tampe, Jens; Heubner, Dagmar; Wambutt, Rolf; Korn, Bernhard; Klein, Michaela; Poustka, Annemarie

    2001-01-01

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%–5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL database under the accession nos. given in Table 2.] PMID:11230166

  2. Mobile Apps in Cardiology: Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the deadliest diseases worldwide, with 17.3 million deaths in 2008 alone. Among them, heart-related deaths are of the utmost relevance; a fact easily proven by the 7.25 million deaths caused by ischemic heart disease alone in that year. The latest advances in smartphones and mHealth have been used in the creation of thousands of medical apps related to cardiology, which can help to reduce these mortality rates. Objective The aim of this paper is to study the literature on mobile systems and applications currently available, as well as the existing apps related to cardiology from the leading app stores and to then classify the results to see what is available and what is missing, focusing particularly on commercial apps. Methods Two reviews have been developed. One is a literature review of mobile systems and applications, retrieved from several databases and systems such as Scopus, PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Knowledge. The other is a review of mobile apps in the leading app stores, Google play for Android and Apple’s App Store for iOS. Results Search queries up to May 2013 located 406 papers and 710 apps related to cardiology and heart disease. The most researched section in the literature associated with cardiology is related to mobile heart (and vital signs) monitoring systems and the methods involved in the classification of heart signs in order to detect abnormal functions. Other systems with a significant number of papers are mobile cardiac rehabilitation systems, blood pressure measurement, and systems for the detection of heart failure. The majority of apps for cardiology are heart monitors and medical calculators. Other categories with a high number of apps are those for ECG education and interpretation, cardiology news and journals, blood pressure tracking, heart rate monitoring using an external device, and CPR instruction. There are very few guides on cardiac rehabilitation and apps for the management of the

  3. Mobile apps in cardiology: review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Herreros-González, Jesús

    2013-07-24

    Cardiovascular diseases are the deadliest diseases worldwide, with 17.3 million deaths in 2008 alone. Among them, heart-related deaths are of the utmost relevance; a fact easily proven by the 7.25 million deaths caused by ischemic heart disease alone in that year. The latest advances in smartphones and mHealth have been used in the creation of thousands of medical apps related to cardiology, which can help to reduce these mortality rates. The aim of this paper is to study the literature on mobile systems and applications currently available, as well as the existing apps related to cardiology from the leading app stores and to then classify the results to see what is available and what is missing, focusing particularly on commercial apps. Two reviews have been developed. One is a literature review of mobile systems and applications, retrieved from several databases and systems such as Scopus, PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Knowledge. The other is a review of mobile apps in the leading app stores, Google play for Android and Apple's App Store for iOS. Search queries up to May 2013 located 406 papers and 710 apps related to cardiology and heart disease. The most researched section in the literature associated with cardiology is related to mobile heart (and vital signs) monitoring systems and the methods involved in the classification of heart signs in order to detect abnormal functions. Other systems with a significant number of papers are mobile cardiac rehabilitation systems, blood pressure measurement, and systems for the detection of heart failure. The majority of apps for cardiology are heart monitors and medical calculators. Other categories with a high number of apps are those for ECG education and interpretation, cardiology news and journals, blood pressure tracking, heart rate monitoring using an external device, and CPR instruction. There are very few guides on cardiac rehabilitation and apps for the management of the cardiac condition, and there were no

  4. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding wheat 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, K; Beyou, A; Moon, K; Fang, L; Ulrich, T

    1993-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR, EC 1.1.1.34) is a key enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. We have isolated partial cDNAs from wheat (Triticum aestivum) using the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of these cDNAs shows that they represent a small family of genes that share a high degree of sequence homology among themselves as well as among genes from other organisms including tomato, Arabidopsis, hamster, human, Drosophila, and yeast. Southern blot analysis reveals the presence of at least four genes. Our results concerning the tissue-specific expression as well as developmental regulation of these HMGR cDNAs highlight the important role of this enzyme in the growth and development of wheat. PMID:8108513

  5. Mobile Videoconferencing Apps for Telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Wei-Li; Locatis, Craig; Ackerman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quality and performance of several videoconferencing applications (apps) tested on iOS (Apple, Cupertino, CA) and Android (Google, Mountain View, CA) mobile platforms using Wi-Fi (802.11), third-generation (3G), and fourth-generation (4G) cellular networks are described. The tests were done to determine how well apps perform compared with videoconferencing software installed on computers or with more traditional videoconferencing using dedicated hardware. The rationale for app assessment and the testing methodology are described. Findings are discussed in relation to operating system platform (iOS or Android) for which the apps were designed and the type of network (Wi-Fi, 3G, or 4G) used. The platform, network, and apps interact, and it is impossible to discuss videoconferencing experienced on mobile devices in relation to one of these factors without referencing the others. Apps for mobile devices can vary significantly from other videoconferencing software or hardware. App performance increased over the testing period due to improvements in network infrastructure and how apps manage bandwidth.

  6. Mobile Videoconferencing Apps for Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Li; Locatis, Craig; Ackerman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The quality and performance of several videoconferencing applications (apps) tested on iOS (Apple, Cupertino, CA) and Android™ (Google, Mountain View, CA) mobile platforms using Wi-Fi (802.11), third-generation (3G), and fourth-generation (4G) cellular networks are described. Materials and Methods: The tests were done to determine how well apps perform compared with videoconferencing software installed on computers or with more traditional videoconferencing using dedicated hardware. The rationale for app assessment and the testing methodology are described. Results: Findings are discussed in relation to operating system platform (iOS or Android) for which the apps were designed and the type of network (Wi-Fi, 3G, or 4G) used. The platform, network, and apps interact, and it is impossible to discuss videoconferencing experienced on mobile devices in relation to one of these factors without referencing the others. Conclusions: Apps for mobile devices can vary significantly from other videoconferencing software or hardware. App performance increased over the testing period due to improvements in network infrastructure and how apps manage bandwidth. PMID:26204322

  7. A Year with Google Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Robin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2008, the Missouri River Regional Library (MRRL), where the author serves as information technology coordinator, switched over from an internally hosted Microsoft Exchange email server to the Google Apps product. As the person who led the charge to use Google Apps and the person who actually flipped the switch, he was responsible for…

  8. A Year with Google Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Robin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2008, the Missouri River Regional Library (MRRL), where the author serves as information technology coordinator, switched over from an internally hosted Microsoft Exchange email server to the Google Apps product. As the person who led the charge to use Google Apps and the person who actually flipped the switch, he was responsible for…

  9. SorCS1 variants and amyloid precursor protein (APP) are co-transported in neurons but only SorCS1c modulates anterograde APP transport.

    PubMed

    Hermey, Guido; Schmidt, Nadine; Bluhm, Björn; Mensching, Daniel; Ostermann, Kristina; Rupp, Carsten; Kuhl, Dietmar; Kins, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is crucial for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because this processing is highly dependent on its intracellular itinerary, altered subcellular targeting of APP is thought to directly affect the degree to which Aβ is generated. The sorting receptor SorCS1 has been genetically linked to AD, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We analyze two SorCS1 variants; one, SorCS1c, conveys internalization of surface-bound ligands whereas the other, SorCS1b, does not. In agreement with previous studies, we demonstrate co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization of both SorCS1 variants with APP. Our results suggest that SorCS1c and APP are internalized independently, although they mostly share a common post-endocytic pathway. We introduce functional Venus-tagged constructs to study SorCS1b and SorCS1c in living cells. Both variants are transported by fast anterograde axonal transport machinery and about 30% of anterograde APP-positive transport vesicles contain SorCS1. Co-expression of SorCS1b caused no change of APP transport kinetics, but SorCS1c reduced the anterograde transport rate of APP and increased the number of APP-positive stationary vesicles. These data suggest that SorCS1 and APP share trafficking pathways and that SorCS1c can retain APP from insertion into anterograde transport vesicles. Altered APP trafficking is thought to modulate its processing. SorCS1 has been suggested to function in APP trafficking. We analyzed if the two SorCS1 variants, SorCS1b and SorCS1c, tie APP to the cell surface or modify its internalization and intracellular targeting. We observed co-localization and vesicular co-transport of APP and SorCS1, but independent internalization and sorting through a common post-endocytic pathway. Co-expression of one variant, SorCS1c, reduced anterograde APP transport. These data demonstrate that SorCS1 and APP share trafficking pathways and

  10. MateriApps — a Portal Site of Materials Science Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Yusuke; Igarashi, Ryo; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Kato, Takeo; Kawashima, Naoki; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Kouta, Hikaru; Noda, Masashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Terada, Yayoi; Todo, Synge; Tsuchida, Shigehiro; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Kanako

    "MateriApps" is a portal website of computational materials science simulation that has a database containing over 100 application software including density functional theory calculation, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc. On the MateriApps website, researchers can find applications suitable for their own research in materials science by browsing the website or searching by keywords. We also provide forums and tutorial courses of applications. In order to avoid troublesome installation procedures and provide users an environment in which they can try out various applications easily, we develop and freely distribute "MateriApps LIVE!," a live Linux system, in which several applications introduced in MateriApps are pre-installed.

  11. APP modulates KCC2 expression and function in hippocampal GABAergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Jinxiang; Zheng, Xingzhi; Justice, Nicholas J; Wang, Kun; Ran, Xiangqian; Li, Yi; Huo, Qingwei; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Nannan; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Hui; Long, Cheng; Yang, Li

    2017-01-05

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is enriched at the synapse, but its synaptic function is still poorly understood. We previously showed that GABAergic short-term plasticity is impaired in App knock-out (App(-/-)) animals, but the precise mechanism by which APP regulates GABAergic synaptic transmission has remained elusive. Using electrophysiological, biochemical, moleculobiological, and pharmacological analysis, here we show that APP can physically interact with KCC2, a neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter that is essential for Cl(-) homeostasis and fast GABAergic inhibition. APP deficiency results in significant reductions in both total and membrane KCC2 levels, leading to a depolarizing shift in the GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Simultaneous measurement of presynaptic action potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hippocampal neurons reveals impaired unitary IPSC amplitudes attributable to a reduction in α1 subunit levels of GABAAR. Importantly, restoration of normal KCC2 expression and function in App(-/-) mice rescues EGABA, GABAAR α1 levels and GABAAR mediated phasic inhibition. We show that APP functions to limit tyrosine-phosphorylation and ubiquitination and thus subsequent degradation of KCC2, providing a mechanism by which APP influences KCC2 abundance. Together, these experiments elucidate a novel molecular pathway in which APP regulates, via protein-protein interaction with KCC2, GABAAR mediated inhibition in the hippocampus.

  12. APP modulates KCC2 expression and function in hippocampal GABAergic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Jinxiang; Zheng, Xingzhi; Justice, Nicholas J; Wang, Kun; Ran, Xiangqian; Li, Yi; Huo, Qingwei; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Nannan; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Hui; Long, Cheng; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is enriched at the synapse, but its synaptic function is still poorly understood. We previously showed that GABAergic short-term plasticity is impaired in App knock-out (App-/-) animals, but the precise mechanism by which APP regulates GABAergic synaptic transmission has remained elusive. Using electrophysiological, biochemical, moleculobiological, and pharmacological analysis, here we show that APP can physically interact with KCC2, a neuron-specific K+-Cl- cotransporter that is essential for Cl- homeostasis and fast GABAergic inhibition. APP deficiency results in significant reductions in both total and membrane KCC2 levels, leading to a depolarizing shift in the GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Simultaneous measurement of presynaptic action potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hippocampal neurons reveals impaired unitary IPSC amplitudes attributable to a reduction in α1 subunit levels of GABAAR. Importantly, restoration of normal KCC2 expression and function in App-/- mice rescues EGABA, GABAAR α1 levels and GABAAR mediated phasic inhibition. We show that APP functions to limit tyrosine-phosphorylation and ubiquitination and thus subsequent degradation of KCC2, providing a mechanism by which APP influences KCC2 abundance. Together, these experiments elucidate a novel molecular pathway in which APP regulates, via protein-protein interaction with KCC2, GABAAR mediated inhibition in the hippocampus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20142.001 PMID:28054918

  13. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  14. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  15. p95-APP1 links membrane transport to Rac-mediated reorganization of actin.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, A; Paris, S; Albertinazzi, C; Dariozzi, S; Andersen, J; Mann, M; Longhi, R; de Curtis, I

    2000-08-01

    Motility requires protrusive activity at the cellular edge, where Rho family members regulate actin dynamics. Here we show that p95-APP1 (ArfGAP-putative, Pix-interacting, paxillin-interacting protein 1), a member of the GIT1/PKL family, is part of a complex that interacts with Rac. Wild-type and truncated p95-APP1 induce actin-rich protrusions mediated by Rac and ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6). Distinct p95-APP1-derived polypeptides have different distributions, indicating that p95-APP1 cycles between the cell surface and endosomes. Our results show that p95-APP1 functionally interacts with Rac and localizes to endosomal compartments, thus identifying p95-APP1 as a molecular link between actin organization, adhesion, and membrane transport during cell motility.

  16. Shared Molecular Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Neurofilament-Dependent Transport of sAPP, FUS, TDP-43 and SOD1, with Endoplasmic Reticulum-Like Tubules.

    PubMed

    Muresan, Virgil; Ladescu Muresan, Zoia

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder of the motor neurons, leads to the disorganization of the neurofilament (NF) cytoskeleton and - ultimately - the deterioration of the neuromuscular junction. Some familial cases of ALS are caused by mutated FUS, TDP-43 or SOD1; it is thought that the mutated proteins inflict pathology either by gain or loss of function. The proper function of the neuromuscular junction requires sAPP, a soluble proteolytic fragment of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) - a transmembrane protein implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether sAPP, FUS, TDP-43 and SOD1 are mechanistically linked in a common pathway deregulated in both AD and ALS is not known. We show that sAPP, TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 are transported to neurite terminals by a mechanism that involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like tubules and requires peripherin NFs. The transport of these proteins, and the translocation of the ER protein reticulon 4 (Rtn4) into neurites was studied in CAD cells, a brainstem-derived neuronal cell line highly relevant to AD and ALS. We show that a significant fraction of sAPP is generated in the soma and accumulates in a juxtanuclear ER subdomain. In neurites, sAPP localizes to Rtn4-positive ER-like tubules that extend from the soma into the growth cone and colocalizes with peripherin NFs. Knocking down peripherin disrupts the NF network and diminishes the accumulation of sAPP, TDP-43, FUS, SOD1 and Rtn4 at terminals. We propose that the impediment of a common, ER-mediated mechanism of transport of sAPP, TDP-43, FUS and SOD1, caused by a disrupted NF network, could be part of the mechanisms leading to AD and ALS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Functional Roles of the Interaction of APP and Lipoprotein Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pohlkamp, Theresa; Wasser, Catherine R.; Herz, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The biological fates of the key initiator of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and a family of lipoprotein receptors, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRPs) and their molecular roles in the neurodegenerative disease process are inseparably interwoven. Not only does APP bind tightly to the extracellular domains (ECDs) of several members of the LRP group, their intracellular portions are also connected through scaffolds like the one established by FE65 proteins and through interactions with adaptor proteins such as X11/Mint and Dab1. Moreover, the ECDs of APP and LRPs share common ligands, most notably Reelin, a regulator of neuronal migration during embryonic development and modulator of synaptic transmission in the adult brain, and Agrin, another signaling protein which is essential for the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and which likely also has critical, though at this time less well defined, roles for the regulation of central synapses. Furthermore, the major independent risk factors for AD, Apolipoprotein (Apo) E and ApoJ/Clusterin, are lipoprotein ligands for LRPs. Receptors and ligands mutually influence their intracellular trafficking and thereby the functions and abilities of neurons and the blood-brain-barrier to turn over and remove the pathological product of APP, the amyloid-β peptide. This article will review and summarize the molecular mechanisms that are shared by APP and LRPs and discuss their relative contributions to AD. PMID:28298885

  18. Creating Innovative Student Projects with App Smashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The potential for using various apps to improve student learning is tremendous. Yet, despite the iPad's possibilities, apps are often limited in their functionality. No one has created that magical, one-size-fits-all app that accomplishes all of the tasks that you had in mind. Luckily, there is an answer to this common problem: app smashing.…

  19. Creating Innovative Student Projects with App Smashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The potential for using various apps to improve student learning is tremendous. Yet, despite the iPad's possibilities, apps are often limited in their functionality. No one has created that magical, one-size-fits-all app that accomplishes all of the tasks that you had in mind. Luckily, there is an answer to this common problem: app smashing.…

  20. Gamification in Stress Management Apps: A Critical App Review.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Christmann, Corinna A; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-06-07

    In today's society, stress is more and more often a cause of disease. This makes stress management an important target of behavior change programs. Gamification has been suggested as one way to support health behavior change. However, it remains unclear to which extend available gamification techniques are integrated in stress management apps, and if their occurrence is linked to the use of elements from behavior change theory. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of gamification techniques in stress management apps and the cooccurrence of these techniques with evidence-based stress management methods and behavior change techniques. A total of 62 stress management apps from the Google Play Store were reviewed on their inclusion of 17 gamification techniques, 15 stress management methods, and 26 behavior change techniques. For this purpose, an extended taxonomy of gamification techniques was constructed and applied by 2 trained, independent raters. Interrater-reliability was high, with agreement coefficient (AC)=.97. Results show an average of 0.5 gamification techniques for the tested apps and reveal no correlations between the use of gamification techniques and behavior change techniques (r=.17, P=.20), or stress management methods (r=.14, P=.26). This leads to the conclusion that designers of stress management apps do not use gamification techniques to influence the user's behaviors and reactions. Moreover, app designers do not exploit the potential of combining gamification techniques with behavior change theory.

  1. Gamification in Stress Management Apps: A Critical App Review

    PubMed Central

    Christmann, Corinna A; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Background In today’s society, stress is more and more often a cause of disease. This makes stress management an important target of behavior change programs. Gamification has been suggested as one way to support health behavior change. However, it remains unclear to which extend available gamification techniques are integrated in stress management apps, and if their occurrence is linked to the use of elements from behavior change theory. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the use of gamification techniques in stress management apps and the cooccurrence of these techniques with evidence-based stress management methods and behavior change techniques. Methods A total of 62 stress management apps from the Google Play Store were reviewed on their inclusion of 17 gamification techniques, 15 stress management methods, and 26 behavior change techniques. For this purpose, an extended taxonomy of gamification techniques was constructed and applied by 2 trained, independent raters. Results Interrater-reliability was high, with agreement coefficient (AC)=.97. Results show an average of 0.5 gamification techniques for the tested apps and reveal no correlations between the use of gamification techniques and behavior change techniques (r=.17, P=.20), or stress management methods (r=.14, P=.26). Conclusions This leads to the conclusion that designers of stress management apps do not use gamification techniques to influence the user’s behaviors and reactions. Moreover, app designers do not exploit the potential of combining gamification techniques with behavior change theory. PMID:28592397

  2. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall ... ones. Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A National Test of Taste ...

  3. Urologists' usage and perceptions of urological apps.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Niall J; Risk, Rachel; Clark, Ross; Meddings, Robert N

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey of urologists to document their patterns of app usage and perceptions of app quality, and to assess their interest in future app usage. The survey was sent to all urologists on the mailing list of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) (n=1613). A total of 115 responses were received (a response rate of 7%). Most respondents (89%) owned mobile devices capable of downloading apps. Most respondents (79%) used apps and about half (49%) used urological apps; the latter accessed a mean of 2.4 urological apps per month. Significantly more younger (defined as <45 years old) than older urologists used urological apps (P<0.001). Respondents' perception of the overall quality of apps produced for both urologists and patients was relatively low. The respondents' interest in future app usage was strong. There was greatest interest in apps such as logbooks or revalidation ones (87%), reference apps (86%) and ones which aided decision-making (85%). There was considerable support for the implementation of measures to provide urological app quality assurance; most respondents believed app peer review (78%) and validation (78%) would be beneficial and 48% supported regulatory oversight. There appears to be a need for high quality urological apps and opportunities therefore exist for national urological associations and academic units to lead developments.

  4. Mint proteins are required for synaptic activity-dependent amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking and amyloid β generation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah E; Dillon, Gregory M; Sullivan, Josefa M; Ho, Angela

    2014-05-30

    Aberrant amyloid β (Aβ) production plays a causal role in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. A major cellular pathway for Aβ generation is the activity-dependent endocytosis and proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, the molecules controlling activity-dependent APP trafficking in neurons are less defined. Mints are adaptor proteins that directly interact with the endocytic sorting motif of APP and are functionally important in regulating APP endocytosis and Aβ production. We analyzed neuronal cultures from control and Mint knockout neurons that were treated with either glutamate or tetrodotoxin to stimulate an increase or decrease in neuronal activity, respectively. We found that neuronal activation by glutamate increased APP endocytosis, followed by elevated APP insertion into the cell surface, stabilizing APP at the plasma membrane. Conversely, suppression of neuronal activity by tetrodotoxin decreased APP endocytosis and insertion. Interestingly, we found that activity-dependent APP trafficking and Aβ generation were blocked in Mint knockout neurons. We showed that wild-type Mint1 can rescue APP internalization and insertion in Mint knockout neurons. In addition, we found that Mint overexpression increased excitatory synaptic activity and that APP was internalized predominantly to endosomes associated with APP processing. We demonstrated that presenilin 1 (PS1) endocytosis requires interaction with the PDZ domains of Mint1 and that this interaction facilitates activity-dependent colocalization of APP and PS1. These findings demonstrate that Mints are necessary for activity-induced APP and PS1 trafficking and provide insight into the cellular fate of APP in endocytic pathways essential for Aβ production. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Computational insights into the selectivity mechanism of APP-IP over matrix metalloproteinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Lingling; Gao, Jian; Cui, Wei; Tang, Yancheng; Ji, Mingjuan; Chen, Bozhen

    2012-12-01

    In this work, selectivity mechanism of APP-IP inhibitor (β-amyloid precursor protein-derived inhibitory peptide) over matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs including MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and MMP-14) was investigated by molecular modeling methods. Among MMPs, MMP-2 is the most favorable one for APP-IP interacting based on our calculations. The predicted binding affinities can give a good explanation of the activity difference of inhibitor APP-IP. In Comparison with MMP-2/APP-IP complex, the side chain of Tyr214MMP-7 makes the binding pocket so shallow that the whole side chain of Tyr3APP-IP can not be fully embraced, thus unfavorable for the N-terminal of APP-IP binding to MMP-7. The poor selectivity of APP-IP toward MMP-9 is mainly related with the decrease of interaction between the APP-IP C-terminal and MMP-9 due to the bulky side chains of Pro193 and Gln199, which is in agreement with experiment. The mutations at residues P193A and Q199G of MMP-9 alternate the binding pattern of the C-terminal of APP-IP by forming two new hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with MMP-9. The mutants favor the binding affinity of MMP-9 largely. For MMP-14/APP-IP, the large steric effect of Phe204MMP-14 and the weak contributions of the polar residues Asn231MMP-14 and Thr190MMP-14 could explain why MMP-14 is non-selective for APP-IP interacting. Here, the molecular modeling methods were successfully employed to explore the selective inhibitor of MMPs, and our work gives valuable information for future rational design of selective peptide inhibitors toward individual MMP.

  6. Computational insights into the selectivity mechanism of APP-IP over matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lingling; Gao, Jian; Cui, Wei; Tang, Yancheng; Ji, Mingjuan; Chen, Bozhen

    2012-12-01

    In this work, selectivity mechanism of APP-IP inhibitor (β-amyloid precursor protein-derived inhibitory peptide) over matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs including MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and MMP-14) was investigated by molecular modeling methods. Among MMPs, MMP-2 is the most favorable one for APP-IP interacting based on our calculations. The predicted binding affinities can give a good explanation of the activity difference of inhibitor APP-IP. In Comparison with MMP-2/APP-IP complex, the side chain of Tyr214(MMP-7) makes the binding pocket so shallow that the whole side chain of Tyr3(APP-IP) can not be fully embraced, thus unfavorable for the N-terminal of APP-IP binding to MMP-7. The poor selectivity of APP-IP toward MMP-9 is mainly related with the decrease of interaction between the APP-IP C-terminal and MMP-9 due to the bulky side chains of Pro193 and Gln199, which is in agreement with experiment. The mutations at residues P193A and Q199G of MMP-9 alternate the binding pattern of the C-terminal of APP-IP by forming two new hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with MMP-9. The mutants favor the binding affinity of MMP-9 largely. For MMP-14/APP-IP, the large steric effect of Phe204(MMP-14) and the weak contributions of the polar residues Asn231(MMP-14) and Thr190(MMP-14) could explain why MMP-14 is non-selective for APP-IP interacting. Here, the molecular modeling methods were successfully employed to explore the selective inhibitor of MMPs, and our work gives valuable information for future rational design of selective peptide inhibitors toward individual MMP.

  7. Intracellular sAPP retention in response to Abeta is mapped to cytoskeleton-associated structures.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Ana Gabriela; Vieira, Sandra Isabel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Guiomar de Oliveira, Márcio A; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B

    2009-05-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and provides a close association between molecular events and pathology, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In the work described here, Abeta did not induce amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, but APP processing/trafficking was markedly affected. In COS-7 cells, Abeta provokes retention of intracellular sAPPalpha (isAPPalpha). Intracellular holo-APP levels remain unchanged, and extracellular total sAPP increases, although extracellular sAPPalpha alone was not altered significantly. In primary neuronal cultures and PC12 cells, isAPP also increased, but this was mirrored by a decrease in extracellular total sAPP. The isAPP retention was particularly associated with the cytoskeletal fraction. The retention "per se" occurred in vesicular-like densities, negative for a C-terminal antibody and strongly positive for the 6E10 antibody, clearly showing abnormal intracellular accumulation of sAPPalpha in response to Abeta. Our data support a dynamic model for intracellular retention of sAPPalpha as an early response to Abeta exposure. Particularly noteworthy was the observation that removal of Abeta reversed the isAPP accumulation. Mechanistically, these findings disclose an attractive physiological response, revealing the capacity of cells to deal with adverse effects induced by Abeta.

  8. Membrane tethering of APP c-terminal fragments is a prerequisite for T668 phosphorylation preventing nuclear sphere generation.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Hassan; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Schröder, Elisabeth; Knauer, Shirley; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    A central molecular hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which causes the generation of different c-terminal fragments like C99, AICD57, or AICD50 that fully or in part contain the APP transmembrane domain. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-tethered C99 is phosphorylated by JNK3A at residue T668 (APP695 numbering) to a higher extent than AICD57, whereas AICD50 is not capable of being phosphorylated. The modification decreases the turnover of APP, while the blockade of APP cleavage increases APP phosphorylation. Generation of nuclear spheres, complexes consisting of the translocated AICD, FE65 and other proteins, is significantly reduced as soon as APP c-terminal fragments are accessible for phosphorylation. This APP modification, which we identified as significantly reduced in high plaque-load areas of the human brain, is linearly dependent on the level of APP expression. Accordingly, we show that APP abundance is likewise capable of modulating nuclear sphere generation. Thus, the precise and complex regulation of APP phosphorylation, abundance, and cleavage impacts the generation of nuclear spheres, which are under discussion of being of relevance in neurodegeneration and dementia. Future pharmacological manipulation of nuclear sphere generation may be a promising approach for AD treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring APP carboxy-terminal fragments.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Luke A

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the form of insoluble fibrillar deposits and soluble oligomeric aggregates is widely believed to play a causal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Proteolytic cleavage of APP by the β-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) near the C-terminus results in the formation of the APP C-terminal fragment (CTF) C99, a substrate for subsequent cleavage by γ-secretase to generate Aβ. Alternatively, APP cleavage by α-secretase to generate the APP CTF C83 occurs within the Aβ region, precluding its formation. Therefore, modulation of β- and/or γ-secretase activity represents important therapeutic targets. Transgenic mice overexpressing human APP generate detectable levels of APP CTFs and Aβ. We have shown that highly sensitive and specific methods for determining levels of APP CTFs and Aβ are useful for understanding how genetic manipulation of APP processing impacts Aβ generation and accumulation.

  10. Psych-related iPhone apps.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Anthony Mark; Goozee, Rhianna

    2014-02-01

    iPhone apps are a widely utilised technology that have recently been identified as a useful medium for health research, clinical interventions and education. While some researchers have discussed advances in app technology, others promote specific apps that are not free to access. To our knowledge, no study has conducted a review of current, free iPhone apps related to psychology, psychiatry and mental health. Therefore, we conducted a pilot, web-based review exploring free iPhone apps using a replicable search strategy within the iTunes Store search function. A selection of apps were selected and subjectively assessed in terms of their usability, utility, graphics, and associated costs for the consumer. We concluded that the apps reviewed, though novel, are limited in their scope and utility. We also note a significant gap in more scientific, evidence-based app technology, and pose some pertinent ethical questions when developing future psych-related apps.

  11. A novel sandwich hybridization method for selecting cDNAs from large genomic regions: Identification of cDNAs from the cloned genomic DNA spanning the XLRP locus

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, D.; McHenry, C.; Fujita, R.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed an efficient hybridization-based cDNA-selection method. A sandwich of three species - single-stranded cDNA, tagged RNA derived from genomic DNA, and biotinylated RNA complementary to the tag - allows specific retention of hybrids on an avidin-matrix. Previously, using model experiments, we demonstrated highly specific and efficient selection of a retinal gene, NRL, from complex mixtures of cDNA clones, using a sub-library from a 5 kb NRL genomic clone. We have now applied this selection strategy to isolate cDNAs from human adult retina and fetal eye libraries, with the {open_quotes}genomic RNA{close_quotes} derived from two YAC clones (OTC-C and 55B) spanning the region of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) locus RP3 at Xp21.1. Effectiveness of the selection-method was monitored by enrichment of TCTEX-1L gene that maps within the 55B YAC. Of the 15 selected cDNA clones that hybridized to the 55B YAC DNA, five appear to the map to specific cosmid clones derived from the 55B YAC. Inserts in these selected cDNA clones range from 0.5 to 2.3 kb in size. Additional clones are now being isolated and characterized. This procedure should be independent of the size or complexity of genomic DNA being used for selection, allow for the isolation of full-length cDNAs, and may have wider application.

  12. Mobile app reading speed test.

    PubMed

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-04-01

    To validate the accuracy and repeatability of a mobile app reading speed test compared with the traditional paper version. Twenty-one subjects wearing their full refractive correction glasses read 14 sentences of decreasing print size between 1.0 and -0.1 logMAR, each consisting of 14 words (Radner reading speed test) at 40 cm with a paper-based chart and twice on iPad charts. Time duration was recorded with a stop watch for the paper chart and on the App itself for the mobile chart allowing critical print size (CPS) and optimal reading speed (ORS) to be derived objectively. The ORS was higher for the mobile app charts (194±29 wpm; 195±25 wpm) compared with the paper chart (166±20 wpm; F=57.000, p<0.001). The CPS was lower for the mobile app charts (0.17±0.20 logMAR; 0.18±0.17 logMAR) compared with the paper chart (0.25±0.17 logMAR; F=5.406, p=0.009). The mobile app test had a mean difference repeatability of 0.30±22.5 wpm, r=0.917 for ORS, and a CPS of 0.0±0.2 logMAR, r=0.769. Repeatability of the app reading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Insights into metazoan evolution from alvinella pompejana cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alvinella pompejana is a representative of Annelids, a key phylum for evo-devo studies that is still poorly studied at the sequence level. A. pompejana inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents and is currently known as one of the most thermotolerant Eukaryotes in marine environments, withstanding the largest known chemical and thermal ranges (from 5 to 105°C). This tube-dwelling worm forms dense colonies on the surface of hydrothermal chimneys and can withstand long periods of hypo/anoxia and long phases of exposure to hydrogen sulphides. A. pompejana specifically inhabits chimney walls of hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise. To survive, Alvinella has developed numerous adaptations at the physiological and molecular levels, such as an increase in the thermostability of proteins and protein complexes. It represents an outstanding model organism for studying adaptation to harsh physicochemical conditions and for isolating stable macromolecules resistant to high temperatures. Results We have constructed four full length enriched cDNA libraries to investigate the biology and evolution of this intriguing animal. Analysis of more than 75,000 high quality reads led to the identification of 15,858 transcripts and 9,221 putative protein sequences. Our annotation reveals a good coverage of most animal pathways and networks with a prevalence of transcripts involved in oxidative stress resistance, detoxification, anti-bacterial defence, and heat shock protection. Alvinella proteins seem to show a slow evolutionary rate and a higher similarity with proteins from Vertebrates compared to proteins from Arthropods or Nematodes. Their composition shows enrichment in positively charged amino acids that might contribute to their thermostability. The gene content of Alvinella reveals that an important pool of genes previously considered to be specific to Deuterostomes were in fact already present in the last common ancestor of the Bilaterian animals, but have been

  14. Obesity surgery smartphone apps: a review.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Daniel J; Jackson, John A; Howes, Noah; Morgan, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study are to review available smartphone applications ('apps') relating to weight loss surgery, and assess the level of medical professional involvement in their design Smartphone apps relating to weight loss surgery were identified by searching the three app stores: Apple's App Store, Google Play (Android) and Blackberry AppWorld. A data search was undertaken using keywords and phrases relating to weight loss surgery. Apps designed for the non-surgical treatment of obesity were excluded. A total of 38 apps were identified (Google Play = 17, Apple App Store = 21, Blackberry World = 0). Ten of 38 apps were duplicated therefore 28 apps were reviewed. Mean app rating was 3.6/5 and mean app cost was £1.89. Twenty-six of 28 (92.9%) apps were designed for use by patients. Apps were categorised into the following categories: patient information (ten), patient support forums (six), patient record tools (six), weight loss clinic advertisements (four), a journal app (one) and a conference tool (one). Health professional involvement was evident in 12 of 28 (42.9%) apps. This study has identified that the majority of available apps relating to weight loss surgery do not have health professional input. The establishment of a 'quality stamp' provided by an established bariatric surgical body could improve the confidence with which patients and clinicians use these new information sources. Weight loss surgery apps offer a unique opportunity to provide accurate and reliable patient information and their use as part of the informed consent process should be explored.

  15. PCR cloning and characterization of multiple ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNAs from tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.; Gianfagna, T.

    1998-01-01

    Four ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) cDNAs were cloned from tomato fruit and leaves by the PCR techniques. Three of them (agp S1, agp S2, and agp S3) encode the large subunit of AGP, the fourth one (agp B) encodes the small subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs show very high identities (96-98%) to the corresponding potato AGP isoforms, although there are major differences in tissue expression profiles. All four tomato AGP transcripts were detected in fruit and leaves; the predominant ones in fruit are agp B and agp S1, whereas in leaves they are agp B and agp S3. Genomic southern analysis suggests that the four AGP transcripts are encoded by distinct genes.

  16. PCR cloning and characterization of multiple ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNAs from tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.; Gianfagna, T.

    1998-01-01

    Four ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) cDNAs were cloned from tomato fruit and leaves by the PCR techniques. Three of them (agp S1, agp S2, and agp S3) encode the large subunit of AGP, the fourth one (agp B) encodes the small subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs show very high identities (96-98%) to the corresponding potato AGP isoforms, although there are major differences in tissue expression profiles. All four tomato AGP transcripts were detected in fruit and leaves; the predominant ones in fruit are agp B and agp S1, whereas in leaves they are agp B and agp S3. Genomic southern analysis suggests that the four AGP transcripts are encoded by distinct genes.

  17. Isolation of Light-Enhanced cDNAs of Cercospora kikuchii.

    PubMed

    Ehrenshaft, M; Upchurch, R G

    1991-09-01

    Cercospora kikuchii is a fungal pathogen of soybeans which produces a photosensitizing phytotoxic polyketide metabolite, cercosporin. Cercosporin synthesis in culture is modulated by several environmental factors. In addition to the light requirement for toxin action, cercosporin biosynthesis is also highly light regulated. As a first step towards identifying genes involved in cercosporin regulation and biosynthesis, we have used subtractive hybridization to isolate light-enhanced cDNA clones. Six distinct cDNA clones representing genes from a wild-type C. kikuchii strain for which transcript accumulation is positively regulated by light were isolated. To assess the relationship of these light-enhanced cDNAs to cercosporin biosynthesis, we compared corresponding steady-state RNA levels in the wild type and in three mutant strains altered in toxin biosynthesis. Two of the mutant C. kikuchii strains which fail to accumulate cercosporin in response to light also fail to exhibit light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to all six light-enhanced cDNAs. Cercosporin accumulation in the third mutant strain, S2, is regulated by medium composition as well as light. S2 fails to accumulate cercosporin in complete medium, a medium which allows significant cercosporin accumulation by the wild-type strain. When cultured in complete medium, this mutant strain also fails to show the wild-type, light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to five of the six light-enhanced cDNAs. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that transcript accumulation for two of the six light-enhanced cDNAs strongly paralleled cercosporin accumulation in light-grown wild-type culture.

  18. Characterization of direct selected cDNAs from the BRCA1 region of 17q21

    SciTech Connect

    Welcsh, P.L.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.L.; Spillman, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    A gene involved in the development of early-onset familial breast and ovarian cancer, BRCA1, has been mapped to human chromosome 17q21. Polymorphisms closely linked to BRCA1 has been sublocalized to a region of 17q21 which is defined by the markers D17S856 and D17S78. A physical map of this region, that consists of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and cosmid contigs, has been constructed and used to isolate potential coding sequences via direct selection. We have identified at least 23 unique transcripts in a 600 kb interval corresponding to approximately one gene every 30 kb. We have determined the expression profile of these cDNAs by generating cDNA-specific primers which have been used in a screen of cDNAs derived from wide variety of tissues and cell types. Full length cDNA clones are being obtained from cDNA libraries in which the genes have been shown to be expressed by a variety of techniques which include direct screening, 5{prime} and 3{prime} RACE, anchor PCR as well as modified selection procedures. We are currently screening for mutations in these candidate cDNAs in affected family members known to harbor a germ-line BRCA1 mutation and in sporadic breast and ovarian tumors. Mutation screening is being performed by Southern and Northern blotting, DNA sequencing, and SSCP analysis of germline DNA and cDNA. Finally, we are analyzing these candidate cDNAs in a number of breast and ovarian cancer cell lines for induction by known mitogenic factors such as estrogen and progesterone by Northern blotting and RT-PCR.

  19. Identification of cDNAs by direct hybridization using cosmid probes

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.G.; Lieuallen, K.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to quickly obtain as many chromosome-specific cDNAs with as much map and sequence detail as possible. Many techniques have been proposed to isolate and identify genes within defined genomic regions; the technique discussed here is direct hybridization of a relatively complex genomic probe, an entire cosmid clone, to cDNA libraries. This method continues to be a straightforward technique with a fair number of successes.

  20. Sequence analysis of ripening-related cytochrome P-450 cDNAs from avocado fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Bozak, K R; Yu, H; Sirevåg, R; Christoffersen, R E

    1990-01-01

    The ripening of avocado fruit is associated with the expression of a number of mRNAs concomitant with overt changes in texture and flavor. Two overlapping cDNAs for a mRNA that accumulates during ripening were identified. Sequence analysis of these two cDNAs revealed a polypeptide of 471 amino acids with characteristics of a typical P-450: an N-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor, a conserved heme-binding domain in the C-terminal region, and patches of similarity to various P-450 family members. Further evidence that this polypeptide represents a cytochrome P-450 oxidase comes from the recent isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P-450 from ripe avocado mesocarp [O'Keefe, D. P. & Leto, K. J. (1989) Plant Physiol. 89, 1141-1149]. The N terminus of the predicted polypeptide in the cDNAs is identical to the N terminus of the purified avocado P-450. Gel blot analysis of RNA from fruit at various stages of ripening showed the accumulation of an 1800-nucleotide P-450 mRNA that hybridized to the P-450 cDNA. The P-450 protein predicted by the avocado cDNA sequence shares less than 40% positional identity with any known P-450 gene family. We propose therefore that it be placed in a separate family, P450LXXI, and that the corresponding gene from avocado be named cyp71A1. Images PMID:1692626

  1. Isolation of differentially expressed cDNAs during ferret tracheal development: application of differential display PCR.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, A; Presente, A; Dudus, L; Engelhardt, J F

    1996-01-01

    The technique of differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used to identify cDNA sequences, which are temporally expressed during ferret tracheal airway development. Such differentially expressed cDNAs may ultimately prove to be useful markers in elucidating mechanisms of epithelial differentiation and submucosal gland development in the airway. Using two sets of oligonucleotide primers 15 differentially amplified cDNAs were isolated by comparative reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR of 6-h and 3-day postnatal tracheal poly-A mRNA. In situ hybridization was used to assess the reliability of this method and confirm the differential mRNA expression patterns of cloned cDNAs. Results of in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that 10 of the 15 cDNA sequences gave a temporally regulated pattern of expression, which was concordant with that of the differential display. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the 15 isolated cDNAs revealed that the majority of clones were amplified from two inverted decamer primers. These findings demonstrate the lack of poly-T priming in the differential display reaction, which suggests that this method may yield substantially more information regarding the coding sequence of cloned genes. In support of this observation, 6 of the 15 cDNA sequences contained one complete open reading frame. Although the majority of cDNAs demonstrated no homology to sequence data bases at the DNA or amino acid level, clone FT-4, which demonstrated a differential expression pattern limited to 3-day tracheal time points, was composed of a 10-amino acid repeat domain that was structurally similar to neuropeptide anthoRFamide and barley D hordein seed protein. A second interesting clone, FT-3, demonstrated an infrequent pattern of expression within a subset of epithelial cells limited to early developmental time points (6 h) and was dramatically reduced by 3 days postnatally. Several additional clones with no homologies to previously cloned genes

  2. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-08-12

    Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana." Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated "17+" years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated "high maturity" (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational (facts, strain classification), or recreational (games), likely

  3. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  4. mHealthApps: A Repository and Database of Mobile Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Background The market of mobile health (mHealth) apps has rapidly evolved in the past decade. With more than 100,000 mHealth apps currently available, there is no centralized resource that collects information on these health-related apps for researchers in this field to effectively evaluate the strength and weakness of these apps. Objective The objective of this study was to create a centralized mHealth app repository. We expect the analysis of information in this repository to provide insights for future mHealth research developments. Methods We focused on apps from the two most established app stores, the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. We extracted detailed information of each health-related app from these two app stores via our python crawling program, and then stored the information in both a user-friendly array format and a standard JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. Results We have developed a centralized resource that provides detailed information of more than 60,000 health-related apps from the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. Using this information resource, we analyzed thousands of apps systematically and provide an overview of the trends for mHealth apps. Conclusions This unique database allows the meta-analysis of health-related apps and provides guidance for research designs of future apps in the mHealth field. PMID:25786060

  5. Cloning and molecular characterization of cDNAs encoding three Ancylostoma ceylanicum secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Siwińska, Anna M; Bąska, Piotr; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina; Cappello, Michael; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs to a group of soil-transmitted helminths, which infect almost 576 mln people worldwide and are a major cause of anaemia and malnutrition. Upon contact with a permissive host, third-stage larvae (L3) residing in the environment become activated larvae (ssL3), a process associated with changes in the profile of gene expression. Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs) are the major proteins secreted during larvae activation and play a crucial role in hookworm adaptation to parasitism. Here we report the cloning using RACE-PCR technique of three novel ASPs from the hookworm A. ceylanicum (Ace-asp-3, Ace-asp-4, and Ace-asp-5) and computational analysis of the protein sequences. All three proteins contain SCP (Sperm Coating Protein) domain characteristic for previously described ASP proteins. Real-time PCR analysis shows significant up-regulation of Ace-asp-3 and Ace-asp-5 expression in adult worms and correlated down-regulation in ssL3 larvae. On the other hand, expression of Ace-asp-4 was increased in ssL3 stages and decreased in adult parasites.

  6. Identification of the reptilian prolactin and its receptor cDNAs in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Kato, Keisuke; Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2005-02-14

    In spite of their physiological significance, there is no available information about the nucleotide sequences of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor in reptilian species. In order to fill this gap, PRL and its receptor cDNAs were identified in a reptilian species, the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. The deduced leopard gecko PRL polypeptide showed high identities with the corresponding polypeptides of other reptiles. The leopard gecko PRL receptor (PRLR) was estimated to have tandem repeated regions in its extracellular domain, which had been originally found in avian PRLR. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that these tandem repeated regions were generated by the duplication of the extracellular region in the latest common ancestor among reptiles and birds. In addition, tissue distributions of PRL and PRLR in the leopard gecko were examined by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PRLR mRNA was detected in all tissues examined and highly expressed in the whole brain, pituitary, intestine, kidney, ovary, oviduct and testis. Whereas, PRL mRNA was expressed in the whole brain, pituitary, ovary and testis. The co-expressions of PRL and its receptor in some extrapituitary organs suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine/paracrine factor in such organs of the leopard gecko.

