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Sample records for apparent wall slip

  1. Diagnostics of Apparent Wall Slip in Aqueous Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, Ondřej; Tovčigrečko, Valentin V.; Sobolík, Václav; Večeř, Marek

    2009-07-01

    Two experimental methods, apparent-wall-slip (AWS) rotational viscometry with "Morse-taper" sensors and electrodiffusion (ED) flow diagnostics with auto-calibrated friction probes, are used to study velocity profiles in aqueous solutions of high-molecular polysaccharides. By comparing the velocity data from the both methods, estimates are obtained of depleted layer thickness in dependence on wall shear stress.

  2. Apparent wall slip in non-Brownian hard-sphere suspensions.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Marko; Mohtaschemi, Mikael; Puisto, Antti; Illa, Xavier; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-05-01

    We analyze apparent wall slip, the reduction of particle concentration near the wall, in hard-sphere suspensions at concentrations well below the jamming limit utilizing a continuum level diffusion model. The approach extends a constitutive equation proposed earlier with two additional potentials describing the effects of gravitation and wall-particle repulsion. We find that although both mechanisms are shear independent by nature, due to the shear-rate-dependent counter-balancing particle migration fluxes, the resulting net effect is non-linearly shear dependent, causing larger slip at small shear rates. In effect, this shows up in the classically measured flow curves as a mild shear thickening regime at the transition from small to intermediate shear rates. PMID:25998170

  3. Wall slip in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, L.; Hervet, H.; Massey, G.; Durliat, E.

    1997-09-01

    We present a review of the recent characterizations of the flow behaviour of high-molecular-weight polymer melts, with special emphasis on situations in which slip at the wall appears. These characterizations are based on direct measurements of the local velocity of the fluid, in the immediate vicinity of the solid wall, through near-field velocimetry techniques. The results demonstrate the importance of polymer molecules anchored on the solid surface, either by strong adsorption or by chemical grafting, and entangled with the bulk polymer, to produce a strong friction at low shear rates and to lead to a shear rate threshold above which strong slip at the wall and low friction develop. The evolution of the shear rate threshold and of the flow characteristics (the length of the extrapolation of the velocity profile to zero, the critical slip velocity for the onset of strong slip, ...) with the molecular parameters of the system (the molecular weights of the bulk and surface chains, and the surface density of anchored chains) is analysed and compared with the predictions of recent theoretical models.

  4. Apparent hydrodynamic slip induced by density inhomogeneities at fluid-solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junbo; Yang, Chao; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2015-09-21

    This study demonstrates that even when the no-slip condition is satisfied on the surface of a solid wall, apparent hydrodynamic slip can be clearly seen owing to a continuous variation of viscosity associated with density inhomogeneity near the wall. The relationship between the apparent slip length and the local fluid properties, such as viscosity and/or density, has been established theoretically. The apparent slip length depends on the flow type and three cases are considered: shear-driven flow, body force-driven flow, and flow driven by external force acting on adsorbed solutes. Particle-based simulations have been performed and the consistency between our theory and the simulation has been verified.

  5. Maximum slip in earthquake fault zones, apparent stress, and stick-slip friction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.

    2003-01-01

    The maximum slip, observed or inferred, for a small patch within the larger fault zone of an earthquake is a remarkably well-constrained function of the seismic moment. A large set of maximum slips, mostly derived from slip models of major earthquakes, indicate that this parameter increases according to the cube root of the seismic moment. Consistent with this finding, neither the average slip rate for the patches of maximum slip nor the apparent stresses of earthquakes show any systematic dependence on seismic moment. Maximum average slip rates are several meters per second independent of moment and, for earthquakes in continental crustal settings, the apparent stress is limited to about 10 MPa. Results from stick-slip friction experiments in the laboratory, combined with information about the state of stress in the crust, can be used to predict, quite closely, the maximum slips and maximum average slip rates within the fault zones of major earthquakes as well as their apparent stresses. These findings suggest that stick-slip friction events observed in the laboratory and earthquakes in continental settings, even with large magnitudes, have similar rupture mechanisms.

  6. Predicting apparent slip at liquid-liquid interfaces without an interface slip condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poesio, Pietro; Damone, Angelo; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    We show that if we include a density-dependent viscosity into the Navier-Stokes equations then we can describe, naturally, the velocity profile in the interfacial region, as we transition from one fluid to another. This requires knowledge of the density distribution (for instance, via Molecular Dynamics [MD] simulations, a diffuse-interface approach, or Density Functional Theory) everywhere in the fluids, even at liquid-liquid interfaces where regions of rapid density variations are possible due to molecular interactions. We therefore do not need an artificial interface condition that describes the apparent velocity slip. If the results are compared with the computations obtained from MD simulations, we find an almost perfect agreement. The main contribution of this work is to provide a simple way to account for the apparent slip at liquid-liquid interfaces without relying upon an additional boundary condition, which needs to be calculated separately using MD simulations. Examples are provided involving two immiscible fluids of varying average density ratios, undergoing simple Couette and Poisseuille flows. MIUR through PRIN2012-NANOBridge; Royal Society International Exchange Scheme (IE141486).

  7. Melt fracture, wall slip, and flow-induced fractionation of bimodal polyethylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inn, Yong Woo

    2015-04-01

    The melt fracture and wall slip behaviors of bimodal polyethylene (PE) resins are compared with those of unimodal PE resins. The apparent wall slip is estimated by comparing the flow curves obtained by capillary rheology measurements with the linear viscoelastic data. It is confirmed that the higher content of small chains could cause more wall slip. The unimodal resin with broader molecular weight distribution (MWD) and the bimodal resin with higher content of low molecular weight (MW) component have matte surface roughness on the extrudates at lower stress. It is proposed that the flow-induced fractionation leading to the small chains being more concentrated on the die wall interface could cause the wall slip and unusual melt fracture behaviors in the capillary extrusion.

  8. Wall Slip of Semi-Solid A356 in Couette Rheometers

    SciTech Connect

    Harboe, S.; Modigell, M.

    2011-05-04

    Wall slip of suspensions in a couette rheometer is caused by segregation of a thin layer of liquid phase adjacent to the rheometer cylinder and cup, respectively. This causes the bulk phase to slide along the walls, which means that the fluid flow velocities respective to the walls are not zero. This affects the evaluation of the rheological properties and results in apparent flow curves. Despite of the importance of understanding and controlling segregation effects, little research has been done on this subject area. Indeed in industrial casting, the die filling behaviour, and therefore the product quality, may depend on the segregation phenomena. The wall slip occurring while investigating the semi-solid aluminium alloy A356 in a couette rheometer was investigated in the present work, employing the Kiljanski method. The goal of the present work was to obtain a true flow curve of the material, eliminating the effects of wall slip. Employing the method of Kiljanski, the wall slip velocity was calculated and subtracted from the apparent velocity of the alloy. Hence, the true shear rate in the medium and the true flow curve were estimated. The wall slip effect is assumed to be negligible in a couette system with a grooved rotational rod. This assumption was set to test by comparing the flow curve calculated from a system with grooved rotational rod with the flow curve calculated with the Kiljanski method. Both methods result in identical flow curves which can be assumed to be the physically correct one.

  9. Wall Slip during the Flow of Carbopol Solutions through a Parallel Plate Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Mendes, Paulo R.; Pédron, Jonathan; Pereira, Renata A. B.

    2008-07-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the phenomenon of wall slip during the flow of aqueous solutions of carbopol through a parallel plate channel. The Reynolds number is low for all cases investigated, to ensure negligible development length. In the experiments, the pressure drop is measured for different flow rate values, and the results are presented in the form of curves of dimensionless average velocity versus dimensionless wall shear stress. We also performed experiments with glycerol, and the results agreed with the analytical solution available in the literature. Moreover, this agreement ensures the absence of wall slip for this Newtonian case. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results show that (apparent) wall slip occurs when the wall shear stress is below a threshold stress of a few times the yield stress. Above this threshold, the numerical and experimental curves tend to merge.

  10. Boundary conditions for fluids with internal orientational degrees of freedom: Apparent velocity slip associated with the molecular alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Hess, Siegfried; Ilg, Patrick

    2007-06-15

    Boundary effects are investigated for fluids with internal orientational degrees of freedom such as molecular liquids, thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, and polymeric fluids. The orientational degrees of freedom are described by the second rank alignment tensor which is related to the birefringence. We use a standard model to describe the orientational dynamics in the presence of flow, the momentum balance equations, and a constitutive law for the pressure tensor to describe our system. In the spirit of irreversible thermodynamics, boundary conditions are formulated for the mechanical slip velocity and the flux of the alignment. They are set up such that the entropy production at the wall inferred from the entropy flux is positive definite. Even in the absence of a true mechanical slip, the coupling between orientation and flow leads to flow profiles with an apparent slip. This has consequences for the macroscopically measurable effective velocity. In analytical investigations, we consider the simplified case of an isotropic fluid in the Newtonian and stationary flow regime. For special geometries such as plane and cylindrical Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and a flow down an inclined plane, we demonstrate explicitly how the boundary conditions lead to an apparent slip. Furthermore, we discuss the dependence of the effective viscosity and of the effective slip length on the model parameters.

  11. Wall slip across the jamming transition of soft thermoresponsive particles.

    PubMed

    Divoux, Thibaut; Lapeyre, Véronique; Ravaine, Valérie; Manneville, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Flows of suspensions are often affected by wall slip, that is, the fluid velocity v(f) in the vicinity of a boundary differs from the wall velocity v(w) due to the presence of a lubrication layer. While the slip velocity v(s)=|v(f)-v(w)| robustly scales linearly with the stress σ at the wall in dilute suspensions, there is no consensus regarding denser suspensions that are sheared in the bulk, for which slip velocities have been reported to scale as a v(s)∝σ(p) with exponents p inconsistently ranging between 0 and 2. Here we focus on a suspension of soft thermoresponsive particles and show that v(s)) actually scales as a power law of the viscous stress σ-σ(c), where σ(c) denotes the yield stress of the bulk material. By tuning the temperature across the jamming transition, we further demonstrate that this scaling holds true over a large range of packing fractions ϕ on both sides of the jamming point and that the exponent p increases continuously with ϕ, from p=1 in the case of dilute suspensions to p=2 for jammed assemblies. These results allow us to successfully revisit inconsistent data from the literature and pave the way for a continuous description of wall slip above and below jamming. PMID:26764612

  12. Biodegradable polymers: Wall slip, melt fracture, and processing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Norhayani; Noroozi, Nazbanoo; Jazrawi, Bashar; Mehrkhodavandi, Parisa; Schafer, Laurel; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas George

    2015-04-01

    The wall slip and melt fracture behaviour of several commercial polylactides (PLAs) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone), (PCLs) have been investigated. PLAs with molecular weights greater than a certain value were found to slip, with the slip velocity to increase with decrease of molecular weight consistent with wall slip data reported in the literature for other systems. The onset of melt fracture for the high molecular weight PLAs was found to occur at about 0.2 to 0.3 MPa, depending on the geometrical characteristics of the dies and independent of temperature. Similarly, sharkskin and gross melt fracture was observed for the case of PCLs depending on the molecular characteristics of the resins and the geometrical details of the capillary dies. It was also found that the addition of a small amount of PCL (typically 0.5 wt.%) into the PLA and vice versa is effective in eliminating and delaying the onset of melt fracture to higher shear rates in the capillary extrusion of PLA and PCL respectively. This is due to significant interfacial slip that occurs in the presence of PCL or PLA as well as to the immiscibility of the PLA/PCL blend system at all compositions.

  13. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall slip.

    PubMed

    Wolff, K; Marenduzzo, D; Cates, M E

    2012-06-01

    We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite slip layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the slip layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells.

  14. On relating apparent stress to the stress causing earthquake fault slip

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.

    1999-01-01

    Apparent stress ??a is defined as ??a = ??????, where ???? is the average shear stress loading the fault plane to cause slip and ?? is the seismic efficiency, defined as Ea/W, where Ea is the energy radiated seismically and W is the total energy released by the earthquake. The results of a recent study in which apparent stresses of mining-induced earthquakes were compared to those measured for laboratory stick-slip friction events led to the hypothesis that ??a/???? ??? 0.06. This hypothesis is tested here against a substantially augmented data set of earthquakes for which ???? can be estimated, mostly from in situ stress measurements, for comparison with ??a. The expanded data set, which includes earthquakes artificially triggered at a depth of 9 km in the German Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (KTB) borehole and natural tectonic earthquakes, covers a broad range of hypocentral depths, rock types, pore pressures, and tectonic settings. Nonetheless, over ???14 orders of magnitude in seismic moment, apparent stresses exhibit distinct upper bounds defined by a maximum seismic efficiency of ???0.06, consistent with the hypothesis proposed before. This behavior of ??a and ?? can be expressed in terms of two parameters measured for stick-slip friction events in the laboratory: the ratio of the static to the dynamic coefficient of friction and the fault slip overshoot. Typical values for these two parameters yield seismic efficiencies of ???0.06. In contrast to efficiencies for laboratory events for which ?? is always near 0.06, those for earthquakes tend to be less than this bounding value because Ea for earthquakes is usually underestimated due to factors such as band-limited recording. Thus upper bounds on ??a/???? appear to be controlled by just a few fundamental aspects of frictional stick-slip behavior that are common to shallow earthquakes everywhere. Estimates of ???? from measurements of ??a for suites of earthquakes, using ??a

  15. Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Skin-Friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow with Slip/No Slip Wall Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2011-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at work in skin friction drag reduction with superhydrophobic surfaces, Lattice Boltzmann simulations were performed in turbulent channels with alternating slip/no slip ridges on the walls. Simulations were performed in turbulent channels of size 5 h × 2 . 5 × 2 h and 10 h × 5 h × 2 h at a base Reynolds number of Reτ ~ 230 . Alternating slip/no slip ridges of width 4 <= w + <= 140 , aligned in the streamwise direction, all with the same fractional area of slip boundary, were studied. Drag reductions of 4%, 8%, 21%, 33% and 47%, corresponding to slip velocities of Uslip /Ubulk = 0 . 05 , 0.1, 0.26, 0.31 and 0.36 were observed for w + = g + = 4, 8, 40, 70 and 140, respectively. The mean velocity profiles display the characteristics of combined slip described by Min and Kim [Min et al. 2004]. The streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensities show large slips at the wall, the magnitude of which increases with increasing drag reduction. Examination of the anisotropy invariant maps shows a shift of turbulence structure towards the one-dimensional turbulence limit near the wall with increasing drag reduction. For z+ > 25 , the turbulence structure returns to the isotropic limit.

  16. Analysis of boundary slip in a flow with an oscillating wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalakkottor, Joseph John; Mohseni, Kamran

    2013-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to study slip at the fluid-solid boundary in an unsteady flow based on the Stokes’ second problem. An increase in slip is observed in comparison to the steady flow for shear rates below the critical shear rate of the corresponding steady flow. This increased slip is attributed to fluid inertial forces not represented in a steady flow. An unsteady mathematical model for slip is established, which estimates the increment in slip at the boundary. The model shows that slip is also dependent on acceleration in addition to the shear rate of fluid at the wall. By writing acceleration in terms of shear rate, it is shown that slip at the wall in unsteady flows is governed by the gradient of shear rate and shear rate of the fluid. Nondimensionalizing the model gives a time dependent yet universal curve, independent of wall-fluid properties, which can be used to find the slip boundary condition at the fluid-solid interface based on the information of shear rate, gradient of shear rate of the fluid, and the instant of time during the cycle. A governing nondimensional number, defined as the ratio of phase speed to speed of sound, is identified to help in explaining the mechanism responsible for the transition of slip boundary condition from finite to a perfect slip and determining when this would occur. Phase lag in fluid velocity relative to wall is observed. The lag increases with decreasing time period of wall oscillation and increasing wall hydrophobicity. The phenomenon of hysteresis is seen when looking into the variation of slip velocity as a function of wall velocity and slip velocity as a function of fluid shear rate. The cause for hysteresis is attributed to the unsteady inertial forces of the fluid. The rate of heat generated by viscous shear is compared for an unsteady Stokes’ second problem and simple Couette flow and is shown to be higher for the unsteady flow.

  17. Strike-slip earthquakes in the oceanic lithosphere: Observations of exceptionally high apparent stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; McGarr, A.

    2002-01-01

    The radiated energies, Es, and seismic moments, Mo, for 942 globally distributed earthquakes that occurred between 1987 to 1998 are examined to find the earthquakes with the highest apparent stresses (??a = ?? Es/Mo, where ?? is the modulus of rigidity). The globally averaged ??a for shallow earthquakes in all tectonic environments and seismic regions is 0.3 MPa. However, the subset of 49 earthquakes with the highest apparent stresses (??a greater than about 5.0 MPa) is dominated almost exclusively by strike-slip earthquakes that occur in oceanic environments. These earthquakes are all located in the depth range 7-29 km in the upper mantle of the young oceanic lithosphere. Many of these events occur near plate-boundary triple junctions where there appear to be high rates of intraplate deformation. Indeed, the small rapidly deforming Gorda Plate accounts for 10 of the 49 high-??a events. The depth distribution of ??a, which shows peak values somewhat greater than 25 MPa in the depth range 20-25 km, suggests that upper bounds on this parameter are a result of the strength of the oceanic lithosphere. A recently proposed envelope for apparent stress, derived by taking 6 per cent of the strength inferred from laboratory experiments for young (less than 30 Ma) deforming oceanic lithosphere, agrees well with the upper-bound envelope of apparent stresses over the depth range 5-30 km. The corresponding depth-dependent shear strength for young oceanic lithosphere attains a peak value of about 575 MPa at a depth of 21 km and then diminishes rapidly as the depth increases. In addition to their high apparent stresses, which suggest that the strength of the young oceanic lithosphere is highest in the depth range 10-30 km, our set of high-??a earthquakes show other features that constrain the nature of the forces that cause interplate motion. First, our set of events is divided roughly equally between intraplate and transform faulting with similar depth distributions of ??a for

  18. Stokes drag on a disc with a Navier slip condition near a plane wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    The Stokes drag and couple acting on a disc moving through incompressible Newtonian fluid are investigated for the case when the fluid obeys a Navier slip condition, with slip length b, on the surface of the disc. The fluid is bounded by an infinite plane wall on which there is no slip. The disc, of zero thickness and radius a, is parallel to the wall and distance h from it. Analyses are presented for the limits h ≫ a and h ≪ a results for intermediate values of the separation h are obtained numerically by means of Tranter's method. The resistance coefficients for translation normal to the disc surface, and for rotation about a diameter, are unaffected by slip when the disc lies in unbounded fluid, but all resistance coefficients depend upon the slip length b when the disc is close to the wall. Their dependence on h becomes weak when b ≫ a.

  19. Permeability and effective slip in confined flows transverse to wall slippage patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avinash; Datta, Subhra; Kalyanasundaram, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    The pressure-driven Stokes flow through a plane channel with arbitrary wall separation having a continuous pattern of sinusoidally varying slippage of arbitrary wavelength and amplitude on one/both walls is modelled semi-analytically. The patterning direction is transverse to the flow. In the special situations of thin and thick channels, respectively, the predictions of the model are found to be consistent with lubrication theory and results from the literature pertaining to free shear flow. For the same pattern-averaged slip length, the hydraulic permeability relative to a channel with no-slip walls increases as the pattern wave-number, amplitude, and channel size are decreased. Unlike discontinuous wall patterns of stick-slip zones studied elsewhere in the literature, the effective slip length of a sinusoidally patterned wall in a confined flow continues to scale with both channel size and the pattern-averaged slip length even in the limit of thin channel size to pattern wavelength ratio. As a consequence, for sufficiently small channel sizes, the permeability of a channel with sinusoidal wall slip patterns will always exceed that of an otherwise similar channel with discontinuous patterns on corresponding walls. For a channel with one no-slip wall and one patterned wall, the permeability relative to that of an unpatterned reference channel of same pattern-averaged slip length exhibits non-monotonic behaviour with channel size, with a minimum appearing at intermediate channel sizes. Approximate closed-form estimates for finding the location and size of this minimum are provided in the limit of large and small pattern wavelengths. For example, if the pattern wavelength is much larger than the channel thickness, exact results from lubrication theory indicate that a worst case permeability penalty relative to the reference channel of ˜23% arises when the average slip of the patterned wall is ˜2.7 times the channel size. The results from the current study should

  20. Direct measurement of wall slip and slip layer thickness of non-Brownian hard-sphere suspensions in rectangular channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesinghausen, Steffen; Weiffen, Rene; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Wall slip is a long-known phenomenon in the field of rheology. Nevertheless, the origin and the evolution are not completely clear yet. Regarding suspensions, the effect becomes even more complicated, because different mechanisms like pure slip or slip due to particle migration have to be taken into account. Furthermore, suspensions themselves show many flow anomalies and the isolation of slip is complicated. In order to develop working physical models, further insight is necessary. In this work, we measured experimentally the wall slip velocities of different highly filled suspensions in a rectangular slit die directly with respect to the particle concentration and the particle size. The slip velocities were obtained using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The suspensions consisting of a castor oil-cinnamon oil blend and PMMA particles were matched in terms of refractive indexes to appear transparent. Hereby, possible optical path lengths larger than 15 mm were achieved. The slip velocities were found to be in a quadratic relation to the wall shear stress. Furthermore, the overall flow rate as well as the particle concentration has a direct influence on the slip. Concerning the shear stress, there seem to be two regions of slip with different physical characteristics. Furthermore, we estimated the slip layer thickness directly from the velocity profiles and propose a new interpretation. The PIV technique is used to investigate the viscosity and implicit the concentration profile in the slit die. It is shown that the particle migration process is quite fast.

  1. A dynamic slip boundary condition for wall-modeled large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S. T.; Moin, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wall models for large-eddy simulation (LES) are a necessity to remove the prohibitive resolution requirements of near-wall turbulence in high Reynolds turbulent flows. Traditional wall models often rely on assumptions about the local state of the boundary layer (e.g., logarithmic velocity profiles) and require a priori prescription of tunable model coefficients. In the present study, a slip velocity boundary condition for the filtered velocity field is obtained from the derivation of the LES equations using a differential filter. A dynamic procedure for the local slip length is additionally formulated making the slip velocity wall model free of any a priori specified coefficients. The accuracy of the dynamic slip velocity wall model is tested in a series of turbulent channel flows at varying Reynolds numbers and in the LES of a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 airfoil at near-stall conditions. The wall-modeled simulations are able to accurately predict mean flow characteristics, including the formation of a trailing-edge separation bubble in NACA 4412 configuration. The validation cases demonstrate the effectiveness of this wall-modeling approach in both attached and separated flow regimes.

  2. Oscillatory electro-osmotic flow through a slit channel with slipping stripes on walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Henry C. W.; Ng, Chiu-On

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical model is presented in this paper for time-oscillating electro-osmotic flow through a plane channel bounded by two parallel plates, which are patterned with periodic stripes of distinct hydrodynamic slippage and wall potential. The flow is driven by oscillatory pressure gradient and electric field of the same frequency in the axial direction. Flows that are longitudinal or transverse to the stripes are investigated. Based on the Debye-Hückel approximation, and assuming Stokes flow, the electric potential and the velocity fields are found by the methods of eigenfunction expansion and point collocation. The phenomenological coefficients of the Onsager relations for the fluid and current fluxes are deduced as functions of the channel height, the area fraction of wall with slippage, the intrinsic slip length, the Debye parameter, the zeta potentials and the oscillation parameter. Considering several kinds of wall patterns, we extend the theoretical limits in the steady-flow regime to the oscillatory-flow regime. For a uniformly charged wall, the effective slip length obtained from the hydrodynamic problem can still be used directly in the electro-osmotic flow as if the wall were uniformly slipping. When the slipping stripes are perfectly slipping but uncharged, the presence of such stripes will always have a decreasing effect on the streaming conductance, unlike the steady case in which it gives no net effect on the flow in the limit of a very thin double layer. Furthermore, we confirm the presence of a threshold frequency, beyond which the flow will diminish significantly. The slipping fraction of the wall will always introduce a phase lag to the response and lower the threshold frequency. Increasing the wall potential in the presence of slippage can appreciably increase the streaming conductance and the phase lag.

  3. Viscoelastic Poiseuille flows with total normal stress dependent, nonlinear Navier slip at the wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housiadas, Kostas D.

    2013-04-01

    The effect of slip at the wall in steady, isothermal, incompressible Poiseuille flows in channel/slits and circular tubes of viscoelastic fluids is investigated analytically. The nonlinear Navier law at the wall, for the dependence on the shear stress, along with an exponential dependence of the slip coefficient on the total normal stress is assumed. The viscoelasticity of the fluid is taken into account by employing the Oldroyd-B constitutive model. The flow problems are solved using a regular perturbation scheme in terms of the dimensionless exponential decay parameter of the slip coefficient, ɛ. The sequence of partial differential equations resulting from the perturbation procedure is solved analytically up to third order. As a consequence of the nonlinearity of the slip model, a two-dimensional, continuously developing, flow field arises. Spectral analysis on the solution shows that the velocity and pressure profiles are fully resolved even for high values of ɛ, which indicates that the perturbation series up to third order approximates the full solution very well. The effects of the dimensionless slip coefficient, isotropic pressure, and deviatoric part of the total normal stress in the slip model, as well as the other parameters and dimensionless numbers in the flow are presented and discussed. Average quantities, in the cross section of the channel/slit or tube, with emphasis given on the pressure drop and the skin friction factor, are also offered.

  4. Stability of viscosity stratified flows down an incline: Role of miscibility and wall slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects of wall velocity slip on the linear stability of a gravity-driven miscible two-fluid flow down an incline are examined. The fluids have the matched density but different viscosity. A smooth viscosity stratification is achieved due to the presence of a thin mixed layer between the fluids. The results show that the presence of slip exhibits a promise for stabilizing the miscible flow system by raising the critical Reynolds number at the onset and decreasing the bandwidth of unstable wave numbers beyond the threshold of the dominant instability. This is different from its role in the case of a single fluid down a slippery substrate where slip destabilizes the flow system at the onset. Though the stability properties are analogous to the same flow system down a rigid substrate, slip is shown to delay the surface mode instability for any viscosity contrast. It has a damping/promoting effect on the overlap modes (which exist due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant disturbance with the mixed layer) when the mixed layer is away/close from/to the slippery inclined wall. The trend of slip effect is influenced by the location of the mixed layer, the location of more viscous fluid, and the mass diffusivity of the two fluids. The stabilizing characteristics of slip can be favourably used to suppress the non-linear breakdown which may happen due to the coexistence of the unstable modes in a flow over a substrate with no slip. The results of the present study suggest that it is desirable to design a slippery surface with appropriate slip sensitivity in order to meet a particular need for a specific application.

  5. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called “wall preference”. This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian “wall-preference” behavior only appears to be a “preference” behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then

  6. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  7. Instantaneous slip length in superhydrophobic microchannels having grooves with curved or dissimilar walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemeda, A. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.

    2015-10-01

    Superhydrophobic (SHP) surfaces can be used to reduce the skin-friction drag in a microchannel. This is due to the peculiar ability of these surfaces to entrap air in their pores and thereby reduce the contact area between water and the solid surface. The favorable drag-reduction effect, however, can quickly deteriorate if the surface geometry is not designed properly. The deterioration can be sudden, caused by exposure to excessive pressures, or gradual, due to the dissolution of the entrapped air into the ambient water. The formulations presented here provide a means for studying the time-dependent drag-reduction in a microchannel enhanced with transverse or longitudinal SHP grooves of varying wall profiles or wettabilities. Moreover, different mathematical approaches are developed to distinguish the performance of a sharp-edged groove from that of a groove with round entrance. The work starts by deriving an equation for the balance of forces on the air-water interface (AWI) inside a groove and solving this differential equation, along with Henry's law, for the rate of dissolution of the entrapped air into water over time. It was shown that the performance of a SHP groove depends mostly on the interplay between the effects of the apparent contact angle of the AWI and the initial volume of the groove. The instantaneous slip length is then calculated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for flow in microchannels with SHP grooves. Our results are compared with the studies in the literature whenever available, and good agreement has been observed.

  8. Tensorial slip theory for gas flows and comparison with molecular dynamics simulations using an anisotropic gas-wall collision mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh Tung; To, Quy Dong; Lauriat, Guy; Léonard, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we examine the anisotropic slip theory for gas flows based on tangential accommodation coefficients and compare it with molecular dynamics (MD) results. A special gas-wall boundary condition is employed within MD simulations to mimic the anisotropic gas-wall collision mechanism. Results from MD simulations with different surface orientations show good agreement with the slip quantification proposed in this work.

  9. Offset ancient city wall yields plausible slip rate for the Sagaing fault, Burma (Myanmar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Aung, T.; Min, S.; Lin, K.; Tun, S.; Sieh, K.; Myint, U.

    2008-12-01

    The Sagaing fault offers great potential for paleoseismology study, because it traverses a region with a long history and high rates of sedimentation. Buddhist documents from ancient Pegu (Bago), in southern Myanmar, record 34 strong earthquakes in the past 2.3 millennia. The latest of these is the 1930 Pegu earthquake (M 7.3), which had high intensities along a 90 km stretch from Pegu to the southern coastline of the country. We have found evidences for surface rupture in 1930 in the stories of village elders and in offset paddy fields. These reports and offsets suggest that coseismic displacement decreased from several meters in Pegu to liquefaction without faulting near Payagyi Township, 15 km farther north. West of Payagyi, the fault trace cuts through and offsets an ancient city wall. The age of the ancient city is uncertain, but descriptions from Burmese history indicate it was built in the late 16th century, probably about 440 yrs ago. Determination of the offset of the 440-year-old city wall is possible, but not simple, in part because vertical displacements across the fault have resulted in differential sedimentation on the flanks of the wall. After accounting geomorphologically for the differential sedimentation, the offset of both the outer and inner edges of the city wall appear to have sustained a right-lateral offset of about 6 meters. This yields an approximate slip rate of 14 mm/yr, which is slightly lower than the slip rate determined by others from GPS geodesy. The number of earthquakes involved in creating the 6-meter offset is currently unknown, but paleoseismic excavations within the ancient city may well yield evidence of discrete offsets that we will be able to ascribe to specific large earthquakes in the historical record. Candidates include historical earthquakes 1582, 1644, 1768, 1830, 1888, 1913 and 1917 C.E.

  10. Simultaneous effects of slip and wall properties on MHD peristaltic motion of nanofluid with Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Nisar, Z.; Ahmad, B.; Yasmin, H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic transport of nanofluid in a channel with wall properties. Flow analysis is addressed in the presence of viscous dissipation, partial slip and Joule heating effects. Mathematical modelling also includes the salient features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Both analytic and numerical solutions are provided. Comparison between the solutions is shown in a very good agreement. Attention is focused to the Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Hartman number, Eckert number and Prandtl number. Influences of various parameters on skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also investigated. It is found that both the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are increasing functions of Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  11. Rheological properties of micro-/nanofibrillated cellulose suspensions: wall-slip and shear banding phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Pignon, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    The rheological properties of enzymatically hydrolyzed and TEMPO-oxidized microfibrillated/nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC/NFC) aqueous suspensions were investigated in oscillation and steady-flow modes and were compared with the morphology of the studied materials. The flow instabilities, which introduce an error in the rheological measurements, were discovered during flow measurements. A wall-slip (interfacial slippage on the edge of geometry tools and suspension) was detected at low shear rates for two types of NFC suspensions while applying cone-plate geometry. A roughening of the tool surfaces was performed to overcome the aforementioned problem. Applying to TEMPO-oxidized NFC, a stronger suspension response was detected at low shear rates with higher values of measured shear stress. However, a shear banding (localization of shear within a sample volume) became more pronounced. The use of serrated tools for enzymatically hydrolyzed NFC produced lower shear stress at the moderate shear rates, which was influenced by water release from the suspension.

  12. Codimension three bifurcation of streamline patterns close to a no-slip wall: A topological description of boundary layer eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, A.; Andersen, M.; Thompson, M. C.; Brøns, M.

    2015-05-01

    A vortex close to a no-slip wall gives rise to the creation of new vorticity at the wall. This vorticity may organize itself into vortices that erupt from the separated boundary layer. We study how the eruption process in terms of the streamline topology is initiated and varies in dependence of the Reynolds number Re. We show that vortex structures are created in the boundary layer for Re around 600, but that these disappear again without eruption unless Re > 1000. The eruption process is topologically unaltered for Re up to 5000. Using bifurcation theory, we obtain a topological phase space for the eruption process, which can account for all observed changes in the Reynolds number range we consider. The bifurcation diagram complements previously analyzes such that the classification of topological bifurcations of flows close to no-slip walls with up to three parameters is now complete.

  13. Drastic changes in interfacial hydrodynamics due to wall slippage: slip-intensified film thinning, drop spreading, and capillary instability.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ying-Chih; Li, Yen-Ching; Wei, Hsien-Hung

    2013-09-27

    We report that wall slippage can drastically change both steady and dynamic flow characteristics for a wide class of free-surface thin film flows. This is demonstrated by (i) the breakdown of the 2/3 law and its replacement by a new quadratic law for the deposited film thickness in the Landau-Levich-Bretherton coating, (ii) the departure from de Gennes-Tanner's cubic law for dynamic contact angles in drop spreading, consequently resulting in much faster spreading than the classical Tanner law, and (iii) the exaggerated capillary instability of an annular film where a fractional amount of wall slip can lead to much more rapid draining and hence make the film more vulnerable to rupture. In (ii), the molecular precursor film is shown to have a length varying like the -1/2 power of the spreading speed, producing an anomalous 1/3 diffusion law governing its spreading dynamics. A variety of existing experimental findings can be well captured by the new scaling laws we derive. All these features are accompanied with no-slip-to-slip transitions, offering alternative means for probing slip boundaries.

  14. Drastic Changes in Interfacial Hydrodynamics due to Wall Slippage: Slip-Intensified Film Thinning, Drop Spreading, and Capillary Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ying-Chih; Li, Yen-Ching; Wei, Hsien-Hung

    2013-09-01

    We report that wall slippage can drastically change both steady and dynamic flow characteristics for a wide class of free-surface thin film flows. This is demonstrated by (i) the breakdown of the 2/3 law and its replacement by a new quadratic law for the deposited film thickness in the Landau-Levich-Bretherton coating, (ii) the departure from de Gennes-Tanner’s cubic law for dynamic contact angles in drop spreading, consequently resulting in much faster spreading than the classical Tanner law, and (iii) the exaggerated capillary instability of an annular film where a fractional amount of wall slip can lead to much more rapid draining and hence make the film more vulnerable to rupture. In (ii), the molecular precursor film is shown to have a length varying like the -1/2 power of the spreading speed, producing an anomalous 1/3 diffusion law governing its spreading dynamics. A variety of existing experimental findings can be well captured by the new scaling laws we derive. All these features are accompanied with no-slip-to-slip transitions, offering alternative means for probing slip boundaries.

  15. Shear-stress-induced structural arrangement of water molecules in nanoscale Couette flow with slipping at wall boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jau-Wen

    2014-08-07

    This study investigated the structuring of water molecules in a nanoscale Couette flow with the upper plate subjected to lateral forces with various magnitudes and water slipping against a metal wall. It was found that when the upper plate is subjected to a force, the water body deforms into a parallelepiped. Water molecules in the channel are then gradually arranged into lattice positions, creating a layered structure. The structural arrangement of water molecules is caused by the water molecules accommodating themselves to the increase in energy under the application of a lateral force on the moving plate. The ordering arrangement of water molecules increases the rotational degree of freedom, allowing the molecules to increase their Coulomb potential energy through polar rotation that accounts for the energy input through the upper plate. With a force continuously applied to the upper plate, the water molecules in contact with the upper plate move forward until slip between the water and upper plate occurs. The relation between the structural arrangement of water molecules, slip at the wall, and the shear force is studied. The relation between the slip and the locking/unlocking of water molecules to metal atoms is also studied.

  16. Analytic Approximate Solutions to the Boundary Layer Flow Equation over a Stretching Wall with Partial Slip at the Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations. PMID:27031232

  17. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  18. Earthquakes and slip rate of the southern Sagaing fault: insights from an offset ancient fort wall, lower Burma (Myanmar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Aung, Thura; Min, Soe; Khaing, Saw Ngwe; Tun, Soe Thura

    2011-04-01

    Field investigations of an ancient fortress wall in southern Myanmar reveal an offset of ˜6 m across the Sagaing fault, the major right-lateral fault between the Sunda and Burma plates. The fault slip rate implied by offset of this 16th-century fortress is between 11 and 18 cm yr-1. A palaeoseismological excavation within the fortress reveals at least two major fault ruptures since its construction. The slip rate we obtained is comparable to geodetic and geological estimates farther north, but is only 50 per cent of the spreading rate (38 mm yr-1) at the Andaman Sea spreading centre. This disparity suggests that other structures may be accommodating deformation within the Burma Plate. We propose two fault-slip scenarios to explain the earthquake-rupture history of the southern Sagaing fault. Using both small offset features along the fault trace and historical records, we speculate that the southern Sagaing fault exhibits a uniform-fault-slip behaviour and that one section of the fault could generate a M7+ earthquake within the next few decades.

  19. On the motion through a viscous fluid of a spherical particle touching a plane wall: Slip boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M. J.; Kezirian, M. T.; Brenner, H.

    Understanding the hydrodynamic forces acting upon immersed particles touching surfaces is of central importance in clean room technology and a variety of rheological and biological applications. This paper addresses the translation and rotation of a sphere translating and rotating parallel to a nearby plane wall bounding an otherwise quiescent semi-infinite viscous fluid, while allowing for slip on the wall and/or the sphere. The motivation for disregarding the classical, no-slip boundary condition on solid surfaces arises from an embarrassing discrepancy between theoretical and observed predictions of the translational velocity of a sphere 'rolling' under the influence of gravity down an inclined plane bounding an effectively semi-infinite viscous fluid. According to theory the force and torque on a translating and/or rotating sphere moving parallel to the plane wall become logarithmically infinite with the gap width as the gap between the sphere and well goes to zero. As such, the theoretical conclusion is that the sphere cannot translate down the plane, despite the gravity force that acts to animate it. Experiments, however, reveal that the sphere does, in fact, roll down the plane--at a reproducible mean terminal velocity. In the noninertial, small Reynolds number limit, the experimentally observed drag coefficient was found to be about 8.9 times that given by Stokes law for the unbounded case. This suggests a conventional hydrodynamic wall effect, rather than the logarithmically singular behavior predicted by the theory. It was in an attempt to resolve this glaring contradiction that we have elected here to examine the possible effects of slip.

  20. Physical Sensing of Surface Properties by Microswimmers – Directing Bacterial Motion via Wall Slip

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinglei; Wysocki, Adam; Winkler, Roland G.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria such as Escherichia coli swim along circular trajectories adjacent to surfaces. Thereby, the orientation (clockwise, counterclockwise) and the curvature depend on the surface properties. We employ mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations of a mechano-elastic model of E. coli, with a spherocylindrical body propelled by a bundle of rotating helical flagella, to study quantitatively the curvature of the appearing circular trajectories. We demonstrate that the cell is sensitive to nanoscale changes in the surface slip length. The results are employed to propose a novel approach to directing bacterial motion on striped surfaces with different slip lengths, which implies a transformation of the circular motion into a snaking motion along the stripe boundaries. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by a simulation of active Brownian rods, which also reveals a dependence of directional motion on the stripe width. PMID:25993019

  1. Structure of a continental strike-slip fault from deep seismic reflection: Walls Boundary fault, northern British Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, John H.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of four offshore deep reflection profiles across the Walls Boundary strike-slip fault, postulated as the northward continuation of the Great Glen fault over the Shetland platform, provides useful constraints on the lithospheric structure of a major continental transform and some insight into the manner in which strike-slip faults deform. The reprocessing was aimed at delineating complex structure and reducing noise contamination and consisted of analyses of diffractions and amplitude variations and experimentation with seismic migration. The results demonstrate a highly variable crustal and uppermost mantle structure for the Walls Boundary fault along more than 150 km of its length. Six key observations can be made from this study. A vertical or steeply dipping structure is deduced for the fault in much of the crust and perhaps parts of the uppermost mantle; however, more diverse reflecting structures and interpreted for the lower crust, such as the Moho deflection and steeply dipping reflectors directly beneath the fault that may have been related to a localized component of transpression and resultant crustal thickening. The presence of diffractions at the level of the Moho discontinuity where the downward projection of the fault intersects it suggests points of structural 'roughness' that may be related to deformation of the Moho by late motion along the fault. Integrating the interpretation of the reflection data with previous geological studies implies that the age of the Moho deflection is post Early Cretaceous but that the dipping structure adjacent to and cut off by the fault is probably Caledonian (Silurian-Early Devonian). Although the disparate structure of the crust on opposite sides of the fault supports geologic interpretations of large-scale displacement, a major step in the Moho discontinuity directly beneath the Walls Boundary fault cannot be substantiated from the seismic data.

  2. Broadside mobility of a disk in a viscous fluid near a plane wall with no-slip boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderhof, B. U.

    2012-08-01

    The broadside motion of a disk in a viscous fluid towards a planar wall with no-slip boundary condition is studied on the basis of the steady-state Stokes equations. It is shown that flow velocity and pressure of the fluid can be found conveniently from a superposition of elementary complex stream functions. The two amplitude functions characterizing the superposition are found from the numerical solution of a pair of integral equations for the axial and radial velocity components at the disk. The numerical procedure converges fast, provided the distance to the plane is not much smaller than the radius of the disk. For small distance the flow is well approximated by lubrication theory.

  3. Boundary condition for lattice Boltzmann modeling of microscale gas flows with curved walls in the slip regime.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shi; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used to simulate microgaseous flows in recent years. However, it is still a challenging task for LBM to model that kind of microscale flow involving complex geometries, owing to the use of uniform Cartesian lattices in space. In this work, a boundary condition for microflows in the slip regime is developed for LBM in which the shape of a solid wall is well considered. The proposed treatment is a combination of the Maxwellian diffuse reflection scheme and the simple bounce-back method. A portion of each part is determined by the relative position between the boundary node and curved walls, which is the key point that distinguishes this method from some previous schemes where the smooth curved surface was assumed to be zigzag lines. The present curved boundary condition is implemented with the multiple-relaxation-times model and verified for several established cases, including the plane microchannel flow (aligned and inclined), microcylindrical Couette flow, and the flow over an inclined microscale airfoil. The numerical results agree well with those predicted by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. PMID:25974610

  4. Boundary condition for lattice Boltzmann modeling of microscale gas flows with curved walls in the slip regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shi; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used to simulate microgaseous flows in recent years. However, it is still a challenging task for LBM to model that kind of microscale flow involving complex geometries, owing to the use of uniform Cartesian lattices in space. In this work, a boundary condition for microflows in the slip regime is developed for LBM in which the shape of a solid wall is well considered. The proposed treatment is a combination of the Maxwellian diffuse reflection scheme and the simple bounce-back method. A portion of each part is determined by the relative position between the boundary node and curved walls, which is the key point that distinguishes this method from some previous schemes where the smooth curved surface was assumed to be zigzag lines. The present curved boundary condition is implemented with the multiple-relaxation-times model and verified for several established cases, including the plane microchannel flow (aligned and inclined), microcylindrical Couette flow, and the flow over an inclined microscale airfoil. The numerical results agree well with those predicted by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  5. Boundary condition for lattice Boltzmann modeling of microscale gas flows with curved walls in the slip regime.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shi; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used to simulate microgaseous flows in recent years. However, it is still a challenging task for LBM to model that kind of microscale flow involving complex geometries, owing to the use of uniform Cartesian lattices in space. In this work, a boundary condition for microflows in the slip regime is developed for LBM in which the shape of a solid wall is well considered. The proposed treatment is a combination of the Maxwellian diffuse reflection scheme and the simple bounce-back method. A portion of each part is determined by the relative position between the boundary node and curved walls, which is the key point that distinguishes this method from some previous schemes where the smooth curved surface was assumed to be zigzag lines. The present curved boundary condition is implemented with the multiple-relaxation-times model and verified for several established cases, including the plane microchannel flow (aligned and inclined), microcylindrical Couette flow, and the flow over an inclined microscale airfoil. The numerical results agree well with those predicted by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  6. Applications of a new wall-slip boundary condition to the computation of turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, R. E.; Marconi, F.; Flynn, G.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper we report on a new wall matching condition for use in the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The new matching conditions follows from a two-parameter asymptotic theory based on systematic asymptotic expansions of the RANS equations for the Reynolds number, R -- oo and a turbulence model constant, a -- O. The theory was originally developed for incompressible flow and a Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model. In this paper we describe the generalization of the theory to compressible flow and describe some modifications needed to apply the theory to separated flow. Numerical results are presented using the new wall matching condition in a compressible RANS code.

  7. Loss of momentum in a viscous compressible fluid due to no-slip boundary condition at one or two planar walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderhof, B. U.

    2010-08-01

    The loss of fluid momentum due to friction at one or two planar walls bounding a viscous compressible fluid is studied as a function of time for the situation where the flow is due to a sudden impulse applied at a selected point in initially quiescent fluid. The no-slip condition is assumed to hold at the walls, and the initial impulse is assumed to be sufficiently small, so that the linearized Navier-Stokes equations may be used. When the initial impulse is directed parallel to the walls the time-dependent total fluid momentum is independent of compressibility and volume viscosity. For initial impulse directed perpendicular to the walls an echoing effect, corresponding to sound bouncing between the two walls, is observed.

  8. Surface mobility and slip of polybutadiene melts in shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Geoffrey M.; Denn, Morton M.; Bell, Alexis T.; Mays, Jimmy W.; Hong, Kunlun; Iatrou, Hermis

    2000-05-01

    Surface mobility and wall slip of entangled polybutadiene melts were studied with attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy at stresses characteristic of the sharkskin, spurt, and melt-fracture regimes. Small-scale slip, accompanied by an apparent decrease in transverse mobility, occurs in the sharkskin regime, but at a stress above the visual onset of sharkskin in capillary viscometry. Simulations cannot distinguish between a cohesive mechanism and a lubrication mechanism that might follow from a stress-induced phase transition, but an adhesive failure seems to be excluded. The near-surface length scale is of the order of four to six times the equilibrium root-mean-square end-to-end distance, and the estimated slip velocity is insensitive to molecular weight. Strong slip occurs in the spurt regime, either at the wall or within one radius of gyration. Substantial apparent slip occurs with a fluorocarbon surface, but the mechanism does not appear to be an adhesive failure; there seems to be a substantial decrease in the friction coefficient of chains over a distance of order 300 nm or more from the fluorocarbon surface, and the transverse chain mobility in this region appears to be enhanced rather than retarded. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the influence of the wall extends farther into the sheared melt than would be expected from the chain dimensions, except in the case of strong slip. (c) 2000 Society of Rheology.

  9. Analytical solutions for wall slip effects on magnetohydrodynamic oscillatory rotating plate and channel flows in porous media using a fractional Burgers viscoelastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqbool, Khadija; Anwar Bég, O.; Sohail, Ayesha; Idreesa, Shafaq

    2016-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) incompressible flows of a Burgers fluid through a porous medium in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The constitutive model of a Burgers fluid is used based on a fractional calculus formulation. Hydrodynamic slip at the wall (plate) is incorporated and the fractional generalized Darcy model deployed to simulate porous medium drag force effects. Three different cases are considered: namely, the flow induced by a general periodic oscillation at a rigid plate, the periodic flow in a parallel plate channel and, finally, the Poiseuille flow. In all cases the plate(s) boundary(ies) are electrically non-conducting and a small magnetic Reynolds number is assumed, negating magnetic induction effects. The well-posed boundary value problems associated with each case are solved via Fourier transforms. Comparisons are made between the results derived with and without slip conditions. Four special cases are retrieved from the general fractional Burgers model, viz. Newtonian fluid, general Maxwell viscoelastic fluid, generalized Oldroyd-B fluid and the conventional Burgers viscoelastic model. Extensive interpretation of graphical plots is included. We study explicitly the influence of the wall slip on primary and secondary velocity evolution. The model is relevant to MHD rotating energy generators employing rheological working fluids.

  10. Exact analytical solution of the peristaltic nanofluids flow in an asymmetric channel with flexible walls and slip condition: application to the cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ebaid, Abdelhalim; Aly, Emad H

    2013-01-01

    In the cancer treatment, magnetic nanoparticles are injected into the blood vessel nearest to the cancer's tissues. The dynamic of these nanoparticles occurs under the action of the peristaltic waves generated on the flexible walls of the blood vessel. Studying such nanofluid flow under this action is therefore useful in treating tissues of the cancer. In this paper, the mathematical model describing the slip peristaltic flow of nanofluid was analytically investigated. Exact expressions were deduced for the temperature distribution and nano-particle concentration. In addition, the effects of the slip, thermophoresis, and Brownian motion parameters on the temperature and nano-particle concentration profiles were discussed and further compared with other approximate results in the literatures. In particular, these results have been obtained at the same values of the physical examined parameters that was considered in Akbar et al., "Peristaltic flow of a nanofluid with slip effects," 2012. The results reveal that remarkable differences are detected between the exact current results and those approximately obtained in the literatures for behaviour of the temperature profile and nano-particles concentration. Accordingly, the current analysis and results are considered as optimal and therefore may be taken as a base for any future comparisons.

  11. Reconsidering Fault Slip Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Wech, A.; Creager, K. C.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The scaling of fault slip events given by the relationship between the scalar moment M0, and duration T, potentially provides key constraints on the underlying physics controlling slip. Many studies have suggested that measurements of M0 and T are related as M0=KfT3 for 'fast' slip events (earthquakes) and M0=KsT for 'slow' slip events, in which Kf and Ks are proportionality constants, although some studies have inferred intermediate relations. Here 'slow' and 'fast' refer to slip front propagation velocities, either so slow that seismic radiation is too small or long period to be measurable or fast enough that dynamic processes may be important for the slip process and measurable seismic waves radiate. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the differing M0-T scaling relations. We show that a single, simple dislocation model of slip events within a bounded slip zone may explain nearly all M0-T observations. Rather than different scaling for fast and slow populations, we suggest that within each population the scaling changes from M0 proportional to T3 to T when the slipping area reaches the slip zone boundaries and transitions from unbounded, 2-dimensional to bounded, 1-dimensional growth. This transition has not been apparent previously for slow events because data have sampled only the bounded regime and may be obscured for earthquakes when observations from multiple tectonic regions are combined. We have attempted to sample the expected transition between bounded and unbounded regimes for the slow slip population, measuring tremor cluster parameters from catalogs for Japan and Cascadia and using them as proxies for small slow slip event characteristics. For fast events we employed published earthquake slip models. Observations corroborate our hypothesis, but highlight observational difficulties. We find that M0-T observations for both slow and fast slip events, spanning 12 orders of magnitude in M0, are consistent with a single model based on dislocation

  12. Slip Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombes, S. D.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the process of developing the Science Lessons from Industrial Processes (SLIP) kits by 16 British science teachers. The content, applicability, and components of these kits (based upon local industries) are also included. (HM)

  13. Slip flow in graphene nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannam, Sridhar Kumar; Todd, B. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamic boundary condition for simple nanofluidic systems such as argon and methane flowing in graphene nanochannels using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (EMD) in conjunction with our recently proposed method [J. S. Hansen, B. D. Todd, and P. J. Daivis, Phys. Rev. E 84, 016313 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.016313]. We first calculate the fluid-graphene interfacial friction coefficient, from which we can predict the slip length and the average velocity of the first fluid layer close to the wall (referred to as the slip velocity). Using direct nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD) we then calculate the slip length and slip velocity from the streaming velocity profiles in Poiseuille and Couette flows. The slip lengths and slip velocities from the NEMD simulations are found to be in excellent agreement with our EMD predictions. Our EMD method therefore enables one to directly calculate this intrinsic friction coefficient between fluid and solid and the slip length for a given fluid and solid, which is otherwise tedious to calculate using direct NEMD simulations at low pressure gradients or shear rates. The advantages of the EMD method over the NEMD method to calculate the slip lengths/flow rates for nanofluidic systems are discussed, and we finally examine the dynamic behaviour of slip due to an externally applied field and shear rate.

  14. Blood Flow, Slip, and Viscometry

    PubMed Central

    Nubar, Yves

    1971-01-01

    The viscosity of blood, measured by the usual viscometers in which slip is not considered, is found to be flow dependent, varying markedly with shear rate, pressure gradient, and vessel diameter in the lower ranges of these factors. The study postulates, on grounds thought reasonable, that slip may be present in blood flow, as a function of the nature of the wall surfaces, shear stress at the wall, and relative cell volume (RCV) adjacent to the wall. It presumes that blood possesses a specific, flow-independent viscosity, and determines theoretically the viscosity indications of viscometers if blood slipped in the instruments. The study shows that if the slip function is of a certain plausible form, these viscosity indications would exhibit a flow dependence of much the same pattern as the actual indications supplied by the usual viscometers. The slip postulate permits, therefore, an interpretation of the “anomalous” flow behavior of blood, dispensing with the prevailing assumption of an ad hoc variability of its viscosity with flow factors. To the extent that viscometric data for blood may be representative of other non-newtonian fluids, the slip postulate may be applicable to these fluids. PMID:5573368

  15. The influence of slip velocity and temperature on permeability during and after high-velocity fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, W.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Tadai, O.; Hirose, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid transport properties in fault zones play an important role in dynamic processes during large earthquakes. If the permeability in a fault zone is low, high pore-fluid pressures caused by thermal pressurization (Sibson, 1973) or shear-induced compaction (Blanpied et al., 1992) can lead to an apparent reduction of fault strength. Changes in porosity and permeability of fault rocks within a fault zone during earthquakes and the subsequent progressive recovery of these properties may have a large influence on earthquake recurrence (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). A rotary shear apparatus was used to investigate changes of fluid transport properties in a fault zone by real-time measurement of gas flow rates during and after shearing of hollow sandstone and granite cylinders at various slip rates. Our apparatus measures permeability parallel to the slip plane in both the slip zone and wall rocks. In all cases, permeability decreased rapidly with an increase of friction, but recovered soon after slip, reaching a steady state within several tens of minutes. The rate of reduction of permeability increased with increasing slip velocity. Permeability did not recover to pre-slip levels after low-velocity tests but recovered to exceed them after high-velocity tests. Frictional heating of gases at the slip surface increased gas viscosity, which increased gas flow rate to produce an apparent permeability increase. The irreversible permeability changes of the low-velocity tests were caused by gouge formation due to wearing and smoothing of the slip surface. The increase of permeability after high-velocity tests was caused by mesoscale fracturing in response to rapid temperature rise. Changes of pore fluid viscosity contributed more to changes of flow rate than did permeability changes caused by shear deformation, although test results from different rocks and pore fluids might be different. References Blanpied, M.L., Lockner, D.A., Byerlee, J.D., 1992. An earthquake mechanism

  16. Unified slip boundary condition for fluid flows.

    PubMed

    Thalakkottor, Joseph John; Mohseni, Kamran

    2016-08-01

    Determining the correct matching boundary condition is fundamental to our understanding of several everyday problems. Despite over a century of scientific work, existing velocity boundary conditions are unable to consistently explain and capture the complete physics associated with certain common but complex problems, such as moving contact lines and corner flows. The widely used Maxwell and Navier slip boundary conditions make an implicit assumption that velocity varies only in the wall normal direction. This makes their boundary condition inapplicable in the vicinity of contact lines and corner points, where velocity gradient exists both in the wall normal and wall tangential directions. In this paper, by identifying this implicit assumption we are able to extend Maxwell's slip model. Here, we present a generalized velocity boundary condition that shows that slip velocity is a function of not only the shear rate but also the linear strain rate. In addition, we present a universal relation for slip length, which shows that, for a general flow, slip length is a function of the principal strain rate. The universal relation for slip length along with the generalized velocity boundary condition provides a unified slip boundary condition to model a wide range of steady Newtonian fluid flows. We validate the unified slip boundary for simple Newtonian liquids by using molecular dynamics simulations and studying both the moving contact line and corner flow problems. PMID:27627398

  17. Unified slip boundary condition for fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalakkottor, Joseph John; Mohseni, Kamran

    2016-08-01

    Determining the correct matching boundary condition is fundamental to our understanding of several everyday problems. Despite over a century of scientific work, existing velocity boundary conditions are unable to consistently explain and capture the complete physics associated with certain common but complex problems, such as moving contact lines and corner flows. The widely used Maxwell and Navier slip boundary conditions make an implicit assumption that velocity varies only in the wall normal direction. This makes their boundary condition inapplicable in the vicinity of contact lines and corner points, where velocity gradient exists both in the wall normal and wall tangential directions. In this paper, by identifying this implicit assumption we are able to extend Maxwell's slip model. Here, we present a generalized velocity boundary condition that shows that slip velocity is a function of not only the shear rate but also the linear strain rate. In addition, we present a universal relation for slip length, which shows that, for a general flow, slip length is a function of the principal strain rate. The universal relation for slip length along with the generalized velocity boundary condition provides a unified slip boundary condition to model a wide range of steady Newtonian fluid flows. We validate the unified slip boundary for simple Newtonian liquids by using molecular dynamics simulations and studying both the moving contact line and corner flow problems.

  18. Analysis of Fracture Pattern of Pulverized Quartz Formed by Stick Slip Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Muto, Jun; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Kano, Harumasa; Sasaki, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    In order to clarify how wall rocks of faults are damaged, fracture pattern analysis was performed imaging experimentally pulverized rocks by a micro-focus X-ray CT. Analyzed samples are core (diameter of 2cm) of single crystals of synthetic quartz and natural quartzites, which were pre-cut 50° to the core axis and mirror-polished. Experiments were conducted with axial strain rate of 10-3/s under the confining pressure of 180 MPa and room temperature using gas apparatus. Intense fracturing of the core occurred during the stick-slip with very large stress drop. Although thin melt layer is formed on the slip plane, the core is pulverized overall by tensile fracturing characterized by apparent lack of shear deformation. X-ray CT images demonstrate the fracture pattern being strongly controlled by slip direction and shear sense. Cracks are exponentially increased toward the slip plane and concentrated in the central portion rather than outer margin of core. Cracks tend to develop parallel to core axis and at high to moderate angles (90° ~ ±50°) with the plane including both core axis and slip direction, and lean to be higher angle to the surface near the slip plane. Due to this fracture pattern, the pulverized fragments show polygonal column or needle in shape with sharp and curving edges irrespective of their sizes, and the intensely fractured slip surface exhibit distinct rugged topography of an array of ridges developed perpendicular to slip direction. Mode and distribution pattern of fractures indicate that the stress concentration at the rupture front during dynamic rupture propagation or the constructive interference of reflected seismic waves focused at the center of core are possible mechanisms of pulverization.

  19. [Evaporating Droplet and Imaging Slip Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we summarize work on Evaporating Droplet and Imaging Slip Flows. The work was primarily performed by post-doc Hue Hu, and partially by grad students Lei Li and Danish Chopra. The work includes studies on droplet evaporation and its effects on temperature and velocity fields in an evaporating droplet, new 3-D microscopic particle image velocimetry and direct visualization on wall slip in a surfactant solution. With the exception of the slip measurements, these projects were those proposed in the grant application. Instead of slip flow, the original grant proposed imaging electro-osmotic flows. However, shortly after the grant was issued, the PI became aware of work on electro-osmotic flows by the group of Saville in Princeton that was similar to that proposed, and we therefore elected to carry out work on imaging slip flows rather than electro-osmotic flows.

  20. Friction of water slipping in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming D; Shen, Luming; Sheridan, John; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Chen, Chao; Zheng, Quanshui

    2011-03-01

    Liquid slip is essential in nanofluidic systems, as shrinking channel size leads to a dramatic increase in flow resistance and thus high-energy consumption for driving nonslip flow. Using large-scale nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of water flowing in carbon nanotubes (CNT's), we show that the relationship between the CNT wall-water interfacial friction stress and slip velocity follows a transition-state-theory-based inverse hyperbolic sine function, which remains universally valid regardless of wetting properties, CNT chiralities, and CNT sizes, and holds for all slip velocities from 0 to 1400 m/s. The finding could benefit the research in desalination and other chemical purification techniques.