  7. Smartphone use in neurosurgery? APP-solutely!

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Michael; Drazin, Doniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of smartphone medical apps have recently emerged that may be helpful for the neurosurgical patient, practitioner, and trainee. This study aims to review the current neurosurgery-focused apps available for the iPhone, iPad, and Android platforms as of December 2013. Methods: Two of the most popular smartphone app stores (Apple Store and Android Google Play Store) were surveyed for neurosurgery-focused apps in December 2013. Search results were categorized based on their description page. Data were collected on price, rating, app release date, target audience, and medical professional involvement in app design. A review of the top apps in each category was performed. Results: The search resulted in 111 unique apps, divided into these 7 categories: 16 (14%) clinical tools, 17 (15%) conference adjunct, 27 (24%) education, 18 (16%) literature, 15 (14%) marketing, 10 (9%) patient information, and 8 (7%) reference. The average cost of paid apps was $23.06 (range: $0.99-89.99). Out of the 111 apps, 71 (64%) were free, 48 (43%) had reviews, and 14 (13%) had more than 10 reviews. Seventy-three (66%) apps showed evidence of medical professional involvement. The number of apps being released every year has been increasing since 2009. Conclusions: There are a number of neurosurgery-themed apps available to all audiences. There was a lack of patient information apps for nonspinal procedures. Most apps did not have enough reviews to evaluate their quality. There was also a lack of oversight to validate the accuracy of medical information provided in these apps. PMID:25101208

  8. Smartphone use in neurosurgery? APP-solutely!

    PubMed

    Zaki, Michael; Drazin, Doniel

    2014-01-01

    A number of smartphone medical apps have recently emerged that may be helpful for the neurosurgical patient, practitioner, and trainee. This study aims to review the current neurosurgery-focused apps available for the iPhone, iPad, and Android platforms as of December 2013. Two of the most popular smartphone app stores (Apple Store and Android Google Play Store) were surveyed for neurosurgery-focused apps in December 2013. Search results were categorized based on their description page. Data were collected on price, rating, app release date, target audience, and medical professional involvement in app design. A review of the top apps in each category was performed. The search resulted in 111 unique apps, divided into these 7 categories: 16 (14%) clinical tools, 17 (15%) conference adjunct, 27 (24%) education, 18 (16%) literature, 15 (14%) marketing, 10 (9%) patient information, and 8 (7%) reference. The average cost of paid apps was $23.06 (range: $0.99-89.99). Out of the 111 apps, 71 (64%) were free, 48 (43%) had reviews, and 14 (13%) had more than 10 reviews. Seventy-three (66%) apps showed evidence of medical professional involvement. The number of apps being released every year has been increasing since 2009. There are a number of neurosurgery-themed apps available to all audiences. There was a lack of patient information apps for nonspinal procedures. Most apps did not have enough reviews to evaluate their quality. There was also a lack of oversight to validate the accuracy of medical information provided in these apps.

  9. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  10. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  11. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by ECCN...

  12. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by ECCN...

  13. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by ECCN...

  14. Upregulation of APP, ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the denervated mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Del Turco, Domenico; Schlaudraff, Jessica; Bonin, Michael; Deller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The disintegrin and metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 are regarded as the most important α-secretases involved in the physiological processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in brain. Since it has been suggested that processing of APP by α-secretases could be involved in the reorganization of the brain following injury, we studied mRNA expression of the two α-secretases Adam10 and Adam17, the ß-secretase Bace1, and the App-gene family (App, Aplp1, Aplp2) in the dentate gyrus of the mouse following entorhinal denervation. Using laser microdissection, tissue was harvested from the outer molecular layer and the granule cell layer of the denervated dentate gyrus. Expression levels of candidate genes were assessed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, revealing an upregulation of Adam10 mRNA and Adam17 mRNA in the denervated outer molecular layer and an upregulation of Adam10 mRNA and App mRNA in the dentate granule cell layer. Immunolabeling for ADAM10 or ADAM17 in combination with markers for astro- and microglia revealed an increased labeling of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the denervated outer molecular layer that was associated with reactive astrocytes but not with microglia. Collectively, these data show that denervation affects the expression level of APP and its two most important α-secretases. This suggests that APP-processing could be shifted towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway in denervated areas of the brain and, thus, towards the formation of neuroprotective APP cleavage products, such as APPsα.

  15. Illuminating Apps for Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennex, Lesia; Bodenlos, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science is chock-full of wonderful experiences for students. Do children see iPads as a tool for learning about science? Using Prensky (2010) as a guide, the researchers decided to see if "assessing students with their own" tools (p.178) using iPad apps would support learning discrete knowledge for electricity and light…

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  17. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  18. App Chronic Disease Checklist: Protocol to Evaluate Mobile Apps for Chronic Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Burford, Oksana; Emmerton, Lynne

    2016-11-04

    The availability of mobile health apps for self-care continues to increase. While little evidence of their clinical impact has been published, there is general agreement among health authorities and authors that consumers' use of health apps assist in self-management and potentially clinical decision making. A consumer's sustained engagement with a health app is dependent on the usability and functionality of the app. While numerous studies have attempted to evaluate health apps, there is a paucity of published methods that adequately recognize client experiences in the academic evaluation of apps for chronic conditions. This paper reports (1) a protocol to shortlist health apps for academic evaluation, (2) synthesis of a checklist to screen health apps for quality and reliability, and (3) a proposed method to theoretically evaluate usability of health apps, with a view towards identifying one or more apps suitable for clinical assessment. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram was developed to guide the selection of the apps to be assessed. The screening checklist was thematically synthesized with reference to recurring constructs in published checklists and related materials for the assessment of health apps. The checklist was evaluated by the authors for face and construct validity. The proposed method for evaluation of health apps required the design of procedures for raters of apps, dummy data entry to test the apps, and analysis of raters' scores. The PRISMA flow diagram comprises 5 steps: filtering of duplicate apps; eliminating non-English apps; removing apps requiring purchase, filtering apps not updated within the past year; and separation of apps into their core functionality. The screening checklist to evaluate the selected apps was named the App Chronic Disease Checklist, and comprises 4 sections with 6 questions in each section. The validity check verified classification of, and ambiguity in, wording

  19. Apps of Steel: Are Exercise Apps Providing Consumers with Realistic Expectations?: A Content Analysis of Exercise Apps for Presence of Behavior Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Logan T.; Van Wagenen, Sarah A.; Brown, Brittany A.; Hedin, Riley J.; Seino-Stephan, Yukiko; Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the presence of health behavior theory constructs in iPhone apps targeting physical activity. Methods. This study used a content analysis of 127 apps from Apple's (App Store) "Health & Fitness" category. Coders downloaded the apps and then used an established theory-based instrument to rate each app's inclusion of…

  20. Apps of Steel: Are Exercise Apps Providing Consumers with Realistic Expectations?: A Content Analysis of Exercise Apps for Presence of Behavior Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Logan T.; Van Wagenen, Sarah A.; Brown, Brittany A.; Hedin, Riley J.; Seino-Stephan, Yukiko; Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the presence of health behavior theory constructs in iPhone apps targeting physical activity. Methods. This study used a content analysis of 127 apps from Apple's (App Store) "Health & Fitness" category. Coders downloaded the apps and then used an established theory-based instrument to rate each app's inclusion of…

  1. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M., Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the {approx}1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5{prime} regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family.

  2. Human mast cell tryptase: multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family.

    PubMed Central

    Vanderslice, P; Ballinger, S M; Tam, E K; Goldstein, S M; Craik, C S; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the approximately 1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5' regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family. Images PMID:2187193

  3. Cynomolgus monkey testicular cDNAs for discovery of novel human genes in the human genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Naoki; Hida, Munetomo; Kusuda, Jun; Tanuma, Reiko; Hirata, Makoto; Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Terao, Keiji; Sugano, Sumio; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Background In order to contribute to the establishment of a complete map of transcribed regions of the human genome, we constructed a testicular cDNA library for the cynomolgus monkey, and attempted to find novel transcripts for identification of their human homologues. Result The full-insert sequences of 512 cDNA clones were determined. Ultimately we found 302 non-redundant cDNAs carrying open reading frames of 300 bp-length or longer. Among them, 89 cDNAs were found not to be annotated previously in the Ensembl human database. After searching against the Ensembl mouse database, we also found 69 putative coding sequences have no homologous cDNAs in the annotated human and mouse genome sequences in Ensembl. We subsequently designed a DNA microarray including 396 non-redundant cDNAs (with and without open reading frames) to examine the expression of the full-sequenced genes. With the testicular probe and a mixture of probes of 10 other tissues, 316 of 332 effective spots showed intense hybridized signals and 75 cDNAs were shown to be expressed very highly in the cynomolgus monkey testis, but not ubiquitously. Conclusions In this report, we determined 302 full-insert sequences of cynomolgus monkey cDNAs with enough length of open reading frames to discover novel transcripts as human homologues. Among 302 cDNA sequences, human homologues of 89 cDNAs have not been predicted in the annotated human genome sequence in the Ensembl. Additionally, we identified 75 dominantly expressed genes in testis among the full-sequenced clones by using a DNA microarray. Our cDNA clones and analytical results will be valuable resources for future functional genomic studies. PMID:12498619

  4. Multiple cDNAs of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the C4 dicot Flaveria trinervia.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, W; Hermans, J; Westhoff, P

    1991-11-04

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones for the leaf-specific C4-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) from the dicotyledonous C4 plant Flaveria trinervia. The isolation of multiple cDNAs indicates that in this plant the C4 isoform is encoded by a small subgroup of the PEPCase gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals a higher degree of similarity to the CAM and C3 isozymes of the dicotyledonous, facultative CAM plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum than to the C4 PEPCases of monocotyledonous origin.

  5. Diabetes mHealth Apps: Designing for Greater Uptake.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Ronak; Niakan, Shadi; Saha, Nishita; Tewari, Anukriti; Pirani, Ashfiya; Keshavjee, Natasha; Mugambi, Dora; Alavi, Nasrin; Keshavjee, Karim

    2017-01-01

    mHealth apps are not being used. Over 45,000 mhealth apps are languishing in mobile app stores. We evaluated over 200 diabetes mobile apps found in the Apple and Google app stores using a framework that we recently published. None of the apps met all 15 criteria identified by our framework. The largest number of apps fell into the category of Type 1 diabetes blood sugar and medication trackers. Other types of apps included educational apps such as recipe apps, guideline dissemination apps, simple diabetes education apps, etc. There is a need for more Type 2 apps and for all types of apps that are better integrated into EMRs for more holistic care that can be prescribed by clinicians and monitored and supported by the health care team.

  6. GULP1 is a novel APP-interacting protein that alters APP processing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Hao, Candy Yan; Perkinton, Michael S; Chan, William Wai-Lun; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Miller, Christopher C J; Lau, Kwok-Fai

    2011-06-15

    Altered production of Aβ (amyloid-β peptide), derived from the proteolytic cleavage of APP (amyloid precursor protein), is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of AD (Alzheimer's disease). Accumulating evidence reveals that APPc (APP C-terminal domain)-interacting proteins can influence APP processing. There is also evidence to suggest that APPc-interacting proteins work co-operatively and competitively to maintain normal APP functions and processing. Hence, identification of the full complement of APPc-interacting proteins is an important step for improving our understanding of APP processing. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, in the present study we identified GULP1 (engulfment adaptor protein 1) as a novel APPc-interacting protein. We found that the GULP1-APP interaction is mediated by the NPTY motif of APP and the GULP1 PTB (phosphotyrosine-binding) domain. Confocal microscopy revealed that a proportion of APP and GULP1 co-localized in neurons. In an APP-GAL4 reporter assay, we demonstrated that GULP1 altered the processing of APP. Moreover, overexpression of GULP1 enhanced the generation of APP CTFs (C-terminal fragments) and Aβ, whereas knockdown of GULP1 suppressed APP CTFs and Aβ production. The results of the present study reveal that GULP1 is a novel APP/APPc-interacting protein that influences APP processing and Aβ production.

  7. APP mouse models for Alzheimer's disease preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sasaguri, Hiroki; Nilsson, Per; Hashimoto, Shoko; Nagata, Kenichi; Saito, Takashi; De Strooper, Bart; Hardy, John; Vassar, Robert; Winblad, Bengt; Saido, Takaomi C

    2017-09-01

    Animal models of human diseases that accurately recapitulate clinical pathology are indispensable for understanding molecular mechanisms and advancing preclinical studies. The Alzheimer's disease (AD) research community has historically used first-generation transgenic (Tg) mouse models that overexpress proteins linked to familial AD (FAD), mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP), or APP and presenilin (PS). These mice exhibit AD pathology, but the overexpression paradigm may cause additional phenotypes unrelated to AD Second-generation mouse models contain humanized sequences and clinical mutations in the endogenous mouse App gene. These mice show Aβ accumulation without phenotypes related to overexpression but are not yet a clinical recapitulation of human AD In this review, we evaluate different APP mouse models of AD, and review recent studies using the second-generation mice. We advise AD researchers to consider the comparative strengths and limitations of each model against the scientific and therapeutic goal of a prospective preclinical study. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. Could People Get Quality Apps They Intend to Get? Taking Finding Stroke Apps for Example.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Fu, Chen; Chang, Hong; Wu, Ying; Chang, Polun

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate what apps could people get and what quality these apps were when different searching keywords were used to search in different platforms. We took Stroke apps as an example with "Stroke" "Cerebrovascular Disease" and "Zhongfeng" (in Chinese) as the keywords. Two reviewers evaluated apps independently with revised MARS scale. It was interesting to see that people would get different apps from different platforms with different keywords. The results show that a good mechanism is needed to safeguard people obtain right apps from any source with any term in China.

  9. Apps and intensive care medicine.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Posadilla, D; Gómez-Marcos, V; Hernández-Tejedor, A

    2017-05-01

    Technological advances have played a key role over the last century in the development of humankind. Critical Care Medicine is one of the greatest examples of this revolution. Smartphones with multiple sensors constitute another step forward, and have led to the development of apps for use by both professionals and patients. We discuss their main medical applications in the field of Critical Care Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. RAMPAGE: promoter activity profiling by paired-end sequencing of 5'-complete cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Batut, Philippe; Gingeras, Thomas R

    2013-11-11

    RNA annotation and mapping of promoters for analysis of gene expression (RAMPAGE) is a method that harnesses highly specific sequencing of 5'-complete complementary DNAs to identify transcription start sites (TSSs) genome-wide. Although TSS mapping has historically relied on detection of 5'-complete cDNAs, current genome-wide approaches typically have limited specificity and provide only scarce information regarding transcript structure. RAMPAGE allows for highly stringent selection of 5'-complete molecules, thus allowing base-resolution TSS identification with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Paired-end sequencing of medium-length cDNAs yields transcript structure information that is essential to interpreting the relationship of TSSs to annotated genes and transcripts. As opposed to standard RNA-seq, RAMPAGE explicitly yields accurate and highly reproducible expression level estimates for individual promoters. Moreover, this approach offers a streamlined 2- to 3-day protocol that is optimized for extensive sample multiplexing, and is therefore adapted for large-scale projects. This method has been applied successfully to human and Drosophila samples, and in principle should be applicable to any eukaryotic system. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Evolution of gnathostome prodynorphin and proenkephalin: characterization of a shark proenkephalin and prodynorphin cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Leanne K; Lecaude, Stephanie G; Westring, Christian G; Danielson, Phillip B; Dores, Robert M

    2012-07-01

    Analyses of prodynorphin and proenkephalin cDNAs cloned from the central nervous system of the shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, provided additional evidence that these two opioid precursor-coding genes were most likely directly derived from a common ancestral gene. The two cDNAs could be aligned by inserting only seven gaps. The prodynorphin cDNA encodes five opioid sequences which could be aligned to opioid positions B through F in the proenkephalin cDNA. The sequence identity within the opioid positions was 59% at the amino acid level. Shark α-neo-endorphin, dynorphin A, and dynorphin B have amino acid motifs in common with shark met-enkephalin-8, and shark proenkephalin opioid positions E and F, respectively, which have not been observed in other gnathostome prodynorphin and proenkephalin precursor sequences. Shark prodynorphin encodes both kappa (α-neo-endorphin, dynorphin A, and dynorphin B) and delta (met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin) opioid sequences. Mixed function prodynorphin precursors (encoding both enkephalins and dynorphins) are also found in representatives of the teleost fishes, lungfishes, and amphibians. It appears that only mammals evolved a prodynorphin precursor that exclusively encodes kappa opioid agonists (dynorphins). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Calero, J J; Oton, L F; Oton, C A

    2017-02-01

    Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device ("Apps") are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps), Clinical Calculators (4), Tools for Staging (7), Multipurpose (7) and Others (6). Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English), Easy Oncology (in German) and iOncoR (in Spanish). Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Palmitoylated APP Forms Dimers, Cleaved by BACE1.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Raja; Fenn, Rebecca H; Barren, Cory; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Kovacs, Dora M

    2016-01-01

    A major rate-limiting step for Aβ generation and deposition in Alzheimer's disease brains is BACE1-mediated cleavage (β-cleavage) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We previously reported that APP undergoes palmitoylation at two cysteine residues (Cys186 and Cys187) in the E1-ectodomain. 8-10% of total APP is palmitoylated in vitro and in vivo. Palmitoylated APP (palAPP) shows greater preference for β-cleavage than total APP in detergent resistant lipid rafts. Protein palmitoylation is known to promote protein dimerization. Since dimerization of APP at its E1-ectodomain results in elevated BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP, we have now investigated whether palmitoylation of APP affects its dimerization and whether this leads to elevated β-cleavage of the protein. Here we report that over 90% of palAPP is dimerized while only ~20% of total APP forms dimers. PalAPP-dimers are predominantly cis-oriented while total APP dimerizes in both cis- and trans-orientation. PalAPP forms dimers 4.5-times more efficiently than total APP. Overexpression of the palmitoylating enzymes DHHC7 and DHHC21 that increase palAPP levels and Aβ release, also increased APP dimerization in cells. Conversely, inhibition of APP palmitoylation by pharmacological inhibitors reduced APP-dimerization in coimmunoprecipitation and FLIM/FRET assays. Finally, in vitro BACE1-activity assays demonstrate that palmitoylation-dependent dimerization of APP promotes β-cleavage of APP in lipid-rich detergent resistant cell membranes (DRMs), when compared to total APP. Most importantly, generation of sAPPβ-sAPPβ dimers is dependent on APP-palmitoylation while total sAPPβ generation is not. Since BACE1 shows preference for palAPP dimers over total APP, palAPP dimers may serve as novel targets for effective β-cleavage inhibitors of APP as opposed to BACE1 inhibitors.

  15. Palmitoylated APP Forms Dimers, Cleaved by BACE1

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Rebecca H.; Barren, Cory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kovacs, Dora M.

    2016-01-01

    A major rate-limiting step for Aβ generation and deposition in Alzheimer’s disease brains is BACE1-mediated cleavage (β-cleavage) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We previously reported that APP undergoes palmitoylation at two cysteine residues (Cys186 and Cys187) in the E1-ectodomain. 8–10% of total APP is palmitoylated in vitro and in vivo. Palmitoylated APP (palAPP) shows greater preference for β-cleavage than total APP in detergent resistant lipid rafts. Protein palmitoylation is known to promote protein dimerization. Since dimerization of APP at its E1-ectodomain results in elevated BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP, we have now investigated whether palmitoylation of APP affects its dimerization and whether this leads to elevated β-cleavage of the protein. Here we report that over 90% of palAPP is dimerized while only ~20% of total APP forms dimers. PalAPP-dimers are predominantly cis-oriented while total APP dimerizes in both cis- and trans-orientation. PalAPP forms dimers 4.5-times more efficiently than total APP. Overexpression of the palmitoylating enzymes DHHC7 and DHHC21 that increase palAPP levels and Aβ release, also increased APP dimerization in cells. Conversely, inhibition of APP palmitoylation by pharmacological inhibitors reduced APP-dimerization in coimmunoprecipitation and FLIM/FRET assays. Finally, in vitro BACE1-activity assays demonstrate that palmitoylation-dependent dimerization of APP promotes β-cleavage of APP in lipid-rich detergent resistant cell membranes (DRMs), when compared to total APP. Most importantly, generation of sAPPβ-sAPPβ dimers is dependent on APP-palmitoylation while total sAPPβ generation is not. Since BACE1 shows preference for palAPP dimers over total APP, palAPP dimers may serve as novel targets for effective β-cleavage inhibitors of APP as opposed to BACE1 inhibitors. PMID:27875558

  16. Relationship between Escherichia coli AppA phytase's thermostability and salt bridges.

    PubMed

    Fei, Baojin; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Feiwei; Li, Xinran; Ma, Shuhan; Cao, Yu; Xie, Jie; Qiao, Dairong; Cao, Yi

    2013-06-01

    In order to study on the relationship between Escherichia coli AppA phytase's thermostability and salt bridges, and indicate an effective technical route of which factor to think about and where to modify at AppA for enhancing its thermostability, a salt bridge subtraction mutant E31Q and a salt bridge addition mutant Q307D were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The residual activities of the wild-type AppA phytase, E31Q and Q307D were 31.42%, 17.46%, and 40.57%, respectively, after being heated at 80°C for 10 min. The salt bridge subtraction mutant E31Q showed 13.96% thermostability decreasement, and the salt bridge addition mutant Q307D showed 9.15% thermostability enhancement than the wild-type both without the pH and temperature optimum changed. It proved salt bridges play a key role in E. coli AppA phytase's thermostability and the α/β-domain of AppA may be sensitive to heat. Salt bridges and the α/β-domain of AppA should have high priority to think about to enhance AppA's thermostability for commercial application. Besides, molecular dynamics simulation was used for salt bridges analysis. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enabling Psychiatrists to be Mobile Phone App Developers: Insights Into App Development Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tammy; Cheow, Enquan; Ho, Cyrus SH; Yeong, Ng Beng; Ho, Roger CM

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phones, and specifically smartphones, in the last decade has become more and more prevalent. The latest mobile phones are equipped with comprehensive features that can be used in health care, such as providing rapid access to up-to-date evidence-based information, provision of instant communications, and improvements in organization. The estimated number of health care apps for mobile phones is increasing tremendously, but previous research has highlighted the lack of critical appraisal of new apps. This lack of appraisal of apps has largely been due to the lack of clinicians with technical knowledge of how to create an evidence-based app. Objective We discuss two freely available methodologies for developing Web-based mobile phone apps: a website builder and an app builder. With these, users can program not just a Web-based app, but also integrate multimedia features within their app, without needing to know any programming language. Methods We present techniques for creating a mobile Web-based app using two well-established online mobile app websites. We illustrate how to integrate text-based content within the app, as well as integration of interactive videos and rich site summary (RSS) feed information. We will also briefly discuss how to integrate a simple questionnaire survey into the mobile-based app. A questionnaire survey was administered to students to collate their perceptions towards the app. Results These two methodologies for developing apps have been used to convert an online electronic psychiatry textbook into two Web-based mobile phone apps for medical students rotating through psychiatry in Singapore. Since the inception of our mobile Web-based app, a total of 21,991 unique users have used the mobile app and online portal provided by WordPress, and another 717 users have accessed the app via a Web-based link. The user perspective survey results (n=185) showed that a high proportion of students valued the textbook and

  18. Enabling Psychiatrists to be Mobile Phone App Developers: Insights Into App Development Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Tsang, Tammy; Cheow, Enquan; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Yeong, Ng Beng; Ho, Roger Cm

    2014-11-11

    The use of mobile phones, and specifically smartphones, in the last decade has become more and more prevalent. The latest mobile phones are equipped with comprehensive features that can be used in health care, such as providing rapid access to up-to-date evidence-based information, provision of instant communications, and improvements in organization. The estimated number of health care apps for mobile phones is increasing tremendously, but previous research has highlighted the lack of critical appraisal of new apps. This lack of appraisal of apps has largely been due to the lack of clinicians with technical knowledge of how to create an evidence-based app. We discuss two freely available methodologies for developing Web-based mobile phone apps: a website builder and an app builder. With these, users can program not just a Web-based app, but also integrate multimedia features within their app, without needing to know any programming language. We present techniques for creating a mobile Web-based app using two well-established online mobile app websites. We illustrate how to integrate text-based content within the app, as well as integration of interactive videos and rich site summary (RSS) feed information. We will also briefly discuss how to integrate a simple questionnaire survey into the mobile-based app. A questionnaire survey was administered to students to collate their perceptions towards the app. These two methodologies for developing apps have been used to convert an online electronic psychiatry textbook into two Web-based mobile phone apps for medical students rotating through psychiatry in Singapore. Since the inception of our mobile Web-based app, a total of 21,991 unique users have used the mobile app and online portal provided by WordPress, and another 717 users have accessed the app via a Web-based link. The user perspective survey results (n=185) showed that a high proportion of students valued the textbook and objective structured clinical

  19. Physiological Functions of APP Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ulrike C.; Zheng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic evidence establishes a central role of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Biochemically, deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides produced from proteolytic processing of APP forms the defining pathological hallmark of AD; genetically, both point mutations and duplications of wild-type APP are linked to a subset of early onset of familial AD (FAD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. As such, the biological functions of APP and its processing products have been the subject of intense investigation, and the past 20+ years of research have met with both excitement and challenges. This article will review the current understanding of the physiological functions of APP in the context of APP family members. PMID:22355794

  20. Hypnosis--there's an app for that: a systematic review of hypnosis apps.

    PubMed

    Sucala, Madalina; Schnur, Julie B; Glazier, Kimberly; Miller, Sarah J; Green, Joseph P; Montgomery, Guy H

    2013-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%); 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use.

  1. Hypnosis: There’s an App for that. A systematic review of hypnosis apps

    PubMed Central

    Sucala, Madalina; Schnur, Julie B.; Glazier, Kimberly; Miller, Sarah J.; Green, Joseph P.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    The study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were: weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%). 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence-based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use. PMID:23957263

  2. Cytoplasmic fragment of Alcadein α generated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis enhances amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) transport into the late secretory pathway and facilitates APP cleavage.

    PubMed

    Takei, Norio; Sobu, Yuriko; Kimura, Ayano; Urano, Satomi; Piao, Yi; Araki, Yoichi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Hata, Saori; Nakaya, Tadashi; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-09

    The neural type I membrane protein Alcadein α (Alcα), is primarily cleaved by amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) α-secretase to generate a membrane-associated carboxyl-terminal fragment (Alcα CTF), which is further cleaved by γ-secretase to secrete p3-Alcα peptides and generate an intracellular cytoplasmic domain fragment (Alcα ICD) in the late secretory pathway. By association with the neural adaptor protein X11L (X11-like), Alcα and APP form a ternary complex that suppresses the cleavage of both Alcα and APP by regulating the transport of these membrane proteins into the late secretory pathway where secretases are active. However, it has not been revealed how Alcα and APP are directed from the ternary complex formed largely in the Golgi into the late secretory pathway to reach a nerve terminus. Using a novel transgenic mouse line expressing excess amounts of human Alcα CTF (hAlcα CTF) in neurons, we found that expression of hAlcα CTF induced excess production of hAlcα ICD, which facilitated APP transport into the nerve terminus and enhanced APP metabolism, including Aβ generation. In vitro cell studies also demonstrated that excess expression of Alcα ICD released both APP and Alcα from the ternary complex. These results indicate that regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Alcα by γ-secretase regulates APP trafficking and the production of Aβ in vivo. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Efficiently, Effectively Detecting Mobile App Bugs with AppDoctor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    AppDoctor automat- ically validates most bugs by generating testcases of low- level events such as key presses and screen touches (e.g., a real long...for users to select a value from a set of values by touching buttons or swiping a touch screen ). Widgets handle a standard set of UI actions, such as...switches. Users interact with widgets by triggering low-level events, including touch events (users touching the device’s screen ) and key events (users

  4. Redefining Cheminformatics with Intuitive Collaborative Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alex M; Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers has recently been extended to include a growing ecosystem of increasingly sophisticated chemistry software packages, commonly known as apps. The capabilities that these apps can offer to the practicing chemist are approaching those of conventional desktop-based software, but apps tend to be focused on a relatively small range of tasks. To overcome this, chemistry apps must be able to seamlessly transfer data to other apps, and through the network to other devices, as well as to other platforms, such as desktops and servers, using documented file formats and protocols whenever possible. This article describes the development and state of the art with regard to chemistry-aware apps that make use of facile data interchange, and some of the scenarios in which these apps can be inserted into a chemical information workflow to increase productivity. A selection of contemporary apps is used to demonstrate their relevance to pharmaceutical research. Mobile apps represent a novel approach for delivery of cheminformatics tools to chemists and other scientists, and indications suggest that mobile devices represent a disruptive technology for drug discovery, as they have been to many other industries. PMID:23198002

  5. Colorectal smartphone apps: opportunities and risks.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, S; Brady, R R W

    2012-09-01

    The increased utilization of smartphones within the clinical environment together with connected applications (apps) provides opportunity for doctors, including coloproctologists, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the reliability of unregulated medical apps has recently been called into question. Here, we review contemporary medical apps specifically themed towards colorectal diseases and assess levels of medical professional involvement in their design and content. The most popular smartphone app stores (iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows and Samsung) were searched for colorectal disease themed apps, using the disease terms colorectal cancer, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, haemorrhoids, anal fissure, bowel incontinence and irritable bowel syndrome. A total of 68 individual colorectal themed apps were identified, amongst which there were five duplicates. Only 29% of colorectal apps had had customer satisfaction ratings and 32% had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. The benefits of apps are offset by lack of colorectal specification. There is little medical professional involvement in their design. Increased regulation is required to improve accountability of app content. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Identification of strong allele association and candidate cDNAs for the Spinal Muscular Atrophy gene

    SciTech Connect

    DiDonato, C.J.; Carpten, J.; Fuerst, P.

    1994-09-01

    The gene responsible for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) has been localized to a 850kb region on chromosome 5q11.2-q13.3 between the loci D5S823 and K5S557. This region is extremely complex and consequently the isolation of candidate cDNAs has been difficult. We have isolated a unique dinucleotide repeat marker, Ag1-CA, that maps to this interval and identifies 1, 2 or rarely 3 alleles per chromosome. We have conducted allelic association studies to identify the minimal region that should be searched for candidate cDNAs. Ag1-CA demonstrates the strongest allelic association observed to date with SMA (p<10{sup -4}) in at least 3 populations: French Canadian (HSJ), German and American (OSU) and acts to core two consensus haplotypes observed in the French Canadian population. Class 1 (single Ag1-CA allele) and Class II (2 or 3 alleles) chromosomes were found to be significantly different in Type 1 (p=.0003 OSU; .0012 HSJ) and Type II (p=.001 OSU; .001 HSJ) patients and there was no difference between Type III and normals (p=.5 OSU; .25 HSJ). 72% of Type I patients are Class I homozygotes while 78% of Type II patients are Class I/Class II heterozygotes indicating that the allele class marks the clinical severity of this disease. In addition, deletions may be responsible for the allele loss seen in 9% of German Type I SMA families where one parent fails to contribute any alleles of this locus to the affected child. Given the above results and the fact that we have shown this region to be unstable and frequently deleted in YACs, we have cloned greater than 500 kb surrounding the Ag1-CA locus in cosmids and P1 clones with maximum redundancy. Partial sequence data from one clone has revealed an ORF and no strong similarities to known sequences. In order to isolate the full length transcript we have used this clone in cDNA hybridizations and isolated an additional 8 cDNAs. Currently we are analyzing this cDNA in our patient population to determine if it is the SMA gene.

  7. Parametric sensitivity analysis of avian pancreatic polypeptide (APP).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Wong, C F; Thacher, T; Rabitz, H

    1995-10-01

    Computer simulations utilizing a classical force field have been widely used to study biomolecular properties. It is important to identify the key force field parameters or structural groups controlling the molecular properties. In the present paper the sensitivity analysis method is applied to study how various partial charges and solvation parameters affect the equilibrium structure and free energy of avian pancreatic polypeptide (APP). The general shape of APP is characterized by its three principal moments of inertia. A molecular dynamics simulation of APP was carried out with the OPLS/Amber force field and a continuum model of solvation energy. The analysis pinpoints the parameters which have the largest (or smallest) impact on the protein equilibrium structure (i.e., the moments of inertia) or free energy. A display of the protein with its atoms colored according to their sensitivities illustrates the patterns of the interactions responsible for the protein stability. The results suggest that the electrostatic interactions play a more dominant role in protein stability than the part of the solvation effect modeled by the atomic solvation parameters.

  8. A Guide to Help Consumers Choose Apps and Avoid App Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Ellen; Zimmerman, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology has transformed the way consumers access and use information. The exponential growth of mobile apps makes finding suitable, easy-to-use nutrition and health-related apps challenging. A guide for consumers helps them ask important questions before downloading apps. The guide can be adapted for other Extension disciplines.

  9. A Guide to Help Consumers Choose Apps and Avoid App Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Ellen; Zimmerman, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology has transformed the way consumers access and use information. The exponential growth of mobile apps makes finding suitable, easy-to-use nutrition and health-related apps challenging. A guide for consumers helps them ask important questions before downloading apps. The guide can be adapted for other Extension disciplines.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemosensory Receptors, Signal Transducers, and the Activation of Gene Expression Controlling Establishment of a Marine Symbiosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Our most significant advance in this area this year has been in the molecular cloning and analysis of cDNAs corresponding to the novel serine protease...Biological Chemistry (in preparation). 4. Groppe, J. and D.E. Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel serine protease cDNAs from abalone. For: Proc...phycoerythrin gene. (Poster -- d Abstract) Northwest Algal Symposium, Seattle, WA. 8. Groppe, J.C. and D.E. Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel serine

  11. Finding a depression app: a review and content analysis of the depression app marketplace.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nelson; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Johnson, Andrew; Bender, Jacqueline Lorene; Hamilton-Page, Michelle; Jadad, Alejandro Alex R; Wiljer, David

    2015-02-16

    Depression is highly prevalent and causes considerable suffering and disease burden despite the existence of wide-ranging treatment options. Mobile phone apps offer the potential to help close this treatment gap by confronting key barriers to accessing support for depression. Our goal was to identify and characterize the different types of mobile phone depression apps available in the marketplace. A search for depression apps was conducted on the app stores of the five major mobile phone platforms: Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Nokia, and Windows. Apps were included if they focused on depression and were available to people who self-identify as having depression. Data were extracted from the app descriptions found in the app stores. Of the 1054 apps identified by the search strategy, nearly one-quarter (23.0%, 243/1054) unique depression apps met the inclusion criteria. Over one-quarter (27.7%, 210/758) of the excluded apps failed to mention depression in the title or description. Two-thirds of the apps had as their main purpose providing therapeutic treatment (33.7%, 82/243) or psychoeducation (32.1%, 78/243). The other main purpose categories were medical assessment (16.9%, 41/243), symptom management (8.2%, 20/243), and supportive resources (1.6%, 4/243). A majority of the apps failed to sufficiently describe their organizational affiliation (65.0%, 158/243) and content source (61.7%, 150/243). There was a significant relationship (χ(2) 5=50.5, P<.001) between the main purpose of the app and the reporting of content source, with most medical assessment apps reporting their content source (80.5%, 33/41). A fifth of the apps featured an e-book (20.6%, 50/243), audio therapy (16.9%, 41/243), or screening (16.9%, 41/243) function. Most apps had a dynamic user interface (72.4%, 176/243) and used text as the main type of media (51.9%, 126/243), and over a third (14.4%, 35/243) incorporated more than one form of media. Without guidance, finding an appropriate

  12. Screening poly(dA/dT)- cDNAs for gene identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, S M; Fears, S C; Zhang, L; Chen, J J; Rowley, J D

    2000-04-11

    Many genes expressed in the human genome have not been identified despite intensive efforts. We observed that the presence of long poly(dA/dT) sequences in the 3' end of cDNA templates contributes significantly to this problem, because the hybrids formed randomly between poly(dA) and poly(dT) sequences of unrelated cDNA templates lead to loss of many templates in the normalization/subtraction reactions. The low abundant copies, which account for the majority of the expressed genes, are affected in particular by this phenomenon. We have developed a strategy called screening poly(dA/dT)(-) cDNAs for gene identification to overcome this obstacle. Applying this strategy can significantly enhance the efficiency of genome-wide gene identification and should have an impact on many functional genomic studies in the postgenome era.

  13. Data mining cDNAs reveals three new single stranded RNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C S G; Hunter, W B; Ng, J; Desjardins, C A; Dang, P M; Werren, J H

    2010-02-01

    We report three novel small RNA viruses uncovered from cDNA libraries from parasitoid wasps in the genus Nasonia. The genome of this kind of virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA with a 3' poly(A), which facilitates cloning from cDNAs. Two of the viruses, NvitV-1 and NvitV-2, possess a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that associates them with the family Iflaviridae of the order Picornavirales. A third virus, NvitV-3, is most similar to the Nora virus from Drosophila. A reverse transcription-PCR method developed for NvitV-1 indicates that it is a persistent commensal infection of Nasonia.

  14. Xenopus homeobox-containing cDNAs expressed in early development.

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, A; De Robertis, E M

    1988-01-01

    We report the isolation of six different homeobox-containing genes in Xenopus laevis which are expressed during early embryogenesis. cDNA clones of all of them were partially sequenced including two from previously isolated Xenopus genomic loci and found to contain homeodomains which share a high degree of homology with the Antennapedia protein (50 to 59 out of 60 amino acids). We find a short region of homology (consensus Ile Tyr Pro Trp Met) in four of the cDNAs, which is also present in Antennapedia and that may correspond to a bend region preceding the homeodomain. Northern blots have been performed to show the transcriptional pattern through early frog embryogenesis. Three of the genes are expressed only during a very narrow period of embryogenesis, reinforcing the view that homeobox genes are developmentally regulated. Images PMID:2894634

  15. Multiple sulfatase deficiency: catalytically inactive sulfatases are expressed from retrovirally introduced sulfatase cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Rommerskirch, W; von Figura, K

    1992-04-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease characterized by the deficiency of at least seven sulfatases. The basic defect in MSD is thought to be in a post-translational modification common to all sulfatases. In accordance with this concept, RNAs of normal size and amount were detected in MSD fibroblasts for three sulfatases tested. cDNAs encoding arylsulfatase A, arylsulfatase B, or steroid sulfatase were introduced into MSD fibroblasts and fibroblasts with a single sulfatase deficiency by retroviral gene transfer. Infected fibroblasts overexpressed the respective sulfatase polypeptides. While in single-sulfatase-deficiency fibroblasts a concomitant increase of sulfatase activities was observed, MSD fibroblasts expressed sulfatase polypeptides with a severely diminished catalytic activity. From these results we conclude that the mutation in MSD severely decreases the capacity of a co- or post-translational process that renders sulfatases enzymatically active or prevents their premature inactivation.

  16. Multiple sulfatase deficiency: catalytically inactive sulfatases are expressed from retrovirally introduced sulfatase cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Rommerskirch, W; von Figura, K

    1992-01-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease characterized by the deficiency of at least seven sulfatases. The basic defect in MSD is thought to be in a post-translational modification common to all sulfatases. In accordance with this concept, RNAs of normal size and amount were detected in MSD fibroblasts for three sulfatases tested. cDNAs encoding arylsulfatase A, arylsulfatase B, or steroid sulfatase were introduced into MSD fibroblasts and fibroblasts with a single sulfatase deficiency by retroviral gene transfer. Infected fibroblasts overexpressed the respective sulfatase polypeptides. While in single-sulfatase-deficiency fibroblasts a concomitant increase of sulfatase activities was observed, MSD fibroblasts expressed sulfatase polypeptides with a severely diminished catalytic activity. From these results we conclude that the mutation in MSD severely decreases the capacity of a co- or post-translational process that renders sulfatases enzymatically active or prevents their premature inactivation. Images PMID:1348358

  17. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  18. Cloning of cDNAs encoding a rabbit renal brush border membrane protein immunologically related to band 3. Sequence similarity with microsomal dipeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, P; Karniski, L P

    1991-01-01

    Distinct anion transport processes have been identified in the mammalian renal proximal tubule, but none of the responsible proteins or genes have been isolated. A 43 kDa rabbit microvillus membrane protein that is immunologically related to the erythroid anion exchanger (band 3) was a candidate for a renal anion transporter. To examine the structural relationship with band 3, we cloned cDNAs encoding the 43 kDa protein. The 43 kDa band-3-like protein was purified, and a novel sequence of 24 amino acids was obtained from the N-terminus. Degenerate oligonucleotides were synthesized based on this sequence, and the polymerase chain reaction with single-sided specificity was used to amplify and clone a 1330 bp cDNA from rabbit renal cortex. Additional overlapping 272 bp and 1123 bp cDNAs were obtained by synthesizing and screening a rabbit renal cortical cDNA library. The composite sequence was 1483 bp, terminated with (A)16, and was similar in size to the principal transcript expressed in rabbit renal cortex. The single long open reading frame was predicted to encode a protein composed of 410 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45,193 Da; 15 amino acids predicted to reside at the N-terminus were absent in the mature protein and may constitute a signal peptide. There was only limited sequence similarity with human erythroid band 3. Rather, the sequence was highly similar to microsomal dipeptidase, including the presence of a signal peptide and a consensus sequence for covalent linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol. In summary, the 43 kDa protein from rabbit renal cortex that is recognized by a monospecific antibody to erythroid band 3 is most likely a microvillus membrane dipeptidase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1741759

  19. Analysis of major ampullate silk cDNAs from two non-orb-weaving spiders.

    PubMed

    Tian, Maozhen; Liu, Congzhou; Lewis, Randolph

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other arthropods, spiders are unique in their use of silk throughout their life span and the extraordinary mechanical properties of the silk threads they produce. Studies on orb-weaving spider silk proteins have shown that silk proteins are composed of highly repetitive regions, characterized by alanine and glycine-rich units. We have isolated and sequenced four partial cDNA clones representing major ampullate spider silk gene transcripts from two non-orb weavers: three for Kukulcania hibernalis and one for Agelenopsis aperta. These cDNA sequences were compared to each other, as well as to the previously published orb-weaver silk gene sequences. The results indicate that the repeats encoding conserved amino acid motifs such as polyA and polyGA that are characteristic of some orb-weaving spider silks are also found in some of the cDNAs reported in this study. However, we also found other motifs such as polyGS and polyGV in the cDNA sequences from the two non-orb-weaving spiders. The amino acid composition of the silk gland extracts shows that alanine and glycine are the major components of the silk of these two non-orb weavers as is the case in orb-weaver silks. Sequence alignment shows that A. aperta's cDNA displays a C-terminal encoding region that is about 44% similar to the one present in N. clavipes's MaSp1 cDNA. In addition, as previously observed for spider silk sequences, the analysis of the codon usage for these four cDNAs demonstrates a bias for A or T in the wobble base position.

  20. Comparison of the Drosophila melanogaster, human and murine Sm B cDNAs: evolutionary conservation.

    PubMed

    Brunet, C; Quan, T; Craft, J

    1993-02-28

    To analyze the evolutionary stability of the Sm B polypeptides, the cDNA nucleotide (nt) sequence was derived for the Drosophila melanogaster Sm B polypeptide and compared to the cDNAs encoding human and murine Sm B. The three cDNAs were transcribed and translated in reticulocyte lysates followed by analysis of the synthesized proteins by SDS-PAGE. D. melanogaster B migrated at approximately 25 kDa, in comparison to 28 kDa for the murine and human B proteins, although all three proteins were immunoprecipitated by human anti-Sm autoantibodies and by the Y12 anti-Sm murine monoclonal antibody (Y12 mAb). Immunoblots and immunoprecipitations of [35S]methionine-labeled D. melanogaster S2/M3 cells confirmed the smaller size of the D. melanogaster protein, and revealed that B' was absent in this cell line, as in murine cells. In comparison to the 231 amino acids (aa) of human and murine B, the deduced sequence for the D. melanogaster clone was 199 aa (predicted M(r) of 24,598) with two 5-aa deletions and a 19-aa truncation at the 3' end, compared to the other two clones. D. melanogaster protein B shared 65% aa sequence identity with the human and mouse clones, and 80% similarity when conservative aa substitutions were noted. The C-terminal portion of the D. melanogaster protein was the most evolutionarily variable in comparison to the deduced aa sequences for the other two proteins; however, autoantigenic epitopes bound by human anti-Sm antibodies and the Y12 mAb in this region of the protein were conserved across species lines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding ribosome inactivating protein from Dianthus sinensis L.

    PubMed

    Cho, H J; Lee, S J; Kim, S; Kim, B D

    2000-04-30

    To isolate a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) gene, six plant species were surveyed for antiviral activity. Crude proteins extracted from these plants were tested for the antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana glutinosa. All the plants, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Dianthus superbus, Dianthus sinensis and Celosia cristata, with an exception of Oenanthe stolonifera, presented 70-90% inhibition of viral infectivity. In an attempt to search for the RIP gene from D. sinensis, partial cDNA was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the poly(A)+ RNA from D. sinensis leaves. DNA gel blot analysis showed that D. sinensis has multi-copy RIP genes. The expression of RIP gene was investigated in the flower, leaf, root and stem of D. sinensis, and was found to be most abundant in the leaf. Using the partial cDNA as a probe, seven full-length cDNAs were isolated from a library prepared from D. sinensis leaves. They were divided into three groups on the basis of their nucleotide sequence homology. The three representative clones, cDsRIP1, cDsRIP2 and cDsRIP3 were completely sequenced. They all had an open reading frame of 882 bp. The cDsRIP2 showed 79% homology with dianthin 30 and saporin genes; 59% with PAP and Mirabilis antiviral protein MAP genes. From the analysis of deduced amino acid sequences, it was predicted that D. sinensis RIP cDNAs might have a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues at their N-terminus. When the cDNA was expressed in E. coli, the bacteria was unable to grow upon IPTG induction, suggesting that expression of the gene renders toxicity to E. coli cells.