  1. Prediction of fluid velocity slip at solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J S; Todd, B D; Daivis, Peter J

    2011-07-01

    The observed flow enhancement in highly confining geometries is believed to be caused by fluid velocity slip at the solid wall surface. Here we present a simple and highly accurate method to predict this slip using equilibrium molecular dynamics. Unlike previous equilibrium molecular dynamics methods, it allows us to directly compute the intrinsic wall-fluid friction coefficient rather than an empirical friction coefficient that includes all sources of friction for planar shear flow. The slip length predicted by our method is in excellent agreement with the slip length obtained from direct nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  2. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  3. Hydrogen-oxygen flame acceleration and transition to detonation in channels with no-slip walls for a detailed chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, M F; Kiverin, A D; Liberman, M A

    2011-05-01

    The features of flame acceleration in channels with wall friction and the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) are investigated theoretically and using high resolution numerical simulations of two-dimensional reactive Navier-Stokes equations, including the effects of viscosity, thermal conduction, molecular diffusion, and a detailed chemical reaction mechanism for hydrogen-oxygen gaseous mixture. It is shown that in a wide channel, from the beginning, the flame velocity increases exponentially for a short time and then flame acceleration decreases, ending up with the abrupt increase of the combustion wave velocity and the actual transition to detonation. In a thin channel with a width smaller than the critical value, the exponential increase of the flame velocity is not bounded and ends up with the transition to detonation. The transition to detonation occurs due to the pressure pulse, which is formed at the tip of the accelerating flame. The amplitude of the pressure pulse grows exponentially due to a positive feedback coupling between the pressure pulse and the heat released in the reaction. Finally, large amplitude pressure pulse steepens into a strong shock coupled with the reaction zone forming the overdriven detonation. The evolution from a temperature gradient to a detonation via the Zeldovich gradient mechanism and its applicability to the deflagration-to-detonation transition is investigated for combustible materials whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics. The results of the high resolution simulations are fully consistent with experimental observations of the flame acceleration and DDT. PMID:21728653

  4. Hydrogen-oxygen flame acceleration and transition to detonation in channels with no-slip walls for a detailed chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, M F; Kiverin, A D; Liberman, M A

    2011-05-01

    The features of flame acceleration in channels with wall friction and the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) are investigated theoretically and using high resolution numerical simulations of two-dimensional reactive Navier-Stokes equations, including the effects of viscosity, thermal conduction, molecular diffusion, and a detailed chemical reaction mechanism for hydrogen-oxygen gaseous mixture. It is shown that in a wide channel, from the beginning, the flame velocity increases exponentially for a short time and then flame acceleration decreases, ending up with the abrupt increase of the combustion wave velocity and the actual transition to detonation. In a thin channel with a width smaller than the critical value, the exponential increase of the flame velocity is not bounded and ends up with the transition to detonation. The transition to detonation occurs due to the pressure pulse, which is formed at the tip of the accelerating flame. The amplitude of the pressure pulse grows exponentially due to a positive feedback coupling between the pressure pulse and the heat released in the reaction. Finally, large amplitude pressure pulse steepens into a strong shock coupled with the reaction zone forming the overdriven detonation. The evolution from a temperature gradient to a detonation via the Zeldovich gradient mechanism and its applicability to the deflagration-to-detonation transition is investigated for combustible materials whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics. The results of the high resolution simulations are fully consistent with experimental observations of the flame acceleration and DDT.

  5. Silicification Strengthening and Non-Localization of Slip in Dilational Sites Along Strike-Slip Faults, Mt Isa Inlier, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.; Ghisetti, F. C.; Begbie, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    subparallel to the shear zone walls (some with purely dilational textures, others are recemented wallrock breccias); (4) irregular non-systematic vein stringers; (5) a systematic but variably developed set of predominantly extensional, steep planar quartz veins oriented 080-120°° at moderate angles to the main faults; and, (6) occasional minor faults from the complementary strike-slip set. Mutual cross-cutting relationships between all these structural components indicate broad contemporaneity. Incremental strike-slip of the order of 1-10 cm (consistent with small-moderate earthquake ruptures and in agreement with major fault shear-sense) can be recognized across cataclastic slip zones 1-10 mm thick. However, no dominant slip zone is apparent within the CSZ, indicating that slip remains localized for only brief intervals. We infer that silicification hardening inhibits slip localization in these dilational sites, and that the CSZ thicken with increasing displacement, newer slip surfaces tending to localize at their boundaries. This zone of epizonal cementation in dilational sites likely occupied the the top 1-2 km of the seismogenic zone, retaining cohesive strength and perhaps forming a barrier to upwards propagating ruptures.

  6. Observations that Constrain the Scaling of Apparent Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, J. B.

    2002-12-01

    Slip models developed for major earthquakes are composed of distributions of fault slip, rupture time, and slip velocity time function over the rupture surface, as divided into many smaller subfaults. Using a recently-developed technique, the seismic energy radiated from each subfault can be estimated from the time history of slip there and the average rupture velocity. Total seismic energies, calculated by summing contributions from all of the subfaults, agree reasonably well with independent estimates based on seismic energy flux in the far-field at regional or teleseismic distances. Two recent examples are the 1999 Izmit, Turkey and the 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquakes for which the NEIS teleseismic measurements of radiated energy agree fairly closely with seismic energy estimates from several different slip models, developed by others, for each of these events. Similar remarks apply to the 1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, and 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Apparent stresses calculated from these energy and moment results do not indicate any moment or magnitude dependence. The distributions of both fault slip and seismic energy radiation over the rupture surfaces of earthquakes are highly inhomogeneous. These results from slip models, combined with underground and seismic observations of slip for much smaller mining-induced earthquakes, can provide stronger constraint on the possible scaling of apparent stress with moment magnitude M or seismic moment. Slip models for major earthquakes in the range M6.2 to M7.4 show maximum slips ranging from 1.6 to 8 m. Mining-induced earthquakes at depths near 2000 m in South Africa are associated with peak slips of 0.2 to 0.37 m for events of M4.4 to M4.6. These maximum slips, whether derived from a slip model or directly observed underground in a deep gold mine, scale quite definitively as the cube root of the seismic moment. In contrast, peak slip rates (maximum subfault slip/rise time) appear to be scale invariant. A 1.25 m

  7. General slip regime permeability model for gas flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixue; Xu, Ruina; Ouyang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical effective gas permeability model was developed for rarefied gas flow in porous media, which holds over the entire slip regime with the permeability derived as a function of the Knudsen number. This general slip regime model (GSR model) is derived from the pore-scale Navier-Stokes equations subject to the first-order wall slip boundary condition using the volume-averaging method. The local closure problem for the volume-averaged equations is studied analytically and numerically using a periodic sphere array geometry. The GSR model includes a rational fraction function of the Knudsen number which leads to a limit effective permeability as the Knudsen number increases. The mechanism for this behavior is the viscous fluid inner friction caused by converging-diverging flow channels in porous media. A linearization of the GSR model leads to the Klinkenberg equation for slightly rarefied gas flows. Finite element simulations show that the Klinkenberg model overestimates the effective permeability by as much as 33% when a flow approaches the transition regime. The GSR model reduces to the unified permeability model [F. Civan, "Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media," Transp. Porous Media 82, 375 (2010)] for the flow in the slip regime and clarifies the physical significance of the empirical parameter b in the unified model.

  8. The Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault, Woodlark Rift: Spatial and Temporal Slip Distributions, and Rider Block Abandonment Chronology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, S. M.; Little, T.; Norton, K. P.; Mizera, M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Low-angle normal faults (LANFs) have induced debate due to their apparent non-Andersonian behavior and lack of significant seismicity associated with slip. Dipping ~21°, the Mai'iu Fault, Woodlark Rift is an active, rapidly slipping LANF located at the transition between continental extension and seafloor spreading. Based on campaign GPS data [Wallace et al., 2014] the Mai'iu Fault is thought to slip at 7-9 mm/yr, accommodating a large fraction of total basinal extension, although it is uncertain whether slip is seismic or aseismic. Surface geomorphology indicates that the fault scarp is not significantly eroded despite high rainfall and ~3000 m relief. We have obtained 15 rock samples (~5 m spacing) from the lowermost Mai'iu Fault scarp in order to determine Holocene slip rate and style over the last ~10 kyr using cosmogenic 10Be in quartz. This slip direction-parallel profile in exposed bedrock is supported by a suite of soil samples for 10Be analysis, which extend our temporal coverage. We model exposure age data in terms of slip rate and style by identification of discontinuities within the profile. Of particular interest is whether slip is seismic or aseismic. In addition we analyze the structure of conglomeratic strata and abandoned, back-rotated rider blocks in the Mai'iu Fault hanging wall, which record Quaternary splay faulting and tilting in response to sustained LANF slip. 20 quartz pebble samples were obtained from hanging wall conglomerates for the purpose of calculating cosmogenic burial (26Al/10Be) ages. These constrain the chronology of Quaternary hanging wall deformation. High-angle (~50°) faulting competes with LANF slip at <2 km depths, with high-angle faults cutting the main LANF and exposing footwall metabasalt up to 2 km north of the Mai'iu Fault. Past splay faulting is recorded in the progressive back-tilting and folding of the Gwoira rider block in a ~2 km deep depression in the corrugated Mai'iu fault plane. Our results provide new

  9. Wall energy relaxation in the Cahn-Hilliard model for moving contact lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Pengtao; Feng, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The Cahn-Hilliard model uses diffusion between fluid components to regularize the stress singularity at a moving contact line. In addition, it represents the dynamics of the near-wall layer by the relaxation of a wall energy. The first part of the paper elucidates the role of the wall relaxation in a flowing system, with two main results. First, we show that wall energy relaxation produces a dynamic contact angle that deviates from the static one, and derive an analytical formula for the deviation. Second, we demonstrate that wall relaxation competes with Cahn-Hilliard diffusion in defining the apparent contact angle, the former tending to "rotate" the interface at the contact line while the latter to "bend" it in the bulk. Thus, varying the two in coordination may compensate each other to produce the same macroscopic solution that is insensitive to the microscopic dynamics of the contact line. The second part of the paper exploits this competition to develop a computational strategy for simulating realistic flows with microscopic slip length at a reduced cost. This consists in computing a moving contact line with a diffusion length larger than the real slip length, but using the wall relaxation to correct the solution to that corresponding to the small slip length. We derive an analytical criterion for the required amount of wall relaxation, and validate it by numerical results on dynamic wetting in capillary tubes and drop spreading.

  10. Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of

  11. Slip and flow of hard-sphere colloidal glasses.

    PubMed

    Ballesta, P; Besseling, R; Isa, L; Petekidis, G; Poon, W C K

    2008-12-19

    We study the flow of concentrated hard-sphere colloidal suspensions along smooth, nonstick walls using cone-plate rheometry and simultaneous confocal microscopy. In the glass regime, the global flow shows a transition from Herschel-Bulkley behavior at large shear rate to a characteristic Bingham slip response at small rates, absent for ergodic colloidal fluids. Imaging reveals both the "solid" microstructure during full slip and the local nature of the "slip to shear" transition. Both the local and global flow are described by a phenomenological model, and the associated Bingham slip parameters exhibit characteristic scaling with size and concentration of the hard spheres.

  12. Micro PIV measurement of slip flow on a hydrogel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Mochizuki, O.

    2014-06-01

    Slip flow on a hydrogel surface was investigated in order to clarify the effect of drag reduction on the aqueous surface of living things. Thin-film flow along the hydrogel surface was measured by using a micro PIV (particle image velocimetry) system for comparison with theoretical velocity distribution which satisfied the non-slip condition on a solid surface. The slip flow on the hydrogel was found to be related to the degree of swelling and molecular weight of the hydrogel materials. This shows the possibility of a reduction in wall shear stress as a result of the decrease in the velocity gradient near a wall surface.

  13. Contactless Magnetic Slip Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki (Inventor); Deardon, Joe D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A contactless magnetic slip ring is disclosed having a primary coil and a secondary coil. The primary and secondary coils are preferably magnetically coupled together, in a highly reliable efficient manner, by a magnetic layered core. One of the secondary and primary coils is rotatable and the contactless magnetic slip ring provides a substantially constant output.

  14. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  15. Surface fractionation effects on slip of polydisperse polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Ansari, Mahmoud; Inn, Yong W.; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.

    2016-09-01

    The slip behavior of several high-density polyethylenes with broad range of molecular weight (MW) including bimodals is studied as a function of molecular weight (MW) and its distribution. A formulation similar to the double reptation theory is used to predict the slip velocity of the studied polymers as a function of MWD coupled with a model of surface molecular weight fractionation. While surface fractionation has a minor effect on slip of narrow to moderate MWD polymers (particularly unimodal), its role is significant for broad bimodal MWD polymers. The entropy driven migration of short chains toward the die wall has a profound effect and should be considered in order to calculate the effective MWD on the boundary layer and thus the correct magnitude of wall slip.

  16. Flow boundary conditions for fluid mixtures at solid walls and moving contact lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Molecular simulations of slip at solid surfaces have focused on single component systems, but polymers are frequently blended to optimize performance. This talk will examine counterintuitive behavior that can arise when binary fluid mixtures flow past stationary solid walls in simple shear and at moving contact lines. In general the velocities of the two species do not go to zero at the walls. In addition to the slip found for single fluids, there may be velocity discontinuities due to diffusive fluxes and to interfacial forces when there is a concentration gradient.^1 Cases where the fluid velocity is largest near the wall and where the apparent slip length diverges will be shown, and a general boundary condition for multi-phase flow presented. The no-slip boundary condition leads to singular dissipation when the contact line between a fluid interface and solid moves, but it was suggested that a diffusive flux could remove this singularity.^2 The flow and stress near moving contact lines are analyzed for a range of interfacial widths, velocities and interactions. A significant diffusive flux is only observed in the layer closest to the solid and is not sufficient to remove the singularity. Instead, the finite molecular size and non-Newtonian effects cutoff the singularity.1. C. Denniston and M. O. Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 178302 (2001).2. H.-Y. Chen and D. Jasnow and J. Vinals, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1686 (2000).

  17. Is frictional healing slip-dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Rubin, A. M.; Ryan, K. L.; Riviere, J. V.; Marone, C.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional re-strengthening of bare rock surfaces at very low stresses and near zero slip rate, as observed in the laboratory, is traditionally interpreted as showing support for purely time-dependent healing as embodied in the Aging law. However, while slide-hold-slide experiments on bare surfaces do show an apparent (purely) time-dependent increase in the static friction upon reslide, we show that the stress minima attained during the preceding holds show a strong slip-dependence which contradict the Aging law. A velocity strengthening Slip law explains such data much better. We also show that, large velocity step decreases, which drive the system far below steady state just like long holds, clearly support the slip-dependent response of the Slip law over the time-dependent healing contained in the Aging law. But, while time-dependent healing has an intuitive physical picture in terms of growth of the 'real contact area' with time, it is more difficult to ascribe one to slip-dependent healing. Here, we explore the possibility that the slip-dependence arises out of an interplay between contact `quality' and `quantity' at the scale of the asperity contacts. First, to further study the slip-dependence of healing, we carry out large velocity step decreases and sequences of long slide-hold-slides on both bare rock and gouge. Secondly, to probe the micro-mechanical origins of healing, we complement our mechanical data with amplitudes and travel time data of ultrasonic P- and S- waves transmitted across the sliding interface. While ultrasonic P-wave transmissivity has been used as a proxy for 'real contact area' in friction experiments by Nagata et al. (2012, 2014) before, the simultaneous use of P- and S-phases in our experiments is designed specifically to probe contact rheology. Initial results show strong correlations between changes in friction, transmitted wave amplitudes and travel times in response to changes in slip rate. We also observe important differences

  18. Stokes’ Second Problem for a Micropolar Fluid with Slip

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Olivia Ana; Roşca, Ileana Constanţa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper is presented the model of an incompressible micropolar fluid flow with slip using the initial and boundary conditions when the wall velocity is considered depending on the frequency of the vibration. Regarding the boundary conditions of the velocity at the wall, we remark that there is a discontinuity of the velocity at the fluid-wall interface. The solutions for velocity and microrotation with the given conditions are obtained using the method of numerical inversion of Laplace transform. PMID:26161780

  19. Truss Slip Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Truss slip joint has few parts, strong, and assembled and disassembled easily. Designed to carry axial loads as large as 100,000 lb and to accommodate slight initial axial-displacement and angular misalignments. Joint assembled or disassembled by astronaut in space suit or, on Earth, by technician in heavy protective clothing; simple enough to be operable by robot. Modified to accommodate welding.

  20. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  1. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  2. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.; Ruppert, S.

    2002-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by analyzing aftershock sequences in the Western U.S. and Turkey using two different techniques. First we examine the observed regional S-wave spectra by fitting with a parametric model (Walter and Taylor, 2002) with and without variable stress drop scaling. Because the aftershock sequences have common stations and paths we can examine the S-wave spectra of events by size to determine what type of apparent stress scaling, if any, is most consistent with the data. Second we use regional coda envelope techniques (e.g. Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al, 2002) on the same events to directly measure energy and moment. The coda techniques corrects for path and site effects using an empirical Green function technique and independent calibration with surface wave derived moments. Our hope is that by carefully analyzing a very large number of events in a consistent manner using two different techniques we can start to resolve this apparent stress scaling issue. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  3. Influence of boundary slip effect on thermal environment in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Wenbo; Zhang, Liang; Li, Junhong; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2014-12-01

    A kind of new hypersonic vehicle makes long-time flight in transitional flow regime where boundary slip effect caused by low gas density will have an important influence on the thermal environment around the vehicles. Numerical studies on the boundary slip effect as hypersonic vehicles fly in high Mach number has been carried out. The method for solving non-equilibrium flows considering slip boundary, surface catalysis and chemical reactions has been built up, and been validated by comparing the thermal environment results with STS-2 flight test data. The mechanism and rules of impact on surface heat flux by different boundary slip level (Knudsen number from 0.01 to 0.05) has been investigated in typical hypersonic flow conditions. The results show that the influence mechanisms of boundary slip effect are different on component diffusion heat flux and convective heat flux; slip boundary increases the near wall temperature which diminish the convective heat; whereas enhances the near wall gas diffusion heat because of the internal energy's growing. Component diffusion heat flux takes a smaller portion of the total heat flux, so the slip boundary reduces the total wall heat flux. As Knudsen number goes up, the degree of rarefaction increases, the influences of slip boundary on convective and component diffusion heat flux are both enhanced, total heat flux grows by a small margin, and boundary slip effect is more distinct.

  4. The apparent Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binétruy, P.; Helou, A.

    2015-10-01

    We exploit the parallel between dynamical black holes and cosmological spacetimes to describe the evolution of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes from the point of view of an observer in terms of the dynamics of the apparent horizon. Using the Hayward-Kodama formalism of dynamical black holes, we clarify the role of the Clausius relation to derive the Friedmann equations for a Universe, in the spirit of Jacobson’s work on the thermodynamics of spacetime. We also show how dynamics at the horizon naturally leads to the quantum-mechanical process of Hawking radiation. We comment on the connection of this work with recent ideas to consider our observable Universe as a Bose-Einstein condensate and on the corresponding role of vacuum energy.

  5. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by applying the same methodology to a series of datasets that spans roughly 10 orders in seismic moment, M0. We will summarize recent results using a coda envelope methodology of Mayeda et al, (2003) which provide the most stable source spectral estimates to date. This methodology eliminates the complicating effects of lateral path heterogeneity, source radiation pattern, directivity, and site response (e.g., amplification, f-max and kappa). We find that in tectonically active continental crustal areas the total radiated energy scales as M00.25 whereas in regions of relatively younger oceanic crust, the stress drop is generally lower and exhibits a 1-to-1 scaling with moment. In addition to answering a fundamental question in earthquake source dynamics, this study addresses how one would scale small earthquakes in a particular region up to a future, more damaging earthquake. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  6. Disentangling Fault Scarp Geometry and Slip-Distribution in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Walker, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new and inherently 3D approach to the analysis of fault scarp geometry using high resolution topography. Recent advance in topographic measurement techniques (LiDAR and Structure from Motion) has allowed the extensive measurement of single earthquake scarps and multiple event cumulative scarps to draw conclusions about along-strike slip variation and characteristic slip. Present analysis of the resulting point clouds and digital elevation models is generally achieved by taking vertical or map view profiles of geomorphic markers across the scarp. Profiles are done at numerous locations along strike carefully chosen to avoid regions degraded by erosion/deposition. The resulting slip distributions are almost always extremely variable and "noisy", both for strike-slip and dip-slip faulting scarps and it is often unclear whether this reflects slip variation, noise/erosion, site effects or geometric variation. When observing palaeo-earthquake and even modern event scarps, the full geometry, such as the degree of oblique slip or the fault dip, is often poorly constrained. We first present the results of synthetic tests to demonstrate the introduction of significant apparent noise by simply varying terrain, fault and measurement geometry (slope angle, slope azimuth, fault dip and slip obliquity). Considering fully 3-dimensional marker surfaces (e.g. Planar or conical) we use the variation in apparent offset with terrain and measurement geometry, to constrain the slip geometry in 3D. Combining measurements windowed along strike, we show that determining the slip vector is reduced to a simple linear problem. We conclude that for scarps in regions of significant topography or with oblique slip, our method will give enhanced slip resolution while standard methods will give poor slip resolution. We test our method using a Structure from Motion pointcloud and digital elevation model covering a ~25 km stretch of a thrust fault scarp in the Kazakh Tien Shan.

  7. Pulverization of quartz single crystal and natural quartzite induced by possible super-shear rupture during stick -slips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, O.; Muto, J.; Otsuki, K.

    2011-12-01

    Intensely pulverized rocks have been reported from large scale strike slip faults such as San Andreas Fault (e.g., Dor et al., 2006). These rocks are characterized by apparent lack of shear deformation, suggesting shattering and comminuation of grains possibly resulting from a rapid decrease in normal stress and perhaps transient fault opening during passage of the dynamic rupture front. Doan and Gary (2009) experimentally reported that the pulverization of granite requires high strain rates and could be explained by a super shear rupture. So far, there has been almost few experimental study on damage formation of wall rocks of fault in association with rupture propagation during a stick-slip using crustal materials. In order to clarify how rupture propagates and damages wall rocks during a stick-slip , we have performed experiments on a stick-slip with a single crystal of synthetic quartz and natural quartzite. We used a gas apparatus, and performed the experiments at confining pressures of 120-180 MPa and axial strain rate of 10-3/s. Single crystal s of dry synthetic quartz and natural quartzite were cored with a diameter of 20 mm and cut to a length of about 40 mm. Then the cores were cut 50° to the long axis of the core, and the precut surfaces were mirror polished. Axial stresses and shear strains along the fault surfaces were measured by strain gauges, and the data were sampled at 5 MHz . Our experimental results on single crystal of quartz yielded two different frictional behaviors and final states of samples: 1) simple fracturing state associated with multiple small stick-slips at the confining pressure (Pc) less than 160 MPa, where samples were split into fragments but no intense pulverization, 2) intense pulverization state associated with large stick-slips at Pc of 180 MPa, where samples were intensely pulverized into numerous small fragments. The size of the fragments extends down to submicron in the vicinity of the slip plane. In pulverized samples

  8. Quantum phase slip noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .

  9. Universal behavior in ideal slip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The slip energies and stresses are computed for defect-free crystals of Ni, Cu, Ag, and Al using the many-atom approach. A simple analytical expression for the slip energies is obtained, leading to a universal form for slip, with the energy scaled by the surface energy and displacement scaled by the lattice constant. Maximum stresses are found to be somewhat larger than but comparable with experimentally determined maximum whisker strengths.

  10. Refining the shallow slip deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Tong, Xiaopeng; Sandwell, David T.; Milliner, Christopher W. D.; Dolan, James F.; Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sebastien; Ayoub, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Geodetic slip inversions for three major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah) show a 15-60 per cent reduction in slip near the surface (depth < 2 km) relative to the slip at deeper depths (4-6 km). This significant difference between surface coseismic slip and slip at depth has been termed the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions lack data coverage close to surface rupture such that the shallow portions of the slip models are poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study, we improve the static coseismic slip inversion for these three earthquakes, especially at shallow depths, by: (1) including data capturing the near-fault deformation from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; (2) refining the interferometric synthetic aperture radar processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU (Statistical Non-linear Approach for Phase Unwrapping) assuming a maximum discontinuity and an on-fault correlation mask; (3) using more detailed, geologically constrained fault geometries and (4) incorporating additional campaign global positioning system (GPS) data. The refined slip models result in much smaller SSDs of 3-19 per cent. We suspect that the remaining minor SSD for these earthquakes likely reflects a combination of our elastic model's inability to fully account for near-surface deformation, which will render our estimates of shallow slip minima, and potentially small amounts of interseismic fault creep or triggered slip, which could `make up' a small percentages of the coseismic SSD during the interseismic period. Our results indicate that it is imperative that slip inversions include

  11. Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, A.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects.

  12. Simulation and modelling of slip flow over surfaces grafted with polymer brushes and glycocalyx fibres

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Mingge; Li, Xuejin; Liang, Haojun; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of functionalized surfaces using polymer brushes is a relatively simple process and parallels the presence of glycocalyx filaments coating the luminal surface of our vasculature. In this paper, we perform atomistic-like simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to study both polymer brushes and glycocalyx filaments subject to shear flow, and we apply mean-field theory to extract useful scaling arguments on their response. For polymer brushes, a weak shear flow has no effect on the brush density profile or its height, while the slip length is independent of the shear rate and is of the order of the brush mesh size as a result of screening by hydrodynamic interactions. However, for strong shear flow, the polymer brush is penetrated deeper and is deformed, with a corresponding decrease of the brush height and an increase of the slip length. The transition from the weak to the strong shear regime can be described by a simple ‘blob’ argument, leading to the scaling γ̇0 ∝ σ3/2, where γ̇0 is the critical transition shear rate and σ is the grafting density. Furthermore, in the strong shear regime, we observe a cyclic dynamic motion of individual polymers, causing a reversal in the direction of surface flow. To study the glycocalyx layer, we first assume a homogeneous flow that ignores the discrete effects of blood cells, and we simulate microchannel flows at different flow rates. Surprisingly, we find that, at low Reynolds number, the slip length decreases with the mean flow velocity, unlike the behaviour of polymer brushes, for which the slip length remains constant under similar conditions. (The slip length and brush height are measured with respect to polymer mesh size and polymer contour length, respectively.) We also performed additional DPD simulations of blood flow in a tube with walls having a glycocalyx layer and with the deformable red blood cells modelled accurately at the spectrin level. In this case, a plasma cell

  13. Surface slip associated with the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake measured on alinement arrays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Baker, B.; McFarland, F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Although still continuing, surface slip from the 2004 Parkfield earth-quake as measured on alinement arrays appears to be approaching about 30-35 cm between Parkfield and Gold Hill. This includes slip along the main trace and the Southwest Fracture Zone (SWFZ). Slip here was higher in 1966 at about 40 cm. The distribution of 2004 slip appears to have a shape similar to that of the 1966 event, but final slip is expected to be lower in 2004 by about 3-15 cm, even when continuing slip is accounted for. Proportionately, this difference is most notable at the south end at Highway 46, where the 1966 event slip was 13 cm compared to the 2004 slip of 4 cm. Continuous Global Positioning System and creepmeters suggest that significant surface coseismic slip apparently occurred mainly on the SWFZ and perhaps on Middle Mountain (the latter possibly caused by shaking) (Langbein et al., 2005). Creepmeters indicate only minor (<0.2 cm) surface coseismic slip occurred on the main trace between Parkfield and Gold Hill. We infer that 3-6 cm slip accumulated across our arrays in the first 24 hr. At Highway 46, slip appears complete, whereas the remaining sites are expected to take 2-6 years to reach their background creep rates. Following the 1966 event, afterslip at one site persisted as much as 5-10 years. The much longer recurrence intervals between the past two Parkfield earthquakes and the decreasing slip per event may suggest that larger slip deficits are now growing along the Parkfield segment.

  14. Along Strike Variations in Episodic Tremor and Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, G. M.; Creager, K. C.; Delbridge, B. G.; Wech, A.; Khazaradze, G.

    2012-12-01

    The geodetic signal due to Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) along strike of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) is much larger in Washington north of ~46°N than in Oregon from 2004 to 2011. Similarly, ETS recurrence in Cascadia increases from two years in Oregon to ~14 months near Puget Sound, Washington. Among the four seismically and geodetically detected ETS events that ruptured northern to central Oregon (June 2011, August 2009, July 2007 and November 2005), only the 2009 event ruptured from southern Puget Sound to central Oregon, crossing ~46°N. Seismically observed tremor and geodetic displacements are used to inspect the August 2009 ETS event. Elastic half-space models indicate interface slip north of 45.6+0.3/-0.5°N is large (64 mm at 112° CCW from north) and reduces by ~52% (31 mm at 119° CCW from north) to the south. The moment magnitude is 6.8. We seek to understand why there is more apparent slip in Washington than in Oregon for the 2009 event as well as for the average GPS displacement per year (sum of vector displacements of each ETS event since 2004 divided by GPS site duration of operation). We use an elastic half space model with GPS time series from the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Network (PANGA) and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to invert for the slow slip rate and explore key model parameters such as the width of the slipping zone, fault dip and depth to try to explain the apparent difference in average GPS displacement per year caused by ETS events. If the slip deficit observed in Oregon is real, then how will it eventually be accommodated?

  15. Flagellar propulsion near walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here we use simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model eukaryotic flagella. We show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella which results in a decrease of their propulsive force near a no-slip wall.

  16. Microscale disk-induced gas displacement with and without slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Danny; Ligrani, Phil

    2007-10-01

    Displacements of gas flows, both with and without slip, are described for rotation-induced flows in a C-shaped fluid chamber passage formed between a rotating disk and a stationary surface, with a height h of 13.3 µm. Included are accommodation coefficients for the stationary smooth wall, smooth disk surface, medium rough disk surface rough disk surface. Flow rate and pressure rise magnitudes deduced using these accommodation coefficients, and simplified forms of the Navier-Stokes equations, are consistent with experimental data over rotational speeds of 200-1200 rpm, pressure increases of 0-400 Pa, net flow rates of 0-100 µl min-1, Knudsen numbers of 0.0056 and 0.0158, average roughness magnitudes of 0.01- 1.1 µm and working fluids of air and helium. All situations investigated consider a large roughness size compared to the molecular mean free path. For a particular normalized fluid chamber pressure rise P*, the normalized volumetric flow rate Q* with slip is generally less than the value with no slip. Lower P* magnitudes are also generally present at a particular value of Q*, in general, as the working fluid is changed from air to helium and the Knudsen number increases. The slopes of dimensional pressure variations with rotational speed decrease as disk surface roughness levels increase, as values of the accommodation coefficient decrease and, thus, as near-wall slip velocity magnitudes increase.

  17. Slip zone structure and processes in seismogenic carbonate faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, R. J.; De Paola, N.

    2011-12-01

    High velocity rotary shear experiments performed at seismic slip velocities (>1 m/s) have shown that experimental faults are weak; with increasing displacement, friction coefficient values decrease from Byerlee's values (μ = 0.6-0.85) to values of ~0.1. In carbonate rocks, experimental studies have shown that fault lubrication is due to the operation of multiple dynamic weakening mechanisms (e.g., flash heating, thermal pressurization, nanoparticle lubrication), which are thermally activated due to the frictional heat generated along localized slip surfaces during rapid slip. This study has set out to investigate whether evidence for the operation of these weakening mechanisms can be found in naturally occurring carbonate fault zones. Field studies were carried out on the active Gubbio fault zone (1984, Mw = 5.6) in the northern Apennines of Italy. Jurassic-Oligocene carbonates in the footwall are heavily deformed within a fault core of ~15 m thickness, which contains a number of very well exposed, highly localized principal slip surfaces (PSSs). Fault rocks are predominantly breccias and foliated cataclasites. Microstructural analyses of the PSSs reveal that slip is localized within very narrow principal slip zones (PSZs), ranging from 10-85 μm in thickness, with sub-millimetre scale asperities. PSZs are composed of very fine-grained, orange-brown ultracataclasite gouge containing a high proportion of nano-sized particles. The ultracataclasite commonly displays a foliated texture and sub-micron scale zones of extreme shear localization. A broader slip zone, up to 1.5 mm wide and containing multiple slip surfaces, is associated with the most evolved PSSs; it is located on the opposite side of the PSS to the PSZ. Here, the host rock material is heavily fractured, abraded and altered, sometimes with an ultracataclasite matrix. The surrounding wall rock often appears to have a porous texture, and calcite crystals within the slip zone have altered rims with lobate

  18. Comments on the slip factor and the relation Delta phi = -h Delta theta

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    The definition of the slip factor can be obtained from the phase equation. However, a derivation using the relation {Delta}{phi} = -h{Delta}{theta} leads to a different slip-factor definition. This apparent paradox is examined in detail and resolved. Here {Delta}{phi} is the rf phase difference and {Delta}{theta} is the azimuthal phase difference around the accelerator ring between an off-momentum particle and the synchronous particle, while h is the rf harmonic.

  19. Flexible slip near the largest step-over along the North Anatolian fault system, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, H.; Kurcer, A.; Özalp, S.; Emre, O.

    2010-12-01

    Repeatability of surface slip distribution through earthquake cycles is basis to evaluate size and timing of future large earthquakes generated by active fault systems. In order to reveal surface slip history associated with paleoearthquakes on the North Anatolian fault system (NAFS), we have extensively performed 3D trenching survey on the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M 7.0) ruptures, to simultaneously reconstruct timing and surface slip associated with past large earthquakes. At Ayvaz site on the 1942 rupture, our 3D trench survey preliminary indicated that the penultimate earthquake, which can be correlated with the great Anatolian earthquake (M ~8.0) in 1668 AD, recorded larger surface slip of 6.0-8.0 m in comparison with the 1942 slip of 2.5 m. This result supports historical documents telling that the 1668 event ruptured for >600 km long on the central-eastern NAFS and it likely jumped across the 11-km-wide step-over that is the largest along the NAFS. In order to confirm this flexible slip history according to the magnitude of large earthquakes, we re-excavated 3D trenches to reconstruct longer slip history at the same site. The results are summarized as follows; 1) at the site, high-resolution alluvium exposed on the trench walls records six paleoearthquakes including the 1942 and 1668 events during the last ~2500 years, 2) we reconstructed five discrete slips during the individual events, 3) the amounts of paleo-slips are classified into two categories; the 1942-type smaller slips and the 1668-type larger slips. Thus, the repeatability of surface slip during large earthquakes is not constant like the assumption of the characteristic earthquake model, however, the amounts do not randomly vary from event to event on the assumption of the Gutenberg-Richter model.

  20. The Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Pozzolana Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessenouci, M. Z.; Triki, N. E. Bibi; Khelladi, S.; Draoui, B.; Abene, A.

    The recent development of some lightweight construction materials, such as light concrete, can play an important role as an insulator, while maintaining sufficient levels of mechanical performance. The quality of insulation to provide depends on the climate, the exposure of the walls and also the materials used in the construction. The choice of a material to be used as an insulator, obviously, depends on its availability and its cost. This is a study of natural pozzolanas as basic components in building materials. It is intended to highlight their thermal advantage. It is economically advantageous to use pozzolana in substitution for a portion of the clinker as hydraulically active additions, as well as in compositions of lightweight concretes in the form of pozzolanic aggregate mixtures, which provide mechanical strengths that comply with current standards. A theoretical study is conducted on the apparent thermal conductivity of building materials, namely concrete containing pozzolana. Thermal modeling, apparent to that commonly used for porous materials, has been applied to pozzolana concrete. Experimental results on measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of pozzolana concrete are reported in this study, using an approach that considers that concrete is composed of two solid ingredients, a binding matrix (hydrated cement paste) and all aggregates. A second comparative theoretical approach is used for the case where concrete consists of a solid phase and a fluid phase (air).

  1. Interaction between slip events, erosion and sedimentation along an active strike-slip fault: Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatton, M.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.; Manighetti, I.; Romano, C.; Beauprêtre, S.; Garembois, S.; Larroque, C.

    2012-04-01

    device is indeed coupled with a rainfall system, while an optical measurement apparatus that includes digital cameras and a laser interferometer, allows observing and measuring continuously at very high resolution the evolution of the model surface morphology. The analog material is a mix of granular materials -glass microbeads, silica powder and plastic powder saturated in water, whose mass composition and, consequently, mechanical properties lead to a geometric scaling of about 1:10 000 and to a temporal scaling on the order of one second equivalent to a few dozens of years. The protocol allows monitoring together the evolution of the fault and that of the morphological markers that the fault progressively offsets as slip events are imposed. We have conducted several experiences in different settings and we will present the preliminary results that we have obtained. We basically could survey the formation and evolution of a strike-slip fault from its immature stages up to one hundred repeated slip events. Under the combined effects of accumulating slip, erosion and sedimentation, the model surface exhibits tectonic and morphological structures similar to natural features (Riedel's shears, pressure and shutter ridges, pull-apart basins, alluvial fans, terrace risers, braided rivers, etc), whose space and time evolution can be precisely analyzed. Deformation partitioning, sequential formation of alluvial terraces, stream captures, development of 'traps' filling with sediments, etc, are especially observed. The control on the imposed amplitude and frequency of the rainfall cycles allows us to examine the impact of these rainfalls on the fault morphology and the evolution of the associated morphological markers. Finally, we can compare the imposed slip events (number, amplitudes, repeat times) with the cumulative offsets eventually visible and measurable at the model surface. Marked discrepancies are found between imposed and final apparent offsets that shed light on the

  2. Slip Effects on an Unsteady Boundary Layer Stagnation-Point Flow and Heat Transfer towards a Stretching Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnendu, Bhattacharyya; Swati, Mukhopadhyay; C. Layek, G.

    2011-09-01

    An analysis is presented for an unsteady boundary layer stagnation-point flow of a Newtonian fluid and the heat transfer towards a stretching sheet taking non-conventional partial slip conditions at the sheet. The self-similar equations are obtained using similarity transformations and solved numerically by the shooting method. Effects of the parameters involved in the equations, especially velocity slip and thermal slip parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles, are analyzed extensively. It is revealed that due to the velocity and thermal slip parameters, the rate of heat transfer from the sheet and the wall skin friction change significantly.

  3. Boundary Slip Effects on the Linear Stability of Circular and Spiral Poiseuille Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotrell, D.; McFadden, G.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we consider the effect of boundary slip on the linear stability of various internal flows having boundary curvature. For the case of annular flow, slip can have a small to moderate affect on the linear stability analysis, with results showing that if the linear stability analysis gives a finite transition for no-slip boundary conditions, then the addition of slip can have either a stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the flow depending on the radius ratio. The results also show that for fixed Knudsen number, there is a value of the radius ratio for which there is no difference between linear stability results with and without slip, and that this value of the radius ratio changes with Reynolds number as does the number of crossings (i.e., one crossing for a Reynolds number of zero and two for a Reynolds number of 100). As for the annular special case (i.e., Taylor-Couette flow with μ>2̂), results show that relaxing the no-slip condition on the cylinder walls does not destabilize this flow (i.e., computations still give a critical value of infinity). Similar to these results, for circular Poiseuille flow (i.e., pipe flow) current results show that relaxing the no-slip boundary condition on the cylinder wall does not destabilize the flow.

  4. Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of a Particle-Fluid Suspension in a Planar Channel

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Mohammed H.; Eldesoky, Islam M.; Maher, Bilal M.; Abumandour, Ramzy M.

    2015-01-01

    Peristaltic pumping induced by a sinusoidal traveling wave in the walls of a two-dimensional channel filled with a viscous incompressible fluid mixed with rigid spherical particles is investigated theoretically taking the slip effect on the wall into account. A perturbation solution is obtained which satisfies the momentum equations for the case in which amplitude ratio (wave amplitude/channel half width) is small. The analysis has been carried out by duly accounting for the nonlinear convective acceleration terms and the slip condition for the fluid part on the wavy wall. The governing equations are developed up to the second order of the amplitude ratio. The zeroth-order terms yield the Poiseuille flow and the first-order terms give the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The results show that the slip conditions have significant effect within certain range of concentration. The phenomenon of reflux (the mean flow reversal) is discussed under slip conditions. It is found that the critical reflux pressure is lower for the particle-fluid suspension than for the particle-free fluid and is affected by slip condition. A motivation of the present analysis has been the hope that such theory of two-phase flow process under slip condition is very useful in understanding the role of peristaltic muscular contraction in transporting biofluid behaving like a particle-fluid mixture. Also the theory is important to the engineering applications of pumping solid-fluid mixture by peristalsis. PMID:27019591

  5. Slow-Slip Propagation Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. M.; Ampuero, J.

    2007-12-01

    Combined seismic and geodetic data from subduction zones and the Salton Trough have revealed slow slip events with reasonably well-defined propagation speeds. This in turn is suggestive of a more-or-less well- defined front separating nearly locked regions outside the slipping zone from interior regions that slide much more rapidly. Such crack-like nucleation fronts arise naturally in models of rate-and-state friction for lab-like values of a/b, where a and b are the coefficients of the velocity- and state-dependence of the frictional strength (with the surface being velocity-neutral for a/b=1). If the propagating front has a quasi-steady shape, the propagation and slip speeds are kinematically tied via the local slip gradient. Given a sufficiently sharp front, the slip gradient is given dimensionally by Δτp- r/μ', where Δτp-r is the peak-to-residual stress drop at the front and μ' the effective elastic shear modulus. Rate-and-state simulations indicate that Δτp-r is given reasonably accurately by bσ\\ln(Vmaxθi/Dc), where σ is the effective normal stress, Vmax is the maximum slip speed behind the propagating front, θi is the the value of "state" ahead of the propagating front, and Dc is the characteristic slip distance for state evolution. Except for a coefficient of order unity, Δτp-r is independent of the evolution law. This leads to Vprop/Vmax ~μ'/[bσ\\ln(Vmaxθi/Dc)]. For slip speeds a few orders of magnitude above background, \\ln(Vmaxθi/Dc) can with reasonable accuracy be assigned some representative value (~4-5, for example). Subduction zone transients propagate on the order of 10 km/day or 10-1 m/s. Geodetic data constrain the average slip speed to be a few times smaller than 1 cm/day or 10-7 m/s. However, numerical models indicate that the maximum slip speed at the front may be several times larger than the average, over a length scale that is probably too small to resolve geodetically, so a representative value of Vprop/Vmax may be ~106

  6. Mapping apparent stress and energy radiation over fault zones of major earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.

    2002-01-01

    Using published slip models for five major earthquakes, 1979 Imperial Valley, 1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, and 1995 Kobe, we produce maps of apparent stress and radiated seismic energy over their fault surfaces. The slip models, obtained by inverting seismic and geodetic data, entail the division of the fault surfaces into many subfaults for which the time histories of seismic slip are determined. To estimate the seismic energy radiated by each subfault, we measure the near-fault seismic-energy flux from the time-dependent slip there and then multiply by a function of rupture velocity to obtain the corresponding energy that propagates into the far-field. This function, the ratio of far-field to near-fault energy, is typically less than 1/3, inasmuch as most of the near-fault energy remains near the fault and is associated with permanent earthquake deformation. Adding the energy contributions from all of the subfaults yields an estimate of the total seismic energy, which can be compared with independent energy estimates based on seismic-energy flux measured in the far-field, often at teleseismic distances. Estimates of seismic energy based on slip models are robust, in that different models, for a given earthquake, yield energy estimates that are in close agreement. Moreover, the slip-model estimates of energy are generally in good accord with independent estimates by others, based on regional or teleseismic data. Apparent stress is estimated for each subfault by dividing the corresponding seismic moment into the radiated energy. Distributions of apparent stress over an earthquake fault zone show considerable heterogeneity, with peak values that are typically about double the whole-earthquake values (based on the ratio of seismic energy to seismic moment). The range of apparent stresses estimated for subfaults of the events studied here is similar to the range of apparent stresses for earthquakes in continental settings, with peak values of about

  7. Effect of the Loma Prieta Earthquake on surface slip along the Calaveras Fault in the Hollister area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galehouse, Jon S.

    Over the past ten years we have made over 800 measurements of slip rates at 20 sites on various faults in the San Francisco Bay region. This data set enables us to compare rates and amounts of slip on these various faults before and after the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) on the San Andreas fault. No surface slip rate changes associated with the earthquake occurred at any of our sites on the San Andreas, Hayward, northern Calaveras, Concord-Green Valley, Seal Cove-San Gregorio, Antioch, Rodgers Creek, or West Napa faults. The LPEQ apparently triggered up to 12-14 mm of right slip on the southern Calaveras fault at our two sites in the Hollister area less than 50 km from the epicenter. Most of this slip was probably coseismic or nearly so. About the same amount of slip was triggered at these sites in 1984 by the Morgan Hill earthquake. This slip, in contrast, occurred as afterslip within about a 2.5-month interval. The Calaveras fault in the Hollister area moves episodically, with shorter times of more rapid slip alternating with longer times of slower slip. The alternation occurs whether or not the times of faster slip are triggered by any nearby seismic event(s).

  8. Effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake on surface slip along the Calaveras fault in the Hollister area

    SciTech Connect

    Galehouse, J.S. )

    1990-07-01

    Over the past ten years the author has made over 800 measurements of slip rates at 20 sites on various faults in the San Francisco Bay region. This data set enables them to compare rates and amounts of slip on these various faults before and after the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) on the San Andreas fault. No surface slip rate changes associated with the earthquake occurred at any of the sites on the San Andreas, Hayward, northern Calaveras, Concord-Green Valley, Seal Cove-San Gregorio, Antioch, Rodgers Creek, or West Napa faults. The LPEQ apparently triggered up to 12-14 mm of right slip on the southern Calaveras fault at two sites in the Hollister area less than 50 km from the epicenter. Most of this slip was probably coseismic or nearly so. About the same amount of slip was triggered at these sites in 1984 by the Morgan Hill earthquake. This slip, in contrast, occurred as afterslip within about a 2.5-month interval. The Calaveras fault in the Hollister area moves episodically, with shorter times of more rapid slip alternating with longer times of slower slip. The alternation occurs whether or not the times of faster slip are triggered by any nearby seismic event(s).

  9. Unusual transition in quartzite dislocation creep regimes and crystal slip systems in the aureole of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek pluton, California: a case for anhydrous conditions created by decarbonation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sven S.; Law, Richard D.

    2004-06-01

    Microstructures and quartz c-axis fabrics were analyzed in five quartzite samples collected across the eastern aureole of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton. Temperatures of deformation are estimated to be 740±50 °C based on a modified c-axis opening angle thermometer of Kruhl (J. Metamorph. Geol. 16 (1998) 142). In quartzite layers located closest (140 m) to the pluton-wall rock contact, flattened detrital grains are plastically deformed and partially recrystallized. The dominant recrystallization process is subgrain rotation (dislocation creep regime 2 of Hirth and Tullis (J. Struct. Geol. 14 (1992) 145)), although grain boundary migration (dislocation creep regime 3) is also evident. Complete recrystallization occurs in quartzite layers located at a distance of ˜240 m from the contact, and coincides with recrystallization taking place dominantly through grain boundary migration (regime 3). Within the quartzites, strain is calculated to be lowest in the layers closest to the pluton margin based on the aspect ratios of flattened detrital grains. The c-axis fabrics indicate that < a> slip operated within the quartzites closest to the pluton-wall rock contact and that with distance from the contact the operative slip systems gradually switch to prism [ c] slip. The spatial inversion in microstructures and slip systems (apparent "high temperature" deformation and recrystallization further from the pluton-contact and apparent "low temperature" deformation and recrystallization closer to the pluton-contact) coincides with a change in minor phase mineral content of quartzite samples and also in composition of the surrounding rock units. Marble and calc-silicate assemblages dominate close to the pluton-wall rock contact, whereas mixed quartzite and pelite assemblages are dominant further from the contact. We suggest that a thick marble unit located between the pluton and the quartzite layers acted as a barrier to fluids emanating from the pluton

  10. Study of fault slip modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Kocharyan, G. G.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the data of the laboratory experiments on studying the regularities of gradual transition from the stick-slip behavior to aseismic creeping on the interblock boundary. The experiments show that small variations in the material composition in the principal slip zones of the faults may cause a significant change in the fraction of seismic energy radiated during the dynamic unloading of the adjacent segment of the rock mass. The experiments simulate interblock sliding regimes with the values of the scaled kinetic energy differing by a few orders of magnitude and relatively small distinctions in the strength of the contacts and in the amplitude of the released shear stresses. The results of the experiments show that the slip mode and the fraction of the deformation energy that goes into the seismic radiation are determined by the ratio of two parameters—the stiffness of the fault and the stiffness of the enclosing rock mass. An important implication of the study for solving the engineering tasks is that for bringing a stressed segment of a fault or a crack into a slip mode with low-intensity radiation of seismic energy, the anthropogenic impact should be aimed at diminishing the stiffness of the fault zone rather than at releasing the excessive stresses.

  11. Hydrodynamic slip in silicon nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-03-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to better understand the hydrodynamic behavior of water flowing through silicon nanochannels. The water-silicon interaction potential was calibrated by means of size-independent molecular dynamics simulations of silicon wettability. The wettability of silicon was found to be dependent on the strength of the water-silicon interaction and the structure of the underlying surface. As a result, the anisotropy was found to be an important factor in the wettability of these types of crystalline solids. Using this premise as a fundamental starting point, the hydrodynamic slip in nanoconfined water was characterized using both equilibrium and nonequilibrium calculations of the slip length under low shear rate operating conditions. As was the case for the wettability analysis, the hydrodynamic slip was found to be dependent on the wetted solid surface atomic structure. Additionally, the interfacial water liquid structure was the most significant parameter to describe the hydrodynamic boundary condition. The calibration of the water-silicon interaction potential performed by matching the experimental contact angle of silicon led to the verification of the no-slip condition, experimentally reported for silicon nanochannels at low shear rates.

  12. Chaotic mixing in a planar, curved channel using periodic slip

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2015-03-15

    We propose a novel strategy for designing chaotic micromixers using curved channels confined between two flat planes. The location of the separatrix between the Dean vortices, induced by centrifugal forces, is dependent on the location of the maxima of axial velocity. An asymmetry in the axial velocity profile can change the location of the separatrix. This is achieved physically by introducing slip alternatingly at the top and bottom walls. This leads to streamline crossing and Lagrangian chaos. An approximate analytical solution of the velocity field is obtained using perturbation theory. This is used to find the Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles. Poincare sections taken at periodic locations in the axial direction are used to study the extent of chaos. We study two microchannel designs, called circlet and serpentine, in which the Dean vortices in adjacent half cells are co-rotating and counter-rotating, respectively. The extent of mixing, at low Re and low slip length, is shown to be greater in the serpentine case. Wide channels are observed to have much better mixing than tall channels; an important observation not made for separatrix flows till now. Eulerian indicators are used to gauge the extent of mixing, with varying slip length, and it is shown that an optimum slip length exists which maximizes the mixing in a particular geometry. Once the parameter space of relatively high mixing is identified, detailed variance computations are carried out to identify the detailed features.

  13. Slip rate and tremor genesis in Cascadia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wech, Aaron G.; Bartlow, Noel M.

    2014-01-01

    At many plate boundaries, conditions in the transition zone between seismogenic and stable slip produce slow earthquakes. In the Cascadia subduction zone, these events are consistently observed as slow, aseismic slip on the plate interface accompanied by persistent tectonic tremor. However, not all slow slip at other plate boundaries coincides spatially and temporally with tremor, leaving the physics of tremor genesis poorly understood. Here we analyze seismic, geodetic, and strainmeter data in Cascadia to observe for the first time a large, tremor-generating slow earthquake change from tremor-genic to silent and back again. The tremor falls silent at reduced slip speeds when the migrating slip front pauses as it loads the stronger adjacent fault segment to failure. The finding suggests that rheology and slip-speed-regulated stressing rate control tremor genesis, and the same section of fault can slip both with and without detectable tremor, limiting tremor's use as a proxy for slip.

  14. Frictional melt and seismic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Shimamoto, T.

    2008-01-01

    Frictional melt is implied in a variety of processes such as seismic slip, ice skating, and meteorite combustion. A steady state can be reached when melt is continuously produced and extruded from the sliding interface, as shown recently in a number of laboratory rock friction experiments. A thin, low-viscosity, high-temperature melt layer is formed resulting in low shear resistance. A theoretical solution describing the coupling of shear heating, thermal diffusion, and extrusion is obtained, without imposing a priori the melt thickness. The steady state shear traction can be approximated at high slip rates by the theoretical form τss = σn1/4 (A/?) ? under a normal stress σn, slip rate V, radius of contact area R (A is a dimensional normalizing factor and W is a characteristic rate). Although the model offers a rather simplified view of a complex process, the predictions are compatible with experimental observations. In particular, we consider laboratory simulations of seismic slip on earthquake faults. A series of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on rocks, performed for σn in the range 1-20 MPa and slip rates in the range 0.5-2 m s-1, is confronted to the theoretical model. The behavior is reasonably well reproduced, though the effect of radiation loss taking place in the experiment somewhat alters the data. The scaling of friction with σn, R, and V in the presence of melt suggests that extrapolation of laboratory measures to real Earth is a highly nonlinear, nontrivial exercise.

  15. Slip due to surface roughness for a Newtonian liquid in a viscous microscale disk pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligrani, Phil; Blanchard, Danny; Gale, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, hydrophobic roughness is used to induce near-wall slip in a single rotating-disk micropump operating with Newtonian water. The amount of induced slip is altered by employing different sizes of surface roughness on the rotating disk. The magnitudes of slip length and slip velocities increase as the average size of the surface roughness becomes larger. In the present study, increased slip magnitudes from roughness are then associated with reduced pressure rise through the pump and lower radial-line-averaged shear stress magnitudes (determined within slip planes). Such shear stress and pressure rise variations are similar to those which would be present if the slip is induced by the intermolecular interactions which are associated with near-wall microscale effects. The present slip-roughness effects are quantified experimentally over rotational speeds from 50 to 1200 rpm, pressure increases from 0 to 312 kPa, net flow rates of 0-100 μl/min, and fluid chamber heights from 6.85 to 29.2 μm. Verification is provided by comparisons with analytic results determined from the rotating Couette flow forms of the Navier-Stokes equations, with different disk rotational speeds, disk roughness levels, and fluid chamber heights. These data show that slip length magnitudes show significant dependence on radial-line-averaged shear stress for average disk roughness heights of 404 and 770 nm. These slip length data additionally show a high degree of organization when normalized using by either the average roughness height or the fluid chamber height. For the latter case, such behavior provides evidence that the flow over a significant portion of the passage height is affected by the roughness, and near-wall slip velocities, especially when the average roughness height amounts to 11% of the h =6.86 μm passage height of the channel. Such scaling of the disk slip length bdisk with fluid chamber height h is consistent with d-type roughness scaling in macroscale

  16. Can observations of earthquake scaling constrain slip weakening?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Rachel E.; Rice, James R.

    2005-08-01

    We use observations of earthquake source parameters over a wide magnitude range (MW~ 0-7) to place constraints on constitutive fault weakening. The data suggest a scale dependence of apparent stress and stress drop; both may increase slightly with earthquake size. We show that this scale dependence need not imply any difference in fault zone properties for different sized earthquakes. We select 30 earthquakes well-recorded at 2.5 km depth at Cajon Pass, California. We use individual and empirical Green's function spectral analysis to improve the resolution of source parameters, including static stress drop (Δσ) and total slip (S). We also measure radiated energy ES. We compare the Cajon Pass results with those from larger California earthquakes including aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge earthquake and confirm the results of Abercrombie (1995): μES/M0<<Δσ (where μ= rigidity) and both ES/M0 and Δσ increase as M0 (and S) increases. Uncertainties remain large due to model assumptions and variations between possible models, and earthquake scale independence is possible within the resolution. Assuming that the average trends are real, we define a quantity G'= (Δσ- 2μES/M0)S/2 which is the total energy dissipation in friction and fracture minus σ1S, where σ1 is the final static stress. If σ1=σd, the dynamic shear strength during the last increments of seismic slip, then G'=G, the fracture energy in a slip-weakening interpretation of dissipation. We find that G' increases with S, from ~103 J m-2 at S= 1 mm (M1 earthquakes) to 106-107 J m-2 at S= 1 m (M6). We tentatively interpret these results within slip-weakening theory, assuming G'~G. We consider the common assumption of a linear decrease of strength from the yield stress (σp) with slip (s), up to a slip Dc. In this case, if either Dc, or more generally (σp-σd) Dc, increases with the final slip S we can match the observations, but this implies the unlikely result that the early weakening behaviour of

  17. View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  18. View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  19. View east, view of full length of canal, west wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, view of full length of canal, west wall pileheads in foreground. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  20. Gas enrichment at liquid-wall interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dammer, Stephan M; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-05-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones systems are performed to study the effects of dissolved gas on liquid-wall and liquid-gas interfaces. Gas enrichment at walls, which for hydrophobic walls can exceed more than 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the gas density in the bulk liquid, is observed. As a consequence, the liquid structure close to the wall is considerably modified, leading to an enhanced wall slip. At liquid-gas interfaces gas enrichment which reduces the surface tension is found.

  1. SLIPPING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION TRIGGERING A SOLAR ERUPTION OF A TRIANGLE-SHAPED FLAG FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-08-10

    We report the first simultaneous activities of the slipping motion of flare loops and a slipping eruption of a flux rope in 131 Å and 94 Å channels on 2014 February 2. The east hook-like flare ribbon propagated with a slipping motion at a speed of about 50 km s{sup –1}, which lasted about 40 minutes and extended by more than 100 Mm, but the west flare ribbon moved in the opposite direction with a speed of 30 km s{sup –1}. At the later phase of flare activity, there was a well developed ''bi-fan'' system of flare loops. The east footpoints of the flux rope showed an apparent slipping motion along the hook of the ribbon. Simultaneously, the fine structures of the flux rope rose up rapidly at a speed of 130 km s{sup –1}, much faster than that of the whole flux rope. We infer that the east footpoints of the flux rope are successively heated by a slipping magnetic reconnection during the flare, which results in the apparent slippage of the flux rope. The slipping motion delineates a ''triangle-shaped flag surface'' of the flux rope, implying that the topology of a flux rope is more complex than anticipated.

  2. Slipping properties of ceramic tiles / Quantification of slip resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terjek, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Regarding the research and application of ceramic tiles there is a great importance of defining precisely the interaction and friction between surfaces. Measuring slip resistance of floor coverings is a complex problem; slipperiness is always interpreted relatively. In the lack of a consistent and clear EU standard, it is practical to use more method in combination. It is necessary to examine the structure of materials in order to get adequate correlation. That is why measuring techniques of surface roughness, an important contributor to slip resistance and cleaning, is fundamental in the research. By comparing the obtained test results, relationship between individual methods of analysis and values may be determined and based on these information recommendations shall be prepared concerning the selection and application of tiles.

  3. Evolution of Microroughness with Increasing Slip Magnitude on Pseudotachylyte-Bearing Fault Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessey, S.; Resor, P. G.; Di Toro, G.

    2013-12-01

    High velocity rock friction experiments reproducing seismic slip deformation conditions have shown that there is an initial shear strengthening prior to a significant weakening with slip. This change in shear resistance is inferred to occur due to the development of melt patches, which initially strengthen the fault, and is associated with the evolution of microroughness of the melt-wall rock interface (Hirose and Shimamoto, 2003). Additional melting leads to a continuous layer of melt, allowing easier sliding and weakening. Once there is a balance between formation and extrusion of melt, a steady state shear resistance (and associated effective friction coefficient) is reached (Nielsen et al. 2008). In natural fault zones, the process of frictional melting, slip weakening, and steady state is both recorded and influenced by the microroughness of the fault surface. Our study explores natural faults over a range of slip magnitudes from mm to m of slip, the magnitudes over which this process is most likely to occur during earthquakes. The Gole Larghe fault zone (Italy) is an exhumed strike-slip fault zone in tonalite of the Adamello batholith. The fault zone is characterized by multiple fault strands containing pseudotachylyte or pseudotachylyte overprinting cataclasite. We have sampled several individual faults segments from within the fault zone, with slips ranging from 23 mm to 1.9 m. The smaller scale samples are from pseudotachylyte-only fault strands and therefore probably record single-slip events. The two largest slip faults have pseudotachylyte and cataclasite, indicating that they may have more complicated slip histories. Individual samples consist of cores (2-3.5 cm diameter, 2-6 cm length) drilled parallel to the fault surface and ~perpendicular to the slip. Samples were scanned with an Xradia MicroCT scanner to image the 3D geometry of the fault and wall rocks. Fault surfaces (contact between the pseudotachylyte-bearing slipping zone and the wall rock

  4. Apparent causality affects perceived simultaneity.

    PubMed

    Kohlrausch, Armin; van Eijk, Rob; Juola, James F; Brandt, Inge; van de Par, Steven

    2013-10-01

    The present research addresses the question of how visual predictive information and implied causality affect audio-visual synchrony perception. Previous research has shown a systematic shift in the likelihood of observers to accept audio-leading stimulus pairs as being apparently simultaneous in variants of audio-visual stimulus pairs that differ in (1) the amount of visual predictive information available and (2) the apparent causal relation between the auditory and visual components. An experiment was designed to separate the predictability and causality explanations, and the results indicated that shifts in subjective simultaneity were explained completely by changes in the implied causal relations in the stimuli and that predictability had no added value. Together with earlier findings, these results further indicate that the observed shifts in subjective simultaneity due to causal relations among auditory and visual events do not reflect a mere change in response strategy, but rather result from early multimodal integration processes in event perception.