  2. Features of Arabidopsis genes and genome discovered using full-length cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Nickolai N; Troukhan, Maxim E; Brover, Vyacheslav V; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Flavell, Richard B; Feldmann, Kenneth A

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis is currently the reference genome for higher plants. A new, more detailed statistical analysis of Arabidopsis gene structure is presented including intron and exon lengths, intergenic distances, features of promoters, and variant 5'-ends of mRNAs transcribed from the same transcription unit. We also provide a statistical characterization of Arabidopsis transcripts in terms of their size, UTR lengths, 3'-end cleavage sites, splicing variants, and coding potential. These analyses were facilitated by scrutiny of our collection of sequenced full-length cDNAs and much larger collection of 5'-ESTs, together with another set of full-length cDNAs from Salk/Stanford/Plant Gene Expression Center/RIKEN. Examples of alternative splicing are observed for transcripts from 7% of the genes and many of these genes display multiple spliced isoforms. Most splicing variants lie in non-coding regions of the transcripts. Non-canonical splice sites constitute less than 1% of all splice sites. Genes with fewer than four introns display reduced average mRNA levels. Putative alternative transcription start sites were observed in 30% of highly expressed genes and in more than 50% of the genes with low expression. Transcription start sites correlate remarkably well with a CG skew peak in the DNA sequences. The intergenic distances vary considerably, those where genes are transcribed towards one another being significantly shorter. New transcripts, missing in the current TIGR genome annotation and ESTs that are non-coding, including those antisense to known genes, are derived and cataloged in the Supplementary Material. They identify 148 new loci in the Arabidopsis genome. The conclusions drawn provide a better understanding of the Arabidopsis genome and how the gene transcripts are processed. The results also allow better predictions to be made for, as yet, poorly defined genes and provide a reference for comparisons with other plant genomes whose complete sequences are currently

  3. Expert Involvement Predicts mHealth App Downloads: Multivariate Regression Analysis of Urology Apps.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Azevedo, Nuno; Osório, Luís; Cavadas, Vitor; Fraga, Avelino; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-07-15

    Urological mobile medical (mHealth) apps are gaining popularity with both clinicians and patients. mHealth is a rapidly evolving and heterogeneous field, with some urology apps being downloaded over 10,000 times and others not at all. The factors that contribute to medical app downloads have yet to be identified, including the hypothetical influence of expert involvement in app development. The objective of our study was to identify predictors of the number of urology app downloads. We reviewed urology apps available in the Google Play Store and collected publicly available data. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression evaluated the effect of publicly available app variables on the number of apps being downloaded. Of 129 urology apps eligible for study, only 2 (1.6%) had >10,000 downloads, with half having ≤100 downloads and 4 (3.1%) having none at all. Apps developed with expert urologist involvement (P=.003), optional in-app purchases (P=.01), higher user rating (P<.001), and more user reviews (P<.001) were more likely to be installed. App cost was inversely related to the number of downloads (P<.001). Only data from the Google Play Store and the developers' websites, but not other platforms, were publicly available for analysis, and the level and nature of expert involvement was not documented. The explicit participation of urologists in app development is likely to enhance its chances to have a higher number of downloads. This finding should help in the design of better apps and further promote urologist involvement in mHealth. Official certification processes are required to ensure app quality and user safety.

  4. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-08-19

    One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research.

  5. Expert Involvement Predicts mHealth App Downloads: Multivariate Regression Analysis of Urology Apps

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Luís; Cavadas, Vitor; Fraga, Avelino; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-01-01

    Background Urological mobile medical (mHealth) apps are gaining popularity with both clinicians and patients. mHealth is a rapidly evolving and heterogeneous field, with some urology apps being downloaded over 10,000 times and others not at all. The factors that contribute to medical app downloads have yet to be identified, including the hypothetical influence of expert involvement in app development. Objective The objective of our study was to identify predictors of the number of urology app downloads. Methods We reviewed urology apps available in the Google Play Store and collected publicly available data. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression evaluated the effect of publicly available app variables on the number of apps being downloaded. Results Of 129 urology apps eligible for study, only 2 (1.6%) had >10,000 downloads, with half having ≤100 downloads and 4 (3.1%) having none at all. Apps developed with expert urologist involvement (P=.003), optional in-app purchases (P=.01), higher user rating (P<.001), and more user reviews (P<.001) were more likely to be installed. App cost was inversely related to the number of downloads (P<.001). Only data from the Google Play Store and the developers’ websites, but not other platforms, were publicly available for analysis, and the level and nature of expert involvement was not documented. Conclusions The explicit participation of urologists in app development is likely to enhance its chances to have a higher number of downloads. This finding should help in the design of better apps and further promote urologist involvement in mHealth. Official certification processes are required to ensure app quality and user safety. PMID:27421338

  6. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Background One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. Objective The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. Methods We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Results Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. Conclusions A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research. PMID:26290093

  7. Cloning mammary cell cDNAs from 17q12-q23 using interspecific somatic cell hybrids and subtractive hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Cerosaletti, K.M.; Shapero, M.H.; Fournier, R.E.K.

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned human genes that are encoded in the region 17q12-q23 and expressed in breast tissue using interspecific somatic cell hybrids and subtractive hybridization. Two mouse microcell hybrids containing fragments of human chromosome 17 with a nonoverlap region at 17q12-q23 were generated by microcell transfer. Radiolabeled cDNA was synthesized from the hybrid cell containing the 17q12-q23 interval and was subtracted with an excess of RNA from the hybrid cell lacking the interval. Resulting cDNA probes enriched for sequences from 17q12-q23 were used to screen a human premenopausal breast cDNA library, and 60 cDNAs were identified. Three of these cDNAs mapped to the hybrid cell nonoverlap region. These cDNAs were expressed in mammary epithelial cell hybrids, although none appeared to be breast-specific. Sequence analysis of the cDNAs revealed that clone 93A represents a previously unidentified gene, clone 98C has homology to an expressed sequence tag from goat mammary tissue, and clone 200A is identical to the human homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster flightless-I gene. These genes map outside a 1-cM region linked to early onset familial breast cancer but may be useful genetic markers in the 17q12-q23 region. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Characterization and expression analysis of two cDNAs encoding Xa1 and oxysterol binding proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and subsequent microarray analysis, expression profiles of sorghum genes responsive to greenbug phloem-feeding were obtained and identified. Among the profiles, two cDNAs designated to MM73 and MM95 were identified to encode Xa1 (Xa1) and oxysterol ...

  9. Identification and Functional Analyses of 11 769 Full-length Human cDNAs Focused on Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Wakamatsu, Ai; Kimura, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Nomura, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio; Isogai, Takao

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed diversity of mRNA produced as a result of alternative splicing in order to evaluate gene function. First, we predicted the number of human genes transcribed into protein-coding mRNAs by using the sequence information of full-length cDNAs and 5′-ESTs and obtained 23 241 of such human genes. Next, using these genes, we analyzed the mRNA diversity and consequently sequenced and identified 11 769 human full-length cDNAs whose predicted open reading frames were different from other known full-length cDNAs. Especially, 30% of the cDNAs we identified contained variation in the transcription start site (TSS). Our analysis, which particularly focused on multiple variable first exons (FEVs) formed due to the alternative utilization of TSSs, led to the identification of 261 FEVs expressed in the tissue-specific manner. Quantification of the expression profiles of 13 genes by real-time PCR analysis further confirmed the tissue-specific expression of FEVs, e.g. OXR1 had specific TSS in brain and tumor tissues, and so on. Finally, based on the results of our mRNA diversity analysis, we have created the FLJ Human cDNA Database. From our result, it has been understood mechanisms that one gene produces suitable protein-coding transcripts responding to the situation and the environment. PMID:19880432

  10. Cool Apps: Productivity at Your Fingertips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    In addition to listing apps and their value, this article focuses on ways people can be more productive by adopting certain workflows in several ways. Apps listed herein include those useful in calendaring, printing, photo-editing, image-recognition, image scanning, electronic signatures, and making and sharing lists and notes.

  11. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  12. Cool Apps: Productivity at Your Fingertips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    In addition to listing apps and their value, this article focuses on ways people can be more productive by adopting certain workflows in several ways. Apps listed herein include those useful in calendaring, printing, photo-editing, image-recognition, image scanning, electronic signatures, and making and sharing lists and notes.

  13. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  14. Is There an App for that?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Karen H.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Thompson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Everyday technologies (e.g., iPods, iPads, and Smart Phones) other applications (apps) that can serve as supports to students with intellectual and related developmental disabilities. The extent to which apps that are currently on the market are aligned with the support needs of children was evaluated using the subscale framework of the…

  15. iPhone Apps for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Abroms, Lorien C.; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Background With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. Purpose This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Methods Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and their (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service’s 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Apps were also coded for their (3) frequency of downloads. Results Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. Conclusions iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. PMID:21335258

  16. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  17. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  18. Is There an App for that?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Karen H.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Thompson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Everyday technologies (e.g., iPods, iPads, and Smart Phones) other applications (apps) that can serve as supports to students with intellectual and related developmental disabilities. The extent to which apps that are currently on the market are aligned with the support needs of children was evaluated using the subscale framework of the…

  19. Social anxiety apps: a systematic review and assessment of app descriptors across mobile store platforms.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Mohsen; Giri, Bachan; Alyami, Hussain; Sundram, Frederick

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review is twofold: (1) to characterise the purpose and description of available social anxiety apps and (2) to review the evidence on the effectiveness of social anxiety apps. A search was conducted on three major mobile platforms: Apple iTunes, Google Play and Windows Store. Apps were included if they addressed social anxiety and used an English language interface. A systematic review of the literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence-based evaluations of social anxiety apps was also undertaken. Of the 1154 apps identified, 38 apps met the inclusion criteria: iTunes (n=18), Google Play (n=16) and Windows Store (n=4). Over 60% of apps were exclusively focused on social anxiety, while the remainder targeted social anxiety and related conditions. Most developers did not provide information on their organisational affiliations or their content source. Most apps used multimedia while 17 apps used text only. Finally, although the systematic review of the literature identified 94 articles, none of which met inclusion criteria. Social anxiety apps have the potential to overcome barriers to accessing treatment; however, none of the apps identified have had studies on their effectiveness published. As the evidence base is lacking, it is therefore not currently possible to recommend their use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The kunitz protease inhibitor form of the amyloid precursor protein (KPI/APP) inhibits the proneuropeptide processing enzyme prohormone thiol protease (PTP). Colocalization of KPI/APP and PTP in secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Hook, V Y; Sei, C; Yasothornsrikul, S; Toneff, T; Kang, Y H; Efthimiopoulos, S; Robakis, N K; Van Nostrand, W

    1999-01-29

    Proteolytic processing of proenkephalin and proneuropeptides is required for the production of active neurotransmitters and peptide hormones. Variations in the extent of proenkephalin processing in vivo suggest involvement of endogenous protease inhibitors. This study demonstrates that "protease nexin 2 (PN2)," the secreted form of the kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), potently inhibited the proenkephalin processing enzyme known as prohormone thiol protease (PTP), with a Ki,app of 400 nM. Moreover, PTP and PN2 formed SDS-stable complexes that are typical of kunitz protease inhibitor interactions with target proteases. In vivo, KPI/APP (120 kDa), as well as a truncated form of KPI/APP that resembles PN2 in apparent molecular mass (110 kDa), were colocalized with PTP and (Met)enkephalin in secretory vesicles of adrenal medulla (chromaffin granules). KPI/APP (110-120 kDa) was also detected in pituitary secretory vesicles that contain PTP. In chromaffin cells, calcium-dependent secretion of KPI/APP with PTP and (Met)enkephalin demonstrated the colocalization of these components in functional secretory vesicles. These results suggest a role for KPI/APP inhibition of PTP in regulated secretory vesicles. In addition, these results are the first to identify an endogenous protease target of KPI/APP, which is developmentally regulated in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. The role of APP and BACE1 trafficking in APP processing and amyloid-β generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Song, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Neuritic plaques in the brain are a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. They are formed by the deposition and aggregation of extracellular amyloid-β protein (Aβ). Aβ is derived from the sequential cleavage of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. β-Site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) functions as the primary, if not sole, β-secretase in vivo and is essential for Aβ production. Regulation of APP processing is a major focus of research into AD pathogenesis. The trafficking systems of APP and its cleavage enzymes are complex. Transporting APP and secretases into the same subcellular organelles facilitates their interaction and favors APP processing. The role of APP and BACE1 trafficking in the amyloidgenic pathway and the underlying mechanisms for Aβ production are discussed in this review. In addition, the distinct mechanisms of amino- and carboxy-terminal Aβ generation are reviewed.

  2. Smart apps for the smart plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Ellur, Sunderraj; Kujur, Abha Rani; Joseph, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have the ability to benefit plastic surgeons in all aspects of patient care and education. With the sheer number of applications available and more being created everyday, it is easy to miss out on apps which could be of great relevance. Moreover, the range of android applications available has not been extensively discussed in the literature. To this end, we have compiled an exhaustive list of android smartphone applications, which we feel can help our day to day functioning. The apps have been extensively reviewed and neatly described along with all their potential uses. In addition, we have made an effort to highlight 'non-medical' or efficiency apps which can improve departmental functioning. These apps have not been described in prior articles, and their functionality might not be known to all. We believe that the technology savvy plastic surgeon can make maximum use of these apps to his benefit.

  3. Smart apps for the smart plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Ellur, Sunderraj; Kujur, Abha Rani; Joseph, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have the ability to benefit plastic surgeons in all aspects of patient care and education. With the sheer number of applications available and more being created everyday, it is easy to miss out on apps which could be of great relevance. Moreover, the range of android applications available has not been extensively discussed in the literature. To this end, we have compiled an exhaustive list of android smartphone applications, which we feel can help our day to day functioning. The apps have been extensively reviewed and neatly described along with all their potential uses. In addition, we have made an effort to highlight ‘non-medical’ or efficiency apps which can improve departmental functioning. These apps have not been described in prior articles, and their functionality might not be known to all. We believe that the technology savvy plastic surgeon can make maximum use of these apps to his benefit. PMID:25991890

  4. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  6. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  7. App Chronic Disease Checklist: Protocol to Evaluate Mobile Apps for Chronic Disease Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kevin; Burford, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Background The availability of mobile health apps for self-care continues to increase. While little evidence of their clinical impact has been published, there is general agreement among health authorities and authors that consumers’ use of health apps assist in self-management and potentially clinical decision making. A consumer’s sustained engagement with a health app is dependent on the usability and functionality of the app. While numerous studies have attempted to evaluate health apps, there is a paucity of published methods that adequately recognize client experiences in the academic evaluation of apps for chronic conditions. Objective This paper reports (1) a protocol to shortlist health apps for academic evaluation, (2) synthesis of a checklist to screen health apps for quality and reliability, and (3) a proposed method to theoretically evaluate usability of health apps, with a view towards identifying one or more apps suitable for clinical assessment. Methods A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram was developed to guide the selection of the apps to be assessed. The screening checklist was thematically synthesized with reference to recurring constructs in published checklists and related materials for the assessment of health apps. The checklist was evaluated by the authors for face and construct validity. The proposed method for evaluation of health apps required the design of procedures for raters of apps, dummy data entry to test the apps, and analysis of raters’ scores. Results The PRISMA flow diagram comprises 5 steps: filtering of duplicate apps; eliminating non-English apps; removing apps requiring purchase, filtering apps not updated within the past year; and separation of apps into their core functionality. The screening checklist to evaluate the selected apps was named the App Chronic Disease Checklist, and comprises 4 sections with 6 questions in each section. The validity check verified

  8. Distinct roles of sAPP-α and sAPP-β in regulating U251 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junfeng; Wang, Yue; Hou, Lei; Fan, Lixing; Wang, Qiaoling; Xu, Zhenyu; Sun, Qing; Liu, Houqi

    2013-09-01

    Sequential cleavages of APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase release β-amyloid (Aβ) and one secreted form of APP (sAPP-β) in Alzheimer' s disease (AD). Alternatively, in non-pathological situations, APP is predominantly cleaved by α-secretase within the amyloid sequence, to release the other soluble form of APP, sAPP-α. However, the functions of the two types of sAPP are still unclear. We performed this study to compare the function of sAPP-α and sAPP-β in differentiation of the glioma cell line U251. We found that sAPP-α suppressed astrocytic differentiation and promoted neuronal differentiation in U251 cells. Additionally, sAPP-α enhanced U251 terminal differentiation into a cholinergic-like neuronal phenotype. In contrast, sAPP-β suppressed neuronal differentiation and promoted the astrocytic differentiation of U251 cells. These findings could not only enrich the knowledge of the potential physiological function of sAPP-α and sAPP-β, but also indicate that they may be connected to the pathological mechanism of AD. Furthermore, these findings suggest that new strategies, such as increasing the level of sAPP-α and/or decreasing the level of sAPP-β in brain, or transplanting stem cells with increased sAPP-α and/or decreased sAPP-β, may have potential value for AD treatment.

  9. Interaction of Tau with Fe65 links tau to APP.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Christian; Canu, Nadia; Zambrano, Nicola; Serafino, Annalucia; Minopoli, Giuseppina; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Amadoro, Giuseppina; Russo, Tommaso; Calissano, Pietro

    2005-03-01

    The beta-amyloid precursor protein APP and the microtubule-associated protein Tau play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the possible molecular events linking these two proteins are still unknown. Here, we show that Fe65, one of the ligands of the APP cytodomain, is associated with Tau in vivo and in vitro, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation, co-localization, and FRET experiments. Deletion studies indicated that the N-terminal domain of Tau and the PTB1 domain of Fe65 are required for this association. This interaction is regulated by the phosphorylation of Tau at selected sites, by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), and requires an intact microtubule network. Furthermore, laser scanner microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation experiments provide preliminary evidence of possible complex(es) involving Tau, Fe65, APP. These findings open new perspectives for the study of the possible crosstalk between these proteins in the pathogenesis of AD.

  10. Mobile app rating scale: a new tool for assessing the quality of health mobile apps.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-03-11

    The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond "star"-ratings. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps.

  11. Tyr(682) in the intracellular domain of APP regulates amyloidogenic APP processing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Alessia P M; Weldon, Richard; Tamayev, Robert; Zhou, Dawang; Giliberto, Luca; Foreman, Oded; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2010-11-16

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is attributed to misfolding of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aβ is generated during amyloidogenic processing of Aβ-precursor protein (APP). Another characteristic of the AD brain is increased phosphorylation of APP amino acid Tyr(682). Tyr(682) is part of the Y(682)ENPTY(687) motif, a docking site for interaction with cytosolic proteins that regulate APP metabolism and signaling. For example, normal Aβ generation and secretion are dependent upon Tyr(682) in vitro. However, physiological functions of Tyr(682) are unknown. To this end, we have generated an APP Y682G knock-in (KI) mouse to help dissect the role of APP Tyr(682) in vivo. We have analyzed proteolytic products from both the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic processing of APP and measure a profound shift towards non-amyloidogenic processing in APP KI mice. In addition, we demonstrate the essential nature of amino acid Tyr(682) for the APP/Fe65 interaction in vivo. Together, these observations point to an essential role of APP intracellular domain for normal APP processing and function in vivo, and provide rationale for further studies into physiological functions associated with this important phosphorylation site.

  12. There’s an App for That: Content Analysis of Paid Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    Hall, P. Cougar; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Barrett, James

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of Apple’s iPhone provided a platform for developers to design third-party apps, which greatly expanded the functionality and utility of mobile devices for public health. Objective This study provides an overview of the developers’ written descriptions of health and fitness apps and appraises each app’s potential for influencing behavior change. Methods Data for this study came from a content analysis of health and fitness app descriptions available on iTunes during February 2011. The Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) and the Precede-Proceed Model (PPM) were used as frameworks to guide the coding of 3336 paid apps. Results Compared to apps with a cost less than US $0.99, apps exceeding US $0.99 were more likely to be scored as intending to promote health or prevent disease (92.55%, 1925/3336 vs 83.59%, 1411/3336; P<.001), to be credible or trustworthy (91.11%, 1895/3336 vs 86.14%, 1454/3349; P<.001), and more likely to be used personally or recommended to a health care client (72.93%, 1517/2644 vs 66.77%, 1127/2644; P<.001). Apps related to healthy eating, physical activity, and personal health and wellness were more common than apps for substance abuse, mental and emotional health, violence prevention and safety, and sexual and reproductive health. Reinforcing apps were less common than predisposing and enabling apps. Only 1.86% (62/3336) of apps included all 3 factors (ie, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing). Conclusions Development efforts could target public health behaviors for which few apps currently exist. Furthermore, practitioners should be cautious when promoting the use of apps as it appears most provide health-related information (predisposing) or make attempts at enabling behavior, with almost none including all theoretical factors recommended for behavior change. PMID:22584372

  13. Overview of an Algorithm Plugin Package (APP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linda, M.; Tilmes, C.; Fleig, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Science software that runs operationally is fundamentally different than software that runs on a scientist's desktop. There are complexities in hosting software for automated production that are necessary and significant. Identifying common aspects of these complexities can simplify algorithm integration. We use NASA's MODIS and OMI data production systems as examples. An Algorithm Plugin Package (APP) is science software that is combined with algorithm-unique elements that permit the algorithm to interface with, and function within, the framework of a data processing system. The framework runs algorithms operationally against large quantities of data. The extra algorithm-unique items are constrained by the design of the data processing system. APPs often include infrastructure that is vastly similar. When the common elements in APPs are identified and abstracted, the cost of APP development, testing, and maintenance will be reduced. This paper is an overview of the extra algorithm-unique pieces that are shared between MODAPS and OMIDAPS APPs. Our exploration of APP structure will help builders of other production systems identify their common elements and reduce algorithm integration costs. Our goal is to complete the development of a library of functions and a menu of implementation choices that reflect common needs of APPs. The library and menu will reduce the time and energy required for science developers to integrate algorithms into production systems.

  14. APP intracellular domain derived from amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretase cleavage regulates neprilysin expression.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J; Blümel, Tamara; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Zimmer, Valerie C; Mylonas, Nadine T; Tanila, Heikki; Müller, Ulrike; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ), released by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β - and γ-secretase. Aβ peptides can aggregate, leading to toxic Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaque formation. Aβ accumulation is not only dependent on de novo synthesis but also on Aβ degradation. Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the major enzymes involved in Aβ degradation. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism of NEP regulation, which is up to now controversially discussed to be affected by APP processing itself. We found that NEP expression is highly dependent on the APP intracellular domain (AICD), released by APP processing. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts devoid of APP processing, either by the lack of the catalytically active subunit of the γ-secretase complex [presenilin (PS) 1/2] or by the lack of APP and the APP-like protein 2 (APLP2), showed a decreased NEP expression, activity and protein level. Similar results were obtained by utilizing cells lacking a functional AICD domain (APPΔCT15) or expressing mutations in the genes encoding for PS1. AICD supplementation or retransfection with an AICD encoding plasmid could rescue the down-regulation of NEP further strengthening the link between AICD and transcriptional NEP regulation, in which Fe65 acts as an important adaptor protein. Especially AICD generated by the amyloidogenic pathway seems to be more involved in the regulation of NEP expression. In line, analysis of NEP gene expression in vivo in six transgenic AD mouse models (APP and APLP2 single knock-outs, APP/APLP2 double knock-out, APP-swedish, APP-swedish/PS1Δexon9, and APPΔCT15) confirmed the results obtained in cell culture. In summary, in the present study we clearly demonstrate an AICD-dependent regulation of the Aβ-degrading enzyme NEP in vitro and in vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms that might be beneficial to develop new therapeutic strategies for the

  15. APP intracellular domain derived from amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretase cleavage regulates neprilysin expression

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P.; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Blümel, Tamara; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Zimmer, Valerie C.; Mylonas, Nadine T.; Tanila, Heikki; Müller, Ulrike; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ), released by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β - and γ-secretase. Aβ peptides can aggregate, leading to toxic Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaque formation. Aβ accumulation is not only dependent on de novo synthesis but also on Aβ degradation. Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the major enzymes involved in Aβ degradation. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism of NEP regulation, which is up to now controversially discussed to be affected by APP processing itself. We found that NEP expression is highly dependent on the APP intracellular domain (AICD), released by APP processing. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts devoid of APP processing, either by the lack of the catalytically active subunit of the γ-secretase complex [presenilin (PS) 1/2] or by the lack of APP and the APP-like protein 2 (APLP2), showed a decreased NEP expression, activity and protein level. Similar results were obtained by utilizing cells lacking a functional AICD domain (APPΔCT15) or expressing mutations in the genes encoding for PS1. AICD supplementation or retransfection with an AICD encoding plasmid could rescue the down-regulation of NEP further strengthening the link between AICD and transcriptional NEP regulation, in which Fe65 acts as an important adaptor protein. Especially AICD generated by the amyloidogenic pathway seems to be more involved in the regulation of NEP expression. In line, analysis of NEP gene expression in vivo in six transgenic AD mouse models (APP and APLP2 single knock-outs, APP/APLP2 double knock-out, APP-swedish, APP-swedish/PS1Δexon9, and APPΔCT15) confirmed the results obtained in cell culture. In summary, in the present study we clearly demonstrate an AICD-dependent regulation of the Aβ-degrading enzyme NEP in vitro and in vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms that might be beneficial to develop new therapeutic strategies for the

  16. Comparative analysis of single and combined APP/APLP knockouts reveals reduced spine density in APP-KO mice that is prevented by APPsα expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss are key features of Alzheimer’s pathogenesis. Previously, we showed an essential function of APP and APLP2 for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we used organotypic hippocampal cultures to investigate the specific role(s) of APP family members and their fragments for dendritic complexity and spine formation of principal neurons within the hippocampus. Whereas CA1 neurons from APLP1-KO or APLP2-KO mice showed normal neuronal morphology and spine density, APP-KO mice revealed a highly reduced dendritic complexity in mid-apical dendrites. Despite unaltered morphology of APLP2-KO neurons, combined APP/APLP2-DKO mutants showed an additional branching defect in proximal apical dendrites, indicating redundancy and a combined function of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture. Remarkably, APP-KO neurons showed a pronounced decrease in spine density and reductions in the number of mushroom spines. No further decrease in spine density, however, was detectable in APP/APLP2-DKO mice. Mechanistically, using APPsα-KI mice lacking transmembrane APP and expressing solely the secreted APPsα fragment we demonstrate that APPsα expression alone is sufficient to prevent the defects in spine density observed in APP-KO mice. Collectively, these studies reveal a combined role of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture and a unique function of secreted APPs for spine density. PMID:24684730

  17. Characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNAs for human threonyl- and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetases

    SciTech Connect

    Cruzen, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques of molecular biology were used to clone, sequence and map two human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) cDNAs: threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) a class II enzyme and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS) a class I enzyme. The predicted protein sequence of human ThrRS is highly homologous to that of lower eukaryotic and prokaryotic ThRSs, particularly in the regions containing the three structural motifs common to all class II synthetases. Signature regions 1 and 2, which characterize the class IIa subgroup (SerRS, ThrRS and HisRS) are highly conserved from bacteria to human. Structural predictions for human ThrRS based on the known structure of the closely related SerRS from E.coli implicate strongly conserved residues in the signature sequences to be important in substrate binding. The amino terminal 100 residues of the deduced amino acid sequence of ThrRS shares structural similarity to SerRS consistent with forming an antiparallel helix implicated in tRNA binding. The 5' untranslated sequence of the human ThrRS gene shares short stretches of common sequence with the gene for hamster HisRS including a binding site for the promoter specific transcription factor sp-1. The deduced amino acid sequence of human CysRS has a high degree of sequence identify to E. coli CysRS. Human CysRS possesses the classic characteristics of a class I synthetase and is most closely related to the MetRS subgroup. The amino terminal half of human CysRS can be modeled as a nucleotide binding fold and shares significant sequence and structural similarity to the other enzymes in this subgroup. The CysRS structural gene (CARS) was mapped to human chromosome 11p15.5 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. CARS is the first aaRS gene to be mapped to chromosome 11. The steady state of both CysRS and ThrRs mRNA were quantitated in several human tissues. Message levels for these enzymes appear to be subjected to differential regulation in different cell types.

  18. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large and small subunits from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Xi; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], the world's seventh most important food crop, is also a major industrial raw material for starch and ethanol production. In the plant starch biosynthesis pathway, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step and plays a pivotal role in regulating this process. In spite of the importance of sweet potato as a starch source, only a few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of starch biosynthesis in sweet potato and almost no intensive research has been carried out on the AGPase gene family in this species. In this study, cDNAs encoding two small subunits (SSs) and four large subunits (LSs) of AGPase isoforms were cloned from sweet potato and the genomic organizations of the corresponding AGPase genes were elucidated. Expression pattern analysis revealed that the two SSs were constitutively expressed, whereas the four LSs displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues and at different developmental stages. Co-expression of SSs with different LSs in Escherichia coli yielded eight heterotetramers showing different catalytic activities. Interactions between different SSs and LSs were confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid experiment. Our findings provide comprehensive information about AGPase gene sequences, structures, expression profiles, and subunit interactions in sweet potato. The results can serve as a foundation for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of starch synthesis in tuberous roots, and should contribute to future regulation of starch biosynthesis to improve sweet potato starch yield.

  19. Phenylbutyric Acid Rescues Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Suppression of APP Proteolysis and Prevents Apoptosis in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jesse C.; Meabon, James S.; Frankowski, Harald; Smith, Elise A.; Schecterson, Leslayann C.; Bothwell, Mark; Ladiges, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have an identical pathology with a severe disparity in the time of onset [1]. The pathological similarity suggests that epigenetic processes may phenocopy the Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations within sporadic AD. Numerous groups have demonstrated that FAD mutations in presenilin result in ‘loss of function’ of γ-secretase mediated APP cleavage [2], [3], [4], [5]. Accordingly, ER stress is prominent within the pathologically impacted brain regions in AD patients [6] and is reported to inhibit APP trafficking through the secretory pathway [7], [8]. As the maturation of APP and the cleaving secretases requires trafficking through the secretory pathway [9], [10], [11], we hypothesized that ER stress may block trafficking requisite for normal levels of APP cleavage and that the small molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) may rescue the proteolytic deficit. Methodology/Principal Findings The APP-Gal4VP16/Gal4-reporter screen was stably incorporated into neuroblastoma cells in order to assay γ-secretase mediated APP proteolysis under normal and pharmacologically induced ER stress conditions. Three unrelated pharmacological agents (tunicamycin, thapsigargin and brefeldin A) all repressed APP proteolysis in parallel with activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling—a biochemical marker of ER stress. Co-treatment of the γ-secretase reporter cells with PBA blocked the repressive effects of tunicamycin and thapsigargin upon APP proteolysis, UPR activation, and apoptosis. In unstressed cells, PBA stimulated γ-secretase mediated cleavage of APP by 8–10 fold, in the absence of any significant effects upon amyloid production, by promoting APP trafficking through the secretory pathway and the stimulation of the non-pathogenic α/γ-cleavage. Conclusions/Significance ER stress represses γ-secretase mediated APP proteolysis, which replicates some of the proteolytic deficits

  20. Phenylbutyric acid rescues endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced suppression of APP proteolysis and prevents apoptosis in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jesse C; Meabon, James S; Frankowski, Harald; Smith, Elise A; Schecterson, Leslayann C; Bothwell, Mark; Ladiges, Warren C

    2010-02-09

    The familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have an identical pathology with a severe disparity in the time of onset [1]. The pathological similarity suggests that epigenetic processes may phenocopy the Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations within sporadic AD. Numerous groups have demonstrated that FAD mutations in presenilin result in 'loss of function' of gamma-secretase mediated APP cleavage [2], [3], [4], [5]. Accordingly, ER stress is prominent within the pathologically impacted brain regions in AD patients [6] and is reported to inhibit APP trafficking through the secretory pathway [7], [8]. As the maturation of APP and the cleaving secretases requires trafficking through the secretory pathway [9], [10], [11], we hypothesized that ER stress may block trafficking requisite for normal levels of APP cleavage and that the small molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) may rescue the proteolytic deficit. The APP-Gal4VP16/Gal4-reporter screen was stably incorporated into neuroblastoma cells in order to assay gamma-secretase mediated APP proteolysis under normal and pharmacologically induced ER stress conditions. Three unrelated pharmacological agents (tunicamycin, thapsigargin and brefeldin A) all repressed APP proteolysis in parallel with activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling-a biochemical marker of ER stress. Co-treatment of the gamma-secretase reporter cells with PBA blocked the repressive effects of tunicamycin and thapsigargin upon APP proteolysis, UPR activation, and apoptosis. In unstressed cells, PBA stimulated gamma-secretase mediated cleavage of APP by 8-10 fold, in the absence of any significant effects upon amyloid production, by promoting APP trafficking through the secretory pathway and the stimulation of the non-pathogenic alpha/gamma-cleavage. ER stress represses gamma-secretase mediated APP proteolysis, which replicates some of the proteolytic deficits associated with the FAD mutations. The small molecular

  1. Efficient plant gene identification based on interspecies mapping of full-length cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Amano, Naoki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Numa, Hisataka; Sakai, Hiroaki; Itoh, Takeshi

    2010-10-01

    We present an annotation pipeline that accurately predicts exon-intron structures and protein-coding sequences (CDSs) on the basis of full-length cDNAs (FLcDNAs). This annotation pipeline was used to identify genes in 10 plant genomes. In particular, we show that interspecies mapping of FLcDNAs to genomes is of great value in fully utilizing FLcDNA resources whose availability is limited to several species. Because low sequence conservation at 5'- and 3'-ends of FLcDNAs between different species tends to result in truncated CDSs, we developed an improved algorithm to identify complete CDSs by the extension of both ends of truncated CDSs. Interspecies mapping of 71 801 monocot FLcDNAs to the Oryza sativa genome led to the detection of 22 142 protein-coding regions. Moreover, in comparing two mapping programs and three ab initio prediction programs, we found that our pipeline was more capable of identifying complete CDSs. As demonstrated by monocot interspecies mapping, in which nucleotide identity between FLcDNAs and the genome was ∼80%, the resultant inferred CDSs were sufficiently accurate. Finally, we applied both inter- and intraspecies mapping to 10 monocot and dicot genomes and identified genes in 210 551 loci. Interspecies mapping of FLcDNAs is expected to effectively predict genes and CDSs in newly sequenced genomes.

  2. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Antonarakis, S.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Efficient Plant Gene Identification Based on Interspecies Mapping of Full-Length cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Naoki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Numa, Hisataka; Sakai, Hiroaki; Itoh, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    We present an annotation pipeline that accurately predicts exon–intron structures and protein-coding sequences (CDSs) on the basis of full-length cDNAs (FLcDNAs). This annotation pipeline was used to identify genes in 10 plant genomes. In particular, we show that interspecies mapping of FLcDNAs to genomes is of great value in fully utilizing FLcDNA resources whose availability is limited to several species. Because low sequence conservation at 5′- and 3′-ends of FLcDNAs between different species tends to result in truncated CDSs, we developed an improved algorithm to identify complete CDSs by the extension of both ends of truncated CDSs. Interspecies mapping of 71 801 monocot FLcDNAs to the Oryza sativa genome led to the detection of 22 142 protein-coding regions. Moreover, in comparing two mapping programs and three ab initio prediction programs, we found that our pipeline was more capable of identifying complete CDSs. As demonstrated by monocot interspecies mapping, in which nucleotide identity between FLcDNAs and the genome was ∼80%, the resultant inferred CDSs were sufficiently accurate. Finally, we applied both inter- and intraspecies mapping to 10 monocot and dicot genomes and identified genes in 210 551 loci. Interspecies mapping of FLcDNAs is expected to effectively predict genes and CDSs in newly sequenced genomes. PMID:20668003

  4. Isolation of cDNAs from the spinal muscular atrophy gene region with yeast artificial chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, H.X.; He, X.X.; Hung, W.Y.

    1994-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells, leading to progressive paralysis of voluntary muscles. The SMA gene(s) is located at 5q11.2-q13.3, between D5S435 and D5S112. To isolate potential candidate gene(s) responsible for SMA, we used the YACs within the SMA gene region as probes to screen a human brainstem cDNA library. Thirteen cDNA clones were isolated. Their sizes range from 0.7 kb to 5 kb. Seven clones were found to be unique in sequence; the remaining six clones contain repetitive sequences. Five out of these seven unique clones have been used as probes to screen a phage genomic DNA library. Phage genomic clones isolated with individual unique cDNA were used for fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify the origin of cDNAs. These five unique sequences are all located in the 5q13 region, indicating the reliability of our screening method. All the thirteen clones have been partially sequenced (about 300 bp) from each end. No homology has been found with any known EST or known genes. No cross hybridization was detected among the unique clones, suggesting that there may be distinct new genes encoded in this region.

  5. Anxiety: There is an app for that. A systematic review of anxiety apps.

    PubMed

    Sucala, Madalina; Cuijpers, Pim; Muench, Frederick; Cardoș, Roxana; Soflau, Radu; Dobrean, Anca; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; David, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Smartphones and mobile devices have become ubiquitous, and with the rapid advance of technology, the number of health applications (apps) that are available for consumers on these devices is constantly growing. In particular, there has been a recent proliferation of anxiety apps. However, there has been no review of the quality or content of these anxiety apps and little is known about their purpose, the features they contain, and their empirical support. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the commercially available anxiety apps. A list of anxiety apps was collected in January 2017, using the Power Search function of iTunes and Google Play. Of 5,078 identified apps, 52 met our inclusion criteria (i.e., being defined as an anxiety/worry relief app, and offering psychological techniques aimed primarily at reducing anxiety) and were further reviewed. The majority (67.3%) of the currently available anxiety apps were found to lack the involvement of health care professionals in their development, and very few (3.8%) of them have been rigorously tested. At the moment, although anxiety apps have the potential to enhance access to mental health care, there is a marked discrepancy between the wealth of commercially available apps, and the paucity of data regarding their efficacy and effectiveness. Although the great promise of apps is their ability to increasing access to evidence-based mental health, the field is not quite there yet and the full potential of apps for treating anxiety has yet to be exploited. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. How Do Apps Work? An Analysis of Physical Activity App Users' Perceptions of Behavior Change Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hoj, Taylor H; Covey, Emarie L; Jones, Allyn C; Haines, Amanda C; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H

    2017-08-03

    Physical activity apps are commonly used to increase levels of activity and health status. To date, the focus of research has been to determine the potential of apps to influence behavior, to ascertain the efficacy of a limited number of apps to change behavior, and to identify the characteristics of apps that users prefer. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which the use of physical activity apps may influence the users' physical activity behavior. This study used a cross-sectional survey of users of health-related physical activity apps during the past 6 months. An electronic survey was created in Qualtrics' Web-based survey software and deployed on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Individuals who had used at least one physical activity app in the past 6 months were eligible to respond. The final sample comprised 207 adults living in the United States. 86.0% (178/207) of respondents were between the ages of 26 and 54 years, with 51.2% (106/207) of respondents being female. Behavior change theory informed the creation of 20 survey items relating to the mechanisms of behavior change. Respondents also reported about engagement with the apps, app likeability, and physical activity behavior. Respondents reported that using a physical activity app in the past 6 months resulted in a change in their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and motivation. Engagement with the app (P<.001), frequency of app use (P=.03), and app price (P=.01) were related to the reported impact of the behavior change theory or mechanisms of change. The mechanisms of change were associated with self-reported physical activity behaviors (P<.001). The findings from this study provide an overview of the mechanisms by which apps may impact behavior. App developers may wish to incorporate these mechanisms in an effort to increase impact. Practitioners should consider the extent to which behavior change theory is integrated into a particular app when they consider making recommendations to

  7. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed.

  8. How Do Apps Work? An Analysis of Physical Activity App Users’ Perceptions of Behavior Change Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hoj, Taylor H; Covey, Emarie L; Jones, Allyn C; Haines, Amanda C; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity apps are commonly used to increase levels of activity and health status. To date, the focus of research has been to determine the potential of apps to influence behavior, to ascertain the efficacy of a limited number of apps to change behavior, and to identify the characteristics of apps that users prefer. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which the use of physical activity apps may influence the users’ physical activity behavior. Methods This study used a cross-sectional survey of users of health-related physical activity apps during the past 6 months. An electronic survey was created in Qualtrics’ Web-based survey software and deployed on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Individuals who had used at least one physical activity app in the past 6 months were eligible to respond. The final sample comprised 207 adults living in the United States. 86.0% (178/207) of respondents were between the ages of 26 and 54 years, with 51.2% (106/207) of respondents being female. Behavior change theory informed the creation of 20 survey items relating to the mechanisms of behavior change. Respondents also reported about engagement with the apps, app likeability, and physical activity behavior. Results Respondents reported that using a physical activity app in the past 6 months resulted in a change in their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and motivation. Engagement with the app (P<.001), frequency of app use (P=.03), and app price (P=.01) were related to the reported impact of the behavior change theory or mechanisms of change. The mechanisms of change were associated with self-reported physical activity behaviors (P<.001). Conclusions The findings from this study provide an overview of the mechanisms by which apps may impact behavior. App developers may wish to incorporate these mechanisms in an effort to increase impact. Practitioners should consider the extent to which behavior change theory is integrated into a

  9. Effective restoration of dystrophin-associated proteins in vivo by adenovirus-mediated transfer of truncated dystrophin cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, K; Miyagoe, Y; Yamamoto, K; Nabeshima, Y; Dickson, G; Takeda, S

    1998-03-27

    A series of truncated dystrophin cDNAs (3.1-4.2 kbp) containing only three, three, two or one rod repeats with hinge 1 and 4 (named deltaDysAX2, AX11, AH3, M3, respectively) or no rod repeat retaining either hinge 1 or 4 (named deltaDysH1, H4, respectively) were constructed. These cDNAs were introduced into skeletal muscle of adult mdx mice using the adenovirus vector with a strong CAG promoter. deltaDysAX2, AX11, AH3 and deltaDysM3 expressed themselves successfully and recovered dystrophin-associated proteins effectively. Especially 3.7 kbp cDNA for deltaDysM3 offers the possibility of an approach utilizing newly developed virus vectors, such as an adeno-associated virus vector, toward gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  10. Mobile app Aston contrast sensitivity test.

    PubMed

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Drew, Tom; Grewal, Bikramjit; Wolffsohn, James S

    2016-07-01

    Contrast detection is an important aspect of the assessment of visual function; however, clinical tests evaluate limited spatial frequencies and contrasts. This study validates the accuracy and inter-test repeatability of a swept-frequency near and distance mobile app Aston contrast sensitivity test, which overcomes this limitation compared to traditional charts. Twenty subjects wearing their full refractive correction underwent contrast sensitivity testing on the new near application (near app), distance app, CSV-1000 and Pelli-Robson charts with full correction and with vision degraded by 0.8 and 0.2 Bangerter degradation foils. In addition repeated measures using the 0.8 occluding foil were taken. The mobile apps (near more than distance, p = 0.005) recorded a higher contrast sensitivity than printed tests (p < 0.001); however, all charts showed a reduction in measured contrast sensitivity with degradation (p < 0.001) and a similar decrease with increasing spatial frequency (interaction > 0.05). Although the coefficient of repeatability was lowest for the Pelli-Robson charts (0.14 log units), the mobile app charts measured more spatial frequencies, took less time and were more repeatable (near: 0.26 to 0.37 log units; distance: 0.34 to 0.39 log units) than the CSV-1000 (0.30 to 0.93 log units). The duration to complete the CSV-1000 was 124 ± 37 seconds, Pelli-Robson 78 ± 27 seconds, near app 53 ± 15 seconds and distance app 107 ± 36 seconds. While there were differences between charts in contrast levels measured, the new Aston near and distance apps are valid, repeatable and time-efficient method of assessing contrast sensitivity at multiple spatial frequencies. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  11. Characterization of Ripening-Regulated cDNAs and Their Expression in Ethylene-Suppressed Charentais Melon Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kristen A.; Dang, Tam; Guis, Monique; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bennett, Alan B.

    2000-01-01

    Charentais melons (Cucumis melo cv Reticulatus) are climacteric and undergo extremely rapid ripening. Sixteen cDNAs corresponding to mRNAs whose abundance is ripening regulated were isolated to characterize the changes in gene expression that accompany this very rapid ripening process. Sequence comparisons indicated that eight of these cDNA clones encoded proteins that have been previously characterized, with one corresponding to ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) oxidase, three to proteins associated with pathogen responses, two to proteins involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis, and two having significant homology to a seed storage protein or a yeast secretory protein. The remaining eight cDNA sequences did not reveal significant sequence similarities to previously characterized proteins. The majority of the 16 ripening-regulated cDNAs corresponded to mRNAs that were fruit specific, although three were expressed at low levels in vegetative tissues. When examined in transgenic antisense ACC oxidase melon fruit, three distinct patterns of mRNA accumulation were observed. One group of cDNAs corresponded to mRNAs whose abundance was reduced in transgenic fruit but inducible by ethylene treatment, indicating that these genes are directly regulated by ethylene. A second group of mRNAs was not significantly altered in the transgenic fruit and was unaffected by treatment with ethylene, indicating that these genes are regulated by ethylene-independent developmental cues. The third and largest group of cDNAs showed an unexpected pattern of expression, with levels of mRNA reduced in transgenic fruit and remaining low after exposure to ethylene. Regulation of this third group of genes thus appears to ethylene independent, but may be regulated by developmental cues that require ethylene at a certain stage in fruit development. The results confirm that both ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent pathways of gene regulation coexist in climacteric fruit. PMID

  12. Expression cloning of multiple human cDNAs that complement the phenotypic defects of ataxia-telangiectasia group D fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Meyn, M.S.; Lu-Kuo, J.M.; Herzing, L.B.K. )

    1993-12-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an inherited human disease of unknown etiology associated with neurologic degeneration, immune dysfunction, cancer risk, and genetic instability. A-T cells are sensitive to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic drugs, offering the possibility of cloning A-T genes by phenotypic complementation. The authors have used this sensitivity to isolate the first human cDNAs reported to complement A-T cells in culture. Complementation group D A-T fibroblasts were transfected with an episomal vector-based human cDNA library, [approximately]610,000 resultant transformants were treated with the radiomimetic drug streptonigrin-resistent, and nine unrelated cDNAs were recovered from 20 surviving stretptonigrin-resistant clones. Five cDNAs were mapped, but none localized to 11q23, the site of A-T D fibroblasts on secondary transfection. One cDNA was identified as a fragment of dek, a gene involved in acute myeloid leukemia. The dek cDNA fragment and pCAT4.5, a 4.5-kb cDNA that mapped to 17p11, independently complemented three different phenotypic abnormalities of A-T D fibroblasts (mutagen sensitivity, hyperrecombination, and radio-resistant DNA synthesis). The pCAT4.5 cDNA did not complement the mutagen sensitivity of an A-T group C fibroblast line, suggesting that it represents a candidate disease gene for group D A-T. These results indicate that phenotypic complementation alone is insufficient evidence to prove that a candidate cDNA is an A-T disease gene. The complementing cDNAs may represent previously uncharacterized genes that function in the same pathway as does the A-T gene product(s) in the regulation of cellular responses to DNA damage. 38 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Liu, Di; Yu, Ya Min; Zhao, Hui Tong; Chen, Zhi Rou; Li, Jiao; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-29

    China's mHealth market is on track to become a global leader by industry size. The Chinese mobile app market and health care system have peculiarities that distinguish them from other app markets. To date, Chinese mHealth apps have not been systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of Chinese mHealth apps as of December 2015. We identified and investigated the most downloaded apps from the iOS and Android platforms. For each app, we analyzed and recorded its main service offered, mHealth initiative, disease and specialty focus, app cost, target user, Web app availability, and emphasis on information security. Standard descriptive statistics were used. A total of 234 apps met the inclusion criteria and were investigated. The apps targeting nonhealth care professionals focused on providing telemedicine and appointment-making services. The apps targeting health care professionals focused on education and peer reviewed articles. The most common disease-specific apps focused primarily on diabetes, hypertension, and hepatitis management. Most apps were free and available on both iOS and Android platforms. The primary mHealth initiatives targeted by the apps reflect Chinese patients' demand for access to medical care. Disease-specific apps are also representative of disease prevalence in China. Government press releases suggest that new policies on the horizon may shift the industry.

  14. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Liu, Di; Yu, Ya Min; Zhao, Hui Tong; Chen, Zhi Rou; Li, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Background China’s mHealth market is on track to become a global leader by industry size. The Chinese mobile app market and health care system have peculiarities that distinguish them from other app markets. To date, Chinese mHealth apps have not been systematically investigated. Objective The objective of this study was to provide an overview of Chinese mHealth apps as of December 2015. Methods We identified and investigated the most downloaded apps from the iOS and Android platforms. For each app, we analyzed and recorded its main service offered, mHealth initiative, disease and specialty focus, app cost, target user, Web app availability, and emphasis on information security. Standard descriptive statistics were used. Results A total of 234 apps met the inclusion criteria and were investigated. The apps targeting nonhealth care professionals focused on providing telemedicine and appointment-making services. The apps targeting health care professionals focused on education and peer reviewed articles. The most common disease-specific apps focused primarily on diabetes, hypertension, and hepatitis management. Most apps were free and available on both iOS and Android platforms. Conclusions The primary mHealth initiatives targeted by the apps reflect Chinese patients’ demand for access to medical care. Disease-specific apps are also representative of disease prevalence in China. Government press releases suggest that new policies on the horizon may shift the industry. PMID:27573724

  15. Apps for Hearing Science and Care.

    PubMed

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Our research aims at the identification and assessment of applications (referred to as apps) in the hearing health care domain. This research forum article presents an overview of the current availability, affordability, and variety of hearing-related apps. The available apps were reviewed by searching on the leading platforms (iOS, Android, Windows Phone stores) using the keywords hearing, audiology, audio, auditory, speech, language, tinnitus, hearing loss, hearing aid, hearing sys tem, cochlear implant, implantable device, auditory training, hearing rehabilitation, and assistive technology/tool/device. O n the bas is of the offered services, apps were classified into 4 application domains: (a) screening and assessment, (b) intervention and rehabilitation, (c) education and information, and (d) assistive tools. A large variety of apps are available in the hearing health care domain. These cover a wide range of services for people with hearing or communication problems as well as for hearing professionals, families, or informal caregivers. This evolution can potentially bring along considerable advantages and improved outcomes in the field of hearing health care. Nevertheless, potential risks and threats (e.g., safety, quality, effectiveness, privacy, and regulation) should not be overlooked. Significant research—particularly in terms of assessment and guidance—is still needed for the informed, aware, and safe adoption of hearing-related apps by patients and professionals.

  16. A phonology-free mobile communication app.

    PubMed

    Kondapalli, Ananya; Zhang, Lee R; Patel, Shreya; Han, Xiao; Kim, Hee Jin; Li, Xintong; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-11-01

    Aphasia - loss of comprehension or expression of language - is a devastating functional sequela of stroke. There are as yet no effective methods for rehabilitation of aphasia. An assistive device that allows aphasia patients to communicate and interact at speeds approaching real time is urgently needed. Behavioral and linguistic studies of aphasia patients show that they retain normal thinking processes and most aspects of language. They lack only phonology: the ability to translate (input) and/or output sounds (or written words) such as "ta-ble" into the image of a four-legged object with a top at which one works or eats. We have made a phonology-free communication mobile app that may be useful for patients with aphasia and other communication disorders. Particular innovations of our app include calling Google Images as a "subroutine" to allow a near-infinite number of choices (e.g. food or clothing items) for patients without having to make countless images, and by the use of animation for words, phrases or concepts that cannot be represented by a single image. We have tested our app successfully in one patient. The app may be of great benefit to patients with aphasia and other communication disorders. Implications for Rehabilitation We have made a phonology-free mobile communication app. This app may facilitate communication for patients with aphasia and other communication disorders.

  17. APP interacts with LRP4 and agrin to coordinate the development of the neuromuscular junction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong Y; Liu, Yun; Tennert, Christian; Sugiura, Yoshie; Karakatsani, Andromachi; Kröger, Stephan; Johnson, Eric B; Hammer, Robert E; Lin, Weichun; Herz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    ApoE, ApoE receptors and APP cooperate in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Intriguingly, the ApoE receptor LRP4 and APP are also required for normal formation and function of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study, we show that APP interacts with LRP4, an obligate co-receptor for muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Agrin, a ligand for LRP4, also binds to APP and co-operatively enhances the interaction of APP with LRP4. In cultured myotubes, APP synergistically increases agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering. Deletion of the transmembrane domain of LRP4 (LRP4 ECD) results in growth retardation of the NMJ, and these defects are markedly enhanced in APP−/−;LRP4ECD/ECD mice. Double mutant NMJs are significantly reduced in size and number, resulting in perinatal lethality. Our findings reveal novel roles for APP in regulating neuromuscular synapse formation through hetero-oligomeric interaction with LRP4 and agrin and thereby provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern NMJ formation and maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00220.001 PMID:23986861

  18. Smartphone apps for orthopaedic sports medicine - a smart move?

    PubMed

    Wong, Seng Juong; Robertson, Greg A; Connor, Katie L; Brady, Richard R; Wood, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smartphones together with their downloadable applications (apps), there is increasing opportunities for doctors, including orthopaedic sports surgeons, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the clinical reliability of these medical apps remains questionable. We reviewed available apps themed specifically towards Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and related conditions and assessed the level of medical professional involvement in their design and content, along with a review of these apps. The most popular smartphone app stores (Android, Apple, Blackberry, Windows, Samsung, Nokia) were searched for Orthopaedic Sports medicine themed apps, using the search terms; Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics, Sports medicine, Knee Injury, Shoulder Injury, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear, Medial Collateral Ligament Tear, Rotator Cuff Tear, Meniscal Tear, Tennis Elbow. All English language apps related to orthopaedic sports medicine were included. A total of 76 individual Orthopaedic Sports Medicine themed apps were identified. According to app store classifications, there were 45 (59 %) medical themed apps, 28 (37 %) health and fitness themed apps, 1 (1 %) business app, 1 (1 %) reference app and 1 (1 %) sports app. Forty-nine (64 %) apps were available for download free of charge. For those that charged access, the prices ranged from £0.69 to £69.99. Only 51 % of sports medicine apps had customer satisfaction ratings and 39 % had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. We found the majority of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine apps had no named medical professional involvement, raising concerns over their content and evidence-base. We recommend increased regulation of such apps to improve the accountability of app content.

  19. Finding a Depression App: A Review and Content Analysis of the Depression App Marketplace

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Nelson; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Johnson, Andrew; Bender, Jacqueline Lorene; Hamilton-Page, Michelle; Jadad, Alejandro (Alex) R

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is highly prevalent and causes considerable suffering and disease burden despite the existence of wide-ranging treatment options. Mobile phone apps offer the potential to help close this treatment gap by confronting key barriers to accessing support for depression. Objectives Our goal was to identify and characterize the different types of mobile phone depression apps available in the marketplace. Methods A search for depression apps was conducted on the app stores of the five major mobile phone platforms: Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Nokia, and Windows. Apps were included if they focused on depression and were available to people who self-identify as having depression. Data were extracted from the app descriptions found in the app stores. Results Of the 1054 apps identified by the search strategy, nearly one-quarter (23.0%, 243/1054) unique depression apps met the inclusion criteria. Over one-quarter (27.7%, 210/758) of the excluded apps failed to mention depression in the title or description. Two-thirds of the apps had as their main purpose providing therapeutic treatment (33.7%, 82/243) or psychoeducation (32.1%, 78/243). The other main purpose categories were medical assessment (16.9%, 41/243), symptom management (8.2%, 20/243), and supportive resources (1.6%, 4/243). A majority of the apps failed to sufficiently describe their organizational affiliation (65.0%, 158/243) and content source (61.7%, 150/243). There was a significant relationship (χ 2 5=50.5, P<.001) between the main purpose of the app and the reporting of content source, with most medical assessment apps reporting their content source (80.5%, 33/41). A fifth of the apps featured an e-book (20.6%, 50/243), audio therapy (16.9%, 41/243), or screening (16.9%, 41/243) function. Most apps had a dynamic user interface (72.4%, 176/243) and used text as the main type of media (51.9%, 126/243), and over a third (14.4%, 35/243) incorporated more than one form of media. Conclusion

  20. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actin Patch Protein App1p Is a Phosphatidate Phosphatase Enzyme*♦

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Minjung; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PAP is encoded by PAH1, DPP1, and LPP1. The presence of PAP activity in the pah1Δ dpp1Δ lpp1Δ triple mutant indicated another gene(s) encoding the enzyme. We purified PAP from the pah1Δ dpp1Δ lpp1Δ triple mutant by salt extraction of mitochondria followed by chromatography with DE52, Affi-Gel Blue, phenyl-Sepharose, MonoQ, and Superdex 200. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of a PAP-enriched sample revealed multiple putative phosphatases. By analysis of PAP activity in mutants lacking each of the proteins, we found that APP1, a gene whose molecular function has been unknown, confers ∼30% PAP activity of wild type cells. The overexpression of APP1 in the pah1Δ dpp1Δ lpp1Δ mutant exhibited a 10-fold increase in PAP activity. The PAP activity shown by App1p heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli confirmed that APP1 is the structural gene for the enzyme. Introduction of the app1Δ mutation into the pah1Δ dpp1Δ lpp1Δ triple mutant resulted in a complete loss of PAP activity, indicating that distinct PAP enzymes in S. cerevisiae are encoded by APP1, PAH1, DPP1, and LPP1. Lipid analysis of cells lacking the PAP genes, singly or in combination, showed that Pah1p is the only PAP involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerol as well as in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis. App1p, which shows interactions with endocytic proteins, may play a role in vesicular trafficking through its PAP activity. PMID:23071111

  1. Two distinct aquaporin-4 cDNAs isolated from medullary cone of quail kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yimu; Cui, Yujun; Fan, Zheng; Cook, George A; Nishimura, Hiroko

    2007-05-01

    Water deprivation or arginine vasotocin upregulates aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in apical and subapical regions of medullary collecting duct (CD) cells of Coturnix coturnix quail (q) kidneys. We therefore aimed to determine whether the CD has AQPs mediating water exit from the intracellular to the extracellular (interstitial) space. Using a homologue cloning technique, we isolated two distinct qAQP4 cDNAs from quail medullary cones; long (L, open reading frames) and short (S) cDNA encoded 335 (qAQP4-L) and 301 (qAQP4-S) amino acids with, respectively, 80% and 87% identity to human long- and short-form AQP4. qAQP4-S is identical to qAQP4-L from the second initiation site. Both isoforms have two NPA motifs, but lack cysteine at the known mercury-sensitive site. qAQP4-L and qAQP4-S are expressed in membranes of Xenopus laevis oocytes, but both failed to increase the water permeability (P(f)) of oocytes exposed to a hypotonic solution. Glutamate (Q242) replacement with histidine did not increase P(f). With conventional RT-PCR and real-time PCR, qAQP4-L/S mRNA signals were detected in the brain, lung, heart, intestine, adrenal gland, skeletal muscle, liver, and kidney (higher in medulla than in cortical region). qAQP4-L mRNA was detected only in the brain and adrenal gland. Orthogonal arrays of intramembranous particles were not detected in quail CDs. The results suggest that although qAQP4-L and qAQP4-S have high homology to mammalian AQP4, their physiological function may be different.

  2. Isolation and characterization of human cerebellum cDNAs containing polymorphic CAG trinucleotide repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, S.; Onodera, O.; Tanaka, H.

    1994-09-01

    It has been discovered that neurologic diseases such as X linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Huntington`s disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) are caused by unstable expansions of CAG repeats, which shed a light on a new mechanism of human hereditary diseases. The genetic anticipation, a common genetic feature in these diseases, can be explained by the trinucleotide repeat expansions, and an inverse correlation between the ages of onset and the numbers of trinucleotide repeats is demonstrated in these diseases. Furthermore, there have been diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) and Machado-Joseph disease showing similar genetic anticipation, which suggests that their causative mutations are unstable expansions of trinucleotide repeats. To identify candidate genes for neurodegenerative diseases which are expressed in human cerebellum and contain CAG repeats, we screened a human cerebellum cDNA library with an oligonucleotide (CAG){sub 10}, labelled with [{gamma}{sup 32}P]ATP. Out of 78 clones we have isolated, 43 clones were partially sequenced and 31 clones were shown to contain CAG or CTG tinucleotide repeats. From homology searches, 12 of the 59 clones were identified to contain known sequences including human MAR/SAR DNA binding protein, human glial fibrillary acidic protein, human myelin transcription factor 1, human neuronal growth protein 43 and human myocyte-specific enhancer 2. From 6 clones out of the 43 novel genes, we were able to develop primer pairs flanking CAG repeats and determined chromosomal localizations with human and rodent hybrid mapping panels. These CAG repeats were shown to be polymorphic and mapped to 1, 15, 17 and 18. These novel cDNAs will be useful as candidate genes for hereditary neurologic diseases showing genetic anticipation.

  3. Sequence analysis of zein cDNAs obtained by an efficient mRNA cloning method.

    PubMed Central

    Heidecker, G; Messing, J

    1983-01-01

    A cDNA library was generated from mRNA isolated from the developing endosperm of W22 maize inbred. cDNA clones for zein, the maize storage protein family, were isolated and analyzed by DNA sequencing. The DNA sequences of four clones containing cDNA copies of mRNAs belonging to one zein subfamily were determined. The data support the following conclusions: a) genes encoding the larger of the two zein species contain eleven instead of nine repeat units within the coding sequence of the gene; b) transcription can be terminated at either of the two polyadenlation signals and c) transcription starts 31 basepairs downstream from the first T in the TATA box. To facilitate this analysis a new method for the construction of cDNA libraries was developed. The mRNA was annealed to linearized and oligo-dT tailed pUC9 plasmid DNA, which then primed synthesis of the first strand of the cDNA. Oligo-dG tails were added to the cDNA-plasmid molecules, which were then centrifuged through an alkaline sucrose gradient. The gradient step removed small molecules and separated the two cDNAs which were formerly attached to the same double stranded plasmid molecule. An excess of oligo-dC tailed denatured pUC9 DNA was added and the DNA was renatured under conditions that favor the circularization of monomers by the oligo-dC and oligo-dG tails. The oligo-dC tail served as primer for the synthesis of the second strand of the cDNA. The library was screened by colony hybridization using 32P-labelled cDNA and DNA from genomic zein clones as probes. We obtained 20,000 clones hybridizing total cDNA starting with 1 microgram of plasmid DNA and 1 microgram of mRNA. Images PMID:6688299

  4. Expression cloning of multiple human cDNAs that complement the phenotypic defects of ataxia-telangiectasia group D fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Meyn, M S; Lu-Kuo, J M; Herzing, L B

    1993-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an inherited human disease of unknown etiology associated with neurologic degeneration, immune dysfunction, cancer risk, and genetic instability. A-T cells are sensitive to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic drugs, offering the possibility of cloning A-T genes by phenotypic complementation. We have used this sensitivity to isolate the first human cDNAs reported to complement A-T cells in culture. Complementation group D A-T fibroblasts were transfected with an episomal vector-based human cDNA library, approximately 610,000 resultant transformants were treated with the radiomimetic drug streptonigrin-resistant, and nine unrelated cDNAs were recovered from 29 surviving streptonigrin-resistant clones. Five cDNAs were mapped, but none localized to 11q23, the site of A-T complementation group A and C loci. Four of the mapped cDNAs conferred mutagen resistance to A-T D fibroblasts on secondary transfection. One cDNA was identified as a fragment of dek, a gene involved in acute myeloid leukemia. The dek cDNA fragment and pCAT4.5, a 4.5-kb cDNA that mapped to 17p11, independently complemented three different phenotypic abnormalities of A-T D fibroblasts (mutagen sensitivity, hyper-recombination, and radio-resistant DNA synthesis). The pCAT4.5 cDNA did not complement the mutagen sensitivity of an A-T group C fibroblast line, suggesting that it represents a candidate disease gene for group D A-T. Our results indicate that phenotypic complementation alone is insufficient evidence to prove that a candidate cDNA is an A-T disease gene. The complementing cDNAs may represent previously uncharacterized genes that function in the same pathway as does the A-T gene product(s) in the regulation of cellular responses to DNA damage. Images Figure 2 PMID:7504406

  5. Planet App: Kids' Book Apps Are Everywhere. But Are They Any Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A proper picture book app lets a parent and child read, listen to, or explore a book in a fun and interactive manner. Typical options offered in these apps include turning off the sound (so that a parent or child can read on their own), changing from one language to another, and small interactive features, such as making the characters move. To…

  6. Planet App: Kids' Book Apps Are Everywhere. But Are They Any Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A proper picture book app lets a parent and child read, listen to, or explore a book in a fun and interactive manner. Typical options offered in these apps include turning off the sound (so that a parent or child can read on their own), changing from one language to another, and small interactive features, such as making the characters move. To…

  7. cddApp: a Cytoscape app for accessing the NCBI conserved domain database.

    PubMed

    Morris, John H; Wu, Allan; Yamashita, Roxanne A; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    cddApp is a Cytoscape extension that supports the annotation of protein networks with information about domains and specific functional sites from the National Center for Biotechnology Information's conserved domain database (CDD). CDD information is loaded for nodes annotated with NCBI numbers or UniProt identifiers and (optionally) Protein Data Bank structures. cddApp integrates with the Cytoscape apps structureViz2 and enhancedGraphics. Together, these three apps provide powerful tools to annotate nodes with CDD domain and site information and visualize that information in both network and structural contexts. cddApp is written in Java and freely available for download from the Cytoscape app store (http://apps.cytoscape.org). Documentation is provided at http://www.rbvi.ucsf.edu/cytoscape, and the source is publically available from GitHub http://github.com/RBVI/cddApp. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Neurons generated from APP/APLP1/APLP2 triple knockout embryonic stem cells behave normally in vitro and in vivo: lack of evidence for a cell autonomous role of the amyloid precursor protein in neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, Bruno A; Shariati, S Ali M; Habets, Ron L P; Verstreken, Patrik; Schoonjans, Luc; Müller, Ulrike; Dotti, Carlos G; De Strooper, Bart

    2010-03-31

    Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been implicated in many neurobiologic processes, but supporting evidence remains indirect. Studies are confounded by the existence of two partially redundant APP homologues, APLP1 and APLP2. APP/APLP1/APLP2 triple knockout (APP tKO) mice display cobblestone lissencephaly and are perinatally lethal. To circumvent this problem, we generated APP triple knockout embryonic stem (ES) cells and differentiated these to APP triple knockout neurons in vitro and in vivo. In comparison with wild-type (WT) ES cell-derived neurons, APP tKO neurons formed equally pure neuronal cultures, had unaltered in vitro migratory capacities, had a similar acquisition of polarity, and were capable of extending long neurites and forming active excitatory synapses. These data were confirmed in vivo in chimeric mice with APP tKO neurons expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) present in a WT background brain. The results suggest that the loss of the APP family of proteins has no major effect on these critical neuronal processes and that the apparent multitude of functions in which APP has been implicated might be characterized by molecular redundancy. Our stem cell culture provides an excellent tool to circumvent the problem of lack of viability of APP/APLP triple knockout mice and will help to explore the function of this intriguing protein further in vitro and in vivo.

  9. APP physiological and pathophysiological functions: insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinxi; Wang, Zilai; Li, Hongmei; Wiese, Mary; Zheng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been under intensive study in recent years, mainly due to its critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides generated from APP proteolytic cleavage can aggregate, leading to plaque formation in human AD brains. Point mutations of APP affecting Aβ production are found to be causal for hereditary early onset familial AD. It is very likely that elucidating the physiological properties of APP will greatly facilitate the understanding of its role in AD pathogenesis. A number of APP loss- and gain-of-function models have been established in model organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse. These in vivo models provide us valuable insights into APP physiological functions. In addition, several knock-in mouse models expressing mutant APP at a physiological level are available to allow us to study AD pathogenesis without APP overexpression. This article will review the current physiological and pathophysiological animal models of APP.

  10. Commercially Available Mobile Phone Headache Diary Apps: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Stinson, Jennifer N; Wheaton, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background Headache diaries are often used by headache sufferers to self-monitor headaches. With advances in mobile technology, mobile electronic diary apps are becoming increasingly common. Objective This review aims to identify and evaluate all commercially available mobile headache diary apps for the two most popular mobile phone platforms, iOS and Android. Methods The authors developed a priori a set of 7 criteria that define an ideal headache diary app intended to help headache sufferers better understand and manage their headaches, while providing relevant data to health professionals. The app criteria were intended as minimum requirements for an acceptable headache diary app that could be prescribed by health care professionals. Each app was evaluated and scored against each criterion. Results Of the 38 apps identified, none of the apps met all 7 app criteria. The 3 highest scoring apps, meeting 5 of the app criteria, were iHeadache (developed by Better QOL), ecoHeadache (developed by ecoTouchMedia), and Headache Diary Pro (developed by Froggyware). Only 18% of the apps were created with scientific or clinical headache expertise and none of the apps reported on psychometric properties. Conclusions Despite the growing market and demand, there is a concerning lack of scientific expertise and evidence base associated with headache diary apps. PMID:25138438

  11. Commercially available mobile phone headache diary apps: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Stinson, Jennifer N; Wheaton, Mike

    2014-08-19

    Headache diaries are often used by headache sufferers to self-monitor headaches. With advances in mobile technology, mobile electronic diary apps are becoming increasingly common. This review aims to identify and evaluate all commercially available mobile headache diary apps for the two most popular mobile phone platforms, iOS and Android. The authors developed a priori a set of 7 criteria that define an ideal headache diary app intended to help headache sufferers better understand and manage their headaches, while providing relevant data to health professionals. The app criteria were intended as minimum requirements for an acceptable headache diary app that could be prescribed by health care professionals. Each app was evaluated and scored against each criterion. Of the 38 apps identified, none of the apps met all 7 app criteria. The 3 highest scoring apps, meeting 5 of the app criteria, were iHeadache (developed by Better QOL), ecoHeadache (developed by ecoTouchMedia), and Headache Diary Pro (developed by Froggyware). Only 18% of the apps were created with scientific or clinical headache expertise and none of the apps reported on psychometric properties. Despite the growing market and demand, there is a concerning lack of scientific expertise and evidence base associated with headache diary apps.

  12. Smartphone app use among medical providers in ACGME training programs.

    PubMed

    Franko, Orrin I; Tirrell, Timothy F

    2012-10-01

    The past decade has witnessed the advent of the smartphone, a device armed with computing power, mobility and downloadable "apps," that has become commonplace within the medical field as both a personal and professional tool. The popularity of medically-related apps suggests that physicians use mobile technology to assist with clinical decision making, yet usage patterns have never been quantified. A digital survey examining smartphone and associated app usage was administered via email to all ACGME training programs. Data regarding respondent specialty, level of training, use of smartphones, use of smartphone apps, desired apps, and commonly used apps were collected and analyzed. Greater than 85% of respondents used a smartphone, of which the iPhone was the most popular (56%). Over half of the respondents reported using apps in their clinical practice; the most commonly used app types were drug guides (79%), medical calculators (18%), coding and billing apps (4%) and pregnancy wheels (4%). The most frequently requested app types were textbook/reference materials (average response: 55%), classification/treatment algorithms (46%) and general medical knowledge (43%). The clinical use of smartphones and apps will likely continue to increase, and we have demonstrated an absence of high-quality and popular apps despite a strong desire among physicians and trainees. This information should be used to guide the development of future healthcare delivery systems; expanded app functionality is almost certain but reliability and ease of use will likely remain major factors in determining the successful integration of apps into clinical practice.

  13. APP Function and Lipids: A Bidirectional Link.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular neuritic plaques, composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. One of the most prominent risk factor for sporadic AD, carrying one or two aberrant copies of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 alleles, closely links AD to lipids. Further, several lipid classes and fatty acids have been reported to be changed in the brain of AD-affected individuals. Interestingly, the observed lipid changes in the brain seem not only to be a consequence of the disease but also modulate Aβ generation. In line with these observations, protective lipids being able to decrease Aβ generation and also potential negative lipids in respect to AD were identified. Mechanistically, Aβ peptides are generated by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. The α-secretase appears to compete with β-secretase for the initial cleavage of APP, preventing Aβ production. All APP-cleaving secretases as well as APP are transmembrane proteins, further illustrating the impact of lipids on Aβ generation. Beside the pathological impact of Aβ, accumulating evidence suggests that Aβ and the APP intracellular domain (AICD) play an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis, either by direct effects or by affecting gene expression or protein stability of enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of different lipid classes. This review summarizes the current literature addressing the complex bidirectional link between lipids and AD and APP processing including lipid alterations found in AD post mortem brains, lipids that alter APP processing and the physiological functions of Aβ and AICD in the regulation of several lipid metabolism pathways.

  14. APP Function and Lipids: A Bidirectional Link

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Mett, Janine; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular neuritic plaques, composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. One of the most prominent risk factor for sporadic AD, carrying one or two aberrant copies of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 alleles, closely links AD to lipids. Further, several lipid classes and fatty acids have been reported to be changed in the brain of AD-affected individuals. Interestingly, the observed lipid changes in the brain seem not only to be a consequence of the disease but also modulate Aβ generation. In line with these observations, protective lipids being able to decrease Aβ generation and also potential negative lipids in respect to AD were identified. Mechanistically, Aβ peptides are generated by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. The α-secretase appears to compete with β-secretase for the initial cleavage of APP, preventing Aβ production. All APP-cleaving secretases as well as APP are transmembrane proteins, further illustrating the impact of lipids on Aβ generation. Beside the pathological impact of Aβ, accumulating evidence suggests that Aβ and the APP intracellular domain (AICD) play an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis, either by direct effects or by affecting gene expression or protein stability of enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of different lipid classes. This review summarizes the current literature addressing the complex bidirectional link between lipids and AD and APP processing including lipid alterations found in AD post mortem brains, lipids that alter APP processing and the physiological functions of Aβ and AICD in the regulation of several lipid metabolism pathways. PMID:28344547

  15. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2010-03-30

    The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence and aid in tomato functional

  16. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs Reveal Diverging Pit Viper Molecules and Scaffolds Typical of Cobra (Elapidae) Venoms: Implications for Snake Toxin Repertoire Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L. M.; Ching, Ana T. C.; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y.; Ho, Paulo L.; Diniz, Marcelo R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts. PMID:16582429

  17. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution.

    PubMed

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Ching, Ana T C; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Ho, Paulo L; Diniz, Marcelo R V

    2006-06-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts.

  18. Comparative analysis of cloned cDNAs encoding Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine integrin receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Shang, Youjun; Yin, Shuanghui; Zhang, Keshan; Wang, Guangxiang; Lv, Zhanlu; Yang, Shunli; Wu, Jinyan; Jin, Ye; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yongjie; Tian, Hong; Liu, Xiangtao

    2013-10-01

    To analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism and host range with respect to the integrin receptor, we cloned cDNAs encoding the integrin αν, β1, β3, β6 and β8 subunits from Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine and carried out comparative analysis of their molecular characteristics. The lengths of the mature proteins and the functional domains of the four integrin β subunits were the same between bovine and swine; however, the number of putative N-linked glycosylation sites and cysteine residues and their arrangement varied. Homology analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed that FMDV integrin receptors of Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine are highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all FMDV integrin receptor subunits of cattle and swine are clustered into the Artiodactyla group; however, Chinese yellow cattle are phylogenetically closer to sheep than to Gansu black swine. We postulate that the host tropism of FMDV may, in part, be related to the divergence of integrin subunits among different species.

  19. Two epsilon glutathione S-transferase cDNAs from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura: characterization and developmental and induced expression by insecticides.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Huang, Yufen; Feng, Qili; Zheng, Sichun

    2009-12-01

    Two Spodoptera litura glutathione S-transferase cDNAs (Slgste2 and Slgste3) which were cloned from a midgut cDNA, encoded two structurally distinct proteins with a predicted molecular mass of 25 and 24kDa, respectively. Slgste2 and Slgste3 were single-copy genes in the S. litura genome and there was no intron within the genes. The transcripts and proteins of Slgste2 and Slgste3 were predominately present in the midgut of the 5th and 6th instar larvae. The apparent Vmax of the purified SlGSTE2 and SlGSTE3 recombinant proteins towards the substrates glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenezene (CDNB) were similar. Slgste2 expression was up-regulated by 1-naphthyl methylcarbamate (carbaryl), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), deltamethrin, tebufenozide (RH5992) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), but not affected by malathion, while Slgste3 expression was slightly up-regulated by carbaryl, Bt and DDT, but not affected by RH5992, malathion and deltamethrin. The results suggest that Slgste2 and Slgste3 may play roles in detoxifying various insecticides in S. litura.

  20. Pathogenic accumulation of APP in fast twitch muscle of IBM patients and a transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Michael C; Kitazawa, Masashi; Baker, Michael; Caiozzo, Vincent J; Querfurth, Henry W; LaFerla, Frank M

    2006-03-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common age-related degenerative skeletal muscle disorder. The aberrant intracellular accumulation of the beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide within skeletal muscle is a pathological hallmark of IBM. Skeletal muscle is comprised of both slow and fast twitch fibers, which are present in different proportions in various muscles. It remains unclear if fast and/or slow twitch fibers are differentially involved in IBM pathogenesis. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of IBM, we analyzed human IBM muscle biopsies and muscle from a transgenic mouse model of IBM (MCK-betaAPP). Here we report that the majority of histopathologically-affected fibers in human IBM biopsies were type II fast fibers. Skeletal muscle from MCK-betaAPP mice exhibited higher transgene expression and steady-state levels of human betaAPP in fast type IIB fibers compared to slow type I fibers. These findings indicate that fast twitch fibers may selectively accumulate and be more vulnerable to betaAPP- and Abeta-mediated damage in IBM. These findings also highlight parallels between the MCK-betaAPP mice and the human IBM condition.

  1. Mutations in APP have independent effects on Abeta and CTFgamma generation.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Silva; Wang, Jun; Dolios, Georgia; Martinez, Maribel; Wang, Rong; Goate, Alison M

    2004-11-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of beta-amyloid (Abeta) generation is crucial for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis as well as for normal APP function. The transmembrane domain (TM) of APP appears to undergo presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase cleavage at two topologically distinct sites: a site in the middle of the TM domain that is crucial for the generation of Abeta-peptides, and a site close to the cytoplasmic border (S3-like/epsilon site) of the TM domain that leads to production of the APP intracellular domain (CTFgamma/AICD). We demonstrate that, in contrast to the unique effect of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations in APP on Abeta42 production, some but not all FAD mutations also affect CTFgamma generation. Furthermore, changes in total CTFgamma levels do not correlate with either an increase or a decrease of any Abeta species, and inhibition of Abeta-peptide formation starting from position +1 (Abeta1-x) does not affect CTFgamma production. These results suggest that cleavage at the gamma40/42- and the S3-like sites can be dissociated, and that APP signaling and Abeta production are not tightly linked.

  2. Mobile App Rating Scale: A New Tool for Assessing the Quality of Health Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond “star”-ratings. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. Results There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). Conclusions The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps. PMID:25760773

  3. The Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and Fe65, an APP-Binding Protein, Regulate Cell Movement

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Shasta L.; Ikin, Annat F.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Greengard, Paul

    2001-01-01

    FE65 binds to the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP), but the function of this interaction has not been identified. Here, we report that APP and FE65 are involved in regulation of cell movement. APP and FE65 colocalize with actin and Mena, an Abl-associated signaling protein thought to regulate actin dynamics, in lamellipodia. APP and FE65 specifically concentrate with β1-integrin in dynamic adhesion sites known as focal complexes, but not in more static adhesion sites known as focal adhesions. Overexpression of APP accelerates cell migration in an MDCK cell wound–healing assay. Coexpression of APP and FE65 dramatically enhances the effect of APP on cell movement, probably by regulating the amount of APP at the cell surface. These data are consistent with a role for FE65 and APP, possibly in a Mena-containing macromolecular complex, in regulation of actin-based motility. PMID:11425871

  4. Smartphone apps for spinal surgery: is technology good or evil?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng Juong; Brady, Richard R; Subramanian, Ashok S

    2016-05-01

    The increased utilization of smartphones together with their downloadable applications (apps) provides opportunity for doctors, including spinal surgeons, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the clinical reliability of the medical app sector remains questionable. We reviewed available apps themed specifically towards spinal surgery and related conditions and assessed the level of medical professional involvement in their design and content. The most popular smartphone app stores (Android, Apple, Blackberry, Windows, Samsung, Nokia) were searched for spinal surgery-themed apps, using the disease terms Spinal Surgery, Back Surgery, Spine, Disc Prolapse, Sciatica, Radiculopathy, Spinal Stenosis, Scoliosis, Spinal Fracture and Spondylolisthesis. A total of 78 individual spinal surgery themed apps were identified, of which there were six duplicates (N = 72). According to app store classifications, there were 57 (79 %) medical themed apps, 11 (15 %) health and fitness themed apps, 1 (1 %) business and 3 (4 %) education themed apps. Forty-five (63 %) apps were available for download free of charge. For those that charged access, the prices ranged from £0.62 to £47.99. Only 44 % of spinal surgery apps had customer satisfaction ratings and 56 % had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. This is the first study to specifically address the characteristics of apps related to spinal surgery. We found that nearly half of spinal surgery apps had no named medical professional involvement, raising concerns over app content and evidence base for their use. We recommend increased regulation of spinal surgical apps to improve the accountability of app content.

  5. Compliance of blood donation apps with mobile OS usability guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Pozo, José Rivera; Bajta, Manal El; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to employ the guidelines of Android, iOS, Blackberry and Windows Phone to analyze the usability compliance of free blood donation (BD) apps. An analysis process based on a systematic review protocol is used to select free BD apps. An assessment is conducted using a questionnaire composed of 13 questions concerning the compliance of free BD apps with Android, Blackberry, iOS and Windows Phone usability guidelines. A total of 133 free BD apps have been selected from the 188 BD apps identified. Around 63% of the free BD apps selected have a good compliance with mobile OS usability recommendations. Around 72% of Android, 57% of Windows Phone, 33% of iOS and 33% of Blackberry BD apps have a high usability score. The aspect of BD app behavior should be improved along with some style components: the use of pictures to explain ideas and the adaptation of the app to both horizontal and vertical orientations. Structure patterns should also be used to improve the structure aspect of a BD app. Usability is a quality aspect that should be improved in current BD apps. Our study provides smartphone users with a list of usable free BD apps and BD app developers with recommendations.

  6. Beebook: light field mapping app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi

  7. η-Secretase processing of APP inhibits neuronal activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Willem, Michael; Tahirovic, Sabina; Busche, Marc Aurel; Ovsepian, Saak V; Chafai, Magda; Kootar, Scherazad; Hornburg, Daniel; Evans, Lewis D B; Moore, Steven; Daria, Anna; Hampel, Heike; Müller, Veronika; Giudici, Camilla; Nuscher, Brigitte; Wenninger-Weinzierl, Andrea; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Heneka, Michael T; Thal, Dietmar R; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Lannfelt, Lars; Müller, Ulrike; Livesey, Frederick J; Meissner, Felix; Herms, Jochen; Konnerth, Arthur; Marie, Hélène; Haass, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques, which are predominantly composed of amyloid-β peptide. Two principal physiological pathways either prevent or promote amyloid-β generation from its precursor, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), in a competitive manner. Although APP processing has been studied in great detail, unknown proteolytic events seem to hinder stoichiometric analyses of APP metabolism in vivo. Here we describe a new physiological APP processing pathway, which generates proteolytic fragments capable of inhibiting neuronal activity within the hippocampus. We identify higher molecular mass carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs) of APP, termed CTF-η, in addition to the long-known CTF-α and CTF-β fragments generated by the α- and β-secretases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1), respectively. CTF-η generation is mediated in part by membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinases such as MT5-MMP, referred to as η-secretase activity. η-Secretase cleavage occurs primarily at amino acids 504-505 of APP695, releasing a truncated ectodomain. After shedding of this ectodomain, CTF-η is further processed by ADAM10 and BACE1 to release long and short Aη peptides (termed Aη-α and Aη-β). CTFs produced by η-secretase are enriched in dystrophic neurites in an AD mouse model and in human AD brains. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of BACE1 activity results in robust accumulation of CTF-η and Aη-α. In mice treated with a potent BACE1 inhibitor, hippocampal long-term potentiation was reduced. Notably, when recombinant or synthetic Aη-α was applied on hippocampal slices ex vivo, long-term potentiation was lowered. Furthermore, in vivo single-cell two-photon calcium imaging showed that hippocampal neuronal activity was attenuated by Aη-α. These findings not only demonstrate a major functionally relevant APP processing pathway, but may also indicate potential

  8. easyHealthApps: e-Health Apps dynamic generation for smartphones & tablets.

    PubMed

    Paschou, Mersini; Sakkopoulos, Evangelos; Tsakalidis, Athanasios

    2013-06-01

    Mobile phones and especially smartphones have been embraced by a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide and this trend is expected to evolve even more in the years to come. There are numerous smartphone Apps that record critical medical data in an effort to solve a particular health issue each time. We studied such applications and not surprisingly, we have found that development and design effort is often repeated. Software patterns have been detected to exist, however re-usability has not been enforced. This leads to lost programming manpower and to increased probability of repeating bugs in Apps. Moreover, at the moment smartphone e-Health Apps demand time, effort and costs for development. Unfortunately even simple data recording Apps are practically impossible to be produced by multiple health domain users who are not developers. In this work, we propose, design and implement a simple and integrated solution which gives healthcare professionals and researchers the ability to create their own data intensive smartphone applications, independent of the desired healthcare domain. The proposed approach applies efficient software techniques that hide development from the users and enable App creation through a simple Web User Interface. The Apps produced are in native format and it is possible to dynamically receive m-Health business logic and the chosen UI. Evaluation of the proposed solution has shown that the generated Apps are functionally and UI equivalent to human-coded Apps according to a number of comparison parameters. Furthermore, e-Health professionals show particular interest in developing Apps on their own for a particular domain they focus on.

  9. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding equine infectious anemia virus tat and putative Rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R M; Derse, D; Rice, N R

    1990-01-01

    We isolated and characterized six cDNA clones from an equine infectious anemia virus-infected cell line that displays a Rev-defective phenotype. With the exception of one splice site in one of the clones, all six cDNAs exhibited the same splicing pattern and consisted of four exons. Exon 1 contained the 5' end of the genome; exon 2 contained the tat gene from mid-genome; exon 3 consisted of a small section of env, near the 5' end of the env gene; and exon 4 contained the putative rev open reading frame from the 3' end of the genome. The structures of the cDNAs predict a bicistronic message in which Tat is encoded by exons 1 and 2 and the presumptive Rev protein is encoded by exons 3 and 4. tat translation appears to be initiated at a non-AUG codon within the first 15 codons of exon 1. Equine infectious anemia virus-specific tat activity was expressed in transient transfections with cDNA expression plasmids. The predicted wild-type Rev protein contains 30 env-derived amino acids and 135 rev open reading frame residues. All of the cDNAs had a frameshift in exon 4, leading to a truncated protein and thus providing a plausible explanation for the Rev-defective phenotype of the original cells. We used peptide antisera to detect the faulty protein, thus confirming the cDNA sequence, and to detect the normal protein in productively infected cells. Images PMID:2164593

  10. Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response: There's An App for That.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Daniel J; Jamison, Nathan K; Martin, Andrew; Delgado, Jose; Kman, Nicholas E

    2015-10-01

    Smartphone applications (or apps) are becoming increasingly popular with emergency responders and health care providers, as well as the public as a whole. There are thousands of medical apps available for Smartphones and tablet computers, with more added each day. These include apps to view textbooks, guidelines, medication databases, medical calculators, and radiology images. Hypothesis/Problem With an ever expanding catalog of apps that relate to disaster medicine, it is hard for both the lay public and responders to know where to turn for effective Smartphone apps. A systematic review of these apps was conducted. A search of the Apple iTunes store (Version 12; Apple Inc.; Cupertino, California USA) was performed using the following terms obtained from the PubMed Medical Subject Headings Database: Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Responders, Disaster, Disaster Planning, Disaster Medicine, Bioterrorism, Chemical Terrorism, Hazardous Materials (HazMat), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). After excluding any unrelated apps, a working list of apps was formed and categorized based on topics. Apps were grouped based on applicability to responders, the lay public, or regional preparedness, and were then ranked based on iTunes user reviews, value, relevance to audience, and user interface. This search revealed 683 applications and was narrowed to 219 based on relevance to the field. After grouping the apps as described above, and subsequently ranking them, the highest quality apps were determined from each group. The Community Emergency Response Teams and FEMA had the best apps for National Disaster Medical System responders. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had high-quality apps for emergency responders in a variety of fields. The National Library of Medicine's Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) app was an excellent app for HazMat responders. The American Red Cross had the most useful apps for natural

  11. Identification of cDNAs encoding pterocarpan reductase involved in isoflavan phytoalexin biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus by EST mining.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Koshimizu, Shoko; Aoki, Toshio; Ayabe, Shin-Ichi

    2006-10-16

    Isoflavans and pterocarpans are the major biosynthetically connected phytoalexins in legumes. A search of the expressed sequence tag library of a model legume Lotus japonicus, which produces an (-)-isoflavan, for homologs of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase catalyzing the reductive cleavage of dihydrofurans, yielded seven full-length cDNAs, and the encoded proteins were analyzed in vitro. Four of them cleaved the dihydrofuran of a pterocarpan medicarpin to yield an isoflavan (-)-vestitol and were designated pterocarpan reductase (PTR). Two PTRs displayed enantiospecificity to (-)-medicarpin, representing genuine L. japonicus PTRs, while the other two lacked enantiospecificity and were presumed to be evolutionarily primitive types.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling in the APP/PS1KI Mouse Model of Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, Robert; Hüttenrauch, Melanie; Kacprowski, Tim; Bouter, Yvonne; Pradier, Laurent; Bayer, Thomas A; Kuss, Andreas W; Wirths, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early intraneuronal amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, extracellular deposition of Aβ peptides, and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates. These lesions cause dendritic and synaptic alterations and induce an inflammatory response in the diseased brain. Although the neuropathological characteristics of AD have been known for decades, the molecular mechanisms causing the disease are still under investigation. Studying gene expression changes in postmortem AD brain tissue can yield new insights into the molecular disease mechanisms. To that end, one can employ transgenic AD mouse models and the next-generation sequencing technology. In this study, a whole-brain transcriptome analysis was carried out using the well-characterized APP/PS1KI mouse model for AD. These mice display a robust phenotype reflected by working memory deficits at 6 months of age, a significant neuron loss in a variety of brain areas including the CA1 region of the hippocampus and a severe amyloid pathology. Based on deep sequencing, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 6-month-old WT or PS1KI and APP/PS1KI were identified and verified by qRT-PCR. Compared to WT mice, 250 DEGs were found in APP/PS1KI mice, while 186 DEGs could be found compared to PS1KI control mice. Most of the DEGs were upregulated in APP/PS1KI mice and belong to either inflammation-associated pathways or lysosomal activation, which is likely due to the robust intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ in this mouse model. Our comprehensive brain transcriptome study further highlights APP/PS1KI mice as a valuable model for AD, covering molecular inflammatory and immune responses.