  5. Effects of isotropic and anisotropic slip on droplet impingement on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Cristian E.; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of single droplet impingement on micro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces with isotropic and anisotropic slip are investigated. While several analytical models exist to predict droplet impact on superhydrophobic surfaces, no previous model has rigorously considered the effect of the shear-free region above the gas cavities resulting in an apparent slip that is inherent for many of these surfaces. This paper presents a model that accounts for slip during spreading and recoiling. A broad range of Weber numbers and slip length values were investigated at low Ohnesorge numbers. The results show that surface slip exerts negligible influence throughout the impingement process for low Weber numbers but can exert significant influence for high Weber numbers (on the order of 102). When anisotropic slip prevails, the droplet exhibits an elliptical shape at the point of maximum spread, with greater eccentricity for increasing slip and increasing Weber number. Experiments were performed on isotropic and anisotropic micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces and the agreement between the experimental results and the model is very good.

  6. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  7. An airplane illusion: apparent velocity determined by apparent distance.

    PubMed

    Hershenson, M; Samuels, S M

    1999-01-01

    When a small drone plane appears to be a normal-sized airplane, it appears to be very far away and moving too fast. This is the airplane illusion. In the illusory situation, familiar size determines the apparent size and distance of the plane. It sets the depth for the frontal-plane component of the perceived motion and the relative depth difference for the motion-in-depth component. Because these perceived distances are very large, the perceived velocities are very large in the respective directions. Cognition can override familiarity and produce a veridical perception of the drone.

  8. Physicochemical analysis of slip flow phenomena in liquids under nanoscale confinement.

    PubMed

    Babu, Jeetu S; Uday, Swathi; Sekhar, Suneeth; Sathian, Sarith P

    2015-10-01

    Eyring theory employs the statistical mechanical theory of absolute reaction rates to analyse the transport mechanisms in fluids. A physicochemical methodology combining molecular dynamics (MD) and Eyring theory of reaction rates is proposed for investigating the liquid slip on a solid wall in the nanoscale domain. The method involves the determination of activation energy required for the flow process directly from the MD trajectory information and then calculate the important transport properties of the confined fluid from the activation energy. In order to demonstrate the universal applicability of the proposed methodology in nanofluidics, the slip flow behavior of argon, water and ionic liquid confined in various nanostructures has been investigated. The slip length is found to be size dependent in all the cases. The novelty of this method is that the variations in slip length are explained on the basis of molecular interactions and the subsequent changes in the activation energy. PMID:26490250

  9. Locomotion of microorganisms near a no-slip boundary in a viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdi, Shahrzad; Ardekani, Arezoo M.; Borhan, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Locomotion of microorganisms plays a vital role in most of their biological processes. In many of these processes, microorganisms are exposed to complex fluids while swimming in confined domains, such as spermatozoa in mucus of mammalian reproduction tracts or bacteria in extracellular polymeric matrices during biofilm formation. Thus, it is important to understand the kinematics of propulsion in a viscoelastic fluid near a no-slip boundary. We use a squirmer model with a time-reversible body motion to analytically investigate the swimming kinematics in an Oldroyd-B fluid near a wall. Analysis of the time-averaged motion of the swimmer shows that both pullers and pushers in a viscoelastic fluid swim towards the no-slip boundary if they are initially located within a small domain of "attraction" in the vicinity of the wall. In contrast, neutral swimmers always move towards the wall regardless of their initial distance from the wall. Outside the domain of attraction, pullers and pushers are both repelled from the no-slip boundary. Time-averaged locomotion is most pronounced at a Deborah number of unity. We examine the swimming trajectories of different types of swimmers as a function of their initial orientation and distance from the no-slip boundary.

  10. Compositional, mechanical and hydrologic controls on fault slip behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikari, Matt J.

    comparing the frictional behavior of granular gouge and lithified fault rock as an analogue for cataclastic fault rocks at seismogenic depths, the lithification of fault rock is found to have a significant strengthening effect, however in phyllosilicate-rich rocks pre-existing foliation provides a weakening mechanism that offsets the strengthening due to lithification. This weakening depends on the intensity of foliation such that strongly foliated rocks, such as books of mica sheets, are significantly weaker than granular mica gouges. Very thick fault zones can exhibit a reduction in measured apparent friction, the magnitude of which may be related to the orientation of through-going R1 shears and internal structural complexity. Consistent velocity-strengthening behavior is observed for both lithified and granular phyllosilicate-rich samples despite the observation of slip localization features in microstructural analysis, suggesting that as an isolated parameter advanced lithification state of fault rock is also inadequate for allowing seismic slip nucleation. Collectively, the results of the experiments in this study have several important implications for fault slip behavior. Granular, unconsolidated phyllosilicate-rich gouges, such as those that are common at shallow depths in both subduction zones and strike-slip faults, will tend to be aseismic, a condition that may be related to their overall weakness. The transition from aseismic to seismic slip at the updip limit of the seismogenic zone should be driven by changes in pressure and temperature, due to the overall ambient conditions as well as inducing changes in the character of the fault material itself. These may include compositional changes and mechanical effects of the lithification process, such as consolidation and cementation. However, when tested as isolated variables, the dehydration of smectite, conversion of smectite to illite, and lithification of fault gouge were found to be insufficient in allowing

  11. Flexible slip history on the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake rupture along the North Anatolian fault system, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hisao; Kurçer, Akın.; Özalp, Selim; Emre, Ömer

    2010-05-01

    Repeatability of surface slip distribution through earthquake cycles is basis to evaluate size and timing of future large earthquakes generated by active fault systems. In order to reveal surface slip history associated with paleoearthquakes on the North Anatolian fault system (NAFS), we have extensively performed 3D trenching survey on the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M 7.0) ruptures, to simultaneously reconstruct timing and surface slip associated with past large earthquakes. At Ayvaz site on the 1942 rupture, our 3D trench survey preliminary indicated that the penultimate earthquake, which can be correlated with the great Anatolian earthquake (M ~8.0) in 1668 AD, recorded larger surface slip of 6.0-8.0 m in comparison with the 1942 slip of 2.5 m. This result paeloseismologically supports historical documents telling that the 1668 event ruptured for >600 km long on the central-eastern NAFS. In order to confirm this flexible slip history according to the magnitude of large earthquakes, we re-excavated 3D trenches to reconstruct longer slip history at the same site. The results are summarized as follows; 1) at the site, high-resolution alluvium exposed on the trench walls records six paleoearthquakes including the 1942 event during the last ~2500 years, 2) we reconstructed five discrete slips during the individual events, 3) the amounts of paleo-slips are classified into two categories, the 1942-type smaller slips and the 1668-type larger slips. Thus, the repeatability of surface slip during large earthquakes is not constant like the assumption of the characteristic earthquake model, however, the amounts do not randomly vary from event to event on the assumption of the Gutenberg-Richter model.

  12. Investigations of slip in capillary flow by laser-Doppler velocimetry and their relations to melt fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münstedt, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Flow profiles within a slit capillary are measured by laser-Doppler velocimetry. They allow the direct determination of the slip velocity at the wall. It is demonstrated that the flow profile of the melt of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) already shows slip components at small shear rates. At high shear rates the slip is dominant and a plug flow is found. Furthermore, it is shown that the surface irregularity called "shark skin" is generated at the slit exit by the stretching of surface layers at pronounced elongational rates. These elongational rates are due to the differences between the flow velocities at the wall of the slit and those of the extruded strand. It is shown how "shark skin" may be avoided when the elongational rate is reduced by introducing slip of the melt in the slit using special additives.

  13. Process for slip casting textured tubular structures

    DOEpatents

    Steinlage, Greg A.; Trumble, Kevin P.; Bowman, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    A process for centrifugal slip casting a textured hollow tube. A slip made up of a carrier fluid and a suspended powder is introduced into a porous mold which is rotated at a speed sufficient to create a centrifugal force that forces the slip radially outward toward the inner surface of the mold. The suspended powder, which is formed of particles having large dimensional aspect ratios such as particles of superconductive BSCCO, settles in a textured fashion radially outward toward the mold surface. The carrier fluid of the slip passes by capillary action radially outward around the settled particles and into the absorbent mold. A layer of mold release material is preferably centrifugally slip cast to cover the mold inner surface prior to the introduction of the BSCCO slip, and the mold release layer facilitates removal of the BSCCO greenbody from the mold without fracturing.

  14. Multicycle slip distribution along a laboratory fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chi-Yu, King

    1991-01-01

    Slip distribution along a laboratory fault, which consists of eight spring-connected blocks that are elastically driven to slide on a frictional surface, has been examined for a "long' sequence of slip events to test the applicability of some conceptual models. The distributions of large slip events are found to be quite variable and do not fit the uniform slip or characteristic earthquake models. The rupture initiation points are usually not near the corresponding maximum slip points, in contrast to observations by Thatcher (1990) and by Fukao and Kikuchi (1987) that earthquake hypocenters are commonly near corresponding regions of maximum slip in the fault planes. The results suggest that earthquake prediction monitoring efforts should not be limited to a small region near an asperity but should be spread out to cover the entire fault segment in a seismic gap in order to detect the condition of simultaneous strain buildup. -from Author

  15. Spiralling tapered slip-on drill string stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, T.R.; Teng, C.C.

    1986-12-23

    A stabilizer is described for use in a drilling string comprising: a substantially cylindrical body member having a central passageway to accommodate the drill sting, the inside surface of the body member defining a right-hand spiralling thread with a tapered trailing edge which spirals from a starting point on the body member. The thread terminates internally of the body member in an arcuate recess extending around the interior of the body member; a key member is secured to the inner wall surface of the recess of the body member, the key member having a lug extending longitudinally of the body member within the recess; a slip member adapted to thread within the body member between the body member and the drill string. The slip defines a right-hand thread with a matching tapered trailing edge configured to make up with the right-hand thread on the body member and to wedge between the body member and the drill string. One end of the slip terminates in a longitudinally disposed shoulder capable of abutting the lug upon threading of the clip within the body member.

  16. Learning to predict slip for ground robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Sibley, Gabe; Perona, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we predict the amount of slip an exploration rover would experience using stereo imagery by learning from previous examples of traversing similar terrain. To do that, the information of terrain appearance and geometry regarding some location is correlated to the slip measured by the rover while this location is being traversed. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted later at a distance from visual information only.

  17. Bulk metallic glasses deform via slip avalanches.

    PubMed

    Antonaglia, James; Wright, Wendelin J; Gu, Xiaojun; Byer, Rachel R; Hufnagel, Todd C; LeBlanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan T; Dahmen, Karin A

    2014-04-18

    For the first time in metallic glasses, we extract both the exponents and scaling functions that describe the nature, statistics, and dynamics of slip events during slow deformation, according to a simple mean field model. We model the slips as avalanches of rearrangements of atoms in coupled shear transformation zones (STZs). Using high temporal resolution measurements, we find the predicted, different statistics and dynamics for small and large slips thereby excluding self-organized criticality. The agreement between model and data across numerous independent measures provides evidence for slip avalanches of STZs as the elementary mechanism of inhomogeneous deformation in metallic glasses.

  18. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  19. Cycle slipping in phase synchronization systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Huang, Lin

    2007-02-01

    Cycle slipping is a characteristically nonlinear phenomenon in phase synchronization systems, which is highly dependent of the initial state of the system. Slipping a cycle means that the phase error is increased to such an extent that the generator to be synchronized slips one complete cycle with respect to the input phase. In this Letter, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) based approach is proposed and the estimation of the number of cycles which slips a solution of the system is obtained by solving a quasi-convex optimization problem of LMI. Applications to phase locked loops demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  20. Development of a liquid metal slip ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    A liquid metal slip ring/solar orientation mechanism was designed and a model tested. This was a follow-up of previous efforts for the development of a gallium liquid metal slip ring in which the major problem was the formation and ejection of debris. A number of slip ring design approaches were studied. The probe design concept was fully implemented with detail drawings and a model was successfully tested for dielectric strength, shock vibration, acceleration and operation. The conclusions are that a gallium liquid metal slip ring/solar orientation mechanism is feasible and that the problem of debris formation and ejection has been successfully solved.

  1. Novel Cross-Slip Mechanism of Pyramidal Screw Dislocations in Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Kaburaki, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Tsuru, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    Compared to cubic metals, whose primary slip mode includes twelve equivalent systems, the lower crystalline symmetry of hexagonal close-packed metals results in a reduced number of equivalent primary slips and anisotropy in plasticity, leading to brittleness at the ambient temperature. At higher temperatures, the ductility of hexagonal close-packed metals improves owing to the activation of secondary ⟨c+a⟩ pyramidal slip systems. Thus, understanding the fundamental properties of corresponding dislocations is essential for the improvement of ductility at the ambient temperature. Here, we present the results of large-scale ab initio calculations for ⟨c+a⟩ pyramidal screw dislocations in magnesium and show that their slip behavior is a stark counterexample to the conventional wisdom that a slip plane is determined by the stacking fault plane of dislocations. A stacking fault between dissociated partial dislocations can assume a nonplanar shape with a negligible energy cost and can migrate normal to its plane by a local shuffling of atoms. Partial dislocations dissociated on a {21[over ¯]1[over ¯]2} plane "slither" in the {011[over ¯]1} plane, dragging the stacking fault with them in response to an applied shear stress. This finding resolves the apparent discrepancy that both {21[over ¯]1[over ¯]2} and {011[over ¯]1} slip traces are observed in experiments while ab initio calculations indicate that dislocations preferably dissociate in the {21[over ¯]1[over ¯]2} planes. PMID:27314728

  2. Novel Cross-Slip Mechanism of Pyramidal Screw Dislocations in Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Kaburaki, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Tsuru, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    Compared to cubic metals, whose primary slip mode includes twelve equivalent systems, the lower crystalline symmetry of hexagonal close-packed metals results in a reduced number of equivalent primary slips and anisotropy in plasticity, leading to brittleness at the ambient temperature. At higher temperatures, the ductility of hexagonal close-packed metals improves owing to the activation of secondary ⟨c +a ⟩ pyramidal slip systems. Thus, understanding the fundamental properties of corresponding dislocations is essential for the improvement of ductility at the ambient temperature. Here, we present the results of large-scale ab initio calculations for ⟨c +a ⟩ pyramidal screw dislocations in magnesium and show that their slip behavior is a stark counterexample to the conventional wisdom that a slip plane is determined by the stacking fault plane of dislocations. A stacking fault between dissociated partial dislocations can assume a nonplanar shape with a negligible energy cost and can migrate normal to its plane by a local shuffling of atoms. Partial dislocations dissociated on a {2 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 2 } plane "slither" in the {01 1 ¯1 } plane, dragging the stacking fault with them in response to an applied shear stress. This finding resolves the apparent discrepancy that both {2 1 ¯1 ¯2 } and {01 1 ¯1 } slip traces are observed in experiments while ab initio calculations indicate that dislocations preferably dissociate in the {2 1 ¯1 ¯2 } planes.

  3. Slipping on pedestrian surfaces: methods for measuring and evaluating the slip resistance.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Christoph; Windhövel, Ulrich; Mewes, Detlef; Ceylan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Tripping, slipping and falling accidents are among the types of accident with a high incidence. This article describes the requirements concerning slip resistance, as well as the state of the art of slip resistance measurement standards in the European Community and the USA. The article also describes how risk assessment can be performed in the field. PMID:26414511

  4. The 2015 Mw 7.1 earthquake on the Charlie-Gibbs transform fault: Repeating earthquakes and multimodal slip on a slow oceanic transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 Mw 7.1 earthquake on the Charlie-Gibbs transform fault along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the latest in a series of seven large earthquakes since 1923. We propose that these earthquakes form a pair of quasi-repeating sequences with the largest magnitudes and longest repeat times for such sequences observed to date. We model teleseismic body waves and find that the 2015 earthquake ruptured a distinct segment of the transform from the previous 1998 earthquake. The two events display similarities to earthquakes in 1974 and 1967, respectively. We observe large oceanic transform earthquakes to exhibit characteristic slip behavior, initiating with small slip near the ridge, and propagating unilaterally to significant slip asperities nearer the center of the transform. These slip distributions combined with apparent segmentation support multimode slip behavior with fault slip accommodated both seismically during large earthquakes and aseismically in between.

  5. Ice Sheet Stratigraphy Can Constrain Basal Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, M.; Creyts, T. T.; Buck, W. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Basal slip is an important component of ice sheet mass flux and dynamics. Basal slip varies over time due to variations in basal temperature, water pressure, and sediment cover. All of these factors can create coherent patterns of basal slip that migrate over time. Our knowledge of the spatial variability in basal slip comes from inversions of driving stress, ice thickness, and surface velocity, but these inversions contain no information about temporal variability. We do not know if the patterns in slip revealed by those inversions move over time. While englacial stratigraphy has classically been used to constrain surface accumulation and geothermal flux, it is also sensitive to horizontal gradients in basal slip. Here we show that englacial stratigraphy can constrain the velocity of basal slip patterns. Englacial stratigraphy responds strongly to patterns of basal slip that move downstream over time close to the ice sheet velocity. In previous work, we used a thermomechanical model to discover that thermally controlled slip patterns migrate downstream and create stratigraphic structures, but we were unable to directly control the pattern velocity, as that arose naturally out of the model physics. Here, we use a kinematic flowline model that allows us to directly control pattern velocity, and thus is applicable to a wide variety of slip mechanisms in addition to basal temperature. We find that the largest and most intricate stratigraphic structures develop when the pattern moves at the column-average ice velocity. Patterns that move slower than the column-average ice velocity produce overturned stratigraphy in the lower part of the ice sheet, while patterns moving at the column-average eventually cause the entire ice sheet to overturn if they persist long enough. Based on these forward models, we develop an interpretive guide for deducing moving patterns in basal slip from ice sheet internal layers. Ice sheet internal stratigraphy represents a potentially vast

  6. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  7. Radiative Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid with Slip Conditions and Joule Heating.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with compliant walls is addressed here. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Whole analysis is performed for velocity, thermal and concentration slip conditions. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating and slip parameters are explored in detail. Clearly temperature is a decreasing function of Hartman number and radiation parameter.

  8. Radiative Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid with Slip Conditions and Joule Heating

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with compliant walls is addressed here. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Whole analysis is performed for velocity, thermal and concentration slip conditions. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating and slip parameters are explored in detail. Clearly temperature is a decreasing function of Hartman number and radiation parameter. PMID:26886919

  9. Radiative Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid with Slip Conditions and Joule Heating.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with compliant walls is addressed here. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Whole analysis is performed for velocity, thermal and concentration slip conditions. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating and slip parameters are explored in detail. Clearly temperature is a decreasing function of Hartman number and radiation parameter. PMID:26886919

  10. The role of water in slip casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  11. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  12. Great Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Steve; Moore, Tim

    1996-01-01

    Explains why installing a well-designed indoor climbing wall can draw new users to an athletic facility. Climbing-wall design elements and gear are discussed and a checklist for working with contractors is provided.(GR)

  13. Slow slip generated by dehydration reaction coupled with slip-induced dilatancy and thermal pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    Sustained slow slip, which is a distinctive feature of slow slip events (SSEs), is investigated theoretically, assuming a fault embedded within a fluid-saturated 1D thermo-poro-elastic medium. The object of study is specifically SSEs occurring at the down-dip edge of seismogenic zone in hot subduction zones, where mineral dehydrations (antigorite, lawsonite, chlorite, and glaucophane) are expected to occur near locations where deep slow slip events are observed. In the modeling, we introduce dehydration reactions, coupled with slip-induced dilatancy and thermal pressurization, and slip evolution is assumed to interact with fluid pressure change through Coulomb's frictional stress. Our calculations show that sustained slow slip events occur when the dehydration reaction is coupled with slip-induced dilatancy. Specifically, slow slip is favored by a low initial stress drop, an initial temperature of the medium close to that of the dehydration reaction equilibrium temperature, a low permeability, and overall negative volume change associated with the reaction (i.e., void space created by the reaction larger than the space occupied by the fluid released). Importantly, if we do not assume slip-induced dilatancy, slip is accelerated with time soon after the slip onset even if the dehydration reaction is assumed. This suggests that slow slip is sustained for a long time at hot subduction zones because dehydration reaction is coupled with slip-induced dilatancy. Such slip-induced dilatancy may occur at the down-dip edge of seismogenic zone at hot subduction zones because of repetitive occurrence of dehydration reaction there.

  14. 6 Batch Injection and Slipped Beam Tune Measurements in Fermilab?s Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K.; Yan, M.-J.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    During NOVA operations it is planned to run the Fermilab Recycler in a 12 batch slip stacking mode. In preparation for this, measurements of the tune during a six batch injection and then as the beam is decelerated by changing the RF frequency have been carried out in the Main Injector. The coherent tune shifts due to the changing beam intensity were measured and compared well with the theoretically expected tune shift. The tune shifts due to changing RF frequency, required for slip stacking, also compare well with the linear theory, although some nonlinear affects are apparent at large frequency changes. These results give us confidence that the expected tunes shifts during 12 batch slip stacking Recycler operations can be accommodated.

  15. Dating upper plate normal fault slip events in Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. A.; Binnie, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Cortés, J.

    2011-12-01

    In order to understand how subduction earthquakes along the Nazca-South America plate boundary affect upper plate faults in the coastal forearc of northern Chile, we are developing the first detailed paleoseismological study to characterize the Late Quaternary activity of the Mejillones and Salar del Carmen faults, located around 40 km north and 15 km east of Antofagasta, respectively. There is currently a lack of basic palaeo-seismological data on these and other upper plate faults, such as long term slip rates, amount of slip per event, palaeo-earthquake magnitude and recurrence intervals. This lack of knowledge impedes understanding of how large subduction earthquakes, occurring at depths of around 50 km in this region, relate to upper plate seismicity and deformation. We have used OSL dating of fault-related sediments, and cosmogenic-ray nuclide dating of terrace surfaces, to constrain slips rates over the last 45 ka. Several trenches were excavated across both faults in order to expose and log the most recent fault-related sediments. In the hanging wall of these normal faults, vertically stacked colluvial wedges and hillslope deposits are the product of discrete slip events and post-slip fault scarp degradation. Multiple trenches along each fault permit the spatial variability in slip amount and fault-related sedimentation to be investigated. Long-term slip rates have been measured using cosmogenic-ray nuclide exposure dating of the alluvial terraces offset by the Mejillones Fault. OSL dating of the fault-related sediments in the trenches has been used to compare the ages of individual slip events on both faults, and the age of events recorded along the trace of each fault. The application of both cosmogenic-ray nuclide and OSL methods in this type of setting (hyper-arid with low erosion rates, yet tectonically active) is non-trivial, due to cosmogenic inheritance accumulated in cobbles on the terrace surfaces, low sensitivity of the quartz for OSL dating, and

  16. Mw7.7 2013 Balochistan Earthquake. Slip-Distribution and Deformation Field in Oblique Tectonic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Y.; Vallage, A.; Grandin, R.; Delorme, A.; Rosu, A. M.; Pierro-Deseilligny, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mw7.7 2013 Balochistan earthquake ruptured 200 km of the Hoshab fault, the southern end of the Chaman fault. Azimuth of the fault changes by more than 30° along rupture, from a well-oriented strike-slip fault to a more thrust prone direction. We use the MicMac optical image software to correlate pairs of Landsat images taken before and after the earthquake to access to the horizontal displacement field associated with the earthquake. We combine the horizontal displacement with radar image correlation in range and radar interferometry to derive the co-seismic slip on the fault. The combination of these different datasets actually provides the 3D displacement field. We note that although the earthquake was mainly strike-slip all along the rupture length, some vertical motion patches exist, which locations seem to be controlled by kilometric-scale variations of the fault geometry. 5 pairs of SPOT images were also correlated to derive a 2.5m pixel-size horizontal displacement field, providing unique opportunity to look at deformation in the near field and to obtain high-resolution strike-slip and normal slip-distributions. We note a significant difference, especially in the normal component, between the slip localized at depth on the fault plane and the slip localized closer to the surface, with more apparent slip at the surface. A high-resolution map of ground rupture allows us to locate the distribution of the deformation over the whole rupture length. The rupture map also highlights multiple fault geometric complexities where we could quantify details of the slip distribution. At the rupture length-scale, the local azimuth variations between segments have a large impact on the expression of the localized slip at the surface. The combination of those datasets gives an overview of the large distribution of the deformation in the near field, corresponding to the co-seismic damage zone.

  17. Pore fluid pressure, apparent friction, and Coulomb failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Simpson, R.W.; Hickman, S.H.; Lockner, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Many recent studies of stress-triggered seismicity rely on a fault failure model with a single free parameter, the apparent coefficient of friction, presumed to be a material constant with possible values 0 ≤ μ′ ≤ 1. These studies may present a misleading view of fault strength and the role of pore fluid pressure in earthquake failure. The parameter μ′ is intended to incorporate the effects of both friction and pore pressure, but is a material constant only if changes in pore fluid pressure induced by changes in stress are proportional to the normal stress change across the potential failure plane. Although specific models of fault zones permit such a relation, neither is it known that fault zones within the Earth behave this way, nor is this behavior expected in all cases. In contrast, for an isotropic homogeneous poroelastic model the pore pressure changes are proportional to changes in mean stress, μ′ is not a material constant, and −∞ ≤ μ′ ≤ +∞. Analysis of the change in Coulomb failure stress for tectonically loaded reverse and strike-slip faults shows considerable differences between these two pore pressure models, suggesting that such models might be distinguished from one another using observations of triggered seismicity (e.g., aftershocks). We conclude that using the constant apparent friction model exclusively in studies of Coulomb failure stress is unwise and could lead to significant errors in estimated stress change and seismic hazard.

  18. Multicycle slip distribution along a laboratory fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Chi-Yu

    1991-08-01

    Slip distribution along a laboratory fault, which consists of eight spring-connected blocks that are elastically driven to slide on a frictional surface, has been examined for a "long" sequence of slip events to test the applicability of some conceptual models proposed recently in the literature. The distributions of large slip events are found to be quite variable and do not fit the uniform slip or characteristic earthquake models. The rupture initiation points are usually not near the corresponding maximum slip points, in contrast to observations by Thatcher (1990) and by Fukao and Kikuchi (1987) that earthquake hypocenters are commonly near corresponding regions of maximum slip in the fault planes. This contrast may suggest that either the present observations or theirs are not representative or the teleseismically determined hypocenters may not always be true rupture initiation points as usually assumed. Large slip events are also found to be a stress-roughening process. They are triggered by some small events after the stresses have been adjusted by some earlier small-to-moderate events to be near the critical levels at most locations along the fault. This suggests that earthquake prediction monitoring efforts should not be limited to a small region near an asperity but should be spread out to cover the entire fault segment in a seismic gap in order to detect the condition of simultaneous strain buildup.

  19. Selenographic distribution of apparent crater depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    If apparent crater depth is a function of crater diameter, then the frequencies of crater depth and diameter should be similar and the distribution of apparent depths of craters on the lunar surface should be random. Apparent depths of complex craters, which range from 0.2 to 4.3 km on the moon, exhibit little correlation with crater diameters. Crater frequency decreases at increasing diameters, but apparent crater depth displays a Gaussian distribution. The average crater depth for all young craters is 1.8 km. The mean depth of craters on the maria is 1.3 km, and the mean depth of craters on the highlands is 2.1 km. A contour map of apparent crater depths exhibits sufficient organization to suggest that the apparent crater depth is correlated to major lunar provinces. In general, regions of shallow craters are associated with basin interiors. Greater apparent depths are associated with highland terrains.

  20. Effective slip-length tensor for a flow over weakly slipping stripes.

    PubMed

    Asmolov, Evgeny S; Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the flow past a flat heterogeneous solid surface decorated by slipping stripes. The spatially varying slip length, b(y), is assumed to be small compared to the scale of the heterogeneities, L, but finite. For such weakly slipping surfaces, earlier analyses have predicted that the effective slip length is simply given by the surface-averaged slip length, which implies that the effective slip-length tensor becomes isotropic. Here we show that a different scenario is expected if the local slip length has steplike jumps at the edges of slipping heterogeneities. In this case, the next-to-leading term in an expansion of the effective slip-length tensor in powers of max[b(y)/L] becomes comparable to the leading-order term, but anisotropic, even at very small b(y)/L. This leads to an anisotropy of the effective slip and to its significant reduction compared to the surface-averaged value. The asymptotic formulas are tested by numerical solutions and are in agreement with results of dissipative particle dynamics simulations.

  1. Peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in a curved channel with slip conditions.

    PubMed

    Hina, Sadia; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar

    2014-01-01

    Slip effects on the peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman fluid through a curved channel have been addressed. The influence of wall properties is also analyzed. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions have been utilized in the mathematical formulation of the problem. The equations so formed have been solved numerically by shooting method through computational software Mathematica 8. In addition the analytic solution for small Weissenberg number (elastic parameter) is computed through a regular perturbation method. An excellent agreement is noticed between the two solutions. The results indicate an increase in the magnitude of velocity with an intensification in the slip effect. Moreover the size and circulation of the trapped boluses increase with an increase in the slip parameter. Unlike the planar channel, the profiles of axial velocity are not symmetric about the central line of the channel. PMID:25474212

  2. Peristaltic Motion of Johnson-Segalman Fluid in a Curved Channel with Slip Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hina, Sadia; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar

    2014-01-01

    Slip effects on the peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman fluid through a curved channel have been addressed. The influence of wall properties is also analyzed. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions have been utilized in the mathematical formulation of the problem. The equations so formed have been solved numerically by shooting method through computational software Mathematica 8. In addition the analytic solution for small Weissenberg number (elastic parameter) is computed through a regular perturbation method. An excellent agreement is noticed between the two solutions. The results indicate an increase in the magnitude of velocity with an intensification in the slip effect. Moreover the size and circulation of the trapped boluses increase with an increase in the slip parameter. Unlike the planar channel, the profiles of axial velocity are not symmetric about the central line of the channel. PMID:25474212

  3. Peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in a curved channel with slip conditions.

    PubMed

    Hina, Sadia; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar

    2014-01-01

    Slip effects on the peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman fluid through a curved channel have been addressed. The influence of wall properties is also analyzed. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions have been utilized in the mathematical formulation of the problem. The equations so formed have been solved numerically by shooting method through computational software Mathematica 8. In addition the analytic solution for small Weissenberg number (elastic parameter) is computed through a regular perturbation method. An excellent agreement is noticed between the two solutions. The results indicate an increase in the magnitude of velocity with an intensification in the slip effect. Moreover the size and circulation of the trapped boluses increase with an increase in the slip parameter. Unlike the planar channel, the profiles of axial velocity are not symmetric about the central line of the channel.

  4. Slip effects on unsteady non-Newtonian blood flow through an inclined catheterized overlapping stenotic artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Akbar; Ali, Nasir; Sajid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Slip effects on unsteady non-Newtonian blood hydro-magnetic flow through an inclined catheterized overlapping stenotic artery are analyzed. The constitutive equation of power law model is employed to simulate the rheological characteristics of the blood. The governing equations giving the flow derived by assuming the flow to be unsteady and two-dimensional. Mild stenosis approximation is employed to obtain the reduced form of the governing equations. Finite difference method is employed to obtain the solution of the non-linear partial differential equation in the presence of slip at the surface. An extensive quantitative analysis is performed for the effects of slip parameter, Hartmann number, cathetered parameter and arterial geometrical parameters of stenosis on the quantities of interest such as axial velocity, flow rate, resistance impedance and wall shear stress. The streamlines for the blood flow through the artery are also included.

  5. Dynamical Stability of Slip-stacking Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-04

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  6. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  7. Slow slip event at Kilauea Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Wilson, J. David; Okubo, Paul G.; Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Segall, Paul; Brooks, Benjamin; Foster, James; Wolfe, Cecily; Syracuse, Ellen; Thurbe, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    Early in the morning of 1 February 2010 (UTC; early afternoon 31 January 2010 local time), continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and tilt instruments detected a slow slip event (SSE) on the south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The SSE lasted at least 36 hours and resulted in a maximum of about 3 centimeters of seaward displacement. About 10 hours after the start of the slip, a flurry of small earthquakes began (Figure 1) in an area of the south flank recognized as having been seismically active during past SSEs [Wolfe et al., 2007], suggesting that the February earthquakes were triggered by stress associated with slip [Segall et al., 2006].

  8. Electrostatic precursors to granular slip events

    PubMed Central

    Shinbrot, Troy; Kim, Nam H.; Thyagu, N. Nirmal

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for over a century that electrical signals are produced by material failure, for example during crack formation of crystals and glasses, or stick-slip motion of liquid mercury on glass. We describe here new experiments revealing that slip events in cohesive powders also produce electrical signals, and remarkably these signals can appear significantly in advance of slip events. We have confirmed this effect in two different experimental systems and using two common powdered materials, and in a third experiment we have demonstrated that similar voltage signals are produced by crack-like defects in several powdered materials. PMID:22689956

  9. Slip Development and Instability on a Heterogeneously Loaded Fault with Power-Law Slip-Weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. R.; Uenishi, K.

    2002-12-01

    We consider slip initiation and rupture instability on planar faults that follow a non-linear slip-weakening relation and are subjected to a locally peaked loading stress, the level of which changes quasi-statically in time. For the case in which strength weakens linearly with slip, Uenishi and Rice [2002] (http://esag.harvard.edu/uenishi/research/nl/nl.html) have shown there exists a universal length of the slipping region at instability, independent of any length scales entering into the description of the shape of the loading stress distribution. Here we study slip development and its (in)stability for a power-law slip-weakening relation, giving fault strength as τ = τ p - Aδn where τ p is the peak strength at which slip initiates, δ is the slip, and A is a constant. Such a form with n ≈ 0.2-0.4 has been inferred, for slips from 1 to 500 mm, as an interpretation of seismological observations on the scaling of radiated energy with slip [Abercrombie and Rice, EOS, 2001; SCEC, 2002]. It is also consistent with laboratory experiments involving large rotary shear [Chambon et al., GRL, 2002]. We first employed an energy approach to give a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation for the dependence of slipping length and maximum slip on the level and shape of the loading stress distribution. That was done for a loading stress distribution τ p + Rt - κ x2 / 2 where x is distance along the fault, κ is a constant, and Rt is the stress change from that for which the peak in the loading stress distribution equals the strength τ p. Results show there is no longer a universal nucleation length, independent of κ , when n != 1, and that qualitative features of the slip development are significantly controlled by n. We also obtained full numerical solutions for the slip development. Remarkably, predictions of the simple energy approach are in reasonable quantitative agreement with them and give all qualitative features correctly. Principal results are as follows: If n > 2/3, the

  10. Laminar and turbulent flows over hydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Ricco, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by extensive discussion in the literature, by experimental evidence and by recent direct numerical simulations, we study flows over hydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip lengths and we report their drag-reduction properties. The laminar channel-flow and pipe-flow solutions are derived and the effects of hydrophobicity are quantified by the decrease of the streamwise pressure gradient for constant mass flow rate and by the increase of the mass flow rate for constant streamwise pressure gradient. The nonlinear Lyapunov stability analysis, first applied to a two-dimensional channel flow by Balogh et al. ["Stability enhancement by boundary control in 2-D channel flow," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 46, 1696-1711 (2001)], is employed on the three-dimensional channel flow with walls featuring shear-dependent slip lengths. The feedback law extracted through the stability analysis is recognized for the first time to coincide with the slip-length model used to represent the hydrophobic surfaces, thereby providing a precise physical interpretation for the feedback law advanced by Balogh et al. The theoretical framework by Fukagata et al. ["A theoretical prediction of friction drag reduction in turbulent flow by superhydrophobic surfaces," Phys. Fluids 18, 051703 (2006)] is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces and the theoretical drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our direct numerical simulation data. The turbulent drag reduction is measured as a function of the hydrophobic-surface parameters and is found to be a function of the time- and space-averaged slip length, irrespective of the local and instantaneous slip behaviour at the wall. For slip parameters and flow conditions that could be realized in the laboratory, the maximum computed turbulent drag reduction is 50% and the drag reduction effect degrades when slip along the spanwise direction is considered. The power spent by

  11. Slipped epiphyses in renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Mehls, O; Ritz, E; Krempien, B; Gilli, G; Link, K; Willich, E; Schärer, K

    1975-01-01

    Clinical, biochemical, roentgenological, and histological features of slipped epiphyses (epiphysiolysis) in 11 out of 112 children with renal osteodystrophy have been analysed. Characteristic age-related patterns of involvement of different epiphyses are described. Quantitative measurements of iliac bone histology, serum parathyroid hormone levels, and clinical history show the presence of more advanced osteitis fibrosa in children with epiphysiolysis than in those without. A good correlation was found between serum parathormone levels and osteoclastic resorption, endosteal fibrosis as well as osteoid. Histological studies show that the radiolucent zone between the epiphyseal ossification centre and the metaphysis in x-rays is not caused by accumulation of cartilage and chondro-osteoid (as usually found in vitamin D deficiency rickets) but by the accumulation of woven bone and/or fibrous tissue. The response to vitamin D therapy in most cases was good. Parathyroidectomy was required in only one case. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. p549-b FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. PMID:1167068

  12. Is slow slip in Cascadia tidally modulated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Rubin, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have shown that the seismic tremor in episodic tremor and slip is tidally modulated, suggesting a strong sensitivity to the rather small tidal stresses. We address whether the slip is also tidally modulated by examining data from six borehole strainmeters in northwest Washington and southern Vancouver Island. We use the processed data provided by Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is resampled to 5-minute intervals. However, we recompute empirical corrections for tides, a long-term linear trend, and barometric pressure in the 50 days surrounding each slow slip event. We then fit sinusoids at the tidal periods to the processed data as proxies for the tidally modulated component of slip, along with a linear trend as a proxy for the net strain in the slow slip. The data are too noisy to allow detection any tidal modulation using only a single event and station. We therefore simultaneously fit data from multiple stations and from three slow slip events since 2007. This assumes that the phase of the tides at the slipping regions detected by all stations is the same and that the phase of the fault response to the tidal stress is constant. Combining the stations and events both reduces the noise at the tidal periods and creates a longer time series, which allows us to separate energy at the different tidal frequencies. We find significant tidal signals at the 12.4 and 25.8-hour periods which differ from zero at the 1.5 to 2-sigma level. Errors are estimated by bootstrapping the slow slip strain and by considering the tidal signal at times before the slow slip event. The 12.4 and 25.8-hour sinusoids have amplitudes of 23 (10-40 at 2-sigma) and 15 (0-30 at 2-sigma) percent of the maximum amplitude that does not allow the slow slip strain signal to change sign, where the mean strain rate is estimated from the linear trends fit to the slow slip data. In terms of slip rate, the sinusoids at each period could then modulate the slip rate 23 and 15 percent

  13. Slipping Magnetic Reconnection, Chromospheric Evaporation, Implosion, and Precursors in the 2014 September 10 X1.6-Class Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Polito, Vanessa; Janvier, Miho; Mulay, Sargam M.; Karlický, Marian; Aulanier, Guillaume; Del Zanna, Giulio; Dzifčáková, Elena; Mason, Helen E.; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the occurrence of slipping magnetic reconnection, chromospheric evaporation, and coronal loop dynamics in the 2014 September 10 X-class flare. Slipping reconnection is found to be present throughout the flare from its early phase. Flare loops are seen to slip in opposite directions toward both ends of the ribbons. Velocities of 20–40 km s‑1 are found within time windows where the slipping is well resolved. The warm coronal loops exhibit expanding and contracting motions that are interpreted as displacements due to the growing flux rope that subsequently erupts. This flux rope existed and erupted before the onset of apparent coronal implosion. This indicates that the energy release proceeds by slipping reconnection and not via coronal implosion. The slipping reconnection leads to changes in the geometry of the observed structures at the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph slit position, from flare loop top to the footpoints in the ribbons. This results in variations of the observed velocities of chromospheric evaporation in the early flare phase. Finally, it is found that the precursor signatures, including localized EUV brightenings as well as nonthermal X-ray emission, are signatures of the flare itself, progressing from the early phase toward the impulsive phase, with the tether-cutting being provided by the slipping reconnection. The dynamics of both the flare and outlying coronal loops is found to be consistent with the predictions of the standard solar flare model in three dimensions.

  14. The nonlinear material properties of liver tissue determined from no-slip uniaxial compression experiments.

    PubMed

    Roan, Esra; Vemaganti, Kumar

    2007-06-01

    The mechanical response of soft tissue is commonly characterized from unconfined uniaxial compression experiments on cylindrical samples. However, friction between the sample and the compression platens is inevitable and hard to quantify. One alternative is to adhere the sample to the platens, which leads to a known no-slip boundary condition, but the resulting nonuniform state of stress in the sample makes it difficult to determine its material parameters. This paper presents an approach to extract the nonlinear material properties of soft tissue (such as liver) directly from no-slip experiments using a set of computationally determined correction factors. We assume that liver tissue is an isotropic, incompressible hyperelastic material characterized by the exponential form of strain energy function. The proposed approach is applied to data from experiments on bovine liver tissue. Results show that the apparent material properties, i.e., those determined from no-slip experiments ignoring the no-slip conditions, can differ from the true material properties by as much as 50% for the exponential material model. The proposed correction approach allows one to determine the true material parameters directly from no-slip experiments and can be easily extended to other forms of hyperelastic material models. PMID:17536913

  15. Slip compensation at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting commonly comprise a number of segments, and the discontinuities form tip and linking damage zones, which are deformed regions consisting of secondary features. Stress transferring or releasing, when seismic waves pass through the discontinuities, could produce different slip features depending on rupture propagation or termination. Thus, slip patterns at fault damage zones can be one of the key factors to understand fault kinematics, fault evolution and, hence, earthquake hazard. In some previous studies (e.g. Peacock and Sanderson, 1991; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), slip distribution along faults to understand the connectivity or maturity of segmented faults system have commonly been analyzed based on only the main slip components (dip-slip or strike-slip). Secondary slip components, however, are sometimes dominant at fault damage zones, such as linkage and tip zones. In this study, therefore, we examine slip changes between both main and secondary slip components along unilaterally propagated coseismic strike-slip ruptures. Horizontal and vertical components of slip and the slip compensation patterns at tip and linking damage zones are various from slip deficit (decrease in both slip components) through slip compensation (increase of vertical slip with horizontal slip decrease) to slip neutral. Front and back tip zones, which are classified depending on main propagation direction of earthquake ruptures, show different slip patterns; slip compensation is observed at the frontal tip whilst slip deficit occurs at the back tip zone. Average values of the two slip components and their compensative patterns at linking damage zones are closely related with the ratio of length to width (L/W) of linkage geometry; the horizontal slip is proportional to the ratio of L/W, whilst the vertical slip shows little dependence on the value L/W. When the L/W is greater than ~2, average values of two slip components are almost similar

  16. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  17. Temporal and spatial late Quaternary slip rate variability on the southern San Jacinto fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, K.; Oskin, M.; Rockwell, T.; Owen, L.

    2008-12-01

    The history of the San Jacinto fault in accommodating Pacific-North America plate motion illustrates how deformation is partitioned in time and space across transform fault systems. We present new slip rate results from alluvial fans displaced by two parallel strands of the southern San Jacinto fault zone: the Clark and Coyote Creek faults. Alluvial fans were mapped in the field with 'B4' LiDAR imagery and dated using cosmogenic 10Be. We find that slip rates 1) varied synchronously by a factor of two over the past ~35 kyr and 2) change significantly along strike as slip is transferred southwestward from the Clark fault to the Coyote Creek fault. 35 ka to present average dextral slip rates for the Clark fault are 5.4 ± 2.2 mm/yr at the Rockhouse Canyon and 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr farther southeast, near the southern Santa Rosa Mountains. Over the same time period, the slip rate for the Coyote Creek fault is 2.9 ± 1.0 mm/yr. This yields a combined average slip-rate of 8.3 ± 2.2 mm/yr for the San Jacinto fault zone over the past ~35 kyr. Mid-Holocene to present rates are significantly faster along both fault strands. Displaced ~3-4 ka alluvial fans show that the Clark fault slips at a rate of 7.3 ± 1.8 mm/yr at Rockhouse Canyon and 3.9 ± 1.4 mm/yr at the southern Santa Rosa Mountians. Along the Coyote Creek fault the slip rate is 8.6 ± 2.9 mm/yr over the past ~3 ka. The combined Holocene rate of 15.9 ± 4.7 mm/yr is consistent with geodetic slip-rate estimates of 15 to 21 mm/yr for the San Jacinto fault zone. The apparently synchronous variation of slip-rate along both strands of the San Jacinto fault suggests that the rate of loading across the fault zone has varied significantly over the past ~35 kyr.

  18. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenishi, K.

    2010-12-01

    In our earlier study (AGU 2005, SSJ 2005, JPGU 2006), using a finite difference technique, we have conducted some numerical simulations related to the source dynamics of shallow dip-slip earthquakes, and suggested the possibility of the existence of corner waves, i.e., shear waves that carry concentrated kinematic energy and generate extremely strong particle motions on the hanging wall of a nonvertical fault. In the numerical models, a dip-slip fault is located in a two-dimensional, monolithic linear elastic half space, and the fault plane dips either vertically or 45 degrees. We have investigated the seismic wave field radiated by crack-like rupture of this straight fault. If the fault rupture, initiated at depth, arrests just below or reaches the free surface, four Rayleigh-type pulses are generated: two propagating along the free surface into the opposite directions to the far field, the other two moving back along the ruptured fault surface (interface) downwards into depth. These downward interface pulses may largely control the stopping phase of the dynamic rupture, and in the case the fault plane is inclined, on the hanging wall the interface pulse and the outward-moving Rayleigh surface pulse interact with each other and the corner wave is induced. On the footwall, the ground motion is dominated simply by the weaker Rayleigh pulse propagating along the free surface because of much smaller interaction between this Rayleigh and the interface pulse. The generation of the downward interface pulses and corner wave may play a crucial role in understanding the effects of the geometrical asymmetry on the strong motion induced by shallow dip-slip faulting, but it has not been well recognized so far, partly because those waves are not expected for a fault that is located and ruptures only at depth. However, the seismological recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu, Japan, earthquakes as well as a more recent one in Iwate-Miyagi Inland

  19. Subgrain boundaries and slip systems in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    At elevated temperatures, quartz usually deforms by dislocation glide and dislocation creep. Textures (crystallographic preferred orientations) and microstructures are commonly used to infer the kinematics and physical conditions of deformation. However, it is debatable whether a given texture, represented by a pole figure, is universally indicative of a specific deformation temperature or recrystallization mechanism or e.g. is rather related to strain. Quartz veins in synkinematic, felsic dikes from the footwall of the Mohave Wash detachment fault in the Chemehuevi Mountains are studied by EBSD, CIP and universal stage. Mm-sized quartz grains are homogeneously stretched with aspect ratios of up to 30. Minor recrystallization takes place by subgrain rotation. Three different groups of highly stretched quartz grains can be defined: Grains with peripheral c-axes at a high angle to the foliation (Z-grains), grains with central c-axes perpendicular to the lineation (Y-grains) and grains with c-axes intermediately between the former two (O-grains). The three types of grains do not show a significant difference in their aspect ratios. Bulk pole figures show a kinked single c-axes girdle with a central maximum and an a-axes maximum parallel to the lineation. Misorientation analysis and the orientation of subgrain boundaries are used to make inferences on slip systems. Z-grains are interpreted to be suitable for basal (c)-slip, Y-grains for prism {m}-slip, which is compatible with the bulk misorientation distribution function of entire grains. O-grains could be interpreted as suitably oriented for rhomb {r/z/pi/pi'} slip, however, this is not supported by the bulk misorientation distribution function. Individual subgrain boundaries in Y-grains and Z-grains expected for the 'easy' slip systems {m} and (c) with tilt character ({a} parallel boundaries with [c] or misorientation axes, respectively), are limited to small (< 2°) misorientation angles

  20. Slip-mediated dewetting of polymer microdroplets

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Joshua D.; Chan, Tak Shing; Maurer, Simon; Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphaël, Elie; Brinkmann, Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Classical hydrodynamic models predict that infinite work is required to move a three-phase contact line, defined here as the line where a liquid/vapor interface intersects a solid surface. Assuming a slip boundary condition, in which the liquid slides against the solid, such an unphysical prediction is avoided. In this article, we present the results of experiments in which a contact line moves and where slip is a dominating and controllable factor. Spherical cap-shaped polystyrene microdroplets, with nonequilibrium contact angle, are placed on solid self-assembled monolayer coatings from which they dewet. The relaxation is monitored using in situ atomic force microscopy. We find that slip has a strong influence on the droplet evolutions, both on the transient nonspherical shapes and contact line dynamics. The observations are in agreement with scaling analysis and boundary element numerical integration of the governing Stokes equations, including a Navier slip boundary condition. PMID:26787903

  1. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  2. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls. PMID:26406065

  3. Two types of antigorite serpentinite controlling heterogeneous slow-slip behaviours of slab-mantle interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Hironori; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Arai, Shoji; Kawahara, Hirokazu; Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon R.

    2014-09-01

    It is known that plate boundaries in subduction zones show heterogeneous slip nature with strongly coupled seismogenic zones and various types of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) zones. In order to examine the petrological controls on the large-scale structure, we compared recent geophysical observations in the Shikoku area, southwest Japan with petrological models of the hanging wall mantle wedge. As a result, we found a close relationship between mineral assemblages in the mantle wedge and the characteristics of slow slip behaviour recorded in the Shikoku area: Short-term ETSs take place in the antigorite + olivine stability field and silent long-term slow slip events (SSEs) take place in the antigorite + brucite stability field. Based on observations of natural antigorite serpentinites, we propose a model that the dominant serpentinization reaction in the mantle wedge changes with increasing depth resulting in variable extents of pore fluid pressures along slip planes. The serpentinization reaction in the antigorite + brucite stability field (olivine + H2O → antigorite + brucite) proceeds at the expense of water. This is consistent with moderately elevated pore pressures inferred for long-term SSEs. The existence of weak brucite enhances the development of shear zones oblique to the main foliation. The resultant anastomosing network provides fluid pathways that may help reduce pore pressures on slip planes. In contrast, progress of the serpentinization reaction in the antigorite + olivine stability field (olivine + H2O + SiO2 → antigorite) results in a large amount of residual water that contributes to further increase pore fluid pressures on slip planes of short-term SSEs. Our results imply that understanding of serpentinization reactions and their contributions to fluid networks in mantle wedge is important in constructing quantitative 3-D models for strain evolutions along plate boundaries.

  4. Coseismic slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai earthquake and aseismic slips caused by the earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Satake, Kenji

    2001-04-01

    Coseismic slip distribution on the fault plane of the 1946 Nankai earthquake ( M w 8.3) was estimated from inversion of tsunami waveforms. The following three improvements from the previous study (Satake, 1993) were made. (1) Larger number of smaller subfaults is used; (2) the subfaults fit better to the slab geometry; and (3) more detailed bathymetry data are used. The inversion result shows that the agreement between observed and synthetic waveforms is greatly improved from the previous study. In the western half of the source region off Shikoku, a large slip of about 6 m occurred near the down-dip end of the locked zone. The slip on the up-dip or shallow part was very small, indicating a weak seismic coupling in that region. In the eastern half of the source region off Kii peninsula, a large slip of about 3 m extended over the entire locked zone. Large slips on the splay faults in the upper plate estimated from geodetic data (Sagiya and Thatcher, 1999) were not required to explain the tsunami waveforms, suggesting that the large slips were aseismic. Two slip distributions on the down-dip end of the plate interface, one from geodetic data and the other from tsunami waveforms, agree well except for slip beneath Cape Muroto in Shikoku. This suggests that aseismic slip also occurred on the plate interface beneath Cape Muroto.

  5. Lower extremity corrective reactions to slip events.

    PubMed

    Cham, R; Redfern, M S

    2001-11-01

    A significant number of injuries in the workplace is attributed to slips and falls. Biomechanical responses to actual slip events determine whether the outcome of a slip will be recovery or a fall. The goal of this study was to examine lower extremity joint moments and postural adjustments for experimental evidence of corrective strategies evoked during slipping in an attempt to prevent falling. Sixteen subjects walked onto a possibly oily vinyl tile floor, while ground reaction forces and body motion were recorded at 350 Hz. The onset of corrective reactions by the body in an attempt to recover from slips became evident at about 25% of stance and continued until about 45% into stance, i.e. on average between 190 and 350 ms after heel contact. These reactions included increased flexion moment at the knee and extensor activity at the hip. The ankle, on the other hand, acted as a passive joint (no net moment) during fall trials. Joint kinematics showed increased knee flexion and forward rotation of the shank in an attempt to bring the foot back towards the body. Once again, the ankle kinematics appeared to play a less dominant role (compared to the knee) in recovery attempts. This study indicates that humans generate corrective reactions to slips that are different than previously reported responses to standing perturbations translating the supporting surface. PMID:11672718

  6. Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal

    2011-05-15

    This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  7. Linear Stability Analysis of a Channel Flow with Porous Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Nils

    2005-11-01

    This study is motivated by the extensive use of wall-transpiration in numerical studies related to inhibition and control of wall-turbulence. In general, wall-transpiration has been implemented by providing the wall-normal velocity and imposing a no-slip condition on the wall-tangential velocity. Physically, however, the pores cannot be infinitesimally small and, consequently, it is important to address how the presence of the pores affects the slip velocity at the wall and the stability of the boundary layer. Moreover, our work is motivated by the existence of only few studies on the linear stability of channels with porous walls. Our study considers a parallel-plate channel with porous walls such that a longitudinal pressure gradient induces a laminar flow in both the open channel region and the porous walls. Simplified counterparts to the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations are derived for the porous regions that are valid for small permeablities. The linear stability analysis takes account of the coupling between the three disturbance fields through boundary conditions recently derived by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 38, 1995, pp 2635-2646). The resulting Orr-Sommerfeld spectrum and eigenfunctions reduce to those for Poiseuille flow as the permeability of the walls tends to zero, but are altered for greater values. We discuss symmetrical flows where parameters at both porous walls are identical as well as skewed flows where parameters at the two walls differ.

  8. Dynamic analysis of multibodies system with a floating base for rolling of ro-ro ship caused by wave and slip of heavy load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qing; Li, Yue; Chen, Xu-Jun

    2003-12-01

    Common effect of wave and slip of internal heavy load will make rolling of the roll-on ship serious. This is one of the important reasons for overturn of ro-ro ships. The multibodies System with a floating base is composed of ro-ro ship and slipping heavy load. This paper takes the rolling angle of the ship and the transverse displacement of the heavy load on desk as two freedoms. Making use of analysis of apparent gravitation and apparent buoyancy, the wave rolling moment is derived. By use of dynamic method of multibodies system with a floating base, dynamic equations of the system are established. Taking a certain channel ferry as an example, a set of numerical calculation have been carried out for rolling response of the ship and displacement response of the slipping heavy load under common effect of synchro-slipping heavy loads and wave.

  9. Slip effects on mixed convective peristaltic transport of copper-water nanofluid in an inclined channel.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Fahad Munir; Hayat, Tasawar; Ahmad, Bashir; Chen, Guo-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Peristaltic transport of copper-water nanofluid in an inclined channel is reported in the presence of mixed convection. Both velocity and thermal slip conditions are considered. Mathematical modelling has been carried out using the long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Resulting coupled system of equations is solved numerically. Quantities of interest are analyzed through graphs. Numerical values of heat transfer rate at the wall for different parameters are obtained and examined. Results showed that addition of copper nanoparticles reduces the pressure gradient, axial velocity at the center of channel, trapping and temperature. Velocity slip parameter has a decreasing effect on the velocity near the center of channel. Temperature of nanofluid increases with increase in the Grashoff number and channel inclination angle. It is further concluded that the heat transfer rate at the wall increases considerably in the presence of copper nanoparticles. PMID:25170908

  10. Empirical slip and viscosity model performance for microscale gas flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Boyd, Iain D.; McNenly, Matthew J.

    2004-07-01

    For the simple geometries of Couette and Poiseuille flows, the velocity profile maintains a similar shape from continuum to free molecular flow. Therefore, modifications to the fluid viscosity and slip boundary conditions can improve the continuum based Navier-Stokes solution in the non-continuum non-equilibrium regime. In this investigation, the optimal modifications are found by a linear least-squares fit of the Navier-Stokes solution to the non-equilibrium solution obtained using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Models are then constructed for the Knudsen number dependence of the viscosity correction and the slip model from a database of DSMC solutions for Couette and Poiseuille flows of argon and nitrogen gas, with Knudsen numbers ranging from 0.01 to 10. Finally, the accuracy of the models is measured for non-equilibrium cases both in and outside the DSMC database. Flows outside the database include: combined Couette and Poiseuille flow, partial wall accommodation, helium gas, and non-zero convective acceleration. The models reproduce the velocity profiles in the DSMC database within an L{sub 2} error norm of 3% for Couette flows and 7% for Poiseuille flows. However, the errors in the model predictions outside the database are up to five times larger.

  11. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  12. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  13. A method for mapping apparent stress and energy radiation applied to the 1994 Northridge earthquake fault zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.

    2000-01-01

    Using the Northridge earthquake as an example, we demonstrate a new technique able to resolve apparent stress within subfaults of a larger fault plane. From the model of Wald et al. (1996), we estimated apparent stress for each subfault using τa = (G/β)/2 where G is the modulus of rigidity, β is the shear wave speed, and is the average slip rate. The image of apparent stress mapped over the Northridge fault plane supports the idea that the stresses causing fault slip are inhomogeneous, but limited by the strength of the crust. Indeed, over the depth range 5 to 17 km, maximum values of apparent stress for a given depth interval agree with τa(max)=0.06S(z), where S is the laboratory estimate of crustal strength as a function of depth z. The seismic energy from each subfault was estimated from the product τaDA, where A is subfault area and D its slip. Over the fault zone, we found that the radiated energy is quite variable spatially, with more than 50% of the total coming from just 15% of the subfaults.

  14. Constraining Paleoearthquake Slip Distributions with Coral Microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, A.; McCloskey, J.; nic Bhloscaidh, M.; Murphy, S.

    2014-12-01

    Key to understanding the threat posed by large megathrust earthquakes is identifying where the potential for these destructive events exists. Studying extended sequences of earthquakes, Slip Deficit and Stress Evolution modelling techniques may hold the key to locating areas of concern. However, as well as using recent instrumentally constrained slip distributions they require the production of high resolution source models for pre-instrumental events. One place we can attempt this longer term modelling is along the Sunda Trench with its record of large megathrust earthquakes dating back centuries. Coral microatolls populating the intertidal areas of the Sumatran Forearc act as long-term geodetic recorders of tectonic activity. Repeated cycles of stress accumulation and release alter relative sea levels around these islands. Growth of corals, controlled by the level of the lowest tide, exploit interseismic rises in sea level. In turn, they experience die-offs when coseismic drops in sea level lead to subaerially exposure. Examination of coral stratigraphy reveals a history of displacements from which information of past earthquakes can be inferred. We have developed a Genetic Algorithm Slip Estimator (GASE) to rapidly produce high resolution slip distributions from coral displacement data. GASE recombines information held in populations of randomly generated slip distributions, to create superior models, satisfying observed displacements. Non-unique solutions require multiple iterations of the algorithm, producing a suite of models from which an ensemble slip distribution is drawn. Systematic testing of the algorithm demonstrates its ability to reliably estimate both known synthetic and instrumentally constrained slip distributions based on surface displacements. We will present high-resolution source models satisfying published displacement data for a number recent and paleoearthquakes along the Sunda trench, including the great 1797 and 1833 events.

  15. Quaternary low-angle slip on detachment faults in Death Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayman, N.W.; Knott, J.R.; Cowan, D.S.; Nemser, E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Detachment faults on the west flank of the Black Mountains (Nevada and California) dip 29??-36?? and cut subhorizontal layers of the 0.77 Ma Bishop ash. Steeply dipping normal faults confined to the hanging walls of the detachments offset layers of the 0.64 Ma Lava Creek B tephra and the base of 0.12-0.18 Ma Lake Manly gravel. These faults sole into and do not cut the low-angle detachments. Therefore the detachments accrued any measurable slip across the kinematically linked hanging-wall faults. An analysis of the orientations of hundreds of the hanging-wall faults shows that extension occurred at modest slip rates (<1 mm/yr) under a steep to vertically oriented maximum principal stress. The Black Mountain detachments are appropriately described as the basal detachments of near-critical Coulomb wedges. We infer that the formation of late Pleistocene and Holocene range-front fault scarps accompanied seismogenic slip on the detachments.