  13. A role for APP in motility and transcription?

    PubMed

    Guénette, Suzanne Y

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies suggest two novel roles for the amyloid precursor protein (APP): APP accelerates wound healing in MDCK cells and acts in a notch-like manner to activate transcription. Both of these putative functions are dependent on the interaction of APP with the APP-binding protein FE65. Future studies are required to understand the full implications of these new findings and to determine whether therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease should take these putative functions into account.

  14. APP Deletion Accounts for Age-Dependent Changes in the Bioenergetic Metabolism and in Hyperphosphorylated CaMKII at Stimulated Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zones.

    PubMed

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Neupärtl, Moritz; Array, Tabiwang N; Harde, Eva; Beckert, Benedikt; Golghalyani, Vahid; Ackermann, Jörg; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike C; Karas, Michael; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Volknandt, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic release sites are characterized by exocytosis-competent synaptic vesicles tightly anchored to the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) whose proteome orchestrates the fast signaling events involved in synaptic vesicle cycle and plasticity. Allocation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the PAZ proteome implicated a functional impact of APP in neuronal communication. In this study, we combined state-of-the-art proteomics, electrophysiology and bioinformatics to address protein abundance and functional changes at the native hippocampal PAZ in young and old APP-KO mice. We evaluated if APP deletion has an impact on the metabolic activity of presynaptic mitochondria. Furthermore, we quantified differences in the phosphorylation status after long-term-potentiation (LTP) induction at the purified native PAZ. We observed an increase in the phosphorylation of the signaling enzyme calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) only in old APP-KO mice. During aging APP deletion is accompanied by a severe decrease in metabolic activity and hyperphosphorylation of CaMKII. This attributes an essential functional role to APP at hippocampal PAZ and putative molecular mechanisms underlying the age-dependent impairments in learning and memory in APP-KO mice.

  15. APP Deletion Accounts for Age-Dependent Changes in the Bioenergetic Metabolism and in Hyperphosphorylated CaMKII at Stimulated Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zones

    PubMed Central

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Neupärtl, Moritz; Array, Tabiwang N.; Harde, Eva; Beckert, Benedikt; Golghalyani, Vahid; Ackermann, Jörg; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike C.; Karas, Michael; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Volknandt, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic release sites are characterized by exocytosis-competent synaptic vesicles tightly anchored to the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) whose proteome orchestrates the fast signaling events involved in synaptic vesicle cycle and plasticity. Allocation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the PAZ proteome implicated a functional impact of APP in neuronal communication. In this study, we combined state-of-the-art proteomics, electrophysiology and bioinformatics to address protein abundance and functional changes at the native hippocampal PAZ in young and old APP-KO mice. We evaluated if APP deletion has an impact on the metabolic activity of presynaptic mitochondria. Furthermore, we quantified differences in the phosphorylation status after long-term-potentiation (LTP) induction at the purified native PAZ. We observed an increase in the phosphorylation of the signaling enzyme calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) only in old APP-KO mice. During aging APP deletion is accompanied by a severe decrease in metabolic activity and hyperphosphorylation of CaMKII. This attributes an essential functional role to APP at hippocampal PAZ and putative molecular mechanisms underlying the age-dependent impairments in learning and memory in APP-KO mice. PMID:28163681

  16. Low-Budget Apps for Students of All Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath, Julia

    2013-01-01

    With more than 850,000 apps currently on the market, there are multiple apps that can be used to help all students in music education, particularly those with special needs. This article lists low-budget apps useful for the elementary or secondary general music classroom.

  17. Using Apps to Support Disciplinary Literacy and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castek, Jill; Beach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Apps, specialized programs used on mobile computers, can be used in innovative ways to enhance science and literacy learning. With the skilled guidance of their teachers, students can exploit app affordances for learning and acquire disciplinary literacies unique to science. This article showcases apps that help students to access information,…

  18. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  19. Low-Budget Apps for Students of All Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath, Julia

    2013-01-01

    With more than 850,000 apps currently on the market, there are multiple apps that can be used to help all students in music education, particularly those with special needs. This article lists low-budget apps useful for the elementary or secondary general music classroom.

  20. Using Apps to Support Disciplinary Literacy and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castek, Jill; Beach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Apps, specialized programs used on mobile computers, can be used in innovative ways to enhance science and literacy learning. With the skilled guidance of their teachers, students can exploit app affordances for learning and acquire disciplinary literacies unique to science. This article showcases apps that help students to access information,…

  1. Cleaning up That Mess: A Framework for Classifying Educational Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherner, Todd; Dix , Judy; Lee, Corey

    2014-01-01

    As tablet technologies continue to evolve, the emergence of educational applications (apps) is impacting the work of teacher educators. Beyond online lists of best apps for education and recommendations from colleagues, teacher educators have few resources available to support their teaching of how to select educational apps. In response, this…

  2. Educational Behavior Apps and Wearable Devices: Current Research and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…

  3. Athletic Training Education: There's an App for That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Kim; Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Mobile applications (apps) are growing in popularity due to the increased use of smartphones. Many available apps are educational in nature and may provide both students and educators freedom for learning to occur outside of the typical classroom environment. Objective: To provide a description of relevant apps along with a brief synopsis…

  4. Cleaning up That Mess: A Framework for Classifying Educational Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherner, Todd; Dix , Judy; Lee, Corey

    2014-01-01

    As tablet technologies continue to evolve, the emergence of educational applications (apps) is impacting the work of teacher educators. Beyond online lists of best apps for education and recommendations from colleagues, teacher educators have few resources available to support their teaching of how to select educational apps. In response, this…

  5. Educational Behavior Apps and Wearable Devices: Current Research and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…

  6. Using the Modern Technology That Is the "App"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardelli, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    A few years ago, the sight of the letters APP would have made teachers in England think of the Assessing Pupils' Progress assessment approach introduced by the government. Now, when they see those same letters they mostly think about smartphone and tablet applications, shortened to "apps." With the thousands of apps available in the…

  7. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  8. Using the Modern Technology That Is the "App"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardelli, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    A few years ago, the sight of the letters APP would have made teachers in England think of the Assessing Pupils' Progress assessment approach introduced by the government. Now, when they see those same letters they mostly think about smartphone and tablet applications, shortened to "apps." With the thousands of apps available in the…

  9. Athletic Training Education: There's an App for That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Kim; Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Mobile applications (apps) are growing in popularity due to the increased use of smartphones. Many available apps are educational in nature and may provide both students and educators freedom for learning to occur outside of the typical classroom environment. Objective: To provide a description of relevant apps along with a brief synopsis…

  10. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  11. Mobile Phone Apps to Improve Medication Adherence: A Systematic Stepwise Process to Identify High-Quality Apps.

    PubMed

    Santo, Karla; Richtering, Sarah S; Chalmers, John; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-12-02

    There are a growing number of mobile phone apps available to support people in taking their medications and to improve medication adherence. However, little is known about how these apps differ in terms of features, quality, and effectiveness. We aimed to systematically review the medication reminder apps available in the Australian iTunes store and Google Play to assess their features and their quality in order to identify high-quality apps. This review was conducted in a similar manner to a systematic review by using a stepwise approach that included (1) a search strategy; (2) eligibility assessment; (3) app selection process through an initial screening of all retrieved apps and full app review of the included apps; (4) data extraction using a predefined set of features considered important or desirable in medication reminder apps; (5) analysis by classifying the apps as basic and advanced medication reminder apps and scoring and ranking them; and (6) a quality assessment by using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), a reliable tool to assess mobile health apps. We identified 272 medication reminder apps, of which 152 were found only in Google Play, 87 only in iTunes, and 33 in both app stores. Apps found in Google Play had more customer reviews, higher star ratings, and lower cost compared with apps in iTunes. Only 109 apps were available for free and 124 were recently updated in 2015 or 2016. Overall, the median number of features per app was 3.0 (interquartile range 4.0) and only 18 apps had ≥9 of the 17 desirable features. The most common features were flexible scheduling that was present in 56.3% (153/272) of the included apps, medication tracking history in 54.8% (149/272), snooze option in 34.9% (95/272), and visual aids in 32.4% (88/272). We classified 54.8% (149/272) of the included apps as advanced medication reminder apps and 45.2% (123/272) as basic medication reminder apps. The advanced apps had a higher number of features per app compared with the

  12. Mobile Phone Apps to Improve Medication Adherence: A Systematic Stepwise Process to Identify High-Quality Apps

    PubMed Central

    Richtering, Sarah S; Chalmers, John; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background There are a growing number of mobile phone apps available to support people in taking their medications and to improve medication adherence. However, little is known about how these apps differ in terms of features, quality, and effectiveness. Objective We aimed to systematically review the medication reminder apps available in the Australian iTunes store and Google Play to assess their features and their quality in order to identify high-quality apps. Methods This review was conducted in a similar manner to a systematic review by using a stepwise approach that included (1) a search strategy; (2) eligibility assessment; (3) app selection process through an initial screening of all retrieved apps and full app review of the included apps; (4) data extraction using a predefined set of features considered important or desirable in medication reminder apps; (5) analysis by classifying the apps as basic and advanced medication reminder apps and scoring and ranking them; and (6) a quality assessment by using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), a reliable tool to assess mobile health apps. Results We identified 272 medication reminder apps, of which 152 were found only in Google Play, 87 only in iTunes, and 33 in both app stores. Apps found in Google Play had more customer reviews, higher star ratings, and lower cost compared with apps in iTunes. Only 109 apps were available for free and 124 were recently updated in 2015 or 2016. Overall, the median number of features per app was 3.0 (interquartile range 4.0) and only 18 apps had ≥9 of the 17 desirable features. The most common features were flexible scheduling that was present in 56.3% (153/272) of the included apps, medication tracking history in 54.8% (149/272), snooze option in 34.9% (95/272), and visual aids in 32.4% (88/272). We classified 54.8% (149/272) of the included apps as advanced medication reminder apps and 45.2% (123/272) as basic medication reminder apps. The advanced apps had a higher number

  13. [Generation of Tau/App/PS1 triple-transgenic mouse model and the study of its biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Na, Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Nan; Chen, Ru-Zhu; Wang, Hai; Wang, Xue-Lan

    2012-07-01

    To establish the triple-transgenic mouse model and study their biological characteristics by molecular biology, behavior and pathology. Hybrid the Tau and amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilins (PS1) transgenic mouse, the genotype of offspring mice were identified by PCR. Transcribed target genes were detected by RT-PCR. The protein expression of exogenous genes was detected by Western-blot. The pathological change of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque were observed by Bielschowsky silver staining and ABC immunohistochemical method. The changes time of learning and memory were observed by Morris water maze. APP, PS1 and Tau genes were transcript in Tau/APP/PS1 mice. In 6 to 8 months old Tau/APP/PS1 mice, the neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque could be found in cortex and hippocampus. In 6 months old Tau/APP/PS1 mice, the learning and memory abilities were worse. With the behavior change and pathological changes in Tau and beta-amyloid protein (AP), the Tau/APP/PS1 triple-transgenic mice can be used as a further study animal model of AD's pathogenesis and the target of drug treatment.

  14. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  15. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  16. Molecular cloning, expression profiling, and yeast complementation of 19 β-tubulin cDNAs from developing cotton ovules

    PubMed Central

    He, Xian-Chen; Qin, Yong-Mei; Xu, Yu; Hu, Chun-Yang; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2008-01-01

    Microtubules are a major structural component of the cytoskeleton and participate in cell division, intracellular transport, and cell morphogenesis. In the present study, 795 cotton tubulin expressed sequence tags were analysed and 19 β-tubulin genes (TUB) cloned from a cotton cDNA library. Among the group, 12 cotton TUBs (GhTUBs) are reported for the first time here. Transcription profiling revealed that nine GhTUBs were highly expressed in elongating fibre cells as compared with fuzzless-lintless mutant ovules. Treating cultured wild-type cotton ovules with exogenous phytohormones showed that individual genes can be induced by different agents. Gibberellin induced expression of GhTUB1 and GhTUB3, ethylene induced expression of GhTUB5, GhTUB9, and GhTUB12, brassinosteroids induced expression of GhTUB1, GhTUB3, GhTUB9, and GhTUB12, and lignoceric acid induced expression of GhTUB1, GhTUB3, and GhTUB12. When GhTUBs were transformed into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae inviable mutant, tub2, which is deficient in β-tubulin, one ovule-specific and eight of nine fibre-preferential GhTUBs rescued this lethality. This study suggests that the proteins encoded by cotton GhTUBs are involved during cotton fibre development. PMID:18596112

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and regulation of two different NADH-glutamate synthase cDNAs in bean nodules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary ammonia assimilation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nodules. Two different types of cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT were isolated from two independent nodule cDNA libraries. The full-length cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGA...

  19. Molecular characterisation of cDNAs from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda encoding Manduca sexta allatotropin and allatostatin preprohormone peptides.

    PubMed

    Abdel-latief, M; Meyering-Vos, M; Hoffmann, K H

    2003-05-01

    Allatotropin (AT) is a 13-residue amidated neuropeptide, first isolated from pharate adult heads of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Manse-AT), which strongly stimulates the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of adult moths. In Spodoptera frugiperda, a cDNA that encodes 134 amino acids, including an AT peptide, has been cloned. The S. frugiperda allatotropin mature peptide (Spofr-AT) [GFKNVEMMTARGFa] is identical to that isolated from M. sexta. The basic organization of the Spofr-AT precursor is similar to that of Agrius convolvuli, M. sexta, Pseudaletia unipuncta, and Bombyx mori with 83-93% amino acid sequence identity. The Spofr-AT gene is expressed in at least three mRNA isoforms with 134, 171 and 200 amino acids, differing from each other by alternative splicing. All allatostatins (AS) have an inhibitory action on the JH biosynthesis in the CA. A cDNA that encodes 125 amino acid residues including one copy of the Manse-AS peptide has been cloned from S. frugiperda (Spofr-AS; QVRFRQCYFNPISCF). The basic organization of the Spofr-AS precursor is similar to that of P. unipuncta with 85% amino acid sequence identity. Using one step RT-PCR for semi-quantification of the gene expression, we showed that the three mRNAs of the Spofr-AT gene and the Spofr-AS gene are expressed in brains of last instar larvae, prepupae, pupae, and adults of both sexes of S. frugiperda with variable intensity.

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and regulation of two different NADH-glutamate synthase cDNAs in bean nodules.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lourdes; Reddy, Pallavolu M; Silvente, Sonia; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xochitl; Sánchez, Federico; Miller, Susan; Vance, Carroll; Lara-Flores, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) is a key enzyme in primary ammonia assimilation in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules. Two different types of cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT were isolated from the nodule cDNA libraries. The full-length cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT-I (7.4 kb) and PvNADH-GOGAT-II (7.0 kb), which displayed an 83% homology between them, were isolated using cDNA library screening, 'cDNA library walking' and RT-PCR amplification. Southern analysis employing specific 5' cDNA probes derived from PvNADH-GOGAT-I and PvNADH-GOGAT-II indicated the existence of a single copy of each gene in the bean genome. Both these proteins contain approximately 100 amino acid sequences theoretically addressing each isoenzyme to different subcellular compartments. RT-PCR analysis indicated that PvNADH-GOGAT-II expression is higher than PvNADH-GOGAT-I during nodule development. Expression analysis by RT-PCR also revealed that both of these genes are differentially regulated by sucrose. On the other hand, the expression of PvNADH-GOGAT-I, but not PvNADH-GOGAT-II, was inhibited with nitrogen compounds. In situ hybridization and promoter expression analyses demonstrated that the NADH-GOGAT-I and -II genes are differentially expressed in bean root and nodule tissues. In silico analyses of the NADH-GOGAT promoters revealed the presence of potential cis elements in them that could mediate differential tissue-specific, and sugar and amino acid responsive expression of these genes.

  1. Motivating Instruction? There's an App for That!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison; Hirsch, Shanna; Vogelgesang, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Keeping students engaged in the curriculum is extremely important when attempting to close the achievement gap for students with and at risk for disabilities. This is particularly important for students with learning disabilities or behavior disorders. This article discusses the use of applications (apps) for mobile technologies that may be used…

  2. Motivating Instruction? There's an App for That!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison; Hirsch, Shanna; Vogelgesang, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Keeping students engaged in the curriculum is extremely important when attempting to close the achievement gap for students with and at risk for disabilities. This is particularly important for students with learning disabilities or behavior disorders. This article discusses the use of applications (apps) for mobile technologies that may be used…

  3. North Tyneside Perspective on Primary Science APP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilty, Ged

    2010-01-01

    The status of primary science as a core subject has been gradually corroded in recent years, with the abolition of targets for science and the focus of the primary national strategy on literacy and numeracy. The NAIGS Committee were very well positioned within local authorities to pilot APP, but first had to write the criteria. Towards the end of…

  4. Ebola - What You Need to Know app.

    PubMed

    Evans, Roger

    2015-02-03

    This app is the pocket companion to the Ebola in Africa section of the International SOS website. With headquarters in London and Singapore, International SOS is a company that provides medical, clinical and security services in 81 countries for organisations with international operations.

  5. Techtalk: Mobile Apps and College Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Theresa V.; Caverly, David C.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the authors discuss apps useful in developing mathematical reasoning. They place these into a theoretical framework, suggesting how they could be used in an instructional model such as the Algorithmic Instructional Technique (AIT) developed by Vasquez (2003). This model includes four stages: modeling, practice, transition, and…

  6. A Smartphone App for Improvement of Colonoscopy Preparation (ColoprAPP): Development and Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Walter, Benjamin; Schmid, Roland; von Delius, Stefan

    2017-09-20

    Optimal bowel preparation is one of the major cornerstones for quality of colonoscopy. But poor bowel preparation still occurs in 10% to 25% of all patients. To optimize patient guidance, we developed a new smartphone app (ColoprAPP) for Android smartphones which guides and accompanies the patient starting 4 days before colonoscopy throughout the whole colonoscopy preparation procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the function of a newly developed smartphone app for supporting colonoscopy preparation. We carried out a prospective feasibility study including 25 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy at our hospital. As a control, we retrieved the data of 25 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy matching in age, sex, and indication for colonoscopy from our colonoscopy database. Patients were asked to download the smartphone app, ColoprAPP, in addition to being given the regular colonoscopy preparation leaflet. All colonoscopies were performed in the morning after using a split-dose preparation containing a polyethlene glycol-based purgative. The study was designed to test feasibility of the prototype, evaluate grade of bowel cleanliness (Boston bowel preparation scale [BBPS]), and assess patient satisfaction with the app. The smartphone app use was feasible in all patients. BBPS count as a marker for grade of bowel preparation was significantly higher in the smartphone app-supported group (mean 8.1 [SD 0.3] vs 7.1 [SD 0.4], P=.02). Left (mean 2.8 [SD 0.1] vs 2.4 [SD 0.11], P=.02) and transverse colon (mean 2.8 [SD 0.07] vs 2.4 [SD 0.11], P<.001) revealed significantly higher BBPS counts in the smartphone app-supported group than in controls. Patient satisfaction with a smartphone app-supported colonoscopy preparation was high with an average numeric rating scale score for usefulness of 8.2 (visual analog scale 1-10). A novel developed smartphone app for reinforced education of bowel cleansing was feasible and led to high BBPS scores and patient

  7. An over expression APP model for anti-Alzheimer disease drug screening created by zinc finger nuclease technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Li, Hui; Mao, Yiqing; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Rong; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Ling; Song, Rongjing; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Yizhuang; Hu, Ruobi; Wang, Xi; Huang, Huakang; Lei, Zhen; Niu, Gang; Irwin, David M; Tan, Huanran

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), famous for their ability to precisely and efficiently modify specific genomic loci, have been employed in numerous transgenic model organism and cell constructions. Here we employ the ZFNs technology, with homologous recombination (HR), to construct sequence-specific Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) knock-in cells. With the use of ZFNs, we established APP knock in cell lines with gene-modification efficiencies of about 7%. We electroporated DNA fragment containing the promoter and the protein coding regions of the zinc finger nucleases into cells, instead of the plasmids, to avoid problems associated with off target homologous recombination, and adopted a pair of mutated FokI cleavage domains to reduce the toxic effects of the ZFNs on cell growth. Since over-expression of APP, or a subdomain of it, might lead to an immediately lethal effect, we used the Cre-LoxP System to regulate APP expression. Our genetically transformed cell lines, w5c1 and s12c8, showed detectable APP and Amyloid β (Aβ) production. The Swedish double mutation in the APP coding sequence enhanced APP and Aβ abundance. What is more, the activity of the three key secretases in Aβ formation could be modulated, indicating that these transgenic cells have potential for drug screening to modify amyloid metabolism in cells. Our transformed cells could readily be propagated in culture and should provide an excellent experimental medium for elucidating aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, especially those concerning the amyloidogenic pathways involving mutations in the APP coding sequence. The cellular models may also serve as a tool for deriving potentially useful therapeutic agents.

  8. Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) interacting protein 1 (JIP1) binds the cytoplasmic domain of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP).

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Meir H; Roncarati, Roberta; Vito, Pasquale; Lopez, Peter A; Abdallah, Mona; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2002-02-01

    The familial Alzheimer's disease gene product amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) is sequentially processed by beta- and gamma-secretases to generate the Abeta peptide. The biochemical pathway leading to Abeta formation has been extensively studied since extracellular aggregates of Abeta peptides are considered the culprit of Alzheimer's disease. Aside from its pathological relevance, the biological role of APP processing is unknown. Cleavage of APP by gamma-secretase releases, together with Abeta, a COOH-terminal APP intracellular domain, termed AID. This peptide has recently been identified in brain tissue of normal control and patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have previously shown that AID acts as a positive regulator of apoptosis. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism by which AID regulates this process remains unknown. Hoping to gain clues about the function of APP, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify interaction between the AID region of APP and JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1). This molecular interaction is confirmed in vitro, in vivo by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and in mouse brain lysates. These data provide a link between APP and its processing by gamma-secretase, and stress kinase signaling pathways. These pathways are known regulators of apoptosis and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Rothwell, Emily R

    2015-11-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health-related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. The apps for people with eating disorders had four main functions. Most common was the provision of advice, the quality of which ranged from sound to potentially harmful. Five apps included self-assessment tools but only two used methods that would generally be viewed as reliable. Four apps had the self-monitoring of eating habits as a major feature. Entering information into these apps could be accomplished with varying degrees of ease, but viewing it was more difficult. One app allowed the transfer of information between patients and clinicians. The enthusiasm for apps outstrips the evidence supporting their use. Given their popularity, it is suggested that clinicians evaluate app use as part of routine assessment. The clinical utility of the existing apps is not clear. Some are capable of tracking key features over time, but none has the functions required for analytic self-monitoring as in cognitive behavioral treatments. The full potential of apps has yet to be realized. Specialized apps could be designed to augment various forms of treatment, and there is the possibility that they could deliver an entire personalized intervention. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Apps in therapy: occupational therapists' use and opinions.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Anna M; Stotz, Nicole; Metz, Alexia E

    2017-11-01

    To gather information on occupational therapy practitioners' use and opinions of apps, an online survey was distributed to occupational therapy practitioners licensed in the state of Ohio. The survey sought information regarding clinical populations and skill areas for which apps are used, potential barriers to use of apps and preferred apps/app features. OTs working in medical and education-based settings and with clients of all ages responded to the survey. Over half (53%) reported not using apps in therapy, with "not having access to the technology at work" being the leading reason endorsed. Of practitioners who did report using apps, the majority used them with ≤25% of their case load and primarily used tablets to do so. Clinicians indicated that they use apps for a wide variety of reasons, including to promote skill building and to support the therapeutic process. Preferred features included the ability to grade difficulty up/down, multiple uses and accurate feedback. Recommendations from peers were the most commonly reported way respondents found new apps. The results suggest that occupational therapy practitioners employ clinical reasoning when implementing apps in therapy. Possible ways to improve access to apps for therapists who would like to implement them are discussed. Implications for Rehabilitation Many occupational therapy practitioners are using apps with at least a portion of their caseloads. Therapists select apps based on peer recommendations, most commonly selecting those which promote skill building and support the therapeutic process. More therapists might make use of apps if potential barriers were reduced or eliminated, including availability of technology in the clinical practice setting, therapist training and education, therapist input into app development and an enhanced evidence base.

  11. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health‐related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps for people with eating disorders had four main functions. Most common was the provision of advice, the quality of which ranged from sound to potentially harmful. Five apps included self‐assessment tools but only two used methods that would generally be viewed as reliable. Four apps had the self‐monitoring of eating habits as a major feature. Entering information into these apps could be accomplished with varying degrees of ease, but viewing it was more difficult. One app allowed the transfer of information between patients and clinicians. Discussion The enthusiasm for apps outstrips the evidence supporting their use. Given their popularity, it is suggested that clinicians evaluate app use as part of routine assessment. The clinical utility of the existing apps is not clear. Some are capable of tracking key features over time, but none has the functions required for analytic self‐monitoring as in cognitive behavioral treatments. The full potential of apps has yet to be realized. Specialized apps could be designed to augment various forms of treatment, and there is the possibility that they could deliver an entire personalized intervention. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:1038–1046) PMID:25728705

  12. Characterization of iron superoxide dismutase cDNAs from plants obtained by genetic complementation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, W; Bowler, C; Villarroel, R; Tsang, E W; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1990-01-01

    The inability of superoxide dismutase (SOD; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1)-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli to grow aerobically on minimal medium can be restored by functional complementation with a heterologous SOD-encoding sequence. Based upon this property, a phenotypic selection system has been developed for the isolation of clones containing eukaryotic SOD cDNAs. cDNA expression libraries from both Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana were transformed into a SOD-deficient E. coli strain by electroporation, and clones containing functional SODs were selected by growth on minimal medium. Analysis of these clones revealed the identity of cDNAs encoding the iron form of superoxide dismutase (FeSOD)--the first SODs of this type to be cloned from eukaryotes. The presence of this enzyme in these two divergent plant species challenges previous ideas that FeSOD is found in only a few plant families. In addition, these results show the potential for shotgun cloning of eukaryotic genes by complementation of bacterial mutants, particularly when it is combined with a highly efficient transformation method, such as electroporation. Images PMID:2263641

  13. Analysis of two novel cDNAs from the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.Y.; Lee, C.C.; Jiralerspong, S.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. To date, only one gene encoding snRNA U3 has been mapped to this region. Here we report the identification of two novel genes, designated 463 and B9, which have been mapped to the SMS region. A full-length cDNA corresponding to each of these genes has been cloned and sequenced. Deletion analysis has been conducted on somatic cell hybrids retaining the del(17)(p11.2) chromosome from each of 15 SMS patients by PCR of sequence tagged sites for the cDNAs and confirmed by Southern analysis. The gene 463 is deleted in 15/15 patients analyzed to date, whereas the gene B9 is deleted in 10/15 of the patients analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is used to analyze additional SMS patients for hemizygosity at these loci. A physical map of the region is being constructed to determine the relative location of these cDNAs within 17p11.2. Our studies to date, thus, suggest that although both genes 463 and B9 are located within 17p11.2, gene 463 is more likely to be associated with SMS. Complete and exhaustive definition of the critical interval is required to demonstrate the role and importance of gene 463 in SMS.

  14. Collection and comparative analysis of 1888 full-length cDNAs from wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. W1943.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tingting; Yu, Shuliang; Fan, Danlin; Mu, Jie; Shangguan, Yingying; Wang, Zixuan; Minobe, Yuzo; Lin, Zhixin; Han, Bin

    2008-10-01

    A huge amount of cDNA and EST resources have been developed for cultivated rice species Oryza sativa; however, only few cDNA resources are available for wild rice species. In this study, we isolated and completely sequenced 1888 putative full-length cDNA (FLcDNA) clones from wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. W1943 for comparative analysis between wild and cultivated rice species. Two cDNA libraries were constructed from 3-week-old leaf samples under either normal or cold-treated conditions. Homology searching of these cDNA sequences revealed that >96.8% of the wild rice cDNAs were matched to the cultivated rice O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare genome sequence. However, <22% of them were fully matched to the cv. Nipponbare genome sequence. The comparative analysis showed that O. rufipogon W1943 had greater similarity to O. sativa ssp. japonica than to ssp. indica cultivars. In addition, 17 novel rice cDNAs were identified, and 41 putative tissue-specific expression genes were defined through searching the rice massively parallel signature-sequencing database. In conclusion, these FLcDNA clones are a resource for further function verification and could be broadly utilized in rice biological studies.

  15. Cloning of cDNAs encoding C-type lectins from Elapidae snakes Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus.

    PubMed

    Zha, H G; Lee, W H; Zhang, Y

    2001-12-01

    A number of C-type lectins with various biological activities have been purified and characterized from Viperidae snake venoms. In contrast, only a few reports could be found in literature concerning the C-type lectins in Elapidae snake venoms. Based on the published cDNA sequences of C-type lectins from Viperidae snake venoms, oligonucleotide primers were designed and used to screen the cDNA libraries made from the venom glands of Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus. This allowed the cloning of three full length cDNAs encoding C-type lectins. The encoded proteins, named BFL-1, BFL-2 and BML, exhibit high degrees of sequence identities with Viperidae snake venom saccharide-binding lectins (around 60% with Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom lectin, Crotalus atrox venom lectin and Agkistrodon piscivorus venom lectin). They show much less identities with other venom C-type lectin-like proteins (around 30% with the platelet glycoprotein Ib-binding protein from Agkistrodon blomhoffi venom and the factor IX/X-binding protein from Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom). The cDNAs revealed that the precursors contain potential signal peptides characterized by a hydrophobic core. To our knowledge, these are the first cDNA cloning of group VII C-type lectins (Drickamer K. 1993. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 45, 207-232) from Elapidae snake venom glands.

  16. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Oduru, Sreedhar; Campbell, Janee L; Karri, SriTulasi; Hendry, William J; Khan, Shafiq A; Williams, Simon C

    2003-01-01

    Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish) genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells. PMID:12783626

  17. Developing smartphone apps for behavioural studies: The AlcoRisk app case study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony; de Salas, Kristy; Lewis, Ian; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Smartphone apps have emerged as valuable research tools to sample human behaviours at their time of occurrence within natural environments. Human behaviour sampling methods, such as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), aim to facilitate research that is situated in ecologically valid real world environments rather than laboratory environments. Researchers have trialled a range of EMA smartphone apps to sample human behaviours such as dieting, physical activity and smoking. Software development processes for EMA smartphones apps, however, are not widely documented with little guidance provided for the integration of complex multidisciplinary behavioural and technical fields. In this paper, the AlcoRisk app for studying alcohol consumption and risk taking tendencies is presented alongside a software development process that integrates these multidisciplinary fields. The software development process consists of three stages including requirements analysis, feature and interface design followed by app implementation. Results from a preliminary feasibility study support the efficacy of the AlcoRisk app's software development process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Smartphone Apps for Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using mobile technologies such as smartphones for improving the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the current clinical evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of smartphone apps in this population. Objective To review the published literature of smartphone apps applied for the care of patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Methods An electronic database search of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted on May 24, 2015. All eligible studies were systematically reviewed, and proportional meta-analyses were applied to pooled data on recruitment, retention, and adherence to examine the overall feasibility of smartphone interventions for schizophrenia. Results Our search produced 226 results from which 7 eligible articles were identified, reporting on 5 studies of smartphone apps for patients with schizophrenia. All examined feasibility, and one assessed the preliminary efficacy of a smartphone intervention for schizophrenia. Study lengths varied between 6 and 130 days. Overall retention was 92% (95% CI 82-98%). Participants consistently used the smartphone apps on more than 85% of days during the study period, averaging 3.95 interactions per person per day. Furthermore, participants responded to 71.9% of automated prompts (95% CI 65.7-77.8%). Participants reported a range of potential benefits from the various interventions, and user experience was largely positive. Conclusions Although small, the current published literature demonstrates strong evidence for the feasibility of using smartphones to enhance the care of people with schizophrenia. High rates of engagement and satisfaction with a broad range of apps suggest the nascent potential of this mobile technology. However, there remains limited

  19. C-terminal maturation fragments of presenilin 1 and 2 control secretion of APP alpha and A beta by human cells and are degraded by proteasome.

    PubMed

    da Costa, C A; Ancolio, K; Checler, F

    1999-03-01

    Most early-onset forms of Alzheimer's disease are due to missense mutations located on two homologous proteins named presenilin 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2). Several lines of evidence indicate that PS1 and PS2 undergo various post-transcriptional events including endoproteolytic cleavages, giving rise to 28-30 kD N-terminal (NTF) and 18-20 kD C-terminal (CTF) fragments that accumulate in vivo. Whether the biological activity of presenilins is borne by the processed fragments or their holoprotein precursor remains in question. We have examined the putative control of beta APP maturation by CTF-PS1/PS2 and the catabolic process of the latter proteins by the multicatalytic complex, proteasome. We transiently and stably transfected HEK293 cells with CTF-PS1 or CTF-PS2 cDNA. We examined these transfectants for their production of A beta 40, A beta 42, and APP alpha by immunoprecipitation using specific polyclonals. The effect of a series of proteases inhibitors on the immunoreactivity of CTF-PS1/PS2 was examined by Western blot. Finally, the influence of proteasome inhibitors on the generation of beta APP fragments by CTF-expressing cells was assessed by combined immunoprecipitation and densitometric analyses. We showed that transient and stable transfection of CTF-PS1 and CTF-PS2 cDNAs in human cells leads to increased secretion of APP alpha and A beta, the maturation products of beta APP. Furthermore, we demonstrated that two proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and Z-IE(Ot-Bu)A-Leucinal, prevent the degradation of both CTFs. Accordingly, we established that proteasome inhibitors drastically potentiate the phenotypic increased production of APP alpha and A beta elicited by CTF-PS1/PS2. Our data establish that the C-terminal products of PS1 and PS2 maturation exhibit biological activity and in particular control beta APP maturation upstream to alpha-and beta/gamma-secretase cleavages. This function is directly controlled by the proteasome that modulates the intracellular

  20. A Synthetic Peptide with the Putative Iron Binding Motif of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Does Not Catalytically Oxidize Iron

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2012-01-01

    The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is a key player in Alzheimer's disease, was recently reported to possess an Fe(II) binding site within its E2 domain which exhibits ferroxidase activity [Duce et al. 2010, Cell 142: 857]. The putative ligands of this site were compared to those in the ferroxidase site of ferritin. The activity was indirectly measured using transferrin, which scavenges the Fe(III) product of the reaction. A 22-residue synthetic peptide, named FD1, with the putative ferroxidase site of APP, and the E2 domain of APP were each reported to exhibit 40% of the ferroxidase activity of APP and of ceruloplasmin. It was also claimed that the ferroxidase activity of APP is inhibited by Zn(II) just as in ferritin. We measured the ferroxidase activity indirectly (i) by the incorporation of the Fe(III) product of the ferroxidase reaction into transferrin and directly (ii) by monitoring consumption of the substrate molecular oxygen. The results with the FD1 peptide were compared to the established ferroxidase activities of human H-chain ferritin and of ceruloplasmin. For FD1 we observed no activity above the background of non-enzymatic Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen. Zn(II) binds to transferrin and diminishes its Fe(III) incorporation capacity and rate but it does not specifically bind to a putative ferroxidase site of FD1. Based on these results, and on comparison of the putative ligands of the ferroxidase site of APP with those of ferritin, we conclude that the previously reported results for ferroxidase activity of FD1 and – by implication – of APP should be re-evaluated. PMID:22916096

  1. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Mediated Regulation of Ganglioside Homeostasis Linking Alzheimer's Disease Pathology with Ganglioside Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Zinser, Eva G.; Grösgen, Sven; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Burg, Verena K.; Kaestner, Lars; Bayer, Thomas A.; Lipp, Peter; Müller, Ulrike; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Gangliosides are important players for controlling neuronal function and are directly involved in AD pathology. They are among the most potent stimulators of Aβ production, are enriched in amyloid plaques and bind amyloid beta (Aβ). However, the molecular mechanisms linking gangliosides with AD are unknown. Here we identified the previously unknown function of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), specifically its cleavage products Aβ and the APP intracellular domain (AICD), of regulating GD3-synthase (GD3S). Since GD3S is the key enzyme converting a- to b-series gangliosides, it therefore plays a major role in controlling the levels of major brain gangliosides. This regulation occurs by two separate and additive mechanisms. The first mechanism directly targets the enzymatic activity of GD3S: Upon binding of Aβ to the ganglioside GM3, the immediate substrate of the GD3S, enzymatic turnover of GM3 by GD3S was strongly reduced. The second mechanism targets GD3S expression. APP cleavage results, in addition to Aβ release, in the release of AICD, a known candidate for gene transcriptional regulation. AICD strongly down regulated GD3S transcription and knock-in of an AICD deletion mutant of APP in vivo, or knock-down of Fe65 in neuroblastoma cells, was sufficient to abrogate normal GD3S functionality. Equally, knock-out of the presenilin genes, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2, essential for Aβ and AICD production, or of APP itself, increased GD3S activity and expression and consequently resulted in a major shift of a- to b-series gangliosides. In addition to GD3S regulation by APP processing, gangliosides in turn altered APP cleavage. GM3 decreased, whereas the ganglioside GD3, the GD3S product, increased Aβ production, resulting in a regulatory feedback cycle, directly linking ganglioside metabolism with APP processing and Aβ generation. A central aspect of this homeostatic control is the reduction of GD3S activity via an Aβ-GM3 complex and AICD

  2. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) mediated regulation of ganglioside homeostasis linking Alzheimer's disease pathology with ganglioside metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Zinser, Eva G; Grösgen, Sven; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Rothhaar, Tatjana L; Burg, Verena K; Kaestner, Lars; Bayer, Thomas A; Lipp, Peter; Müller, Ulrike; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Gangliosides are important players for controlling neuronal function and are directly involved in AD pathology. They are among the most potent stimulators of Aβ production, are enriched in amyloid plaques and bind amyloid beta (Aβ). However, the molecular mechanisms linking gangliosides with AD are unknown. Here we identified the previously unknown function of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), specifically its cleavage products Aβ and the APP intracellular domain (AICD), of regulating GD3-synthase (GD3S). Since GD3S is the key enzyme converting a- to b-series gangliosides, it therefore plays a major role in controlling the levels of major brain gangliosides. This regulation occurs by two separate and additive mechanisms. The first mechanism directly targets the enzymatic activity of GD3S: Upon binding of Aβ to the ganglioside GM3, the immediate substrate of the GD3S, enzymatic turnover of GM3 by GD3S was strongly reduced. The second mechanism targets GD3S expression. APP cleavage results, in addition to Aβ release, in the release of AICD, a known candidate for gene transcriptional regulation. AICD strongly down regulated GD3S transcription and knock-in of an AICD deletion mutant of APP in vivo, or knock-down of Fe65 in neuroblastoma cells, was sufficient to abrogate normal GD3S functionality. Equally, knock-out of the presenilin genes, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2, essential for Aβ and AICD production, or of APP itself, increased GD3S activity and expression and consequently resulted in a major shift of a- to b-series gangliosides. In addition to GD3S regulation by APP processing, gangliosides in turn altered APP cleavage. GM3 decreased, whereas the ganglioside GD3, the GD3S product, increased Aβ production, resulting in a regulatory feedback cycle, directly linking ganglioside metabolism with APP processing and Aβ generation. A central aspect of this homeostatic control is the reduction of GD3S activity via an Aβ-GM3 complex and AICD

  3. APP is phosphorylated by TrkA and regulates NGF/TrkA signaling APP regulates TrkA

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, C; Barbagallo, APM; La Rosa, LR; Florenzano, F; Ciotti, MT; Mercanti, D; Chao, MV; Calissano, P; D’Adamio, L

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenic model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) posits that aggregates of Aβ, a product of Aβ-precursor protein (APP) processing, cause dementia. However, alterations of normal APP functions could contribute to AD pathogenesis and it is therefore important to understand the role of APP. APP is a member of a gene family that shows functional redundancy as documented by the evidence that single knock-out mice are viable,whereas mice with combined deletions of APP-family genes die shortly after birth. A residue in the APP intracellular region, Y682, is indispensable for these essential functions of APP. It is therefore important to identify pathways that regulate phosphorylation of Y682 as well as the role of Y682 in vivo. TrkA is associated with both phosphorylation of APP-Y682 and alteration of APP processing, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation of APP links APP processing and neurotrophic signaling to intracellular pathways associated with cellular differentiation and survival. Here we have tested whether the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway is a physiological regulator of APP phosphorylation. We find that NGF induces tyrosine phosphorylation of APP, and that APP interacts with TrkA and this interaction requires Y682. Unpredictably, we also uncover that APP, and specifically Y682, regulates activation of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway in vivo, the sub-cellular distribution of TrkA and the sensitivity of neurons to the trophic action of NGF. This evidence suggests that these two membrane protein’s functions are strictly interconnected and that the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway is involved in AD pathogenesis and can be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:21849536

  4. Parent Education is Changing: A Review of Smartphone Apps.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Vogt, Krista; Rushton, Jeff; Myers, John; Lauf, Adrian; Hogan, Felicia

    The purpose was to critique existing parenting apps using established criteria and health literacy guidelines. Descriptive methodology was used. The Apple App Store was searched using the terms parenting, child health, and infant health. To be included, the apps had to have relevant content (parenting, child health, or infant health), be in English, and contain parent education. After eliminating apps that failed to meet inclusion criteria from the original 203 apps, 46 apps were reviewed. The Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool was used to evaluate the health literacy subscales called Understandability and Actionability. Content analysis included Authority, Objectivity, Accuracy, Timeliness, and Usability. The majority of the apps (70%) were in English only. The price ranged from free to $4.99. The purpose, target audience, and topics varied. Although all included apps were for parents, some were for more targeted groups of parents. The source of the information was not presented in 26% of the apps. Most apps took the user to a Web site or an article to read. Functionality of the apps was limited, with none of them providing a customized experience. Much development and research is needed before mobile health (mHealth) solutions can be recommended by nurses caring for new parents. It is critical that consumers and interdisciplinary professionals be involved in the early design phase of the product to ensure that the end product is acceptable and usable and that it will lead to healthy behaviors.

  5. Development of a Mobile App for Family Planning Providers.

    PubMed

    Halsall, Viannella; Rogers, Jennifer; Witt, Jacki; Song, Sejun; Nguyen, Hoang Duc Huy; Kelly, Patricia

    To provide an overview of lessons learned during the development process of an app for iOS and Android based on national recommendations for providing quality family planning services. After a review of existing apps was conducted to determine whether an app of clinical recommendations for family planning existed, a team of clinicians, training specialists, and app developers created a resource app by first drafting a comprehensive content map. A prototype of the app was then pilot tested using smart tablets by a volunteer convenience sample of women's healthcare professionals. Outcomes measured included usability, acceptability, download analytics, and satisfaction by clinicians as reported through an investigator-developed tool. Sixty-nine professionals tested a prototype of the app, and completed a user satisfaction tool. Overall, user feedback was positive, and a zoom function was added to the final version as a result of the pilot test. Within 3 months of being publicly available, the app was downloaded 677 times, with 97% of downloads occurring on smart phones, 76% downloads occurring on iOS devices, and 24% on Android devices. This trend persisted throughout the following 3 months. Clinicians with an interest in developing an app should consider a team approach to development, pilot test the app prior to wider distribution, and develop a web-based version of the app to be used by clinicians who are unable to access smart devices in their practice setting.