  16. The influence of footwear sole hardness on slip characteristics and slip-induced falls in young adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Ju; Powers, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, a shoe that provides less friction could result in a greater slip distance and foot slipping velocity, thereby increasing the likelihood of falling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sole hardness on the probability of slip-induced falls. Forty young adults were randomized into a hard or a soft sole shoe group, and tested under both nonslippery and slippery floor conditions using a motion analysis system. The proportions of fall events in the hard- and soft-soled shoe groups were not statistically different. No differences were observed between shoe groups for average slip distance, peak and average heel velocity, and center of mass slipping velocity. A strong association was found between slip distance and the fall probability. Our results demonstrate that the probability of a slip-induced fall was not influenced by shoe hardness. Once a slip is induced, slip distance was the primary predictor of a slip-induced fall.

  17. Kids' Slips: What Young Children's Slips of the Tongue Reveal about Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Jeri J.

    2005-01-01

    The study of speech errors, or "slips of the tongue," is a time-honored methodology which serves as a window to the representation and processing of language and has proven to be the most reliable source of data for building theories of speech production planning. However, until "Kids' Slips," there has never been a corpus of such errors from…

  18. Digital slip frequency generator and method for determining the desired slip frequency

    DOEpatents

    Klein, Frederick F.

    1989-01-01

    The output frequency of an electric power generator is kept constant with variable rotor speed by automatic adjustment of the excitation slip frequency. The invention features a digital slip frequency generator which provides sine and cosine waveforms from a look-up table, which are combined with real and reactive power output of the power generator.

  19. Slip velocity method for three-dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, Richard W.; Wahls, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    A slip velocity method for 2-D incompressible turbulent boundary layers was presented in AIAA Paper 88-0137. The inner part of the boundary layer was characterized by a law of the wall and a law of the wake, and the outer part was characterized by an arbitrary eddy viscosity model. In the present study for compressible flows, only a law of the wall is considered. The problem of 2-D compressible flow is treated first; then the extension to 3-D flow is addressed. A formulation for primitive variables is presented.

  20. ``Partial Melting'' Of Fault Zones: A Mechanism Of Seismic Slip Termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuki, K.; Koizumi, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Our stick-slip experiments demonstrated that frictional melting terminates fault slips, and our numerical simulations demand that there should be a mechanism of enforced cooling (Koizumi and Otsuki, in this session). We present this mechanism referring the previous pin-on-disc experiments under severe conditions where friction is thermally controlled (Montgomery 1976; Ettles, 1986). Friction coefficient μ and wear rate W show a spectrum depending on the product of slip velocity V and normal stress σ . 1) Flash-melting: small μ (ca. 0.3) and W at small VP. Blobs of scratched debris play new asperities. The asperity contacts are easily flash-melted, but the temperature cannot rise up further, because the most of the heat flows to the counter face and the melt materials are immediately removed from the contacts. μ is self-adjusted by the equilibrium between the heat generation and cooling rates and formulated as, *{10mm}μ = 1.88 (Tm/Ph) (kρ c/V)1/2 (n*/σ )1/4 ------- (1) where Tm: melting temperature, Ph: penetration hardness, k: thermal conductivity, ρ c: heat capacity of unit volume, n*: number density of asperities, and σ : normal stress. Eq. (1) represents velocity weakening and normal stress weakening. 2) Partial melting: abnormally large μ (up to 1.4) and W at moderate VP. The majority of the apparent contact surface remains cool in the flash-melting regime, but the temperature increases albeit slowly. Once it increases beyond a critical temperature, the penetration hardness decreases significantly and W increase abruptly. Wear debris produced at a high rate can cool the small amount of the melt materials, resulting in very high frictional resistance. If the external force is not sufficiently large to overcome this mechanical barrier, fault slips will stop. The elapsed time Te to the partial melting regime is expressed as, *{10mm}Te = 40 kρ c Tm2 (Vσ )-2 --------- (2). Applying eq. (2) to our stick-slip experiments (Koizumi and Otsuki, this session

  1. Fault zone roughness controls slip stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbord, Christopher; Nielsen, Stefan; De Paola, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Fault roughness is an important control factor in the mechanical behaviour of fault zones, in particular the frictional slip stability and subsequent earthquake nucleation. Despite this, there is little experimental quantification as to the effects of varying roughness upon rate- and state-dependant friction (RSF). Utilising a triaxial deformation apparatus and a novel adaptation of the direct shear methodology to simulate initially bare faults in Westerly Granite, we performed a series of velocity step frictional sliding experiments. Initial root mean square roughnesses (Sq) was varied in the range 6x10-7 - 2.4x10-5 m. We also investigated the effects upon slip stability of normal stress variation in the range σn = 30 - 200 MPa, and slip velocity between 0.1 - 10 μm s-1. A transition from stable sliding to unstable slip (manifested by stick-slip and slow slip events) was observed, depending on the parameter combination, thus covering the full spectrum of fault slip behaviours. At low normal stress (σn = 30MPa) smooth faults (Sq< 1x10-6 m) are conditional unstable (stress drops on slow slip events upon velocity increase), with strongly velocity weakening friction. When normal stress is increased to intermediate values (σn = 100 - 150 MPa), smooth faults (Sq< 1x10-6 m) are fully unstable and generate seismic stick-slip behaviour. However at higher normal stress (σn = 200 MPa) a transition from unstable to stable sliding is observed for smooth faults, which is not expected using RSF stability criteria. At all conditions sliding is stable for rough faults (Sq> 1x10-6 m). We find that instability can develop when the ratio of fault to critical stiffness kf kc > 10, or, alternatively, even when a - b > 0 at σn = 150MPa, suggesting that bare surfaces may not strictly obey the R+S stability condition. Additionally we present white light interferometry and SEM analysis of experimentally deformed samples which provide information about the distribution and physical

  2. Slip in viscous contact-line movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lengerich, Henrik; Steen, Paul; Breuer, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The typical continuum fluid dynamics formulation cannot be used to model the spreading of a liquid on a solid because a stress singularity prevents contact-line motion. It is well known that this situation can be remedied by introducing a slip. We perform Stokes-flow simulations with slip and compare these with experiments. In the experiment, liquid (squalane) is forced through two parallel sapphire plates (roughness 0.6nm), and the meniscus shape and its speed are measured. The slip-length for this liquid/solid pair has been measured previously in an independent experiment absent of contact lines (T. Schmatko et. al. PRL 94, 244501). The same geometry is used in a boundary integral method simulation, accurate to within a few molecular diameters in the vicinity of the contact-line. The slip-length in the simulations can be varied such that the meniscus shape matches the experiment. Preliminary results suggest this slip-length is an order of magnitude lower than that reported by Schmatko. Now at the University of Minnesota TC

  3. Breddin's Graph For Fault and Slip Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Célérier, B.

    A simple plot of rake versus strike of fault and slip or earthquake focal mechanism data provides insight into the stress regime that caused slippage on these faults provided one of the principal stress direction is near vertical. By overlaying an abacus on this plot, one can evaluate both the orientation of the horizontal principal stress directions and the stress tensor aspect ratio, (s1-s2)/(s1-s3), where s1, s2, s3 are the principal stress magnitudes ranked in decreasing order. The underlying geometrical properties are that the slip data that are near strike-slip, and that are mainly found on steeply dipping planes, constrain the horizontal principal stress directions whereas the slip data that are near dip-slip and that occur on shallow dipping planes striking away from the principal stress directions constrain the stress tensor aspect ratio. This abacus is an extension of the Breddin's abacus used to analyze two dimensional deformation in structural geology and it is used in a similar fashion. Its application to synthetic and natural monophase data show both its usefulness and limitation. It is not intended to replace stress inversion techniques because of limiting assumptions, but it is expected to provide insight into the complexity of natural data set from a simple viewpoint.

  4. Evidence for slip partitioning and bimodal slip behavior on a single fault: Surface slip characteristics of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Reitman, N. G.; Gold, R. D.; Hayes, G. P.

    2015-06-01

    Deformation is commonly accommodated by strain partitioning on multiple, independent strike-slip and dip-slip faults in continental settings of oblique plate convergence. As a corollary, individual faults tend to exhibit one sense of slip - normal, reverse, or strike-slip - until whole-scale changes in boundary conditions reactivate preexisting faults in a new deformation regime. In this study, we show that a single continental fault may instead partition oblique strain by alternatively slipping in a strike-slip or a dip-slip sense during independent fault slip events. We use 0.5 m resolution optical imagery and sub-pixel correlation analysis of the 200 + km 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake to document co-seismic surface slip characteristics and Quaternary tectonic geomorphology along the causative Hoshab fault. We find that the 2013 earthquake, which involved a ∼6:1 strike-slip to dip-slip ratio, ruptured a structurally segmented fault. Quaternary geomorphic indicators of gross fault-zone morphology reveal both reverse-slip and strike-slip deformation in the rupture area of the 2013 earthquake that varies systematically along fault strike despite nearly pure strike-slip motion in 2013. Observations of along-strike variations in range front relief and geomorphic offsets suggest that the Hoshab fault accommodates a substantial reverse component of fault slip in the Quaternary, especially along the southern section of the 2013 rupture. We surmise that Quaternary bimodal slip along the Hoshab fault is promoted by a combination of the arcuate geometry of the Hoshab fault, the frictional weakness of the Makran accretionary prism, and time variable loading conditions from adjacent earthquakes and plate interactions.

  5. Slip rate and slip magnitudes of past earthquakes along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault (Mongolia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizza, M.; Ritz, J.-F.; Braucher, R.; Vassallo, R.; Prentice, C.; Mahan, S.; McGill, S.; Chauvet, A.; Marco, S.; Todbileg, M.; Demberel, S.; Bourles, D.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out morphotectonic studies along the left-lateral strike-slip Bogd Fault, the principal structure involved in the Gobi-Altay earthquake of 1957 December 4 (published magnitudes range from 7.8 to 8.3). The Bogd Fault is 260 km long and can be subdivided into five main geometric segments, based on variation in strike direction. West to East these segments are, respectively: the West Ih Bogd (WIB), The North Ih Bogd (NIB), the West Ih Bogd (WIB), the West Baga Bogd (WBB) and the East Baga Bogd (EBB) segments. Morphological analysis of offset streams, ridges and alluvial fans-particularly well preserved in the arid environment of the Gobi region-allows evaluation of late Quaternary slip rates along the different faults segments. In this paper, we measure slip rates over the past 200 ka at four sites distributed across the three western segments of the Bogd Fault. Our results show that the left-lateral slip rate is ~1 mm yr-1 along the WIB and EIB segments and ~0.5 mm yr-1 along the NIB segment. These variations are consistent with the restraining bend geometry of the Bogd Fault. Our study also provides additional estimates of the horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake along the western part of the Bogd rupture, complementing previously published studies. We show that the mean horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake decreases progressively from 5.2 m in the west to 2.0 m in the east, reflecting the progressive change of kinematic style from pure left-lateral strike-slip faulting to left-lateral-reverse faulting. Along the three western segments, we measure cumulative displacements that are multiples of the 1957 coseismic offset, which may be consistent with a characteristic slip. Moreover, using these data, we re-estimate the moment magnitude of the Gobi-Altay earthquake at Mw 7.78-7.95. Combining our slip rate estimates and the slip distribution per event we also determined a mean recurrence interval of ~2500-5200 yr for past

  6. Slip rate and slip magnitudes of past earthquakes along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault (Mongolia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Rizza, M.; Ritz, J.F.; Baucher, R.; Vassallo, R.; Mahan, S.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out morphotectonic studies along the left-lateral strike-slip Bogd Fault, the principal structure involved in the Gobi-Altay earthquake of 1957 December 4 (published magnitudes range from 7.8 to 8.3). The Bogd Fault is 260 km long and can be subdivided into five main geometric segments, based on variation in strike direction. West to East these segments are, respectively: the West Ih Bogd (WIB), The North Ih Bogd (NIB), the West Ih Bogd (WIB), the West Baga Bogd (WBB) and the East Baga Bogd (EBB) segments. Morphological analysis of offset streams, ridges and alluvial fans—particularly well preserved in the arid environment of the Gobi region—allows evaluation of late Quaternary slip rates along the different faults segments. In this paper, we measure slip rates over the past 200 ka at four sites distributed across the three western segments of the Bogd Fault. Our results show that the left-lateral slip rate is∼1 mm yr–1 along the WIB and EIB segments and∼0.5 mm yr–1 along the NIB segment. These variations are consistent with the restraining bend geometry of the Bogd Fault. Our study also provides additional estimates of the horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake along the western part of the Bogd rupture, complementing previously published studies. We show that the mean horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake decreases progressively from 5.2 m in the west to 2.0 m in the east, reflecting the progressive change of kinematic style from pure left-lateral strike-slip faulting to left-lateral-reverse faulting. Along the three western segments, we measure cumulative displacements that are multiples of the 1957 coseismic offset, which may be consistent with a characteristic slip. Moreover, using these data, we re-estimate the moment magnitude of the Gobi-Altay earthquake at Mw 7.78–7.95. Combining our slip rate estimates and the slip distribution per event we also determined a mean recurrence interval of∼2500

  7. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  8. Slip distribution of the 2014 Iquique earthquake in northern Chile derived from tsunami waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, T.; Takagawa, T.; Tsushima, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Tomita, T.; Gómez, C.; Catalan, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    A major earthquake occurred on the plate boundary between the Nazca plate and the South American plate on April 1, 2014 in northern Chile associated with a tsunami that was recorded at the offshore DART buoys and the coastal tide gauges. The epicenter was located in a seismic gap called "Iquique gap", but the moment magnitude was estimated to be 8.2 from the seismic wave analysis which was much smaller than the size of seismic gap. It is important to reveal the slip distribution of this earthquake in order to assess remaining tsunami risk in the region. We therefore carried out a tsunami inversion analysis for this earthquake. We used tsunami waveform data recorded at both of the offshore and coastal gauges, and 30 arc-sec interval bathymetric grid complied by the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy. We also examined effect of tsunami governing equations used in creating Green's functions. One solution was obtained with the linear long-wave equations; the other was obtained with the linear dispersive equations. The effect of dispersive equations was found in tsunami waveforms in the open ocean. But that was not apparent in near-field records and the estimated slip distribution itself. The observed tsunami waveforms were retrieved well in the analysis except at Tocopilla where a large delay of tsunami arrival of about 10 minutes was seen in the observed data. Features of the estimated slip are 1) the slip extent was approximately 120km x 80km, 2) the major slip area was located to the south of the epicenter, a region off between Pisagua and Iquique, 3) the maximum slip was about 5m, 4) the seismic moment was calculated to be 1.28x10^21Nm (Mw 8.0).

  9. Skin-friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow with Idealized Superhydrophobic Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratsegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2013-11-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction by super-hydrophobic (SH) surfaces was investigated using Lattice Boltzmann DNS in turbulent channel flow with SH longitudinal microgrooves on both walls. The liquid/gas interfaces in the SH microgrooves were modeled as flat, shear-free surfaces. Drag reductions (DR) ranging from 5 % to 47 % were observed for microgrooves of size 4 <=g+0 =w+0 <= 128 in channels of bulk Reynolds number Reb =Ub h / ν = 3600 (Reτ0 =uτ0 h / ν ~ 230), where g+0 and w+0 denote the widths of the slip and no-slip surfaces in base flow wall units. It is shown that in both laminar and turbulent flow, DR scales as DR =Us /Ub + ɛ . In laminar flow, where DR is purely due to surface slip, ɛ = 0 . In turbulent flow, ɛ remains negligible when the slip length is smaller than the thickness of the viscous sublayer. For DR > 40 % , where the effect of surface slip can be felt in the buffer layer, ɛ attains a small non-zero value. Analysis of turbulence statistics and turbulence kinetic energy budgets confirms that outside of a layer of size approximately one slip length from the walls, the turbulence dynamics proceeds as in regular channel flow with no-slip walls.

  10. Quake clamps down on slow slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Bartlow, Noel; Hamling, Ian; Fry, Bill

    2014-12-01

    Using continuous GPS (cGPS) data from the Hikurangi subduction zone in New Zealand, we show for the first time that stress changes induced by a local earthquake can arrest an ongoing slow slip event (SSE). The cGPS data show that the slip rate in the northern portion of the 2013/2014 Kapiti SSE decreased abruptly following a nearby intraslab earthquake. We suggest that deceleration of the Kapiti SSE in early 2014 occurred due to a tenfold increase in the normal stress relative to shear stress in the SSE source, induced by the nearby Mw 6.3 earthquake, consistent with expectations of rate and state friction. Our observation of an abrupt halting/slowing of the SSE in response to stress changes imposed by a local earthquake has implications for the strength of fault zones hosting SSEs and supports the premise that static stress changes are an important ingredient in triggering (or delaying) fault slip.

  11. Variations in the geometry and amount of slip on the Haiyuan (Nanxihaushan) fault zone, China and the surface rupture of the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qidong, Deng; Shefa, Chen; Fangnin, Song; Shilong, Zhu; Yipeng, Wang; Weiqi, Zhang; Decheng, Jiao; Burchfiel, B. C.; Molnar, P.; Royden, L.; Peizhen, Zhang

    The Haiyuan earthquake (M = 8.7) of December 16, 1920, in China caused strike-slip displacement along 220 km of the Haiyuan (or Nanxihaushan) Fault Zone, which lies on the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) plateau. The Haiyuan fault zone, which strikes 285°-295°, apparently became an active sinistral strike-slip during Pleistocene time. The fault zone is composed of at least eight major subparallel shear fractures, most of which are arranged in a left-stepping pattern, and as many as six pull-apart basins have formed in the central segment of the fault zone. River systems of different ages have been sinistrally offset different amounts. Variations in the sense of vertical motion have occurred along segments of the fault, and pull-apart basins are commonly associated with the areas where normal components on subparallel segments prevail. Relatively young faults with oblique normal slip strike parallel to the overall trend of the fault zone and intersect the major subparallel shear faults with acute angles (10 to 15°). The earthquake fault of 1920 caused slip along the major strike-slip fault segments and along oblique normal faults within pull-apart basins. Thus segments with pure strike-slip and with oblique normal slip, were activated in 1920, each with different surficial features and with different amounts of slip.

  12. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  13. The mechanics of stick-slip

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Physical mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the occurrence of stick-slip motion during frictional sliding have been examined in the light of results obtained from experiments with rocks and brittle minerals. An instability caused by sudden brittle fracture of locked regions on surfaces in contact is the most likely explanation for stick-slip during dry frictional sliding of brittle rocks at room temperature. Areas requiring further study and the uncertainties in applying the results of laboratory experiments to earthquake studies are emphasized. ?? 1970.

  14. Slip length measurement of gas flow.

    PubMed

    Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-09-16

    In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas. PMID:27505860

  15. Slipping magnetic reconnection in coronal loops.

    PubMed

    Aulanier, Guillaume; Golub, Leon; Deluca, Edward E; Cirtain, Jonathan W; Kano, Ryouhei; Lundquist, Loraine L; Narukage, Noriyuki; Sakao, Taro; Weber, Mark A

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection of solar coronal loops is the main process that causes solar flares and possibly coronal heating. In the standard model, magnetic field lines break and reconnect instantaneously at places where the field mapping is discontinuous. However, another mode may operate where the magnetic field mapping is continuous but shows steep gradients: The field lines may slip across each other. Soft x-ray observations of fast bidirectional motions of coronal loops, observed by the Hinode spacecraft, support the existence of this slipping magnetic reconnection regime in the Sun's corona. This basic process should be considered when interpreting reconnection, both on the Sun and in laboratory-based plasma experiments. PMID:18063789

  16. Slip length measurement of gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas.

  17. Slip length measurement of gas flow.

    PubMed

    Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-09-16

    In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas.

  18. Momentum compaction and phase slip factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Section 2.3.11 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping is updated. The slip factor and its higher orders are given in terms of the various orders of the momentum compaction. With the aid of a simplified FODO lattice, formulas are given for the alteration of the lower orders of the momentum compaction by various higher multipole magnets. The transition to isochronicity is next demonstrated. Formulas are given for the extraction of the first three orders of the slip factor from the measurement of the synchrotron tune while changing the rf frequency. Finally bunch-length compression experiments in semi-isochronous rings are reported.

  19. Asymmetric alluvial fans along strike-slip faults: A potential slip-rate record?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of asymmetric alluvial fan morphology along strike-slip faults. From analysis of high-resolution topographic data, we find that asymmetric alluvial fans are common along several strike-slip faults in the western United States. Affected fans are steeper in the direction of translation of the sediment source, often resulting in stream deflections counter to that expected from the sense of fault slip (e.g. left deflected streams along dextral faults). We hypothesize that fan asymmetry results from lateral translation of the sediment source relative to the depocenter. This relative motion changes the accommodation space in such a way that one side of the alluvial fan continuously progrades while the other is gradually abandoned. Therefore, lateral translation results in radial asymmetry of slopes about the fan apex. As a first approximation, we model this asymmetry as a result of diffusive sediment transport down fan. From this analysis, we predict that the degree of asymmetry of the alluvial fan is controlled by the ratio of sediment flux to fault slip rate. Qualitatively, more rapidly slipping faults should host more highly asymmetric fans; conversely, high sediment flux will obscure asymmetry. By measuring the sediment flux, through catchment-average concentration of cosmogenic isotopes or other means, we show that it is theoretically possible to quantify strike-slip fault slip-rates and alluvial-fan sediment transport rates using alluvial fan morphometry.

  20. Slip development and instability on a nonuniformly loaded interface with power-law slip-weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James R.; Uenishi, Koji

    2003-03-01

    We study rupture instability on a planar interface subjected to a locally peaked stress that increases quasi-statically in time. The interface follows a nonlinear slip-weakening relation where the strength drop is proportional to (slip)^n. Such a form with n 0.2-0.4 has been inferred from seismological observations on the scaling of radiated energy with slip (Abercrombie and Rice, 2001, 2002) and similarly abrupt strength drops are found at slips greater than sub-mm range in experiments involving large rotary shear (Chambon et al., 2002; Tullis and Goldsby, 2002). We use a simple Rayleigh-Ritz method and also full numerical simulations. Results show there is no longer a universal nucleation length when n ne 1 and qualitative features of the slip development are controlled by n. If n < 2/3, instability occurs as soon as the peaked value of the loading reaches the strength. This is a prediction based on the power law starting at (slip) = 0^+ whereas the observational results correspond to slips beyond the sub-mm range.

  1. Slip rates across the sinistral slip fault system of the Shan Plateau, northern SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Sieh, K.; Wang, Y.; Liu, J.; Weldon, R. J.; Feng, L.; Chan, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The sinistral-slip fault system of the Shan Plateau, arcing around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and extending > 700 km from northwest to southeast, poses a high seismic hazard in northern SE Asia. Knowing slip rates and earthquake recurrence intervals of these faults is key to better quantification of that hazard. However, estimates of slip rates along the fault system remain poorly constrained. Here we report a preliminary estimate of the slip rate across the fault system from available campaign GPS velocities. We projected the horizontal GPS velocity vectors relative to the Sunda block reference frame perpendicular to the general strike (~ 240°) of the sinistral faults. The velocity profile shows a gradient of ~ 9 mm/yr over a distance of ~ 550 km that crosses 8 faults, from the Dayingjiang fault in the northwest to the Mengxing fault in the southeast. This suggests the average slip rate across each fault in the system is ~ 1 mm/yr. The 9 mm/yr of GPS velocity gradient across the fault system, however, is only half of the long-term rates determined from offsets of major rivers, ridges and plutons. These geological determinations suffer, however, from poor dating constraints. The discrepancy between the geodetic and geological analyses highlights the need of reliable constraints on slip rates along each of the faults. We have begun field work aimed at determining the slip rate of one of these, the Jinghong fault.

  2. Detailed investigations of fault slip and surface processes using newly developed IRSL dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Ed; McGuire, Chris; Dolan, James; McGill, Sally

    2015-04-01

    New developments in single grain Infra-Red Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) of potassium feldspar using a post-IR IRSL approach is providing a radically improved degree of resolution in age estimates of sediment deposition for fluvial and alluvial sediments offset by fault movement. In the Mojave Desert, California, the timing and slip history of the left-lateral Central Garlock fault can be reconstructed by applying IRSL dating to offset alluvial fan sediments deposited on the margins of the paleo Lake Searles/China Lake system at Christmas Canyon West, combined with high resolution earthquake event history based on radiocarbon age control from the nearby site of El Paso Peaks. These new age estimates allow us to demonstrate a significantly enhanced slip rate for the last two thousand years in comparison to the Holocene and Geologic mean slip rates. This suggests that the Central Garlock fault is displaying pronounced earthquake clustering and slip rate variation. The age estimates provide a detailed record of sediment aggradation and incision over the last half of the Holocene. Despite disruption to small scale sedimentary structures by extensive bioturbation, the relatively high density of sampling for IRSL age estimation allows the reconstruction of sediment packages, erosional events, and some control of environmental response to changing climate over this period. The patterns of apparent age distribution between individual grains in each sample provide some insight into transport and depositional conditions at the time of sedimentation, and have the potential to provide histories for sediment transport rates and storage.

  3. Quantifying stick-slip contact line motion of evaporating sessile droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Clay; Pye, Justin; Burton, Justin

    Sessile droplet evaporation often involves an apparent stick-slip motion of pinning and de-pinning of the drop's edge. The small forces and complex hydrodynamics at the contact line make this phenomena difficult to quantify, although easily observable. We have characterized the stick-slip motion on gold and glass surfaces with the use of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). We observe changes in both the resonant frequency and dissipation during droplet evaporation. Depositing a droplet onto this oscillating surface greatly decreases the frequency while the dissipation increases. Evaporation occurs in two stages; when the droplet's contact line is pinned to the surface, its contact angle decreases. Then, at a critical angle, the contact line is pulled over pinning points and continues to evaporate with a receding contact area. These stick-slip events appear in our data as a sharp increase in frequency, followed by a sharp decrease; simultaneously, the dissipation displays a single sharp peak. QCMs pre-cleaned in an oxygen plasma environment exhibited a significantly reduced occurrence and magnitude of these features. We interpret these features and quantify the forces involved in the stick-slip motion using a dynamic model of the QCM with additional surface forces at the contact line.

  4. The role of fracture energy in earthquake stress drop: Should apparent stress scale with seismic moment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Circone, S.; Beeler, N. M.; Wong, T.

    2001-12-01

    To model dissipated and radiated energy during earthquake stress drop, we calculate dynamic fault slip using a single degree of freedom spring-slider. The slider-block model is scaled to earthquake size assuming a circular rupture; stiffness varies inversely with rupture radius, and rupture duration is proportional to radius. We first use a laboratory-based static/kinetic fault strength relation, with a dynamic stress drop Δ τ d proportional to effective normal stress but with no fracture energy. Calculated seismic efficiency η , the ratio of radiated to total energy expended during stress drop, and overshoot ξ , a measure of how much the static stress drop exceeds the dynamic stress drop, are constant, independent of normal stress and scale. Calculated η is small and in good agreement with laboratory measurements and field observations from small mining- and borehole-induced earthquakes. If instead a linear slip weakening fault strength, with a well defined apparent fracture energy G, is used in the calculation, the apparent stress τ a, the stress measure of radiated energy, is τ a=Δ τ d}(0.5-ξ )/(1-ξ )-τ {c. Here τ c}=kd{*(1-ξ )/2 is the "fracture stress", the stress measure of apparent fracture energy, d* is the slip weakening distance, and k is the ratio of static stress drop to total slip. Since k scales with earthquake size, apparent stress is a function of event size. For our slider block model, k is simply the unloading stiffness. If constant G is used, as in the classic Griffith fracture criterion, τ a for small earthquakes varies systematically with event size due to changes in the relative contribution from G. The predictions are similar to the variation of radiated energy with event size for small earthquakes recorded in the Cajon Pass borehole by Abercrombie [JGR, 100, 1995]. Large events have constant τ a. However, the typical ratio of apparent stress to static stress drop τ a/Δ τ s=0.02 for the Cajon Pass data is an order of

  5. The M8.1 Intraplate, Strike-Slip Macquarie Earthquake of 23 December 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Antolik, M.; Yamada, T.

    2006-12-01

    The M8.1, strike-slip earthquake on 23 December 2004 was ~150 km from the Macquarie Ridge plate boundary. This large intraplate earthquake provides an opportunity to investigate both the source processes of oceanic strike-slip earthquakes, which are controversial and poorly known, and to constrain the tectonics of the complex region surrounding the Macquarie Ridge. We model teleseismic P and SH waves from 29 stations using a point source moment tensor inversion. Our preferred model has two subevents, both strike-slip with strike and dip within about 15 degrees of one another; the first is tightly constrained by the first motions. The sources overlap by 17 s and have a combined duration of ~50 s. The centroid depths are 30 -- 35 km. There is no evidence for directivity in the waveforms, so our result is consistent with bilateral rupture along a slightly curved or bent fault. The lack of directivity means that we cannot unambiguously identify the fault plane. We prefer the NNW-SSE plane as it aligns with the aftershocks and the fossil transform faults in the region. We are performing a slip inversion to constrain further the fault plane and slip distribution. The apparent stress of the earthquake is ~5 MPa, higher than continental strike-slip earthquakes, but similar to previous intraplate oceanic earthquakes, e.g. 1998 M8.1 Antarctica. The stress drop (based on the 200 km aftershock extent, and the depth of 35 km) is ~3 MPa, consistent with previous oceanic and also continental strike-slip earthquakes. The tectonics of the region around the Macquarie Ridge are poorly known. Cande and Stock (2004) proposed that the SE part of the Australian plate is actually a separate plate (the Macquarie plate) separated by a diffuse plate boundary. Their model predicts NNE-SSW extension in the region of the 2004 M8.1 earthquake, which is at the northerly extent of a group of previous, smaller, earthquakes. They all have T axis orientations that fit this plate model. The age of the

  6. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  7. PRODUCTION OF SLIP CAST CALCIA HOLLOWWARE

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

    1963-12-31

    A method for producing slip cast calcia hollow ware in which a dense calcia grain is suspended in isobutyl acetate or a mixture of tertiary amyl alcohol and o-xylene is presented. A minor amount of triethanolamine and oleic acid is added to the suspension vehicle as viscosity adjusting agents and the suspension is cast in a plaster mold, dried, and fired. (AEC)

  8. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G P

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems. PMID:26986407

  9. Oblique slip in Laramide foreland arches

    SciTech Connect

    Erslev, E.A.; Selvig, B.; Molzer, P. . Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1993-03-01

    Don Wise was one of the first structural geologists to recognize the complex, four-dimensional (space and time) nature of basement-involved faulting in the Rocky Mountain foreland. His focus on both small scale kinematic indicators and regional tectonic hypotheses has provided a launching point for many Rocky Mountain geologists. The implications of the anastomosing patterns of Laramide foreland arches on models of regional stress and strain have provoked considerable debate. Hypotheses range from those invoking multiple stages of lateral compression from different directions to single-stage models necessitating a component of strike-slip motion in east-west and north-south arches. These hypotheses were tested using slickenline analysis of minor faulting in structures with different orientations. In Wyoming, structures paralleling the dominant northwest structural trend have slickenlines in the NE-SW vertical plane, consistent with shortening and compression in this direction. The east-west Owl Creek and Casper Mountain structures also have NE-SW trending slickenlines, indicating slip oblique to these arches. In Colorado, minor faults in the north-south margin of the northeastern Front Range also indicate oblique slip, with shortening in the NE-SW quadrant. The actual trend of the slickenlines is more easterly, however, suggesting a change of slip trajectory with latitude, not time, possibly in response to identation by the Colorado Plateau.

  10. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  11. Slip Dynamics in Small Scale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Robert; Derlet, Peter; Greer, Julia; Volkert, Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Classical work showed that dislocation velocities are strongly dependent on applied stress. Numerous experiments have validated this for individual or groups of dislocations in macroscopic crystals by using imaging techniques combined with either mechanical data or time resolved topological data. Developments in small scale mechanical testing allow to correlate the intermittency of collective dislocation motion with the mechanical response. Discrete forward surges in displacement can be related to dislocation avalanches, which are triggered by the evolving dislocation sub-structure. We study the spatiotemporal characteristics of intermittent plastic flow in quasi-statically sheared single crystalline Au crystals with diameters between 300 nm and 10000 nm, whose displacement bursts were recorded at several kHz (Scripta Mater. 2013, 69, 586; Small, available online). Both the crystallographic slip magnitude, as well as the velocity of the slip events are exhibiting power-law scaling as. The obtained slip velocity distribution has a cubic decay at high values, and a saturated flat shoulder at lower velocities. No correlation between the slip velocity and the applied stress or plastic strain is found. Further, we present DD-simulations that are supportive of our experimental findings. The simulations suggest that the dynamics of the internal stress fields dominate the evolving dislocation structure leading to velocities that are insensitive to the applied stress - a regime indicative of microplasticity.

  12. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G P

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  13. Slip-model performance for underexpanded micro-scale rocket nozzle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moríñigo, José A.; Quesada, José Hermida; Requena, Francisco Caballero

    2007-08-01

    In aerospace Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS), the characteristic length scale of the flow approaches the molecular mean free path, thus invalidating the continuum description and enforcing the use of particle methods, like the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), to deal with the non-equilibrium regions. Within the slip-regime (0.01< Kn<˜0.1) both approaches, continuum and particle-based, seem to behave well in terms of accuracy. The present study summarizes the implementation and results obtained with a 2nd-order slip boundary condition in a Navier-Stokes solver to address the rarefaction near the nozzle walls. Its assessment and application to a cold-gas micro-scale conical nozzle of 300μm throat diameter, discharging into the low-pressure freestream, constitutes the major aim of the work. The slip-model incorporates the velocity slip with thermal creep and temperature jump, thus permitting to deal with non-isothermal flows as well. Results show that the gas experiences an intense rarefaction in the lip vicinity, pointing to the limits of model validity. Furthermore, a strong Mach deceleration is observed, attributed to the rather thick subsonic boundary layer and supersonic bulk heating caused by the viscous dissipation, in contrast with the expansion to occur in large rocket nozzles during underexpanded operation.

  14. Slip flow through a converging microchannel: experiments and 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varade, Vijay; Agrawal, Amit; Pradeep, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    An experimental and 3D numerical study of gaseous slip flow through a converging microchannel is presented in this paper. The measurements reported are with nitrogen gas flowing through the microchannel with convergence angles (4°, 8° and 12°), hydraulic diameters (118, 147 and 177 µm) and lengths (10, 20 and 30 mm). The measurements cover the entire slip flow regime and a part of the continuum and transition regimes (the Knudsen number is between 0.0004 and 0.14); the flow is laminar (the Reynolds number is between 0.5 and 1015). The static pressure drop is measured for various mass flow rates. The overall pressure drop increases with a decrease in the convergence angle and has a relatively large contribution of the viscous component. The numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with Maxwell’s slip boundary condition explore two different flow behaviors: uniform centerline velocity with linear pressure variation in the initial and the middle part of the microchannel and flow acceleration with nonlinear pressure variation in the last part of the microchannel. The centerline velocity and the wall shear stress increase with a decrease in the convergence angle. The concept of a characteristic length scale for a converging microchannel is also explored. The location of the characteristic length is a function of the Knudsen number and approaches the microchannel outlet with rarefaction. These results on gaseous slip flow through converging microchannels are observed to be considerably different than continuum flow.

  15. Slip-Flow and Heat Transfer of a Non-Newtonian Nanofluid in a Microtube

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jun; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang

    2012-01-01

    The slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid in a microtube is theoretically studied. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe the non-Newtonian characteristics of the flow, in which the fluid consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index depend on the nanoparticle volume fraction. The velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and local Nusselt number are calculated for different values of nanoparticle volume fraction and slip length. The results show that the influence of nanoparticle volume fraction on the flow of the nanofluid depends on the pressure gradient, which is quite different from that of the Newtonian nanofluid. Increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction has the effect to impede the flow at a small pressure gradient, but it changes to facilitate the flow when the pressure gradient is large enough. This remarkable phenomenon is observed when the tube radius shrinks to micrometer scale. On the other hand, we find that increase of the slip length always results in larger flow rate of the nanofluid. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate of the nanofluid in the microtube can be enhanced due to the non-Newtonian rheology and slip boundary effects. The thermally fully developed heat transfer rate under constant wall temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions is also compared. PMID:22615961

  16. Slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-newtonian nanofluid in a microtube.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jun; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang

    2012-01-01

    The slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid in a microtube is theoretically studied. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe the non-Newtonian characteristics of the flow, in which the fluid consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index depend on the nanoparticle volume fraction. The velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and local Nusselt number are calculated for different values of nanoparticle volume fraction and slip length. The results show that the influence of nanoparticle volume fraction on the flow of the nanofluid depends on the pressure gradient, which is quite different from that of the Newtonian nanofluid. Increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction has the effect to impede the flow at a small pressure gradient, but it changes to facilitate the flow when the pressure gradient is large enough. This remarkable phenomenon is observed when the tube radius shrinks to micrometer scale. On the other hand, we find that increase of the slip length always results in larger flow rate of the nanofluid. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate of the nanofluid in the microtube can be enhanced due to the non-Newtonian rheology and slip boundary effects. The thermally fully developed heat transfer rate under constant wall temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions is also compared.

  17. A method for mapping apparent stress and energy radiation applied to the 1994 Northridge earthquake fault zone-revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.

    2001-01-01

    McGarr and Fletcher (2000) introduced a technique for estimating apparent stress and seismic energy radiation associated with small patches of a larger fault plane and then applied this method to the slip model of the Northridge earthquake (Wald et al., 1996). These results must be revised because we did not take account of the difference between the seismic energy near the fault and that in the farfield. The fraction f(VR) of the near-field energy that propagates into the far-field is a monotonic function that ranges from 0.11 to 0.40 as rupture velocity VR increases from 0.6?? to 0.95??, where ?? is the shear wave speed. The revised equation for apparent stress for subfault ij is taij = f(VR) ????/ 2 Dij??? D(t)ij2dt, where ?? is density, D(t)ij is the time-dependent slip, and Dij is the final slip. The corresponding seismic energy is Eaij = ADijtaij, where A is the subfault area. Our corrected distributions of apparent stress and radiated energy over the Northridge earthquake fault zone are about 35% of those published before.

  18. On the Bartnik mass of apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantoulidis, Christos; Schoen, Richard

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we characterize the intrinsic geometry of apparent horizons (outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces) in asymptotically flat spacetimes; that is, the Riemannian metrics on the two sphere which can arise. Furthermore we determine the minimal ADM mass of a spacetime containing such an apparent horizon. The results are conveniently formulated in terms of the quasi-local mass introduced by Bartnik (1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2346-8). The Hawking mass provides a lower bound for Bartnik’s quasilocal mass on apparent horizons by way of Penrose’s conjecture on time symmetric slices, proven in 1997 by Huisken and Ilmanen (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 353-437) and in full generality in 1999 by Bray (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 177-267). We compute Bartnik’s mass for all non-degenerate apparent horizons and show that it coincides with the Hawking mass. As a corollary we disprove a conjecture due to Gibbons in the spirit of Thorne’s hoop conjecture (Gibbons 2009 arXiv:0903.1580), and construct a new large class of examples of apparent horizons with the integral of the negative part of the Gauss curvature arbitrarily large.

  19. The structure of slip-pulses and supershear ruptures driving slip in bimaterial friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomai, Hadar; Fineberg, Jay

    2016-06-01

    The most general frictional motion in nature involves bimaterial interfaces, when contacting bodies possess different elastic properties. Frictional motion occurs when the contacts composing the interface separating these bodies detach via propagating rupture fronts. Coupling between slip and normal stress variations is unique to bimaterial interfaces. Here we use high speed simultaneous measurements of slip velocities, real contact area and stresses to explicitly reveal this bimaterial coupling and its role in determining different classes of rupture modes and their structures. We directly observe slip-pulses, highly localized slip accompanied by large local reduction of the normal stress near the rupture tip. These pulses propagate in the direction of motion of the softer material at a selected (maximal) velocity and continuously evolve while propagating. In the opposite direction bimaterial coupling favors crack-like `supershear' fronts. The robustness of these structures shows the importance of bimaterial coupling to frictional motion and modes of frictional dissipation.

  20. Experimental Slip Events as Possible Proxies for Fault Patch Slip During Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The slip and strength histories of a fault patch during an earthquake are experimentally simulated with a high-speed rotary apparatus. The experimental fault comprises two solid cylindrical blocks with a raised-ring contact of 7 cm diameter and 1 cm width. Our conceptual model assumes that slip on a fault patch is initiated by the stress increase associated with the passage of an earthquake front, and that this slip is facilitated by dissipation of potential energy stored in the surrounding crust. To simulate this process in the laboratory, we first store kinetic energy by spinning up a 225 kg flywheel that is adjacent to, but not connected to, the locked fault. Then, the flywheel is engaged to the lower fault block via a fast-acting (<0.03 s) clutch, and the drive motor is turned off. This loading procedure produces slip behavior that has many similarities to the slip envisioned to occur along an earthquake patch. (1) In both cases, a finite energy is available to drive slip. (2) The initial dynamic stress rise leading to fault slip is rapid (<< 1 s). (3) Slip history is controlled by spontaneous interaction between fault strength and the stored energy. (4) Radiated seismic energy is probably a small fraction of the energy budget. We refer to our experiments as 'Earthquake-Like-Slip-Event' or ELSE. Direct measurements of slip-velocity, normal and shear stresses, fault-normal displacement, and temperature are recorded at 5 kHz sampling. We present synthesis of 43 ELSE runs with Sierra White granite, and 15 with Kasota dolomite. Samples were axially loaded up to 7 MPa, potential energy up to 25 MJ/m^2, and slip-velocity up to ~1.0 m/s; they produced slip-distances up to 5.55 m, and fault-normal displacement from -300 microns (closure) to 160 microns (dilation). The main ELSE observations and inferences are: (1) In most experiments, the strength drops significantly (~50-70%) during the early slip stage, and this weakening is associated with intense fault wear and

  1. The structure of slip-pulses and supershear ruptures driving slip in bimaterial friction

    PubMed Central

    Shlomai, Hadar; Fineberg, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The most general frictional motion in nature involves bimaterial interfaces, when contacting bodies possess different elastic properties. Frictional motion occurs when the contacts composing the interface separating these bodies detach via propagating rupture fronts. Coupling between slip and normal stress variations is unique to bimaterial interfaces. Here we use high speed simultaneous measurements of slip velocities, real contact area and stresses to explicitly reveal this bimaterial coupling and its role in determining different classes of rupture modes and their structures. We directly observe slip-pulses, highly localized slip accompanied by large local reduction of the normal stress near the rupture tip. These pulses propagate in the direction of motion of the softer material at a selected (maximal) velocity and continuously evolve while propagating. In the opposite direction bimaterial coupling favors crack-like ‘supershear' fronts. The robustness of these structures shows the importance of bimaterial coupling to frictional motion and modes of frictional dissipation. PMID:27278687

  2. Viscous Moment, Mechanism of Slow Slip, and Subduction Megathrust Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) represent transient slip velocities slower than earthquakes but faster than steady, average plate motion. SSEs repeating at the same location have characteristic slip magnitude and duration. Contrary to earthquakes, however, average slip relates to neither duration nor area. Variations in duration, slip, and slip rate can instead be tied to variations in effective viscosity, calculated from a viscous definition of moment. In this paradigm, the observation that deep slow slip events are slower and longer, implies a higher effective viscosity than in shallower, colder SSEs. Observed variations in effective viscosity and slip rate can be interpreted in terms of differences in driving stress and shear zone width, and likely arise in anastomosing shear zones containing a heterogeneous mixture of materials.

  3. Development of compact slip detection sensor using dielectric elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-young; Hwang, Do-Yeon; Kim, Baek-chul; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we developed a resistance tactile sensor that can detect a slip on the surface of sensor structure. The presented sensor device has fingerprint-like structures that are similar with the role of the humans finger print. The resistance slip sensor that the novel developed uses acrylo-nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as a dielectric substrate and graphene as an electrode material. We can measure the slip as the structure of sensor makes a deformation and it changes the resistance through forming a new conductive route. To manufacture our sensor, we developed a new imprint process. By using this process, we can produce sensor with micro unit structure. To verify effectiveness of the proposed slip detection, experiment using prototype of resistance slip sensor is conducted with an algorithm to detect slip and slip is successfully detected. We will discuss the slip detection properties.

  4. Distributed Slip Model for Simulating Virtual Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani-Kadmiel, S.; Tsesarsky, M.; Gvirtzman, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We develop a physics based, generic finite fault source, which we call the Distributed Slip Model (DSM) for simulating large virtual earthquakes. This task is a necessary step towards ground motion prediction in earthquake-prone areas with limited instrumental coverage. A reliable ground motion prediction based on virtual earthquakes must account for site, path, and source effects. Assessment of site effect mainly depends on near-surface material properties which are relatively well constrained, using geotechnical site data and borehole measurements. Assessment of path effect depends on the deeper geological structure, which is also typically known to an acceptable resolution. Contrarily to these two effects, which remain constant for a given area of interest, the earthquake rupture process and geometry varies from one earthquake to the other. In this study we focus on a finite fault source representation which is both generic and physics-based, for simulating large earthquakes where limited knowledge is available. Thirteen geometric and kinematic parameters are used to describe the smooth "pseudo-Gaussian" slip distribution, such that slip decays from a point of peak slip within an elliptical rupture patch to zero at the borders of the patch. Radiation pattern and spectral charectaristics of our DSM are compared to those of commonly used finite fault models, i.e., the classical Haskell's Model (HM) and the modified HM with Radial Rupture Propagation (HM-RRP) and the Point Source Model (PSM). Ground motion prediction based on our DSM benefits from the symmetry of the PSM and the directivity of the HM while overcoming inadequacy for modeling large earthquakes of the former and the non-physical uniform slip of the latter.

  5. Smectite reactions and slip instabilities in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadenne, Leslie; Raimbourg, Hugues; Champallier, Remi; Yamamoto, Yuzuru

    2015-04-01

    Though it is of prime importance in terms of seismic and tsunami risk, the mechanical behavior of the shallow (z<5km) domains of accretionary prisms is not well understood. The concomitant progress of mechanical compaction and diagenetic reactions results in the transformation of a soft sediment into a hard sedimentary rock, which modifies the rock potential to localize deformation and be involved in slip instabilities. While it is the major control on diagenetic reactions, the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior is not well constrained experimentally. To address this question, we have designed triaxial deformation experiments in the Paterson rig either at ambient temperature or at 300 °C. The tested material includes siltstones from the Boso Peninsula in Japan (corresponding to the shallow domain of a paleo-accretionary prism), either as cylindrical cores or as ground powders as well as powders composed principally of smectite. For this material, the main consequence of the high temperature conditions is to trigger the smectite-to-illite reaction or the smectite interlayer space collapse. The first result is that at 300 °C, all tested samples show slip instabilities. These instabilities are apparent as a sudden (~ 4s) and large (~10 to 45 MPa depending on the starting material and the confining pressure) stress drop in the macroscopic stress-strain curve, in some cases followed by a rapid restrengthening of the material. In contrast, no instability was observed for the experiments at ambient temperature. As slip instabilities are activated by the temperature and occur as well in smectite powders, we attribute these instabilities to the diagenetic reactions of smectite. An additional experiment on a powder of smectite where the smectite-to-illite reaction has been inhibited by cationic exchanges does not show instabilities upon deformation at 300 °C. We propose therefore that catastrophic dehydration of smectite associated with the smectite

  6. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  7. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  8. 4. Scale floor detail of rope pulley systemsouth wall looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Scale floor detail of rope pulley system-south wall looking east of Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  9. 1. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator workhouse, 1908, Duluth, south wall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator workhouse, 1908, Duluth, south wall, ship loading side, construction of tile and brick. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  10. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Seonghyeon; Je, Jongdoo; Choi, Haecheon

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to suggest a proper boundary condition at the interface between a permeable block and turbulent channel flow and to investigate the characteristics of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls. The boundary condition suggested is an extended version of that applied to laminar channel flow by Beavers & Joseph (1967) and describes the behaviour of slip velocities in the streamwise and spanwise directions at the interface between the permeable block and turbulent channel flow. With the proposed boundary condition, direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow that is bounded by the permeable wall are performed and significant skin-friction reductions at the permeable wall are obtained with modification of overall flow structures. The viscous sublayer thickness is decreased and the near-wall vortical structures are significantly weakened by the permeable wall. The permeable wall also reduces the turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress, and pressure and vorticity fluctuations throughout the channel except very near the wall. The increase of some turbulence quantities there is due to the slip-velocity fluctuations at the wall. The boundary condition proposed for the permeable wall is validated by comparing solutions with those obtained from a separate direct numerical simulation using both the Brinkman equation for the interior of a permeable block and the Navier Stokes equation for the main channel bounded by a permeable block.

  11. Drag reduction at a plane wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective is to determine by analytical means how drag on a plane wall may be modified favorably using a minimal amount of flow information - preferably only information at the wall. What quantities should be measured? How should that information be assimilated in order to arrive at effective control? As a prototypical problem, incompressible, viscous flow, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, past a plane wall at which the no-slip condition was modified was considered. The streamwise and spanwise velocity components are required to be zero, but the normal component is to be specified according to some control law. The challenge is to choose the wall-normal velocity component based on flow conditions at the wall so that the mean drag is as small as possible. There can be no net mass flux through the wall, and the total available control energy is constrained. A turbulent flow is highly unsteady and has detailed spatial structure. The mean drag on the wall is the integral over the wall of the local shear forces exerted by the fluid, which is then averaged in time; it is a 'macroscopic' property of the flow. It is not obvious how unsteady boundary control is to be applied in order to modify the mean flow most effectively, especially in view of the non- self-adjoint nature of the governing equations. An approximate analytical solution to the suboptimal scheme is pursued.

  12. Downscaling of slip distribution for strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Oya, S.; Kuzuha, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We intend to develop a downscaling model to enhance the earthquake slip distribution resolution. Slip distributions have been obtained by other researchers using various inversion methods. As a downscaling model, we are discussing fractal models that include mono-fractal models (fractional Brownian motion, fBm; fractional Lévy motion, fLm) and multi-fractal models as candidates. Log - log-linearity of k (wave number) versus E (k) (power spectrum) is the necessary condition for fractality: the slip distribution is expected to satisfy log - log-linearity described above if we can apply fractal model to a slip distribution as a downscaling model. Therefore, we conducted spectrum analyses using slip distributions of 11 earthquakes as explained below. 1) Spectrum analyses using one-dimensional slip distributions (strike direction) were conducted. 2) Averaging of some results of power spectrum (dip direction) was conducted. Results show that, from the viewpoint of log - log-linearity, applying a fractal model to slip distributions can be inferred as valid. We adopt the filtering method after Lavallée (2008) to generate fBm/ fLm. In that method, generated white noises (random numbers) are filtered using a power law type filter (log - log-linearity of the spectrum). Lavallée (2008) described that Lévy white noise that generates fLm is more appropriate than the Gaussian white noise which generates fBm. In addition, if the 'alpha' parameter of the Lévy law, which governs the degree of attenuation of tails of the probability distribution, is 2.0, then the Lévy distribution is equivalent to the Gauss distribution. We analyzed slip distributions of 11 earthquakes: the Tohoku earthquake (Wei et al., 2011), Haiti earthquake (Sladen, 2010), Simeulue earthquake (Sladen, 2008), eastern Sichuan earthquake (Sladen, 2008), Peru earthquake (Konca, 2007), Tocopilla earthquake (Sladen, 2007), Kuril earthquake (Sladen, 2007), Benkulu earthquake (Konca, 2007), and southern Java

  13. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  14. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  15. Effects of slip, slip rate, and shear heating on the friction of granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanpied, M.L.; Tullis, T.E.; Weeks, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of fault slip is sensitive to the way in which frictional strength responds to changes in slip rate and in particular to the effective velocity dependence of steady state friction ????ss/?? ln V. This quantity can vary substantially with displacement, temperature and slip rate. To investigate the physical basis for this behavior and the possible influence of shear heating, we slid initially bare granite surfaces in unconfined rotary shear to displacements of hundreds of millimeters at normal stresses, ??n, of 10 and 25 MPa and at room temperature. We imposed step changes in slip rate within the range 10-2 to 103.5 ??m/s and also monitored frictional heating with thermistors embedded in the granite. The transient response of ?? to slip rate steps was fit to a rate- and state-dependent friction law using two state variables to estimate the values of several parameters in the constitutive law. The first 20 mm of slip shows rising friction and falling ????ss/?? ln V; further slip shows roughly constant friction, ????ss/?? ln V and parameter values, suggesting that a steady state condition is reached on the fault surface. At V ??? 10 ??m/s, ????ss/?? ln V = -0.004 ?? 0.001. At higher rates the response is sensitive to normal stress: At ??n = 25 MPa granite shows a transition to effective velocity strengthening (????ss/?? ln V = 0.008 ?? 0.004) at the highest slip rates tested. At 10 MPa granite shows a less dramatic change to ????ss/?? ln V ??? 0 at the highest rates. The maximum temperature measured in the granite is ???60??C at 25 MPa and 103.5 ??m/s. Temperatures are in general agreement with a numerical model of heat conduction which assumes spatially homogeneous frictional heating over the sliding surface. The simplest interpretation of our measurements of ????ss/?? ln V is that the granite is inherently veocity weakening (?????ss/??? In V 0 mimics velocity strengthening. These results have implications for the frictional behavior of faults during

  16. Generation and propagation of stick-slip waves over a fault with rate-independent friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes generated at faults are either produced by rapid (sometimes supersonic) propagation of shear cracks/ruptures along the fault or originated in the stick-slip sliding over the fault. In some cases, supersonic (faster than the shear wave velocity) propagation of earthquake-generating shear ruptures or sliding is observed. This gave rise to the concept of supersonic shear crack propagation, much researched in the literature. Here we consider another mechanisms of supersonic sliding propagation. We concentrate on the stick-slip sliding as the earthquake mechanism. It is conventionally assumed that the mechanism of stick-slip lies in intermittent change between static and kinetic friction and the rate dependence of the friction coefficient. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. These oscillations resemble stick-slip movement, but they manifest themselves in terms of sliding velocity rather than displacement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We developed a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast movement is in the fact that sliding of every element of the rock at the fault surface creates normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This results in the observed supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of the apparent shear rupture. Keywords: Stick-slip, Rate-independent friction, Supersonic propagation.

  17. 1857 slip on the San Andreas fault Southeast of Cholame, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Sieh and Jahns (1984) forecasted that the next moderate Parkfield earthquake might trigger a major earthquake along a fault segment greater than 30 km long southeast of Cholame. Their forecast assumed (1) the slip was 3-4 m in 1857 and characteristic of the segment; (2) a slip rate of 3.4 cm/yr; and (3) full strain release in earthquakes. This study represents an independent measurement of channel offsets, on 1:2400-scale low-sun aerial photographs and by field investigation, to estimate the amount of 1857 slip. Although rainfall is only moderate (30 cm/yr), few reliable offsets of less than 20 m persist here because cattle grazing and agricultural disking of soft sediments on the steep terrain greatly aggravate erosion. Reconstruction of offset geometry and size depends heavily on assumptions made about the post-1857 erosion. Most of the apparent 3- to 4-m offsets of Sieh and Jahns (1984) can also be measured as 2 to 3 m larger with equal or lower uncertainty. The four offsets judged as most reliable range between 5.4 and 6.7 m, and the 11 offsets of medium-high reliability average 5.8 ?? 0.3 m. Data are too sparse and ambiguous to resolve details of the 1857 slip for this segment but it is distinctly less than the 9 m of the Carrizo Plain and more than the 3-4 m previously estimated. Further trenching may refine some measurements, but probability calculations for a Cholame segment earthquake must allow for large observer-dependent uncertainty in the 1857 slip. Although the probability of an M ???7 Cholame event seems less than that suggested by a 3.5-m characteristic earthquake model, it remains among the highest in the state.

  18. Means for improving apparent resolution of television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilborn, E. H.

    1967-01-01

    Technique using short term temporal integration characteristics of the observers visual system improves the apparent resolution of television video presentations. The raster is displaced slightly on each frame so the eye can integrate the information in each raster grain. This phase shift uses a switching time delay.

  19. Why bumpy is better: The role of the dissipation distribution in slip flow over a bubble mattress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery A.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2016-09-01

    It has been observed that the amount of effective slip for transverse flow over a bubble mattress is maximum for bubbles that protrude somewhat in the channel flow. In this paper we provide an explanation for this characteristic feature by analyzing the spatial distribution of viscous dissipation for bubbles of varying protrusion angles. Bubbles protruding in the channel act as obstacles and reduce the effective channel height, thereby increasing the viscous dissipation in the bulk flow. At small scales, however, our numerical analysis reveals that increasing the bubble protrusion angle reduces the dissipation near the contact points of the no-slip channel wall and the no-shear bubble surface. We obtain an analytical expression to quantify this effect based on classical corner flow solutions. The two antagonistic effects, decreased dissipation near the bubble corners and increased dissipation on larger scale, explain why the effective slip length is maximum for a bubble mattress that is slightly bumpy.

  20. Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.; Tan, Y.; Hudnut, K.W.; Choi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake is constrained by combining strong motion and teleseismic data, along with GPS static offsets and 1-Hz GPS observations. Comparisons of a 1-Hz GPS time series and a co-located strong motion data are in very good agreement, demonstrating a new application of GPS. The inversion results for this event indicate that the rupture initiated at a depth of 8.5 km and propagated southeastwards with a speed ???3.0 km/sec, with rake vectors forming a fan structure around the hypocenter. We obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 ?? 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution as indicating that the hanging wall rotates relative to the footwall around the hypocenter, in a sense that appears consistent with the shape of the mapped fault trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Peristaltic Creeping Flow of Power Law Physiological Fluids through a Nonuniform Channel with Slip Effect

    PubMed Central

    Chaube, M. K.; Tripathi, D.; Bég, O. Anwar; Sharma, Shashi; Pandey, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical study on creeping flow of non-Newtonian fluids (power law model) through a nonuniform peristaltic channel, in which amplitude is varying across axial displacement, is presented, with slip effects included. The governing equations are simplified by employing the long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. The expressions for axial velocity, stream function, pressure gradient, and pressure difference are obtained. Computational and numerical results for velocity profile, pressure gradient, and trapping under the effects of slip parameter, fluid behavior index, angle between the walls, and wave number are discussed with the help of Mathematica graphs. The present model is applicable to study the behavior of intestinal flow (chyme movement from small intestine to large intestine). It is also relevant to simulations of biomimetic pumps conveying hazardous materials, polymers, and so forth. PMID:27057132

  2. Slip effects on squeezing flow of nanofluid between two parallel disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K.; Jana, S.; Acharya, N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the influence of temperature and wall slip conditions on the unsteady flow of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting nanofluid squeezed between two parallel disks in the presence of an applied magnetic field is investigated numerically. Using the similarity transformation, the governing coupled partial differential equations are transformed into similarity non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically using the Nachtsheim and Swigert shooting iteration technique together with the sixth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The effects of various emerging parameters on the flow characteristics are determined and discussed in detail. To check the reliability of the method, the numerical results for the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number in the absence of slip conditions are compared with the results reported by the predecessors and an excellent agreement is observed between the two sets of results.

  3. Slip casting and extruding shapes of rhenium with metal oxide additives. 1: Feasibility demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, F. A.; Page, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating small rhenium parts with metal oxide additives by means of slip casting and extrusion techniques is described. The metal oxides, ZrO2 and HfO2 were stabilized into the cubic phase with Y2O3. Additions of metal oxide to the rhenium of up to 15 weight percent were used. Tubes of 17 mm diameter with 0.5 mm walls were slip cast by adapting current ceramic oxide techniques. A complete cast double conical nozzle demonstrated the ability to meet shapes and tolerances. Extrusion of meter long tubing lengths of 3.9 mm o.d. x 2.3 mm i.d. final dimension is documented. Sintering schedules are presented to produce better than 95% of theoretical density parts. Finished machining was found possible were requried by electric discharge machining and diamond grinding.