  6. Direct to Consumer Mobile Teledermatology Apps: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Kochmann, Matthias; Locatis, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Since 2012, "Direct to Consumer" mobile teledermatology apps have become more available, relinquishing many data collection tasks normally done by healthcare professionals directly to patients. To determine user friendliness, diagnostic quality, and service of commercially available mobile teledermatology apps. All mobile teledermatology apps available at the Apple App Store were reviewed. The two most popular mobile teledermatology apps were identified and tested together with three apps having similar functionality using a single case of a patient who was also examined by a dermatologist in-person. Apps varied in diagnostic scope, data gathering methods, services, rendered results, and in geographic coverage and cost. None of the apps take a history as thoroughly as recommended by textbooks. Key medical questions like current medications and allergies are not asked often. Most apps rendered concordant results, except for the one having the least thorough history taking. Mobile teledermatology application interfaces, services, and cost vary, with some risking medical errors and possible distribution of continuity of care. The American Telemedicine Association's guidelines for teledermatology need to address the use of direct to consumer apps. To protect consumers, app regulation, certification, or guidelines suggesting appropriate development and use might be considered.

  7. Surface Trafficking of APP and BACE in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Bauereiss, Anna; Welzel, Oliver; Jung, Jasmin; Grosse-Holz, Simon; Lelental, Natalia; Lewczuk, Piotr; Wenzel, Eva M; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W

    2015-06-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ)-peptide, the major constituent of the plaques that develop during Alzheimer's disease, is generated via the cleavage of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE). Using live-cell imaging of APP and BACE labeled with pH-sensitive proteins, we could detect the release events of APP and BACE and their distinct kinetics. We provide kinetic evidence for the cleavage of APP by α-secretase on the cellular surface after exocytosis. Furthermore, simultaneous dual-color evanescent field illumination revealed that the two proteins are trafficked to the surface in separate compartments. Perturbing the membrane lipid composition resulted in a reduced frequency of exocytosis and affected BACE more strongly than APP. We propose that surface fusion frequency is a key factor regulating the aggregation of APP and BACE in the same membrane compartment and that this process can be modulated via pharmacological intervention.

  8. Clinical management apps: creating partnerships between providers and patients.

    PubMed

    Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Smith, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The market for health applications, or apps, on mobile devices is growing rap­idly, with over 40,000 currently in use. One type of app technology--clinical manage­ment apps--enable patients and providers to work together to manage chronic conditions, particularly diabetes and asthma. These apps are mostly used by health plans and large health care organizations with an interest in improving outcomes and controlling costs. Challenges to broader adoption of apps include the lack of objective research to evalu­ate outcomes, uncertainty about how to pay for and encourage the use of cost-effective apps, and the absence of a regulatory framework that standardizes development to ensure performance. If this infrastructure is developed, apps may serve as a catalyst to stimulate the transformation of health care generally and target low-income populations to expand access to care and help reduce health disparities.

  9. Characterization of cDNAs of the human pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein family, a new subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q.X.; Tease, L.A.; Shupert, W.L.; Chan, W.Y. )

    1990-03-20

    Three highly homologous cDNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific {beta}1-glycoprotein (SP1) were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. These cDNAs share >90% nucleotide homology in their coding sequences, and >79% of the encoded amino acids are homologous. Proteins encoded by these cDNAs are very similar to members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family and contain repeating domains, conserved disulfided bridges, and {beta}-sheet structure typical of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. However, the high degree of sequence homology and relatively lesser degree of glycosylation among the SP1 proteins suggest that they exist as a unique family instead of being members of the CEA family. Both soluble and potentially membrane-bound forms of SP1 proteins were present in the placenta. Northern blot analysis using specific probes confirmed the expression of multiple mRNA species in human term placenta.

  10. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding an enzyme with glucosyltransferase activity for cyclo-DOPA from four o'clocks and feather cockscombs.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Wada, Katsuhiro; Koda, Takatoshi; Kasahara, Kichiji; Adachi, Taiji; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2005-04-01

    cDNAs encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose:cyclo-DOPA 5-O-glucosyltransferase activity were isolated from four o'clocks and feather cockscombs. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs show that they represent a single subclade distinct from those of other phenylpropanoid and flavonoid glucosyltransferases. Changes in the amount of transcripts of the cDNA in four o'clocks correlated with the accumulation of betanin during flower development. The cDNAs isolated here were candidates for the gene of the enzyme involved in another pathway of betacyanin biosynthesis via glucosylation at the cyclo-DOPA step rather than at the betanidin step.

  11. Apps for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis to Monitor Their Disease Activity: A Review of Apps for Best Practice and Quality.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Rebecca; Townsley, Hermaleigh; White, Bonnie; Langlotz, Tobias; Taylor, William J

    2017-02-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis requiring long-term treatment with regular monitoring by a rheumatologist to achieve good health outcomes. Since people with RA may wish to monitor their own disease activity with a smartphone app, it is important to understand the functions and quality of apps for this purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the features and quality of apps to assist people to monitor their RA disease activity by (1) summarizing the available apps, particularly the instruments used for measurement of RA disease activity; (2) comparing the app features with American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatism (ACR and EULAR) guidelines for monitoring of RA disease activity; and (3) rating app quality with the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Systematic searches of the New Zealand iTunes and Google Play app stores were used to identify all apps for monitoring of RA disease activity that could be used by people with RA. The apps were described by both key metadata and app functionality. App adherence with recommendations for monitoring of RA disease activity in clinical practice was evaluated by identifying whether apps included calculation of a validated composite disease activity measure and recorded results for future retrieval. App quality was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the MARS. The search identified 721 apps in the Google Play store and 216 in the iTunes store, of which 19 unique apps met criteria for inclusion (8 from both app stores, 8 iTunes, and 3 Google Play). In total, 14 apps included at least one validated instrument measuring RA disease activity; 7 of 11 apps that allowed users to enter a joint count used the standard 28 swollen and tender joint count; 8 apps included at least one ACR and EULAR-recommended RA composite disease activity (CDA) measure; and 10 apps included data storage and retrieval. Only 1 app, Arthritis Power, included both an RA CDA measure and tracked

  12. Apps for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis to Monitor Their Disease Activity: A Review of Apps for Best Practice and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Hermaleigh; White, Bonnie; Langlotz, Tobias; Taylor, William J

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis requiring long-term treatment with regular monitoring by a rheumatologist to achieve good health outcomes. Since people with RA may wish to monitor their own disease activity with a smartphone app, it is important to understand the functions and quality of apps for this purpose. Objective The aim of our study was to assess the features and quality of apps to assist people to monitor their RA disease activity by (1) summarizing the available apps, particularly the instruments used for measurement of RA disease activity; (2) comparing the app features with American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatism (ACR and EULAR) guidelines for monitoring of RA disease activity; and (3) rating app quality with the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Methods Systematic searches of the New Zealand iTunes and Google Play app stores were used to identify all apps for monitoring of RA disease activity that could be used by people with RA. The apps were described by both key metadata and app functionality. App adherence with recommendations for monitoring of RA disease activity in clinical practice was evaluated by identifying whether apps included calculation of a validated composite disease activity measure and recorded results for future retrieval. App quality was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the MARS. Results The search identified 721 apps in the Google Play store and 216 in the iTunes store, of which 19 unique apps met criteria for inclusion (8 from both app stores, 8 iTunes, and 3 Google Play). In total, 14 apps included at least one validated instrument measuring RA disease activity; 7 of 11 apps that allowed users to enter a joint count used the standard 28 swollen and tender joint count; 8 apps included at least one ACR and EULAR-recommended RA composite disease activity (CDA) measure; and 10 apps included data storage and retrieval. Only 1 app, Arthritis Power, included

  13. The circular RNA ciRS-7 promotes APP and BACE1 degradation in an NF-κB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhemin; Chen, Ting; Yao, Qingbin; Zheng, Lina; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jingzhao; Hu, Zhimei; Cui, Hongmei; Han, Yawei; Han, Xiaohui; Zhang, Kun; Hong, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The aberrant accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and enhanced cleavage of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) has a major causative role in AD. Despite their prominence in AD pathogenesis, the regulation of BACE1 and APP is incompletely understood. In this study, we report that the circular RNA circular RNA sponge for miR-7 (ciRS-7) has an important role in regulating BACE1 and APP protein levels. Previous studies have shown that ciRS-7, which is highly expressed in the human brain, is down-regulated in the brain of people with AD but the relevance of this finding was not clear. We have found that ciRS-7 is not involved in the regulation of APP and BACE1 gene expression, but instead reduces the protein levels of APP and BACE1 by promoting their degradation via the proteasome and lysosome. Consequently, overexpression of ciRS-7 reduces the generation of Aβ, indicating a potential neuroprotective role of ciRS-7. Our data also suggest that ciRS-7 modulates APP and BACE1 levels in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner: ciRS-7 expression inhibits translation of NF-κB and induces its cytoplasmic localization, thus derepressing expression of UCHL1, which promotes APP and BACE1 degradation. Additionally, we demonstrated that APP reduces the level of ciRS-7, revealing a mutual regulation of ciRS-7 and APP. Taken together, our data provide a molecular mechanism implicating reduced ciRS-7 expression in AD, suggesting that ciRS-7 may represent a useful target in the development of therapeutic strategies for AD. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Sleep apps and behavioral constructs: A content analysis.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Shin, Jong Cheol; Reeves, Dayanna M; Beattie, Ariana; Auguste, Evan; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2017-06-01

    Although sleep apps are among the most popular commercially available health apps, little is known about how well these apps are grounded in behavioral theory. Three-hundred and sixty-nine apps were initially identified using the term "sleep" from the Google play store and Apple iTunes in September 2015. The final sample consisted of 35 apps that met the following inclusion criteria: 1) Stand-alone functionality; 2) Sleep tracker or monitor apps ranked by 100 + users; 3) Sleep Alarm apps ranked by 1000 + users; and 4) English language. A coding instrument was developed to assess the presence of 19 theoretical constructs. All 35 apps were downloaded and coded. The inter-rater reliability between coders was 0.996. A "1" was assigned if a construct was present in the app and "0" if it was not. Mean scores were calculated across all apps, and comparisons were made between total scores and app ratings using R. The mean behavior construct scores (BCS) across all apps was 34% (5% - 84%). Behavioral constructs for realistic goal setting (86%), time management (77%), and self-monitoring (66%) were most common. Although a positive association was observed between BCS and user ratings, this was not found to be statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean persuasive technology score was 42% (20% to 80%), with higher scores for paid compared to free apps (p < 0.05). While the overall behavior construct scores were low, an opportunity exists to develop or modify existing apps to support sustainable sleep hygiene practices.

  15. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated.

  16. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  17. Hypoxia increases Abeta generation by altering beta- and gamma-cleavage of APP.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Yang, Dehua; Luo, Guangrui; Chen, Shen; Le, Weidong

    2009-07-01

    Environmental factors are significant contributors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The greatly increased incidence of AD following stroke and cerebral ischemia suggests that hypoxia is a risk factor which may accelerate AD pathogenesis by altering amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the hypoxia mediated AD pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In the present study we demonstrated that repeated hypoxia increased beta-amyloid (Abeta) generation and neuritic plaques formation by elevating beta-cleavage of APP in APP(swe)+PS1(A246E) transgenic mice. We also found that hypoxia enhanced the expression of APH-1a, a component of gamma-secretase complex, which in turn may lead to increase in gamma-cleavage activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that repeated hypoxia treatment can activate macroautophagy, which may contribute to the increases in Abeta production since pretreatment with macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly blocked chemical hypoxic condition-induced increase in Abeta production in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest an important role of hypoxia in modulating the APP processing by facilitating both beta- and gamma-cleavage which may result in a significant increase of Abeta generation.

  18. TB Mobile: a mobile app for anti-tuberculosis molecules with known targets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of researchers are focused on strategies for developing inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Results In order to learn from prior work we have collated information on molecules screened versus Mtb and their targets which has been made available in the Collaborative Drug Discovery (CDD) database. This dataset contains published data on target, essentiality, links to PubMed, TBDB, TBCyc (which provides a pathway-based visualization of the entire cellular biochemical network) and human homolog information. The development of mobile cheminformatics apps could lower the barrier to drug discovery and promote collaboration. Therefore we have used this set of over 700 molecules screened versus Mtb and their targets to create a free mobile app (TB Mobile) that displays molecule structures and links to the bioinformatics data. By input of a molecular structures and performing a similarity search within the app we can infer potential targets or search by targets to retrieve compounds known to be active. Conclusions TB Mobile may assist researchers as part of their workflow in identifying potential targets for hits generated from phenotypic screening and in prioritizing them for further follow-up. The app is designed to lower the barriers to accessing this information, so that all researchers with an interest in combatting this deadly disease can use it freely to the benefit of their own efforts. PMID:23497706

  19. Analyzing the radiation of the melanocortins in amphibians: cloning of POMC cDNAs from the pituitary of the urodele amphibians, Amphiuma means and Necturus maculosus.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Katarzyna; Costantino, David; Lecaude, Stephanie; Sollars, Cristina; Danielson, Phillip; Dores, Robert M

    2005-10-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cDNAs were cloned and sequenced from brain extracts of two species of urodele amphibians: Amphiuma means and Necturus maculosus. Although the two species of urodele amphibians belong to separate families, and do not share a direct common ancestor, the level of primary sequence identity for the open reading of the POMC cDNAs was 90% at the amino acid level and 79% at the nucleotide level. It appears that the POMC gene in these urodele amphibians has been accumulating mutations at the amino acid level at a slower rate than the POMC gene in other sarcopterygian orders.

  20. Interrater Reliability of mHealth App Rating Measures: Analysis of Top Depression and Smoking Cessation Apps.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam C; Torous, John; Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B

    2016-02-10

    There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their own assessments of apps, in conjunction with

  1. Interrater Reliability of mHealth App Rating Measures: Analysis of Top Depression and Smoking Cessation Apps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    Background There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. Objective We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. Methods We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff’s alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. Results The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. Conclusions We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their

  2. Mobile app-based quantitative scanometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica X H; Liu, Frank S F; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2014-12-16

    The feasibility of using smartphones and other mobile devices as the detection platform for quantitative scanometric assays is demonstrated. The different scanning modes (color, grayscale, black/white) and grayscale converting protocols (average, weighted average/luminosity, and software specific) have been compared in determining the optical darkness ratio (ODR) values, a conventional quantitation measure for scanometric assays. A mobile app was developed to image and analyze scanometric assays, as demonstrated by paper-printed tests and a biotin-streptavidin assay on a plastic substrate. Primarily for ODR analysis, the app has been shown to perform as well as a traditional desktop scanner, augmenting that smartphones (and other mobile devices) promise to be a practical platform for accurate, quantitative chemical analysis and medical diagnostics.

  3. Evaluation of the accuracy of smartphone medical calculation apps.

    PubMed

    Bierbrier, Rachel; Lo, Vivian; Wu, Robert C

    2014-02-03

    Mobile phones with operating systems and capable of running applications (smartphones) are increasingly being used in clinical settings. Medical calculating applications are popular mhealth apps for smartphones. These include, for example, apps that calculate the severity or likelihood of disease-based clinical scoring systems, such as determining the severity of liver disease, the likelihood of having a pulmonary embolism, and risk stratification in acute coronary syndrome. However, the accuracy of these apps has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of smartphone-based medical calculation apps. A broad search on Google Play, BlackBerry World, and the iTunes App Store was conducted to find medical calculation apps for smartphones. The list of apps was narrowed down based on inclusion and exclusion criteria focusing on functions thought to be relevant by a panel of general internists (number of functions =13). Ten case values were inputted for each function and were compared to manual calculations. For each case, the correct answer was assigned a score of 1. A score for the 10 cases was calculated based on the accuracy of the results for each function on each app. We tested 14 apps and 13 functions for each app if that function was available. We conducted 10 cases for each function for a total of 1240 tests. Most functions tested on the apps were accurate in their results with an overall accuracy of 98.6% (17 errors in 1240 tests). In all, 6 of 14 (43%) apps had 100% accuracy. Although 11 of 13 (85%) functions had perfect accuracy, there were issues with 2 functions: the Child-Pugh scores and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores on 8 apps. Approximately half of the errors were clinically significant resulting in a significant change in prognosis (8/17, 47%). The results suggest that most medical calculating apps provide accurate and reliable results. The free apps that were 100% accurate and contained the most

  4. Statis Program Analysis for Reliable, Trusted Apps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    an open-source tool that enhances Java’s type system to make it more powerful and useful. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Information Flow Analysis of Apps...implemented our techniques for Java. We enhanced an existing security analysis with a more precise treatment of reflection and intents. In a case study...Checker Framework is an open-source tool that enhances Java’s type system to make it more powerful and useful. This lets software developers detect

  5. Audio App Brings a Better Nights Sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscientist Seth Horowitz was part of a NASA-funded team at State University of New York Stony Brook demonstrating that low-amplitude vestibular stimulation could induce sleep. After recognizing the same stimulation could be applied through sound, Horowitz founded Sleep Genius, located in Park City, Utah, and released a mobile app of the same name that helps people to get a more restful sleep.

  6. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  7. Endogenous APP accumulates in synapses after BACE1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Saket Milind; Xu, Shaohua; Ackermann, Frauke; Gregory, Joshua A; Lundkvist, Johan; Lendahl, Urban; Brodin, Lennart

    2016-08-01

    BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is a pivotal step in the production of the Alzheimer related Aβ peptide and inhibitors of BACE1 are currently in clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). While processing and trafficking of APP has been extensively studied in non-neuronal cells, the fate of APP at neuronal synapses and in response to reduced BACE1 activity has not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the consequence of reduced BACE1 activity on endogenous synaptic APP by monitoring N- and C-terminal APP epitopes by immunocytochemistry. In control rodent primary hippocampal neuron cultures, labeling with antibodies directed to N-terminal APP epitopes showed a significant overlap with synaptic vesicle markers (SV2 or synaptotagmin). In contrast, labeling with antibodies directed to C-terminal epitopes of APP showed only a limited overlap with these proteins. In neurons derived from BACE1-deficient mice, and in control neurons treated with a BACE1 inhibitor, both the N-terminal and the C-terminal APP labeling overlapped significantly with synaptic vesicle markers. Moreover, BACE1 inhibition increased the proximity between the APP C-terminus and SV2 as shown by a proximity ligation assay. These results, together with biochemical observations, indicate that BACE1 can regulate the levels of full-length APP at neuronal synapses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumer Mobile Health Apps: Current State, Barriers, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kao, Cheng-Kai; Liebovitz, David M

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current state, barriers, and future directions of consumer-facing applications (apps). There are currently more than 165,000 mobile health apps publicly available in major app stores, the vast majority of which are designed for patients. The top 2 categories are wellness management and disease management apps, whereas other categories include self-diagnosis, medication reminder, and electronic patient portal apps. Apps specific to physical medicine and rehabilitation also are reviewed. These apps have the potential to provide low-cost, around-the-clock access to high-quality, evidence-based health information to end users on a global scale. However, they have not yet lived up to their potential due to multiple barriers, including lack of regulatory oversight, limited evidence-based literature, and concerns of privacy and security. The future directions may consist of improving data integration into the health care system, an interoperable app platform allowing access to electronic health record data, cloud-based personal health record across health care networks, and increasing app prescription by health care providers. For consumer mobile health apps to fully contribute value to health care delivery and chronic disease management, all stakeholders within the ecosystem must collaborate to overcome the significant barriers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Content Analysis of Popular Smartphone Apps for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Abroms, Lorien C.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. Purpose This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012. Methods A total of 252 smoking-cessation apps were identified for the iPhone and 148 for the Android. Across both operating systems, the most popular apps were identified (n=47 for the iPhone and n=51 for the Android) and analyzed for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to an index based on the U.S. Public Health Service’s Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Where available, apps were coded for frequency of downloads. The analysis took place in 2012. Results Overall, popular apps have low levels of adherence, with an average score of 12.9 of a possible 42 on the Adherence Index. No apps recommended calling a quitline, and only a handful of apps recommended using approved medications (4.1%). Android apps in the sample were downloaded worldwide between 310,800 and 1,248,000 times per month. For both the iPhone and Android, user ratings were positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. For the iPhone, display order was also positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. Conclusions Apps could be improved by better integration with the Clinical Practice Guidelines and other evidence-based practices. PMID:24237915

  10. A content analysis of popular smartphone apps for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Lee Westmaas, J; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-12-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012. A total of 252 smoking-cessation apps were identified for the iPhone and 148 for the Android. Across both operating systems, the most popular apps were identified (n=47 for the iPhone and n=51 for the Android) and analyzed for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to an index based on the U.S. Public Health Service's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Where available, apps were coded for frequency of downloads. The analysis took place in 2012. Overall, popular apps have low levels of adherence, with an average score of 12.9 of a possible 42 on the Adherence Index. No apps recommended calling a quitline, and only a handful of apps recommended using approved medications (4.1%). Android apps in the sample were downloaded worldwide between 310,800 and 1,248,000 times per month. For both the iPhone and Android, user ratings were positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. For the iPhone, display order was also positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. Apps could be improved by better integration with the Clinical Practice Guidelines and other evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An interactive app for color deficient viewers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Cheryl; Perdu, Nicolas; Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos E.; Süsstrunk, Sabine; Sharma, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Color deficient individuals have trouble seeing color contrasts that could be very apparent to individuals with normal color vision. For example, for some color deficient individuals, red and green apples do not have the striking contrast they have for those with normal color vision, or the abundance of red cherries in a tree is not immediately clear due to a lack of perceived contrast. We present a smartphone app that enables color deficient users to visualize such problematic color contrasts in order to help them with daily tasks. The user interacts with the app through the touchscreen. As the user traces a path around the touchscreen, the colors in the image change continuously via a transform that enhances contrasts that are weak or imperceptible for the user under native viewing conditions. Specifically, we propose a transform that shears the data along lines parallel to the dimension corresponding to the affected cone sensitivity of the user. The amount and direction of shear are controlled by the user's finger movement over the touchscreen allowing them to visualize these contrasts. Using the GPU, this simple transformation, consisting of a linear shear and translation, is performed efficiently on each pixel and in real-time with the changing position of the user's finger. The user can use the app to aid daily tasks such as distinguishing between red and green apples or picking out ripe bananas.

  12. Smartphone medication adherence apps: Potential benefits to patients and providers

    PubMed Central

    Dayer, Lindsey; Heldenbrand, Seth; Anderson, Paul; Gubbins, Paul O.; Martin, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview of medication adherence, discuss the potential for smartphone medication adherence applications (adherence apps) to improve medication nonadherence, evaluate features of adherence apps across operating systems (OSs), and identify future opportunities and barriers facing adherence apps. Practice description Medication nonadherence is a common, complex, and costly problem that contributes to poor treatment outcomes and consumes health care resources. Nonadherence is difficult to measure precisely, and interventions to mitigate it have been largely unsuccessful. Practice innovation Using smartphone adherence apps represents a novel approach to improving adherence. This readily available technology offers many features that can be designed to help patients and health care providers improve medication-taking behavior. Main outcome measures Currently available apps were identified from the three main smartphone OSs (Apple, Android, and Blackberry). In addition, desirable features for adherence apps were identified and ranked by perceived importance to user desirability using a three-point rating system: 1, modest; 2, moderate; or 3, high. The 10 highest-rated apps were installed and subjected to user testing to assess app attributes using a standard medication regimen. Results 160 adherence apps were identified and ranked. These apps were most prevalent for the Android OS. Adherence apps with advanced functionality were more prevalent on the Apple iPhone OS. Among all apps, MyMedSchedule, MyMeds, and RxmindMe rated the highest because of their basic medication reminder features coupled with their enhanced levels of functionality. Conclusion Despite being untested, medication apps represent a possible strategy that pharmacists can recommend to nonadherent patients and incorporate into their practice. PMID:23571625

  13. App Use in Psychiatric Education: A Medical Student Survey.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cecilia; Kolli, Venkata

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study is to understand and appraise app use by medical students during their clerkships. Following Creighton University IRB approval, a voluntary and anonymous paper-based, 15-question survey was distributed to third-year medical students. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Of 112 medical students available, 76.7% (86) participated in the survey. All participants owned a smartphone or tablet with 84.9% using Apple iOS, followed by 12.8% using Android platform. Students reported using the fewest number of apps during surgery, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology clerkships. The largest number of apps were used during the internal medicine rotation (70.3%). The three most popular apps were Epocrates, UpToDate, and UWorld. The most common uses for these apps were as references during the clerkship, followed by improving knowledge, and test taking. Perceived major benefits included accessibility (96% of student respondents) and interactivity (39.5%). Common apps used during the psychiatry clerkship included UpToDate (71%), Epocrates (51%), and Medscape (43%). Despite less frequent app use during their psychiatry clerkship, 90% felt there was a utility for educational apps in psychiatric education. Consistent with the previous literature on medical students preferring educational apps, students suggest developers focus on question bank-type apps, followed by clinical support-focused and self-directed case-based learning apps for psychiatry clerkship learning. Educators should factor these modes of educational delivery into future educational app development. This survey shows a high degree of smartphone and tablet use among medical students, and they attest to mobile phone app utility in psychiatric education.

  14. Smartphone medication adherence apps: potential benefits to patients and providers.

    PubMed

    Dayer, Lindsey; Heldenbrand, Seth; Anderson, Paul; Gubbins, Paul O; Martin, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    To provide an overview of medication adherence, discuss the potential for smartphone medication adherence applications (adherence apps) to improve medication nonadherence, evaluate features of adherence apps across operating systems (OSs), and identify future opportunities and barriers facing adherence apps. Medication nonadherence is a common, complex, and costly problem that contributes to poor treatment outcomes and consumes health care resources. Nonadherence is difficult to measure precisely, and interventions to mitigate it have been largely unsuccessful. Using smartphone adherence apps represents a novel approach to improving adherence. This readily available technology offers many features that can be designed to help patients and health care providers improve medication-taking behavior. Currently available apps were identified from the three main smartphone OSs (Apple, Android, and Blackberry). In addition, desirable features for adherence apps were identified and ranked by perceived importance to user desirability using a three-point rating system: 1, modest; 2, moderate; or 3, high. The 10 highest-rated apps were installed and subjected to user testing to assess app attributes using a standard medication regimen. RESULTS 160 adherence apps were identified and ranked. These apps were most prevalent for the Android OS. Adherence apps with advanced functionality were more prevalent on the Apple iPhone OS. Among all apps, MyMedSchedule, MyMeds, and RxmindMe rated the highest because of their basic medication reminder features coupled with their enhanced levels of functionality. Despite being untested, medication apps represent a possible strategy that pharmacists can recommend to nonadherent patients and incorporate into their practice.

  15. Double-Edged Roles of Nitric Oxide Signaling on APP Processing and Amyloid-β Production In Vitro: Preliminary Evidence from Sodium Nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng-Xu; Guo, Hui-Shu; Wang, Che; Wei, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Zhao-Fei; Chen, Yin-Wang; Le, Wei-Dong; Li, Song

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is thought to be caused in part by the age-related accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Recent findings have revealed that nitric oxide (NO) modulates the processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and alters Aβ production; however, the previously presented data are contradictory and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still incomplete. Here, using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with wild-type APPwt695, we found that NO, derived from NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bi-directionally modulates APP processing in vitro. The data from ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests indicated that SNP at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 μM) inhibits BACE1 expression, thus consequently suppresses APP β-cleavage and decreases Aβ production. In contrast, SNP at higher concentrations (10 and 20 μM) biases the APP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by an increased BACE1 but a decreased ADAM10 expression, together with an elevated Aβ secretion. This bi-directional modulating activity of SNP on APP processing was completely blocked by specific NO scavenger c-PTIO, indicating NO-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the anti-amyloidogenic activity of SNP is sGC/cGMP/PKG-dependent as evidenced by its reversal by sGC/PKG inhibitions, whereas the amyloidogenic activity of SNP is peroxynitrite-related and can be reversed by peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid. In summary, these present findings predict a double-edged role of NO in APP processing in vitro. Low (physiological) levels of NO inhibit the amyloidogenic processing of APP, whereas extra-high (pathological) concentrations of NO favor the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. This preliminary study may provide further evidence to clarify the molecular roles of NO and NO-related signaling in AD and supply potential molecular targets for AD treatment.

  16. The Drosophila gene collection: Identification of putative full-length cDNAs for 70 percent of D. melanogaster genes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, Mark; Liao, Guochun; Brokstein, Peter; Hong, Ling; Carninci, Piero; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Champe, Mark; Pacleb, Joanne; Wan, Ken; Yu, Charles; Carlson, Joe; George, Reed; Celniker, Susan; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2002-08-12

    Collections of full-length nonredundant cDNA clones are critical reagents for functional genomics. The first step toward these resources is the generation and single-pass sequencing of cDNA libraries that contain a high proportion of full-length clones. The first release of the Drosophila Gene Collection Release 1 (DGCr1) was produced from six libraries representing various tissues, developmental stages, and the cultured S2 cell line. Nearly 80,000 random 5prime expressed sequence tags (EST) from these libraries were collapsed into a nonredundant set of 5849 cDNAs, corresponding to {approx}40 percent of the 13,474 predicted genes in Drosophila. To obtain cDNA clones representing the remaining genes, we have generated an additional 157,835 5prime ESTs from two previously existing and three new libraries. One new library is derived from adult testis, a tissue we previously did not exploit for gene discovery; two new cap-trapped normalized libraries are derived from 0-22hr embryos and adult heads. Taking advantage of the annotated D. melanogaster genome sequence, we clustered the ESTs by aligning them to the genome. Clusters that overlap genes not already represented by cDNA clones in the DGCr1 were analyzed further, and putative full-length clones were selected for inclusion in the new DGC. This second release of the DGC (DGCr2) contains 5061 additional clones, extending the collection to 10,910 cDNAs representing >70 percent of the predicted genes in Drosophila.

  17. Pro-Cognitive Effects of Non-Peptide Analogues of Soluble Amyloid Peptide Precursor Fragment sAPP.

    PubMed

    Tiunova, A A; Komissarova, N V; Nenaidenko, V G; Makhmutova, A A; Beznosko, B K; Bachurin, S O; Anokhin, K V

    2016-08-01

    We studied pro-cognitive effect of two heterocyclic low-molecular-weight compounds that serve as non-peptide analogues of soluble fragment of amyloid peptide precursor (sAPP). Intracerebroventricular and systemic administration of peptide mimetics P2 and P5 improved weak memory on the model of passive avoidance in chicks and in the object location task in mice. Both compounds were effective if administered close to the moment of training or 4 h after it. The time windows and dose range for the pro-cognitive effects of the mimetics were similar to those observed in previous studies with sAPP peptide fragments.

  18. Apps Seeking Theories: Results of a Study on the Use of Health Behavior Change Theories in Cancer Survivorship Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Background Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. Objective This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. Methods The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. Results A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen’s kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (P<.001) and for the Android apps, 77.4 (P<.001). For the most part, the scores for inclusion of theory-based health behavior change characteristics in the iOS platform cancer survivorship apps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Conclusions Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these

  19. Apps seeking theories: results of a study on the use of health behavior change theories in cancer survivorship mobile apps.

    PubMed

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-03-27

    Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen's kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (P<.001) and for the Android apps, 77.4 (P<.001). For the most part, the scores for inclusion of theory-based health behavior change characteristics in the iOS platform cancer survivorship apps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these apps and games continue to evolve and include

  20. Just a fad? Gamification in health and fitness apps.

    PubMed

    Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Cannon, Ben; Sax, Tyler; Brodegard, David

    2014-08-04

    Gamification has been a predominant focus of the health app industry in recent years. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a review of gamification elements in relation to health behavior constructs, or insight into the true proliferation of gamification in health apps. The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which gamification is used in health apps, and analyze gamification of health and fitness apps as a potential component of influence on a consumer's health behavior. An analysis of health and fitness apps related to physical activity and diet was conducted among apps in the Apple App Store in the winter of 2014. This analysis reviewed a sample of 132 apps for the 10 effective game elements, the 6 core components of health gamification, and 13 core health behavior constructs. A regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the correlation between health behavior constructs, gamification components, and effective game elements. This review of the most popular apps showed widespread use of gamification principles, but low adherence to any professional guidelines or industry standard. Regression analysis showed that game elements were associated with gamification (P<.001). Behavioral theory was associated with gamification (P<.05), but not game elements, and upon further analysis gamification was only associated with composite motivational behavior scores (P<.001), and not capacity or opportunity/trigger. This research, to our knowledge, represents the first comprehensive review of gamification use in health and fitness apps, and the potential to impact health behavior. The results show that use of gamification in health and fitness apps has become immensely popular, as evidenced by the number of apps found in the Apple App Store containing at least some components of gamification. This shows a lack of integrating important elements of behavioral theory from the app industry, which can potentially impact the efficacy of

  1. Just a Fad? Gamification in Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gamification has been a predominant focus of the health app industry in recent years. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a review of gamification elements in relation to health behavior constructs, or insight into the true proliferation of gamification in health apps. Objective The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which gamification is used in health apps, and analyze gamification of health and fitness apps as a potential component of influence on a consumer’s health behavior. Methods An analysis of health and fitness apps related to physical activity and diet was conducted among apps in the Apple App Store in the winter of 2014. This analysis reviewed a sample of 132 apps for the 10 effective game elements, the 6 core components of health gamification, and 13 core health behavior constructs. A regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the correlation between health behavior constructs, gamification components, and effective game elements. Results This review of the most popular apps showed widespread use of gamification principles, but low adherence to any professional guidelines or industry standard. Regression analysis showed that game elements were associated with gamification (P<.001). Behavioral theory was associated with gamification (P<.05), but not game elements, and upon further analysis gamification was only associated with composite motivational behavior scores (P<.001), and not capacity or opportunity/trigger. Conclusions This research, to our knowledge, represents the first comprehensive review of gamification use in health and fitness apps, and the potential to impact health behavior. The results show that use of gamification in health and fitness apps has become immensely popular, as evidenced by the number of apps found in the Apple App Store containing at least some components of gamification. This shows a lack of integrating important elements of behavioral theory from the app industry

  2. Is There a Good App for That? Evaluating m-Health Apps for Strategies That Promote Pediatric Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Eve; Bugno, Lindsey; Kandah, Cassandra; Plevinsky, Jill; Poulopoulos, Natasha; Wojtowicz, Andrea; Schneider, Kristin L; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2016-11-01

    Mobile health medication reminder apps may be a useful supplement to traditional adherence-promotion interventions for pediatric chronic illness populations because they can give real-time reminders and provide education and promote behavior modification (components known to enhance adherence in traditional interventions) in an engaging and developmentally acceptable way. Moreover, apps have the potential to be used by youth and parents, an important consideration given that shared involvement in condition management is associated with better adherence. This study evaluated the content and usability of existing medication reminder apps operating on the Apple platform. Two researchers coded 101 apps on 15 desirable reminder, educational, and behavioral modification features. Usability testing was conducted with the subset of apps (n = 8) that had the greatest number of content features using a validated measure. Apps contained an average of 4.21 of 15 content features, with medication reminder features being more common than either educational or behavioral modification features. Apps most commonly included a medication name storage feature (95%), a time-based reminder feature (87%), and a medication dosage storage feature (68%). Of the eight apps that had the highest number of content features, Mango Health, myRX Planner, and MediSafe evidenced the highest usability ratings. No apps identified were specifically designed for pediatric use. Most apps lacked content known to be useful in traditional pediatric adherence-promotion interventions. Greater attention to educational and behavioral modification features may enhance the usefulness of medication reminder apps for pediatric groups. Collaborations between behavioral medicine providers and app developers may improve the quality of medication reminder apps for use in pediatric populations.

  3. APP/Aβ structural diversity and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roher, Alex E; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Clarke, Steven G; Sierks, Michael R; Maarouf, Chera L; Serrano, Geidy E; Sabbagh, Marwan S; Beach, Thomas G

    2017-08-12

    The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration. We surveyed the literature to catalog Aβ PTM including species with isoAsp at positions 7 and 23 which may phenocopy the Tottori and Iowa Aβ mutations that result in early onset AD. We speculate that accumulation of these alterations induce changes in secondary and tertiary structure of Aβ that favor increased toxicity, and seeding and propagation in sporadic AD. Additionally, amyloid-β peptides with a pyroglutamate modification at position 3 and oxidation of Met35 make up a substantial portion of sporadic AD amyloid deposits. The intrinsic physical properties of these species, including resistance to degradation, an enhanced aggregation rate, increased neurotoxicity, and association with behavioral deficits, suggest their emergence is linked to dementia. The generation of specific 3D-molecular conformations of Aβ impart unique biophysical properties and a capacity to seed the prion-like global transmission of amyloid through the brain. The accumulation of rogue Aβ ultimately contributes to the destruction of vascular walls, neurons and glial cells culminating in dementia. A systematic examination of Aβ PTM and the analysis of the toxicity that they induced may help create essential biomarkers to more precisely stage AD pathology, design countermeasures and gauge the impacts of interventions. Copyright © 2017

  4. Smartphone apps in microbiology--is better regulation required?

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, A; Hamilton, A; Brady, R R W

    2012-07-01

    Increasing diversity of available medical applications (apps) has led to their widespread use in healthcare delivery. However, app involvement in diagnosis and patient management has raised concerns, specifically regarding accuracy and reliability of content. Here, we report on the contemporary range of microbiology-themed apps and prevalence of medical professional involvement in app development. Of 94 microbiology-themed apps identified, only 34% had stated medical professional involvement. The lack of such involvement in app design is concerning and undermines consumers' ability to be informed regarding quality of content. We propose that increased regulatory measures are introduced to safeguard patient welfare. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Generation of conditional null alleles for APP and APLP2.

    PubMed

    Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Tschäpe, Jakob-Andreas; Hick, Meike; Filippov, Mikhail A; Müller, Ulrike C

    2010-03-01

    Proteolytical cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates beta-amyloid, which is deposited in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the well-established key role of APP for AD pathogenesis, the physiological function of APP and its close homologues APLP1 and APLP2 remains poorly understood. Previously, we generated APP(-/-) mice that proved viable, whereas APP(-/-)APLP2(-/-) mice and triple knockouts died shortly after birth, likely due to deficits of neuromuscular synaptic transmission. Here, we generated conditional knockout alleles for both APP and APLP2 in which the promoter and exon1 were flanked by loxP sites. No differences in expression were detectable between wt and floxed alleles, whereas null alleles were obtained upon crossing with Cre-transgenic deleter mice. These mice will now allow for tissue and time-point controlled knockout of both genes. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Use of 3' untranslated sequences of human cDNAs for rapid chromosome assignment and conversion to STSs: implications for an expression map of the genome.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, A S; Khan, A S; Hopkins, J A; Sikela, J M

    1991-01-01

    A general mapping strategy is described in which the 3'untranslated regions of human cDNAs are used to design PCR primers which will selectively amplify human genomic sequences in a rodent background. When applied to panels of human x hamster somatic cell hybrid DNAs, this approach provides a PCR-based method for rapidly assigning genes to specific chromosomes and chromosomal regions. In addition, it follows from the virtual absence of introns in the 3'untranslated region of vertebrate genes that within this region the cDNA sequences almost always will be identical to those of the genomic DNA and can therefore be used to automatically generate gene-specific sequence-tagged sites (STSs). We have applied this strategy to six human cDNAs and demonstrate that 1) the primers selectively amplify human genomic DNA and 2) the PCR product is of the size predicted from the cDNA. To test this approach further we have utilized it to confirm the known chromosomal location of the retinoblastoma gene. Lastly, we describe how this strategy can readily be applied to unknown human cDNAs, and thereby be integrated into efforts to generate a human STS expression map of the genome. A strategy for production of such a map, using human brain cDNAs as a model, is described. Images PMID:2030965

  7. Characterization of cDNAs encoding serine proteases and their transcriptional responses to Cry1Ab protoxin in the gut of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serine proteases, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, are the primary digestive enzymes in lepidopteran larvae, and are also involved in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protoxin activation and protoxin/toxin degradation. We isolated and sequenced 34 cDNAs putatively encoding trypsins, chymotrypsins and th...

  8. A ternary AppA-PpsR-DNA complex mediates light regulation of photosynthesis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andreas; Heintz, Udo; Lindner, Robert; Reinstein, Jochen; Shoeman, Robert L; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-07-01

    The anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides uses different energy sources, depending on environmental conditions including aerobic respiration or, in the absence of oxygen, photosynthesis. Photosynthetic genes are repressed at high oxygen tension, but at intermediate levels their partial expression prepares the bacterium for using light energy. Illumination, however, enhances repression under semiaerobic conditions. Here, we describe molecular details of two proteins mediating oxygen and light control of photosynthesis-gene expression: the light-sensing antirepressor AppA and the transcriptional repressor PpsR. Our crystal structures of both proteins and their complex and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange data show that light activation of AppA-PpsR2 affects the PpsR effector region within the complex. DNA binding studies demonstrate the formation of a light-sensitive ternary AppA-PpsR-DNA complex. We discuss implications of these results for regulation by light and oxygen, highlighting new insights into blue light-mediated signal transduction.

  9. Appy Hour: Health Sciences Professionals Learn About Apps.

    PubMed

    Casucci, Tallie; Gregory, Joan M; Shipman, Jean P

    2016-01-01

    Appy Hour is a recurring event hosted by an academic health sciences library featuring apps that are informally presented and demonstrated by invited speakers. The audience is encouraged to ask questions during the presentation of the featured app(s). This event provides learning and networking opportunities for health sciences faculty, staff, students, and health care professionals. This article illustrates the process for hosting the event, shares lessons learned, and discusses possible future directions to gain a wider audience.

  10. Towards a Framework for Evaluating Mobile Mental Health Apps.

    PubMed

    Chan, Steven; Torous, John; Hinton, Ladson; Yellowlees, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous in society and owned by a majority of psychiatric patients, including those with severe mental illness. Their versatility as a platform can extend mental health services in the areas of communication, self-monitoring, self-management, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the efficacy and reliability of publicly available applications (apps) have yet to be demonstrated. Numerous articles have noted the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy and clinical utility of smartphone apps, which are largely unregulated. Professional clinical organizations do not provide guidelines for evaluating mobile apps. Guidelines and frameworks are needed to evaluate medical apps. Numerous frameworks and evaluation criteria exist from the engineering and informatics literature, as well as interdisciplinary organizations in similar fields such as telemedicine and healthcare informatics. We propose criteria for both patients and providers to use in assessing not just smartphone apps, but also wearable devices and smartwatch apps for mental health. Apps can be evaluated by their usefulness, usability, and integration and infrastructure. Apps can be categorized by their usability in one or more stages of a mental health provider's workflow. Ultimately, leadership is needed to develop a framework for describing apps, and guidelines are needed for both patients and mental health providers.

  11. The role of APP proteolytic processing in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Rothhaar, Tatjana L; Hartmann, Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Amyloid plaques in brains are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These plaques are mainly formed by aggregated Aβ, generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Therefore, APP processing and Aβ production have been one of the central scopes in AD research in the past. Now, accumulating evidence suggests that besides its pathological impact, APP and its cleavage products also contribute to physiological functions. Proteolytic cleavage of APP is tightly regulated, and several lipids such as cholesterol and sphingolipids have been shown to influence APP processing and Aβ generation. In turn, Aβ as well as other APP cleavage products plays an essential role in regulating lipid homeostasis arguing for complex regulatory cycles in which lipids control APP processing and vice versa. This balanced regulation is disrupted under pathological conditions such as in AD. This article will review the physiological function of APP and its proteolytic products, especially Aβ and AICD, in regulating lipid homeostasis and which lipid species modulate APP processing. Furthermore, we summarize the alterations in lipid metabolism observed in AD patients and AD mouse models.

  12. Alternative splicing regulation of APP exon 7 by RBFox proteins.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shafiul; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2014-12-01

    RBFox proteins are well-known alternative splicing regulators. We have shown previously that during neuronal differentiation of P19 cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid and cell aggregation, RBFox1 shows markedly increased temporal expression. To find its key splicing regulation, we examined the effect of RBFox1 on 33 previously reported and validated neuronal splicing events of P19 cells. We observed that alternative splicing of three genes, specifically, amyloid precursor protein (APP), disks large homolog 3 (DLG3), and G protein, alpha activating activity polypeptide O (GNAO1), was altered by transient RBFox1 expression in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, an RBFox1 mutant (RBFox1FA) that was unable to bind the target RNA sequence ((U)GCAUG) did not induce these splicing events. APP generates amyloid beta peptides that are involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, and therefore we examined APP alternative splicing regulation by RBFox1 and other splicing regulators. Our results indicated that RBFox proteins promote the skipping of APP exon 7, but not the inclusion of exon 8. We made APP6789 minigenes and observed that two (U)GCAUG sequences, located upstream of exon 7 and in exon 7, functioned to induce skipping of exon 7 by RBFox proteins. Overall, RBFox proteins may shift APP from exon 7 containing isoforms, APP770 and APP751, toward the exon 7 lacking isoform, APP695, which is predominant in neural tissues.

  13. Pros and cons of using apps in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sally; Anderson, John; Cox, Susanne

    2012-10-01

    There is a lack of research on the use of smartphone apps among nurses in the UK, but the number of healthcare-related apps is increasing and it is likely that nurses will want to include them in practice. It will, therefore, be necessary to assess their effectiveness, appropriateness and efficacy to ensure they enhance patient care. This article looks at the literature on the subject and suggests some issues managers should consider before allowing the use of apps in their clinical areas. It also invites readers to take part in a survey on the use of apps in nursing.

  14. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Penzenstadler, Louise; Chatton, Anne; Van Singer, Mathias; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Apps for smartphones are opening an important range of opportunities for improving the care of people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This study aimed to evaluate the quality of English language apps for AUDs and to compare paid and free apps. The keywords 'alcohol', 'alcohol addiction', 'alcohol help' and 'stop drinking' were entered into the iTunes Store search engine. Apps were evaluated using a standardized assessment designed to rate the quality of apps in terms of accountability, interactivity, self-help score and evidence-based content. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the 'Health on the Net' label were also used as content quality indicators. Of the 137 unique apps identified, 52 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the content quality and self-help scores of these AUD apps were poor. The main quality indicators were not linked to payment status. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted content quality. Poor content quality and self-help scores of AUD smartphone apps underline the gap between their potential promises and the overall quality of available products in stores. The quality indicators used in the present study may be used for further app developments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Evaluation of a medicines list iPhone app.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Brendon; Holbrook, Rachel; Dinh, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    A medicines list iPhone app, based on an existing paper product, was developed by NPS MedicineWise for consumers. Since its launch in June 2011 the app has been downloaded over 19,000 times. With plans to expand its development and increase its use, it was critical to discover how the app is used and how useful it is. A total of 61 study participants used the app for five days and then participated in online focus groups. While most people have a system for managing their medicines, these systems vary in their effectiveness. The biggest problem with managing medicines is when medicine doses are forgotten or taken late. Usability problems with the app were revealed. While the app was easy to install, it was time consuming and difficult to input medicine information. The majority of people did not enter information in all fields. While the app was deemed useful and will continue to be used by the majority of participants, not all participants were aware of the existing functions or the capabilities of the functions. Use was primarily for self-management. The majority of participants were comfortable sharing the information in the app (via the phone) with a health professional. Roughly half wanted to upload their information to the PCEHR. Recommendations were made and incorporated into design decisions for an updated version of the app (which includes potential linking to the PCEHR), and a multi-platform release (web, iOS, Android, Windows Mobile).

  16. Impaired theta-gamma coupling in APP-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhong, Wewei; Brankačk, Jurij; Weyer, Sascha W.; Müller, Ulrike C.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is critically involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, but its physiological functions remain elusive. Importantly, APP knockout (APP-KO) mice exhibit cognitive deficits, suggesting that APP plays a role at the neuronal network level. To investigate this possibility, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the posterior parietal cortex, dorsal hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex of freely moving APP-KO mice. Spectral analyses showed that network oscillations within the theta- and gamma-frequency bands were not different between APP-KO and wild-type mice. Surprisingly, however, while gamma amplitude coupled to theta phase in all recorded regions of wild-type animals, in APP-KO mice theta-gamma coupling was strongly diminished in recordings from the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but not in LFPs recorded from the prefrontal cortex. Thus, lack of APP reduces oscillatory coupling in LFP recordings from specific brain regions, despite not affecting the amplitude of the oscillations. Together, our findings reveal reduced cross-frequency coupling as a functional marker of APP deficiency at the network level. PMID:26905287

  17. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  18. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-03-03

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis.

  19. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the “Health on the Net” label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  20. smartApps Package v 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert

    2009-12-04

    The smartApps package provides high-speed communication links between multiple Umbra sessions and/or SMART sessions. Modules within Packages/smartApps: Packages/smartApps/smartBlackboard: The original Broadcast module connected Umbra connectors to the SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation) blackboard using UDP and TCP connections. Connectors are added to the module for each connection. Originally written by Scott Gladwell and maintained and updated by Robert J. Anderson. Packages/smartApps/smartBroadcast: A highly efficient version of packet based communication for connecting distributed SMART and Umbra systems together using UDP broadcasts.

  1. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the "Health on the Net" label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products.

  2. Differentially expressed cDNAs at the early stage of banana ripening identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bi Yu; Su, Wei; Liu, Ju Hua; Wang, Jia Bao; Jin, Zhi Qiang

    2007-07-01

    The banana (Musa acuminate L. AAA group) fruit undergoes a postharvest ripening process, which plays an important role in improving the quality and extending the shelf life of bananas. To manipulate postharvest banana ripening, a better understanding of the mechanism of postharvest ripening is necessary. The isolation of mRNA transcripts encoding proteins associated with the ripening process is a powerful tool for this purpose. To isolate differentially expressed genes at the early stage of postharvest banana ripening, a forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed. SSH was performed with cDNA from banana fruit on the day of harvest as the "driver" and cDNA from banana fruit 2 days postharvest (DPH) as the "tester." A total of 289 clones in the SSH library were sequenced. BLASTX results revealed that 191 cDNAs had significant sequence homologies with known sequences in the NCBI database. Of the 191 cDNAs, 138 were singletons, and 53 belonged to divergent clusters containing 2-8 sequences. The identified cDNAs encoded proteins involved in cellular processes such as: metabolism; protein destination and storage; protein synthesis; signal transduction; transport and intracellular traffic; cell structure, growth, and division; transcription and post-transcription; and disease and defense. To characterize differentially expressed cDNAs in the SSH library, cDNA microarray analysis was conducted. A total of 26 cDNAs in the 2-DPH banana fruit were found to be up-regulated and these results were confirmed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid in the understanding of banana ripening.

  3. Rapid production of full-length cDNAs from rare transcripts: amplification using a single gene-specific oligonucleotide primer.

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, M A; Dush, M K; Martin, G R

    1988-01-01

    We have devised a simple and efficient cDNA cloning strategy that overcomes many of the difficulties encountered in obtaining full-length cDNA clones of low-abundance mRNAs. In essence, cDNAs are generated by using the DNA polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify copies of the region between a single point in the transcript and the 3' or 5' end. The minimum information required for this amplification is a single short stretch of sequence within the mRNA to be cloned. Since the cDNAs can be produced in one day, examined by Southern blotting the next, and readily cloned, large numbers of full-length cDNA clones of rare transcripts can be rapidly produced. Moreover, separation of amplified cDNAs by gel electrophoresis allows precise selection by size prior to cloning and thus facilitates the isolation of cDNAs representing variant mRNAs, such as those produced by alternative splicing or by the use of alternative promoters. The efficacy of this method was demonstrated by isolating cDNA clones of mRNA from int-2, a mouse gene that expresses four different transcripts at low abundance, the longest of which is approximately 2.9 kilobases. After less than 0.05% of the cDNAs produced had been screened, 29 independent int-2 clones were isolated. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the 3' and 5' ends of all four int-2 mRNAs were accurately represented by these clones. Images PMID:2461560

  4. Lack of tau proteins rescues neuronal cell death and decreases amyloidogenic processing of APP in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Karelle; Ando, Kunie; Laporte, Vincent; Dedecker, Robert; Suain, Valérie; Authelet, Michèle; Héraud, Céline; Pierrot, Nathalie; Yilmaz, Zehra; Octave, Jean-Noël; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    Lack of tau expression has been reported to protect against excitotoxicity and to prevent memory deficits in mice expressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) identified in familial Alzheimer disease. In APP mice, mutant presenilin 1 (PS1) enhances generation of Aβ42 and inhibits cell survival pathways. It is unknown whether the deficient phenotype induced by concomitant expression of mutant PS1 is rescued by absence of tau. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of tau deletion in mice expressing mutant APP and PS1. Although APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice had a reduced survival, developed spatial memory deficits at 6 months and motor impairments at 12 months, these deficits were rescued in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Neuronal loss and synaptic loss in APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice were rescued in the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The amyloid plaque burden was decreased by roughly 50% in the cortex and the spinal cord of the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Levels of phosphorylated APP, of β-C-terminal fragments (CTFs), and of β-secretase 1 (BACE1) were also reduced, suggesting that β-secretase cleavage of APP was reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that tau deletion had a protective effect against amyloid induced toxicity even in the presence of mutant PS1 and reduced the production of Aβ. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Valuable features in mobile health apps for patients and consumers: content analysis of apps and user ratings.

    PubMed

    Mendiola, Martin F; Kalnicki, Miriam; Lindenauer, Sarah

    2015-05-13

    The explosion of mobile phones with app capabilities coupled with increased expectations of the patient-consumers' role in managing their care presents a unique opportunity to use mobile health (mHealth) apps. The aim of this paper is to identify the features and characteristics most-valued by patient-consumers ("users") that contribute positively to the rating of an app. A collection of 234 apps associated with reputable health organizations found in the medical, health, and fitness categories of the Apple iTunes store and Google Play marketplace was assessed manually for the presence of 12 app features and characteristics. Regression analysis was used to determine which, if any, contributed positively to a user's rating of the app. Analysis of these 12 features explained 9.3% (R(2)=.093 n=234, P<.001) of the variation in an app's rating, with only 5 reaching statistical significance. Of the 5 reaching statistical significance, plan or orders, export of data, usability, and cost contributed positively to a user's rating, while the tracker feature detracted from it. These findings suggest that users appreciate features that save time over current methods and identify an app as valuable when it is simple and intuitive to use, provides specific instructions to better manage a condition, and shares data with designated individuals. Although tracking is a core function of most health apps, this feature may detract from a user's experience when not executed properly. Further investigation into mHealth app features is worthwhile given the inability of the most common features to explain a large portion of an app's rating. In the future, studies should focus on one category in the app store, specific diseases, or desired behavior change, and methods should include measuring the quality of each feature, both through manual assessment and evaluation of user reviews. Additional investigations into understanding the impact of synergistic features, incentives, social media

  6. The App Map: A Tool for Systematic Evaluation of Apps for Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelson, Madeleine Heins

    2015-01-01

    As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…

  7. The App Map: A Tool for Systematic Evaluation of Apps for Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelson, Madeleine Heins

    2015-01-01

    As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…

  8. Smartphone Apps for Measuring Human Health and Climate Change Co-Benefits: A Comparison and Quality Rating of Available Apps.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Rachel K; Marsh, Samantha; Halvarsson, Jakob; Holdsworth, Michelle; Waterlander, Wilma; Poelman, Maartje P; Salmond, Jennifer Ann; Christian, Hayley; Koh, Lenny Sc; Cade, Janet E; Spence, John C; Woodward, Alistair; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-19

    Climate change and the burden of noncommunicable diseases are major global challenges. Opportunities exist to investigate health and climate change co-benefits through a shift from motorized to active transport (walking and cycling) and a shift in dietary patterns away from a globalized diet to reduced consumption of meat and energy dense foods. Given the ubiquitous use and proliferation of smartphone apps, an opportunity exists to use this technology to capture individual travel and dietary behavior and the associated impact on the environment and health. The objective of the study is to identify, describe the features, and rate the quality of existing smartphone apps which capture personal travel and dietary behavior and simultaneously estimate the carbon cost and potential health consequences of these actions. The Google Play and Apple App Stores were searched between October 19 and November 6, 2015, and a secondary Google search using the apps filter was conducted between August 8 and September 18, 2016. Eligible apps were required to estimate the carbon cost of personal behaviors with the potential to include features to maximize health outcomes. The quality of included apps was assessed by 2 researchers using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Out of 7213 results, 40 apps were identified and rated. Multiple travel-related apps were identified, however no apps solely focused on the carbon impact or health consequences of dietary behavior. None of the rated apps provided sufficient information on the health consequences of travel and dietary behavior. Some apps included features to maximize participant engagement and encourage behavior change towards reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Most apps were rated as acceptable quality as determined by the MARS; 1 was of poor quality and 10 apps were of good quality. Interrater reliability of the 2 evaluators was excellent (ICC=0.94, 95% CI 0.87-0.97). Existing apps capturing travel and dietary behavior and the

  9. Smartphone Apps for Measuring Human Health and Climate Change Co-Benefits: A Comparison and Quality Rating of Available Apps

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Rachel K; Marsh, Samantha; Halvarsson, Jakob; Holdsworth, Michelle; Waterlander, Wilma; Poelman, Maartje P; Salmond, Jennifer Ann; Christian, Hayley; Koh, Lenny SC; Cade, Janet E; Spence, John C; Woodward, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Background Climate change and the burden of noncommunicable diseases are major global challenges. Opportunities exist to investigate health and climate change co-benefits through a shift from motorized to active transport (walking and cycling) and a shift in dietary patterns away from a globalized diet to reduced consumption of meat and energy dense foods. Given the ubiquitous use and proliferation of smartphone apps, an opportunity exists to use this technology to capture individual travel and dietary behavior and the associated impact on the environment and health. Objective The objective of the study is to identify, describe the features, and rate the quality of existing smartphone apps which capture personal travel and dietary behavior and simultaneously estimate the carbon cost and potential health consequences of these actions. Methods The Google Play and Apple App Stores were searched between October 19 and November 6, 2015, and a secondary Google search using the apps filter was conducted between August 8 and September 18, 2016. Eligible apps were required to estimate the carbon cost of personal behaviors with the potential to include features to maximize health outcomes. The quality of included apps was assessed by 2 researchers using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Results Out of 7213 results, 40 apps were identified and rated. Multiple travel-related apps were identified, however no apps solely focused on the carbon impact or health consequences of dietary behavior. None of the rated apps provided sufficient information on the health consequences of travel and dietary behavior. Some apps included features to maximize participant engagement and encourage behavior change towards reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Most apps were rated as acceptable quality as determined by the MARS; 1 was of poor quality and 10 apps were of good quality. Interrater reliability of the 2 evaluators was excellent (ICC=0.94, 95% CI 0.87-0.97). Conclusions Existing

  10. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  11. The Swedish APP mutation alters the effect of genetically reduced BACE1 expression on the APP processing.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Sabine; Reichwald, Julia; Ammaturo, Domenico; de Strooper, Bart; Saftig, Paul; Neumann, Ulf; Staufenbiel, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Inhibition of β-secretase (BACE1) is a key therapeutic approach in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as BACE1 initiates amyloid-β (Aβ) cleavage from the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). As Aβ reductions in mice lacking one BACE1 allele diverged considerably between studies we investigated the effect of BACE1 knock-out in more detail. With both BACE1 alleles the Swedish mutation (APP23 mice) increased APP processing and shifted it towards the β-secretase pathway as compared with non-mutated APP expressed at a similar level (APP51/16 mice). This effect was much smaller then observed in cell culture. An about 50% decrease in BACE1 enzyme activity resulted in a sub-proportional Aβ reduction with the Swedish mutation (-20%) and even less for non-mutated APP (-16%). In wild-type mice, the Aβ reduction may be even further diminished. Other metabolites of the β-secretase pathway decreased accordingly while the alternative α-secretase pathway increased. Complete BACE1 deletion strongly enhanced these changes. The remaining Aβ signal also described by others can be explained by assay cross-reactivity with other APP metabolites supporting BACE1 as the major β-secretase. Our data indicate that BACE1 is in excess over APP at the cleavage site(s). Alterations in APP expression or substrate properties, therefore, quantitatively change its cleavage and Aβ generation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Public Health Guidelines for Physical Activity: Is There an App for That? A Review of Android and Apple App Stores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity participation is an important behavior for modifying lifestyle-related disease risk. Mobile health apps for chronic disease management and prevention are being developed at a rapid rate. However, it is unclear whether these apps are evidence-based. Current public health recommendations for physical activity participation for adults highlight the importance of engaging in 150 minutes weekly of purposeful exercise, and muscle strengthening activities on at least 2 days of the week. Objective The aims of the present review were to (1) identify available evidence-based physical activity apps, and (2) identify technological features that could be leveraged to improve health outcomes. Methods iTunes and Google Play mobile app stores were searched using keyword and category searching during a single day (February 18, 2014) for physical activity apps available in English. The description pages of eligible apps were reviewed by 4 independent reviewers for evidence-based content, technological, and descriptive features. An a priori subset of apps was downloaded for further review (n=6 affiliated with a non-commercial agency; n=10 top rated; n=10 random selection), and developers were contacted for information regarding evidence-informed content. Results The initial search yielded 2400 apps, of which 379 apps (n=206 iTunes; n=173 Google Play) were eligible. Primary results demonstrated no apps (n=0) adhering to evidence-based guidelines for aerobic physical activity, and 7 out of 379 implementing evidence-based guidelines for resistance training physical activity. Technological features of apps included social networking (n=207), pairing with a peripheral health device (n=61), and measuring additional health parameters (n=139). Secondary results revealed 1 app that referenced physical activity guidelines (150 minutes/weekly of exercise), and demonstrated that apps were based on various physical activity reports (n=4) or personal expertise (n=2

  13. Public health guidelines for physical activity: is there an app for that? A review of android and apple app stores.

    PubMed

    Knight, Emily; Stuckey, Melanie I; Prapavessis, Harry; Petrella, Robert J

    2015-05-21

    Physical activity participation is an important behavior for modifying lifestyle-related disease risk. Mobile health apps for chronic disease management and prevention are being developed at a rapid rate. However, it is unclear whether these apps are evidence-based. Current public health recommendations for physical activity participation for adults highlight the importance of engaging in 150 minutes weekly of purposeful exercise, and muscle strengthening activities on at least 2 days of the week. The aims of the present review were to (1) identify available evidence-based physical activity apps, and (2) identify technological features that could be leveraged to improve health outcomes. iTunes and Google Play mobile app stores were searched using keyword and category searching during a single day (February 18, 2014) for physical activity apps available in English. The description pages of eligible apps were reviewed by 4 independent reviewers for evidence-based content, technological, and descriptive features. An a priori subset of apps was downloaded for further review (n=6 affiliated with a non-commercial agency; n=10 top rated; n=10 random selection), and developers were contacted for information regarding evidence-informed content. The initial search yielded 2400 apps, of which 379 apps (n=206 iTunes; n=173 Google Play) were eligible. Primary results demonstrated no apps (n=0) adhering to evidence-based guidelines for aerobic physical activity, and 7 out of 379 implementing evidence-based guidelines for resistance training physical activity. Technological features of apps included social networking (n=207), pairing with a peripheral health device (n=61), and measuring additional health parameters (n=139). Secondary results revealed 1 app that referenced physical activity guidelines (150 minutes/weekly of exercise), and demonstrated that apps were based on various physical activity reports (n=4) or personal expertise (n=2). The present study demonstrated a

  14. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Lynn Katherine; Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications ("apps") available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher's exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (-0.78, P<0.01), peer influence on exercise (subjective norm) (-0.51, P<0.05), peer influence on exercise with apps (subjective norm) (-1.02, P<0.01), perceived difficulties in exercising with apps (perceived behavioral control) (-1.29, P<0.001), and the expected frequency of exercise with apps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (P<0.0001 in a sign test). Subscale total scores indicated significant decreases in subjective norm regarding exercise (-0.72, P<0.05), subjective norm regarding exercise with apps (-1.72, P<0.01), and perceived behavioral control over exercising with apps (-2.56, P<0.01) between pre and posttest. When comparing app users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total scores at posttest for attitude toward exercising

  15. Mobile Apps for Weight Management: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jordan; McPherson, Amy; Hamilton, Jill; Birken, Catherine; Coons, Michael; Iyer, Sindoora; Agarwal, Arnav; Lalloo, Chitra; Stinson, Jennifer

    2016-07-26

    Obesity remains a major public health concern. Mobile apps for weight loss/management are found to be effective for improving health outcomes in adults and adolescents, and are pursued as a cost-effective and scalable intervention for combating overweight and obesity. In recent years, the commercial market for 'weight loss apps' has expanded at rapid pace, yet little is known regarding the evidence-based quality of these tools for weight control. To characterize the inclusion of evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of commercial mobile apps for weight loss/management. An electronic search was conducted between July 2014 and July 2015 of the official app stores for four major mobile operating systems. Three raters independently identified apps with a stated goal of weight loss/management, as well as weight loss/management apps targeted to pediatric users. All discrepancies regarding selection were resolved through discussion with a fourth rater. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form and the evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of included apps was assessed. Evidence-based strategies included: self-monitoring, goal-setting, physical activity support, healthy eating support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies, and social support. A total of 393 apps were included in this review. Self-monitoring was most common (139/393, 35.3%), followed by physical activity support (108/393, 27.5%), weight assessment (100/393, 25.4%), healthy eating support (91/393, 23.2%), goal-setting (84/393, 21.4%), motivational strategies (28/393, 7.1%), social support (21/393, 5.3%), and personalized feedback (7/393, 1.8%). Of apps, 0.8% (3/393) underwent scientific evaluation and 0.3% (1/393) reported health care expert involvement. No apps were comprehensive in the assessment criteria, with the majority

  16. Medical apps in endocrine diseases – hide and seek

    PubMed Central

    von Jan, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. Methods: A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple’s app store, namely ‘Medicine’, ‘Health and Fitness’, and ‘Reference’. Results: Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. Conclusions: While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in

  17. Medical applications: a database and characterization of apps in Apple iOS and Android platforms.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Heather J; Stromer, Julie N; Shevkenek, Cole; Bharwani, Aleem; de Grood, Jill; Ghali, William A

    2014-08-27

    Medical applications (apps) for smart phones and tablet computers are growing in number and are commonly used in healthcare. In this context, there is a need for a diverse community of app users, medical researchers, and app developers to better understand the app landscape. In mid-2012, we undertook an environmental scan and classification of the medical app landscape in the two dominant platforms by searching the medical category of the Apple iTunes and Google Play app download sites. We identified target audiences, functions, costs and content themes using app descriptions and captured these data in a database. We only included apps released or updated between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012, with a primary "medical" app store categorization, in English, that contained health or medical content. Our sample of Android apps was limited to the most popular apps in the medical category. Our final sample of Apple iOS (n = 4561) and Android (n = 293) apps illustrate a diverse medical app landscape. The proportion of Apple iOS apps for the public (35%) and for physicians (36%) is similar. Few Apple iOS apps specifically target nurses (3%). Within the Android apps, those targeting the public dominated in our sample (51%). The distribution of app functions is similar in both platforms with reference being the most common function. Most app functions and content themes vary considerably by target audience. Social media apps are more common for patients and the public, while conference apps target physicians. We characterized existing medical apps and illustrated their diversity in terms of target audience, main functions, cost and healthcare topic. The resulting app database is a resource for app users, app developers and health informatics researchers.

  18. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    Background There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications (“apps”) available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Methods Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Results Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (−0.78, P<0.01), peer influence on exercise (subjective norm) (−0.51, P<0.05), peer influence on exercise with apps (subjective norm) (−1.02, P<0.01), perceived difficulties in exercising with apps (perceived behavioral control) (−1.29, P<0.001), and the expected frequency of exercise with apps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (P<0.0001 in a sign test). Subscale total scores indicated significant decreases in subjective norm regarding exercise (−0.72, P<0.05), subjective norm regarding exercise with apps (−1.72, P<0.01), and perceived behavioral control over exercising with apps (−2.56, P<0.01) between pre and posttest. When comparing app users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total

  19. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-12-09

    Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as alpha-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Rossner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPalpha. Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.

  20. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Background Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as α-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Results Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Roßner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPα. Conclusion Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP. PMID:18067682

  1. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  2. Synthesis of full length cDNAs from four partially purified oviduct mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Buell, G N; Wickens, M P; Payvar, F; Schimke, R T

    1978-04-10

    Total poly(A)-containing RNA prepared from hen oviduct and centrifuged on an isokinetic sucrose gradient displays four peaks of optical absorbance. These have been identified by translation in vitro as lysozyme, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, and conalbumin mRNAs. Isolation and recentrifugation of the peaks results in partial purification of each mRNA. Molecular weights have been determined for the mRNAs on agarose gels containing 20 mM methylmercury hydroxide. Each mRNA possesses a number of apparently untranslated nucleotides ranging from approximately 900 bases for ovalbumin and conalbumin mRNAs to 200 bases for ovomucoid and lysozyme mRNAs. The mRNAs have been copied with avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase. Each mRNA with the exception of conalbumin gives rise to a high proportion of full length cDNA. Several parameters previously reported to influence the size distribution of cDNA had no effect on the length of cDNA made from any mRNA fraction. The proportion of full length copy does depend on the reverse transcriptase lot.

  3. The transcriptionally active amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain is preferentially produced from the 695 isoform of APP in a {beta}-secretase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Belyaev, Nikolai D; Kellett, Katherine A B; Beckett, Caroline; Makova, Natalia Z; Revett, Timothy J; Nalivaeva, Natalia N; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2010-12-31

    Amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases generates several biologically active products, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). AICD regulates transcription of several neuronal genes, especially the Aβ-degrading enzyme, neprilysin (NEP). APP exists in several alternatively spliced isoforms, APP(695), APP(751), and APP(770). We have examined whether each isoform can contribute to AICD generation and hence up-regulation of NEP expression. Using SH-SY5Y neuronal cells stably expressing each of the APP isoforms, we observed that only APP(695) up-regulated nuclear AICD levels (9-fold) and NEP expression (6-fold). Increased NEP expression was abolished by a β- or γ-secretase inhibitor but not an α-secretase inhibitor. This correlated with a marked increase in both Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) in APP(695) cells as compared with APP(751) or APP(770) cells. Similar phenomena were observed in Neuro2a but not HEK293 cells. SH-SY5Y cells expressing the Swedish mutant of APP(695) also showed an increase in Aβ levels and NEP expression as compared with wild-type APP(695) cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that AICD was associated with the NEP promoter in APP(695), Neuro2a, and APP(Swe) cells but not APP(751) nor APP(770) cells where AICD was replaced by histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). AICD occupancy of the NEP promoter was replaced by HDAC1 after treatment of the APP(695) cells with a β- but not an α-secretase inhibitor. The increased AICD and NEP levels were significantly reduced in cholesterol-depleted APP(695) cells. In conclusion, Aβ and functional AICD appear to be preferentially synthesized through β-secretase action on APP(695).

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemosensory Receptors, Signal Transducers, and the Activation of Gene Expression Controlling Establishment of a Marine Symbiosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-31

    filed.. ........... 0oDt . PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS: Publications and Manuscripts: I. Groppe, J. and D.E. Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel...Morse. 1989. Molecular cloning of novel serine protease cDNAs from abalone. (Abstract) Proc. First Intl. Symp. Marine Biotechnology, Tokyo. 6. Roell

  5. WhatsApp in Clinical Practice: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Several spontaneous telemedicine services using WhatsApp Messenger have started in South Africa raising issues of confidentiality, data security and storage, record keeping and reporting. This study reviewed the literature on WhatsApp in clinical practice, to determine how it is used, and users' satisfaction.

  6. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  7. Mobile Apps to Support and Assess Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Anke; Palomo-Duarte, Manuel; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Ladrón, Juan Miguel; Márquez, Andrea Calderón

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades there have been many attempts to integrate all kinds of mobile devices and apps to support formal as well as informal learning processes. However, most of the available apps still support mainly individual learning, using mobile devices to deliver content rather than providing learners with the opportunity to interact with…

  8. Examining Preservice Teachers' Criteria for Evaluating Educational Mobile Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Evrim; Uygun, Erdem; Altan, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Recent interest in integrating mobile apps into teaching will continue growing. There remains, however, a pressing need to develop methods and resources to support and educate preservice teachers about the use of these technologies. This case study aimed to examine preservice teachers' criteria for evaluating educational mobile apps. Nineteen…

  9. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  10. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  11. Mobile health apps in Sweden: what do physicians recommend?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiping; Koch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Currently over 50,000 mobile health apps are available worldwide. In general, they are considered as innovations potentially delivering benefits to patients. Physicians are considered as potential channels to disseminate these innovations to patients. However, physicians' behavior in this regard has not been studied. To capture physicians' attitudes towards recommending health apps to patients and to describe factors influencing physicians' behavior, taking the specifics of an early adopter country, Sweden, into account. Diffusion of Innovation theory, the Health App Maturity Model and the Six Hurdles Model were used to construct a web-based survey that was answered by 44 Swedish physicians. Survey results were followed up with 2 individual interviews. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis and recursive abstraction for qualitative data analysis. Only a small group of physicians currently recommend mobile health apps to their patients. However, most physicians have a positive attitude and perceive improvement of patients' self-management ability as main benefit of health apps. Main perceived weaknesses include the lack of evidence-based content and lack of multi-language support. Regulation of health apps under the Medical Device Directive is asked for to assure quality and patient safety. Innovators and early adopters play an important role in the diffusion of mobile health apps. Interpersonal communication is seen as the most effective way for physicians gaining information and also motivates them to recommend mobile health apps to their patients. Physicians' knowledge about certified websites to ensure quality is however low.

  12. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  13. [Diabetes mellitus: Which risks do smartphone apps have?].

    PubMed

    Keuthage, Winfried

    2015-08-01

    Medical apps are increasingly used by patients and doctors. However, it lacks systematic studies that deal with potential hazards. In a recent study, two-thirds of the examined insulin bolus calculator apps were associated with some major risks for the patient.

  14. Validation of a Tool Evaluating Educational Apps for Smart Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an evaluation tool of educational apps for smart education. Based on literature reviews, a potential model for evaluating educational apps was suggested. An evaluation tool consisting of 57 survey items was delivered to 156 students in middle and high schools. An exploratory factor analysis was…

  15. Validation of a Tool Evaluating Educational Apps for Smart Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an evaluation tool of educational apps for smart education. Based on literature reviews, a potential model for evaluating educational apps was suggested. An evaluation tool consisting of 57 survey items was delivered to 156 students in middle and high schools. An exploratory factor analysis was…

  16. BookMeUp: Creating a Book Suggestion App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The rise of apps and mobile devices has opened the door to small, dedicated software programs that are focused on singular tasks. From the author's perspective as head of digital access and web service manager at Montana State University, these apps offered an opportunity to build a focused digital service aimed at allowing someone to enter a…

  17. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  18. BookMeUp: Creating a Book Suggestion App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The rise of apps and mobile devices has opened the door to small, dedicated software programs that are focused on singular tasks. From the author's perspective as head of digital access and web service manager at Montana State University, these apps offered an opportunity to build a focused digital service aimed at allowing someone to enter a…

  19. Availability and quality of mobile health app privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Taylor, Patrick L; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) customers shopping for applications (apps) should be aware of app privacy practices so they can make informed decisions about purchase and use. We sought to assess the availability, scope, and transparency of mHealth app privacy policies on iOS and Android. Over 35,000 mHealth apps are available for iOS and Android. Of the 600 most commonly used apps, only 183 (30.5%) had privacy policies. Average policy length was 1755 (SD 1301) words with a reading grade level of 16 (SD 2.9). Two thirds (66.1%) of privacy policies did not specifically address the app itself. Our findings show that currently mHealth developers often fail to provide app privacy policies. The privacy policies that are available do not make information privacy practices transparent to users, require college-level literacy, and are often not focused on the app itself. Further research is warranted to address why privacy policies are often absent, opaque, or irrelevant, and to find a remedy.

  20. Using a Mobile Gaming App to Enhance Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seow, Poh-Sun; Wong, Suay-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe the first mobile gaming app for learning accounting, Accounting Challenge (ACE). On September 30, 2016, ACE had been downloaded 23,230 times, spanning 90 countries, and had won three international teaching awards. The app was motivated by the aim to empower students to learn accounting in a fun way, outside of the classroom.…

  1. "Apps"--An Innovative Way to Share Extension Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Joseph S.; Franke-Dvorak, Tanya C.; Price, Randy R.

    2012-01-01

    Extension professionals across the country are continuously seeking innovative ways to reach clientele and to disseminate timely, educational information. A new avenue to reach clientele includes the use of smartphone "apps." The "Machinery Sizing" app, which was developed to ease the estimation of tractor horsepower to…

  2. Mathematics Education: Is There an App for That?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Applications (apps) for hand-held devices, such as IPads and smart phones, are in great supply. Many of these focus on mathematics. A recent search revealed more than 4,000 apps for mathematics education. The ease of access and the fact that they are generally low cost, often free, means that they are readily available to the general population…

  3. iPhone apps for smoking cessation: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2011-03-01

    With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for its (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service's 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Each app was also coded for its (3) frequency of downloads. Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a Mobile Gaming App to Enhance Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seow, Poh-Sun; Wong, Suay-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe the first mobile gaming app for learning accounting, Accounting Challenge (ACE). On September 30, 2016, ACE had been downloaded 23,230 times, spanning 90 countries, and had won three international teaching awards. The app was motivated by the aim to empower students to learn accounting in a fun way, outside of the classroom.…

  5. "Apps"--An Innovative Way to Share Extension Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Joseph S.; Franke-Dvorak, Tanya C.; Price, Randy R.

    2012-01-01

    Extension professionals across the country are continuously seeking innovative ways to reach clientele and to disseminate timely, educational information. A new avenue to reach clientele includes the use of smartphone "apps." The "Machinery Sizing" app, which was developed to ease the estimation of tractor horsepower to…

  6. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein APPsα

    PubMed Central

    Mockett, Bruce G.; Richter, Max; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Müller, Ulrike C.

    2017-01-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. While most early studies have been conducted in vitro, effectiveness in animal models is now being confirmed. These studies have revealed that either upregulating α-secretase activity, acutely administering APPsα or chronic delivery of APPsα via a gene therapy approach can effectively treat mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders such as traumatic head injury. Together these findings suggest the need for intensifying research efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional protein. PMID:28223920

  8. Examining Preservice Teachers' Criteria for Evaluating Educational Mobile Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Evrim; Uygun, Erdem; Altan, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Recent interest in integrating mobile apps into teaching will continue growing. There remains, however, a pressing need to develop methods and resources to support and educate preservice teachers about the use of these technologies. This case study aimed to examine preservice teachers' criteria for evaluating educational mobile apps. Nineteen…

  9. Mobile Distance Learning with Smartphones and Apps in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vázquez-Cano, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the results of researcher' ongoing activities regarding the use of smartphones and a specific subject-app used at the Spanish National University of Distance Education (UNED) have been reported. The purpose of this trial is to assess the app's didactic use and potential to enhance student learning in university subjects in…

  10. APP with Kunitz type protease inhibitor domain (KPI) correlates with neuritic plaque density but not with cortical synaptophysin immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease and non-demented aged subjects: a multifactorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, S S; Sandbrink, R; Beyreuther, K; Schmitt, H P

    1995-01-01

    The formation of beta A4 amyloid protein in neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and advanced age is a complex process that involves a number of both cellular and molecular mechanisms, the interrelations of which are not yet completely understood. We have examined quantitatively, in AD and aged controls an extended spectrum of amyloid plaque-related cellular and molecular factors and the cortical synaptophysin immunoreactivity (synaptic density) in order to check for interrelations between them by multifactorial analysis. In 3 cases of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) aged 72, 80 and 82 years, and 9 controls aged 43-88 (mean age 65) years, the cortical synaptophysin immunoreactivity was assessed, together with the numbers of neurons, astrocytes and microglial cells, senile plaques, of tangle-bearing neurons, and the amount of beta A4 amyloid precursor protein (APP) with and without the Kunitz type serine protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. The main results were: APP including the KPI domain (KPI-APP) correlated with the number of neuritic plaques, regardless of whether they occurred in SDAT or non-demented controls. There was no significant difference in the amount of KPI-APP between SDAT and controls. Conversely, APP695 (without KPI) was significantly reduced in SDAT. KPI-APP did not correlate with the synaptophysin immunoreactivity (RGVA), while APP695 showed a significant correlation with the latter in all evaluations. It also correlated with the neuron counts, which was not true for KPI-APP. These results support previous findings indicating that KPI-APP is an important local factor for amyloid deposition in the neuritic plaques, both in AD and in non-demented aged people. On the contrary, KPI-APP does not seem to be significantly involved in the mechanisms of synaptic change outside of the plaques.

  11. Enhancing Pharmacy Student Learning and Perceptions of Medical Apps

    PubMed Central

    Aungst, Timothy Dy; Brown, Nicole V; Cui, Yan; Tam, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps in health care is growing. Current and future practitioners must be equipped with the skills to navigate and utilize apps in patient care, yet few strategies exist for training health care professional students on the usage of apps. Objective To characterize first-year pharmacy student use of medical apps, evaluate first-year pharmacy student's perception of skills in finding, evaluating, and using medical apps before and after a focused learning experience, and assess student satisfaction and areas for improvement regarding the learning experience. Methods Students listened to a recorded, Web-based lecture on finding, evaluating, and using mobile apps in patient care. A 2-hour, interactive workshop was conducted during which students were led by an instructor through a discussion on strategies for finding and using apps in health care. The students practiced evaluating 6 different health care–related apps. Surveys were conducted before and after the focused learning experience to assess students' perceptions of medical apps and current use and perspectives on satisfaction with the learning experience and role of technology in health care. Results This educational intervention is the first described formal, interactive method to educate student pharmacists on medical apps. With a 99% response rate, surveys conducted before and after the learning experience displayed perceived improvement in student skills related to finding (52/119, 44% before vs 114/120, 95% after), evaluating (18/119, 15% before vs 112/120, 93% after), and using medical apps in patient care (31/119, 26% before vs 108/120, 90% after) and the health sciences classroom (38/119, 32% before vs 104/120, 87% after). Students described satisfaction with the educational experience and agreed that it should be repeated in subsequent years (89/120, 74% agreed or strongly agreed). Most students surveyed possessed portable electronic devices (107/119, 90% mobile phone) and

  12. APP receptor? To be or not to be…

    PubMed Central

    Deyts, Carole; Thinakaran, Gopal; Parent, Angèle T.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and its metabolites play a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. The idea that APP may function as a receptor has gained momentum based on its structural similarities to type I transmembrane receptors, and the identification of putative APP ligands. Here we review the recent experimental evidence in support of this notion and discuss how this concept is viewed in the field. Specifically, we focus on the structural and functional characteristics of APP as a cell surface receptor, and its interaction with adaptors and signaling proteins. We also address the importance of APP's function as a receptor in Alzheimer’s disease etiology and discuss how this function might be potentially important for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26837733

  13. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data. PMID:25954370

  14. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps.

    PubMed

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data.

  15. All in the Family: How the APPs Regulate Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lazarov, Orly; Demars, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent intriguing evidence suggests that metabolites of amyloid precursor protein (APP), mutated in familial forms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), play critical roles in developmental and postnatal neurogenesis. Of note is soluble APPα (sAPPα) that regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. The APP family encompasses a group of ubiquitously expressed and evolutionarily conserved, type I transmembrane glycoproteins, whose functions have yet to be fully elucidated. APP can undergo proteolytic cleavage by mutually exclusive pathways. The subtle structural differences between metabolites generated in the different pathways, as well as their equilibrium, may be crucial for neuronal function. The implications of this new body of evidence are significant. Miscleavage of APP would readily impact developmental and postnatal neurogenesis, which might contribute to cognitive deficits characterizing Alzheimer’s disease. This review will discuss the implications of the role of the APP family in neurogenesis for neuronal development, cognitive function, and brain disorders that compromise learning and memory, such as AD. PMID:22675290

  16. cDNA-AFLP-based numerical comparison of leaf and root organ cDNAs in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ashutosh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2012-01-01

    Comparative transcriptome study of the leaf and root tissues of Catharanthus roseus is a prerequisite for causing any favorable tissue-specific change in the secondary metabolism of this species. This study was aimed at comparative analysis of the leaf and root cDNAs in C. roseus, using a cDNA-AFLP approach. Using 64 primer combinations (EcoRI and MseI), a total of 784 distinct transcriptionally-defined fragments (TDFs) could be detected in the root and leaf tissue transcript populations. The leaf tissue yielded a larger number of TDFs than the root tissue (556 versus 464), indicating a greater variety of expressing genes in the leaf. The leaf-specific TDFs (320) outnumbered the root-specific TDFs (228), indicating a higher number of leaf-specific functions and the relative complexity of the leaf tissue vis-à-vis the root tissue. Among the 236 TDFs that were detected in both types of tissues, 42 had nearly equal expression levels in both the tissues (L=R). Common TDFs having higher expression levels in the leaf (L>R; 124) outnumbered those having higher expression levels in the root (L

  17. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs that render yeasts tolerant toward the thiol-oxidizing drug diamide.

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, S; Babiychuk, E; Kampfenkel, K; Belles-Boix, E; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1995-01-01

    Diamide oxidizes cellular thiols and induces oxidative stress. To isolate plant genes which may, when overexpressed, increase tolerance of plants toward oxidative damage, an in vivo diamide tolerance screening in yeasts was used. An Arabidopsis cDNA library in a yeast expression vector was used to transform a yeast strain with intact antioxidant defense. Cells from approximately 10(5) primary transformants were selected for resistance to diamide. Three Arabidopsis cDNAs which confer diamide tolerance were isolated. This drug tolerance was specific and no cross tolerance toward hydroperoxides was found. One cDNA (D3) encodes a polypeptide which has an amino-terminal J domain characteristic of a divergent family of DnaJ chaperones. Another (D18) encodes a putative dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase. Surprisingly, the third cDNA (D22) encodes a plant homolog of gamma-glutamyltransferases. It would have been difficult to predict that the expression of those genes would lead to an improved survival under conditions of depletion of cellular thiols. Hence, we suggest that this cloning approach may be a useful contribution to the isolation of plant genes that can help to cope with oxidative stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479844

  18. Isolation of cosmids and fetal brain cDNAs from the proximal long arm of human chromosome 22.

    PubMed

    Lamour, V; Lévy, N; Desmaze, C; Baude, V; Lécluse, Y; Delattre, O; Bernheim, A; Thomas, G; Aurias, A; Lipinski, M

    1993-05-01

    The proximal portion of human chromosome 22q appears to carry genes implicated in the pathogenesis of various developmental disorders, including the cat eye syndrome (CES) and the DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). A cosmid library was prepared from a radiation hybrid selected for its content in chromosome 22 fragments. A large fraction of cosmids containing human DNA were found to derive from the juxtacentromeric region of chromosome 22, as shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed using individual cosmids or cosmid pools as probes. Finer mapping was obtained for individual cosmids by hybridization to a somatic cell hybrid mapping panel which splits the long arm of the chromosome into 14 bins numbered 1 to 14 from the centromere to the telomere. Of the 10 cosmids mapped, eight belonged to group 1, the other two to group 14, in agreement with FISH data. Rare endonuclease sites and fragments conserved between species were searched in single cosmids, resulting in the selection of seven cosmid fragments which were used to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library. Three cDNAs were identified, encoded from two chromosome 22 genes which appeared to be novel, as determined from partial end sequence and comparison with the database entries. Fine localization of the 30.9 cDNA indicated that the corresponding gene was located in a segment of proximal 22q overlapping with the critical DGS region.

  19. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  20. Mapping of chimpanzee full-length cDNAs onto the human genome unveils large potential divergence of the transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Sakate, Ryuichi; Suto, Yumiko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Tanoue, Tetsuya; Hida, Munetomo; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Kusuda, Jun; Gojobori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki; Hirai, Momoki

    2007-09-01

    The genetic basis of the phenotypic difference between human and chimpanzee is one of the most actively pursued issues in current genomics. Although the genomic divergence between the two species has been described, the transcriptomic divergence has not been well documented. Thus, we newly sequenced and analyzed chimpanzee full-length cDNAs (FLcDNAs) representing 87 protein-coding genes. The number of nucleotide substitutions and sites of insertions/deletions (indels) was counted as a measure of sequence divergence between the chimpanzee FLcDNAs and the human genome onto which the FLcDNAs were mapped. Difference in transcription start/termination sites (TSSs/TTSs) and alternative splicing (AS) exons was also counted as a measure of structural divergence between the chimpanzee FLcDNAs and their orthologous human transcripts (NCBI RefSeq). As a result, we found that transposons (Alu) and repetitive segments caused large indels, which strikingly increased the average amount of sequence divergence up to more than 2% in the 3'-UTRs. Moreover, 20 out of the 87 transcripts contained more than 10% structural divergence in length. In particular, two-thirds of the structural divergence was found in the 3'-UTRs, and variable transcription start sites were conspicuous in the 5'-UTRs. As both transcriptional and translational efficiency were supposed to be related to 5'- and 3'-UTR sequences, these results lead to the idea that the difference in gene regulation can be a major cause of the difference in phenotype between human and chimpanzee.