  4. Inspiration of slip effects on electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) nanofluid flow through a horizontal Riga plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M.; Abbas, T.; Bhatti, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    The boundary layer flow of nanofluid that is electrically conducting over a Riga plate is considered. The Riga plate is an electromagnetic actuator which comprises a spanwise adjusted cluster of substituting terminal and lasting magnets mounted on a plane surface. The numerical model fuses the Brownian motion and the thermophoresis impacts because of the nanofluid and the Grinberg term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to the Riga plate in the presence of slip effects. The numerical solution of the problem is presented using the shooting method. The novelties of all the physical parameters such as modified Hartmann number, Richardson number, nanoparticle concentration flux parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter and slip parameter are demonstrated graphically. Numerical values of reduced Nusselt number, Sherwood number are discussed in detail.

  5. Observations and Implications of Cyclical Slip in DFDP-1 Principal Slip Zone Gouges, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, C. J.; Menzies, C. D.; Allen, M. J.; Faulkner, D.; Mariani, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Alpine Fault accommodates up to 75% of the total relative Australia-Pacific plate boundary motion and ruptures episodically in large magnitude (Mw~8) earthquakes. An aim of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) is to understand the processes that govern earthquake rupture nucleation and propagation on the Alpine Fault. In January 2011, DFDP-1A drilling recovered a c. 25 cm-thick principal slip zone (PSZ) at Gaunt Creek. Assuming serial partitioning occurred at c. 2 km depth, this narrow PSZ has accommodated up to 5 km of displacement. We document the frictional, hydrological, structural, mineralogical, and chemical attributes of an 8 cm x 8.5 cm cylindrical section of PSZ core containing the oblique thrust contact (055/29SE, lin. 23/109) between hanging wall gouges and footwall gravels. Two main gouge types comprise the DFDP-1A core: smectitic brown gouges and chloritic, micaceous blue gouges. Smectitic gouges occur primarily at the plate boundary contact. However, smectitic gouges are also present as injection veins, lenses, recumbent folds, and clasts within overlying blue gouges, providing evidence for cyclical slip and material mixing within the PSZ. The room-temperature frictional properties of PSZ gouges were measured at 30 MPa effective normal stress (σn') and varying sliding velocities (v=0.1-10 μm/s) using the direct-shear configuration. The friction coefficient (μ=0.60) of a blue gouge agrees with that published in Boulton et al. (2014). Two brown gouges are slightly stronger (μ=0.49 and 0.54) than similar gouges recovered in a nearby borehole (DFDP-1B). All gouges exhibit velocity-strengthening behavior in 0.3-10 μm/s velocity steps. These results indicate that although they are not frictionally weak at low sliding velocities, fault slip repeatedly localizes in the PSZ gouges. Additional measurements of fault gouge physical and chemical properties will elucidate the pre-seismic, interseismic, and post-seismic behavior this major plate boundary

  6. Characterization of yield stress and slip behaviour of skin/hair care gels using steady flow and LAOS measurements and their correlation with sensorial attributes.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, S; Gillece, T W; Senak, L; Moore, D J

    2012-04-01

    Gels made with three different polymers widely used as rheology modifiers in cosmetic formulations (cross-linked poly(acrylic acid), cross-linked poly(maleic acid-alt-methyl vinyl ether) copolymer and cross-linked poly(acrylic acid-co-vinyl pyrrolidone) copolymer) were characterized by rheological and sensory evaluation methods to determine the relationship between sensorial perception and corresponding rheological parameters. Both conventional rheological characterization methods and a more recent method, Fourier Transform Rheology with Large Amplitude Oscillatory Flow data (LAOS), were utilized to characterize the material with and without wall slip. Sensorial analyses were implemented in vivo to evaluate the perceived ease of initial and rub-out spreadability, cushion, pick-up and slipperiness attributes of the gels. Results were statistically analysed by both variance (ANOVA) and principle component analysis (PCA). Sensorial panel testing characteristics discriminated the three materials, and PCA analyses revealed that sensory attributes could be well predicted by rheological methods. Rheological experiments, without wall slip, revealed that gel strength in the linear viscoelastic region (LVR) and yield stress of these materials are similar, but exhibit significantly different wall slip and thixotropy behaviour in the low shear rate region under wall slip conditions. Above the critical shear rate, which corresponds to the yield stress, all tested materials did not slip and behaved as conventional, shear thinning polymeric fluids. In particular, the rheological parameters and sensorial perception of the 1% cross-linked vinyl pyrrolidone/acrylic acid copolymer were significantly affected by wall slip and/or thixotropy-related shear banding phenomena.

  7. Phase Slips in Oscillatory Hair Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Shlomovitz, Roie; Bruinsma, Robijn; Bozovic, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear contain an active amplifier that allows them to detect extremely weak signals. As one of the manifestations of an active process, spontaneous oscillations arise in fluid immersed hair bundles of in vitro preparations of selected auditory and vestibular organs. We measure the phase-locking dynamics of oscillatory bundles exposed to low-amplitude sinusoidal signals, a transition that can be described by a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle. The transition is characterized by the occurrence of phase slips, at a rate that is dependent on the amplitude and detuning of the applied drive. The resultant staircase structure in the phase of the oscillation can be described by the stochastic Adler equation, which reproduces the statistics of phase slip production. PMID:25167040

  8. Phase slips in oscillatory hair bundles.

    PubMed

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Shlomovitz, Roie; Bruinsma, Robijn; Bozovic, Dolores

    2013-04-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear contain an active amplifier that allows them to detect extremely weak signals. As one of the manifestations of an active process, spontaneous oscillations arise in fluid immersed hair bundles of in vitro preparations of selected auditory and vestibular organs. We measure the phase-locking dynamics of oscillatory bundles exposed to low-amplitude sinusoidal signals, a transition that can be described by a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle. The transition is characterized by the occurrence of phase slips, at a rate that is dependent on the amplitude and detuning of the applied drive. The resultant staircase structure in the phase of the oscillation can be described by the stochastic Adler equation, which reproduces the statistics of phase slip production. PMID:25167040

  9. Phase Slips in Oscillatory Hair Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Shlomovitz, Roie; Bruinsma, Robijn; Bozovic, Dolores

    2013-04-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear contain an active amplifier that allows them to detect extremely weak signals. As one of the manifestations of an active process, spontaneous oscillations arise in fluid immersed hair bundles of in vitro preparations of selected auditory and vestibular organs. We measure the phase-locking dynamics of oscillatory bundles exposed to low-amplitude sinusoidal signals, a transition that can be described by a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle. The transition is characterized by the occurrence of phase slips, at a rate that is dependent on the amplitude and detuning of the applied drive. The resultant staircase structure in the phase of the oscillation can be described by the stochastic Adler equation, which reproduces the statistics of phase slip production.

  10. Timing, rate, and magnitude of slip on the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment fault, west central Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, John S.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Gans, Phillip B.; Prior, Michael G.

    2014-08-01

    We present thermochronologic and geochronologic data that constrain the slip history of the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment fault in west central Arizona, one of the largest extensional fault systems in the North American Cordillera. (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite thermochronology, integrated with 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of postdetachment volcanic rocks, indicate that large-magnitude extension associated with the detachment fault initiated at ~21-20 Ma and continued until ~12-11 Ma in the southwestern portion of the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex. (U-Th)/He footwall cooling ages from the breakaway zone in the western Bouse Hills to upper greenschist-facies mylonites in the southern Buckskin Mountains indicate that the slip rate on the detachment fault was 3 + 1.5/-1 km/Myr during the early Miocene. Space-time patterns of hanging wall tilting suggest that at 17-16 Ma, a secondary detachment fault breakaway developed ~12 km northeast of the primary detachment fault breakaway. Proximal conglomerates deposited in a supradetachment basin adjacent to the secondary breakaway scarp were displaced 6-11 km northeast in the middle Miocene by the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment fault at a slip rate of 1.2-2.7 km/Myr. The total displacement across the detachment fault in the southwestern portion of the core complex is 24 ± 10 km, well short of the previous estimate of 66 ± 8 km across the entire core complex. Based on these data and new observations, we propose that total displacement on the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment fault system increases in the slip direction to ~40-50 km at the northeastern end of the exposed footwall, corresponding to time-averaged slip rates that ranged from ~2 km/Myr to ≤6 km/Myr across the entire core complex.

  11. Elastic stress transfer as a diffusive process due to aseismic fault slip in response to fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface fluid injection is often followed by observations of an enlarging cloud of microseismicity. The cloud's diffusive growth is thought to be a direct response to the diffusion of elevated pore fluid pressure reaching pre-stressed faults, triggering small instabilities; the observed high rates of this growth are interpreted to reflect a relatively high permeability of a fractured subsurface [e.g., Shapiro, GJI 1997]. We investigate an alternative mechanism for growing a microseismic cloud: the elastic transfer of stress due to slow, aseismic slip on a subset of the pre-existing faults in this damaged subsurface. We show that the growth of the slipping region of the fault may be self-similar in a diffusive manner. While this slip is driven by fluid injection, we show that, for critically stressed faults, the apparent diffusion of this slow slip may quickly exceed the poroelastically driven diffusion of the elevated pore fluid pressure. Under these conditions, microseismicity can be first triggered by the off-fault stress perturbation due to the expanding region of slip on principal faults. This provides an alternative interpretation of diffusive growth rates in terms of the subsurface stress state rather than an enhanced hydraulic diffusivity. That such aseismic slip may occur, outpace fluid diffusion, and in turn trigger microseismic events, is also suggested by on- and near-fault observations in past and recently reported fluid injection experiments [e.g., Cornet et al., PAGEOPH 1997; Guglielmi et al., Science 2015]. The model of injection-induced slip assumes elastic off-fault behavior and a fault strength determined by the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. The sliding region is enlarged by the pore pressure increase resolved on the fault plane. Remarkably, the rate of self-similar expansion may be determined by a single parameter reflecting both the initial stress state and the magnitude of the pore pressure

  12. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, A. S.; Bürgmann, R.

    2016-06-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ˜1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ˜0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ˜6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ˜7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ˜0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  13. Slip-trace-induced vicinal step destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupeau, C.; Camara, O.; Drouet, M.; Durinck, J.; Bonneville, J.; Colin, J.; Grilhé, J.

    2016-01-01

    Gold single crystals were deformed by uniaxial compression tests with the help of an experimental apparatus that allows one to characterize in situ, by UHV scanning tunneling microscopy, the evolution of surface structures under stress. It is demonstrated that the slip traces resulting from the emergence of moving dislocations at the free surface highly modify the organization of the vicinal steps. A model based on energetic considerations is proposed and discussed to explain the observed phenomenon.

  14. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  15. Earthquake slip on oceanic transform faults.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, R E; Ekström, G

    2001-03-01

    Oceanic transform faults are one of the main types of plate boundary, but the manner in which they slip remains poorly understood. Early studies suggested that relatively slow earthquake rupture might be common; moreover, it has been reported that very slow slip precedes some oceanic transform earthquakes, including the 1994 Romanche earthquake. The presence of such detectable precursors would have obvious implications for earthquake prediction. Here we model broadband seismograms of body waves to obtain well-resolved depths and rupture mechanisms for 14 earthquakes on the Romanche and Chain transform faults in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. We found that earthquakes on the longer Romanche transform are systematically deeper than those on the neighbouring Chain transform. These depths indicate that the maximum depth of brittle failure is at a temperature of approximately 600 degrees C in oceanic lithosphere. We find that the body waves from the Romanche 1994 earthquake can be well modelled with relatively deep slip on a single fault, and we use the mechanism and depth of this earthquake to recalculate its source spectrum. The previously reported slow precursor can be explained as an artefact of uncertainties in the assumed model parameters. PMID:11242043

  16. Earthquake slip on oceanic transform faults.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, R E; Ekström, G

    2001-03-01

    Oceanic transform faults are one of the main types of plate boundary, but the manner in which they slip remains poorly understood. Early studies suggested that relatively slow earthquake rupture might be common; moreover, it has been reported that very slow slip precedes some oceanic transform earthquakes, including the 1994 Romanche earthquake. The presence of such detectable precursors would have obvious implications for earthquake prediction. Here we model broadband seismograms of body waves to obtain well-resolved depths and rupture mechanisms for 14 earthquakes on the Romanche and Chain transform faults in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. We found that earthquakes on the longer Romanche transform are systematically deeper than those on the neighbouring Chain transform. These depths indicate that the maximum depth of brittle failure is at a temperature of approximately 600 degrees C in oceanic lithosphere. We find that the body waves from the Romanche 1994 earthquake can be well modelled with relatively deep slip on a single fault, and we use the mechanism and depth of this earthquake to recalculate its source spectrum. The previously reported slow precursor can be explained as an artefact of uncertainties in the assumed model parameters.

  17. Periodic slow slip triggers megathrust zone earthquakes in northeastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Nadeau, Robert M; Bürgmann, Roland; Hino, Ryota

    2016-01-29

    Both aseismic and seismic slip accommodate relative motion across partially coupled plate-boundary faults. In northeastern Japan, aseismic slip occurs in the form of decelerating afterslip after large interplate earthquakes and as relatively steady slip on uncoupled areas of the subduction thrust. Here we report on a previously unrecognized quasi-periodic slow-slip behavior that is widespread in the megathrust zone. The repeat intervals of the slow slip range from 1 to 6 years and often coincide with or precede clusters of large [magnitude (M) ≥ 5] earthquakes, including the 2011 M 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. These results suggest that inherently periodic slow-slip events result in periodic stress perturbations and modulate the occurrence time of larger earthquakes. The periodicity in the slow-slip rate has the potential to help refine time-dependent earthquake forecasts.

  18. Pore sizes and filtration rates from two alumina slips

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.A. . Materials Science Dept.); Kerch, H.; Krueger, S.; Long, G.G. . Ceramics Div.); Keller, J.; Haber, R.A. . Dept. of Ceramics)

    1994-07-01

    The relationship between filtration rate and the resultant green body microstructure was examined for aqueous alumina slips cast at two different deflocculation states. The volume loading of both slips was 40%. Slip viscosities of 500 and 60 mPa[center dot]s were produced by different tetrasodium pyrophosphate additions. The filtration rate of these slips varied by a factor of 2; however, mercury porosimetry results showed the same average pore size for both samples. Single and multiple small-angle neutron scattering results showed the specimen cast with the higher-viscosity slip to possess a bimodal pore size distribution. The body cast with the low-viscosity slip showed unimodal porosity and, consequently, the filtration is attributed to the toroidal region between the packed particles. These results showed that mercury porosimetry does not provide a pore size that predicts filtration behavior of slips with different degrees of dispersion.

  19. Periodic slow slip triggers megathrust zone earthquakes in northeastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Nadeau, Robert M; Bürgmann, Roland; Hino, Ryota

    2016-01-29

    Both aseismic and seismic slip accommodate relative motion across partially coupled plate-boundary faults. In northeastern Japan, aseismic slip occurs in the form of decelerating afterslip after large interplate earthquakes and as relatively steady slip on uncoupled areas of the subduction thrust. Here we report on a previously unrecognized quasi-periodic slow-slip behavior that is widespread in the megathrust zone. The repeat intervals of the slow slip range from 1 to 6 years and often coincide with or precede clusters of large [magnitude (M) ≥ 5] earthquakes, including the 2011 M 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. These results suggest that inherently periodic slow-slip events result in periodic stress perturbations and modulate the occurrence time of larger earthquakes. The periodicity in the slow-slip rate has the potential to help refine time-dependent earthquake forecasts. PMID:26823425

  20. Modeling of rock friction 2. Simulation of preseismic slip

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The constitutive relations developed in the companion paper are used to model detailed observations of preseismic slip and the onset of unstable slip in biaxial laboratory experiments. The simulations employ a deterministic plane strain finite element model to represent the interactions both within the sliding blocks and between the blocks and the loading apparatus. Both experiments and simulations show that preseismic slip is controlled by initial inhomogeneity of shear stress along the sliding surface relative to the frictional strength. As a consequence of the inhomogeneity, stable slip begins at a point on the surface and the area of slip slowly expands as the external loading increases. A previously proposed correlation between accelerating rates of stable slip and growth of the area of slip is supported by the simulations. In the simulations and in the experiments, unstable slip occurs shortly after a propagating slip event traverses the sliding surface and breaks out at the ends of the sample. In the model the breakout of stable slip causes a sudden acceleration of slip rates. Because of velocity dependency of the constitutive relationship for friction, the rapid acceleration of slip causes a decrease in frictional strength. Instability occurs when the frictional strength decreases with displacement at a rate that exceeds the intrinsic unloading characteristics of the sample and test machine. A simple slider-spring model that does not consider preseismic slip appears to approximate the transition adequately from stable sliding to unstable slip as a function of normal stress, machine stiffness, and surface roughness for small samples. However, for large samples and for natural faults the simulations suggest that the simple model may be inaccurate because it does not take into account potentially large preseismic displacements that will alter the friction parameters prior to instability. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Detectability of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of strike-slip faults using borehole tiltmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chery, J.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades, geodetic tools like C-GPS allowed the detection of slow slip events associated with transient motion below the seismogenic zone. This new class of fault motion lead us to revise the standard version of the seismic cycle simply including coseismic, postseismic and interseismic phases. Most of these discoveries occurred on subduction margins in various places like Japan, Cascadia, Chile and Indonesia. By contrast, GPS and strainmeters have provided little evidence of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of large continental faults like the San Andreas fault or the North Anatolian fault. Because the detectability of such motions is mostly tributary from instrumental precision, we examine the theoretical capability of tiltmeter arrays for detecting horizontal motion of a buried vertical fault. We define the slipping part of the strike-slip fault like a buried rectangular patch submitted to horizontal motion. This motion provides horizontal and vertical surface deformation as a function of both patch geometry (length, width, depth) and motion amplitude. Using a dislocation buried at 15km depth, we compute the maximum motion and tilt as a function of seismic moment. Assuming yields of detectability of 1mm for GPS horizontal motion and 10 nrad for a tiltmeter, we show that small slip events could be better detected using high resolution and stability tiltmeters. We then examine how tiltmeters arrays could be used for such a purpose. In particular, we discuss how to deal with usual problems often plaguing tiltmeters data like instrumental drift, borehole coupling and hydrological strain.

  2. Slip of polydisperse polymers: Molecular weight distribution above and below the plane of slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabzevari, Seyed Mostafa; Strandman, Satu; Wood-Adams, Paula Marie

    2015-04-01

    When strong slip occurs during the drag flow of highly entangled polybutadienes (PBD) in a sliding plate rheometer equipped with stainless steel parallel plates, a thin film of polymer debris remains on the substrate after the slip. This debris is assumed to be formed by the disentanglement process that occurs in strong slip at a distance of about one molecular size from the plate. In order to evaluate the composition of the debris we collected it with tetrahydrofuran and subjected it to gel permeation chromatography. It was found that the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the debris is significantly different from that of the bulk. Moreover, in mixtures prepared from long and short PBDs with distinctly different molecular weight distributions, the MWD of the debris was found to be richer in low molecular weight components and leaner in the high molecular weight components compared to the bulk. This information is important since it reveals the compositional difference between the bulk and interfacial layer above and below the plane of slip. The difference in MWD is likely a consequence of the strong slip in which some of long chains are pulled away from the surface-adsorbed chains by the flow leaving a debris lean in the high molecular weight component.

  3. Detailed history of slip along the Sunda mega-thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, Nuno; Lindsay, Anthony; Murphy, Shane; McCloskey, John; Bhloscaidh, Mairead Nic; Nalbant, Suleyman

    2013-04-01

    We undertook a reconstruction of more than 200 years of deformation on the Sunda mega-thrust using the history of vertical displacement recorded in the stratigraphy of coral micro-atolls. This reconstruction gave an unprecedented opportunity to understand the distributions of slip on the recent series of great earthquakes and its relationship with coupling. We have seen with the recent earthquakes that, whilst the slip-coupling relationship may be complex and certainly depends on the pre-stress, the greatest slip generally occurs in areas of high coupling. We have also seen that the spatial distributions of the greatest slip reveals tessellation between earthquakes. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we compare ground deformation produced by different fractal slip distributions with micro-atoll coral data to estimate slip distributions for the 1797 and 1833 historical earthquakes. The resulting slip estimations have a more realistic spatial distribution and provide a better fit to the micro-atoll data than previously published solutions. Preliminary results seem to imply that the 1797 and 1833 ruptures reveal a level of complementarity, where the greatest values of slip tessellate with the greatest slip values observed in the two great earthquakes of 2007 and the earthquake of 2010. In addition, the spatial stacking of all slips from all available earthquake slip distributions reveals a strong correlation with the spatial distribution of the coupling. Discrepancies in the spatial slip-coupling correlation, although strongly influenced by the uncertainties of the slip distributions, and with the 1797 and 1833 earthquakes playing a stronger role, can still be used as a way to pin-point possible areas of slip deficit when compared with the spatial distribution of coupling. This seems to imply that correspondence between the slip probability in 1797 and 1833 and present-day earthquakes slip and coupling appears to show the same basic relationship indicating that the broad

  4. Slow Slip Events on a 760 mm Long Granite Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaskey, G.; Yamashita, F.

    2015-12-01

    We describe slow slip events and dynamic rupture events generated on a newly constructed large-scale biaxial friction apparatus at Cornell University that provide insights into the mechanisms of aseismic and seismic slip. We find that, under nominally similar experimental conditions, the 760 mm long granite sample sometimes slips in dynamic stick-slip events and sometimes relieves accumulated shear stress through slow slip events. To provide insights into this curious behavior and the underlying mechanisms, fault slip and shear stress are each measured at 8 locations along the 760 mm long fault. This allows us to map slow slip fronts and the nucleation and propagation of dynamic fault rupture. The granite sample is also instrumented with an array of piezoelectric sensors that are the laboratory equivalent of a seismic network. When the sample is loaded relatively slowly, at 0.03 MPa/s, slow slip occurs on large sections of the fault and the slow slipping region soon expands to the sample boundary. In this case, stress is released in a slow slip event with peak slip velocities < 2 mm/s. Alternatively, when one end of the sample is loaded rapidly (4 MPa/s), or the sample is allowed to heal in stationary contact for a few minutes, slow slip initiates near the load point and accelerates to slip velocities exceeding 200 mm/s before the slow slipping region expands all the way to the sample boundary. This produces a dynamic slip event (stick-slip). The dynamic slip events radiate seismic waves equivalent to a M = -2.5 earthquake. In contrast, the laboratory-generated slow slip events are predominantly aseismic and produce only bursts of tiny and discrete seismic events (M = -6) reminiscent of swarms of microseismicity. The experiments illustrate how a single fault can slide slowly and aseismically or rapidly and dynamically depending on stress state and loading conditions. We compare the behavior observed on this Cornell apparatus to the behavior of other large

  5. Apparent extended body motions in depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Five experiments were designed to investigate the influence of three-dimensional (3-D) orientation change on apparent motion. Projections of an orientation-specific 3-D object were sequentially flashed in different locations and at different orientations. Such an occurrence could be resolved by perceiving a rotational motion in depth around an axis external to the object. Consistent with this proposal, it was found that observers perceived curved paths in depth. Although the magnitude of perceived trajectory curvature often fell short of that required for rotational motions in depth (3-D circularity), judgments of the slant of the virtual plane on which apparent motions occurred were quite close to the predictions of a model that proposes circular paths in depth.

  6. Contact line motion in confined liquid-gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2010-11-01

    In two-phase flows, the interface intervening between the two fluid phases intersects the solid wall at the contact line. A classical problem in continuum fluid mechanics is the incompatibility between the moving contact line and the no-slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics. In one-component two-phase (liquid-gas) systems, the contact line can move through the mass transport across the interface while in two-component (binary) fluids, the contact line can move through diffusive transport across the interface. While these mechanisms alone suffice to remove the stress singularity, the role of fluid slip at solid surface needs to be taken into account as well. In this paper, we apply the diffuse-interface modeling to the study of contact line motion in one-component liquid-gas systems, with the fluid slip fully taken into account. The dynamic van der Waals theory has been presented for one-component fluids, capable of describing the two-phase hydrodynamics involving the liquid-gas transition [A. Onuki, Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)]. This theory assumes the local equilibrium condition at the solid surface for density and also the no-slip boundary condition for velocity. We use its hydrodynamic equations to describe the continuum hydrodynamics in the bulk region and derive the more general boundary conditions by introducing additional dissipative processes at the fluid-solid interface. The positive definiteness of entropy production rate is the guiding principle of our derivation. Numerical simulations based on a finite-difference algorithm have been carried out to investigate the dynamic effects of the newly derived boundary conditions, showing that the contact line can move through both phase transition and slip, with their relative contributions

  7. Contact line motion in confined liquid-gas systems: Slip versus phase transition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2010-11-28

    In two-phase flows, the interface intervening between the two fluid phases intersects the solid wall at the contact line. A classical problem in continuum fluid mechanics is the incompatibility between the moving contact line and the no-slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics. In one-component two-phase (liquid-gas) systems, the contact line can move through the mass transport across the interface while in two-component (binary) fluids, the contact line can move through diffusive transport across the interface. While these mechanisms alone suffice to remove the stress singularity, the role of fluid slip at solid surface needs to be taken into account as well. In this paper, we apply the diffuse-interface modeling to the study of contact line motion in one-component liquid-gas systems, with the fluid slip fully taken into account. The dynamic van der Waals theory has been presented for one-component fluids, capable of describing the two-phase hydrodynamics involving the liquid-gas transition [A. Onuki, Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)]. This theory assumes the local equilibrium condition at the solid surface for density and also the no-slip boundary condition for velocity. We use its hydrodynamic equations to describe the continuum hydrodynamics in the bulk region and derive the more general boundary conditions by introducing additional dissipative processes at the fluid-solid interface. The positive definiteness of entropy production rate is the guiding principle of our derivation. Numerical simulations based on a finite-difference algorithm have been carried out to investigate the dynamic effects of the newly derived boundary conditions, showing that the contact line can move through both phase transition and slip, with their relative contributions

  8. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  9. Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

  10. Low-Reynolds-number swimming near a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo

    2013-11-01

    Hydrodynamics of swimming organisms in a low Reynolds number regime near a no-slip wall has been a subject of growing interest in recent years because of its importance in many health and environmental problems. In addition to the changes in the swimming speed and energy expenditure of organisms in the presence of a wall, unexpected interesting swimming dynamics has been reported in recent experiments. In this study, the hydrodynamics of an archetypal low-Reynolds number swimmer, called ``squirmers,'' near a wall has been numerically studied. Depending on the swimming mechanism and swimming direction, three different modes are distinguished: (a) squirmer escaping from the wall, (b) squirmer swimming along the wall keeping a constant height and orientation angle and (c) squirmer swimming near the wall in a periodic trajectory. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. CBET-1150348-CAREER.

  11. Properties of ceramic tiles made from bio-treated bodies for internal wall tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorova, V.A.; Biryukova, O.V.; Pyatkova, Z.P.; Solnyshkina, T.N.; Vainberg, S.N.

    1986-07-01

    The influence of bio-treatment on the structure and properties of internal wall tiles was tested. Nepheline-dolomite body D-8 was used for the manufacturing of the tiles. At the stage in which the clays and nonplastics are blended in the mixing tank with the slip, a suspension of silicate bacteria was added. It was found that the most marked change begins after three days. Tables show the fluidity of the experimental and control slips and the relationship between the density of the pressed specimens and the pressing force. The viscosity of the slip with the addition of the electrolyte is much lower than the viscosity of the control slip. The introduction of biotechnology in the production of ceramic tiles for internal wall facing will reduce the fuel consumption by 8-10%, reduce the cost of installing rollers made from scarce steels, reduce the amount of loss, and increase the grading of the product.

  12. Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie

    Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent

  13. Thermal and velocity slip effects on the MHD peristaltic flow with carbon nanotubes in an asymmetric channel: application of radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S.; Khan, Zafar Hayat

    2014-10-01

    Peristaltic flow is used to study the flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes in an asymmetric channel with thermal and velocity slip effects. Two types of carbon nanotubes, namely, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes are utilized to see the analysis with water as base fluids. Empirical correlations are used for the thermo-physical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of solid volume fraction of CNTs. The governing equations are simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. Exact solutions have been evaluated for velocity, pressure gradient, the solid volume fraction of CNTs and temperature profile. The effects of various flow parameters, i.e. Hatmann number M, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles ϕ, Grashof number G, velocity slip parameter β, thermal slip parameter γ and Prandtl number P r are presented graphically for both single- (SWCNT) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT).

  14. Long-term slip deficit and the forecasting of slip in future earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, John; NicBhloscaidh, Mairead; Simao, Nuno

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade a series of devastating earthquakes have between them killed more than three-quarters of a million people. None of the events were formally forecast and have been repeatedly referred to a seismological 'surprises'. Here we argue that while earthquakes within the wide swath of diffuse deformation comprising the Alpine-Himalayan belt pose a set of particularly difficult set of challenges, earthquakes which are driven by high strain-rates at plate boundaries and which have relatively short nominal recurrence times might be forecast if the data exists to perform long-term slip deficit modelling and stress reconstruction. We show that two instrumentally recorded event on the Sumatran margin in 2007 and 2010 occurred in regions of high slip deficit identified by reconstruction of slip in historical earthquakes in 1797 and 1833 under the Mentawai Islands using more than 200 years of geodetic data recorded in the stratigraphy of coral micro-atolls growing there. In the presentation we will describe the data and a new Bayesian-Monte Carlo slip reconstruction technique. The technique is based on the stochastic forward modelling of many slip distributions each using the same set of elastic Green's functions to estimate, by superposition of contributions from each fault cell, the vertical displacement at the coral locations resulting from each simulated event. Every solution, weighted by its goodness of fit to the data, is added to a stack whose final values contain an estimate of the most likely distribution of slip in the historical earthquakes. Further, we estimate the Kullback-Liebler divergence over the fault area providing a non-arbitrary assessment of the spatial distribution of information gain, identifying regions of low- and high- model confidence. We then model the long-term slip deficit on the megathrust assuming a zero of stress immediately after the 1652 Mentawai Islands earthquake. We use the resulting slip deficit field to compute the entire

  15. Earthquake scaling laws for rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro

    2016-04-01

    We analyze an extensive compilation of finite-fault rupture models to investigate earthquake scaling of source geometry and slip heterogeneity to derive new relationships for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. Our dataset comprises 158 earthquakes with a total of 316 rupture models selected from the SRCMOD database (http://equake-rc.info/srcmod). We find that fault-length does not saturate with earthquake magnitude, while fault-width reveals inhibited growth due to the finite seismogenic thickness. For strike-slip earthquakes, fault-length grows more rapidly with increasing magnitude compared to events of other faulting types. Interestingly, our derived relationship falls between the L-model and W-model end-members. In contrast, both reverse and normal dip-slip events are more consistent with self-similar scaling of fault-length. However, fault-width scaling relationships for large strike-slip and normal dip-slip events, occurring on steeply dipping faults (δ~90° for strike-slip faults, and δ~60° for normal faults), deviate from self-similarity. Although reverse dip-slip events in general show self-similar scaling, the restricted growth of down-dip fault extent (with upper limit of ~200 km) can be seen for mega-thrust subduction events (M~9.0). Despite this fact, for a given earthquake magnitude, subduction reverse dip-slip events occupy relatively larger rupture area, compared to shallow crustal events. In addition, we characterize slip heterogeneity in terms of its probability distribution and spatial correlation structure to develop a complete stochastic random-field characterization of earthquake slip. We find that truncated exponential law best describes the probability distribution of slip, with observable scale parameters determined by the average and maximum slip. Applying Box-Cox transformation to slip distributions (to create quasi-normal distributed data) supports cube-root transformation, which also implies distinctive non-Gaussian slip

  16. Progressive slippage after pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James O; Smith, William J; Stanley, Earl A; Bueche, Matthew J; Karol, Lori A; Chambers, Henry G

    2002-01-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed seven cases of progressive slipped capital femoral epiphysis after screw fixation. All seven patients initially presented with chronic symptoms, and five had an acute exacerbation of symptoms with the appearance of an acute-on-chronic slip. Of the other two, one had obvious motion at the proximal femoral physis and the other had increased symptoms but did not have an obvious acute slip radiographically. All underwent percutaneous screw fixation. In four patients a single screw was placed, and in three patients two screws were placed. No patient became symptom-free after surgery. Slip progression was noted on average 5 months after treatment. Radiographs in all patients revealed an increase in slip severity and loss of screw purchase in the femoral neck while fixation in the proximal femoral epiphysis remained secure. One patient had hypothyroidism and another Cushing disease, both diagnosed after the slipped epiphysis. Slips occurring in children with underlying endocrinopathies, and unstable slips in children with a history of antecedent knee or hip pain (commonly called an acute-on-chronic slip) may be susceptible to screw fixation failure. In such patients, close radiographic follow-up, particularly in the presence of continued symptoms, is required to document slip progression and fixation failure as soon as possible.

  17. Major and minor slip-events in frictional stick-slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekenis, Georgios; Tatar, Demet; Rubinstein, Shmuel; Weitz, David; Aziz, Michael; Spaepen, Frans

    Several universal phenomena characterize friction that are independent of the materials involved such as the logarithmic aging of the static friction coefficient and the logarithmic velocity weakening of the dynamic friction coefficient. We study dry friction between rough surfaces with programmed statistical profiles. By measuring the displacement field at the frictional interface we observe stick-slip behavior which reveals two kinds of slip: major events that tend to grow large and unbounded and minor events that usually stay small and bounded. Research supported by Harvard MRSEC Program under NSF contracts DMR-0820484, DMR-1420570.

  18. Structures associated with strike-slip faults that bound landslide elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, R.W.; Johnson, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    is typically oriented 45?? to the trend of the underlying fault. Fault segments are also typically arranged en echelon above the upward-propagating strike-slip fault. Continued displacement of the landslide causes the ground to buckle between the tension crack portions of the compound cracks. Still more displacement produces a thrust fault on one or both limbs of the buckle fold. These compressional structures form at right angles to the short tension cracks at the tips of the fault segments. Thus, the compressional structures are bounded on their ends by one face of a tension crack and detached from underlying material by thrusting or buckling. The tension cracks, fault segments, compound cracks, folds, and thrusts are ephemeral; they are created and destroyed with continuing displacement of the landslide. Ultimately, the structures are replaced by a throughgoing strike-slip fault. At one landslide, we observed the creation and destruction of the ephemeral structures as the landslide enlarged. Displacement of a few centimeters to about a decimeter was sufficient to produce scattered tension cracks and fault segments. Sets of compound cracks with associated folds and thrusts were produced by displacements of up to 1 m, and 1 to 2 m of displacement was required to produce a throughgoing strike-slip fault. The type of first-formed structure above an upward-propagating strike-slip fault is apparently controlled by the rheology of the material. Brittle material such as dry topsoil or the compact surface of a gravel road produces echelon tension cracks and sets of tension cracks and compressional structures, wherein the cracks and compressional structures are normal to each other and 45?? to the strike-slip fault at depth. First-formed structures in more ductile material such as moist cohesive soil are fault segments. In very ductile material such as soft clay and very wet soil in swampy areas, the first-formed structure is a throughgoing strike-slip fault. There are othe

  19. Coseismic slip distribution of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2005-01-01

    The slip distribution associated with the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto, Japan, earthquake is reexamined in light of new data and modeling. We utilize a combination of first-order triangulation, second-order triangulation, and leveling data in order to constrain the coseismic deformation. The second-order triangulation data, which have not been utilized in previous studies of 1923 coseismic deformation, are associated with only slightly smaller errors than the first-order triangulation data and expand the available triangulation data set by about a factor of 10. Interpretation of these data in terms of uniform-slip models in a companion study by Nyst et al. shows that a model involving uniform coseismic slip on two distinct rupture planes explains the data very well and matches or exceeds the fit obtained by previous studies, even one which involved distributed slip. Using the geometry of the Nyst et al. two-plane slip model, we perform inversions of the same geodetic data set for distributed slip. Our preferred model of distributed slip on the Philippine Sea plate interface has a moment magnitude of 7.86. We find slip maxima of ???8-9 m beneath Odawara and ???7-8 m beneath the Miura peninsula, with a roughly 2:1 ratio of strike-slip to dip-slip motion, in agreement with a previous study. However, the Miura slip maximum is imaged as a more broadly extended feature in our study, with the high-slip region continuing from the Miura peninsula to the southern Boso peninsula region. The second-order triangulation data provide good evidence for ???3 m right-lateral strike slip on a 35-km-long splay structure occupying the volume between the upper surface of the descending Philippine Sea plate and the southern Boso peninsula. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Magneto-polar fluid flow through a porous medium of variable permeability in slip flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, P. K.; Jha, A. K.; Sharma, R.

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical study is carried out to obtain an analytical solution of free convective heat transfer for the flow of a polar fluid through a porous medium with variable permeability bounded by a semi-infinite vertical plate in a slip flow regime. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicular to the porous surface. The free stream velocity follows an exponentially decreasing small perturbation law. Using the approximate method the expressions for the velocity, microrotation, and temperature are obtained. Further, the results of the skin friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are presented with various values of fluid properties and flow conditions.

  1. Complicated Recurrence of Slip Events on a Uniform Circular Asperity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, N.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical simulation of repeated occurrence of slip events on a fault patch (asperity) is conducted to understand the mechanism of irregularity of the events. Seismic and geodetic observations indicate that episodic seismic/aseismic slip events repeatedly occur at almost the same area. For instance, magnitude of about 4.8 earthquakes had repeatedly occurred at intervals of 4.7 to 6.7 years off Kamaishi, northern Honshu, Japan. Quasi-periodic recurrence of episodic aseismic slip events (slow earthquakes) was found at the Nankai subduction zone, southwestern Japan, the Cascadia subduction zone, North America, etc. The recurrence intervals and magnitudes of slip events in each sequence are not constant, but some variability exists. Some researchers suggested that the variation in aseismic slip rate around a patch of slip events causes variation of loading rate. This results in variation of recurrence intervals. In the present study, we focus on irregularity of recurrence of slip events that originates from dynamics of fault slip. A two-dimensional planar fault in an infinite elastic medium is considered. The fault is uniformly shear loaded at a constant rate, and frictional stress acting on the fault is assumed to obey a rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) law. A circular patch of radius r with velocity-weakening frictional property is embedded on a fault with velocity-strengthening frictional property elsewhere. A numerical simulation is conducted by varying the characteristic slip distance L of the RSF law. The critical radius rc for occurrence of unstable slip can be defined, and rc is proportional to L. When r >> rc, seismic slip events (earthquakes) repeatedly occur at a constant time interval. When r is a little larger than rc, recurrence of slip events becomes complex. We observe a period-2 cycle of slip events, where large and small events alternately occur. The cycle becomes more complex as r approaches rc and finally aperiodic (chaotic) slip pattern

  2. Slipping Magnetic Reconnections with Multiple Flare Ribbons during an X-class Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing

    2016-06-01

    With the observations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present the slipping magnetic reconnections with multiple flare ribbons (FRs) during an X1.2 eruptive flare on 2014 January 7. A center negative polarity was surrounded by several positive ones, and three FRs appeared. The three FRs showed apparent slipping motions, and hook structures formed at their ends. Due to the moving footpoints of the erupting structures, one tight semi-circular hook disappeared after the slippage along its inner and outer edges, and coronal dimmings formed within the hook. The east hook also faded as a result of the magnetic reconnection between the arcades of a remote filament and a hot loop that was impulsively heated by the under flare loops. Our results are accordant with the slipping magnetic reconnection regime in three-dimensional standard model for eruptive flares. We suggest that the complex structures of the flare are likely a consequence of the more complex flux distribution in the photosphere, and the eruption involves at least two magnetic reconnections.

  3. A mechanism of stick-slip fault sliding without friction rate dependence and supersonic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Stick-slip sliding is often observed at various scales and in particular in fault sliding and the accompanied seismic events. Stick-slip is conventionally associated with rate-dependent friction, in particular the intermittent change between static and kinetic friction. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. This manifests itself in terms of oscillations in the sliding velocity somewhat resembling the stick-slip movement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We present a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast wave propagation is the normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This manifests itself as a supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of an apparent shear rupture.

  4. Reliable measurements of interfacial slip by colloid probe atomic force microscopy. II. Hydrodynamic force measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liwen; Attard, Phil; Neto, Chiara

    2011-06-01

    Here we report a new study on the boundary conditions for the flow of a simple liquid in a confined geometry obtained by measuring hydrodynamic drainage forces with colloid probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this work, we provide experimental data obtained using a best practice experimental protocol and fitted with a new theoretical calculation (Zhu, L.; Attard, P.; Neto, C. Langmuir 2010, submitted for publication, preceding paper). We investigated the hydrodynamic forces acting on a silica colloid probe approaching a hydrophobized silicon surface in a single-component viscous Newtonian liquid (di-n-octylphthalate), a partially wetting system. The measured average slip lengths were in the range of 24-31 nm at approach velocities of between 10 and 80 μm/s. Using our experimental approach, the presence of nanoparticle contaminants in the system can be indentified, which is important because it has been shown that nanoparticles lead to a large apparent slip length. Under our stringent control of experimental conditions, the measurement of the slip length is reproducible and independent of the spring constant of the cantilever.

  5. Apparent magnitude of earthshine: a simple calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun’s rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck’s expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes.

  6. Single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, apparent refractive index, and apparent soot content of dry atmospheric particles.

    PubMed

    Hänel, G

    1988-06-01

    Mean shortwave values of the single scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter of dry atmospheric particles have been measured photometrically. From the single scattering albedo the mean shortwave value of the apparent complex refractive index and the apparent volume fraction of soot within the particulate matter are derived. From 275 measurements the mean value of the single scattering albedo is 0.835, the mean value of the apparent complex refractive index is 1.51-0.026i, and the mean value of the apparent volume fraction of soot is 5.8%. For seventy-seven cases of mostly urban particles the mean value of the asymmetry parameter is 0.39. The term apparent stands for appearing (but not necessarily) real or true. Reasons for this attribute are the idealizations necessary to get a value of the refractive index of atmospheric particles. Consequently the use of an apparent refractive index for modeling purposes is restricted as described in the concluding section.

  7. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  8. Osteosarcoma With Apparent Ewing Sarcoma Gene Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Melissa D; Chou, Alexander J; Meyers, Paul; Shukla, Neerav; Hameed, Meera; Agaram, Narasimhan; Wang, Lu; Berger, Michael F; Walsh, Michael; Kentsis, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Poorly differentiated round cell sarcomas present diagnostic challenges because of their variable morphology and lack of specific immunophenotypic markers. We present a case of a 15-year-old female with a tibial tumor that exhibited features of Ewing-like sarcoma, including apparent rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene. Hybridization capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing showed evidence of complex genomic rearrangements, absence of known pathogenic Ewing-like chromosome translocations, and deletions RB1, PTCH1, and ATRX, supporting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. This illustrates the potential of clinical genomic profiling to improve diagnosis and enable specifically targeted therapies for cancers with complex pathologies. PMID:27352193

  9. Premature Ventricular Complexes in Apparently Normal Hearts.

    PubMed

    Luebbert, Jeffrey; Auberson, Denise; Marchlinski, Francis

    2016-09-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) are consistently associated with worse prognosis and higher morbidity and mortality. This article reviews PVCs and their presentation in patients with an apparently normal heart. Patients with PVCs may be completely asymptomatic, whereas others may note severely disabling symptoms. Cardiomyopathy may occur with frequent PVCs. Diagnostic work-up is directed at obtaining 12-lead ECG to characterize QRS morphology, Holter monitor to assess frequency, and echo and advanced imaging to assess for early cardiomyopathy and exclude structural heart disease. Options for management include watchful waiting, medical therapy, or catheter ablation. Malignant variants of PVCs may induce ventricular fibrillation even in a normal heart. PMID:27521085

  10. Internal Structure of a Strike-Slip Dilational Fault Jog: Overlander Fault, Mt Isa Inlier, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.; Ghisetti, F.; Begbie, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Overlander Fault is one of a set of NE-SW subvertical dextral strike-slip faults which, together with a NW-SE conjugate sinistral set, disrupt the Mt Isa Proterozoic orogen (1590-1500 Ma) in NW Queensland, Australia. These late- to post-orogenic faults thus define a regional stress field with σ 1 oriented approximately E-W and σ 3 oriented approximately N-S. The Overlander Fault trends ˜060° across the metamorphic assemblage except where it refracts to 070-074° across an outcropping granitic pluton, the margins of which it offsets dextrally by ˜1.5 km. The stepover width of this dilational fault jog approaches 1 km, comparable to dilational stepovers within active strike-slip faults (e.g. the San Andreas fault at Parkfield). In the surrounding amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblage the fault trace is comparatively inconspicuous and unmineralized but where it crosses the granite it is defined by upstanding ridges of silicified microbreccia and associated quartz veining. The stepover region provides opportunities for studying incremental and finite dilatation associated with slip transfer across the jog, and associated influx of hydrothermal fluids. Shearing across the stepover region is accommodated by a mesh structure with principal components that include: (1) a series of silicified microbreccia-cataclasite `walls' <10 m or so thick with associated quartz veins <1 m or so thick trending 070° and defining a `main zone' about 100±20 m wide; (2) parallel subsidiary strike-slip cataclastic shear zones occurring <200 m laterally from the main zone; (3) a set of subvertical <1-2 m thick extension veins oriented 090-100° , some with evidence of marginal shearing (both sinistral and dextral); (4) a conspicuous sinistral extensional-shear curving eastwards for ˜250 m from the main fault core on a trend of 100-115° ; and (5) a set of unmineralized faults with sinistral separations trending 120-130° . Slickenfibers and striations along the main fault

  11. Slip-deficit on the Levant fault estimated by paleoseismological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Marthe; Klinger, Yann; Al-Qaryouti, Mahmoud; Le Béon, Maryline; Moumani, Khaled; Thomas, Marion; Baize, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    The Levant fault is a major tectonic structure located east of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a 1200 km-long left-lateral strike-slip fault, which accommodates the northward movement of the Arabic plate relatively to the Sinai micro-plate, with a ˜ 5mm/year slip-rate. This slip-rate has been estimated over a large range of time scales, from a few years (gps) to several hundred thousands of years (geomorphology). The geometry of the southern part of the Levant fault, the Wadi Araba fault, is linear with only a few bends and steps. The Middle-East is a region where there is an important and complete historical record of past earthquakes. Nevertheless, due to the arid and unpopulated nature of the Wadi Araba, to constrain location and lateral extent of those past earthquake with accuracy remains challenging. We excavated a trench ˜ 100 km north of Aqaba in the wadi Musa alluvial fan, next to the largest compressional jog of the Wadi Araba. The stratigraphy contains three main units. Two units are coarse and channelized, and sandy flat layers form the third unit. In the trench the deformation is distributed over 15m, and is more pronounced in the eastern part. We can identify at least 12 earthquakes, based on upward terminations of ground ruptures. 14C dating of 28 charcoals distributed over the three documented trench walls, shows a 7000 year-long record and it allows us to match some events with historical earthquakes in AD1458, AD1293, AD748, AD114, BC31. For other dated events, matching with historical events remains more speculative considering the limited testimonies in old ages. As the last earthquake in the Wadi Araba occurred in AD1458, with an average slip rate of 5 mm/yr, about 2.7 m of slip-deficit have already accumulated, suggesting that this area might be ripe for a large earthquake. Some of the events recognized in our trench are attested north of the Dead Sea as well, such as the AD749 earthquake, suggesting that long sections of the Levant Fault might

  12. DEM simulation of growth normal fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang; Nien, Wie-Tung; Chan, Pei-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Slip of the fault can cause deformation of shallower soil layers and lead to the destruction of infrastructures. Shanchiao fault on the west side of the Taipei basin is categorized. The activities of Shanchiao fault will cause the quaternary sediments underneath the Taipei basin to become deformed. This will cause damage to structures, traffic construction, and utility lines within the area. It is determined from data of geological drilling and dating, Shanchiao fault has growth fault. In experiment, a sand box model was built with non-cohesive sand soil to simulate the existence of growth fault in Shanchiao Fault and forecast the effect on scope of shear band development and ground differential deformation. The results of the experiment showed that when a normal fault containing growth fault, at the offset of base rock the shear band will develop upward along with the weak side of shear band of the original topped soil layer, and this shear band will develop to surface much faster than that of single top layer. The offset ratio (basement slip / lower top soil thickness) required is only about 1/3 of that of single cover soil layer. In this research, it is tried to conduct numerical simulation of sand box experiment with a Discrete Element Method program, PFC2D, to simulate the upper covering sand layer shear band development pace and scope of normal growth fault slip. Results of simulation indicated, it is very close to the outcome of sand box experiment. It can be extended to application in water pipeline project design around fault zone in the future. Keywords: Taipei Basin, Shanchiao fault, growth fault, PFC2D

  13. Episodic Tremor and Slip: Cycles Within Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, each with geodetically determined moment magnitudes in the mid-6 range, repeat about every 15 months under the Olympic Peninsula/southern Vancouver Island region. We have automatically searched for non-volcanic tremor in all 5-minute time windows both during the past five ETS events and during the two inter-ETS periods from February, 2007 through April, 2008 and June 2008 through April 2009. Inter-ETS tremor was detected in 5000 windows, which overlap by 50%, so tremor was seen 2% of the time. The catalog of 5-minute tremor locations cluster in time and space into groups we call tremor swarms, revealing 50 inter-ETS tremor swarms. The number of hours of tremor per swarm ranged from about 1 to 68, totaling 374 hours. The inter-ETS tremor swarms generally locate along the downdip side of the major ETS events, and account for approximately 45% of the time that tremor has been detected during the last two entire ETS cycles. Many of the inter-ETS events are near-carbon copies in duration, spatial extent and propagation direction, as is seen for the larger 15-month-interval events. These 50 inter-ETS swarms plus two major ETS episodes follow a power law relationship such that the number of swarms, N, exceeding duration τ is given by N ˜ τ-0.7. If we assume that seismic moment is proportional to τ as proposed by Ide et al. [Nature, 2007], we find that the tremor swarms follow a standard Gutenberg-Richter logarithmic frequency-magnitude relation, N ˜ 10-bMw, with b = 1.0, which lies in the range for normal earthquake catalogs. Furthermore, the major ETS events fall on the curve defined by the inter-ETS swarms, suggesting that the inter-ETS swarms are just smaller versions of the major 15-month ETS events. Only the largest events coincide with geodetically observed slip, suggesting that current geodetic observations may be missing nearly half of the total slip. Finally, crude estimates of the spatial dimensions of tremor swarms L

  14. Fixed recurrence and slip models better predict earthquake behavior than the time- and slip-predictable models 1: repeating earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Uchida, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of individual events in repeating earthquake sequences in California, Taiwan and Japan is better predicted by a model with fixed inter-event time or fixed slip than it is by the time- and slip-predictable models for earthquake occurrence. Given that repeating earthquakes are highly regular in both inter-event time and seismic moment, the time- and slip-predictable models seem ideally suited to explain their behavior. Taken together with evidence from the companion manuscript that shows similar results for laboratory experiments we conclude that the short-term predictions of the time- and slip-predictable models should be rejected in favor of earthquake models that assume either fixed slip or fixed recurrence interval. This implies that the elastic rebound model underlying the time- and slip-predictable models offers no additional value in describing earthquake behavior in an event-to-event sense, but its value in a long-term sense cannot be determined. These models likely fail because they rely on assumptions that oversimplify the earthquake cycle. We note that the time and slip of these events is predicted quite well by fixed slip and fixed recurrence models, so in some sense they are time- and slip-predictable. While fixed recurrence and slip models better predict repeating earthquake behavior than the time- and slip-predictable models, we observe a correlation between slip and the preceding recurrence time for many repeating earthquake sequences in Parkfield, California. This correlation is not found in other regions, and the sequences with the correlative slip-predictable behavior are not distinguishable from nearby earthquake sequences that do not exhibit this behavior.

  15. A diary study of action slips in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, María K; Adólfsdóttir, Steinunn; Cortez, Rúna Dögg; Gunnarsdóttir, María; Gústafsdóttir, Agústa Hlín

    2007-12-01

    Memory complaints following minor head injury or whiplash are common and often bear similarity to absent mindedness or action slips (Reason, 1979). We replicated Reason's study by asking 189 healthy volunteers to keep diaries of their action slips for a week. The mean number of slips was 6.4 (SD = 4.9). Perceived stress did not correlate with number of slips but there was a weak positive correlation between action slips and scores on a memory failures questionnaire. Memory diaries may be clinically useful when assessing individuals who worry about cognitive sequelae of minor injuries. Diaries clarify the nature of the complaints and may have therapeutic value by demonstrating that the memory slips are less frequent than estimated by the patients. PMID:17853144

  16. Slip statistics of dislocation avalanches under different loading modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, R.; Wraith, M.; Uhl, J. T.; Greer, J. R.; Dahmen, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    Slowly compressed microcrystals deform via intermittent slip events, observed as displacement jumps or stress drops. Experiments often use one of two loading modes: an increasing applied stress (stress driven, soft), or a constant strain rate (strain driven, hard). In this work we experimentally test the influence of the deformation loading conditions on the scaling behavior of slip events. It is found that these common deformation modes strongly affect time series properties, but not the scaling behavior of the slip statistics when analyzed with a mean-field model. With increasing plastic strain, the slip events are found to be smaller and more frequent when strain driven, and the slip-size distributions obtained for both drives collapse onto the same scaling function with the same exponents. The experimental results agree with the predictions of the used mean-field model, linking the slip behavior under different loading modes.

  17. Cascadia tremor polarization evidence for plate interface slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wech, Aaron G.; Creager, Kenneth C.

    2007-11-01

    New seismic measurements of the repeated phenomenon of Episodic Tremor and Slip in northern Cascadia indicate identical source processes of tremor and slow slip. Predicted polarization directions of upgoing S-waves radiated from shear slip on the plate interface align with the relative motion between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates. Seismic observations from small-aperture array data on the Olympic Peninsula of the Cascadia subduction zone show uncharacteristically stable linear particle motion coincident with the passage of tremor sources beneath the array. The azimuth of this horizontal ground motion matches expected polarizations from slip on the plate interface. This finding suggests that Cascadia tremor is shear slip on the plate interface, implying that, as in Japan, geodetically observed slow slip and seismically observed tremor are manifestations of the same phenomenon.

  18. Slip statistics of dislocation avalanches under different loading modes.

    PubMed

    Maass, R; Wraith, M; Uhl, J T; Greer, J R; Dahmen, K A

    2015-04-01

    Slowly compressed microcrystals deform via intermittent slip events, observed as displacement jumps or stress drops. Experiments often use one of two loading modes: an increasing applied stress (stress driven, soft), or a constant strain rate (strain driven, hard). In this work we experimentally test the influence of the deformation loading conditions on the scaling behavior of slip events. It is found that these common deformation modes strongly affect time series properties, but not the scaling behavior of the slip statistics when analyzed with a mean-field model. With increasing plastic strain, the slip events are found to be smaller and more frequent when strain driven, and the slip-size distributions obtained for both drives collapse onto the same scaling function with the same exponents. The experimental results agree with the predictions of the used mean-field model, linking the slip behavior under different loading modes.

  19. Slip statistics of dislocation avalanches under different loading modes.

    PubMed

    Maass, R; Wraith, M; Uhl, J T; Greer, J R; Dahmen, K A

    2015-04-01

    Slowly compressed microcrystals deform via intermittent slip events, observed as displacement jumps or stress drops. Experiments often use one of two loading modes: an increasing applied stress (stress driven, soft), or a constant strain rate (strain driven, hard). In this work we experimentally test the influence of the deformation loading conditions on the scaling behavior of slip events. It is found that these common deformation modes strongly affect time series properties, but not the scaling behavior of the slip statistics when analyzed with a mean-field model. With increasing plastic strain, the slip events are found to be smaller and more frequent when strain driven, and the slip-size distributions obtained for both drives collapse onto the same scaling function with the same exponents. The experimental results agree with the predictions of the used mean-field model, linking the slip behavior under different loading modes. PMID:25974504

  20. EMG and Kinematic Responses to Unexpected Slips After Slip Training in Virtual Reality

    PubMed Central

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to design a virtual reality (VR) training to induce perturbation in older adults similar to a slip and examine the effect of the training on kinematic and muscular responses in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were involved in a laboratory study and randomly assigned to two groups (virtual reality training and control). Both groups went through three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on slippery surface. The training group experienced twelve simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a virtual reality scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group completed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated the proactive adjustments such as increased trunk flexion at heel contact after training. Reactive adjustments included reduced time to peak activations of knee flexors, reduced knee coactivation, reduced time to trunk flexion, and reduced trunk angular velocity after training. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that the VR training was able to generate a perturbation in older adults that evoked recovery reactions and such motor skill can be transferred to the actual slip trials. PMID:25296401

  1. An Inexpensive Device for Modelling Strike-Slip and Oblique-Slip Fault Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larter, Richard C. L.; Allison, Iain

    1983-01-01

    Describes construction/use of a device to simulate structures produced in fault zones of dominantly strike-dip motion. Apparatus modifications allow simulation of transtension and transpression as well as pure strike-slip fault motion. Illustrates formation of several structures using the apparatus, comparing them with natural examples. Includes…

  2. Subduction zone structures and slip behavior in megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, S.; Nakanishi, A.; Nakamura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, tsunami and geodetic data show that co-seismic slips of a large megathrust earthquakes do not uniformly propagate along a plate boundary. For example, a clear segmentation of slip zones of magnitude-8 class megathrust earthquakes are well recognized in the Nankai Trough. Moreover, a lateral variation of the slips are revealed even in one segment. In the Japan Trench, the most characteristic slip behavior of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake is an extremely large slip reaching to the trench axis, but geodetic, tsunami or teleseismic show the slip was heterogeneous near the trench. In order to examine whether those complex slip distributions are attributed by any distinct structural factor, we have been carried out active-source seismic surveys in the subduction seismogenic. In the Nankai Trough, large-scale subducted seamounts, ridges and doming structure intruded in an overriding accretion wedge are imaged. Comparing co-seismic slip distribution of the 1944 Tonankai and the 1946 Nankai earthquakes with the seismic images, we concluded that those structures are key factors to control the slip distributions. In the central part of the Japan Trench area, we fund a rough basement geometry is overprinted on the horst-and-graben structure. Those complex geometry of basement cause a strong lateral variation of the thickness of subducting pelagic/hemi-pelagic sediment. Many geological studies suggest that properties of the plate-boundary sediment attribute the large slip near the trench. We therefore plan to acquire additional high-resolution seismic data in the entire Japan Trench in order to examine a role of incoming sediment on the large slip to the trench axis. In this presentation we present an overview of the structural factors controlling slips in megathrust earthquakes, including new data acquired in the Nankai Trough and Japan Trench.

  3. Earthquake-Like Slip Events on a Laboratory Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. C.; Reches, Z.; Lockner, D. A.; Totten, M. W., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    We generated dynamic slip events with prescribed total energy on an experimental fault. Sliding occurred between granite rings, in a rotary shear apparatus driven by a 100 hp motor and a massive flywheel (225 kg) at normal stress up to 7 MPa (Lockner and Reches, this meeting). In the experiments, the motor first brought the flywheel to a pre-selected angular velocity. Then, the motor was disengaged and the flywheel was connected to one granite block through a fast-acting clutch, initiating slip between the rotating and stationary blocks. The rate- and slip- dependent friction of the simulated fault surface controlled the slip velocity and slip distance until the kinetic energy of the flywheel was consumed. The flywheel kinetic energy density (per unit area of the sliding surfaces) ranges from 75 J/m2, which is insufficient to initiate slip, to 3.6 106 J/m2, which generates slip events with duration of ~2 s, maximum slip velocity 0.6-0.7 m/s, and slip distance 0.6-0.9 m. The main observations are: (1) Rise-time < 0.1s for all events; (2) Fault locked until the shear stress reaches yield stress (sliding friction of 0.65-0.8); (3) Modest drop (5-15%) of shear strength during sliding at slip velocities less than 0.25 m/s. (4) Significant weakening at slip velocity greater than 0.25 m/s, and this weakening is associated with the onset of ‘chattering slip’ (= continuous high-frequency stick-slip events); (5) power law relations between total sliding distance and flywheel energy. The research was supported by NSF grant # 0732715.

  4. [Slipped capital femoral epiphysis associated with hyperparathyroidism. A case report].