  1. Sequence analysis and quantification of transposase cDNAs of transposon TCp3.2 in Cydia pomonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Arends, Hugo M; Jehle, Johannes A

    2006-11-01

    The Tc1-like transposable element TCp3.2 was previously found to be horizontally transferred from the genome of Cydia pomonella to the C. pomonella granulovirus (CpGV). In this study, the transcription of transposase genes of endogenous TCp3.2 copies in the insect host genome was investigated. Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs prepared from TCp3.2 transposase transcripts resulted in the identification of a 199-bp-long intron. Sequence heterogeneities among different cDNA clones suggested that multiple copies of the transposase are transcribed, but that a part of these copies encode a defective transposase. The actin gene of C. pomonella was cloned and sequenced, and used to standardise quantitative real time PCR on prepared cDNA of the TCp3.2 transposase. Comparison of cDNA levels of TCp3.2 transposase prepared from mock and CpGV-infected C. pomonella larvae did not provide evidence that CpGV infection influenced the transcription level of TCp3.2 transposase. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. "Let's get Wasted!" and Other Apps: Characteristics, Acceptability, and Use of Alcohol-Related Smartphone Applications.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Emma R; Horyniak, Danielle R; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul; Lim, Megan Sc

    2013-06-25

    Smartphone applications ("apps") offer a number of possibilities for health promotion activities. However, young people may also be exposed to apps with incorrect or poor quality information, since, like the Internet, apps are mostly unregulated. Little is known about the quality of alcohol-related apps or what influence they may have on young people's behavior. To critically review popular alcohol-related smartphone apps and to explore young people's opinions of these apps, their acceptability, and use for alcohol-related health promotion. First, a content analysis of 500 smartphone apps available via Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores was conducted. Second, all available blood alcohol concentration (BAC) apps were tested against four individual case profiles of known BAC from a previous study. Third, two focus group discussions explored how young people use alcohol-related apps, particularly BAC apps. 384 apps were included; 50% (192) were entertainment apps, 39% (148) were BAC apps, and 11% (44) were health promotion and/or stop drinking-related apps. When testing the BAC apps, there was wide variation in results, with apps tending to overestimate BAC scores compared with recorded scores. Participants were skeptical of the accuracy of BAC apps, and there was an overall concern that these apps would be used as a form of entertainment, further encouraging young people to drink, rather than reduce their drinking and risk taking. The majority of popular alcohol-related apps encouraged alcohol consumption. Apps estimating blood alcohol concentration were widely available but were highly unreliable. Health departments and prominent health organizations need to endorse alcohol smartphone apps that are accurate and evidence-based to give specific apps credibility in the ever-expanding market of unregulated apps.

  3. GeoMapApp: A Cross-Platform app for Geophysical Data Exploration and Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Apps that provide convenient, integrated access to a range of geophysical data have wide applicability in both research and teaching. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory provides casual and specialist users alike with intuitive access to hundreds of built-in geoscience data sets covering geophysics, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and cryospherics. Users can also import their own data tables, spreadsheets, shapefiles, grids, and images. Simple manipulation and analysis tools combined with layering capabilities and engaging visualisations provide a powerful app with which to explore and interrogate geoscience data in its proper geospatial context thus helping users to more easily gain deeper insight and understanding from real-world data. The backbone of GeoMapApp is a regularly-updated multi-resolution elevation base map covering the oceans and continents and includes measurements ranging from Space Shuttle terrestrial data to ultra-high-resolution surveys of coral reefs and seafloor hydrothermal vent fields. Examples of built-in geophysical data sets include interactive earthquake locations and focal mechanism (CMT) solutions; underway cruise track profiles; plate tectonic velocities, seafloor crustal age and heat flow; multi-channel seismic reflection profiles; gravity, magnetic, and geoid anomalies; sidescan; subduction zone interface depths; and, EarthScope station locations. Dynamic links point to data sources and additional information. There are dedicated menus for GeoPRISMS, MARGINS, and Ridge2000 data sets. A versatile profiling tool provides instant access to data cross-sections, and contouring and 3-D views are also offered. Tabular data - both imported and built-in - can be displayed in a variety of ways and users can quickly select data points directly from the map. Layer opacity and on/off toggles allow easy data set

  4. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) regulates synaptic structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Tyan, Sheue-Houy; Shih, Ann Yu-Jung; Walsh, Jessica J.; Murayama, Hiroko; Sarsoza, Floyd; Ku, Lawrence; Eggert, Simone; Hof, Patrick R.; Koo, Edward H.; Dickstein, Dara L.

    2012-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. APP is proteolytically cleaved by β- and γ-secretases to generate the amyloid β-protein (Aβ), the core protein component of senile plaques in AD. It is also cleaved by α-secretase to release the large soluble APP (sAPP) luminal domain that has been shown to exhibit trophic properties. Increasing evidence points to the development of synaptic deficits and dendritic spine loss prior to deposition of amyloid in transgenic mouse models that overexpress APP and Aβ peptides. The consequence of loss of APP, however, is unsettled. In this study, we investigated whether APP itself plays a role in regulating synaptic structure and function using an APP knock-out (APP−/−) mouse model. We examined dendritic spines in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and CA1 neurons of hippocampus from APP−/− mice. In the cultured neurons, there was a significant decrease (~35%) in spine density in neurons derived from APP−/− mice compared to littermate control neurons that were partially restored with sAPPα-conditioned medium. In APP−/− mice in vivo, spine numbers were also significantly reduced but by a smaller magnitude (~15%). Furthermore, apical dendritic length and dendritic arborization were markedly diminished in hippocampal neurons. These abnormalities in neuronal morphology were accompanied by reduction in long-term potentiation. Strikingly, all these changes in vivo were only seen in mice that were 12-15 months in age but not in younger animals. We propose that APP, specifically sAPP, is necessary for the maintenance of dendritic integrity in the hippocampus in an age-associated manner. Finally, these age-related changes may contribute to Alzheimer’s changes independent of Aβ-mediated synaptic toxicity. PMID:22884903

  5. Synaptotagmins interact with APP and promote Aβ generation.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Vivek; D'Avanzo, Carla; Berezovska, Oksana; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Kovacs, Dora M

    2015-07-23

    Accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have shown that synaptic Aβ toxicity may directly impair synaptic function. However, proteins regulating Aβ generation at the synapse have not been characterized. Here, we sought to identify synaptic proteins that interact with the extracellular domain of APP and regulate Aβ generation. Affinity purification-coupled mass spectrometry identified members of the Synaptotagmin (Syt) family as novel interacting proteins with the APP ectodomain in mouse brains. Syt-1, -2 and -9 interacted with APP in cells and in mouse brains in vivo. Using a GST pull-down approach, we have further demonstrated that the Syt interaction site lies in the 108 amino acids linker region between the E1 and KPI domains of APP. Stable overexpression of Syt-1 or Syt-9 with APP in CHO and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) significantly increased APP-CTF and sAPP levels, with a 2 to 3 fold increase in secreted Aβ levels in PC12 cells. Moreover, using a stable knockdown approach to reduce the expression of endogenous Syt-1 in PC12 cells, we have observed a ~ 50% reduction in secreted Aβ generation. APP processing also decreased in these cells, shown by lower CTF levels. Lentiviral-mediated knock down of endogenous Syt-1 in mouse primary neurons also led to a significant reduction in both Aβ40 and Aβ42 generation. As secreted sAPPβ levels were significantly reduced in PC12 cells lacking Syt-1 expression, our results suggest that Syt-1 regulates Aβ generation by modulating BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP. Altogether, our data identify the synaptic vesicle proteins Syt-1 and 9 as novel APP-interacting proteins that promote Aβ generation and thus may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  6. Using Mobile App Development Tools to Build a GIS Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mital, A.; Catchen, M.; Mital, K.

    2014-12-01

    Our group designed and built working web, android, and IOS applications using different mapping libraries as bases on which to overlay fire data from NASA. The group originally planned to make app versions for Google Maps, Leaflet, and OpenLayers. However, because the Leaflet library did not properly load on Android, the group focused efforts on the other two mapping libraries. For Google Maps, the group first designed a UI for the web app and made a working version of the app. After updating the source of fire data to one which also provided historical fire data, the design had to be modified to include the extra data. After completing a working version of the web app, the group used webview in android, a built in resource which allowed porting the web app to android without rewriting the code for android. Upon completing this, the group found Apple IOS devices had a similar capability, and so decided to add an IOS app to the project using a function similar to webview. Alongside this effort, the group began implementing an OpenLayers fire map using a simpler UI. This web app was completed fairly quickly relative to Google Maps; however, it did not include functionality such as satellite imagery or searchable locations. The group finished the project with a working android version of the Google Maps based app supporting API levels 14-19 and an OpenLayers based app supporting API levels 8-19, as well as a Google Maps based IOS app supporting both old and new screen formats. This project was implemented by high school and college students under an SGT Inc. STEM internship program

  7. Mobile App versus Web App: a Comparison Using 2008–2012 “PubMed for Handhelds” Server Data

    PubMed Central

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys show that mobile apps are more popular than Web apps. Apple’s iTunes Store, now has about 800,000 apps and reported to have about 40 billion downloads. Android apps, although fewer, is available to the most number of smartphones today. About 40,000 apps are medical or health related. We developed a PubMed4Hh mobile app for iPhone/iPad users to search MEDLINE/PubMed with same features as our Web-based search tools, in use since 2002. Five-year (2008–2012) server data for PubMed4Hh and Web app were analyzed. Searches using the mobile app significantly increased compared to the same five-year time period. Month-by-month comparison showed a 3 to 5-fold increase in queries. The six-month total accesses comparison increased 280% from the previous four-year average. A review of 500 randomly selected queries revealed that the majority of queries were clinical questions ((97.8%) and 61% of these queries are searches related to therapy. PMID:24551349

  8. Apps and EFL: A Case Study on the Use of Smartphone Apps to Learn English by Four Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindog, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study explores, describes and analyzes the utilization of smartphone apps by four Japanese university students to support learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Findings indicate that intermediate language learners use apps to access content and communicate on SNS and are not keen on studying discrete language parts. Participants…

  9. Mobile app versus Web app: a comparison using 2008-2012 "PubMed for Handhelds" server data.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys show that mobile apps are more popular than Web apps. Apple's iTunes Store, now has about 800,000 apps and reported to have about 40 billion downloads. Android apps, although fewer, is available to the most number of smartphones today. About 40,000 apps are medical or health related. We developed a PubMed4Hh mobile app for iPhone/iPad users to search MEDLINE/PubMed with same features as our Web-based search tools, in use since 2002. Five-year (2008-2012) server data for PubMed4Hh and Web app were analyzed. Searches using the mobile app significantly increased compared to the same five-year time period. Month-by-month comparison showed a 3 to 5-fold increase in queries. The six-month total accesses comparison increased 280% from the previous four-year average. A review of 500 randomly selected queries revealed that the majority of queries were clinical questions ((97.8%) and 61% of these queries are searches related to therapy.

  10. The Transcriptionally Active Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Intracellular Domain Is Preferentially Produced from the 695 Isoform of APP in a β-Secretase-dependent Pathway*♦

    PubMed Central

    Belyaev, Nikolai D.; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Beckett, Caroline; Makova, Natalia Z.; Revett, Timothy J.; Nalivaeva, Natalia N.; Hooper, Nigel M.; Turner, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases generates several biologically active products, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). AICD regulates transcription of several neuronal genes, especially the Aβ-degrading enzyme, neprilysin (NEP). APP exists in several alternatively spliced isoforms, APP695, APP751, and APP770. We have examined whether each isoform can contribute to AICD generation and hence up-regulation of NEP expression. Using SH-SY5Y neuronal cells stably expressing each of the APP isoforms, we observed that only APP695 up-regulated nuclear AICD levels (9-fold) and NEP expression (6-fold). Increased NEP expression was abolished by a β- or γ-secretase inhibitor but not an α-secretase inhibitor. This correlated with a marked increase in both Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 in APP695 cells as compared with APP751 or APP770 cells. Similar phenomena were observed in Neuro2a but not HEK293 cells. SH-SY5Y cells expressing the Swedish mutant of APP695 also showed an increase in Aβ levels and NEP expression as compared with wild-type APP695 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that AICD was associated with the NEP promoter in APP695, Neuro2a, and APPSwe cells but not APP751 nor APP770 cells where AICD was replaced by histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). AICD occupancy of the NEP promoter was replaced by HDAC1 after treatment of the APP695 cells with a β- but not an α-secretase inhibitor. The increased AICD and NEP levels were significantly reduced in cholesterol-depleted APP695 cells. In conclusion, Aβ and functional AICD appear to be preferentially synthesized through β-secretase action on APP695. PMID:20961856

  11. Peptides based on the presenilin-APP binding domain inhibit APP processing and Aβ production through interfering with the APP transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Esselens, Cary; Sannerud, Ragna; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Baert, Veerle; Kaden, Daniela; Serneels, Lutgarde; De Strooper, Bart; Rousseau, Frederic; Multhaup, Gerd; Schymkowitz, Joost; Langedijk, Johannes P M; Annaert, Wim

    2012-09-01

    Presenilins (PSENs) form the catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for intramembrane proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Notch, among many other membrane proteins. Previously, we identified a PSEN1-binding domain in APP, encompassing half of the transmembrane domain following the amyloid β (Aβ) sequence. Based on this, we designed peptides mimicking this interaction domain with the aim to selectively block APP processing and Aβ generation through interfering with enzyme-substrate binding. We identified a peptide sequence that, when fused to a virally derived translocation peptide, significantly lowered Aβ production (IC(50): 317 nM) in cell-free and cell-based assays using APP-carboxy terminal fragment as a direct γ-secretase substrate. Being derived from the APP sequence, this inhibitory peptide did not affect NotchΔE γ-cleavage, illustrating specificity and potential therapeutic value. In cell-based assays, the peptide strongly suppressed APP shedding, demonstrating that it exerts the inhibitory effect already upstream of γ-secretase, most likely through steric hindrance.

  12. Long-term treadmill exercise inhibits the progression of Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-li; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, He; Shi, Li-de

    2013-11-01

    Previously our study has demonstrated that long-term treadmill exercise improved cognitive deficit in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease (AD) paralleled by enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study was undertaken to further investigate whether the treadmill running could inhibit the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuropathology in hippocampus of the APP/PS1 mouse models of AD, and to define a potential molecular mechanism underlying the exercise-induced reduction in AD-like neuropathology. Five months of treadmill exercise resulted in a robust reduction in β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in APP phosphorylation and PS1 expression. We also observed GSK3, rather than CDK5, was inhibited by treadmill exercise. These results indicate that treadmill exercise is sufficient to inhibit the progression of AD-like neuropathology in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model, and may mediate APP processing in favor of reduced Aβ deposition. In addition, we demonstrate that treadmill exercise attenuates AD-like neuropathology in AD transgenic mice via a GSK3 dependent signaling pathway.

  13. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; West, Joshua H; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-03-02

    Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Each app was given a theory score to reflect the extent to which health behavior theory was integrated into the app. The highest possible score was 60. Out of the 10 apps evaluated, My Diet Coach obtained the highest theory score of 15. MapMyFitness and Yumget received the lowest scores of 0. The average theory score among the apps was 5.6. Most of the calorie counting apps in the sample contained minimal health behavior theory.

  14. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was given a theory score to reflect the extent to which health behavior theory was integrated into the app. The highest possible score was 60. Out of the 10 apps evaluated, My Diet Coach obtained the highest theory score of 15. MapMyFitness and Yumget received the lowest scores of 0. The average theory score among the apps was 5.6. Conclusions Most of the calorie counting apps in the sample contained minimal health behavior theory. PMID:26935898

  15. Mobile Apps for Weight Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health concern. Mobile apps for weight loss/management are found to be effective for improving health outcomes in adults and adolescents, and are pursued as a cost-effective and scalable intervention for combating overweight and obesity. In recent years, the commercial market for ‘weight loss apps’ has expanded at rapid pace, yet little is known regarding the evidence-based quality of these tools for weight control. Objective To characterize the inclusion of evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of commercial mobile apps for weight loss/management. Methods An electronic search was conducted between July 2014 and July 2015 of the official app stores for four major mobile operating systems. Three raters independently identified apps with a stated goal of weight loss/management, as well as weight loss/management apps targeted to pediatric users. All discrepancies regarding selection were resolved through discussion with a fourth rater. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form and the evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of included apps was assessed. Evidence-based strategies included: self-monitoring, goal-setting, physical activity support, healthy eating support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies, and social support. Results A total of 393 apps were included in this review. Self-monitoring was most common (139/393, 35.3%), followed by physical activity support (108/393, 27.5%), weight assessment (100/393, 25.4%), healthy eating support (91/393, 23.2%), goal-setting (84/393, 21.4%), motivational strategies (28/393, 7.1%), social support (21/393, 5.3%), and personalized feedback (7/393, 1.8%). Of apps, 0.8% (3/393) underwent scientific evaluation and 0.3% (1/393) reported health care expert involvement. No apps were comprehensive in the

  16. Development of 'Twazon': An Arabic App for Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Alnasser, Aroub; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Marais, Debbi

    2016-05-16

    Weight gain and its related illnesses have become a major public health issue across the world, with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries seeing dramatic increases in obesity and overweight, and yet there is very little information on how to intervene with this demographic due to cultural and linguistic barriers. As the use of smartphones and apps has also increased in the region, information communication technologies could be a cost-effective means of facilitating the delivery of behavior-modification interventions directly to the target population. Although there are existing apps that offer lifestyle-modification tools, they do not give consideration to the evidence-based practices for weight management. This offers an opportunity to create an Arabic language weight loss app that offers localized content and adheres to evidence-informed practices that are needed for effective weight loss. This paper describes the process of developing an Arabic weight loss app designed to facilitate the modification of key nutritional and physical activity behaviors among Saudi adults, while taking into consideration cultural norms. The development of the Twazon app involved: (1) reviewing all available Arabic weight loss apps and compared with evidence-based practices for weight loss, (2) conducting a qualitative study with overweight and obese Saudi women to ascertain their preferences, (3) selecting which behavioral change strategies and guidelines to be used in the app, (4) creating the Saudi Food Database, (5) deciding on graphic design for both iPhone operating system and Android platforms, including user interface, relational database, and programming code, and (6) testing the beta version of the app with health professionals and potential users. The Twazon app took 23 months to develop and included the compilation of an original Saudi Food database. Eight subjects gave feedback regarding the content validity and usability of the app and its features during a pilot

  17. Pro-smoking apps for smartphones: the latest vehicle for the tobacco industry?

    PubMed

    BinDhim, Nasser F; Freeman, Becky; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone use is growing exponentially and will soon become the only mobile phone handset for about 6 billion users. Smartphones are ideal marketing targets as consumers can be reached anytime, anywhere. Smartphone application (app) stores are global shops that sell apps to users all around the world. Although smartphone stores have a wide collection of health-related apps they also have a wide set of harmful apps. In this study, the availability of 'pro-smoking' apps in two of the largest smartphone app stores (Apple App store and Android Market) was examined. In February 2012, we searched the Apple App Store and Android Market for pro-smoking apps, using the keywords Smoke, Cigarette, Cigar, Smoking and Tobacco. We excluded apps that were not tobacco-related and then assessed the tobacco-related apps against our inclusion criteria. 107 pro-smoking apps were identified and classified into six categories based on functionality.42 of these apps were from the Android Market and downloaded by over 6 million users. Some apps have explicit images of cigarette brands. Tobacco products are being promoted in the new 'smartphone app' medium which has global reach, a huge consumer base of various age groups and underdeveloped regulation. The paper also provides two examples of app store responses to country-specific laws and regulations that could be used to control the harmful contents in the app stores for individual countries.

  18. c-Abl links APP-BACE1 interaction promoting APP amyloidogenic processing in Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, M J; Belbin, O; Estrada, L D; Leal, N; Contreras, P S; Lleó, A; Burgos, P V; Zanlungo, S; Alvarez, A R

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol. Interestingly, NPC patients' brains also show increased levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, a key protein in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. We previously reported that the c-Abl tyrosine kinase is active in NPC neurons and in AD animal models and that Imatinib, a specific c-Abl inhibitor, decreased the amyloid burden in brains of the AD mouse model. Active c-Abl was shown to interact with the APP cytosolic domain, but the relevance of this interaction to APP processing has yet to be defined. In this work we show that c-Abl inhibition reduces APP amyloidogenic cleavage in NPC cells overexpressing APP. Indeed, we found that levels of the Aβ oligomers and the carboxy-terminal fragment βCTF were decreased when the cells were treated with Imatinib and upon shRNA-mediated c-Abl knockdown. Moreover, Imatinib decreased APP amyloidogenic processing in the brain of an NPC mouse model. In addition, we found decreased levels of βCTF in neuronal cultures from c-Abl null mice. We demonstrate that c-Abl directly interacts with APP, that c-Abl inhibition prevents this interaction, and that Tyr682 in the APP cytoplasmic tail is essential for this interaction. More importantly, we found that c-Abl inhibition by Imatinib significantly inhibits the interaction between APP and BACE1. We conclude that c-Abl activity facilitates the APP-BACE1 interaction, thereby promoting amyloidogenic processing of APP. Thus, inhibition of c-Abl could be a pharmacological target for preventing the injurious effects of increased Aβ levels in NPC disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Future trend medical apps. From the apps store directly into medical practice?].

    PubMed

    Gehring, H; Pramann, O; Imhoff, M; Albrecht, U-V

    2014-12-01

    In day to day medical care, patients, nursing staff and doctors currently face a bewildering and rapidly growing number of health-related apps running on various "smart" devices and there are also uncountable possibilities for the use of such technology. Concerning regulation, a risk-based approach is applied for development and use (including safety and security considerations) of medical and health-related apps. Considering safety-related issues as well as organizational matters, this is a sensible approach but requires honest self-assessment as well as a high degree of responsibility, networking and good quality management by all those involved. This cannot be taken for granted. Apart from regulatory aspects it is important to not only consider what is reasonable, helpful or profitable. Quality aspects, safety matters, data protection and privacy as well as liability issues must also be considered but are often not adequately respected. If software quality is compromised, this endangers patient safety as well as data protection, privacy and data integrity. This can for example result in unwanted advertising or unauthorized access to the stored data by third parties; therefore, local, regional and international regulatory measures need to be applied in order to ensure safe use of medical apps in all possible areas, including the operating room (OR) with its highly specialized demands. Lawmakers need to include impulses from all stakeholders in their considerations and this should include input from existing private initiatives that already deal with the use and evaluation of apps in a medical context. Of course, this process needs to respect pre-existing national, European as well as international (harmonized) standards.

  20. Cloning, characterization, and expression studies in Escherichia coli of growth hormone cDNAs from Indian zebu cattle, reverine buffalo, and beetal goat.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, U K; Sahni, G

    2002-11-01

    The growth hormone cDNAs from three different economically important animal species of indian origin viz., indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus), indian reverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and beetal goat (Capra hircus) were isolated by the RT-PCR technique. The amplified product was then cloned into phagemid pBluescriptIIKS- and the nucleotide sequence of the entire 573 base coding region for each product was determined. The genetic sequences as well as the translated protein sequence of these ruminant species were compared to that of closely related species like taurine cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep (Ovis aries). A very high degree of nucleotide sequence homology, ranging between 97-98%, was observed. Subsequently, the buffalo and goat cDNAs were used for expression studies in Escherichia coli. Very low levels of expression resulted when the growth hormone cDNAs were directly placed under the strong E. coli (trc) or phage (T7) promoters with the approximate level being less than 0.1% and 1% of the intracellular E. coli proteins, respectively. The nearly 10-fold enhancement of the level of expression as observed was attributable to the nature of the untranslated leader sequence donated by the individual expression element. High level (about 20% of soluble E. coli protein) expression of buffalo/goat growth hormone was achieved as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in pGEX-KT. Further, although attempts at converting the GST-GH fusion protein system to a two-cistronic gene expression system were unsuccessful, the utilization of a short synthetic first cistron in the two-cistronic mode of expression resulted in high levels (approximately 30% of soluble protein cell fraction) of GH polypeptide with a native N-terminus in E. coli for all three cDNAs.

  1. Users’ Adoption of Mental Health Apps: Examining the Impact of Information Cues

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous mental health apps have been developed and made available to users on the current app market. Users may find it difficult and overwhelming to select apps from the hundreds of choices that are available in the app marketplace. Clarifying what information cues may impact a user’s selection and adoption of mental health apps is now a critical and pressing issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of information cues on users’ adoption of anxiety apps using observational data from the Android app market. Methods A systematic search of anxiety apps was conducted on the Android app store by using keywords search. The title and metadata information of a total of 274 apps that met our criteria were collected and analyzed. Three trained researchers recorded the app rankings from the search results page on different dates and Web browsers. Results Our results show that ratings (r=.56, P<.001) and reviews (r=.39, P<.001) have significant positive correlations with the number of installs, and app prices have significant negative correlations with installs (r=−.36). The results also reveal that lower-priced apps have higher ratings (r=−.23, P<.001) and a greater number of app permission requests (r=.18, P=.002) from the device. For app titles, we found that apps with titles related to symptoms have significantly lower installs than apps with titles that are not related to symptoms (P<.001). Conclusions This study revealed a relationship between information cues and users’ adoption of mental health apps by analyzing observational data. As the first of its kind, we found impactful indicators for mental health app adoptions. We also discovered a labeling effect of app titles that could hinder mental health app adoptions and which may provide insight for future designs of mental health apps and their search mechanisms. PMID:28659256

  2. Users' Adoption of Mental Health Apps: Examining the Impact of Information Cues.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Ying; Bashir, Masooda

    2017-06-28

    Numerous mental health apps have been developed and made available to users on the current app market. Users may find it difficult and overwhelming to select apps from the hundreds of choices that are available in the app marketplace. Clarifying what information cues may impact a user's selection and adoption of mental health apps is now a critical and pressing issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of information cues on users' adoption of anxiety apps using observational data from the Android app market. A systematic search of anxiety apps was conducted on the Android app store by using keywords search. The title and metadata information of a total of 274 apps that met our criteria were collected and analyzed. Three trained researchers recorded the app rankings from the search results page on different dates and Web browsers. Our results show that ratings (r=.56, P<.001) and reviews (r=.39, P<.001) have significant positive correlations with the number of installs, and app prices have significant negative correlations with installs (r=-.36). The results also reveal that lower-priced apps have higher ratings (r=-.23, P<.001) and a greater number of app permission requests (r=.18, P=.002) from the device. For app titles, we found that apps with titles related to symptoms have significantly lower installs than apps with titles that are not related to symptoms (P<.001). This study revealed a relationship between information cues and users' adoption of mental health apps by analyzing observational data. As the first of its kind, we found impactful indicators for mental health app adoptions. We also discovered a labeling effect of app titles that could hinder mental health app adoptions and which may provide insight for future designs of mental health apps and their search mechanisms.

  3. Computational characterization of reaction intermediates in the photocycle of the sensory domain of the AppA blue light photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Khrenova, Maria G; Domratcheva, Tatiana; Schlichting, Ilme; Grigorenko, Bella L; Nemukhin, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    The AppA protein with the BLUF (blue light using flavin adenine dinucleotide) domain is a blue light photoreceptor that cycle between dark-adapted and light-induced functional states. We characterized possible reaction intermediates in the photocycle of AppA BLUF. Molecular dynamics (MD), quantum chemical and quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations were carried out to describe several stable structures of a molecular system modeling the protein. The coordinates of heavy atoms from the crystal structure (PDB code 2IYG) of the protein in the dark state served as starting point for 10 ns MD simulations. Representative MD frames were used in QM(B3LYP/cc-pVDZ)/MM(AMBER) calculations to locate minimum energy configurations of the model system. Vertical electronic excitation energies were estimated for the molecular clusters comprising the quantum subsystems of the QM/MM optimized structures using the SOS-CIS(D) quantum chemistry method. Computational results support the occurrence of photoreaction intermediates that are characterized by spectral absorption bands between those of the dark and light states. They agree with crystal structures of reaction intermediates (PDB code 2IYI) observed in the AppA BLUF domain. Transformations of the Gln63 side chain stimulated by photo-excitation and performed with the assistance of the chromophore and the Met106 side chain are responsible for these intermediates. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. 12348_GLOBE_Observer_App_Promo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-25

    GLOBE Observer invites you to make environmental observations that complement NASA satellite observations to help scientists studying Earth and the global environment. Version 1.1 includes GLOBE Clouds, which allows you to photograph clouds and record sky observations and compare them with NASA satellite images. GLOBE is now the major source of human observations of clouds, which provide more information than automated systems. Future versions of GLOBE Observer will add additional tools for you to use as a citizen environmental scientist. By using the GLOBE Observer app, you are joining the GLOBE community and contributing important scientific data to NASA and GLOBE, your local community, and students and scientists worldwide. New and interested users are encouraged to go to observer.globe.gov to learn more about the GLOBE program, or learn more about the GLOBE Clouds protocol.

  5. Radiology: "killer app" for next generation networks?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Kevin M

    2004-03-01

    The core principles of digital radiology were well developed by the end of the 1980 s. During the following decade tremendous improvements in computer technology enabled realization of those principles at an affordable cost. In this decade work can focus on highly distributed radiology in the context of the integrated health care enterprise. Over the same period computer networking has evolved from a relatively obscure field used by a small number of researchers across low-speed serial links to a pervasive technology that affects nearly all facets of society. Development directions in network technology will ultimately provide end-to-end data paths with speeds that match or exceed the speeds of data paths within the local network and even within workstations. This article describes key developments in Next Generation Networks, potential obstacles, and scenarios in which digital radiology can become a "killer app" that helps to drive deployment of new network infrastructure.

  6. Hydroxytyrosol mildly improve cognitive function independent of APP processing in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yunhua; Hou, Chen; Yang, Ziqi; Li, Caixia; Jia, Liyan; Liu, Jing; Tang, Ying; Shi, Le; Li, Yongqin; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-11-01

    Olive products, the hallmark of Mediterranean diet, are associated with reduced risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We and other groups have shown that hydroxytyrosol (HT), a bioactive compound of olive products, ameliorates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neural toxicity. However, whether HT in Mediterranean diet acts as a functional ingredient in delaying AD pathogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD, were administrated for 6 months with 5 mg/kg/day of HT, a comparable level of HT in daily Mediterranean diet. HT improved electroencephalography activity and marginally benefited cognitive behavior of transgenic mice. In addition, HT treatment ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced mitochondrial carbonyl protein, enhanced superoxide dismutase 2 expression, reversed the phase 2 enzyme system and reduced the levels of brain inflammatory markers, but had no effect on brain β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that HT may represent as a functional ingredient in Mediterranean diet in ameliorating AD-involved neuronal impairment via modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress, neuronal inflammation, and apoptosis without affecting APP processing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Early development of social deficits in APP and APP-PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Susanna; Delage, Pauline; Lebreton, Fanny; Crusio, Wim E; Cho, Yoon H

    2012-05-01

    Mimicking relevant behavioral features of the human pathology is one of the most important challenges for animal models of neurological disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). Indeed, the most popular genetic AD mouse lines bearing mutations of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 genes (PS1), often fail to present robust cognitive deficits or show them only at very advanced ages. It is therefore crucial to identify AD-like behavioral alterations which may reliably reflect the early stages of the pathology, thus permitting tests of more efficient early therapeutic interventions. Here, we demonstrated the very early expression of noncognitive AD-like symptoms, i.e., deficits in social interest, interaction and communication, in APP and APP-PS1 transgenic mice. Conversely, other noncognitive behaviors (sensori-motor gating) as well as cognitive abilities (spontaneous alternation) were unaltered in AD transgenics. Our data suggest that social deficits precede other neuropsychiatric and cognitive AD-like symptoms and can be employed as early markers of AD pathology in genetic mouse models. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. APP717, APP693, and PRIP gene mutations are rare in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Anderson, Leojean; O'dahl, Sheldon; Wisjman, Ellen M.; Sadovnick, Adele D.; Ball, Melvyn J.; Larson, Eric B.; Kukull, Walter A.; Martin, George M.; Roses, Allen D.; Bird, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene codes for the precursor to the β-protein found in the amyloid deposits of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recently Goate et al. identified in codon 717 of this gene a missense mutation which segregates with AD in a familial AD (FAD) kindred. The same mutation was also found in affected subjects from a second FAD family but not in other FAD families or in normal controls. The following work was undertaken to determine the frequency of the codon 717 mutation in FAD and nonfamilial AD cases and in normal controls. We tested 76 FAD families, 127 “sporadic” AD subjects, 16 Down syndrome cases, and 256 normal controls for this mutation, and none were positive. We also tested for the APP codon 693 mutation associated with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis–Dutch type, for PRIP gene missense mutations at codons 102, 117, and 200, and for the PRIP insertion mutations which are associated with Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straussler Scheinker syndrome. No examples of these mutations were found in our population. Thus these APP and PRIP mutations are rare in both FAD and nonfamilial AD. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:1679288

  9. Development of a Rating Tool for Mobile Cancer Apps: Information Analysis and Formal and Content-Related Evaluation of Selected Cancer Apps.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Cathleen; von Osthoff, Marc Baron; Frey, Katrin; Hübner, Jutta

    2017-08-17

    Mobile apps are offered in large numbers and have different qualities. The aim of this article was to develop a rating tool based on formal and content-related criteria for the assessment of cancer apps and to test its applicability on apps. After a thorough analysis of the literature, we developed a specific rating tool for cancer apps based on the MARS (mobile app rating system) and a rating tool for cancer websites. This instrument was applied to apps freely available in stores and focusing on some cancer topic. Ten apps were rated on the basis of 22 criteria. Sixty percent of the apps (6/10) were rated poor and insufficient. The rating by different scientists was homogenous. The good apps had reliable sources were regularly updated and had a concrete intent/purpose in their app description. In contrast, the apps that were rated poor had no distinction of scientific content and advertisement. In some cases, there was no imprint to identify the provider. As apps of poor quality can give misinformation and lead to wrong treatment decisions, efforts have to be made to increase usage of high-quality apps. Certification would help cancer patients to identify reliable apps, yet acceptance of a certification system must be backed up.

  10. Large-scale identification and characterization of alternative splicing variants of human gene transcripts using 56 419 completely sequenced and manually annotated full-length cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Barrero, Roberto A.; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Jin, Lihua; Motono, Chie; Hata, Hiroko; Isogai, Takao; Nagai, Keiichi; Otsuki, Tetsuji; Kuryshev, Vladimir; Shionyu, Masafumi; Yura, Kei; Go, Mitiko; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Wiemann, Stefan; Nomura, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio; Gojobori, Takashi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    We report the first genome-wide identification and characterization of alternative splicing in human gene transcripts based on analysis of the full-length cDNAs. Applying both manual and computational analyses for 56 419 completely sequenced and precisely annotated full-length cDNAs selected for the H-Invitational human transcriptome annotation meetings, we identified 6877 alternative splicing genes with 18 297 different alternative splicing variants. A total of 37 670 exons were involved in these alternative splicing events. The encoded protein sequences were affected in 6005 of the 6877 genes. Notably, alternative splicing affected protein motifs in 3015 genes, subcellular localizations in 2982 genes and transmembrane domains in 1348 genes. We also identified interesting patterns of alternative splicing, in which two distinct genes seemed to be bridged, nested or having overlapping protein coding sequences (CDSs) of different reading frames (multiple CDS). In these cases, completely unrelated proteins are encoded by a single locus. Genome-wide annotations of alternative splicing, relying on full-length cDNAs, should lay firm groundwork for exploring in detail the diversification of protein function, which is mediated by the fast expanding universe of alternative splicing variants. PMID:16914452

  11. Large-scale collection and analysis of full-length cDNAs from Brachypodium distachyon and integration with Pooideae sequence resources.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Keiichi; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Takahashi, Fuminori; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive collection of full-length cDNAs is essential for correct structural gene annotation and functional analyses of genes. We constructed a mixed full-length cDNA library from 21 different tissues of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21, and obtained 78,163 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from both ends of ca. 40,000 clones (including 16,079 contigs). We updated gene structure annotations of Brachypodium genes based on full-length cDNA sequences in comparison with the latest publicly available annotations. About 10,000 non-redundant gene models were supported by full-length cDNAs; ca. 6,000 showed some transcription unit modifications. We also found ca. 580 novel gene models, including 362 newly identified in Bd21. Using the updated transcription start sites, we searched a total of 580 plant cis-motifs in the -3 kb promoter regions and determined a genome-wide Brachypodium promoter architecture. Furthermore, we integrated the Brachypodium full-length cDNAs and updated gene structures with available sequence resources in wheat and barley in a web-accessible database, the RIKEN Brachypodium FL cDNA database. The database represents a "one-stop" information resource for all genomic information in the Pooideae, facilitating functional analysis of genes in this model grass plant and seamless knowledge transfer to the Triticeae crops.

  12. Who are mobile app users from healthy lifestyle websites? Analysis of patterns of app use and user characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elavsky, Steriani; Smahel, David; Machackova, Hana

    2017-09-19

    The use of online communities and websites for health information has proliferated along with the use of mobile apps for managing health behaviors such as diet and exercise. The scarce evidence available to date suggests that users of these websites and apps differ in significant ways from non-users but most data come from US- and UK-based populations. In this study, we recruited users of nutrition, weight management, and fitness-oriented websites in the Czech Republic to better understand who uses mobile apps and who does not, including user sociodemographic and psychological profiles. Respondents aged 13-39 provided information on app use through an online survey (n = 669; M age = 24.06, SD = 5.23; 84% female). Among users interested in health topics, respondents using apps for managing nutrition, weight, and fitness (n = 403, 60%) were more often female, reported more frequent smartphone use, and more expert phone skills. In logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographics, web, and phone activity, mHealth app use was predicted by levels of excessive exercise (OR 1.346, 95% CI 1.061-1.707, p < .01). Among app users, we found differences in types of apps used by gender, age, and weight status. Controlling for sociodemographics and web and phone use, drive for thinness predicted the frequency of use of apps for healthy eating (β = 0.14, p < .05), keeping a diet (β = 0.27, p < .001), and losing weight (β = 0.33, p < .001), whereas excessive exercise predicted the use of apps for keeping a diet (β = 0.18, p < .01), losing weight (β = 0.12, p < .05), and managing sport/exercise (β = 0.28, p < .001). Sensation seeking was negatively associated with the frequency of use of apps for maintaining weight (β = - 0.13, p < .05). These data unveil the user characteristics of mHealth app users from nutrition, weight management, and fitness websites, helping inform subsequent design of mHealth apps and mobile intervention strategies.

  13. Evidence-based strategies in weight-loss mobile apps.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin; Jojic, Mirjana; DeBiasse, Michele; Mann, Devin

    2013-11-01

    Physicians have limited time for weight-loss counseling, and there is a lack of resources to which they can refer patients for assistance with weight loss. Weight-loss mobile applications (apps) have the potential to be a helpful tool, but the extent to which they include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based interventions is unknown. The primary aims of the study were to determine the degree to which commercial weight-loss mobile apps include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based weight-loss interventions, and to identify features that enhance behavioral strategies via technology. Thirty weight-loss mobile apps, available on iPhone and/or Android platforms, were coded for whether they included any of 20 behavioral strategies derived from an evidence-based weight-loss program (i.e., Diabetes Prevention Program). Data on available apps were collected in January 2012; data were analyzed in June 2012. The apps included on average 18.83% (SD=13.24; range=0%-65%) of the 20 strategies. Seven of the strategies were not found in any app. The most common technology-enhanced features were barcode scanners (56.7%) and a social network (46.7%). Weight-loss mobile apps typically included only a minority of the behavioral strategies found in evidence-based weight-loss interventions. Behavioral strategies that help improve motivation, reduce stress, and assist with problem solving were missing across apps. Inclusion of additional strategies could make apps more helpful to users who have motivational challenges. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  14. The Mersey Burns App: evolving a model of validation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jamie; Duffy, Annie; Hamnett, Nathan; McPhail, Jane; Seaton, Chris; Shokrollahi, Kayvan; James, M Ian; McArthur, Paul; Pritchard Jones, Rowan

    2015-08-01

    'Mersey Burns App' is a smartphone/tablet application that aids in the assessment of total burn surface area (TBSA) and calculation of fluid resuscitation protocols in burns. This paper presents two studies assessing the speed and accuracy of calculations using Mersey Burns (App) in comparison with a Lund and Browder chart (paper) when a burn is assessed by medical students and clinicians. The first study compared the speed and accuracy of TBSA and resuscitation calculation for a photograph of a burn with App and paper using burns and plastics and emergency medicine trainees and consultants. Developing on some of the feedback and results of that study, a second study was then carried out using burns-naive medical students assessing a fully simulated burn with both modalities. Preference and ease of use of each modality were assessed anonymously. The clinician study showed a lower variance in TBSA and fluid calculations using the App (p<0.05). The student study showed no difference in mean TBSA estimations (p=0.7). Mean time to completion of calculations was faster and calculations were more likely to be correct with the App (p<0.001). Students favoured the App in the following categories: preference in emergency setting, confidence in output, accuracy, speed, ease of calculation, overall use and shading (p<0.0001). Mersey Burns App can facilitate quicker and more accurate calculations than Lund and Browder charts. Students also preferred the App. This suggests a useful role for the App in the care of patients with burns by inexperienced staff. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Determinants of adoption of smartphone health apps among college students.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Quinlan, Margaret M; Park, Dongjin; Noh, Ghee-Young

    2014-11-01

    To examine the effects of cognitive and contingent factors on the adoption of smartphone health apps, focusing on the technology acceptance model (TAM). American college students (N = 422), who currently owned smartphones but were not using health apps, completed an online survey. Results from a path analysis mostly supported the proposed hypotheses, showing that subjective norm, health consciousness, health information orientation, and Internet health information use efficacy significantly affected the main components of TAM. Study findings provide scholars and practitioners with an empirical model of explaining the cognitive and micro-mechanisms of determining the adoption of health apps, especially among younger populations.

  16. APP FY 1980 Task I and II Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    AD-A 24 096 APP p Y80 TASK IAND ITREPORMU NAVAL fCEAN RESEARCH I AND DEVEL OPMENT ACTIVIT NST STATION MS E HASHIMOT0 30 S EP 80 NORDA-TN-69...Station, Mississippi 39529 APP FY-80 Task I and 11 Report LUU E.HLhmto. F: 17 OcaCcec-)dTcn~gyLbrtr *Present Address: Nuernic ad DivihionoyLbrtr...Ocean Doto Systems, Inc. NmrclModeling Dvso 3255 Wing Street Son Diego, CA 92110O September 1980 Diistribultion ’Unlirijited I I I APP FY-80 TASK I and II

  17. Smartphone apps for calculating insulin dose: a systematic assessment.

    PubMed

    Huckvale, Kit; Adomaviciute, Samanta; Prieto, José Tomás; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Car, Josip

    2015-05-06

    Medical apps are widely available, increasingly used by patients and clinicians, and are being actively promoted for use in routine care. However, there is little systematic evidence exploring possible risks associated with apps intended for patient use. Because self-medication errors are a recognized source of avoidable harm, apps that affect medication use, such as dose calculators, deserve particular scrutiny. We explored the accuracy and clinical suitability of apps for calculating medication doses, focusing on insulin calculators for patients with diabetes as a representative use for a prevalent long-term condition. We performed a systematic assessment of all English-language rapid/short-acting insulin dose calculators available for iOS and Android. Searches identified 46 calculators that performed simple mathematical operations using planned carbohydrate intake and measured blood glucose. While 59% (n = 27/46) of apps included a clinical disclaimer, only 30% (n = 14/46) documented the calculation formula. 91% (n = 42/46) lacked numeric input validation, 59% (n = 27/46) allowed calculation when one or more values were missing, 48% (n = 22/46) used ambiguous terminology, 9% (n = 4/46) did not use adequate numeric precision and 4% (n = 2/46) did not store parameters faithfully. 67% (n = 31/46) of apps carried a risk of inappropriate output dose recommendation that either violated basic clinical assumptions (48%, n = 22/46) or did not match a stated formula (14%, n = 3/21) or correctly update in response to changing user inputs (37%, n = 17/46). Only one app, for iOS, was issue-free according to our criteria. No significant differences were observed in issue prevalence by payment model or platform. The majority of insulin dose calculator apps provide no protection against, and may actively contribute to, incorrect or inappropriate dose recommendations that put current users at risk of both catastrophic overdose and more

  18. The Potential of Mobile Apps for Improving Asthma Self-Management: A Review of Publicly Available and Well-Adopted Asthma Apps.

    PubMed

    Tinschert, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Barata, Filipe; Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kowatsch, Tobias

    2017-08-02

    Effective disease self-management lowers asthma's burden of disease for both individual patients and health care systems. In principle, mobile health (mHealth) apps could enable effective asthma self-management interventions that improve a patient's quality of life while simultaneously reducing the overall treatment costs for health care systems. However, prior reviews in this field have found that mHealth apps for asthma lack clinical evaluation and are often not based on medical guidelines. Yet, beyond the missing evidence for clinical efficacy, little is known about the potential apps might have for improving asthma self-management. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of publicly available and well-adopted mHealth apps for improving asthma self-management. The Apple App store and Google Play store were systematically searched for asthma apps. In total, 523 apps were identified, of which 38 apps matched the selection criteria to be included in the review. Four requirements of app potential were investigated: app functions, potential to change behavior (by means of a behavior change technique taxonomy), potential to promote app use (by means of a gamification components taxonomy), and app quality (by means of the Mobile Application Rating Scale [MARS]). The most commonly implemented functions in the 38 reviewed asthma apps were tracking (30/38, 79%) and information (26/38, 68%) functions, fo