    PubMed

    Khiari, Karima; Cherif, Lotfi; Ben Abdallah, Nejib; Maazoun, Imen; Hadj Ali, Insaf; Bentaarit, Chokri; Turki, Sami; Ben Maïz, Hedi

    2003-12-01

    Slippage of the upper femoral epiphysis can occur in association with multiple endocrine imbalances. A case of slipped femoral epiphysis with primary hyperparathyroidism is reported. The patient was an adolescent, 16 Years of age, who presented bilateral slipped epiphysis. Investigation showed that he had hypercalcemia (3.1 mmol/l) related to primary hyperparathyroidism. A parathyroid adenoma was removed. Outcome was favorable and the slipped femoral epiphyses did not require a specific treatment.

  5. Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Earthquake Slip: Insights From Mechanical Modeling of ICESat Surface Deformation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D. J.; Miuller, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Modeling the kinematics of the 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is limited in the northern two-thirds of the rupture zone by a scarcity of near-rupture geodetic deformation measurements. Precisely repeated Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) profiles across the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provide a means to more fully document the spatial pattern of surface vertical displacements and thus better constrain geomechanical modeling of the slip distribution. ICESat profiles that total ~45 km in length cross Car Nicobar, Kamorta, and Katchall in the Nicobar chain. Within the Andamans, the coverage includes ~350 km on North, Central, and South Andaman Islands along two NNE and NNW-trending profiles that provide elevations on both the east and west coasts of the island chain. Two profiles totaling ~80 km in length cross South Sentinel Island, and one profile ~10 km long crosses North Sentinel Island. With an average laser footprint spacing of 175 m, the total coverage provides over 2700 georeferenced surface elevations measurements for each operations period. Laser backscatter waveforms recorded for each footprint enable detection of forest canopy top and underlying ground elevations with decimeter vertical precision. Surface elevation change is determined from elevation profiles, acquired before and after the earthquake, that are repeated with a cross-track separation of less than 100 m by precision pointing of the ICESat spacecraft. Apparent elevation changes associated with cross-track offsets are corrected according to local slopes calculated from multiple post-earthquake repeated profiles. The surface deformation measurements recorded by ICESat are generally consistent with the spatial distribution of uplift predicted by a preliminary slip distribution model. To predict co-seismic surface deformation, we apply a slip distribution, derived from the released energy distribution computed by Ishii et al. (2005), as the displacement discontinuity

  6. Inverting measurements of surface slip on the Superstition Hills fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, J.; Budding, K.E.; Sharp, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    We derive and test a set of inversions of surface-slip measurements based on the empirical relation u(t)=uf/(1 + T/t)c proposed by Sharp and Saxton (1989) to estimate the final slip uf, the power-law exponent c, and the power-law duration T. At short times, Sharp's relation behaves like the simple power law, u(t)~u1tc, where u1 is the initial slip, that is, the slip at 1 day after the earthquake. At long times, the slip approaches the final slip asymptotically. The inversions are designed in part to exploit the accuracy of measurements of differential slip; that is, measurements of surface slip which are made relative to a set of nails or stakes emplaced after the earthquake. We apply the inversions to slip measurements made at 53 sites along the Superstition Hills fault for the 11 months following the M=6.2 and 6.6 earthqakes of 24 November 1987. -from Authors

  7. Shear-Dependent Boundary Slip in an Aqueous Newtonian Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Vincent S. J.; Neto, Chiara; Williams, David R. M.

    2001-07-30

    We report direct measurements of hydrodynamic drainage forces, which show clear evidence of boundary slip in a Newtonian liquid. The degree of boundary slip is found to be a function of the liquid viscosity and the shear rate, as characterized by the slip length, and is up to {approx}20 nm . This has implications for confined biological systems, the permeability of microporous media, and for the lubrication of nanomachines, and will be important in the microcontrol of liquid flow. We also show that current theories of slip do not adequately describe the experimental data.

  8. Slip to the Trench for Great Subduction Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake had the largest ever recorded fault slip (40 to 60 meters) on the shallow portion of the subduction zone close to the trench. This large displacement was largely unexpected for this region and was mainly responsible for the very large and damaging tsunami along the northeast coast of Honshu. We investigate the possibility of large slip to the trench in great earthquakes for other subduction zones around the world. Since the trench region is generally far offshore, it is often difficult to resolve the amount of slip from onshore geodetic and strong-motion data. We use a variety of observations, including slip distribution models, aftershock locations, local coastal deformation, and tsunami heights to determine which events likely had large amounts of slip close to the trench. Tsunami earthquakes, such as 1992 Nicaragua and 2006 Java likely had large shallow slip. Some typical subduction earthquakes, such as 1968 Tokachi-oki and 2003 Tokachi-oki (located in regions north of the source area of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake) likely did not.We will discuss possible factors that influence the slip distribution on the shallow area of subduction megathrusts. Using results from the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) which sampled the fault in the region of large slip, we can begin to understand the conditions of very large fault slip, such as the characteristic fault zone material and level of friction on the fault.

  9. A Bayesian Approach for Apparent Inter-plate Coupling in the Central Andes Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Culaciati, F. H.; Simons, M.; Genrich, J. F.; Galetzka, J.; Comte, D.; Glass, B.; Leiva, C.; Gonzalez, G.; Norabuena, E. O.

    2010-12-01

    We aim to characterize the extent of apparent plate coupling on the subduction zone megathrust with the eventual goal of understanding spatial variations of fault zone rheology, inferring relationships between apparent coupling and the rupture zone of big earthquakes, as well as the implications for earthquake and tsunami hazard. Unlike previous studies, we approach the problem from a Bayesian perspective, allowing us to completely characterize the model parameter space by searching a posteriori estimates of the range of allowable models instead of seeking a single optimum model. Two important features of the Bayesian approach are the possibility to easily implement any kind of physically plausible a priori information and to perform the inversion without regularization, other than that imposed by the way in which we parameterize the forward model. Adopting a simple kinematic back-slip model and a 3D geometry of the inter-plate contact zone, we can estimate the probability of apparent coupling (Pc) along the plate interface that is consistent with a priori information (e.g., approximate rake of back-slip) and available geodetic measurements. More generally, the Bayesian approach adopted here is applicable to any region and eventually would allow one to evaluate the spatial relationship between various inferred distributions of fault behavior (e.g., seismic rupture, postseismic creep, and apparent interseismic coupling) in a quantifiable manner. We apply this methodology to evaluate the state of apparent inter-seismic coupling in the Chilean-Peruvian subduction margin (12 S - 25 S). As observational constraints, we use previously published horizontal velocities from campaign GPS [Kendrick et al., 2001, 2006] as well as 3 component velocities from a recently established continuous GPS network in the region (CAnTO). We compare results from both joint and independent use of these data sets. We obtain patch like features for Pc with higher values located above 60 km

  10. Observations and Modeling of Temporal Variability in Slow Slip Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Jessica Cleary

    In this thesis, I investigate short-timescale variations in slow slip events in Cascadia. I use these and other observations to assess whether one of the friction laws proposed to govern the slow slip region can adequately reproduce the observed events. In the first observational component, we use borehole strain data to look for tidal variations in the slow slip moment rate in central Cascadia. We find that slow slip is tidally modulated. On average, the moment rate oscillates 25% above and below the mean at the period of the strongest tide. This modulation implies that slow slip is sensitive to small external stresses. It provides a useful constraint on models of slow slip events. In the modeling component of this thesis, we examine features of slow slip events simulated with a rate and state friction law that is velocity-weakening at low slip rates but velocity-strengthening at high slip rates. This is one of three friction laws that have been proposed to govern the frictional strength in the slow slip region. These models parameterize the slow slip region as an elongate rectangle. This mimics the geometry of observed events, which often extend farther along strike than along dip. The simulated events propagate approximately steadily "along strike," and slip rate and stress decay gradually behind the propagating front. The recurrence interval of large events is controlled by the requirement that the strain energy released by slip equal the energy dissipated by friction. We identify the sets of model parameters that allow for episodic large events with the stress drops, slip velocities, and propagation rates seen in Cascadia. Next, we investigate the effect of applying a tidal load to this model. We find that the slip rate varies quasi-sinusoidally, with amplitude proportional to the applied stress. It is possible to choose model parameters that allow the model to reproduce the observed modulation, but if we do so, the model can match only a subset of the

  11. Geometry and kinematics of adhesive wear in brittle strike-slip fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Mark T.

    2005-05-01

    Detailed outcrop surface mapping in Late Paleozoic cataclastic strike-slip faults of coastal Maine shows that asymmetric sidewall ripouts, 0.1-200 m in length, are a significant component of many mapped faults and an important wall rock deformation mechanism during faulting. The geometry of these structures ranges from simple lenses to elongate slabs cut out of the sidewalls of strike-slip faults by a lateral jump of the active zone of slip during adhesion along a section of the main fault. The new irregular trace of the active fault after this jump creates an indenting asperity that is forced to plow through the adjoining wall rock during continued adhesion or be cut off by renewed motion along the main section of the fault. Ripout translation during adhesion sets up the structural asymmetry with trailing extensional and leading contractional ends to the ripout block. The inactive section of the main fault trace at the trailing end can develop a 'sag' or 'half-graben' type geometry due to block movement along the scallop-shaped connecting ramp to the flanking ripout fault. Leading contractional ramps can develop 'thrust' type imbrication and forces the 'humpback' geometry to the ripout slab due to distortion of the inactive main fault surface by ripout translation. Similar asymmetric ripout geometries are recognized in many other major crustal scale strike-slip fault zones worldwide. Ripout structures in the 5-500 km length range can be found on the Atacama fault system of northern Chile, the Qujiang and Xiaojiang fault zones in western China, the Yalakom-Hozameen fault zone in British Columbia and the San Andreas fault system in southern California. For active crustal-scale faults the surface expression of ripout translation includes a coupled system of extensional trailing ramps as normal oblique-slip faults with pull-apart basin sedimentation and contractional leading ramps as oblique thrust or high angle reverse faults with associated uplift and erosion. The

  12. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in a Double Candle-flame-shaped Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-04-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ˜10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The “Ahead” satellite of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory provides a top view, in which the post-flare loops brighten sequentially, with one end fixed while the other apparently slipping eastward. By performing stereoscopic reconstruction of the post-flare loops in EUV and mapping out magnetic connectivities, we found that the footpoints of the post-flare loops are slipping along the footprint of a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) separating the two loop systems and that the reconstructed loops share similarity with the magnetic field lines that are traced starting from the same HFT footprint, where the field lines are relatively flexible. These results argue strongly in favor of slipping magnetic reconnection at the HFT. The slipping reconnection was likely triggered by the flare and manifested as propagative dimmings before the loop slippage is observed. It may contribute to the late-phase peak in Fe xvi 33.5 nm, which is even higher than its main-phase counterpart, and may also play a role in the density and temperature asymmetry observed in the northern loop system through heat conduction.

  13. Slip effects in a dewetting polymer microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. S.; McGraw, J. D.; Maurer, S.; Salez, T.; Benzaquen, M.; Raphaël, É.; Jacobs, K.; Brinkmann, M.

    2014-11-01

    A non-equilibrium liquid drop sitting on a smooth substrate will contract or spread depending on the equilibrium contact angle and the initial shape of the drop. Previous studies assume a huge separation of length scales between the drop contact size R and the slip length b (typically b / R = 10-6-10-5). One well known example is that of a drop spreading over a completely wetting surface, which follows Tanner's law. In this study, we experimentally and theoretically investigate contractions of microscopic droplets in regimes where these two length scales are not widely separated (b / R = 10-2-1). These regimes become relevant in micro- and nano-fluidic systems. Instead of a quasi-static spherical shape during the evolution, the profiles display more complex shapes in these regimes. We find that: 1) the interface profile near the contact line evolves in a self-similar way in the early stage; 2) depending on b / R , the profile can develop a characteristic bump shape in the intermediate stage of the evolution. 3) at late times, the radius saturates exponentially with a certain time scale, which depends on the slip length.

  14. Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

  15. Statistics from granular stick-slip experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed Zadeh, Aghil; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We carry out experiments to characterize stick-slip for granular materials. In our experiment, a constant speed stage pulls a slider which rests on a vertical bed of circular photoelastic particles in a 2D system. The stage is connected to the slider by a spring. We measure the force on the spring as well as the slider's acceleration by a force sensor attached to the spring and accelerometers on the slider. The distributions of energy release and time duration of avalanches during slip obey power laws. We apply a novel event recognition approach using wavelets to extract the avalanche properties. We compare statistics from the wavelet approach with those obtained by typical methods, to show how noise can change the distribution of events. We analyze the power spectrum of various quantities to understand the effect of the loading speed and of the spring stiffness on the statistical behavior of the system. Finally, from a more local point of view and by using a high speed camera and the photoelastic properties of our particles, we characterize the internal granular structure during avalanches. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR1206351 and NASA Grant NNX10AU01G.

  16. Statistics from granular stick-slip experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed Zadeh, Aghil; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert P.

    2014-11-01

    We carry out experiments to characterize stick-slip for granular materials. In our experiment, a constant speed stage pulls a slider which rests on a vertical bed of circular photoelastic particles in a 2D system. The stage is connected to the slider by a spring. We measure the force on the spring as well as the slider's acceleration by a force sensor attached to the spring and accelerometers on the slider. The distributions of energy release and time duration of avalanches during slip obey power laws. We apply a novel event recognition approach using wavelets to extract the avalanche properties. We compare statistics from the wavelet approach with those obtained by typical methods, to show how noise can change the distribution of events. We analyze the power spectrum of various quantities to understand the effect of the loading speed and of the spring stiffness on the statistical behavior of the system. Finally, from a more local point of view and by using a high speed camera and the photoelastic properties of our particles, we characterize the internal granular structure during avalanches. This work supported by NSF Grant DMR1206351 and NASA Grant NNX10AU01G.

  17. Mechanics of Slip-to-the-Trench and Frontal Prism Deformation for the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    The slip magnitude of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture was as much as ~50 m below the ~20-km-wide frontal prism of accreted sediments at the trench. Mechanical explanations for prism deformation and shallow slip consider the rate-dependence and dynamic weakening of friction along the basal thrust, dynamic unloading of the thrust from wave propagation into a compliant wedge with a free upper surface, and large magnitude stress release at depth that propagates slip to shallow depths. Borehole data and core samples from IODP expedition 343/343T are used to understand frontal prism behavior over the seismic cycle. Wedge taper, experimental determination of Coulomb failure strength of the prism, and measurements of pore pressure and sediment density are used to determine apparent friction of the basal thrust and stress in the prism for compressively critical and extensionally critical conditions assuming an elastic - perfectly Coulomb plastic wedge. Model results are compared to independent measures of in situ stress in the prism from borehole deformation, sliding friction of basal thrust material at quasi-static and seismic slip-rates in experiments, and the average coseismic shear strength of the thrust from borehole temperature-profiles. These data define the pre-seismic, co-seismic, and post-seismic stress states and suggest the prism remains in a stable, elastic state over the seismic cycle with a dynamic stress drop of approximately 1 MPa in the vicinity of the borehole. Results likely describe the state of the frontal prism ~15-20 km landward from the borehole. Trenchward, however, the prism has a much smaller taper and undergoes coseismic shortening under a compressively critical state and diminishing basal slip. Variations in shallow slip magnitude along the trench could partly reflect changes in prism geometry associated with roughness of the subducting slab and sediment input, and variations in frictional properties of the basal thrust.

  18. Slipping magnetic reconnection during an X-class solar flare observed by SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, J.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.; Janvier, M.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Karlický, M. E-mail: mjanvier@maths.dundee.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We present SDO/AIA observations of an eruptive X-class flare of 2012 July 12, and compare its evolution with the predictions of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation. We focus on the dynamics of flare loops that are seen to undergo slipping reconnection during the flare. In the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 131 Å observations, lower parts of 10 MK flare loops exhibit an apparent motion with velocities of several tens of km s{sup –1} along the developing flare ribbons. In the early stages of the flare, flare ribbons consist of compact, localized bright transition-region emission from the footpoints of the flare loops. A differential emission measure analysis shows that the flare loops have temperatures up to the formation of Fe XXIV. A series of very long, S-shaped loops erupt, leading to a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO. The observed dynamics are compared with the evolution of magnetic structures in the 'standard solar flare model in 3D.' This model matches the observations well, reproducing the apparently slipping flare loops, S-shaped erupting loops, and the evolution of flare ribbons. All of these processes are explained via 3D reconnection mechanisms resulting from the expansion of a torus-unstable flux rope. The AIA observations and the numerical model are complemented by radio observations showing a noise storm in the metric range. Dm-drifting pulsation structures occurring during the eruption indicate plasmoid ejection and enhancement of the reconnection rate. The bursty nature of radio emission shows that the slipping reconnection is still intermittent, although it is observed to persist for more than an hour.

  19. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich [1] have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  20. Apparent skepticism: capital punishment and medical evidence.

    PubMed

    Helminski, F

    1993-01-01

    In recent cases on the constitutionality of sentencing to death criminals who were younger than 18 years of age at the time of their crimes or who are mentally retarded, the US Supreme Court has rejected medical evidence that such persons categorically possess diminished culpability. Rather, the Court has accepted the public's "apparent skepticism" of such a scientific consensus in upholding the execution of capital offenders who are 16 years of age or older. The 1952 English case of Craig and Bentley sparked discussion of similar issues in the United Kingdom and contributed to the abolition of capital punishment for murder in that country. US courts should have more deference for such medical evidence, despite perceived widespread resistance to the conclusions of researchers that adolescents and mentally retarded persons categorically lack sufficient maturity, judgment, and deliberation to receive capital punishment and that they are not deterred from murder by the threat of execution.

  1. Apparent spontaneous joint restoration in hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Gregory P; Brand, Richard A

    2002-11-01

    Dramatic spontaneous restoration of the joint space in osteoarthritis of the hip is rare, although limited fibrocartilaginous repair is common. Regeneration of the apparent radiographic joint space seems to be associated with peripheral osteophyte formation, but it is difficult to isolate other well-defined factors that promote it. Previous documentation of the phenomenon exists in scattered case reports before the era of widespread total hip replacement. Two recent cases are presented in which patients with bilateral disease had unilateral total hip replacement with simultaneous diminished pain in the contralateral hip accompanied by restoration of the radiographic joint space. Secondary stability, unloading, peripheral osteophyte formation, and other possible factors likely contribute to these unusual natural outcomes of coxarthrosis.

  2. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Liaci, Emanuela; Bach, Michael; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Heinrich, Sven P.; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background In von Schiller’s Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio (“AR”, i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances). Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1) perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion. Methods We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants’ forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames. Results Increasing the tactile SAM’s AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias. Discussion Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual

  3. What is hidden in caves? Sheared flowstone as a marker for slip rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovic, Ivanka; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Bernhard; Baron, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Speleothems are cave deposits, mostly consisting of calcite minerals, and they can be used to investigate tectonic activity of a region, giving that caves naturally preserve past and present conditions often difficult to observe at the surface. Flowstone is a type of speleothem, deposited out of water films along cave walls and is usually characterized by uniform crystal growth characterized by calcite c-axis perpendicular to the cave wall. Scratched flowstone, found in Hirschgruben cave, Austrian Alps, was deformed due to a strike-slip fault movement that occurred between 118 ka and ca. 9 ka, at depths of 190 m below the surface (1890 m above sea level) and low temperatures (0-5 degrees Celsius). After the deformation, a thin layer of younger flowstone coated the scratch, preserving the original slip surface. This allows us to investigate well-preserved natural examples of fault behavior and here we show its complexity. Naturally deformed speleothems have been sheared due to activity of the SEMP (Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg) fault system and present unique field evidence for active displacement along this fault. The 300 km long SEMP fault accommodated a sinistral displacement of about 60 km related to the Neogene and Quaternary lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian Basin, coeval with north-south shortening between the Adriatic and European plates. Microstructural analysis of sheared flowstone pose evidences for changing fault behavior, including both seismic slip and aseismic creep. To investigate these mechanisms, we implemented series of high-resolution electron beam analytical techniques including scanning electron microscope, cathodoluminescence and electron backscattered diffraction. The most common structural characteristics, such as grain size reduction, mechanical twinning and the presence of crystal-plastic deformation suggest complexity of the fault. In order to better understand this complex fault behavior, we perform

  4. Distributed Coseismic and Early Postseismic Dip-Slip from the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake: A Unique Image of Near-Trench Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Newman, A. V.; Fritz, H.

    2008-12-01

    We estimate the spatial distribution of dip-slip in the 1 April 2007 magnitude MW=8.1 Solomon earthquake, which created a locally large tsunami with runup heights up to 12 m. The event is unique in that involved the rupture of at least two subducting plates, and that land occurs very close to the trench on the hanging wall side. The occurrence of islands extremely proximal to the trench allowed for the collection of near-shore uplift and subsidence information from costal areas (including the exposure and subsidence of corals), hence giving a unique well-resolved image of the near-trench geodetically derived slip. Two surveys, taken between 1 week and 1 month after the event primarily across the southern portion of the slip zone, comprise a dataset of approximately 100 measurements of between +3.6 and -1.5 m of vertical displacements [Fritz and Kalligeris, 2008; Taylor et al., 2008]. We use the Okada [1992] elastic dislocation model, to explore the distribution of dip-slip on discrete patches. To maintain a realistic distribution of slip we smooth the solution by attempting to minimize the second-order spatial derivative of slip, hence minimizing the stress change across the system. Because data are only vertical in nature and the expected strike-slip component of the thrust is small, only the dip-slip component of rupture was considered. Early results show highly variable dip-slip both along-strike and down- dip, with a significant focus of slip in the shallow near trench area. If real, this near-trench focusing may explain the locally high runup on portions of Simbo Island. Because it is not certain how much of the modeled slip occurred due to coseismic versus post-seismic recovery and afterslip, we explore the variability of solutions between the two surveys and compare results with the available spatial distribution of co-seismic finite-slip model of C. Ji [unpublished, 2007].

  5. Initiation of unstable slips-microearthquakes by elastic impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Maibuk, Yu. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments have been carried out with a model of two granite blocks under biaxial compression loading. The experiments are mainly intended for assessing the possibilities of partially releasing the accumulated potential energy. The model was subjected to calibrated mechanical impacts (strokes) which induced elastic impulses. The mechanical stresses, strains, and acoustic emission were recorded. The strokes caused both large slips releasing the stresses down to their initial level and small slips which reduced the stresses by 5-8%. The small slips mostly occurred after the precursory emergence of the low frequency oscillations having low amplitudes. Before the large slips, the stages of speeding-up of the relative motion of the sides of the block contact was observed, similar to those emerging before the natural slips unrelated to the strokes. This feature was not universal: in some cases, the model recovered to the stationary state of the block contact without a large slip. All the slips occurred with a time delay after the stroke. The time delay was shorter when the energy of the blow was higher. With the shorter time delays, the small slip is more likely to occur. The energy of the impacts was by three orders of magnitude lower than the energy accumulated by the model, which points to the triggering mechanism of slip initiation. The series of strokes resulting in the small displacements partially reduced the accumulated energy and prevented the emergence of large motions such as the stick-slip events. If after a series of such blows a large sliding event still occurred, its energy was higher than in the slips unrelated to the impacts. The experiments revealed the difficulties in solving the problem of earthquake hazard reduction by elastic impacts.

  6. Premonitory slip and tidal triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Beeler, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    We have conducted a series of laboratory simulations of earthquakes using granite cylinders containing precut bare fault surfaces at 50 MPa confining pressure. Axial shortening rates between 10-4 and 10-6 mm/s were imposed to simulate tectonic loading. Average loading rate was then modulated by the addition of a small-amplitude sine wave to simulate periodic loading due to Earth tides or other sources. The period of the modulating signal ranged from 10 to 10,000 s. For each combination of amplitude and period of the modulating signal, multiple stick-slip events were recorded to determine the degree of correlation between the timing of simulated earthquakes and the imposed periodic loading function. Over the range of parameters studied, the degree of correlation of earthquakes was most sensitive to the amplitude of the periodic loading, with weaker dependence on the period of oscillations and the average loading rate. Accelerating premonitory slip was observed in these experiments and is a controlling factor in determining the conditions under which correlated events occur. In fact, some form of delayed failure is necessary to produce the observed correlations between simulated earthquake timing and characteristics of the periodic loading function. The transition from strongly correlated to weakly correlated model earthquake populations occurred when the amplitude of the periodic loading was approximately 0.05 to 0.1 MPa shear stress (0.03 to 0.06 MPa Coulomb failure function). Lower-amplitude oscillations produced progressively lower correlation levels. Correlations between static stress increases and earthquake aftershocks are found to degrade at similar stress levels. Typical stress variations due to Earth tides are only 0.001 to 0.004 MPa, so that the lack of correlation between Earth tides and earthquakes is also consistent with our findings. A simple extrapolation of our results suggests that approximately 1% of midcrustal earthquakes should be correlated with

  7. Dynamic Dislocation Mechanisms For the Anomalous Slip in a Single-Crystal BCC Metal Oriented for "Single Slip"

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; La Cruz, C

    2007-01-11

    Dislocation substructures of high-purity Mo single crystals deformed under uniaxial compression at room temperature to an axial strain of 0.6% were investigated in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for the {l_brace}0{bar 1}1{r_brace} anomalous slip in bcc metals [1], which is also known as the violation of Schmid law [2]. The test sample was oriented with the stress axis parallel to a nominal ''single-slip'' orientation of [{bar 2} 9 20], in which ({bar 1}01) [111] is the primary slip system that has a maximum Schmid factor (m = 0.5), which requires the lowest stress to operate among the twelve {l_brace}{bar 1}10{r_brace} <111> slip systems. Nevertheless, the recorded stress-strain curve reveals no easy-glide or single-slip stage; work hardening starts immediately after yielding. Moreover, the result of slip trace analysis indicates the occurrence of anomalous slip on both the (011) and (0{bar 1}1) planes, which according to the Schmid law requires relatively higher stresses to operate. TEM examinations of dislocation structures formed on the (101) primary slip plane reveal that in addition to the ({bar 1}01) [111] slip system, the coplanar ({bar 1}01) [1{bar 1}1] slip system which has a much smaller Schmid factor (m = 0.167) is also operative. Similarly, (0{bar 1}1) [111] (m = 0.25) is cooperative with the coplanar (0{bar 1}1) [{bar 1}11] slip system (m = 0.287) on the (0{bar 1}1) slip plane, and (011) [1{bar 1}1] (m = 0.222) is cooperative with the coplanar (011) [11{bar 1}] slip system (m = 0.32) on the (011) plane. The occurrence of {l_brace}0{bar 1}1{r_brace} anomalous slip is accordingly proposed to be originated from the cooperative dislocation motion of the {+-} 1/2 [111] and {+-} 1/2 [1{bar 1}1] dislocations on the ({bar 1}01) slip plane; the mutual interaction and blocking of {+-} 1/2 [111] and {+-} 1/2 [1{bar 1}1] dislocations not only cause an increase of glide resistance to the dislocation motion on the ({bar 1}01) plane but also render the

  8. Low density gas dynamic wall boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, F. G.

    1986-01-01

    Low density nozzles or large expansion ratio nozzles used in space experience rarefaction effects near their exit in the form of velocity slip and temperature jump at the walls. In addition, the boundary layers become very thick and there is a very strong viscous/inviscid interaction. For these reasons no existing design technique has been found to accurately predict the nozzle flow properties up to the nozzle exit. The objective of this investigation was to examine the slip boundary conditions and formulate them in a form appropriate for use with a full Navier-Stokes numerical code. The viscous/inviscid interaction would automatically be accounted for by using a compressible Navier-Stokes code. Through examination of the interaction of molecules with solid surfaces, a model for the distribution function of the reflected molecules has been determined and this distribution function has been used to develop a new slip boundary condition that can be shown to yield more realistic surface boundary conditions.

  9. Partial slip in mesoscale contacts: dependence on contact size.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Sylvia; Petri, Judith; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2013-09-01

    Using acoustic resonators, we have studied the occurrence and the magnitude of partial slip between glass spheres and polymer surfaces. The measurement relies on the shifts of resonance frequency and bandwidth, Δf and ΔΓ, induced by the contact as well as the dependence of Δf and ΔΓ on the amplitude of oscillation. One often finds a decrease of Δf at elevated amplitudes, which goes back to partial slip (also "microslip"). Building on two different models of partial slip, we derive the frequency-amplitude relation from the force-displacement relation. In accordance with both models, the bandwidth is found to increase with amplitude in the partial slip regime. For the highest amplitudes and largest spheres investigated, one observes a decrease of bandwidth with amplitude, which is interpreted as a transition to gross slip. Deviating from both models of partial slip, Δf is sometimes found to be independent of amplitude in the low-amplitude range. Constant Δf implies linear force-displacement relations. The critical amplitude for the onset of partial slip depends on the contact radius, where partial slip is more pronounced for larger contacts. This finding can be explained by a smooth stress profile at the edge of the contact with no singularity. The stress at the edge might be lowered by nanoscale roughness, by capillary forces, or by the inability of the two surfaces to reestablish a sticking contact at the turning point of the oscillation.

  10. Slip flow through colloidal crystals of varying particle diameter.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Benjamin J; Wirth, Mary J

    2013-01-22

    Slip flow of water through silica colloidal crystals was investigated experimentally for eight different particle diameters, which have hydraulic channel radii ranging from 15 to 800 nm. The particle surfaces were silylated to be low in energy, with a water contact angle of 83°, as determined for a silylated flat surface. Flow rates through centimeter lengths of colloidal crystal were measured using a commercial liquid chromatograph for accurate comparisons of water and toluene flow rates using pressure gradients as high as 10(10) Pa/m. Toluene exhibited no-slip Hagen-Poiseuille flow for all hydraulic channel radii. For water, the slip flow enhancement as a function of hydraulic channel radius was described well by the expected slip flow correction for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, and the data revealed a constant slip length of 63 ± 3 nm. A flow enhancement of 20 ± 2 was observed for the smallest hydraulic channel radius of 15 nm. The amount of slip flow was found to be independent of shear rate over a range of fluid velocities from 0.7 to 5.8 mm/s. The results support the applicability of the slip flow correction for channel radii as small as 15 nm. The work demonstrates that packed beds of submicrometer particles enable slip flow to be employed for high-volume flow rates.

  11. A Transformational Approach to Slip-Slide Factoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steckroth, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In this "Delving Deeper" article, the author introduces the slip-slide method for solving Algebra 1 mathematics problems. This article compares the traditional method approach of trial and error to the slip-slide method of factoring. Tools that used to be taken for granted now make it possible to investigate relationships visually,…

  12. Role of Slip Mode on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, A. K.; Sadananda, K.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we examine the effect of aging treatment and the role of planarity of slip on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior in precipitation-hardened alloys. With aging, the slip mode can change from a planar slip in the underage (UA) to a wavy slip in the overage (OA) region. This, in turn, results in sharpening the crack tip in the UA compared to blunting in the OA condition. We propose that the planar slip enhances the stress concentration effects by making the alloys more susceptible to SCC. In addition, the planarity of slip enhances plateau velocities, reduces thresholds for SCC, and reduces component life. We show that the effect of slip planarity is somewhat similar to the effects of mechanically induced stress concentrations such as due to the presence of sharp notches. Aging treatment also causes variations in the matrix and grain boundary (GB) microstructures, along with typical mechanical and SCC properties. These properties include yield stress, work hardening rate, fracture toughness K IC , thresholds K Iscc, and steady-state plateau velocity ( da/ dt). The SCC data for a wide range of ductile alloys including 7050, 7075, 5083, 5456 Al, MAR M steels, and solid solution copper-base alloys are collected from the literature. Our assertion is that slip mode and the resulting stress concentration are important factors in SCC behavior. This is further supported by similar observations in many other systems including some steels, Al alloys, and Cu alloys.

  13. Slip Flow through Colloidal Crystals of Varying Particle Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Benjamin J.; Wirth, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Slip flow of water through silica colloidal crystals was investigated experimentally for 8 different particle diameters, which have hydraulic channel radii ranging from 15 nm to 800 nm. The particle surfaces were silylated to be low in energy, with a water contact angle of 83°, as determined for a silylated flat surface. Flow rates through centimeter lengths of colloidal crystal were measured using a commercial liquid chromatograph for accurate comparisons of water and toluene flow rates using pressure gradients as high as 1010 Pa/m. Toluene exhibited no-slip Hagen-Poiseuille flow for all hydraulic channel radii. For water, the slip flow enhancement as a function of hydraulic channel radius was described well by the expected slip flow correction for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, and the data revealed a constant slip length of 63±3 nm. A flow enhancement of 20±2 was observed for the smallest hydraulic channel radius of 15 nm. The amount of slip flow was found to be independent of shear rate over a range of fluid velocities from 0.7 to 5.8 mm/s. The results support the applicability of the slip flow correction for channel radii as small as 15 nm. The work demonstrates that packed beds of submicrometer particles enable slip flow to be employed for high volume flow rates. PMID:23237590

  14. Slip, trip, and fall injuries among nursing care facility workers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Tiesman, Hope M; Ridenour, Marilyn; Konda, Srinivas; Wolf, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the slip, trip, and fall injury experience and trends in a population of nursing home workers, identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries, and develop prevention strategies for slip, trip, and fall hazards. Workers' compensation injury claims data and payroll data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained from six nursing homes and used to calculate injury incidence rates. Narrative information was used to describe details of slip, trip, and fall events. A total of 86 slip, trip, and fall-related workers' compensation claims were filed during the 8-year period. Slip, trip, and fall claim rates showed a nonsignificant increase during the 8-year period. Most slips, trips, and falls were attributed to hazards that can be mitigated (e.g., water on the floor or loose cords in a walkway). Nursing home workers experience more slip, trip, and fall-related injury claims than workers in other industries. Preventive programs should be implemented and evaluated in this industry. PMID:23521142

  15. Regulating the working properties of porcelain slip

    SciTech Connect

    Karpilovskii, L.P.; Kralinina, L.N.; Makarov, V.A.; Sidorenko, Z.I.

    1986-05-01

    It was decided to introduce changes in the recipe of the clay part of the raw material to provide a reduction in the density and a restoration of the Prosyyanovsk kaolin (PK) slip's fluidity, the volume of the PK batch would be maintained, and the working properties of the body could be insured within the same limits as prevailed before recipe of the stone materials and the chemical composition of the porcelain would be left unchanged. The results indicate the effectiveness of using the analytical method for clay suspensions for operational assessment of the technical properties of raw materials and regulating the working properties of the body. The method of filtration analysis and determination of the elastic properties of the suspension can also be recommended for use in benefication combines. The advantage of the methods consists in the rapidity of carrying out the analysis which means where necessary can operationally intervene in the technological process.

  16. Rolling and slipping motion of Euler's disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caps, H.; Dorbolo, S.; Ponte, S.; Croisier, H.; Vandewalle, N.

    2004-05-01

    We present an experimental study of the motion of a circular disk spun onto a table. With the help of a high speed video system, the temporal evolution of (i) the inclination angle α , (ii) the angular velocity ω , and (iii) the precession rate Ω are studied. The influence of the mass of the disk as well as the friction between the disk and the supporting surface are considered. Both inclination angle and angular velocity are observed to decrease according to a power law. We also show that the precession rate diverges as the motion stops. Measurements are performed very near the collapse as well as on long range times. Times to collapse have been also measured. Results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental works. The major source of energy dissipation is found to be the slipping of the disk on the plane.

  17. Oscillatory Magnetogasdynamic Slip Flow in a Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    2009-11-01

    The problem of pressure driven Magnetogasdynamic (MGD) slip flow with small rarefaction through a long micro-channel is considered. The flow is driven by steady or oscillatory pressure gradient. The study of MGD flows in microchannels is of great interest since they occur in magnetic thin films and other electromagnetic micro-scale devices. In obtaining the micro-fluidic solutions in the presence of a magnetic field, some additional physical, mathematical and numerical issues need to be considered. These issues deal with the scaling laws for micro-scale MHD flows and the relevant parameters such as Mach number, Reynolds number, Hartmann number, magnetic Reynolds number, and Knudsen number. For planar constant area micro-channel, it is possible to obtain the analytical solutions for both steady and oscillatory pressure driven flows. As physically expected, the higher value of the magnetic field (higher Hartmann number) flattens the velocity profile in the channel.

  18. Laboratory Observations of the Spectrum of Fault Slip Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Slow earthquakes, tectonic fault tremor, and low frequency earthquakes represent an important enigma in earthquake science. In the standard model of earthquake physics elastic energy is released catastrophically as the fault weakens and dynamic rupture expands at speeds measured in km/s. The spectral content of the resulting seismic waves is understood in terms of a source model based on elastodynamic rupture propagation. However, faults also fail in slow earthquakes and there is no such understanding of rupture dynamics, seismic spectra, or source scaling relations in these cases. The mechanics of slow earthquakes are poorly understood in part because there are few systematic laboratory observations that can be used to identify the underlying mechanics. Here, I summarize and discuss results from numerical models of slow slip using rate/state friction laws and recent lab studies showing slow slip and the full spectrum of stick-slip behaviors. Early lab studies saw slow slip during frictional sliding or in association with dehydration or ductile flow; however, they did not include systematic measurements that could be used to isolate the underlying mechanics. Numerical studies based on rate/state friction also document slow slip and chaotic forms of stick-slip, however they require special conditions including two state variable frictional behavior. Recent lab work sheds new light on slow earthquakes by showing: 1) that repetitive, slow stick-slip can occur if the fault friction-velocity relation becomes positive during slip acceleration, and 2) that slow slip and the full spectrum of fault slip modes can occur if loading stiffness k matches the fault zone critical rheologic stiffness kc given by the frictional weakening rate and the critical frictional distance. These data show that the key control parameter for stress drop, slip speed, and slip duration is the non dimensional stiffness k' = k/kc, with the spectrum of fast to slow slip mode occurring in a narrow

  19. Proposed Cavity for Reduced Slip-Stacking Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, J.; Zwaska, R.

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs a novel dynamical mechanism to improve the performance of slip-stacking. Slip-stacking in an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly double the proton intensity. During slip-stacking, the Recycler or the Main Injector stores two particles beams that spatially overlap but have different momenta. The two particle beams are longitudinally focused by two 53 MHz 100 kV RF cavities with a small frequency difference between them. We propose an additional 106 MHz 20 kV RF cavity, with a frequency at the double the average of the upper and lower main RF frequencies. In simulation, we find the proposed RF cavity significantly enhances the stable bucket area and reduces slip-stacking losses under reasonable injection scenarios. We quantify and map the stability of the parameter space for any accelerator implementing slip-stacking with the addition of a harmonic RF cavity.

  20. Nailing down the slip rate of the Altyn Tagh fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiankun; Vernant, Philippe; Chéry, Jean; Wang, Weimin; Lu, Shuangjiang; Ku, Wenfei; Xia, Wenhai; Bilham, Roger

    2013-10-01

    estimates of the geodetic and geologic slip rates of the 1500 km long Altyn Tagh fault bordering the northern edge of the Tibetan plateau vary by a factor of five. Proposed reasons for these discrepancies include poor GPS geometry, interpretative errors in terrace morphology, and changes in fault slip rate over time. Here we present results from a new dense GPS array orthogonal to the fault at ~86.2°E that indicates a velocity of 9.0-3.2/+4.4 mm/yr, in close agreement with geomorphologic estimates at the same location. Our estimated geodetic slip rate is consistent with recent geological slip rates based on terrace offsets. The resulting mean combined geological and geodetic slip rate (9.0 ± 4.0 mm/yr) is remarkably uniform for the central ~800 km of the Altyn Tagh fault, significantly lower than early kinematic estimates and consistent with deformation elsewhere in Tibet and central Asia.

  1. The experimentalanalysis of the slip in the rubber belt CVT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegożek, W.; Kot, A.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the speed losses in CVT. The bench tests have been conducted on the scooter CVT equipped with the centrifugal regulation system. This solution is typical for this type of vehicles so the conducted experiments refer to real exploitation conditions. The slip has been defined on the base of the difference between speed ratios obtained from the angular speeds and the belt pitch radii. This approach corresponds with the Dittrich model. The non-linear dependence between the slip and the transmitted torque has been obtained for the constant gear ratio. Also non-linear dependence between the slip and the gear ratio has been received for constant torque. The amount of slip value indicates that this is significant part of the total power losses as it has been described by Bertini. However it clashes with the Chen researches, where the slip corresponds with the marginal part of the overall losses.

  2. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  3. Rock mechanics. Superplastic nanofibrous slip zones control seismogenic fault friction.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Berend A; Plümper, Oliver; de Winter, D A Matthijs; Spiers, Christopher J

    2014-12-12

    Understanding the internal mechanisms controlling fault friction is crucial for understanding seismogenic slip on active faults. Displacement in such fault zones is frequently localized on highly reflective (mirrorlike) slip surfaces, coated with thin films of nanogranular fault rock. We show that mirror-slip surfaces developed in experimentally simulated calcite faults consist of aligned nanogranular chains or fibers that are ductile at room conditions. These microstructures and associated frictional data suggest a fault-slip mechanism resembling classical Ashby-Verrall superplasticity, capable of producing unstable fault slip. Diffusive mass transfer in nanocrystalline calcite gouge is shown to be fast enough for this mechanism to control seismogenesis in limestone terrains. With nanogranular fault surfaces becoming increasingly recognized in crustal faults, the proposed mechanism may be generally relevant to crustal seismogenesis.

  4. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  5. Curved apparent motion induced by amodal completion

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether amodal completion can bias apparent motion (AM) to deviate from its default straight path toward a longer curved path, which would violate the well-established principle that AM follows the shortest possible path. Observers viewed motion sequences of two alternating rectangular tokens positioned at the ends of a semicircular occluder, with varying interstimulus intervals (ISIs; 100–500 ms). At short ISIs, observers tended to report simple straight-path motion—that is, outside the occluder. But at long ISIs, they became increasingly likely to report a curved-path motion behind the occluder. This tendency toward reporting curved-path motion was influenced by the shape of tokens, display orientation, the gap between tokens and the occluder, and binocular depth cues. Our results suggest that the visual system tends to minimize unexplained absence of a moving object, as well as its path length, such that AM deviates from the shortest path when amodal integration of motion trajectory behind the curved occluder can account for the objective invisibility of the object during the ISI. PMID:22069082

  6. Apparent life-threatening event in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joung

    2016-01-01

    An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1–3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%–5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed. Infants with an ALTE are often asymptomatic at hospital and there is no standard workup protocol for ALTE. Therefore, a detailed initial history and physical examination are important to determine the extent of the medical evaluation and treatment. Regardless of the cause of an ALTE, all infants with an ALTE should require hospitalization and continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and evaluation for at least 24 hours. The natural course of ALTEs has seemed benign, and the outcome is generally associated with the affected infants' underlying disease. In conclusion, systemic diagnostic evaluation and adequate treatment increases the survival and quality of life for most affected infants. PMID:27721838

  7. Late quaternary slip-rate variations along the Warm Springs Valley fault system, northern Walker Lane, California-Nevada border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Ryan; dePolo, Craig; Briggs, Richard W.; Crone, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which faults exhibit temporally varying slip rates has important consequences for models of fault mechanics and probabilistic seismic hazard. Here, we explore the temporal behavior of the dextral‐slip Warm Springs Valley fault system, which is part of a network of closely spaced (10–20 km) faults in the northern Walker Lane (California–Nevada border). We develop a late Quaternary slip record for the fault using Quaternary mapping and high‐resolution topographic data from airborne Light Distance and Ranging (LiDAR). The faulted Fort Sage alluvial fan (40.06° N, 119.99° W) is dextrally displaced 98+42/-43 m, and we estimate the age of the alluvial fan to be 41.4+10.0/-4.8 to 55.7±9.2  ka, based on a terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be depth profile and 36Cl analyses on basalt boulders, respectively. The displacement and age constraints for the fan yield a slip rate of 1.8 +0.8/-0.8 mm/yr to 2.4 +1.2/-1.1 mm/yr (2σ) along the northern Warm Springs Valley fault system for the past 41.4–55.7 ka. In contrast to this longer‐term slip rate, shorelines associated with the Sehoo highstand of Lake Lahontan (~15.8  ka) adjacent to the Fort Sage fan are dextrally faulted at most 3 m, which limits a maximum post‐15.8 ka slip rate to 0.2  mm/yr. These relations indicate that the post‐Lahontan slip rate on the fault is only about one‐tenth the longer‐term (41–56 ka) average slip rate. This apparent slip‐rate variation may be related to co‐dependent interaction with the nearby Honey Lake fault system, which shows evidence of an accelerated period of mid‐Holocene earthquakes.

  8. Apparent stress, fault maturity and seismic hazard for normal-fault earthquakes at subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Kirby, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of apparent stress for normal-fault earthquakes at subduction zones is derived by examining the apparent stress (?? a = ??Es/Mo, where E s is radiated energy and Mo is seismic moment) of all globally distributed shallow (depth, ?? 1 MPa) are also generally intraslab, but occur where the lithosphere has just begun subduction beneath the overriding plate. They usually occur in cold slabs near trenches where the direction of plate motion across the trench is oblique to the trench axis, or where there are local contortions or geometrical complexities of the plate boundary. Lower ??a (< 1 MPa) is associated with events occurring at the outer rise (OR) complex (between the OR and the trench axis), as well as with intracrustal events occurring just landward of the trench. The average apparent stress of intraslab-normal-fault earthquakes is considerably higher than the average apparent stress of interplate-thrust-fault earthquakes. In turn, the average ?? a of strike-slip earthquakes in intraoceanic environments is considerably higher than that of intraslab-normal-fault earthquakes. The variation of average ??a with focal mechanism and tectonic regime suggests that the level of ?? a is related to fault maturity. Lower stress drops are needed to rupture mature faults such as those found at plate interfaces that have been smoothed by large cumulative displacements (from hundreds to thousands of kilometres). In contrast, immature faults, such as those on which intraslab-normal-fault earthquakes generally occur, are found in cold and intact lithosphere in which total fault displacement has been much less (from hundreds of metres to a few kilometres). Also, faults on which high ??a oceanic strike-slip earthquakes occur are predominantly intraplate or at evolving ends of transforms. At subduction zones, earthquakes occurring on immature faults are likely to be more hazardous as they tend to generate higher amounts of radiated energy per unit of moment than

  9. Local tsunamis and distributed slip at the source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Dmowska, R.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in the local tsunami wave field are examined in relation to heterogeneous slip distributions that are characteristic of many shallow subduction zone earthquakes. Assumptions inherent in calculating the coseismic vertical displacement field that defines the initial condition for tsunami propagation are examined. By comparing the seafloor displacement from uniform slip to that from an ideal static crack, we demonstrate that dip-directed slip variations significantly affect the initial cross-sectional wave profile. Because of the hydrodynamic stability of tsunami wave forms, these effects directly impact estimates of maximum runup from the local tsunami. In most cases, an assumption of uniform slip in the dip direction significantly underestimates the maximum amplitude and leading wave steepness of the local tsunami. Whereas dip-directed slip variations affect the initial wave profile, strike-directed slip variations result in wavefront-parallel changes in amplitude that are largely preserved during propagation from the source region toward shore, owing to the effects of refraction. Tests of discretizing slip distributions indicate that small fault surface elements of dimensions similar to the source depth can acceptably approximate the vertical displacement field in comparison to continuous slip distributions. Crack models for tsunamis generated by shallow subduction zone earthquakes indicate that a rupture intersecting the free surface results in approximately twice the average slip. Therefore, the observation of higher slip associated with tsunami earthquakes relative to typical subduction zone earthquakes of the same magnitude suggests that tsunami earthquakes involve rupture of the seafloor, whereas rupture of deeper subduction zone earthquakes may be imbedded and not reach the seafloor.

  10. Constraining fault constitutive behavior with slip and stress heterogeneity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    We study how enforcing self-consistency in the statistical properties of the preshear and postshear stress on a fault can be used to constrain fault constitutive behavior beyond that required to produce a desired spatial and temporal evolution of slip in a single event. We explore features of rupture dynamics that (1) lead to slip heterogeneity in earthquake ruptures and (2) maintain these conditions following rupture, so that the stress field is compatible with the generation of aftershocks and facilitates heterogeneous slip in subsequent events. Our three-dimensional fmite element simulations of magnitude 7 events on a vertical, planar strike-slip fault show that the conditions that lead to slip heterogeneity remain in place after large events when the dynamic stress drop (initial shear stress) and breakdown work (fracture energy) are spatially heterogeneous. In these models the breakdown work is on the order of MJ/m2, which is comparable to the radiated energy. These conditions producing slip heterogeneity also tend to produce narrower slip pulses independent of a slip rate dependence in the fault constitutive model. An alternative mechanism for generating these confined slip pulses appears to be fault constitutive models that have a stronger rate dependence, which also makes them difficult to implement in numerical models. We hypothesize that self-consistent ruptures could also be produced by very narrow slip pulses propagating in a self-sustaining heterogeneous stress field with breakdown work comparable to fracture energy estimates of kJ/M2. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Rarefied gas flow behavior in micro/nanochannels under specified wall heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaj, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Hassan; Roohi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of convective heat transfer on the argon gas flow through micro/nanochannels subject to uniform wall heat flux (UWH) boundary condition using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Both the hot wall (qwall > 0) and the cold wall (qwall < 0) cases are considered. We consider the effect of wall heat flux on the centerline pressure, velocity profile and mass flow rate through the channel in the slip regime. The effects of rarefaction, property variations and compressibility are considered. We show that UWH boundary condition leads to the thermal transpiration. Our investigations showed that this thermal transpiration enhances the heat transfer rate at the walls in the case of hot walls and decreases it where the walls are being cooled. We also show that the deviation of the centerline pressure distribution from the linear distribution depends on the direction of the wall heat flux.

  12. An apparent hiatus in global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

  13. Observations of premonitory acoustic emission and slip nucleation during a stick slip experiment in smooth faulted Westerly granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, B.D.; Young, R.P.; Lockner, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate laboratory earthquakes, stick-slip events were induced on a saw-cut Westerly granite sample by triaxial loading at 150 MPa confining pressure. Acoustic emissions (AE) were monitored using an innovative continuous waveform recorder. The first motion of each stick slip was recorded as a large-amplitude AE signal. These events source locate onto the saw-cut fault plane, implying that they represent the nucleation sites of the dynamic failure stick-slip events. The precise location of nucleation varied between events and was probably controlled by heterogeneity of stress or surface conditions on the fault. The initial nucleation diameter of each dynamic instability was inferred to be less than 3 mm. A small number of AE were recorded prior to each macro slip event. For the second and third slip events, premonitory AE source mechanisms mimic the large scale fault plane geometry. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Effect of Water on High Pressure Olivine Slip Systems Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J.; Chen, J.; Raterron, P. C.; Holyoke, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Seismologic studies of the Earth's shallow (Z<220 km) upper mantle have observed seismic anisotropy parallel to the direction of plate movement and have related this observation to alignment of olivine [100] due to shearing related to convection. These observations have been reinforced by field-based and experimental investigations which observe evidence that [100] slip is dominant at low pressures and water contents. However, direct evidence of the dominant slip system in the deep upper mantle (Z>220 km) is limited to a few studies of xenoliths which have LPOs consistent with [001] slip. Experimental studies of dry single crystals and polycrystals indicate that [001] slip becomes dominant at pressures > 8 GPa. However, water contents in the mantle are significant (~1000 H/106 Si) and we do not know how the slip systems of olivine are affected by higher water contents at high pressures. In order to investigate the effect of pressure on slip systems activities in olivine deformed in wet conditions, deformation experiments were carried out on single crystals, at pressure ranging from 4 to 8 GPa and temperature between 1373 and 1473 K in the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA) of the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS (NY, USA). Specimen were deformed in uniaxial compression along [110]c, [011]c and [101]c crystallographic directions, promoting the activation of, respectively, [100](010), [001](010) slip systems, and simultaneously [100](001) and [001](100) slip systems. Talc sleeves about the annulus of the single crystals were used as source of water during deformation. In addition, run products investigation using a micro-focused IR beam at the U2 beamline enables accurate mapping of the water content across the deformed single crystals using FTIR spectroscopy, while specimen deformation microstructures were investigated by TEM. We observe a slip-system transition in wet specimen occurring at lower pressure than that observed by Raterron et al. (2007) in dry specimens. For

  15. Strain Wave during the Transient Process of Fault Unstable Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Liu, L.

    2011-12-01

    The "stick-slip" model was proposed as an important mechanism for shallow-focus earthquakes. The study on the transient process of fault unstable slip failure is helpful for understanding the earthquake preparatory process, the mechanism of energy released, the precursor and after shake effect. Double shear frictional experiments are conducted for simulating "stick-slip" phenomenon, and a specially designed multi-channel super dynamic strain field observation system is employed to acquire dada continuously with the sample rate of 3,400 samples/second. The rock deformation process can be recorded in detail, especially in the moment of unstable slip (The unstable slip duration is less than two second in experiments). The strain results from super dynamic strain field observation system show that multi-frequency components and tremendous amplitude fluctuation are included in strain signals along the fault. There are three clear phases during the unstable slip progress: pre-slip (phase I), high-frequency strain vibration (phase II) and strain regulating to stop (phase III). Each phase has its own characteristics on duration, strain rate, frequency, amplitude and energy release. There are strong fluctuations in duration of approximately 70ms in phase II. The frequency and maximum amplitude are 300-400Hz and 150~300μɛ respectively. Main strain energy release takes place at phase II, less than one-tenth of the total slip time, so that the whole course of dislocation or stress drop would not be taken as earthquake simply at least in laboratory. The phase characteristic of the strain wave is probably its inherent attribute of unstable slip process and independent of dynamical loading conditions. The elastic rebound phenomena, considered as one classic earthquake generation model, can be observed clearly by analyzing the rotation of the principal strain axis with strain variation. The rotated angle ranges from 5° to 15° typically. The value and location of precursor slip

  16. Slip history of the Dead Sea fault system for the last 100 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Gold, R. D.; Meghraoui, M.

    2011-12-01

    The long-term earthquake behavior of active faults may be recorded by progressively offset landforms such as streams, fans, and ridges. High accuracy offset measurements and age constraints for a significant number of landforms are required to best understand the slip history of a given fault. In the present work we construct a slip history for the Dead Sea fault (DSF) system from Turkey to Jordan using offset landforms. Our analysis focuses on utilizing the paleoclimate history of the Eastern Mediterranean for the last 140 kyr with an emphasis on Intense Precipitation Episodes (IPEs) likely to have triggered systematic stream gully erosion and alluvial-fan aggradation. IPEs are documented by the occurrence of sapropel layers, high lake stands and significant changes in vegetation, and are dated by multiproxy approaches such as speleothems from caves located along the DSF. Overall, these data define 11 IPEs during the last 140 kyr. We document 126 new cumulative offset landforms in addition to 55 previously reported features along nine segments of the DSF system between Turkey and Jordan. We employ an offset clustering analysis that we link to the defined IPEs chronology to propose new ages for 57 undated offsets, revise 18 published values and reject six more. Our consolidated dataset is composed of 106 offset values and related ages that span entire DSF system. Monte Carlo analysis of this high-resolution dataset indicates consistent along-strike slip rates along the DSF system of 5.0 to 5.8 mm/yr (2-sigma), outside of the geometrically complex Lebanese Bend. A slight, but statistically significant positive gradient may exist from south to north. Over time windows of 2-121 kyr, individual datasets indicate no temporal slip-rate variability along the Yammouneh fault, possibly along the Roum, Jordan Valley and Wadi Araba faults and likely along the Hacipasa and Missyaf faults. Where apparent, the largest slip rate gradient occurs at 7.5-8.5 ka and appears to have

  17. Rupture dynamics with energy loss outside the slip zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Energy loss in a fault damage zone, outside the slip zone, contributes to the fracture energy that determines rupture velocity of an earthquake. A nonelastic two-dimensional dynamic calculation is done in which the slip zone is modeled as a fault plane and material off the fault is subject to a Coulomb yield condition. In a mode 2 crack-like solution in which an abrupt uniform drop of shear traction on the fault spreads from a point, Coulomb yielding occurs on the extensional side of the fault. Plastic strain is distributed with uniform magnitude along the fault, and it has a thickness normal to the fault proportional to propagation distance. Energy loss off the fault is also proportional to propagation distance, and it can become much larger than energy loss on the fault specified by the fault constitutive relation. The slip velocity function could be produced in an equivalent elastic problem by a slip-weakening friction law with breakdown slip Dc increasing with distance. Fracture energy G and equivalent Dc will be different in ruptures with different initiation points and stress drops, so they are not constitutive properties; they are determined by the dynamic solution that arrives at a particular point. Peak slip velocity is, however, a property of a fault location. Nonelastic response can be mimicked by imposing a limit on slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium.

  18. Stick-Slip Friction of PDMS Surfaces for Bioinspired Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Xue, Longjian; Pham, Jonathan T; Iturri, Jagoba; Del Campo, Aránzazu

    2016-03-15

    Friction plays an important role in the adhesion of many climbing organisms, such as the gecko. During the shearing between two surfaces, periodic stick-slip behavior is often observed and may be critical to the adhesion of gecko setae and gecko-inspired adhesives. Here, we investigate the influence of short oligomers and pendent chains on the stick-slip friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a commonly used material for bioinspired adhesives. Three different stick-slip patterns were observed on these surfaces (flat or microstructured) depending on the presence or absence of oligomers and their ability to diffuse out of the material. After washing samples to remove any untethered oligomeric chains, or after oxygen plasma treatment to convert the surface to a thin layer of silica, we decouple the contributions of stiffness, oligomers, and pendant chains to the stick-slip behavior. The stick phase is mainly controlled by the stiffness while the amount of untethered oligomers and pendant chains available at the contact interface defines the slip phase. A large amount of oligomers and pendant chains resulted in a large slip time, dominating the period of stick-slip motion. PMID:26903477

  19. Can slip heterogeneity be linked to earthquake recurrence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Chen, Iyin; Kim, Ahyi

    2016-07-01

    The rupture process of two M4 repeating earthquake sequences in eastern Taiwan with contrasting recurrence behavior is investigated to demonstrate a link between slip heterogeneity and earthquake recurrence. The M3.6-3.8 quasiperiodic repeating earthquakes characterized by 3 years recurrence interval reveal overlapped slip concentrations. Inferred slip distribution for each event illustrates two asperities with peak slip of 47.7 cm and peak stress drop of 151.1 MPa. Under the influence of nearby M6.9 event, the M4.3-4.8 repeating earthquakes separated only by 6-87 min, however, reveal an aperiodic manner. There is a distinct rupture characteristic without overlap in the slip areas, suggesting that shortening of the recurrence interval by the nearby large earthquake may change the slip heterogeneity in a repeatedly ruptured asperity. We conclude that the inherent heterogeneity of stress and strength could influence the distribution of coseismic slip, which is strongly tied to the recurrence behavior.

  20. Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall MHD Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm's law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm's law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities lead to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed field accelerator operation.

  1. Stick-slip friction and wear of articular joints

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps—separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints. PMID:23359687

  2. Stick-slip friction and wear of articular joints.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2013-02-12

    Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps--separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints.

  3. Local void and slip model used in BODYFIT-2PE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    A local void and slip model has been proposed for a two-phase flow without the need of fitting any empirical parameters. This model is based on the assumption that all bubbles have reached their terminal rise velocities in the two-phase region. This simple model seems to provide reasonable calculational results when compared with the experimental data and other void and slip models. It provides a means to account for the void and slip of a two-phase flow on a local basis. This is particularly suitable for a fine mesh thermal-hydraulic computer program such as BODYFIT-2PE.

  4. Local Flow Field and Slip Length of Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schäffel, David; Koynov, Kaloian; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Schönecker, Clarissa

    2016-04-01

    While the global slippage of water past superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted wide interest, the local distribution of slip still remains unclear. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we performed detailed measurements of the local flow field and slip length for water in the Cassie state on a microstructured superhydrophobic surface. We revealed that the local slip length is finite, nonconstant, anisotropic, and sensitive to the presence of surfactants. In combination with numerical calculations of the flow, we can explain all these properties by the local hydrodynamics. PMID:27081981

  5. On the Micromechanisms of Anomalous Slip in BCC Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L L

    2005-09-06

    Dislocation substructures developed in high-purity Mo single crystals deformed under uniaxial compression at room temperature to a total strain of {approx} 0.5% with a strain rate of 1 s{sup -1} have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in order to elucidate the underlying micromechanisms of the anomalous operation of {l_brace}0{bar 1}1{r_brace} slip systems, i.e. Schmid-law violation, in bcc metals. The crystals were oriented with the stress axis parallel to a nominal single-slip orientation of [{bar 2}920], in which the ({bar 1}01)[111] slip system is the only system having a maximum value of Schmid factor (m = 0.5). Nevertheless, the recorded stress-strain curve reveals no single-slip or easy-glide stage, and the anomalous slip occurs in both (011) and (0{bar 1}1) planes. TEM examination of the dislocation structure in the ({bar 1}01) primary slip plane reveals that in addition to the operation of the ({bar 1}01)[111] slip system, the coplanar ({bar 1}01)[1{bar 1}1] slip system that has a much smaller Schmid factor (m = 0.167) is also operative. Similarly, the (0{bar 1}1)[111] slip system (m = 0.25) is cooperative with the coplanar (0{bar 1}1)[{bar 1}11] system (m = 0.287), and the (011)[1{bar 1}1] slip system (m = 0.222) is cooperative with the coplanar (011)[11{bar 1}] system (m = 0.32). The occurrence of {l_brace}0{bar 1}1{r_brace} anomalous slip is accordingly proposed to be initiated from the cooperative dislocation multiplication and mutual trapping and blocking of 1/2[111] and 1/2[1{bar 1}1] coplanar dislocation arrays in the ({bar 1}01) plane. The resulted internal stresses render the propagation of both 1/2[111] and 1/2[1{bar 1}1] screw dislocations from the ({bar 1}01) plane onto the {l_brace}0{bar 1}1{r_brace} planes and subsequently result in the occurrence of anomalous slip.

  6. Explicitly represented polygon wall boundary model for the explicit MPS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsume, Naoto; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Murotani, Kohei; Yamada, Tomonori

    2015-05-01

    This study presents an accurate and robust boundary model, the explicitly represented polygon (ERP) wall boundary model, to treat arbitrarily shaped wall boundaries in the explicit moving particle simulation (E-MPS) method, which is a mesh-free particle method for strong form partial differential equations. The ERP model expresses wall boundaries as polygons, which are explicitly represented without using the distance function. These are derived so that for viscous fluids, and with less computational cost, they satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for the pressure and the slip/no-slip condition on the wall surface. The proposed model is verified and validated by comparing computed results with the theoretical solution, results obtained by other models, and experimental results. Two simulations with complex boundary movements are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the E-MPS method to the ERP model.

  7. From frictional fingers to stick slip bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandnes, Bjørnar; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Flekkøy, Eirik; Eriksen, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Gas intrusion into wet porous/deformable/granular media occurs in a wide range of natural and engineered settings. Examples include hydrocarbon recovery, carbon dioxide geo-sequestration, gas venting in sediments and volcanic eruptions. In the case where the intruding gas is able to displace particles and grains, local changes in granular packing fraction govern the evolution of flow paths, resulting in complex pattern formation of the displacement flow. Here we investigate flow patterning as a compressed gas displaces a granular mixture confined in the narrow gap of a Hele-Shaw cell. We find a surprising variety of different pattern formation dynamics, and present a unified phase diagram of the flow morphologies we observe. This talk will focus on one particular transition the system undergoes: from frictional fingers to stick slip bubbles. We show that the frictional fluid flow patterns depend on granular mass loading and system elasticity, analogous to the behaviour of the well-known spring-block sliding friction problem.

  8. Mixed convection in a nanofluid filled-cavity with partial slip subjected to constant heat flux and inclined magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismael, Muneer A.; Mansour, M. A.; Chamkha, Ali J.; Rashad, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and subjected to inclined magnetic field is investigated in this paper. Partial slip effect is considered along the lid driven horizontal walls. A constant heat flux source on the left wall is considered, meanwhile the right vertical wall is cooled isothermally. The remainder cavity walls are thermally insulted. A control finite volume method is used as a numerical appliance of the governing equations. Six pertinent parameters were studied these; the orientation of the magnetic field (Φ=0-360°), Richardson number (Ri=0.001-1000), Hartman number (Ha=0-100), the size and position of the heat source (B=0.2-0.8, D=0.3-0.7, respectively), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0.0-0.1), and the lid-direction of the horizontal walls (λ=±1) where the positive sign means lid-driven to the right while the negative sign means lid-driven to the left. The results show that the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field can play a significant role in controlling the convection under the effect of partial slip. It is also found that the natural convection decreases with increasing the length of the heat source for all ranges of the studied parameters, while it is do so due to the vertical distance up to Hartman number of 50, beyond this value the natural convection decreases with lifting the heat source narrower to the top wall.

  9. MHD dissipative flow and heat transfer of Casson fluids due to metachronal wave propulsion of beating cilia with thermal and velocity slip effects under an oblique magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, D.; Bég, O. Anwar; Khan, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of electrically-conducting viscoplastic fluids through a channel is conducted. The robust Casson model is implemented to simulate viscoplastic behavior of fluids. The external magnetic field is oblique to the fluid flow direction. Viscous dissipation effects are included. The flow is controlled by the metachronal wave propagation generated by cilia beating on the inner walls of the channel. The mathematical formulation is based on deformation in longitudinal and transverse velocity components induced by the ciliary beating phenomenon with cilia assumed to follow elliptic trajectories. The model also features velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. Closed-form solutions to the non-dimensional boundary value problem are obtained under physiological limitations of low Reynolds number and large wavelength. The influence of key hydrodynamic and thermo-physical parameters i.e. Hartmann (magnetic) number, Casson (viscoplastic) fluid parameter, thermal slip parameter and velocity slip parameter on flow characteristics are investigated. A comparative study is also made with Newtonian fluids (corresponding to massive values of plastic viscosity). Stream lines are plotted to visualize trapping phenomenon. The computations reveal that velocity increases with increasing the magnitude of Hartmann number near the channel walls whereas in the core flow region (center of the channel) significant deceleration is observed. Temperature is elevated with greater Casson parameter, Hartmann number, velocity slip, eccentricity parameter, thermal slip and also Brinkmann (dissipation) number. Furthermore greater Casson parameter is found to elevate the quantity and size of the trapped bolus. In the pumping region, the pressure rise is reduced with greater Hartmann number, velocity slip, and wave number whereas it is enhanced with greater cilia length.

  10. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  11. Re-measuring the Slip Rate of the San Andreas Fault at Wallace Creek in the Carrizo Plain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant Ludwig, L.; Akciz, S. O.; Arrowsmith, R.; Sato, T.; Cheiffetz, T.; Haddad, D. E.; Salisbury, J. B.; Marliyani, G. I.; Bohon, W.

    2015-12-01

    Sieh and Jahns (S&J) (1984) reported a slip rate of 33.9 +2.9 mm/yr for the San Andreas fault (SAF) at Wallace Creek (WC) in the Carrizo Plain. Referenced hundreds of times, their measurement provides critical constraint for many related studies. Paleoseismologic studies at Bidart Fan (BF), ~5 km southeast of WC, show rupture approximately every 88 yrs between ~A.D. 1350 and 1857 (Akciz et al., 2010). Measurements of slip per event for the last 5 or 6 earthquakes at WC (Liu et al., 2004; Liu-Zeng et al., 2006), when combined with rupture dates from BF, yield slip rates up to 50 mm/yr, well above widely accepted values of ~ 35 mm/yr. The apparent discrepancy between slip rates and slip per event measurements provided motivation to re-measure S&J's (1984) slip rate, which was based on 8 detrital charcoal samples, by collecting samples for radiocarbon dating with new methods that have improved dramatically since the early 1980s. We re-excavated S&J's (1984) original trenches WC-2, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and placed a new trench, WC-12. The new trench exposed a rich history of channel cut and fill prior to abandonment of the beheaded channel and incision of the modern channel. The youngest channel fills, which must be slightly younger than the abandonment, indicate that sedimentation occurred between 3675-3285 BP, after which the channel was fully abandoned. Using S&J's (1984) offset measurement of 130 m since ~3400 BP, we recalculate a late Holocene slip rate of ~38 mm/yr in our preliminary analysis. This rate is slightly higher than the S&J (1984) result of 33.9±2.9 mm/yr and Noriega et al. (2006) result of 32.4±3.1 mm/yr at the Van Matre Ranch in the southern Carrizo. Our results are closer to the higher end of the ~36±2 mm/yr velocity gradient across the SAF from decadal timescale geodetic measurements (Schmalzle, et al., 2006).

  12. The Slip History and Source Statistics of Major Slow Slip Events along the Cascadia Subduction Zone from 1998 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    We estimate the time dependent slip distribution of 16 prominent slow slip events along the northern half of the Cascadia subduction zone from 1998 to 2008. We process continuous GPS data from the PBO, PANGA and WCDA networks from the past decade using GAMIT/GLOBK processing package. Transient surface displacements are interpreted as slip on the plate interface using the Extended Network Inversion Filter. Of these 16 events, 10 events are centered north of Puget Sound, 4 events are resolved around the Columbia River and 1 event is located near Cape Blanco. The February 2003 event is complex, extending from Portland to southern Vancouver Island. Other smaller events beneath Northern Vancouver Island, Oregon and Northern California are not well resolved because of the limited station coverage. We identify two characteristic segments based on the along-strike extent of individual transient slip events in northern Washington. One segment is centered around Port Angeles. Another segment is between the Columbia River and the southern end of Puget Sound. The propagation direction of slow slip events is variable from one event to the next. The maximum cumulative slip for these 16 events is ~ 27 cm, which is centered beneath Port Angeles. This indicates that the strain release by transient slip is not uniform along-strike. In northwestern Washington where cumulative slip is a maximum, the subduction zone bends along-strike and dip of the plate is lower compared to the north and south. We hypothesize that the geometry of the slab plays an important role for focusing transient strain release at this location along the subduction zone. We explore the relationship of source parameters of slow slip using our catalogue of 16 events. The estimated moment magnitude ranges between 6.1 and 6.7. The average stress drop of 0.06-0.1 MPa is nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than that found for normal earthquakes (1-10 MPa). Standard earthquakes follow a scaling relationship where

  13. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  14. Independence of slip velocities on applied stress in small crystals.

    PubMed

    Maaß, R; Derlet, P M; Greer, J R

    2015-01-21

    Directly tracing the spatiotemporal dynamics of intermittent plasticity at the micro- and nanoscale reveals that the obtained slip dynamics are independent of applied stress over a range of up to ∼400 MPa, as well as being independent of plastic strain. Whilst this insensitivity to applied stress is unexpected for dislocation plasticity, the stress integrated statistical properties of both the slip size magnitude and the slip velocity follow known theoretical predictions for dislocation plasticity. Based on these findings, a link between the crystallographic slip velocities and an underlying dislocation avalanche velocity is proposed. Supporting dislocation dynamics simulations exhibit a similar regime during microplastic flow, where the mean dislocation velocity is insensitive to the applied stress. Combining both experimental and modeling observations, the results are discussed in a framework that firmly places the plasticity of nano- and micropillars in the microplastic regime of bulk crystals.

  15. GENERAL ELECTRIC SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR, SLIP RING END. NOTE THAT OUTSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ELECTRIC SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR, SLIP RING END. NOTE THAT OUTSIDE FRAME IS ROTATING ARMATURE, AND STATOR IS IN CENTER. ARCH SUPPORTS BRAKE BAND. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 23. View looking N with former Brooklyn ferry slip in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View looking N with former Brooklyn ferry slip in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  18. Slip ring experience in long duration space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, Damon D.

    1986-01-01

    Ball Aerospace experience with slip rings in space extends back to 1962. Over 40 multi-ring assemblies have been flown and continuous operating lifetimes greater than 8 years at up to 60 rpm have been demonstrated. Slip rings provide multi-channel transfer of electrical power and signals in assemblies that are small in size and weight, and low in cost. By use of multiple brushes and sufficient copper within the assembly, power transfer efficiency better than 99.95 percent for high voltage circuits can be achieved. A low slip ring failure rate based on actual space operation totalling billions of ring revolutions has been established. Well qualified suppliers who have been making slip rings for space use for over 25 years are available. It is hoped that the suspected problem in SEASAT will not be allowed to prejudice space system designer against these very useful mechanisms.

  19. Multilayer Coextrusion Reveals Slip at Polymer-polymer Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rui; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2000-03-01

    De Gennes (1992) suggested that loss of entanglement in the interfacial region between two incompatible polymers causes slip at interfaces. Goveas and Fredrickson (1998) developed a quantitative model for the lowering of interfacial viscosity. However, to date there appears to be no quantitative experimental evidence for interfacial slip. We coextruded polypropylene and polystyrene with closely matched viscosities into multilayers with 2,32 and 128 layers. Pressure drop of the coextruded multilayer melts through a slit die was measured. The data showed a 40reduction when the number of layers increased from 2 to 128, which indicates interfacial slip. The steady shear viscosity of the multilayer sample was also measured in parallel plates. When the shear stress was higher than a critical value, the viscosity of the multilayers was lower than either of the components. The interfacial viscosity was estimated, and 40 times reduction was observed. Diblock copolymer which spanned the interfaces was shown to able to suppress interfacial slip.

  20. Experimental Characterization of a Flexible Thermal Slip Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Francomano, Maria Teresa; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Tactile sensors are needed for effectively controlling the interaction between a robotic hand and the environment, e.g., during manipulation of objects, or for the tactile exploration of unstructured environments, especially when other sensing modalities, such as vision or audition, become ineffective. In the case of hand prostheses, mainly intended for dexterous manipulation of daily living objects, the possibility of quickly detecting slip occurrence, thus avoiding inadvertent falling of the objects, is prodromal to any manipulation task. In this paper we report on a slip sensor with no-moving parts, based on thermo-electrical phenomena, fabricated on a flexible substrate and suitable for integration on curved surfaces, such as robotic finger pads. Experiments performed using a custom made test bench, which is capable of generating controlled slip velocities, show that the sensor detects slip events in less than 50 ms. This response time is short enough for enabling future applications in the field of hand prosthetics. PMID:23202209

  1. TV Ratings for Parents Let Violence, Drinking Slip Through

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160553.html TV Ratings for Parents Let Violence, Drinking Slip Through Industry guidelines often misleading, study ... don't always reflect the true amount of violence, smoking and drinking in TV shows, a new ...

  2. Relaxation in crystal plasticity with three active slip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Sergio; Dolzmann, Georg

    2016-09-01

    We study a variational model for finite crystal plasticity in the limit of rigid elasticity. We focus on the case of three distinct slip systems whose slip directions lie in one plane and are rotated by 120° with respect to each other, with linear self-hardening and infinite latent hardening, in the sense that each material point has to deform in single slip. Under these conditions, plastic deformation is accompanied by the formation of fine-scale structures, in which activity along the different slip systems localizes in different areas. The quasiconvex envelope of the energy density, which describes the macroscopic material behavior, is determined in a regime from small up to intermediate strains, and upper and lower bounds are provided for large strains. Finally sufficient conditions are given under which the lamination convex envelope of an extended-valued energy density is an upper bound for its quasiconvex envelope.

  3. Slip Updip of Tremor during the 2012 Cascadia ETS Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, K.; Houston, H.

    2014-12-01

    The interplay between tremor and slow slip during ETS has implications for the slip budget of the Cascadia subduction zone. In particular, it can constrain the downdip edge of the locked zone, which informs the hazard assessments for major cities including Seattle, Tacoma, and Vancouver. As shown by Houston (AGU abstract, 2012), slip inferred from GPS extended updip of the seismically-detected tremor in the 2010 M6.8 ETS event. Following the methods used on the 2010 ETS event, we used the PANGA GPS to measure the displacement vectors for 71 stations to analyze a large ETS event in 2012 that extended from Vancouver Island to Southern Washington. We implemented Principal Component Analysis to automatically select the direction and magnitude of the maximum displacement vector. We then inverted these GPS displacements for slip, using the Okada formulation of buried rectangular faults in a halfspace with a grid of 8 by 8 km subfaults based on the McCrory slab model. We performed inversions with either 0th or 2nd order Tikhonov regularization and found that over the 6 weeks of propagation, the 2012 ETS event released moment corresponding to M6.7, in three high-slip regions. We compared two different inversions, one where slip was allowed on a broad regional grid and a tremor-restricted inversion (TRI) where slip was restricted to grid locations where tremor had been detected in the 2012 ETS. We found that the TRI forced the slip to the updip edge of the grid where it reached above 10 cm, which is physically implausible given that this exceeds the slip that can accumulate in an inter-ETS time period. Additionally, the regional grid inversion indicates that 1 to 2 cm of slip occurred 10's of km updip of the western edge of tremor. This further supports the inference from the 2010 event that in northern Washington, the slow slip during an ETS event extends many kilometers updip of the western edge of tremor.

  4. Effect of wall conditions on DDT in hydrogen-oxygen mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Motoki; Dzieminska, Edyta; Hayashi, A. Koichi; Yamada, Eisuke; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    Detonation in ducts is usually studied assuming adiabatic walls because of the high kinetic energy due to the incoming flow being supersonic. In the present work, numerical simulations of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) using a detailed chemical reaction model are performed under adiabatic and isothermal boundary conditions in a tube with no-slip walls. The results show a local explosion driving DDT, which occurs near the tube wall in the case of an adiabatic wall, but close to the flame front in the case of an isothermal wall. Furthermore, to examine the effects of a turbulent boundary layer, a simulation using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model is carried out. In the case of the isothermal wall, there is again a local explosion near the tube wall, which leads to detonation. In summary, the present study confirms that the boundary conditions affect the transition to detonation and that the boundary layer is a key component of DDT.

  5. Foreshocks during the nucleation of stick-slip instability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on laboratory experiments which investigate interactions between aseismic slip, stress changes, and seismicity on a critically stressed fault during the nucleation of stick-slip instability. We monitor quasi-static and dynamic changes in local shear stress and fault slip with arrays of gages deployed along a simulated strike-slip fault (2 m long and 0.4 m deep) in a saw cut sample of Sierra White granite. With 14 piezoelectric sensors, we simultaneously monitor seismic signals produced during the nucleation phase and subsequent dynamic rupture. We observe localized aseismic fault slip in an approximately meter-sized zone in the center of the fault, while the ends of the fault remain locked. Clusters of high-frequency foreshocks (Mw ~ −6.5 to −5.0) can occur in this slowly slipping zone 5–50 ms prior to the initiation of dynamic rupture; their occurrence appears to be dependent on the rate at which local shear stress is applied to the fault. The meter-sized nucleation zone is generally consistent with theoretical estimates, but source radii of the foreshocks (2 to 70 mm) are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the theoretical minimum length scale over which earthquake nucleation can occur. We propose that frictional stability and the transition between seismic and aseismic slip are modulated by local stressing rate and that fault sections, which would typically slip aseismically, may radiate seismic waves if they are rapidly stressed. Fault behavior of this type may provide physical insight into the mechanics of foreshocks, tremor, repeating earthquake sequences, and a minimum earthquake source dimension.

  6. Modelling Paleoearthquake Slip Distributions using a Gentic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Anthony; Simão, Nuno; McCloskey, John; Nalbant, Suleyman; Murphy, Shane; Bhloscaidh, Mairead Nic

    2013-04-01

    Along the Sunda trench, the annual growth rings of coral microatolls store long term records of tectonic deformation. Spread over large areas of an active megathrust fault, they offer the possibility of high resolution reconstructions of slip for a number of paleo-earthquakes. These data are complex with spatial and temporal variations in uncertainty. Rather than assuming that any one model will uniquely fit the data, Monte Carlo Slip Estimation (MCSE) modelling produces a catalogue of possible models for each event. From each earthquake's catalogue, a model is selected and a possible history of slip along the fault reconstructed. By generating multiple histories, then finding the average slip during each earthquake, a probabilistic history of slip along the fault can be generated and areas that may have a large slip deficit identified. However, the MCSE technique requires the production of many hundreds of billions of models to yield the few models that fit the observed coral data. In an attempt to accelerate this process, we have designed a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The GA uses evolutionary operators to recombine the information held by a population of possible slip models to produce a set of new models, based on how well they reproduce a set of coral deformation data. Repeated iterations of the algorithm produce populations of improved models, each generation better satisfying the coral data. Preliminary results have shown the GA to be capable of recovering synthetically generated slip distributions based their displacements of sets of corals faster than the MCSE technique. The results of the systematic testing of the GA technique and its performance using both synthetic and observed coral displacement data will be presented.

  7. Refining the Magnitude of the Shallow Slip Deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Milliner, C. W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geodetic inversions for slip versus depth for several major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (e.g. 1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine, 2010 El_Mayor-Cucapah) show a 10% to 40% reduction in slip near surface (depth < 2 km) compared to the slip at deeper depths (5 to 8 km). This has been called the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions used incomplete data that do not go close to fault so the shallow portions of the slip models were poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study we improve the geodetic inversion, especially at shallow depth by: 1) refining the InSAR processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU using a correlation mask and allowing a phase discontinuity along the rupture; 2) including near-fault offset data from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; 3) using more detailed fault geometry; 4) and using additional campaign GPS data. With these improved observations, the slip inversion has significantly increased resolution at shallow depth. For the Landers rupture the SSD is reduced from 45% to 16%. Similarly for the Hector Mine rupture the SSD is reduced from 15% to 5%. We are assembling all the relevant co-seismic data for the El Major-Cucapah earthquake and will report the inversion result with its SSD at the meeting.

  8. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. We establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  9. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1996-06-01

    It is widely accepted that dead-reckoning based on the rolling with no-slip condition on the wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The authors establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  10. Self-similar slip instability on interfaces with rate- and state-dependent friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We examine the development of a frictional instability, with diverging sliding rate, at the interface of elastic bodies in contact. Evolution of friction is determined by a slip rate and state dependence. Following Viesca (2016 Phys. Rev. E 93, 060202(R). (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.060202)), we show through an appropriate change of variable, the existence of blow-up solutions that are fixed points of a dynamical system. The solutions show self-similarity of the simple variety: separable dependence of time and space. For an interface with uniform frictional properties, there is a single-problem parameter. We examine the linear stability of these fixed points, as this problem parameter is varied. Specifically, we consider two archetypical elastic settings of the slip surface, in which interactions between points on the surface are either local or non-local. We show that, independent of the nature of elastic interactions, the fixed-points lose stability in the same matter as the parameter is increased towards a limit value: an apparently infinite sequence of Hopf bifurcations. However, for any value of the parameter, the nonlinear development of the instability is attraction, if not asymptotic convergence, towards these fixed points, owing to the existence of stable eigenmodes. For comparison, we perform numerical solutions of the original evolution equations and find precise agreement with the results of the analysis.

  11. On the Rupture Dynamics of Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting in a Stratified Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2015-04-01

    One significant feature of a shallow dip-slip earthquake is the broken symmetry of seismic motion in the proximity of the rupturing fault plane. In general, the strong motion is much larger on the hanging wall than on the footwall, but the mechanics behind this asymmetry has not been wholly understood yet. Therefore, in this contribution, based on finite difference calculations and dynamic photoelasticity, we try to deepen our understanding on the rupture dynamics of a shallow dip-slip fault plane numerically as well as experimentally. In our two-dimensional crack-like rupture models, a flat vertical or inclined fault plane is prepared in a monolithic (first model) or stratified (second model) linear elastic medium. In the basic first model, as predicted numerically by Uenishi and Madariaga (Eos 2005), the primary fault rupture approaching the horizontal free surface may induce four Rayleigh-type waves, two Rayleigh waves propagating along the free surface to the far field and the other two interface waves travelling back downwards along the ruptured fault plane. In the case of the inclined fault plane, the interaction of the interface and Rayleigh waves may generate a strong shear wave (corner wave) and cause stronger disturbances in the hanging wall. The corner wave may exist only when the fault plane is asymmetrically inclined. On the contrary, in the second model, symmetry of seismic motion may be broken even in geometrically symmetric cases if the secondary rupture is allowed at an interface between geological layers. For instance, if primary vertical fault rupture propagates from depth and interferes with a horizontal interface obeying a tensile fracture criterion, the interface segments on which the primary fault rupture produces dynamic compression (in the relatively rising hanging wall) may remain unbroken and only some interface segments in the subsiding footwall may be fractured in tension. That is, in the hanging wall, the dynamic disturbances in the

  12. Dynamic Modelling of Fault Slip Induced by Stress Waves due to Stope Production Blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainoki, Atsushi; Mitri, Hani S.

    2016-01-01

    Seismic events can take place due to the interaction of stress waves induced by stope production blasts with faults located in close proximity to stopes. The occurrence of such seismic events needs to be controlled to ensure the safety of the mine operators and the underground mine workings. This paper presents the results of a dynamic numerical modelling study of fault slip induced by stress waves resulting from stope production blasts. First, the calibration of a numerical model having a single blast hole is performed using a charge weight scaling law to determine blast pressure and damping coefficient of the rockmass. Subsequently, a numerical model of a typical Canadian metal mine encompassing a fault parallel to a tabular ore deposit is constructed, and the simulation of stope extraction sequence is carried out with static analyses until the fault exhibits slip burst conditions. At that point, the dynamic analysis begins by applying the calibrated blast pressure to the stope wall in the form of velocities generated by the blast holes. It is shown from the results obtained from the dynamic analysis that the stress waves reflected on the fault create a drop of normal stresses acting on the fault, which produces a reduction in shear stresses while resulting in fault slip. The influence of blast sequences on the behaviour of the fault is also examined assuming several types of blast sequences. Comparison of the blast sequence simulation results indicates that performing simultaneous blasts symmetrically induces the same level of seismic events as separate blasts, although seismic energy is more rapidly released when blasts are performed symmetrically. On the other hand when nine blast holes are blasted simultaneously, a large seismic event is induced, compared to the other two blasts. It is concluded that the separate blasts might be employed under the adopted geological conditions. The developed methodology and procedure to arrive at an ideal blast sequence can

  13. Friction experiments on Alpine Fault DFDP core samples: Implications for slip style on plate boundary faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikari, M.; Trütner, S.; Toy, V. G.; Carpenter, B. M.; Kopf, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is a major plate-boundary fault zone that poses a significant seismic hazard in southern New Zealand, with the next major earthquake expected to be imminent. Core samples from the Alpine Fault were recovered from two Deep Fault Drilling Project pilot boreholes that penetrated the principal slip zone (PSZ). We show here that at room temperature and low effective stress (30 MPa), materials from within and very near the PSZ are weaker than the surrounding cataclasites (μ = 0.45), exhibit velocity-strengthening friction, and also tend to restrengthen (heal) rapidly. Under conditions appropriate for several kilometers depth on the Alpine Fault (100 MPa, 160 °C, fluid-saturated), a cataclasite/gouge sample located very near to the PSZ exhibits μ = 0.67, which is high compared to measurements performed at lower pressures and temperatures for the Alpine Fault and other major fault zones sampled by scientific drilling. Every major lithological unit tested under elevated P-T conditions exhibits both positive and negative values of friction velocity-dependence suggesting that they are all capable of earthquake nucleation. Using representative values of the friction velocity-dependent parameter a-b, the critical slip distance Dc, and previously documented elastic properties of the wall rock, estimated critical nucleation patch lengths may be as low as ~3 m. This small value is consistent with a seismic moment Mo = ~4x1010 or a Mw = ~1, which suggests that events of this size or larger are expected to occur as normal earthquakes and that slow or transient slip events are unlikely in the approximate depth range of 3-7 km. In conjunction with previous geodetic and seismologic observations, our results indicate that the Alpine Fault has a high potential for frictional instability throughout the brittle crust, in contrast with other major fault zones on which the uppermost portion is relatively stable.

  14. Fault slip during a glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Rebekka; Wu, Patrick; Steffen, Holger; Eaton, Dave

    2013-04-01

    Areas affected by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) generally show uplift after deglaciation. These regions are also characterized by a moderate past and present-day seismicity, at seismic moment release rates that exceed those expected under stable tectonic conditions. Several faults have been found in North America and Europe, which have been activated during or after the last deglaciation. Large-magnitude earthquakes have generated fault offsets of up to 120 m. Due to the recent melting of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, an understanding of the occurrence of these earthquakes is important. With a new finite-element model, we are able to estimate, for the first time, fault slip during a glacial cycle for continental ice sheets. A two-dimensional earth model based on former GIA studies is developed, which is loaded with a hyperbolic ice sheet. The fault is able to move in a stress field consisting of rebound stress, tectonic background stress, and lithostatic stress. The sensitivity of this fault is tested regarding lithospheric and crustal thickness, viscosity structure of upper and lower mantle, ice-sheet thickness and width, and fault parameters including coefficient of friction, depth, angle and location. Fault throws of up to 30 m are obtained using a fault of 45° dipping below the ice sheet centre. The thickness of the crust is one of the major parameters affecting the total fault throw, e.g. higher values for a thinner crust. Most faults start to move close to the end of deglaciation, and movement stops after one thrusting/reverse earthquake. However, certain conditions may also lead to several fault movements after the end of glaciations.

  15. Small sized slip-ring capsule endurance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondier, Jean-Bernard

    2005-07-01

    Slip-ring capsules are mechanical units used to carry electrical signals or power currents through a rotating joint. They are used either in solar array drive mechanisms (SADM) or in scientific instruments like radiometers. Analyses of the latest missions show that the slip-rings requirements are more and more demanding. For example, the number of in-orbit mechanical cycles keeps increasing. As a result, a signal slip-ring technology, which had been successfully tested for a given need, now has to improve its performances. It was therefore interesting to try to reach the slip-rings technical limits by testing them beyond the required performance of already known space missions. Slip-rings units are currently used in mechanisms such as SADM for the CNES Proteus and Myriade satellite family. They can be also found in the payload instruments of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, namely Madras and Scarab. A selected hardware was tested at the mechanism endurance laboratory of the CNES, in Toulouse. The typical in-orbit rotation speed was increased in order to limit the test duration to 2 years. The main interest of this work was to provide a continuous slip-ring performance status and a large set of engineering data. The main test results are presented and discussed. The following lines also report a part of the hardware detailed inspection and the lessons learned.

  16. Biomechanical response to ladder slipping events: Effects of hand placement.

    PubMed

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Campbell-Kyureghyan, Naira H; Beschorner, Kurt E

    2015-11-01

    Ladder falling accidents are a significant, growing and severe occupational hazard. The factors that contribute to falls from ladders and specifically those that influence the motor response from ladder falls are not well understood. The aims of this research were to determine the effects of hand placement (rung versus rail) on muscle activation onset and peak activity timing in response to slipping on a ladder and to sequence the timing of events following slip initiation. Fifteen unexpected slips from 11 experienced ladder climbers were induced with a freely spinning rung under the foot, while subjects were randomly assigned to a rung versus rail hand grasping strategy. EMG onset time and peak activity time from five bilateral muscles (semitendinosis, vastus lateralis, triceps, biceps and anterior deltoid) were analyzed. Results indicated that significantly slower muscle activation onset and peak response times occurred during rail hand placement, suggesting that grasping ladder rungs may be preferable for improving the speed of the motor response. The triceps muscle activated and reached peak activity earlier in the slip indicating that subjects may initially extend their arms prior to generating hand forces. The study also revealed that slips tended to occur around the time that a foot and hand were in motion and there were just two points of contact (one hand and the slipping foot).

  17. Texture and pyramidal slip in Ti, Zr and their alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pochettino, A.A.; Gannio, N. ); Edwards, C.V. ); Penelle, R. )

    1992-12-15

    Zirconium, titanium and their alloys have a high anisotropic plastic behavior. One way to show this behavior is to analyze the evolution of the Lankford coefficient (R ([alpha]), values of which are obtained from tensile tests along different directions in the sheet plane). The variation of R([alpha]) can be explained from the crystallographic texture and the active deformation mechanisms. Microstructural observations show that prismatic slip is the most active deformation mode in these materials, but no dimensional change in the [lt][bar c][gt] direction of grains is possible by the activation of the (10[bar 1]0) [lt] 1[bar 2]10[gt] slip alone; so deformation along [0001] has to be accommodated either by (10[bar 1]o) [lt]1[bar 2]13[gt] (or [lt][bar c] + [bar a][gt]) pyramidal slip or by twinning. Many transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have shown evidence for [lt][bar c] + [bar a][gt] slip activity, and some authors have reported slip on (1[bar 1]01) planes in Ti alloys. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with another analysis of pyramidal slip activity in hcp textured materials, such as Ti and Zr alloys, and of the hardening mechanisms for this deformation mode. This analysis is performed both in a direct way, by means of TEM observations of deformed samples, and in an indirect way, by different mechanical tests.

  18. Measurement of Apparent Thermal Conductivity of JSC-1A Under Ambient Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    The apparent thermal conductivity of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant was measured experimentally using a cylindrical apparatus. Eleven thermocouples were embedded in the simulant bed to obtain the steady state temperature distribution at various radial, axial, and azimuthal locations. The high aspect ratio of a cylindrical geometry was proven to provide a one-dimensional, axisymmetric temperature field. A test series was performed at atmospheric pressure with varying heat fluxes. The radial temperature distribution in each test fit a logarithmic function, indicating a constant thermal conductivity throughout the soil bed. However, thermal conductivity was not constant between tests at different heat fluxes. This variation is attributed to stresses created by thermal expansion of the simulant particles against the rigid chamber wall. Under stress-free conditions (20 deg C), the data suggest a temperature independent apparent conductivity of 0.1961 +/- 0.0070 W/m/ deg C

  19. Rheology and morphology of no-slip sheared polymer nanocomposite under creep condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortezapour, Saba; Eslami, Hossein; Nedaaee Oskoee, Ehsan

    2015-07-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics simulations are performed on wet polymer nanocomposite blends under the discrete imposed velocity profile and no-slip boundary conditions. To be able to study the chain length dependency of the rheological properties, a number of blends of mono-disperse polymer chains of lengths varying from 10 to 100 repeat units and nanoparticles of diameters 2.5 and 5 have been simulated. The wall velocity was imposed on a thin polymer layer (the no-slip layer). Linear velocity profiles for polymer confined in the pore were observed at the steady state. We found that the flow has a shear thinning effect on the chains with a radius of gyration less than the filler radius. Long chains (with a radius of gyration longer than the filler's radius), however, obey the Newtonian behavior over a much wider shear rate than that which causes shear thinning in short chains. The effect of particle-monomer interactions, polymer entanglements, chain morphology, and link formation on the shear rate dependency of the viscosity coefficient has been studied. Our results show that the particle-polymer interactions have no effect on shear thinning behavior of the blend. In contrast, the long range polymer-polymer interactions and the chain length have considerable effects on the rheological behavior of the blend. Finally, the phase diagram of the rheological properties of polymer nanocomposite as a function of strain rate and the chain length is extracted.

  20. Thermally developing MHD peristaltic transport of nanofluids with velocity and thermal slip effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher Akbar, Noreen; Bintul Huda, A.; Tripathi, D.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the velocity slip and thermal slip effects on peristaltically driven thermal transport of nanofluids through the vertical parallel plates under the influence of transverse magnetic field. The wall surface is propagating with sinusoidal wave velocity c. The flow characteristics are governed by the mass, momentum and energy conservation principle. Low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations are taken into consideration to simplify the non-linear terms. Analytical solutions for axial velocity, temperature field, pressure gradient and stream function are obtained under certain physical boundary conditions. Two types of nanoparticles, SiO2 and Ag, are considered for analysis with water as base fluid. This is the first article in the literature that discusses the SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles for a peristaltic flow with variable viscosity. The effects of physical parameters on velocity, temperature, pressure and trapping are discussed. A comparative study of SiO2 nanofluid, Ag nanofluid and pure water is also presented. This model is applicable in biomedical engineering to make thermal peristaltic pumps and other pumping devices like syringe pumps, etc. It is observed that pressure for pure water is maximum and pressure for Ag nanofluid is minimum.

  1. Giant slip lengths of a simple fluid at vibrating solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Drezet, Aurélien; Siria, Alessandro; Huant, Serge; Chevrier, Joël

    2010-04-01

    It has been shown recently [A. Siria, A. Drezet, F. Marchi, F. Comin, S. Huant, and J. Chevrier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 254503 (2009)] that in the plane-plane configuration, a mechanical resonator vibrating close to a rigid wall in a simple fluid can be overdamped to a frozen regime. Here, by solving analytically the Navier-Stokes equations with partial slip boundary conditions at the solid-fluid interface, we develop a theoretical approach justifying and extending these earlier findings. We show in particular that in the perfect-slip regime, the abovementioned results are, in the plane-plane configuration, very general and robust with respect to lever geometry considerations. We compare the results to those obtained previously for the sphere moving perpendicularly and close to a plane in a simple fluid and discuss in more details the differences concerning the dependence of the friction forces with the gap distance separating the moving object (i.e., plane or sphere) from the fixed plane. We show that the plane-plane geometry is more sensitive than the sphere-plane geometry for the measurement of slippage coefficients. Finally, we show that the submicron fluidic effect reported in the reference above, and discussed further in the present work, can have dramatic implications in the design of nanoelectromechanical systems.

  2. Giant slip lengths of a simple fluid at vibrating solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezet, Aurélien; Siria, Alessandro; Huant, Serge; Chevrier, Joël

    2010-04-01

    It has been shown recently [A. Siria, A. Drezet, F. Marchi, F. Comin, S. Huant, and J. Chevrier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 254503 (2009)] that in the plane-plane configuration, a mechanical resonator vibrating close to a rigid wall in a simple fluid can be overdamped to a frozen regime. Here, by solving analytically the Navier-Stokes equations with partial slip boundary conditions at the solid-fluid interface, we develop a theoretical approach justifying and extending these earlier findings. We show in particular that in the perfect-slip regime, the abovementioned results are, in the plane-plane configuration, very general and robust with respect to lever geometry considerations. We compare the results to those obtained previously for the sphere moving perpendicularly and close to a plane in a simple fluid and discuss in more details the differences concerning the dependence of the friction forces with the gap distance separating the moving object (i.e., plane or sphere) from the fixed plane. We show that the plane-plane geometry is more sensitive than the sphere-plane geometry for the measurement of slippage coefficients. Finally, we show that the submicron fluidic effect reported in the reference above, and discussed further in the present work, can have dramatic implications in the design of nanoelectromechanical systems.

  3. Dynamics and propulsion of a rotating flexible helical rod near a no-slip rigid boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawed, Mohammad; Karimi, Hussain; Reis, Pedro

    We study the effect of a no-slip rigid boundary on the locomotion of uni-flagellar bacteria in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number conditions, through a combination of computer simulations and experiments. In our analogue model experiments, we exploit the prominence of geometry in this class of problems to rescale the original micron-scale system onto the desktop-scale. We manufacture elastomeric filaments with fully customizable geometric and material properties, and rotate them in a glycerin bath at a finite distance away from a rigid boundary. The experimental results are compared against numerical simulations that combine the Discrete Elastic Rods method in conjunction with Lighthill Slender Body Theory. The no-slip boundary condition on the wall is implemented by the method of images. We first show that the filament buckles above a critical rotation frequency due to fluid loading, and then quantify the dependence of this critical threshold on the distance from the boundary. Excellent agreement is found between experiments and simulations, with no fitting parameters. Moreover, we find that the generated propulsion force is strongly affected by the presence of a nearby boundary.

  4. Effects of Tidal Modulation in Heterogeneous Models of Slow Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarbek, R. M.; Rempel, A. W.; Thomas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Since their discovery, numerous models have been put forward to explain the occurance of slow slip and associated tremor. These models invoke a wide array of causal mechanisms and are all successful in reproducing the first-order behavior of slow-slip events. Discriminating amongst the various proposed models requires looking at second-order effects of slow slip and tremor. Here, we consider the effects of tidal modulation on slow slip in subduction zones. A great deal of observational evidence has established that slow-slip and associated tremor are modulated by the small stress perturbations associated with tides and teleseismic events. Recent modeling studies that have examined the influence of tidal stresses (<10 kPa) have focused either on the effects of tidally induced changes in shear stress, or on changes in shear and normal stress that coincide. However, along the Cascadia margin, the relative phase of the tidally induced fault-normal and shear stresses depends on position along the plate boundary fault, and can vary from being in phase, to completely out of phase. We report on the predictions of models designed to examine the sensitivity of slow-slip in subduction zones to the phase shift γ between tidally induced normal and shear stress perturbations. We consider both simple spring-slider and 1-D elastodynamic models that are designed to mimic the effects of geologic heterogeneity by allowing for variations in the rate-and-state frictional parameters. For a given slow-slip event, spring-slider results indicate that the phase lag γv between the peak slip rate and the tidally induced shear stress perturbation depends on both the phase shift γ, and the perturbation amplitude. Models parameterized for Cascadia are capable of producing phase lags γv within the range (15◦ to 30◦) of those reported by Royer et al. (JGR, 2014). Additionally, our models predict that the correlation between tidally induced shear stress perturbations and resultant slip also

  5. Polydimethylsiloxane SlipChip for mammalian cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SlipChip for in vitro cell culture applications, multiple-treatment assays, cell co-cultures, and cytokine detection assays. The PDMS SlipChip is composed of two PDMS layers with microfluidic channels on each surface that are separated by a thin silicone fluid (Si-fluid) layer. The integration of Si-fluid enables the two PDMS layers to be slid to different positions; therefore, the channel patterns can be re-arranged for various applications. The SlipChip design significantly reduces the complexity of sample handling, transportation, and treatment processes. To apply the developed SlipChip for cell culture applications, human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were cultured to examine the biocompatibility of the developed PDMS SlipChip. Moreover, embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ES-D3) were also cultured in the device to evaluate the retention of their stemness in the device. The experimental results show that cell morphology, viability and proliferation are not affected when the cells are cultured in the SlipChip, indicating that the device is highly compatible with mammalian cell culture. In addition, the stemness of the ES-D3 cells was highly retained after they were cultured in the device, suggesting the feasibility of using the SlipChip for stem cell research. Various cell experiments, such as simultaneous triple staining of cells and co-culture of MRC-5 with A549 cells, were also performed to demonstrate the functionalities of the PDMS SlipChip. Furthermore, we used a cytokine detection assay to evaluate the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) treatment on the cytokine secretion of A549 cells using the SlipChip. The developed PDMS SlipChip provides a straightforward and effective platform for various on-chip in vitro cell cultures and consequent analysis, which is promising for a number of cell biology studies and biomedical applications. PMID:26381390

  6. Quantitative analysis of fault slip evolution in analogue transpression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leever, Karen; Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Schmid, Dani; Braathen, Alvar

    2010-05-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault slip evolution in crustal scale brittle and brittle-ductile analogue models of doubly vergent transpressional wedges was performed by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The kinematic analyses allow detailed comparison between model results and field kinematic data. This novel approach leads to better understanding of the evolution of transpressional orogens such as the Tertiary West Spitsbergen fold and thrust belt in particular and will advance the understanding of transpressional wedge mechanics in general. We ran a series of basal-driven models with convergence angles of 4, 7.5, 15 and 30 degrees. In these crustal scale models, brittle rheology was represented by quartz sand; in one model a viscous PDMS layer was included at shallow depth. Total sand pack thickness was 6cm, its extent 120x60cm. The PIV method was used to calculate a vector field from pairs of images that were recorded from the top of the experiments at a 2mm displacement increment. The slip azimuth on discrete faults was calculated and visualized by means of a directional derivative of this vector field. From this data set, several stages in the evolution of the models could be identified. The stages were defined by changes in the degree of displacement partitioning, i.e. slip along-strike and orthogonal to the plate boundary. A first stage of distributed strain (with no visible faults at the model surface) was followed by a shear lens stage with oblique displacement on pro- and retro-shear. The oblique displacement became locally partitioned during progressive displacement. During the final stage, strain was more fully partitioned between a newly formed central strike slip zone and reverse faults at the sides. Strain partitioning was best developed in the 15 degrees model, which shows near-reverse faults along both sides of the wedge in addition to strike slip displacement in the center. In further analysis we extracted average slip vectors for

  7. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-17

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. Produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithiumceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  8. Effects of Perturbation-Based Slip Training using a Virtual Reality Environment on Slip-induced Falls

    PubMed Central

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to design and evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality training in improving recovery reactions and reducing fall frequency in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups (virtual reality training and control). Both groups underwent three sessions including baseline slip, training and transfer of training on slippery surface. Both groups experienced two slips, one during baseline and the other during the transfer of training trial. The training group underwent twelve simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a virtual reality scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group performed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated a reduced incidence of falls in the training group during the transfer of training trial as compared to the control group. The training group was able to transfer reactive control strategies learned during training to the second slip trial. The reactive adjustments included reduced slip distance. Additionally, gait parameters reflective of gait instability (stride length, step width, variability in stride velocity) reduced after walking in the VR environment for 15–20 min. The results indicated a beneficial effect of the virtual reality training in reducing slip severity and recovery kinematics in healthy older adults. PMID:25245221

  9. Combined effect of couple stresses and heat and mass transfer on peristaltic flow with slip conditions in a tube.

    PubMed

    Sobh, Ayman M

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the influence of heat and mass transfer on peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluid in a uniform tube with slip conditions on the wall is studied. The problem can model the blood flow in living creatures. Under long wavelength approximation and zero Reynolds number, exact solutions for the axial velocity component, pressure gradient, and both temperature and concentration fields are derived. The pressure rise is computed numerically and explained graphically. Moreover, effects of various physical parameters of the problem on temperature distribution, concentration field, and trapping are studied and discussed graphically.

  10. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  11. Reactivated strike slip faults: examples from north Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Seog; Andrews, Jim R.; Sanderson, David J.

    2001-10-01

    Several strike-slip faults at Crackington Haven, UK show evidence of right-lateral movement with tip cracks and dilatational jogs, which have been reactivated by left-lateral strike-slip movement. Evidence for reactivation includes two slickenside striae on a single fault surface, two groups of tip cracks with different orientations and very low displacement gradients or negative (left-lateral) displacements at fault tips. Evidence for the relative age of the two strike-slip movements is (1) the first formed tip cracks associated with right-lateral slip are deformed, whereas the tip cracks formed during left-lateral slip show no deformation; (2) some of the tip cracks associated with right-lateral movement show left-lateral reactivation; and (3) left-lateral displacement is commonly recorded at the tips of dominantly right-lateral faults. The orientation of the tip cracks to the main fault is 30-70° clockwise for right-lateral slip, and 20-40° counter-clockwise for left-lateral slip. The structure formed by this process of strike-slip reactivation is termed a "tree structure" because it is similar to a tree with branches. The angular difference between these two groups of tip cracks could be interpreted as due to different stress distribution (e.g., transtensional/transpressional, near-field or far-field stress), different fracture modes or fractures utilizing pre-existing planes of weakness. Most of the d- x profiles have similar patterns, which show low or negative displacement at the segment fault tips. Although the d- x profiles are complicated by fault segments and reactivation, they provide clear evidence for reactivation. Profiles that experienced two opposite slip movements show various shapes depending on the amount of displacement and the slip sequence. For a larger slip followed by a smaller slip with opposite sense, the profile would be expected to record very low or reverse displacement at fault tips due to late-stage tip propagation. Whereas for a

  12. Slip distribution, strain accumulation and aseismic slip on the Chaman Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Chaman fault system is a transcurrent fault system developed due to the oblique convergence of the India and Eurasia plates in the western boundary of the India plate. To evaluate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation along and across the Chaman Fault system, we use 2003-2011 Envisat SAR imagery and InSAR time-series methods to obtain a ground velocity field in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. We correct the InSAR data for different sources of systematic biases including the phase unwrapping errors, local oscillator drift, topographic residuals and stratified tropospheric delay and evaluate the uncertainty due to the residual delay using time-series of MODIS observations of precipitable water vapor. The InSAR velocity field and modeling demonstrates the distribution of deformation across the Chaman fault system. In the central Chaman fault system, the InSAR velocity shows clear strain localization on the Chaman and Ghazaband faults and modeling suggests a total slip rate of ~24 mm/yr distributed on the two faults with rates of 8 and 16 mm/yr, respectively corresponding to the 80% of the total ~3 cm/yr plate motion between India and Eurasia at these latitudes and consistent with the kinematic models which have predicted a slip rate of ~17-24 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. In the northern Chaman fault system (north of 30.5N), ~6 mm/yr of the relative plate motion is accommodated across Chaman fault. North of 30.5 N where the topographic expression of the Ghazaband fault vanishes, its slip does not transfer to the Chaman fault but rather distributes among different faults in the Kirthar range and Sulaiman lobe. Observed surface creep on the southern Chaman fault between Nushki and north of City of Chaman, indicates that the fault is partially locked, consistent with the recorded M<7 earthquakes in last century on this segment. The Chaman fault between north of the City of Chaman to North of Kabul, does not show an increase in the rate of strain

  13. Slip Running Reconnection in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W. N.; Van Compernolle, B.; Vincena, S. T.; De Hass, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are due to helical currents and form a dense carpet of arches on the surface of the sun. Occasionally one tears loose as a coronal mass ejection and its rope structure can be detected by satellites close to the earth. Current sheets can tear into filaments and these are nothing other than flux ropes. Ropes are not static, they exert mutual ěc{J}×ěc{B} forces causing them to twist about each other and eventually merge. Kink instabilities cause them to violently smash into each other and reconnect at the point of contact. We report on experiments on two adjacent ropes done in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA ( ne ˜ 1012, Te ˜ 6 eV, B0z=330G, Brope}\\cong{10G,trep=1 Hz). The currents and magnetic fields form exotic shapes with no ignorable direction and no magnetic nulls. Volumetric space-time data (70,600 spatial locations) show multiple reconnection sites with time-dependent locations. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL), a tool to understand and visualize 3D magnetic field lines reconnection without null points is introduced. Three-dimensional measurements of the QSL derived from magnetic field data are presented. Within the QSL field lines that start close to one another rapidly diverge as they pass through one or more reconnection regions. The motion of magnetic field lines are traced as reconnection proceeds and they are observed to slip through the regions of space where the QSL is largest. As the interaction proceeds we double the current in the ropes. This accompanied by intense heating as observed in uv light and plasma flows measured by Mach probes. The interaction of the ropes is clearly seen by vislaulizng magnetic field data , as well as in images from a fast framing camera. Work supported by the Dept. of Energy and The National Science Foundation, done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility at UCLA.Magnetic Field lines (measured) of three flux ropes and the plasma currents associated with them

  14. Slow slip and tremor search at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Thurber, C. H.; Wolfe, C. J.; Okubo, P.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractKilauea Volcano, Hawaii, has hosted a long series of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events observed since the installation of the continuous GPS network in 1996. Kilauea's slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events are inferred to occur on the decollement fault at 8 km depth beneath its south flank, with a location updip of the epicenters of large, regular earthquakes. Fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> typically lasts about two days, and the events have magnitudes equivalent to Mw 5.3-6.0. While slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events in subduction zones are commonly accompanied by tectonic tremor (also called nonvolcanic tremor), no tremor has yet been reported in association with Kilauea's slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events. Instead, there are swarms of small triggered earthquakes, which is a characteristic only seen at select subduction zones (e.g., Boso and Hikurangi). A temporary array of seismometers was installed at Kilauea in 2007 in anticipation of a slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> event. Here we use several established methods to perform a systematic search for tectonic tremor during geodetically defined slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events, as well as searching for tremor triggered by teleseismic surface waves. We do not detect tectonic tremor using any of these methods, although we are able to detect episodes of previously identified deep offshore volcanic tremor at 15-20 km depth and volcanic tremor from Kilauea. Although Kilauea's seismic network may not be adequate to observe tectonic tremor because Hawaii is seismically noisy and its crust is highly attenuating, it is also possible that the specific fault conditions on Kilauea's decollement are not conducive to such tremor generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014702','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014702"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleation and triggering of earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span>: effect of periodic stresses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dieterich, J.H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Results of stability analyses for spring and slider systems, with state variable constitutive properties, are applied to <span class="hlt">slip</span> on embedded fault patches. Unstable <span class="hlt">slip</span> may nucleate only if the <span class="hlt">slipping</span> patch exceeds some minimum size. Subsequent to the onset of instability the earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span> may propagate well beyond the patch. It is proposed that the seismicity of a volume of the earth's crust is determined by the distribution of initial conditions on the population of fault patches that nucleate earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span>, and the loading history acting upon the volume. Patches with constitutive properties inferred from laboratory experiments are characterized by an interval of self-driven accelerating <span class="hlt">slip</span> prior to instability, if initial stress exceeds a minimum threshold. This delayed instability of the patches provides an explanation for the occurrence of aftershocks and foreshocks including decay of earthquake rates by time-1. A population of patches subjected to loading with a periodic component results in periodic variation of the rate of occurrence of instabilities. The change of the rate of seismicity for a sinusoidal load is proportional to the amplitude of the periodic stress component and inversely proportional to both the normal stress acting on the fault patches and the constitutive parameter, A1, that controls the direct velocity dependence of fault <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Values of A1 representative of laboratory experiments indicate that in a homogeneous crust, correlation of earthquake rates with earth tides should not be detectable at normal stresses in excess of about 8 MPa. Correlation of earthquakes with tides at higher normal stresses can be explained if there exist inhomogeneities that locally amplify the magnitude of the tidal stresses. Such amplification might occur near magma chambers or other soft inclusions in the crust and possibly near the ends of creeping fault segments if the creep or afterslip rates vary in response to tides. Observations of seismicity rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18222414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18222414"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipping</span> of the foot on the floor when pulling a pallet truck.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Kai Way; Chang, Chien-Chi; Chang, Wen-Ruey</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Workers pulling pallet trucks are likely to <span class="hlt">slip</span> when pulling and stepping on a low-friction floor. This study investigated the <span class="hlt">slipping</span> of male participants when pulling a pallet truck, walking backward, and stepping on either a dry, wet, or glycerol-contaminated vinyl surface. The weight of the load on the truck was either low (0 kg), medium (295 kg), or high (568 kg). A motion-tracking system was used to collect the three-dimensional coordinates of the markers on the shoes. It was found that subjects might <span class="hlt">slip</span> either upon landing of the leading foot on the toe (<span class="hlt">slip</span> I) or before taking off of the lagging foot on the heel (<span class="hlt">slip</span> II). The results indicated that the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distances for both types of <span class="hlt">slip</span> were significantly affected by the load and surface conditions and their interactions. Micro-<span class="hlt">slips</span> (<span class="hlt">slips</span> between 0.1 and 3 cm) and midi-<span class="hlt">slips</span> (<span class="hlt">slips</span> between 3 and 10 cm) were more common in <span class="hlt">slip</span> I than in <span class="hlt">slip</span> II. On glycerol-contaminated surfaces, the probabilities of a slide, or a <span class="hlt">slip</span> more than 10 cm, for both <span class="hlt">slips</span> I and II were over 40%. The implications of the results were discussed. PMID:18222414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T54B..03E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T54B..03E"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot, Fast Faults: Evidence for High-Temperature <span class="hlt">Slip</span> on Exhumed Faults, and Insights into Seismic <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, J. P.; Ault, A. K.; Janecke, S. U.; Prante, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Microstructural and geochemical techniques combined with prior observations of naturally occurring faults provide insights into <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates and <span class="hlt">slip</span> dimensions of seismicity. We review four indicators for high coseismic paleotemperatures in brittle to semi-brittle faults from a wide range of tectonic settings with mm to km of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Thin, high-gloss, Fe-rich <span class="hlt">slip</span> surfaces indicate high-temperature <span class="hlt">slip</span> occurred on mm- to m-scales. Elliptical and circular zones of concentric iridescence indicate localized sites of elevated temperature that may be caused by heating at asperity contacts. The surface iridescence is associated with changes in Fe oxidation states detected by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum temperature increases of 300 °C above ambient are supported by geochemical arguments and up to 800 °C are supported by analogs to high-speed friction experiments in steels and ceramics firing in reduced conditions. The presence of clay-rich foliated fault-related rocks, and the presence of nm- to mm-thick clay coatings indicate that syn-kinematic endothermic reactions occur at a range of scales. We suggest these features reflect temperature increases of ≥100-200 °C for activation energy required to drive the clay alteration is sourced from seismic energy and Schleicher-van der Pluijm-type <span class="hlt">slip</span> surfaces to record instantaneous <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Dense, low porosity planar porcelainite zones mm- to cm-thick along fault surfaces are the result of sintering of quartz-clay-feldspar mixtures and indicate T≥1000 °C localized along the surfaces, the result of post-<span class="hlt">slip</span> cooling. Highly indurated, ultrafine fault-related rocks often consists of comminuted grains, vein fragments, and neocrystallized grains that represent retrograde cooling or alteration after peak heating. These observations and those of other recent workers indicate that many naturally occurring exhumed faults record elevated temperatures. In many cases, careful observations can delineate fault <span class="hlt">slip</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94x4501S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94x4501S"><span id="translatedtitle">Friction and <span class="hlt">Slip</span> at Simple Fluid-Solid Interfaces: The Roles of the Molecular Shape and the Solid-Liquid Interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmatko, Tatiana; Hervet, Hubert; Leger, Liliane</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Using total internal reflection-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, the local velocity, averaged over distances of 50 nm from the solid <span class="hlt">wall</span>, has been measured for two different simple liquids, squalane and hexadecane, sheared on three smooth surfaces with similar roughness but with gradually decreasing fluid-solid interactions. We show that not only the strength of the fluid-solid interactions, but also the shape of the molecules of the fluid deeply affect the friction and the degree of <span class="hlt">slip</span> at the <span class="hlt">wall</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021456','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021456"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Apparent</span>-Strain Correction for Combined Thermal and Mechanical Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Theodore F.; O'Neil, Teresa L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Combined thermal and mechanical testing requires that the total strain be corrected for the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the strain gage and the specimen or <span class="hlt">apparent</span> strain when the temperature varies while a mechanical load is being applied. Collecting data for an <span class="hlt">apparent</span> strain test becomes problematic as the specimen size increases. If the test specimen cannot be placed in a variable temperature test chamber to generate <span class="hlt">apparent</span> strain data with no mechanical loads, coupons can be used to generate the required data. The coupons, however, must have the same strain gage type, coefficient of thermal expansion, and constraints as the specimen to be useful. Obtaining <span class="hlt">apparent</span>-strain data at temperatures lower than -320 F is challenging due to the difficulty to maintain steady-state and uniform temperatures on a given specimen. Equations to correct for <span class="hlt">apparent</span> strain in a real-time fashion and data from <span class="hlt">apparent</span>-strain tests for composite and metallic specimens over a temperature range from -450 F to +250 F are presented in this paper. Three approaches to extrapolate <span class="hlt">apparent</span>-strain data from -320 F to -430 F are presented and compared to the measured <span class="hlt">apparent</span>-strain data. The first two approaches use a subset of the <span class="hlt">apparent</span>-strain curves between -320 F and 100 F to extrapolate to -430 F, while the third approach extrapolates the <span class="hlt">apparent</span>-strain curve over the temperature range of -320 F to +250 F to -430 F. The first two approaches are superior to the third approach but the use of either of the first two approaches is contingent upon the degree of non-linearity of the <span class="hlt">apparent</span>-strain curve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4918R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4918R"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic velocity change and <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate during the 2006 Guerrero (Mexico) slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivet, Diane; Radiguet, Mathilde; Campillo, Michel; Cotton, Fabrice; Shapiro, Nikolai; Krishna Singh, Shri; Kostoglodov, Vladimir</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We measure temporal change of the seismic velocity in the crust below the Guerrero region during the 2006 slow sleep event (SSE). We use repeated cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 26 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE). The cross-correlations are computed over 90 days with a moving window of 10 days from January 2005 to July 2007. To insure measurements independent of noise source variations, we only take into account the travel time change within the coda. For period of 8 to 20s, we observe a decrease in velocity starting in April 2006 with a maximum change of -0.3% of the initial velocity in June 2006. At these periods, the Rayleigh waves are sensitive to velocity changes down to the lower crust. In the other hand, we compute the deformation rate below the MASE array from a <span class="hlt">slip</span> propagation model of the SSE observed by means of the displacement time-series of 15 continuous GPS stations. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> initiates in the western part of the Guerrero Gap and propagates southeastward. The propagation velocity is of the order of 1 km/day. We then compare the seismic velocity change measured from continuous seismological data with the deformation rate inferred from geodetic measurements below the MASE array. We obtain a good agreement between the time of maximal seismic velocity change (July 2006) and the time of maximum deformation associated with the SSE (July to August 2006). This result shows that the long-term velocity change associated with the SSE can be detected using continuous seismic recordings. Since the SSE does not emit seismic waves, which interact with the superficial layers, the result indicates that the velocity change is due to deformation at depth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T21D..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T21D..02W"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate, recurrence interval, and <span class="hlt">slip</span> per event on several well-characterized faults (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weldon, R. J.; Lippoldt, R. C.; Scharer, K.; Streig, A. R.; Langridge, R. M.; Madugo, C. M.; Biasi, G. P.; Dawson, T. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Rapid growth in the application of LiDAR and other modern geodetic techniques has led to an explosion in the number of micro-geomorphic offsets along faults that can be interpreted as displacement in one or several earthquakes. As a result of this new data there are an increasing number of places along faults for which data are available for the <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate (based on the dated offset of a feature that is old enough to average out the seismic cycle), recurrence interval (based on a representative number of dated paleo-earthquakes), and <span class="hlt">slip</span> per event (based on an adequate sample of micro-geomorphic or 3D-excavated offsets). Because these three datasets are largely independent, but related by accumulation and release of strain across the fault, comparing them can provide insight into how faults balance size and frequency of earthquakes. We discuss several examples of faults with closely co-located <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate, recurrence interval, and <span class="hlt">slip</span> per event data, including the Ana River fault, a small normal fault in Central Oregon, and portions of the San Andreas fault, the principal plate boundary fault in California. The Ana River fault offsets more than 11 Pleistocene shorelines different amounts that we have measured using a combination of LiDAR, ground-based surveying, and a DEM generated from a USGS topographic map with 5 foot contours. The ages of ~10 paleo-earthquakes are determined from trenches and other exposures into deep-water lacustrine deposits that contain ~50 dated volcanic ashes. The long-term <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate, 0.05 mm/yr, is known from the total offset of dated late Pliocene basalts. We also use new data from the Santa Cruz segment of the northern San Andreas fault (NSAF) and the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF: Parkfield to Bombay Beach). On the NSAF, earthquakes in 1838, 1890, and 1906 have a total <span class="hlt">slip</span> of 4 - 6 m while the <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate (17 mm/yr) suggests it would take 2 - 3 centuries to accumulate this much strain. Data for the SSAF, which have recently been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSV...293...78S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSV...293...78S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Apparent</span> mass and cross-axis <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass and the cross-axis <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass. The resonance frequency of the <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass and the cross-axis <span class="hlt">apparent</span> mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T54A..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T54A..02H"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy Partitioning during Frictional Sliding at Coseismic <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirose, T.; Mizoguchi, K.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Determination of the energy partitioning during an earthquake is key to understanding the physics of earthquakes (e.g., Kanamori and Rivera, 2006). Observations made on natural faults that have experienced earthquakes suggest that part of the energy dissipates into a volume of rock surrounding the fault though grain crushing processes, forming fault gouge (e.g., Wilson et al., 2005). Thus we performed high-velocity wear experiments using a rotary-shear apparatus, in order to estimate the partitioning of the frictional work into heat and surface energy during frictional sliding at nearly coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates. In particular, we attempted to test whether the ratio of the energy partitioning varies as a function of <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate. The ratio of dissipated energy as heat to the total frictional work was estimated from the difference between measured temperature around the sliding surfaces and calculated temperature by 2D-FEM on the assumption that all frictional work converts into heat. The surface energy was estimated based on the particle size distribution of the wear materials, which was determined by FE-SEM image analysis. The particles size ranged between 0.03 and 10 μm in average diameter. In the experiments, hollow cylindrical specimens of gabbro were slid at <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates of 0.004 to 0.3 m/s and normal stresses of 0.2 to 5.6 MPa under unconfined and dry conditions. Rock powder (gouge) was continuously produced by abrasive wear of initially bare fault surfaces during sliding. Because the sliding surfaces were not confined in the experiments, the gouge was extruded from the fault surfaces, resulting in shortening of axial length of specimen. In this study, we defined the dimensionless wear rate, given by that an axial shortening rate of the specimen was divided by <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate. Then, we examined how the wear rate and temperature changed as a function of the rate of frictional work per a unit fault area, Ef, determined by shear stress multiplied by <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate. Hereafter, Q and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810412A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810412A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-asperity models of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> and tremor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ampuero, Jean Paul; Luo, Yingdi; Lengline, Olivier; Inbal, Asaf</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Field observations of exhumed faults indicate that fault zones can comprise mixtures of materials with different dominant deformation mechanisms, including contrasts in strength, frictional stability and hydrothermal transport properties. Computational modeling helps quantify the potential effects of fault zone heterogeneity on fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> styles from seismic to aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>, including slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> and tremor phenomena, foreshocks sequences and swarms, high- and low-frequency radiation during large earthquakes. We will summarize results of ongoing modeling studies of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> and tremor in which fault zone structure comprises a collection of frictionally unstable patches capable of seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> (tremorgenic asperities) embedded in a frictionally stable matrix hosting aseismic transient <span class="hlt">slips</span>. Such models are consistent with the current view that tremors result from repeated shear failure of multiple asperities as Low Frequency Earthquakes (LFEs). The collective behavior of asperities embedded in creeping faults generate a rich spectrum of tremor migration patterns, as observed in natural faults, whose seismicity rate, recurrence time and migration speed can be mechanically related to the underlying transient slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate. Tremor activity and slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> also responds to periodic loadings induced by tides or surface waves, and models relate tremor tidal sensitivity to frictional properties, fluid pressure and creep rate. The overall behavior of a heterogeneous fault is affected by structural parameters, such as the ratio of stable to unstable materials, but also by time-dependent variables, such as pore pressure and loading rate. Some behaviors are well predicted by homogenization theory based on spatially-averaged frictional properties, but others are somewhat unexpected, such as seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior found in asperities that are much smaller than their nucleation size. Two end-member regimes are obtained in rate-and-state models with velocity-weakening asperities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S31A2708S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S31A2708S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective heterogeneity controlling premonitory <span class="hlt">slip</span> on laboratory faults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selvadurai, P. A.; Glaser, S.; Parker, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Using a direct shear friction apparatus, we characterize factors controlling rheological differences along a PMMA-PMMA fault in the laboratory. Rheological differences on natural faults are believed to be a controlling factor to aseismic transients (slow <span class="hlt">slip</span>) in nature. Asperity sizes and locations were measured using a pressure sensitive film at high (σn = 0.8 MPa) and low (σn = 0.4 MPa) nominal normal stress levels. Faults confined to low and high normal stress experienced lower and higher 'effective heterogeneity,' quantified using a characteristic elastic correlation length λc [Braun and Peyrard, 2012]. The fault was sheared at a constant far-field velocity VLP under constant normal stress σn. Non-uniform premonitory <span class="hlt">slip</span> accumulated along the fault prior to rapid sliding. Slow events (SE), which were characterized as local increases in <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate, were observed when the effective heterogeneity was increased. These events nucleated from the weaker central section of the fault propagating outwards at speeds between 0.84 mm/s to 26.5 mm/s over times 406 s and 11 s. The rupture growth rates were dependent on the load-point velocity VLP driving the system to failure. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> rates, which increased within the SE, were also dependent on the load-point velocity. The evolution of <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates versus time was similar to the 2013-2014 Boso slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> event [Fukuda et al., 2014]. The slow event culminated with rapid <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate deceleration sufficient to generate seismicity measured by an array of acoustic emission sensors. Deceleration of the SE (left panel of figure) shows a lower-frequency event (~ 60 - 350 Hz). In Detail A, we show the smaller, high-frequency events (~ 300 - 500 kHz) were superimposed on the larger, low-frequency signal. These events only occurred at higher levels of effective heterogeneity and demonstrate interactions between larger/slow and localized/fast <span class="hlt">slip</span>. References: Braun, O. M. & M. Peyrard (2012), 'Crack in the frictional interface as a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDL11002T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDL11002T"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear stability analysis of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> flow of a viscoelastic fluid following the Phan-Thien Tanner model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsamopoulos, John; Karapetsas, George</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>It is well known that during extrusion of viscoelastic fluids various flow instabilities may arise resulting in a distorted free surface. In order to investigate the factors generating these instabilities we perform a linear stability analysis at zero Reynolds number around the steady solution of the cylindrical or planar stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> flow for a viscoelastic fluid following the PTT model. The stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> flow is an important special case of the extrudate swell problem, since the latter reduces to it in the limit of infinite surface tension. We will show that the flow becomes unstable as the Weissenberg number increases above a critical value, due to a Hopf bifurcation suggesting that the flow will become periodic in time. Both the critical value of the Weissenberg number and the frequency of the instability depend strongly on the rheological parameters of the viscoelastic model. The elasticity alone can be responsible for the appearance of instabilities in the extrusion process of viscoelastic fluids and the often used assumptions of <span class="hlt">wall</span> <span class="hlt">slip</span> or compressibility, although they might be present, are not required. Finally, the mechanisms that produce these instabilities are examined through energy analysis of the disturbance flow. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the Action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant No: PE8/906), and under the ``Excellence Program'' (Grant No: 1918)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5601146','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5601146"><span id="translatedtitle">The Lamportian cell <span class="hlt">wall</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a <span class="hlt">wall</span> matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich <span class="hlt">walls</span> of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the <span class="hlt">wall</span> by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell <span class="hlt">walls</span> isolated from intact tissue as well as <span class="hlt">walls</span> from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most <span class="hlt">walls</span> examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated <span class="hlt">walls</span> shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich <span class="hlt">wall</span> proteins such as those associated with seed coat <span class="hlt">walls</span> or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural <span class="hlt">wall</span> protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell <span class="hlt">wall</span> model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell <span class="hlt">wall</span> raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720000161','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720000161"><span id="translatedtitle">Halogenation of microcapsule <span class="hlt">walls</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Procedure for halogenation of confining <span class="hlt">walls</span> of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule <span class="hlt">wall</span> nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of <span class="hlt">wall</span> material to encapsulated materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21B4441T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21B4441T"><span id="translatedtitle">Size Distribution of <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Values in Finite-Fault Rupture Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Mai, P. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Understanding statistical properties of earthquake sources is crucial for proper ground-motion predictions. We investigate the size distribution of <span class="hlt">slip</span> values as imaged by finite-fault rupture models. Our analysis utilizes rupture models from the SRCMOD database (http://equake-rc.info/srcmod). To overcome the limitation of variable spatial sampling across different models, we consider combined areas of fault-rupture corresponding to different <span class="hlt">slip</span> bins. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> values in each rupture model are binned according to fractions of the overall maximum <span class="hlt">slip</span>. We refer to the rupture area occupied by a specified <span class="hlt">slip</span> bin as <span class="hlt">slip</span>-area. To eliminate possible spurious small <span class="hlt">slip</span> at the fault edge, we compute the effective source dimensions from the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution, accounting for sub-fault size, location of <span class="hlt">slip</span>-asperities, and surface rupture (if present). This procedure includes trimming the model to the smallest dimensions that accommodate the autocorrelation width of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution (Mai and Beroza, 2000). We modify the trimming process to not affect any large <span class="hlt">slip</span> asperity (u ≥ umax/3) where u and umax denote <span class="hlt">slip</span> and maximum <span class="hlt">slip</span> value. In order to look beyond individual models, we develop scaling relationships between seismic moment and <span class="hlt">slip</span>-areas. These relationships are, thereafter, employed to derive average tail distribution (or exceedance) of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> values. Our regression analysis reveals that self-similar source scaling holds for dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events while scale invariance breaks down for large strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events. We find that the tail distributions of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> values can be described by stretched-exponential functions, with the averaged distribution close to exponential. This characterization of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution agrees with the source scaling laws, and will be useful in generating realistic earthquake rupture scenarios for ground-motion modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P43B3984S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P43B3984S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Morphological Mapping of Strike-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Structures on Ganymede</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith-Konter, B. R.; Cameron, M. E.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many inferences of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting and distributed shear zones on Ganymede suggest that strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> tectonism may be important to the structural development of its surface and in the transition from dark to light (grooved) materials. To better understand the role of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> tectonism in shaping Ganymede's multifaceted surface, we identify and map key examples of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> morphologies (en echelon structures, strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) from Galileo and Voyager images. Here we present the current state of these global mapping efforts, with particular emphasis given to complex structures associated with grooved terrain (e.g. Nun Sulci) and terrains transitional from dark to light terrain (e.g. the boundary between Nippur Sulcus and Marius Regio). These results are being synthesized into a global database representing an inferred sense of shear for fractures on Ganymede. This, combined with existing observations of extensional features, is helping to narrow down the range of possible principal stress directions that could have acted at the regional or global scale to produce grooved terrain. Moreover, these data sets, combined with mechanical models of shear failure and global stress sources, are providing constraints for testing possible mechanisms for grooved terrain formation on Ganymede.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.X1002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.X1002G"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of Quantum Phase-<span class="hlt">Slips</span> in Josephson Junction Chains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guichard, Wiebke</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Quantum phase-<span class="hlt">slip</span> dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit or for the implementation of a new current standard. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-<span class="hlt">slips</span> on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-<span class="hlt">slips</span>. These phase-<span class="hlt">slips</span> are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-<span class="hlt">slip</span> interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. European STREP MIDAS, ANR QUANTJO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3211984','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3211984"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling analysis for the investigation of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms in nanofluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms in nanofluids through scaling analysis. The role of nanoparticle <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms in both water- and ethylene glycol-based nanofluids is analyzed by considering shape, size, concentration, and temperature of the nanoparticles. From the scaling analysis, it is found that all of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms are dominant in particles of cylindrical shape as compared to that of spherical and sheet particles. The magnitudes of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms are found to be higher for particles of size between 10 and 80 nm. The Brownian force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and also at smaller volume fraction. However, the drag force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and at higher volume fraction. The effect of thermophoresis and Magnus forces is found to increase with the particle size and concentration. In terms of time scales, the Brownian and gravity forces act considerably over a longer duration than the other forces. For copper-water-based nanofluid, the effective contribution of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms leads to a heat transfer augmentation which is approximately 36% over that of the base fluid. The drag and gravity forces tend to reduce the Nusselt number of the nanofluid while the other forces tend to enhance it. PMID:21791036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NRL.....6..471S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NRL.....6..471S"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling analysis for the investigation of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms in nanofluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savithiri, S.; Pattamatta, Arvind; Das, Sarit K.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms in nanofluids through scaling analysis. The role of nanoparticle <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms in both water- and ethylene glycol-based nanofluids is analyzed by considering shape, size, concentration, and temperature of the nanoparticles. From the scaling analysis, it is found that all of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms are dominant in particles of cylindrical shape as compared to that of spherical and sheet particles. The magnitudes of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms are found to be higher for particles of size between 10 and 80 nm. The Brownian force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and also at smaller volume fraction. However, the drag force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and at higher volume fraction. The effect of thermophoresis and Magnus forces is found to increase with the particle size and concentration. In terms of time scales, the Brownian and gravity forces act considerably over a longer duration than the other forces. For copper-water-based nanofluid, the effective contribution of <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanisms leads to a heat transfer augmentation which is approximately 36% over that of the base fluid. The drag and gravity forces tend to reduce the Nusselt number of the nanofluid while the other forces tend to enhance it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NJPh...14l5009B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NJPh...14l5009B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> velocity of large neutrally buoyant particles in turbulent flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bellani, G.; Variano, E. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We discuss possible definitions for a stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity that describes the relative motion between large particles and a turbulent flow. This definition is necessary because the <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity used in the standard drag model fails when particle size falls within the inertial subrange of ambient turbulence. We propose two definitions, selected in part due to their simplicity: they do not require filtration of the fluid phase velocity field, nor do they require the construction of conditional averages on particle locations. A key benefit of this simplicity is that the stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity proposed here can be calculated equally well for laboratory, field and numerical experiments. The stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity allows the definition of a Reynolds number that should indicate whether large particles in turbulent flow behave (a) as passive tracers; (b) as a linear filter of the velocity field; or (c) as a nonlinear filter to the velocity field. We calculate the value of stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> for ellipsoidal and spherical particles (the size of the Taylor microscale) measured in laboratory homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The resulting Reynolds number is significantly higher than 1 for both particle shapes, and velocity statistics show that particle motion is a complex nonlinear function of the fluid velocity. We further investigate the nonlinear relationship by comparing the probability distribution of fluctuating velocities for particle and fluid phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMMR33C2690C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMMR33C2690C"><span id="translatedtitle">How Orogen-scale Exhumed Strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> Faults Initiate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, S.; Neubauer, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Orogen-scale strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults present one the most important geodynamic processes affecting the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. In specific subtypes, faulting is virtually initiated along hot-to-cool boundaries, e.g. at such of hot granite intrusions or metamorphic core complexes to cool country rocks. Such fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust and are stacked within each other ("telescoping"). Exhumation of rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> motion. The hot-to-cool thermal structure across the fault zone significantly influences the physical fault rock properties. One major question is how and where a major strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> initiates and further development. Here, we propose a model in which major continental exhumed strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults potentially evolve along rheologically weak zones such as plutons or margins of metamorphic complexes. As an example, we propose a model for the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, SE Asia, which initiated along the edge of a plutonic belt and evolved in response to India-Asia collision with four tectonic phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26653674"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalization of treadmill perturbation to overground <span class="hlt">slip</span> during gait: Effect of different perturbation distances on <span class="hlt">slip</span> recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Anna; Bhatt, Tanvi; Pai, Yi-Chung</p> <p>2016-01-25</p> <p>Treadmill-perturbation training (TM-training) may improve a person׳s fall-resistance, whereby adjusting <span class="hlt">slip</span> distance can be a simple way to manipulate training intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different <span class="hlt">slip</span> distances in TM-training (12-cm vs. 18-cm) on its generalization to the recovery from a novel "free" <span class="hlt">slip</span> during overground walking. Generalization here means the ability to apply learned skill from TM-training to <span class="hlt">slip</span> recovery during overground walking. Thirty-six young adults in the TM_12 or the TM_18 group underwent either a 12-cm or an 18-cm <span class="hlt">slip</span> during the treadmill walking for seven times, or in the control group were not exposed to any perturbation. Their responses were also contrasted with previously reported results from overground-perturbation training (OG-training) in which participants received either a 12-cm or an 18-cm <span class="hlt">slip</span> during level walking with the same number of repetitions. Everyone was then exposed to the same generalization test during a novel "free" <span class="hlt">slip</span> in overground walking. Their proactive and reactive control of stability was measured and compared. TM-training displayed a significant training effect in comparison to the control group (p<0.05), while most of the improvements were found in the reactive control of stability and were much-limited in comparison to that of OG-training. Also unlike OG-training, no significant differences were found between the results obtained from the TM_12 and the TM_18 groups (p>0.05). These results underscore the further needs to investigate the potential of the treadmill as a convenient instrument that can effectively deliver perturbation training.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4432640','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4432640"><span id="translatedtitle">Planctomycetes do possess a peptidoglycan cell <span class="hlt">wall</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jeske, Olga; Schüler, Margarete; Schumann, Peter; Schneider, Alexander; Boedeker, Christian; Jogler, Mareike; Bollschweiler, Daniel; Rohde, Manfred; Mayer, Christoph; Engelhardt, Harald; Spring, Stefan; Jogler, Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Most bacteria contain a peptidoglycan (PG) cell <span class="hlt">wall</span>, which is critical for maintenance of shape and important for cell division. In contrast, Planctomycetes have been proposed to produce a proteinaceous cell <span class="hlt">wall</span> devoid of PG. The <span class="hlt">apparent</span> absence of PG has been used as an argument for the putative planctomycetal ancestry of all bacterial lineages. Here we show, employing multiple bioinformatic methods, that planctomycetal genomes encode proteins required for PG synthesis. Furthermore, we biochemically demonstrate the presence of the sugar and the peptide components of PG in Planctomycetes. In addition, light and electron microscopic experiments reveal planctomycetal PG sacculi that are susceptible to lysozyme treatment. Finally, cryo-electron tomography demonstrates that Planctomycetes possess a typical PG cell <span class="hlt">wall</span> and that their cellular architecture is thus more similar to that of other Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings shed new light on the cellular architecture and cell division of the maverick Planctomycetes. PMID:25964217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T13B0504L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T13B0504L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-Rate on the Haiyuan Fault (Gansu, China), Over Time Scales of 10 yr to 10 kyr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lasserre, C.; Cavalié, O.; Doin, M.; Peltzer, G.; Sun, J.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.; Xu, X.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p> deformation across the fault, consistent with left-lateral <span class="hlt">slip</span> at a rate of ~1 cm/yr. The steep velocity gradient at the fault suggests an <span class="hlt">apparently</span> shallow locking depth of 5 km that may be indicative of a weak fault zone. The InSAR rate is consistent with both the decadal <span class="hlt">slip</span>-rate derived from GPS measurement campaigns in 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2005, and the Holocene <span class="hlt">slip</span>-rate inferred from the offset morphology. These observations suggest a stable behavior of the fault over the past 10 kyr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11H0998L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11H0998L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-flow in complex porous media as determined by a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landry, C. J.; Prodanovic, M.; Eichhubl, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The pores and throats of shales and mudrocks are predominantly found within a range of 1-100 nm, within this size range the flow of gas at reservoir conditions will fall within the <span class="hlt">slip</span>-flow and low transition-flow regime (0.001 < Kn < 0.5). Currently, the study of <span class="hlt">slip</span>-flows is for the most part limited to simple tube and channel geometries, however, the geometry of mudrock pores is often sponge-like (organic matter) and/or platy (clays). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to predict <span class="hlt">slip</span>-flow in complex geometries, but due to prohibitive computational demand are generally limited to small volumes (one to several pores). Here we present a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) parameterized for <span class="hlt">slip</span>-flow (Guo et al. 2008) and adapted here to complex geometries. LBMs are inherently parallelizable, such that flow in complex geometries of significant (near REV-scale) volumes can be readily simulated at a fraction of the computational cost of MD simulations. At the macroscopic-scale the LBM is parameterized with local effective viscosities at each node to capture the variance of the mean-free-path of gas molecules in a bounded system. The corrected mean-free-path for each lattice node is determined using the mean distance of the node to the pore-<span class="hlt">wall</span> and Stop's correction for mean-free-paths in an infinite parallel-plate geometry. At the microscopic-scale, a combined bounce-back specular-reflection boundary condition is applied to the pore-<span class="hlt">wall</span> nodes to capture Maxwellian-<span class="hlt">slip</span>. The LBM simulation results are first validated in simple tube and channel geometries, where good agreement is found for Knudsen numbers below 0.1, and fair agreement is found for Knudsen numbers between 0.1 and 0.5. More complex geometries are then examined including triangular-ducts and ellipsoid-ducts, both with constant and tapering/expanding cross-sections, as well as a clay pore-network imaged from a hydrocarbon producing shale by sequential focused ion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000120287','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000120287"><span id="translatedtitle">A Unified <span class="hlt">Wall</span> Boundary Treatment for Viscous and Inviscid Flows in the CE/SE Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Sin-Chung; Zhang, Zeng-Chen; Yu, S. T. John; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>In the setting of the conservation element-solution element (CE/SE) method, a new and unified <span class="hlt">wall</span> boundary treatment for the Navier-Stokes and Euler Equations is proposed. In essence, the shear stress exerted on the fluid by a <span class="hlt">wall</span> is modeled as a source term as a part of local spacetime flux conservation in the vicinity of a <span class="hlt">wall</span> boundary. When the fluid is inviscid, the source term vanishes and the boundary condition reduces to the usual '<span class="hlt">slip</span>' condition. On the other hand, when the fluid is viscous, the source-term effect is consistent with the traditional no-<span class="hlt">slip</span> condition. Numerical results show that the new treatment is robust, efficient, and accurate for viscous and inviscid flows.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T43C3006X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T43C3006X"><span id="translatedtitle">Brittle Asperities and Stick-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Motion: Insight from Friction Experiments along A Gabbro/Marble Interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, S.; Takizawa, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Kawakata, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We conduct a series of meter-scale direct shear experiments along a gabbro/marble fault interface at NIED in Japan. Unlike the transitional behavior from stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> to stable sliding along a marble/marble interface under 1.3 MPa normal stress and 0.01 mm/s loading rate, the gabbro/marble case shows persistent stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior under the same loading conditions as well as under 2.6 MPa normal stress in subsequent tests. Visual observations of the damage pattern reveal quite different features between the marble/marble case and the gabbro/marble case. For the former, the generated damage typically shows a low aspect ratio between loading-parallel and loading-perpendicular directions, suggesting that some diffusional deformation is effective during <span class="hlt">slip</span>. For the latter, intruded gabbro pieces with preferred growing direction parallel to loading are distributed on top of the marble side, showing that hard rocks like gabbro can be partially fractured off when sheared against soft rocks like marble. Strain array data show that the <span class="hlt">apparent</span> friction before failure is high or even above 1 near locations where fractured-off gabbro pieces are later observed, confirming that intact rock strength of gabbro has to be overcome upon the onset of fracture. Although at this moment we do not fully understand the behind mechanism, we believe that the brittleness of gabbro dominates in making the difference. If true, this result will highlight the role of brittle asperities in generating stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault behavior in a surrounding ductile-like environment. An analogous natural example may be found by the role of seamount in generating earthquakes through or underneath sediments in subduction zones (Cloos, 1992). However, instead of shearing off long-wavelength feature as illustrated by Cloos (1992), our study suggests that the collective behavior of tiny pieces along a nominally flat surface may also generate unstable ruptures macroscopically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6317254','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6317254"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic controls on late Cenozoic strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting, volcanism, and landscape development in the Mojave Desert, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dokka, R.K.; Travis, C.J.; Ross, T.M. )</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>Recent studies of the late Cenozoic tectonics of the Mojave Desert Block suggest that strain is regionally heterogeneous and has been partitioned into six domains that are separated by major strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults and extensional zones. Tectonic rotation of these domains as well as their internal deformation by strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting have occurred as the result of broadly distributed regional right shear. Sixty-five kilometers of total right <span class="hlt">slip</span> is reckoned to have occurred along faults of the southern half of the province (between the Helendale and Granite Mountains faults). The broad network of faults of the Mojave, along with kinematically and temporally similar strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults of the Death Valley region (Furnace Creek and Southern Death Valley fault zones), constitute a regional, through going zone of right shear named the Eastern California shear zone (ECSZ). This zone of intracontinental shear also likely includes the Walker Lane belt of western Nevada. Because of its physical connection to faults the southern portion of the San Andreas fault system, the ECSZ must have also accommodated a portion of Pacific-North American transform motion. In addition to imparting the strong NW structural grain to the region, the tectonic regime has had a profound effect on Neogene paleogeography and has <span class="hlt">apparently</span> facilitated local magmatism. Faulting and block rotations have created a series of structurally controlled basins and uplifts of many geometries. Extension in several basins has also been accompanied by young basaltic magmatism. These include surface flows such as at Mt. Pisgah (shield volcano) and subsurface dike emplacement beneath Troy Lake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Tecto..17..921P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Tecto..17..921P"><span id="translatedtitle">Strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> movements and thrusting along a transpressive fault zone: The North Giudicarie line (Insubric line, northern Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prosser, Giacomo</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>This paper analyzes the kinematic evolution and the deformation partitioning within an important transpressive fault zone located in the central part of the Alpine chain. The North Giudicarie line is a NNE trending fault which offsets the dextral Insubric line with an <span class="hlt">apparent</span> left-lateral displacement of about 70 km. The main fault plane of the North Giudicarie line dips about 35°-45° to the NW. The footwall is characterized by N-S striking strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults, which reactivate extensional faults of Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous age. The early deformation history of the North Giudicarie line is revealed by basement-and limestone-mylonites. Shear sense of mylonites indicates on average top-to-the-east thrusting. These movements took place during the late Oligocene-early Miocene, when the Insubric line was active as a right-lateral strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault. Therefore, in this time span the North Giudicarie line can be interpreted as a dextral transpressive bend of the Insubric line. Mylonites have later been overprinted by brittle faults related to top-to-the-SE thrusting of middle-late Miocene age. During this event the shape of the Insubric line was strongly modified by left-lateral transpression along the Giudicarie fault zone. Deformation was partitioned between prevailing compression along the Giudicarie line and left-lateral strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> movements along the N-S striking faults. These faults transferred the strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> component of the Giudicarie line into a wider area of the central southern Alps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620169','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620169"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple Weather Factors Affect <span class="hlt">Apparent</span> Survival of European Passerine Birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. <span class="hlt">Apparent</span> survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival. Although the directions of the effects on <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23593131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23593131"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple weather factors affect <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of European passerine birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. <span class="hlt">Apparent</span> survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival. Although the directions of the effects on <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in <span class="hlt">apparent</span> survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0244.photos.009065p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0244.photos.009065p/"><span id="translatedtitle">17. The south <span class="hlt">wall</span> of the dining room has an ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>17. The south <span class="hlt">wall</span> of the dining room has an original wood wainscot similar to the one present on the north <span class="hlt">wall</span>. However, in lieu of windows it appears to have been constructed with mirrors, which are no longer in place. The electrical boxes are nonoriginal elements. Simulated panel bevels are readily <span class="hlt">apparent</span> in this view. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/458579','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/458579"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cleveland, J.R.</p> <p>1997-03-18</p> <p>An apparatus is described for treating water in a circulating water system that has a cooling water basin which includes a <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit in flow communication with the circulating water system, a source of acid solution in flow communication with the <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit, and a decarbonator in flow communication with the <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit and the cooling water basin. In use, a <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system into the <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit of the apparatus. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source thereof. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream is then passed through a decarbonator to form a treated <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream, and the treated <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream is returned to the cooling water basin. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870868','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870868"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cleveland, Joe R.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An apparatus (10) for treating water in a circulating water system (12) t has a cooling water basin (14) includes a <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit (16) in flow communication with the circulating water system (12), a source (36) of acid solution in flow communication with the <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit (16), and a decarbonator (58) in flow communication with the <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit (16) and the cooling water basin (14). In use, a <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system (12) into the <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream conduit (16) of the apparatus (10). The <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source (36) thereof. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream is then passed through a decarbonator (58) to form a treated <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream, and the treated <span class="hlt">slip</span> stream is returned to the cooling water basin (14).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.EF007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.EF007L"><span id="translatedtitle">Pressure-driven flow in a channel with porous <span class="hlt">walls</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Qianlong; Prosperetti, Andrea</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The finite-Reynolds-number three-dimensional flow in a channel bounded by one and two parallel porous <span class="hlt">walls</span> is studied numerically. The porous medium is modelled by spheres in a simple cubic arrangement. The results for the <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity at the surface of the porous layers are compared with the phenomenological Beavers-Joseph model. It is found that the value of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> coefficient is different for pressure-driven and shear-driven flow. A modification of the relation is suggested to deal with this feature. Furthermore, detailed results on the flow structure and the hydrodynamic forces and couple acting on the sphere layer bounding the porous medium are reported and their dependence on the Reynolds number illustrated. It is shown that, at finite Reynolds numbers, a lift force acts on the spheres, which may be expected to contribute to the the mobilization of bottom sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P31B2067C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P31B2067C"><span id="translatedtitle">What causes an icy fault to <span class="hlt">slip</span>? Investigating strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> failure conditions on Ganymede at Dardanus and Tiamat Sulcus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Burkhard, L. M.; Collins, G. C.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Ganymede exhibits two geologically distinct terrains known as dark and light (grooved) terrain. The mechanism for a transition from dark to light terrain remains unclear; however, inferences of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting and distributed shear zones suggest that strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> tectonism may be important to the structural development of Ganymede's surface and in this transition. Here we investigate the role of tidal stresses on Ganymede in the formation and evolution of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> structures in both dark and grooved terrains. Using numerical code SatStress, we calculate both diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) tidal stresses at Ganymede's surface. Specifically, we investigate the role of fault friction and orbital eccentricity in the development of ~45 km of right-lateral offset at Dardanus Sulcus and a possible case of <10 km of right-lateral offset at Tiamat Sulcus. We compute Coulomb failure conditions for these target fractures and consider tidal stress scenarios for both present eccentricity (0.0013) and possible past high (~0.05) eccentricity of Ganymede. We find that while diurnal stresses are not large enough to support strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> failure at present or past eccentricities, models that include both diurnal and NSR stress readily generate shear and normal stress magnitudes that could give rise to shear failure. Results for a past high eccentricity assuming a low coefficient of friction (μf = 0.2) suggest shear failure is possible down to depths of 1-2 km along both Dardanus and Tiamat. For a high coefficient of friction (μf = 0.6), failure is limited to about 1 km depth at Dardanus and Tiamat, although confined to small episodic <span class="hlt">slip</span> windows for the latter. Moreover, our models predict a right-lateral sense of <span class="hlt">slip</span>, in agreement with inferred offset observed at both regions. Based on these results, we infer that past shear failure on Ganymede is possible when NSR is a driving stress mechanism. We complement this study with a detailed morphological mapping of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.S53D2530K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.S53D2530K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Castle Mountain fault, south-central Alaska: New lidar-based observations on the sense of <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koehler, R. D.; Reger, D.; Frohman, R. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Castle Mountain fault extends along the southern Talkeetna Mountains rangefront and across the Susitna Lowland in south-central Alaska. The fault is an active structural element of the Aleutian forearc and has formed a 4-km-wide anticline associated with at least 0.5 km of north-side-up displacement. Right-lateral bedrock offsets along the eastern part of the fault are poorly constrained to ~14 km. In the Susitna Lowland, the fault is expressed at the surface by a distinct south-facing scarp. Previous paleoseismic studies have described the fault as both a strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault and a reverse fault, attributed the scarp to the occurrence of one to four paleoearthquakes, and estimated a Holocene right-lateral <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate of ~3mm/yr. Motivated by inspection of new lidar data along the fault indicating that Holocene landforms are not laterally offset, we performed surficial-geologic mapping and field surveys with an emphasis on better characterizing the sense of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Field work was conducted along approximately 12 km of the scarp between Houston and Susitna River. Surficial-geologic mapping indicates that the fault displaces late Elmendorf (14-15 ka) glacial and Holocene deposits including glacial drift, sandy fan deltas, outwash plains, grounding-line moraines, basal-crevasse-fill complexes, stream terraces, oxbow lakes, and swamps. Where the scarp cuts these deposits it varies in height from ~ 0.5-4 m and is un-beveled. The surface trace also consists of left-stepping en echelon scarps and grabens. The grabens occur up to 400 m north of the scarp and indicate a wide zone of deformation. Numerous abandoned channels and stabilized sand dunes oriented orthogonal to the scarp are vertically offset and have negligible strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> displacement. The observations are consistent with reverse faulting above a north dipping fault associated with bending moment extensional grabens in the hanging <span class="hlt">wall</span>. The en echelon pattern of scarps suggests a minor oblique component of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864307','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864307"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluidized <span class="hlt">wall</span> for protecting fusion chamber <span class="hlt">walls</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Apparatus for protecting the inner <span class="hlt">wall</span> of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized <span class="hlt">wall</span> similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013263','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013263"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface-<span class="hlt">slip</span> equations for multicomponent nonequilibrium air flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, R. N.; Scott, C. D.; Moss, J. N.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Equations are presented for the surface-<span class="hlt">slip</span> (or jump) values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature in the low-Reynolds number, high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. The equations are obtained from closed form solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy flux equations using the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function. This function represents a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The analysis, obtained for nonequilibrium multicomponent air flow, includes the finite-rate surface catalytic recombination and changes in the internal energy during reflection from the surface. Expressions for the various <span class="hlt">slip</span> quantities were obtained in a form which can be employed in flowfield computations. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent, binary, and single species mixtures. Expression is also provided for the finite-rate, species-concentration boundary condition for a multicomponent mixture in absence of <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AmJPh..70.1025P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AmJPh..70.1025P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Does the Euler Disk <span class="hlt">slip</span> during its motion?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrie, D.; Hunt, J. L.; Gray, C. G.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The motion of a disk that is spun on a smooth flat surface slowly damps out due to friction. To help identify the nature of the friction, we test experimentally whether the disk <span class="hlt">slips</span> during its motion. We find that, at least during the early stages, the disk rolls without <span class="hlt">slipping</span>, thus ruling out sliding friction as the cause of the damping. Together with the results of the experiments of van der Engh et al. that rule out air friction, our results establish that rolling friction is mainly responsible for the damping in the early stages of the motion. Student projects are suggested that could establish whether our conclusion of rolling without <span class="hlt">slipping</span> holds for the later stages of the motion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S21E..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S21E..04A"><span id="translatedtitle">Small Earthquake Scaling Revisited: Can it Constrain <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Weakening?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abercrombie, R. E.; Rice, J. R.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>We select 29 earthquakes well-recorded at 2.5 km depth at Cajon Pass (Abercrombie, 1995), including some colocated events. We compare spectral and time domain inferences of the source dimension to estimate final <span class="hlt">slip</span> s and static stress drop Δ τ . We measure radiated energy Es by integration of the velocity-squared spectra using simple fits to extend the bandwidth outside the observed range to ensure we do not lose significant energy due to instrumental limits. (The Es estimates of Abercrombie (1995) for earthquakes Mo < 5x 1011 Nm are selectively biased to small stress drops, but otherwise the results are similar.) We compare the CJP results with those from larger California earthquakes including Northridge aftershocks and confirm Abercrombie (1995): for the smallest earthquakes, μ Es/M_o << Δ τ (where μ = rigidity) and Es/M_o increases more rapidly than Δ τ as Mo (and also s) increases. To interpret this we define a quantity G' = [Δ τ - 2μ Es/M_o]s/2 which is the total energy dissipation in friction and fracture minus τ s s, where τ s is the final static stress. If τ s = τ d, the dynamic shear strength during the last increments of seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>, then G' = G, the fracture energy in a <span class="hlt">slip</span>-weakening interpretation of dissipation, with τ d then identified as the residual shear strength of Palmer and Rice (1973). Otherwise G' = G + (τ d - τ s)s. We find that G' increases with s, from ~103 J/m2 at s = 1 mm (M1 events) to 106 to 107 J/m2 at s = 1 m (M6). An increasing rupture velocity with Mo cannot explain these results because it would imply unreasonably high Δ τ for the small earthquakes. We tentatively interpret these results within <span class="hlt">slip</span>-weakening theory, assuming G' ≈ G (i.e., τ s ≈ τ d). One explanation for these observations within the often assumed linear decrease of strength with <span class="hlt">slip</span>, up to a <span class="hlt">slip</span> Dc, is that either Dc, or the peak to residual strength drop τ p - τ d, or more generally (τ p - τ d) Dc, varies in proportion to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0017/pdf/of03-17.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0017/pdf/of03-17.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary soil-<span class="hlt">slip</span> susceptibility maps, southwestern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morton, Douglas M.; Alvarez, Rachel M.; Campbell, Russell H.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Brown, D.T.; Corriea, K.M.; Lesser, J.N.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This group of maps shows relative susceptibility of hill slopes to the initiation sites of rainfall-triggered soil <span class="hlt">slip</span>-debris flows in southwestern California. As such, the maps offer a partial answer to one part of the three parts necessary to predict the soil-<span class="hlt">slip</span>/debris-flow process. A complete prediction of the process would include assessments of “where”, “when”, and “how big”. These maps empirically show part of the “where” of prediction (i.e., relative susceptibility to sites of initiation of the soil <span class="hlt">slips</span>) but do not attempt to show the extent of run out of the resultant debris flows. Some information pertinent to “when” the process might begin is developed. “When” is determined mostly by dynamic factors such as rainfall rate and duration, for which local variations are not amenable to long-term prediction. “When” information is not provided on the maps but is described later in this narrative. The prediction of “how big” is addressed indirectly by restricting the maps to a single type of landslide process—soil <span class="hlt">slip</span>-debris flows. The susceptibility maps were created through an iterative process from two kinds of information. First, locations of sites of past soil <span class="hlt">slips</span> were obtained from inventory maps of past events. Aerial photographs, taken during six rainy seasons that produced abundant soil <span class="hlt">slips</span>, were used as the basis for soil <span class="hlt">slip</span>-debris flow inventory. Second, digital elevation models (DEM) of the areas that were inventoried were used to analyze the spatial characteristics of soil <span class="hlt">slip</span> locations. These data were supplemented by observations made on the ground. Certain physical attributes of the locations of the soil-<span class="hlt">slip</span> debris flows were found to be important and others were not. The most important attribute was the mapped bedrock formation at the site of initiation of the soil <span class="hlt">slip</span>. However, because the soil <span class="hlt">slips</span> occur in surficial materials overlying the bedrocks units, the bedrock formation can only serve as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870018512','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870018512"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface-<span class="hlt">slip</span> equations for multicomponent, nonequilibrium air flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, Roop N.; Scott, Carl D.; Moss, James N.; Goglia, Gene</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Equations are presented for the surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> (or jump) values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature in the low-Reynolds-number, high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. These are obtained from closed-form solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy flux equations using the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function. This function represents a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The analysis, obtained for nonequilibrium multicomponent air flow, includes the finite-rate surface catalytic recombination and changes in the internal energy during reflection from the surface. Expressions for the various <span class="hlt">slip</span> quantities have been obtained in a form which can readily be employed in flow-field computations. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent, binary, and single species mixtures. Expression is also provided for the finite-rate species-concentration boundary condition for a multicomponent mixture in absence of <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..MAR.G3709A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..MAR.G3709A"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Nucleation of Phase <span class="hlt">Slips</span> in 1-d Superfluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arovas, Daniel</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>The rate for quantum nucleation of phase <span class="hlt">slips</span> past an impurity in a one-dimensional superfluid is computed. Real time evolution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation shows that there is a critical velocity vc below which solutions are time-independent [1,2]; this is the regime of quantum phase <span class="hlt">slip</span> nucleation. We start with the Gross-Pitaevskii model in the presence of an impurity potential, and derive the Euclidean action for a space-time vortex-antivortex pair, which describes a phase <span class="hlt">slip</span> event. The action is computed as a function of the superfluid velocity v and the impurity potential width and depth.l [1] V. Hakim, Phys. Rev. E 55, 2835 (1997).l [1] J. A. Freire, D. P. Arovas, and H. Levine, Phys. Rev. Lett (in press, 1997).l</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51D..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51D..02H"><span id="translatedtitle">ETS and tidal stressing: Fault weakening after main <span class="hlt">slip</span> pulse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houston, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Time-varying stresses from solid Earth tides and ocean loading influence slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> (Hawthorne and Rubin, 2010) and, consequently, the frequency of occurrence and intensity of tremor during ETS episodes (Rubinstein et al., 2008). This relationship can illuminate changes in the mechanical response of the rupture surfaces(s) during <span class="hlt">slip</span> in ETS. I compare the influence of tidal loading when and after the propagating ETS <span class="hlt">slip</span> front (estimated by tremor density in time) ruptures the fault at a given spot. Using estimates of <span class="hlt">slip</span> fronts that I derived from tremor locations, I divide ETS tremor into two groups: that occurring within a day of the start of the inferred <span class="hlt">slip</span> front and that occurring over several days thereafter. The tremor catalog used contains 50K waveform cross-correlation locations of tremor in 7 large ETS in northern Cascadia between 2005 and 2012. I calculate normal, shear and volumetric stresses due to the Earth and ocean tides at numerous locations on the inferred rupture plane of the ETS following the method of Hawthorne and Rubin (2010). The Coulomb stress increment at each tremor time and location is compared with tremor occurrence for the two groups of tremor. Unreasonable results appear if the effective frictional coefficient mu > 0.2, and results are most 'reasonable' when mu is very near or equal to zero. Following passage of the main <span class="hlt">slip</span> pulse, tremor generation is notably more sensitive to tidal stressing. One kPa of encouraging tidal Coulomb stress boosts the occurrence of tremor after the main <span class="hlt">slip</span> pulse by about 50% above the average value, while the same amount of discouraging stress decreases the occurrence of such tremor by a similar factor. The greater the encouraging or discouraging stress, the greater the effect. In contrast, tremor in the main <span class="hlt">slip</span> pulse is much less affected by positive or negative tidal stresses. I interpret the greater sensitivity to tidal stressing of the tremor after the main <span class="hlt">slip</span> pulse as a measure of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMMR33C2681J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMMR33C2681J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamically triggered <span class="hlt">slip</span> and sustained fault gouge instability associated with unique <span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior under laboratory shear conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, P. A.; Carmeliet, J.; Savage, H. M.; Scuderi, M.; Carpenter, B. M.; Guyer, R. A.; Daub, E. G.; Marone, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We investigate dynamic-wave triggered <span class="hlt">slip</span> under laboratory shear conditions. The experiment is comprised of a 3-block system containing two gouge layers composed of glass beads and held in place by a fixed load in a bi-axial configuration. When the system is sheared under steady state conditions at loads from 3-8 MPa, stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> exhibiting a characteristic recurrence time is observed. Under these load conditions, we find that shear failure may be instantaneously triggered by a brief dynamical wave if the system is in a critical shear-stress state, near failure. Dynamic triggering is only observed when the dynamic wave amplitude exceeds strains of 10^(-7). Following triggering, the gouge material remains in an unstable state for long periods of time as manifest by unique <span class="hlt">slip</span> characteristics not observed during spontaneous events: the measured physical characteristics—the gouge material strength recovery, the gouge layer thickness, the gouge shear modulus and the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> recurrence time recover over many stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> cycles following triggering. This work suggests that faults must be critically stressed to trigger under dynamic conditions and that the recovery process following a dynamically triggered event differs from the recovery following a spontaneous event.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70148036','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70148036"><span id="translatedtitle">Offset of latest pleistocene shoreface reveals <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate on the Hosgri strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault, offshore central California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dartnell, Peter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Hosgri fault is the southern part of the regional Hosgri–San Gregorio dextral strike‐<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault system, which extends primarily in the offshore for about 400 km in central California. Between Morro Bay and San Simeon, high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry reveals that the eastern strand of the Hosgri fault is crossed by an ∼265  m wide slope interpreted as the shoreface of a latest Pleistocene sand spit. This sand spit crossed an embayment and connected a western fault‐bounded bedrock peninsula and an eastern bedrock highland, a paleogeography resembling modern coastal geomorphology along the San Andreas fault. Detailed analysis of the relict shoreface with slope profiles and slope maps indicates a lateral <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate of 2.6±0.9  mm/yr, considered a minimum rate for the Hosgri given the presence of an active western strand. This <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate indicates that the Hosgri system takes up the largest share of the strike‐<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault budget and is the most active strike‐<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault west of the San Andreas fault in central California. This result further demonstrates the value and potential of high‐resolution bathymetry in characterization of active offshore faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513086','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513086"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wall</span> of fundamental constants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>We consider the signatures of a domain <span class="hlt">wall</span> produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the <span class="hlt">wall</span> exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a <span class="hlt">wall</span> is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the <span class="hlt">wall</span>. This <span class="hlt">wall</span> could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the <span class="hlt">wall</span> and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain <span class="hlt">wall</span> and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S41B2447C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S41B2447C"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduced Aftershock Productivity in Regions with Known Slow <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collins, G.; Mina, A.; Richardson, E.; McGuire, J. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Reduced aftershock activity has been observed in areas with high rates of aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>, such as transform fault zones and some subduction zones. Fault conditions that could explain both of these observations include a low effective normal stress regime and/or a high temperature, semi-brittle/plastic rheology. To further investigate the possible connection between areas of aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> and reduced aftershock productivity, we compared the mainshock-aftershock sequences in subduction zones where aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> transients have been observed to those of adjacent (along-strike) regions where no slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events have been detected. Using the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) catalog, we counted aftershocks that occurred within 100 km and 14 days of 112 M>=5.0 slab earthquake mainshocks from January 1980 - July 2013, including 90 since January 2000, inside observed regions of detected slow <span class="hlt">slip</span>: south central Alaska, Cascadia, the Nicoya Peninsula (Costa Rica), Guerrero (Mexico), and the North Island of New Zealand. We also compiled aftershock counts from 97 mainshocks from areas adjacent to each of these regions using the same criteria and over the same time interval. Preliminary analysis of these two datasets shows an aftershock triggering exponent (alpha in the ETAS model) of approximately 0.8, consistent with previous studies of aftershocks in a variety of tectonic settings. Aftershock productivity for both datasets is less than that of continental earthquakes. Contrasting the two datasets, aftershock productivity inside slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> regions is lower than in adjacent areas along the same subduction zone and is comparable to that of mid-ocean ridge transform faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMPSo..94..257F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMPSo..94..257F"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase-field <span class="hlt">slip</span>-line theory of plasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freddi, Francesco; Royer-Carfagni, Gianni</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A variational approach to determine the deformation of an ideally plastic substance is proposed by solving a sequence of energy minimization problems under proper conditions to account for the irreversible character of plasticity. The flow is driven by the local transformation of elastic strain energy into plastic work on <span class="hlt">slip</span> surfaces, once that a certain energetic barrier for <span class="hlt">slip</span> activation has been overcome. The distinction of the elastic strain energy into spherical and deviatoric parts is used to incorporate in the model the idea of von Mises plasticity and isochoric plastic strain. This is a "phase field model" because the matching condition at the <span class="hlt">slip</span> interfaces is substituted by the evolution of an auxiliary phase field that, similar to a damage field, is unitary on the elastic phase and null on the yielded phase. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> lines diffuse in bands, whose width depends upon a material length-scale parameter. Numerical experiments on representative problems in plane strain give solutions with noteworthy similarities with the results from classical <span class="hlt">slip</span>-line field theory, but the proposed model is much richer because, accounting for elastic deformations, it can describe the formation of <span class="hlt">slip</span> bands at the local level, which can nucleate, propagate, widen and diffuse by varying the boundary conditions. In particular, the solution for a long pipe under internal pressure is very different from the one obtainable from the classical macroscopic theory of plasticity. For this case, the location of the plastic bands may be an insight to explain the premature failures that are sometimes encountered during the manufacturing process. This practical example enhances the importance of this new theory based on the mathematical sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAG...134..159S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAG...134..159S"><span id="translatedtitle">Back analysis of fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span> in burst prone environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sainoki, Atsushi; Mitri, Hani S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In deep underground mines, stress re-distribution induced by mining activities could cause fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span>. Seismic waves arising from fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span> occasionally induce rock ejection when hitting the boundary of mine openings, and as a result, severe damage could be inflicted. In general, it is difficult to estimate fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span>-induced ground motion in the vicinity of mine openings because of the complexity of the dynamic response of faults and the presence of geological structures. In this paper, a case study is conducted for a Canadian underground mine, herein called "Mine-A", which is known for its seismic activities. Using a microseismic database collected from the mine, a back analysis of fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span> is carried out with mine-wide 3-dimensional numerical modeling. A back analysis is conducted to estimate the physical and mechanical properties of the causative fracture or shear zones. One large seismic event has been selected for the back analysis to detect a fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span> related seismic event. In the back analysis, the shear zone properties are estimated with respect to moment magnitude of the seismic event and peak particle velocity (PPV) recorded by a strong ground motion sensor. The estimated properties are then validated through comparison with peak ground acceleration recorded by accelerometers. Lastly, ground motion in active mining areas is estimated by conducting dynamic analysis with the estimated values. The present study implies that it would be possible to estimate the magnitude of seismic events that might occur in the near future by applying the estimated properties to the numerical model. Although the case study is conducted for a specific mine, the developed methodology can be equally applied to other mines suffering from fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span> related seismic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..11510301N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..11510301N"><span id="translatedtitle">On the transient behavior of frictional melt during seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, S.; Mosca, P.; Giberti, G.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Shimamoto, T.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In a recent work on the problem of sliding surfaces under the presence of frictional melt (applying in particular to earthquake fault dynamics), we derived from first principles an expression for the steady state friction compatible with experimental observations. Building on the expressions of heat and mass balance obtained in the above study for this particular case of Stefan problem (phase transition with a migrating boundary), we propose here an extension providing a full time-dependent solution (including the weakening transient after pervasive melting has started, the effect of eventual steps in velocity, and the final decelerating phase). A system of coupled equations is derived and solved numerically. The resulting transient friction and wear evolution yield a satisfactory fit (1) with experiments performed under variable sliding velocities (0.9-2 m s-1) and different normal stresses (0.5-20 MPa) for various rock types and (2) with estimates of <span class="hlt">slip</span> weakening obtained from observations on ancient seismogenic faults that host pseudotachylite (solidified melt). The model allows us to extrapolate the experimentally observed frictional behavior to large normal stresses representative of the seismogenic Earth crust (up to 200 MPa), high <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates (up to 9 m s-1), and cases where melt extrusion is negligible. Though weakening distance and peak stress vary widely, the net breakdown energy appears to be essentially independent of either <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity or normal stress. In addition, the response to earthquakelike <span class="hlt">slip</span> can be simulated, showing a rapid friction recovery when <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate drops. We discuss the properties of energy dissipation, transient duration, velocity weakening, restrengthening in the decelerating final <span class="hlt">slip</span> phase, and the implications for earthquake source dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040013176&hterms=Temporal+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTemporal%2BDisplacement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040013176&hterms=Temporal+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTemporal%2BDisplacement"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible Stick-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Mechanism for Whillans Ice Stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bindschadler, Robert; King, Matt; Vornberger, Patricia</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Tidally-induced stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> motion in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream provides a unique natural experiment in ice-stream response behavior and from which we might learn a great deal about subglacial till properties and sub-ice-stream conditions. At the IGS Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow (Yakutat, 2002), we reported our observations of stick- <span class="hlt">slip</span> motion and demonstrated its synchronicity with tidal forcing. Recently, we have completed additional processing of our GPS data in differential mode. It reveals more details of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events and illustrates that within 30 seconds, the temporal interval of our data, the ice stream accelerates to a speed corresponding to a completely lubricated bed. While details of individual events vary, there seems to be strong evidence of an elastic rebound on the time scale of one hour following most events. This suggests the event involves the release of stored elastic strain energy in the ice. The similar displacements of events suggest further that till or subglacial hydrologic properties limit the amount of elastic strain released in any single event. We follow a line of reasoning that dilatant strengthening limits the <span class="hlt">slip</span> displacement and present model of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> process. To match the observed delay between the peak ocean tide and stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events, our model includes a propagating pressure wave in the subglacial hydrologic system between the grounding line, where the rising tide first increases the subglacial water pressure and regions upstream where stored elastic strain increases the basal shear stress. This high-tide event is released when the increased water pressure reaches the region of increased shear stress. Dilatant strengthening stops the event by increasing pore volume and lowering the water pressure. Following this event, falling tide increases the normal forces, compresses the till and increases pore pressure again, leading to the second falling-tide event we observe every tidal cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040012981&hterms=Temporal+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTemporal%2BDisplacement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040012981&hterms=Temporal+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTemporal%2BDisplacement"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible Stick-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Mechanism for Whillans Ice Stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bindschadler, Robert; King, Matt; Vornberger, Patricia</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Tidally-induced stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> motion in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream provides a unique natural experiment in ice-stream response behavior and fiom which we might learn a great deal about subglacial till properties and sub-ice-stream conditions. At the IGS Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow (Yakutat, 2002), we reported our observations of stick- <span class="hlt">slip</span> motion and demonstrated its synchronicity with tidal forcing. Recently, we have completed additional processing of our GPS data in differential mode. It reveals more details of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events and illustrates that within 30 seconds, the temporal interval of our data, the ice stream accelerates to a speed corresponding to a completely lubricated bed. While details of individual events vary, there seems to be strong evidence of an elastic rebound on the time scale of one hour following most events. This suggests the event involves the release of stored elastic strain energy in the ice. The similar displacements of events suggest further that till or subglacial hydrologic properties limit the amount of elastic strain released in any single event. We follow a line of reasoning that dilatant strengthening limits the <span class="hlt">slip</span> displacement and present model of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> process. To match the observed delay between the peak ocean tide and stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events, our model includes a propagating pressure wave in the subglacial hydrologic system between the grounding line, where the rising tide first increases the subglacial water pressure and regions upstream where stored elastic strain increases the basal shear stress. This high-tide event is released when the increased water pressure reaches the region of increased shear stress. Dilatant strengthening stops the event by increasing pore volume and lowering the water pressure. Following this event, falling tide increases the normal forces, compresses the till and increases pore pressure again, leading to the second falling-tide event we observe every tidal cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EL.....58..524P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EL.....58..524P"><span id="translatedtitle">Stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> instability for viscous fingering in a gel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puff, N.; Debrégeas, G.; di Meglio, J.-M.; Higgins, D.; Bonn, D.; Wagner, C.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>The growth dynamics of an air finger injected in a visco-elastic gel (a PVA/borax aqueous solution) is studied in a linear Hele-Shaw cell. Besides the standard Saffman-Taylor instability, we observe—with increasing finger velocities—the existence of two new regimes: (a) a stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> regime for which the finger tip velocity oscillates between 2 different values, producing local pinching of the finger at regular intervals; (b) a "tadpole" regime where a fracture-type propagation is observed. A scaling argument is proposed to interpret the dependence of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> frequency with the measured rheological properties of the gel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295594"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of visual <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion on audiovisual simultaneity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual <span class="hlt">apparent</span> motion changes temporal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.684...52B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.684...52B"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional finite-element modelling of coseismic Coulomb stress changes on intra-continental dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagge, Meike; Hampel, Andrea</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Investigating fault interaction plays a crucial role in seismic hazard assessment. The calculation of Coulomb stress changes allows quantifying the stress changes on so-called receiver faults in the surrounding of the fault that experienced the earthquake. A positive stress change implies that the earthquake brought the receiver fault closer to failure while a negative value indicates a delay of the next earthquake. So far, most studies focussed on stress changes for particular faults and earthquakes. Here we present a general analysis of the Coulomb stress changes on intra-continental dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults using finite-element models with normal and thrust faults arrays, respectively. Our models allow calculating coseismic ("static") stress changes on pre-defined fault planes, whose dip and position can be varied. Gravity and ongoing regional deformation (i.e. shortening or extension) are included. The results for thrust and normal faults show that synthetic receiver faults located in the hanging <span class="hlt">wall</span> and footwall of the source fault exhibit a symmetric stress distribution, with large areas of negative and small areas of positive Coulomb stress changes. In contrast, faults positioned in along-strike prolongation of the source fault and outside of its immediate hanging <span class="hlt">wall</span> and footwall undergo mostly positive stress changes. The stress changes are largest at the fault tip that is closer to the source fault. Our results show that the stress change distribution depends on the fault dip while the magnitude depends on the friction coefficient and the amount of coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>. The Coulomb stress changes can be explained by the spatial distribution of the coseismic strain, which shows domains of horizontal extension and shortening that alternate both at the surface and with depth. Our models allow identifying the general patterns of Coulomb stress changes on dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults, which are often concealed by the peculiarity of the specific fault or earthquake in nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990081113','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990081113"><span id="translatedtitle">A Generalized <span class="hlt">Wall</span> Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero <span class="hlt">wall</span> stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-<span class="hlt">wall</span> region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the <span class="hlt">wall</span> unless the near-<span class="hlt">wall</span> flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the <span class="hlt">wall</span> functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the <span class="hlt">wall</span> which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the <span class="hlt">wall</span> shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified <span class="hlt">wall</span> function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the <span class="hlt">wall</span>. The extended <span class="hlt">wall</span> functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1021070','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1021070"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid <span class="hlt">Wall</span> Chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Meier, W R</p> <p>2011-02-24</p> <p>The key feature of liquid <span class="hlt">wall</span> chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted <span class="hlt">wall</span> chambers and thick liquid <span class="hlt">wall</span> (TLW) chambers. With wetted <span class="hlt">wall</span> designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first <span class="hlt">wall</span> from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural <span class="hlt">wall</span>. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first <span class="hlt">wall</span>, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel <span class="hlt">walls</span> can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first <span class="hlt">wall</span> instead of behind the first <span class="hlt">wall</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS33B1055J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS33B1055J"><span id="translatedtitle">Offset of Latest Pleistocene Shoreface Reveals <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Rate on the Hosgri Strike-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Fault, Offshore Central California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, S. Y.; Hartwell, S. R.; Dartnell, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Hosgri fault is the southern part of the regional Hosgri-San Gregorio dextral strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault system, which extends primarily in the offshore region for about 400 km in central California. Between Morro Bay and San Simeon, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry reveals that the eastern strand of the Hosgri fault is crossed by a ~265-m-wide slope interpreted as the shoreface of a relict sand spit that formed during a period of relatively slower sea-level rise (Younger Dryas stadial) in the latest Pleistocene. This sand spit crossed an embayment and connected a western fault-bounded bedrock peninsula and an eastern bedrock highland, a paleogeography similar to modern geomorphology along coastal segments of the San Andreas fault. Detailed analysis of the relict shoreface with slope profiles and slope maps indicates a lateral <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate of 2.6 ± 0.9 mm/yr. Because the Hosgri fault locally includes an active western strand, and regionally converges with several other faults, this <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate should be considered a minimum for the Hosgri fault in central California and should not be applied for the entire Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system. This <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate indicates that the Hosgri system takes up the largest share of the strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault budget and is the most active strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault west of the San Andreas fault in central California. This result further demonstrates the value and potential of high-resolution bathymetry in earthquake-hazard characterization of active offshore faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Tectp.383...45M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Tectp.383...45M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</